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Sample records for 2 collide-2 sts-107

  1. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Kalpana Chawla MS2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 2 Kalpana Chawla is seen during this preflight interview where she gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. Chawla outlines her role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting the on-board science experiments. She discusses the following experiments in detail: MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israel Dust Experiment), CM2 (Combustion Module 2), MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), SOFBALL (Structures of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), LSP (Laminar Soot Processes), MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials) and BDS (Biotechnology Demonstration System). She also discusses the potential benefits of space research, the dual-work shift of the mission and the rewards of international cooperation.

  2. STS-107 Mission Highlights Resource, Part 2 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, Part 2 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-107 crew during flight days 4 through 7 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The crew consists of Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. During the video the crew members are at work on a variety of spaceborne experiments, such as the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment, the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX), international student experiments, and the Structures of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number (SOFBALL) experiment. Other crew activities recorded on the video include exercising on a bicycle, drawing blood, and answering questions from the public. A couple of scenes on the video are narrated by Clark, including one in which she gives a tour of the SPACEHAB module in the shuttle's payload bay. The video also includes a scene in which Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon addresses Ramon and the other Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark). The Earth views shown include Saudi Arabia and the Persian Gulf; the Appalachian Mountains; Egypt, the Red Sea, and the Sinai Peninsula, and the east coast of Africa.

  3. STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon at SPACEHAB during training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, from Israel, trains on equipment at SPACEHAB, Cape Canaveral, Fla. STS-107 is a research mission. The primary payload is the first flight of the SHI Research Double Module (SHI/RDM). The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences (many rats). Also part of the payload is the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) that incorporates eight high priority secondary attached shuttle experiments: Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX), Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment (SOLSE-2), Student Tracked Atmospheric Research Satellite for Heuristic International Networking Experiment (STARSHINE), Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2), Solar Constant Experiment-3 (SOLOCON-3), Prototype Synchrotron Radiation Detector (PSRD), Low Power Transceiver (LPT), and Collisions Into Dust Experiment -2 (COLLIDE-2). STS-107 is scheduled to launch in July 2002

  4. STS-107 Master Experiment List

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A master list of the various experiments conducted aboard the STS-107 Space Mission is presented. The topics include: 1) Biology; 2) Earth and Space Sciences; 3) Physical Sciences; 4) Space Product Development; and 6) Technology Development.

  5. STS-107 Crew Training Clip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    The STS-107 is a Multidiscipline Microgravity and Earth Science Research Mission to conduct international scientific investigations in orbit. The crew consists of Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, and Mission Specialists David Brown, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, and Kalpana Chawla. The crewmembers are shown getting suited in the Pre-Launch Ingress and Egress training area. The other areas of training include Payload Experiment in Fixed Base/Spacehab, Mist Experiment Combustion Module 2, Phab 4 Experiment in CCT Mid-deck and Payload Experiment Demo-Protein Crystal Growth.

  6. STS-107 Mission INSIGNIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSON, TEXAS -- STS-107 INSIGNIA -- This is the insignia for STS-107, which is a multi-discipline microgravity and Earth science research mission with a multitude of international scientific investigations conducted continuously during the planned 16 days on orbit. The central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39-degree angle of the astronaut symbol to the Earth's horizon. The sunrise is representative of the numerous experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station and beyond. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth and our continued exploration of space, illustrated by the Earth and stars. The constellation Columba (the dove) was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven stars also represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. The Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of the payload specialist who is the first person from that country to fly on the Space Shuttle. The NASA insignia design for Space Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  7. CFD Support for STS-107 Ascent Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Stuart E.; Gomez, Reynaldo J.; Vicker, Darby; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Meakin, Robert; Chan, William M.; Murman, Scott

    2004-01-01

    The research described in this viewgraph presentation investigates the ascent of STS-107 and foam-debris impact, and contributes to understanding of the STS-107 accident using CFD tools. The goals of the research are to: 1) Quantify loads on foam bipod ramp during ascent; 2) Provide steady-state flow-fields to debris-transport simulations; 3) Simulate flight of foam debris using unsteady six-degree-of-freedom calculations; 4) Provide estimates of foam mass, velocity, and impact angle which correlate with video and film evidence.

  8. STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut, participates in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of Shuttle launch preparations. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  9. STS-107 crew during emergency egress activies during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-107 crew gets instruction on the slidewire basket during emergency egress training, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. Seen are Mission Specialist Laurel Clark, Payload Commander Michael Anderson and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut). The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

  10. STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon suits up for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut, sits happily during suitup for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

  11. STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon suits up for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut, gets help with his suitup for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown at the pad. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

  12. STS-107 crew during emergency egress activies during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During emergency egress training, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities at the pad, STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown (left) and Commander Rick Husband (right) test breathing masks in the emergency bunker. The TCDT also includes a simulated launch countdown. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

  13. STS-107 Flight Day 6 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew on flight day 6 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The crew members include: Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark; Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist. The primary activities of flight day 6 are spaceborne experiments, and a conversation between Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, accompanied by the Israeli Minister of Education, and Israeli astronaut Ilan Ramon. Both the Israelis and their interpreter are audible on the tape. The video also features a bioreactor used to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and footage taken by the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) of sprites, lightning in the lower ionosphere. Mission Specialist Anderson is shown working on the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiment. Pilot McCool answers two questions from the public, and a view of Panama is shown.

  14. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  15. STS-107 Flight Day 5 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The fifth day of the STS-107 space mission begins with a presentation of The Six Space Technology and Research Students (STARS) program experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, Lichtenstein and The United States send scientific experiments into space. The video includes the progress of experiments with various insects including silkworms, carpenter bees, ants, fish, and spiders.

  16. STS-107 Microgravity Environment Summary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jules, Kenol; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; Reckhart, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    This summary report presents the results of the processed acceleration data measured aboard the Columbia orbiter during the STS-107 microgravity mission from January 16 to February 1, 2003. Two accelerometer systems were used to measure the acceleration levels due to vehicle and science operations activities that took place during the 16-day mission. Due to lack of precise timeline information regarding some payload's operations, not all of the activities were analyzed for this report. However, a general characterization of the microgravity environment of the Columbia Space Shuttle during the 16-day mission is presented followed by a more specific characterization of the environment for some designated payloads during their operations. Some specific quasi-steady and vibratory microgravity environment characterization analyses were performed for the following payloads: Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number-2, Laminar Soot Processes-2, Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 and Water Mist Fire-Suppression Experiment. The Physical Science Division of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration sponsors the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyer to support microgravity science experiments, which require microgravity acceleration measurements. On January 16, 2003, both the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment and the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyer accelerometer systems were launched on the Columbia Space Transportation System-107 from the Kennedy Space Center. The Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment supported science experiments requiring quasi-steady acceleration measurements, while the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free Flyer unit supported experiments requiring vibratory acceleration measurement. The Columbia reduced gravity environment analysis presented in this report uses acceleration data collected by these two sets of accelerometer systems: The

  17. STS-107 Crew Choice Television Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 flight day highlights begin with a shot inside the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia where Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, and Mission Specialists David Brown and Kalpana Chawla are seated. The actual liftoff of the Space Shuttle Columbia is shown with Mission Specialists Michael Anderson and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon seated on the middeck of the spacecraft. Mission Specialist David Brown exits his seat to take pictures of the external tank while Michael Anderson also prepares to take photographs. A beautiful shot of the orbiter flying over Egypt is presented. A view of the Spacehab Research Double Module is shown where crystals are growing in microgravity. Laurel Clark is also shown working on the Bioreactor experiment. Michael Anderson is shown performing various breathing experiments in space. This video shows the last flight of STS-107 during ascent as the crew is seated in the flight deck and middeck of the Space Shuttle Columbia.

  18. NASA Chief Scientist Sharnon Lucid at STS-107 outreach event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Chief Scientist Shannon Lucid, a former astronaut, introduces Northern Virginia students to the research that will be conducted on the STS-107 mission. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  19. STS-107 crew members check out equipment at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Members of the STS-107 crew check out equipment at SPACEHAB. Beginning in the center are Mission Specialists Michael Anderson and Laurel Clark; at far right are Ilan Ramon, from Israel, and Kalpana Chawla. Identified as a research mission, STS-107 is scheduled for launch July 19, 2001

  20. STS-107 crew members check out equipment at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- At SPACEHAB, STS-107 crew members check out equipment for their mission. At the far left are Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla and Ilan Ramon, who is from Israel. At center, handling the equipment, are Mission Specialists David Brown and Michael Anderson. Identified as a research mission, STS-107 is scheduled for launch July 19, 2001

  1. STS-107 Flight Day 12 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The primary activities are spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module). Experiments shown in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), an experiment to grow cancer cells in microgravity, and the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, including bees, ants, chemical gardens, fish, and spiders. Crew Members are shown working on MIST (Water Mist Fire Suppression), a commercial experiment. Red Team crew members (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown conversing through a handset with the Expedition 6 crew (Kenneth Bowersox, Commander; Donald Pettit, Nikolai Budarin; Flight Engineers) of the ISS (International Space Station).

  2. STS-107 Flight Day 9 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 9 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 9 are spaceborne experiments. The video shows a commercial experiment on roses, a partial view of Africa from Libya to the Horn of Africa through the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), and the FAST (Facility for Absorption and Surface Tension) experiment. The STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are shown. The preliminary results of these experiments on the effects of microgravity on silkworms, spiders, crystal growth, fish embryos, carpenter bees, and ants are discussed. The video includes a view of southern Spain and the Mediterranean Sea.

  3. STS-107 Flight Day 7 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 7 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 7 are setting up and conducting spaceborne experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module) in the orbiter's payload bay. Silkworms and ants from the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are shown. Footage of the Mediterranean Sea taken by the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) is also shown. Canisters containing experiments attached to the SpaceHab RDM are shown in the space shuttle's payload bay. Other views include the Earth's surface, and the Earth's atmosphere, visible along its limb.

  4. STS-107 Flight Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 11 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. In the video, crew members from the Blue Team (McCool, Brown, Anderson) and the Red Team (Husband, Chawla, Clark, Ramon) are shown at work on experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), and performing other tasks. Much of the video is shot and narrated by Commander Husband. Mission Specialist Brown is shown operating the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment). Crew activities shown include making breakfast, entering sleep stations, and programming shuttle maneuvers necessary for the spaceborne experiments onboard. Earth views shown in the video include one of Egypt, Israel and Jerusalem.

  5. STS-107 Flight Day 1 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew on flight day 1 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The crew includes Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Mission Specialists Michael Anderson, David Brown, Laurel Clark, and Kalpana Chawla, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. The video begins with a view of the space shuttle on its launch pad, while an announcer gives an overview of the mission, including its spaceborne experiments. The announcer then introduces the crew members, listing their previous experience. They are seen seated at a banquet table, and during suit up. The seating of the crew in the orbiter is shown, as are other prelaunch procedures. Dialog from during the launch is audible on the tape, and the video includes views of the ascent from different angles, as well as booster separation. The video ends with a view of Columbia in orbit, showing the Research Double Module (RDM) on the inside of its payload bay.

  6. STS-107 Pilot William McCool in the cockpit of Columbia during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Pilot William 'Willie' McCool checks instructions in the cockpit of Space Shuttle Columbia during a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

  7. STS-107 crew practice emergency egress from the launch pad during TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Members of the STS-107 crew practice emergency egress from the launch pad, reaching for the release lever of the slidewire basket they are in. The crew is taking part in a simulated launch countdown, part of Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. .

  8. STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon takes a break during TCDT M113 training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut, takes a break during training on the operation of an M113 armored personnel carrier during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  9. STS-107 crew In-Flight Maintenance training at SPACEHAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- During In-Flight Maintenance training, STS-107 Mission Specialist Michael Anderson looks over a '''Medusa,''' a piece of a Biotube experiment that will be on the STS-107 mission. The Medusa is part of a watering system for plants. As a research mission, STS-107 will carry the SPACEHAB Double Module in its first research flight into space and a broad collection of experiments ranging from material science to life science. It is scheduled to launch July 19, 2001

  10. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Michael Anderson, Mission Specialist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 3 and Payload Commander Michael Anderson is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research, MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Anderson also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.

  11. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Ilan Ramon, Mission Specialist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist Ilan Ramon is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting on-board science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research), MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Ramon also mentions on-board activities during launch and reentry, mission training and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.

  12. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Michael Anderson, Mission Specialist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 3 and Payload Commander Michael Anderson is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research, MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Anderson also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.

  13. STS-107 Flight Day 8 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists, Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 8 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The primary activities of flight day 8 are spaceborne experiments. Some background information is given on the SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number) microgravity experiment as footage of the flame balls is shown. The video also shows the MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) calibrating on the Moon. The six STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) international student experiments are profiled, including experiments on carpenter bees (Liechtenstein), spiders (Australia), silkworms (China), ants (United States), crystal growth (Israel), and fish embryos (Japan). A commercial experiment on roses is also profiled. Astronaut Clark gives a tour of the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), in the space shuttle's payload bay. Astronauts McCool and Ramon take turns on an exercise machine. The video includes a partly cloudy view of the Pacific Ocean.

  14. STS-107 Flight Day 13 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew on flight day 13 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The crew members include: Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist. The primary activities of flight day 13 are spaceborne experiments, including troubleshooting undertaken by Mission Specialist Chawla on the Water Mist Fire Suppression (MIST) experiment. Chawla performs troubleshooting tasks relayed to her by Mission Control. She shows Mission Control the location of air and water in a transparent hose that is part of the atomizer on the exterior of the combustion module. She also changes the atomizer head. All six Space Technology and Research Students (STARS) experiments are profiled in the video. These experiments are on ants, crystal growth in a chemical garden, fish embryos, carpenter bees, spiders, and silkworms. The video also includes a view of the southeast Texas coast near Houston, and a view of Portugal, Spain, Gibraltar, Morocco, and the Sahara Desert. The video ends with an explanation of roses at Mission Control which commemorate astronauts who have died on missions.

  15. STS-107 Flight Day 15 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew on flight day 15 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The crew includes Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Mission Specialists Michael Anderson, David Brown, Laurel Clark, and Kalpana Chawla, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. The primary activities of flight day 15 are crew interviews, and operating the Water Mist Fire Suppression (MIST) experiment. Early in the video, astronauts McCool and Ramon respond together to a question. Much of the video is taken up by an interview of astronauts Brown, Anderson, and McCool. Two parts of the video show the MIST experiment in operation, operated the first time by astronaut Brown. Another part of the video is narrated by Mission Specialist Clark, who identifies views of Mount Vesuvius, and an atoll in the south Pacific. In this part, Payload Specialist Ramon is seen on an exercise machine, Commander Husband shows body fluid samples from the crew taken during the mission, and Clark demonstrates how the crew eats meals. The video ends with footage from earlier in the mission which shows a deployed radiator in the shuttle's payload bay that reflects an image of the Earth.

  16. STS-107 Flight Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew on flight day 14 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. The crew includes Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. Most of the video shows a press conference on board Columbia featuring all seven astronauts. Reporters ask the crew members questions, who reply via a handset. Most of the questions cover life in space and the mission's spaceborne experiments. Each astronaut answers multiple questions, and in response to one of the questions, each of the seven describes an 'O Wow!' moment. The remainder of the video consists of a tour of the orbiter, including the flight deck, mid-deck, and the SpaceHab Research Double Module (RDM) in the payload bay. Mission Specialist Chawla demonstrates eating at the shuttle's galley, and Commander Husband shows his toiletries. In the RDM, Mission Specialist Clark exercises on a machine for an experiment on respiration.

  17. STS-107 Flight Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video shows the activities of the STS-107 crew (Rick Husband, Commander; William McCool, Pilot; Kalpana Chawla, David Brown, Michael Anderson, Laurel Clark, Mission Specialists; Ilan Ramon, Payload Specialist) during flight day 10 of the Columbia orbiter's final mission. Flight day 10 includes an interview by Mission Control of astronauts Brown, McCool, and Anderson, who answer questions on the mission's spaceborne experiments, as well as biographical and other questions. Much of the video is shot and narrated by Payload Specialist Ramon, who shows the crew members at work on experiments in the SpaceHab RDM (Research Double Module), and performing other tasks. Experiments featured in the video include SOFBALL (Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number), the STARS (Space Technology and Research Students) experiments, and experiments on cancer and osteoporosis. Crew activities shown include making a video of Earth, and preparing for sleep. Earth views shown in the video include the Gulf of Aden, Ghana, Lake Chad, and the coast of North Carolina.

  18. STS-107 Crew Interviews: David Brown MS1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 1 David Brown is seen during this preflight interview where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career. Brown outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the conducting of on-board science experiments. Brown discusses the following instruments and experiments in detail: ARMS (Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System), MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), Combustion Module 2, and FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enables Science Technology and Research). He also describes the new primary payload carrier, the SPACEHAB research double module which doubles the amount of space available for research. Brown shares his thoughts about the importance of international cooperation in mission planning and the need for scientific research in space.

  19. STS-107 Columbia sits inside an protective tent in VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Columbia sits inside an protective tent used to keep out moisture. The orbiter is next scheduled to fly on mission STS-107 no earlier than Nov. 29. STS-107 is a research mission. The payload includes the Hitchhiker Bridge, a carrier for the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) that incorporates eight high priority secondary attached shuttle experiments, plus the SHI Research Double Module (SHI/RDM), also known as SPACEHAB.

  20. STS-107 Columbia rollout to Launch Pad 39A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Space Shuttle Columbia, framed by trees near the Banana River, rolls towards Launch Pad 39A, sitting atop the Mobile Launcher Platform, which in turn is carried by the crawler-transporter underneath. The STS-107 research mission comprises experiments ranging from material sciences to life sciences (many rats), plus the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) that incorporates eight high priority secondary attached shuttle experiments. Mission STS-107 is scheduled to launch Jan. 16, 2003.

  1. STS-107 Columbia sits inside an protective tent in VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Only the nose and tail of Columbia are visible as it sits inside an protective tent used to keep out moisture. The orbiter is next scheduled to fly on mission STS-107 no earlier than Nov. 29. STS-107 is a research mission. The payload includes the Hitchhiker Bridge, a carrier for the Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research (FREESTAR) that incorporates eight high priority secondary attached shuttle experiments, plus the SHI Research Double Module (SHI/RDM), also known as SPACEHAB.

  2. STS-107 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 1 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, Part 1 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-107 crew during flight days 1 through 3 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The crew consists of Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. Before launch on flight day 1 the astronauts are seen at their pre-flight banquet, during suit-up, and while being seated on the orbiter. David Brown takes footage of the space shuttle's external tank after it is jettisoned. The video includes replays of the launch from several angles. The onboard views of launch are narrated by William McCool and Kalpana Chawla. On flight days 2 and 3 student microgravity experiments in the SpaceHab module in the shuttle's payload bay are profiled. These experiments address microgravity effects on crystal growth, ants, bees, fish embryos, silkworms, and spiders. Other experiments profiled include the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX), FAST (surface tension of bubbles), SOLS (Ozone), an experiment to culture prostate cancer cells in a bioreactor, and a commercial plant growth experiment. Earth views include lightning at night, and a view of the Strait of Gibraltar, including Spain and Morocco.

  3. STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with their instructor inside an M113

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with their instructor inside an M113 armored personnel carrier. The crew is participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. From left to right are Pilot William 'Willie' McCool, Commander Rick Husband, Mission Specialist Laurel Clark, Instructor George Hoggard, Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla, Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut), Payload Commander Michael Anderson, and Mission Specialist David Brown. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  4. STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait during TCDT M113 training activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- -- The STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with their instructor beside an M113 armored personnel carrier. The crew is participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. In the front, from left, are Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut), Instructor George Hoggard, Mission Specialist Laurel Clark, Commander Rick Husband, Mission Specialist David Brown, and Payload Commander Michael Anderson. In the back, from left, are Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla and Pilot William 'Willie' McCool. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  5. STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with VAB in background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- The STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with the Vehicle Assembly Building in the background. They are at KSC to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. From left to right are Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla and Laurel Clark, Pilot William 'Willie' McCool, Commander Rick Husband, Mission Specialist David Brown, Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut), and Payload Commander Michael Anderson. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is targeted for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST.

  6. STS 107 Shuttle Press Kit: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Space shuttle mission STS-107, the 28th flight of the space shuttle Columbia and the 113th shuttle mission to date, will give more than 70 international scientists access to both the microgravity environment of space and a set of seven human researchers for 16 uninterrupted days. Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences. When Columbia is launched from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A it will carry a SPACEHAB Research Double Module (RDM) in its payload bay. The RDM is a pressurized environment that is accessible to the crew while in orbit via a tunnel from the shuttle's middeck. Together, the RDM and the middeck will accommodate the majority of the mission's payloads/experiments. STS-107 marks the first flight of the RDM, though SPACEHAB Modules and Cargo Carriers have flown on 17 previous space shuttle missions. Astronaut Rick Husband (Colonel, USAF) will command STS-107 and will be joined on Columbia's flight deck by pilot William 'Willie' McCool (Commander, USN). Columbia will be crewed by Mission Specialist 2 (Flight Engineer) Kalpana Chawla (Ph.D.), Mission Specialist 3 (Payload Commander) Michael Anderson (Lieutenant Colonel, USAF), Mission Specialist 1 David Brown (Captain, USN), Mission Specialist 4 Laurel Clark (Commander, USN) and Payload Specialist 1 Ilan Ramon (Colonel, Israeli Air Force), the first Israeli astronaut. STS-107 marks Husband's second flight into space - he served as pilot during STS-96, a 10-day mission that saw the first shuttle docking with the International Space Station. Husband served as Chief of Safety for the Astronaut Office until his selection to command

  7. STS 107 Shuttle Press Kit: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Space shuttle mission STS-107, the 28th flight of the space shuttle Columbia and the 113th shuttle mission to date, will give more than 70 international scientists access to both the microgravity environment of space and a set of seven human researchers for 16 uninterrupted days. Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences. When Columbia is launched from Kennedy Space Center's Launch Pad 39A it will carry a SPACEHAB Research Double Module (RDM) in its payload bay. The RDM is a pressurized environment that is accessible to the crew while in orbit via a tunnel from the shuttle's middeck. Together, the RDM and the middeck will accommodate the majority of the mission's payloads/experiments. STS-107 marks the first flight of the RDM, though SPACEHAB Modules and Cargo Carriers have flown on 17 previous space shuttle missions. Astronaut Rick Husband (Colonel, USAF) will command STS-107 and will be joined on Columbia's flight deck by pilot William 'Willie' McCool (Commander, USN). Columbia will be crewed by Mission Specialist 2 (Flight Engineer) Kalpana Chawla (Ph.D.), Mission Specialist 3 (Payload Commander) Michael Anderson (Lieutenant Colonel, USAF), Mission Specialist 1 David Brown (Captain, USN), Mission Specialist 4 Laurel Clark (Commander, USN) and Payload Specialist 1 Ilan Ramon (Colonel, Israeli Air Force), the first Israeli astronaut. STS-107 marks Husband's second flight into space - he served as pilot during STS-96, a 10-day mission that saw the first shuttle docking with the International Space Station. Husband served as Chief of Safety for the Astronaut Office until his selection to command

  8. STS-107 Mission Highlights Resource, Part 3 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, Part 3 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-107 crew during flight days 9 through 12 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The crew consists of Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. On flight day 9 David Brown and other crew members are at work on experiments in the Spacehab research module, and imagery is shown from the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment (MEIDEX) on a pass over North Africa and the Horn of Africa. Ilan Ramon narrates part of the footage from flight day 10, and intravehicular activities of the astronauts onboard Columbia are shown, as well as views of the Gulf of Aden, and Lake Chad, which is seen with the back of the orbiter in the foreground. Rick Husband narrates the footage from day 11, which includes cleaning duties and maintenance, as well as an excellent view of the Sinai Peninsula, Israel, and Jordan, as well as the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea, and Gulf of Aqaba. The highlight of flight day 12 is a conversation between Columbia's crew and the crew of the International Space Station (ISS). A special section of Earth views at the end of the video shows: 1) Atlantic Ocean, Strait of Gibraltar, Mediterranean Sea, Iberian Peninsula, Morocco, and Algeria; 2) Baja Peninsula; 3) Cyprus and Mediterranean Sea; 4) Florida; 5) Earth limb and Pacific Ocean; 6) North Carolina Outer Banks, Cape Hatteras, and Atlantic Ocean; 7) Houston with zoom out to Texas and Louisiana; 8) Mt. Vesuvius (Italy); 9) Earth limb and Atlantic Ocean; 10) Earth limb and terminator, and Pacific Ocean; 11) Saudia Arabia, Yemen, Oman, and Arabian Sea.

  9. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Laurel Clark, Mission Specialist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 4 Laurel Clark is seen during this preflight interview, where she gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. Clark outlines her role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. She discusses the following suite of experiments and instruments in detail: ARMS (Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System) and the European Space Agency's Biopack. Clark also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, she touches on the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety and the value of international cooperation.

  10. STS-107 Crew Interviews: William McCool, Pilot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Pilot William McCool is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his background. McCool outlines his role in the mission in general, and discusses the scientific experiments which comprise the primary payloads for the mission. He provides details on the following instruments and experiments: MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), BIOPACK (Bacterial Physiology and Virulence on Earth and in Microgravity) and SOLSE (Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment). McCool talks about the new SPACEHAB research module which doubles the amount of space available for scientific research projects. He also mentions the training for the mission, the astronauts working in dual shifts on the shuttle, and the importance of international cooperation in planning the mission.

  11. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Rick D. Husband, Commander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Commander Rick Husband is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. Husband outlines what his role in the mission will be, what training the crew received, what crew member responsibilities will be, particularly during launch and reentry, what day to day life will be like on an extended duration mission, and what science experiments are going to be conducted onboard. He discusses the following science experiments and instruments in detail: MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment), SOLSE (Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment, FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research) and various student projects. Husband also touches on the importance of space research, the value of international cooperation, the reason for dual crew shifts on the mission and the role of crew members as research subjects.

  12. GRC Payload Hazard Assessment: Supporting the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoren, William R.; Zampino, Edward J.

    2004-01-01

    A hazard assessment was conducted on the GRC managed payloads in support of a NASA Headquarters Code Q request to examine STS-107 payloads and determine if they were credible contributors to the Columbia accident. This assessment utilized each payload's Final Flight Safety Data Package for hazard identification. An applicability assessment was performed and most of the hazards were eliminated because they dealt with payload operations or crew interactions. A Fault Tree was developed for all the hazards deemed applicable and the safety verification documentation was reviewed for these applicable hazards. At the completion of this hazard assessment, it was concluded that none of the GRC managed payloads were credible contributors to the Columbia accident.

  13. Prediction of STS-107 Hypervelocity Flow Fields about the Shuttle Orbiter with Various Wing Leading Edge Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pulsonetti, Maria V.; Thompson, Richard A.; Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    Computations were performed for damaged configurations of the Shuttle Orbiter in support of the STS-107 Columbia accident investigation. Two configurations with missing wing leading-edge reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panels were evaluated at conditions just prior to the peak heating trajectory point. The initial configuration modeled the Orbiter with an approximate missing RCC panel 6 to determine whether this damage could result in anomalous temperatures measured during the STS-107 reentry. This missing RCC panel 6 computation was found to produce heating augmentation factors of 5 times the nominal heating rates on the side fuselage with lesser heat increases on the front of the OMS pod. This is consistent with the thermocouple and resistance temperature detector sensors from the STS-107 re-entry which observed off nominal high early in the re-entry trajectory. A second damaged configuration modeled the Orbiter with missing RCC panel 9 and included ingestion of the flow into the outboard RCC channel. This computation lowered the level (only 2 times nominal) and moved the location of the heating augmentation on the leeside fuselage relative to the missing RCC panel 6 configuration. The lesser heating augmentation for missing RCC panel 9 was confined near the wing fuselage juncture. Near nominal heating was predicted on the remainder of the side fuselage with some lower than nominal heating on the front surface of the OMS pod. These results for missing RCC panel 9 are consistent with data from the STS-107 re-entry where the heating augmentation was observed to move off the side fuselage and OMS pod sensors at later times in the trajectory. As this solution requires supersonic mass ingestion into the RCC channel, it is probably not an appropriate model prior to penetration of the flow through the spar into the wing structure. It may, however, be representative of the conditions at later times and could account for the movement of the heating signature on the side

  14. Gravisensing in flax roots - results from STS-107

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenstein, K. H.; Scherp, P.; Ma, Z.

    The goal of the experiment "magnetophoretic induction of curvature in roots" (MICRO) on STS-107 was the induction of curvature in roots by high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) in microgravity. The scientific objectives included investigating the growth/curvature pattern in response to a HGMF, the determination of amyloplasts as gravisensing/curvature-inducing structures, and a study of the effects of HGMF and microgravity on the plant cytoskeleton. Flax seeds were germinated in orbit in specially designed seed cassettes. The seeds were oriented so that the emerging roots grew away from the cassette. The magnetic system consisted of ferro-magnetic wedges, magnetized by permanent NdFeB magnets (coercivity > 32k Oe). The HGMF that results from the transition from the high magnetic field density at the wedge tips to air repels diamagnetic amyloplasts. As a result of the previously demonstrated internal displacement of the amyloplasts, the roots were expected to curve as if gravistimulated. Despite successful germination (>90%), the growth rate of the seedlings was significantly lower than comparable controls. Despite the slower growth rate, root curvature was enhanced and initiated earlier than in ground controls. The results indicate that microgravity-grown roots exhibit higher sensitivity for the HGMF than ground controls. The enhanced sensitivity of root curvature in microgravity suggests that the root gravisensing system responds to the displacement of amyloplasts. In the absence of gravity, the higher sensitivity might result from intracellular motion, which in microgravity is likely to be stronger than on the ground.

  15. STS-107 Mission Highlights Resource, Part 4 of 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This video, Part 4 of 4, shows the activities of the STS-107 crew during flight days 13 through 15 of the Columbia orbiter's final flight. The crew consists of Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Laurel Clark, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon. The highlight of flight day 13 is Kalpana Chawla conversing with Mission Control Center in Houston during troubleshooting of the Combustion Module in a recovery procedure to get the MIST fire suppression experiment back online. Chawla is shown replacing an atomizer head. At Mission Control Center a vase of flowers commemorating the astronauts who died on board Space Shuttle Challenger's final flight is shown and explained. The footage of flight day 14 consists of a tour of Columbia's flight deck, middeck, and Spacehab research module. Rick Husband narrates the tour, which features Kalpana Chawla, Laurel Clark, and himself. The astronauts demonstrate hygene, a dining tray, the orbiter's toilet, and a space iron, which is a rack for strapping down shirts. The Earth limb is shown with the Spacehab module in the foreground. Clark exercises on a bicycle for a respiration experiment, and demonstrates how a compact disk player gyrates in microgravity. On flight day 15, the combustion module is running again, and footage is shown of the Water Mist Fire-Suppression Experiment (Mist) in operation. Laurel Clark narrates a segment of the video in which Ilan Ramon exercises on a bicycle, Rick Husband, Kalpana Chawla, and Ramon demonstrate spinning and push-ups in the Spacehab module, and Clark demonstrates eating from a couple of food packets. The video ends with a shot of the Earth limb reflected on the radiator on the inside of Columbia's open payload bay door with the Earth in the background.

  16. STS-107 crew look over experiments in a flight configured module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- At SPACEHAB, Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the STS-107 crew look over experiments for their mission. Pilot William 'Willie' McCool (left) displays a glove box experiment for the trainers (right). STS-107 has two payload elements, the Double Module in its first flight into space and a Hitchhiker payload. The experiments range from material sciences to life sciences (many rats). The Hitchhiker carrier system is modular and expandable in accordance with payload requirements. Hitchhiker experiments are housed in canisters or attached to mounting plates. The Hitchhiker canister comes in two varieties--the Hitchhiker Motorized Door Canister and the Sealed Canisters. STS-107 is scheduled to launch in June 2002

  17. STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut) arrives at KSC to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. Other crew members are Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William 'Willie' McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla, David Brown and Laurel Clark. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is scheduled for Jan. 16, 2003.

  18. STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Mission Specialist David Brown arrives at KSC to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. Other crew members are Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William 'Willie' McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla and Laurel Clark and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut). STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is scheduled for Jan. 16, 2003.

  19. STS-107 Mission Specialist Laurel Clark arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Mission Specialist Laurel Clark arrives at KSC to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, which include a simulated launch countdown. Other crew members are Commander Rick Husband, Pilot William 'Willie' McCool, Payload Commander Michael Anderson, Mission Specialists Kalpana Chawla and David Brown, and Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, the first Israeli astronaut. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is scheduled for Jan. 16, 2003.

  20. Overview of the Aerothermodynamics Analysis Conducted in Support of the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles H.

    2004-01-01

    A graphic presentation of the aerothermodynamics analysis conducted in support of the STS-107 accident investigation. Investigation efforts were conducted as part of an integrated AATS team (Aero, Aerothermal, Thermal, Stress) directed by OVEWG. Graphics presented are: STS-107 Entry trajectory and timeline (1st off-nominal event to Post-LOS); Indications from OI telemetry data; Aero/aerothermo/thermal analysis process; Selected STS-107 side fuselage/OMS pod off-nominal temperatures; Leading edge structural subsystem; Relevant forensics evidence; External aerothermal environments; STS-107 Pre-entry EOM3 heating profile; Surface heating and temperatures; Orbiter wing leading edge damage survey; Internal aerothermal environments; Orbiter wing CAD model; Aerodynamic flight reconstruction; Chronology of aerodynamic/aerothermoydynamic contributions; Acreage TPS tile damage; Larger OML perturbations; Missing RCC panel(s); Localized damage to RCC panel/missing T-seal; RCC breach with flow ingestion; and Aero-aerothermal closure. NAIT served as the interface between the CAIB and NASA investigation teams; and CAIB requests for study were addressed.

  1. Preliminary results of the water-mist fire auppression experiment from the STS-107 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbud-Madrid, A.; McKinnon, J.; Gokoglu, S.

    A discussion of the preliminary results of the Water-Mist Fire Suppression experiment (Mist) from the STS-107 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The overall objective of the project is to study the feasibility of developing fine-water- mist systems as the next generation of fire suppressants that may replace the currently used halon-based systems. Halons (fluoro-bromo -carbons) are so effective at fire suppression that in the past it was not necessary to evaluate other options. However, as is well known now, halons are powerful ozone-depleting agents in the stratosphere. The realization of this attribute led to the ban of the manufacture of halons in the industrialized world by the Montreal Protocols starting in 1995. The Mist experiment studies the influence of water mists on premixed flames propagating in a cylindrical tube under low-gravity conditions and evaluates the role of thermal, physical, and chemical mechanisms in the water-mist/flame interaction. Prior to the orbital flight, a numerical simulation of this interaction was developed and reduced- gravity ground experiments were conducted to obtain the preliminary data necessary to define the scientific objectives and technical issues of the spacecraft experiments. The effects of droplet size and water concentration on the laminar flame speed and flame shape are used as the measure of fire suppression efficacy. A simplified numerical simulation of the flame/mist interaction shows the effect of water mist on flame speed and evaluates the relative importance of the latent and sensible heats of water droplets on fire suppression. The microgravity tests of the Mist experiment are performed in the Combustion Module (CM-2) facility in the Space Shuttle. These tests explore the efficacy of three droplet sizes and three water concentrations on the propagation of lean, stoichiometric, and rich premixed propane-air flames. The long duration and quality of microgravity in the spaceflight provide the required

  2. Adaptation of the baroreflex sensitivity to microgravity: Data from the STS-107 Columbia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Rienzo, Marco; Parati, Gianfranco; Castiglioni, Paolo

    2005-08-01

    It has been speculated that a deconditioning of arterial baroreflex may occur during exposure to microgravity and that this phenomenon may facilitate orthostatic intolerance. To verify this hypothesis, we studied the possible occurrence of changes in the sensitivity of the baroreflex control of the heart (BRS) during the 16-day STS 107 mission. We recorded arterial blood pressure and heart rate in four crew members at rest and during exercise before flight (baseline) and during flight: within 14 hours from launch (acute exposure) and between the 6th and 14th day of mission (prolonged exposure). BRS was estimated by the sequence technique.Compared to pre-flight values, BRS increased significantly during acute exposure to microgravity and returned to baseline values after prolonged exposure, thus excluding a baroreflex impairment at least during the first 14-days of a space flight.

  3. Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Period Meteorological Parameters STS-1 Through STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Overbey, B. G.; Roberts, B. C.

    2005-01-01

    During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS) to date, the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for approx. 4,195 days. The Natural Environments Branch at Marshall Space Flight Center archives atmospheric environments to which the Space Shuttle vehicles are exposed. This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological conditions encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included in this TM are temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, sea level pressure, and precipitation. Extremes for each of these parameters for each mission are also summarized. Sources for the data include meteorological towers and hourly surface observations. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

  4. GPS Navigation Results from the Low Power Transceiver CANDOS Experiment on STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Lin; Massey, Chris; Baraban, Dmitri; Kelbel, David; Lee, Taesul; Long, Anne; Carpenter, J. Russell

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation results from the Communications and Savigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment flown on STS- 107. The CAkDOS experiment consisted of the Low Power Transceiver (LPT) that hosted the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) orbit determination software. All CANDOS test data were recovered during the mission using the LPT's Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) uplinh'downlink communications capabilit! . An overview of the LPT's navigation software and the GPS experiment timeline is presented. In addition. this paper discusses GEODE performance results. including comparisons ibith the Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET). N.ASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) real-time ground navigation vectors. and post-processed solutions using the Goddard Trajectory Determination System (GTDS).

  5. Caenorhabditis elegans survives atmospheric breakup of STS-107, space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Szewczyk, Nathaniel J; Mancinelli, Rocco L; McLamb, William; Reed, David; Blumberg, Baruch S; Conley, Catharine A

    2005-12-01

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a popular organism for biological studies, is being developed as a model system for space biology. The chemically defined liquid medium, C. elegans Maintenance Medium (CeMM), allows axenic cultivation and automation of experiments that are critical for spaceflight research. To validate CeMM for use during spaceflight, we grew animals using CeMM and standard laboratory conditions onboard STS-107, space shuttle Columbia. Tragically, the Columbia was destroyed while reentering the Earth's atmosphere. During the massive recovery effort, hardware that contained our experiment was found. Live animals were observed in four of the five recovered canisters, which had survived on both types of media. These data demonstrate that CeMM is capable of supporting C. elegans during spaceflight. They also demonstrate that animals can survive a relatively unprotected reentry into the Earth's atmosphere, which has implications with regard to the packaging of living material during space flight, planetary protection, and the interplanetary transfer of life.

  6. Verification of large-scale rapid transport in the lower thermosphere: Tracking the exhaust plume of STS-107 from launch to the Antarctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niciejewski, R.; Skinner, W.; Cooper, M.; Marshall, A.; Meier, R. R.; Stevens, M. H.; Ortland, D.; Wu, Q.

    2011-05-01

    New analysis of the Doppler shift of O2 airglow spectra recorded by the TIMED Doppler Interferometer (TIDI) and the High Resolution Doppler Imager (HRDI) have provided conclusive evidence that the shuttle main engine exhaust plume generated in the lower thermosphere by the launch of STS-107 and imaged by the Global Ultraviolet Imager (GUVI) instrument on TIMED was transported to the Antarctic in ˜80 h, supporting a key inference from the initial study by Stevens et al. (2005). These new results were aided by improved knowledge of the effects of instrumental and satellite artifacts imposed on the Doppler spectra. STS-107 launched on 16 January 2003, and the neutral wind near its launch trajectory and nearby volume was sampled within minutes by TIDI. These initial observations suggested that the northernmost end of the shuttle's exhaust plume would move northeast and that the southern end would move southeast, motions that were identified in imagery acquired during the next orbit of TIMED. The direction and magnitude of plume motion inferred from GUVI images obtained 12, 26, and 50 h after launch were again confirmed by TIDI and HRDI. The appearance of the plume over the Antarctic ˜80 h after launch, inferred from earlier work by the appearance of iron ablated from the shuttle's main engines, was consistent with neutral winds measured by the satellite Doppler instruments over the Antarctic. The transport of the plume from the coast of Florida to the Antarctic was aided by the favorable phase and strong amplitude of a 2 day planetary wave of wave number three in the southern hemisphere on 18 January 2003. The existence of the 2 day wave was deduced from zonally averaged and combined TIDI and HRDI neutral wind observations. We conclude that the existence of strong and sustained winds in the MLT, significantly greater than expected from empirical and theoretical models, is indisputable and provides compelling evidence supporting the global-scale nature of

  7. NASA Animal Enclosure Module Mouse Odor Containment Study for STS-107 September 15, 1999;SJSU Odor Panel Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, Daniel C.; Mele, Gary D.; Poffenroth, Mary; Young, Cliff

    2000-01-01

    Experiment #153 by Scott Brady is manifested for shuttle flight STS-107. This evaluation of space flight induced stress and its effects on neuronal plasticity will use 18 six month old C57Bl/6 male mice. A 21 day evaluation study was proposed to determine the length of time groups of 6, 9, or 12 mice could be housed in the Animal Enclosure Module (AEM) without odor breakthrough. This study was performed at NASA-Ames Research Center beginning on September 15, 1999. NASA personnel, were responsible for animal care, maintenance, facilities, hardware, etc. San Jose State personnel performed the odor panel evaluations and data reduction. We used similar procedures and methods for earlier tests evaluating female mice.

  8. 20 Plus Years of Chimera Grid Development for the Space Shuttle. STS-107, Return to Flight, End of the Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the progress in grid development for the space shuttle, with particular focus on the development from the los of STS-107 and the return to flight, to the end of the program. Included are views from the current Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (SSLV) grid system, containing 1.8 million surface points, and 95+ million volume points. Charts showing wind tunnel tests comparisons, and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) vs 1A613B wing pressures, wind tunnel test comparison with CFD of the proposed ice/frost ramp configuration are shown. The use of pressure sensitive paint and particle imaging velocimetry was used to support debris transport tools, The actual creation of the grids and the use of overset CFD to assess the external tank redesign was also reviewed. It also asks was the use of the overset tool the right choice. The presentation ends with a review of the work to be done still.

  9. Muscle metaboreflex contribution to cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise in microgravity: insights from mission STS-107 of the space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Iellamo, Ferdinando; Di Rienzo, Marco; Lucini, Daniela; Legramante, Jacopo M; Pizzinelli, Paolo; Castiglioni, Paolo; Pigozzi, Fabio; Pagani, Massimo; Parati, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    One of the most important features of prolonged weightlessness is a progressive impairment of muscular function with a consequent decrease in exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that the impairment in musculo-skeletal function that occurs in microgravity results in a potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex mechanism and also affects baroreflex modulation of heart rate (HR) during exercise. Four astronauts participating in the 16 day Columbia shuttle mission (STS-107) were studied 72-71 days before launch and on days 12-13 in-flight. The protocol consisted of 6 min bicycle exercise at 50% of individual V(o2,max) followed by 4 min of postexercise leg circulatory occlusion (PECO). At rest, systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP), R-R interval and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) did not differ significantly between pre- and in-flight measurements. Both pre- and in-flight, SBP increased and R-R interval and BRS decreased during exercise, whereas DBP did not change. During PECO preflight, SBP and DBP were higher than at rest, whereas R-R interval and BRS recovered to resting levels. During PECO in-flight, SBP and DBP were significantly higher whereas R-R interval and BRS remained significantly lower than at rest. The part of the SBP response (delta) that was maintained by PECO was significantly greater during spaceflight than before (34.5 +/- 8.8 versus 13.8 +/- 11.9 mmHg, P = 0.03). The tachycardic response to PECO was also significantly greater during spaceflight than preflight (-141.5 +/- 25.2 versus - 90.5 +/- 33.3 ms, P = 0.02). This study suggests that the muscle metaboreflex is enhanced during dynamic exercise in space and that the potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex affects the vagally mediated arterial baroreflex contribution to HR control.

  10. Development and swimming behavior of Medaka fry in a spaceflight aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-107).

    PubMed

    Niihori, Maki; Mogami, Yoshihiro; Naruse, Kiyoshi; Baba, Shoji A

    2004-09-01

    A space experiment aimed at closely observing the development and swimming activity of medaka fry under microgravity was carried out as a part of the S*T*A*R*S Program, a space shuttle mission, in STS-107 in January 2003. Four eggs laid on earth in an artificially controlled environment were put in a container with a functionally closed ecological system and launched on the Space Shuttle Columbia. Each egg was held in place by a strip of Velcro in the container to be individually monitored by close-up CCD cameras. In the control experiment, four eggs prepared using the same experimental set-up remained on the ground. There was no appreciable difference in the time course of development between space- and ground-based embryos. In the ground experiment, embryos were observed to rotate in place enclosed with the egg membrane, whereas those in the flight unit did not rotate. One of the four eggs hatched on the 8th day after being launched into space. All four eggs hatched in the ground unit. The fry hatched in space was mostly motionless, but with occasional control of its posture with respect to references in the experimental chamber. The fry hatched on ground were observed to move actively, controlling their posture with respect to the gravity vector. These findings suggest that the absence of gravity affects the initiation process of motility of embryos and hatched fry.

  11. Internal Flow Thermal/Fluid Modeling of STS-107 Port Wing in Support of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, John R.; Kittredge, Ken; Schunk, Richard G.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the aero-thermodynamics team supporting the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAB), the Marshall Space Flight Center was asked to perform engineering analyses of internal flows in the port wing. The aero-thermodynamics team was split into internal flow and external flow teams with the support being divided between shorter timeframe engineering methods and more complex computational fluid dynamics. In order to gain a rough order of magnitude type of knowledge of the internal flow in the port wing for various breach locations and sizes (as theorized by the CAB to have caused the Columbia re-entry failure), a bulk venting model was required to input boundary flow rates and pressures to the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. This paper summarizes the modeling that was done by MSFC in Thermal Desktop. A venting model of the entire Orbiter was constructed in FloCAD based on Rockwell International s flight substantiation analyses and the STS-107 reentry trajectory. Chemical equilibrium air thermodynamic properties were generated for SINDA/FLUINT s fluid property routines from a code provided by Langley Research Center. In parallel, a simplified thermal mathematical model of the port wing, including the Thermal Protection System (TPS), was based on more detailed Shuttle re-entry modeling previously done by the Dryden Flight Research Center. Once the venting model was coupled with the thermal model of the wing structure with chemical equilibrium air properties, various breach scenarios were assessed in support of the aero-thermodynamics team. The construction of the coupled model and results are presented herein.

  12. The C.E.B.A. Mini Module on the STS-107 Mission: Data of Ground Experiments and Preliminary Results of the third Spaceflight of an Artificial Aquatic Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bluem, V.; Paris, F.; Bungart, S.

    The C.E.B.A.S MINI MODULE is the miniaturized version of an artificial aquatic ecosystem consisting of four subcomponents: a ZOOLOGICAL COMPONENT (aquarium for animals), a BOTANICAL COMPONENT (higher water plant bioreactor), a MICROBIAL COMPONENT (bacteria filter) and an ELECTRONICAL COMPONENT (data acquisition, control unit). It has a total volume of 8.6 liters and contains the ovoviviparous teleost Xiphophorus helleri (swordtail), larvae of the ovuliparous cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus, the pulmonate water snail Biomphalaria glabrata, the rootless (non-graivitropic) higher water plant Ceratophyllum demersum (hornweed) and special strains of ammonia oxidizing bacteria. This device was already flown twice successfully in space with the space shuttle missions STS- 89 and STS-90 (NEUROLAB) in 1998. It will fly a third time with the STS-107-mission the launch of which has been repeatedly shifted December 222, April 2001, October 2001) and is now finally scheduled for June 2002. The main focus of scientific interest in the past missions were system performance, reproductive biology (reproductive function of adult females including endocrine system, fertilization, gonadal development in juveniles), vestibular and immunological research in X. helleri, embryology and shell formation in B. glabrata, general morphology and physiology of C. demersum and groth rates of the bacteria. The standard load of the system were 4 adult and 200 neonate X. helleri, 30 adult B. glabrata and 30 g of C. demersum. The evaluation of these experiments showed that all reproductive functions and the immune system of the fishes snails remained undisturbed in space, that the snails developed normally and exhibited no disturbance of shell formation and that the plants showed growth and photosynthesis rates comparable to those on Earth. So, as a logical continuation, the main topics for the STS-107 mission are the remaining important questions in X. helleri biology: puberty, male sexual

  13. Foam on Tile Impact Modeling for the STS-107 Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stellingwerf, R. F.; Robinson, J. H.; Richardson, S.; Evans, S. W.; Stallworth, R.; Hovater, M.

    2004-01-01

    Following the breakup of the Space Shuttle Columbia during reentry a NASA/Contractor investigation team was formed to examine the probable damage inflicted on Orbiter Thermal Protection System elements by impact of External Tank insulating foam projectiles. The authors formed a working subgroup within the larger team to apply the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics code SPHC to the damage estimation problem. Numerical models of the Orbiter's tiles and of the Tank's foam were constructed and used as inputs into the code. Material properties needed to properly model the tiles and foam were obtained from other working subgroups who performed tests on these items for this purpose. Two- and three-dimensional models of the tiles were constructed, including the glass outer layer, the main body of LI-900 insulation, the densified lower layer of LI-900, the Nomex felt mounting layer, and the Aluminum 2024 vehicle skin. A model for the BX-250 foam including porous compression, elastic rebound, and surface erosion was developed. Code results for the tile damage and foam behavior were extensively validated through comparison with Southwest Research Institute foam-on-tile impact experiments carried out in 1999. These tests involved small projectiles striking individual tiles and small tile arrays. Following code and model validation we simulated impacts of larger foam projectiles on the examples of tile systems used on the Orbiter. Results for impacts on the main landing gear door are presented in this paper, including effects of impacts at several angles, and of rapidly rotating projectiles. General results suggest that foam impacts on tiles at about 500 mph could cause appreciable damage if the impact angle is greater than about 20 degrees. Some variations of the foam properties, such as increased brittleness or increased density could increase damage in some cases. Rotation up to 17 rps failed to increase the damage for the two cases considered. This does not rule out other cases in which the rotational energy might lead to an increase in tile damage, but suggests that in most cases rotation will not be an important factor.

  14. Gravisensing in flax roots - results from STS-107

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasenstein, K.; Scherp, P.; Ma, Z.

    The objective of this Space Shuttle experiment was to evaluate the relationship between a laterally applied magnetophoretic force and the resulting curvature in the absence of gravity. Assessing the cytoskeletal organization of microgravity-grown roots and the distribution of amyloplasts in the root columella were additional goals. A High Gradient Magnetic Field (HGMF) was generated by steel wedges between NdFeB magnets and created a force on the amyloplasts. Based on downlinked images from orbit we were able to confirm that the experiments worked as expected. The seeds germinated at the expected time and grew at in both directions from the seed cassettes. However, the growth rate was less than in ground control experiments and further declined as the root tips approached the HGMF. Perpendicular curvature away from the wedges could not be detected, but not show a single root grew past the highest point in magnetic force field. The reduction in growth rate in micro gravity, and the higher sensitivity of space grown roots suggests that clinorotated roots exhibit reduced gravisensitivity compared to non-stimulated roots, in accordance with data from other space experiments. The higher effectiveness of the magnetic force in micro gravity than in ground tests that the gravisensing mechanism is sensitive to mechanical perturbation. Supported by NASA: NAG10-0190.

  15. DSMC Simulations in Support of the STS-107 Accident Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-13

    the wing spar and includes a definition for the earmuffs between panels. The geometry used in this case was developed using the GridGen grid...generation tool. After importing the CAD into GridGen , a 10-inch hole was generated in RCC panel 8 at a location of X = 1065 inches, Y = -219 inches, and Z

  16. STS-107 Debris Characterization Using Re-entry Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raiche, George A.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of amateur video of the early reentry phases of the Columbia accident is discussed. With poor video quality and little theoretical guidance, the analysis team estimated mass and acceleration ranges for the debris shedding events observed in the video. Camera calibration and optical performance issues are also described.

  17. Mission Overview STS-107: Providing 24/7 Space Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Columbia's 16-day mission is dedicated to a mixed complement of competitively selected and commercially sponsored research in the space, life and physical sciences. An international crew of seven, including the first Israeli astronaut, will work 24 hours a day in two alternating shifts to carry out experiments in the areas of astronaut health and safety; advanced technology development; and Earth and space sciences.

  18. The Water-Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist): Preliminary Results From The STS-107 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbud-Madrid, Angel; McKinnon, J. Thomas; Amon, Francine; Gokoglu, Suleyman

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the effect of water mists on premixed flame propagation has been conducted onboard the Space Shuttle to take advantage of the prolonged microgravity environment to study the effect of uniformly distributed clouds of polydisperse water mists on the speed and shape of propagating propane-air premixed flames. The suspension of a quiescent and uniform water mist cloud was confirmed during the microgravity tests. Preliminary results show good agreement with trends obtained by the numerical predictions of a computational model that uses a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation to simulate the two-phase, flame/mist interaction. Effective flame suppression is observed at progressively higher water loadings and smaller water droplet sizes. Other unusual flame behavior, such as flame front breakup and pulsating flames, is still under investigation. The promising results from the microgravity tests will be used to assess the feasibility of using water mists as fire suppressants on Earth and on spacecraft.

  19. Loss of Signal, Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Phillip C.; Patlach, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Loss of Signal, a NASA publication to be available in May 2014 presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Columbia accident that will enhance crew safety and survival on human space flight missions. These lessons were presented to limited audiences at three separate Aerospace Medical Association (AsMA) conferences: in 2004 in Anchorage, Alaska, on the causes of the accident; in 2005 in Kansas City, Missouri, on the response, recovery, and identification aspects of the investigation; and in 2011, again in Anchorage, Alaska, on future implications for human space flight. As we embark on the development of new spacefaring vehicles through both government and commercial efforts, the NASA Johnson Space Center Human Health and Performance Directorate is continuing to make this information available to a wider audience engaged in the design and development of future space vehicles. Loss of Signal summarizes and consolidates the aeromedical impacts of the Columbia mishap process-the response, recovery, identification, investigative studies, medical and legal forensic analysis, and future preparation that are needed to respond to spacecraft mishaps. The goal of this book is to provide an account of the aeromedical aspects of the Columbia accident and the investigation that followed, and to encourage aerospace medical specialists to continue to capture information, learn from it, and improve procedures and spacecraft designs for the safety of future crews. This poster presents an outline of Loss of Signal contents and highlights from each of five sections - the mission and mishap, the response, the investigation, the analysis and the future.

  20. Accident Case Study of Organizational Silence Communication Breakdown: Shuttle Columbia, Mission STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocha, Rodney

    2011-01-01

    This report has been developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ESMD Risk and Knowledge Management team. This document provides a point-in-time, cumulative, summary of key lessons learned derived from the official Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB). Lessons learned invariably address challenges and risks and the way in which these areas have been addressed. Accordingly the risk management thread is woven throughout the document. This report is accompanied by a video that will be sent at request

  1. Loss of Signal: Aeromedical Lessons Learned from the STS-107 Columbia Space Shuttle Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip C. (Editor); Lane, Helen W. (Editor); Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    The editors of Loss of Signal wanted to document the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia mishap. The book is intended to be an accurate and easily understood account of the entire process of recovering and analyzing the human remains, investigating and analyzing what happened to the crew, and using the resulting information to recommend ways to prevent mishaps and provide better protection to crewmembers. Our goal is to capture the passions of those who devoted their energies in responding to the Columbia mishap. We have reunited authors who were directly involved in each of these aspects. These authors tell the story of their efforts related to the Columbia mishap from their point of view. They give the reader an honest description of their responsibilities and share their challenges, their experiences, and their lessons learned on how to enhance crew safety and survival, and how to be prepared to support space mishap investigations. As a result of this approach, a few of the chapters have some redundancy of information and authors' opinions may differ. In no way did we or they intend to assign blame or criticize anyone's professional efforts. All those involved did their best to obtain the truth in the situations to which they were assigned.

  2. Tackling a Hot Paradox: Laminar Soot Processes-2 (LSP-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faeth, Gerard M.; Urban, David L.; Over, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The last place you want to be in traffic is behind the bus or truck that is belching large clouds of soot onto your freshly washed car. Besides looking and smelling bad, soot is a health hazard. Particles range from big enough to see to microscopic and can accumulate in the lungs, potentially leading to debilitating or fatal lung diseases. Soot is wasted energy, and therein lies an interesting paradox: Soot forms in a flame's hottest regions where you would expect complete combustion and no waste. Soot enhances the emissions of other pollutants (carbon monoxide and polyaromatic hydrocarbons, etc.) from flames and radiates unwanted heat to combustion chambers (a candle's yellowish glow is soot radiating heat), among other effects. The mechanisms of soot formation are among the most important unresolved problems of combustion science because soot affects contemporary life in so many ways. Although we have used fire for centuries, many fundamental aspects of combustion remain elusive, in part because of limits imposed by the effects of gravity on Earth. Hot or warm air rises quickly and draws in fresh cold air behind it, thus giving flames the classical teardrop shape. Reactions occur in a very small zone, too fast for scientists to observe, in detail, what is happening inside the flame. The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiments aboard STS-107 will use the microgravity environment of space to eliminate buoyancy effects and thus slow the reactions inside a flame so they can be more readily studied. 'Laminar' means a simple, smooth fuel jet burning in air, somewhat like a butane lighter. This classical flame approximates combustion in diesel engines, aircraft jet propulsion engines, and furnaces and other devices. LSP-2 will expand on surprising results developed from its first two flights in 1997. The data suggest the existence of a universal relationship, the soot paradigm, that, if proven, will be used to model and control combustion systems on Earth. STS-107

  3. Flight Day 2 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The STS-107 second flight day begins with a shot of the Spacehab Research Double Module. Live presentations of experiments underway inside of the Spacehab Module are presented. Six experiments are shown. As part of the Space Technology and Research Student Payload, students from Australia, China, Israel, Japan, New York, and Liechtenstein are studying the effect that microgravity has on ants, spiders, silkworms, fish, bees, granular materials, and crystals. Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla is seen working with the zeolite crystal growth experiment.

  4. Description and Sensitivity Analysis of the SOLSE/LORE-2 and SAGE III Limb Scattering Ozone Retrieval Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loughman, R.; Flittner, D.; Herman, B.; Bhartia, P.; Hilsenrath, E.; McPeters, R.; Rault, D.

    2002-01-01

    The SOLSE (Shuttle Ozone Limb Sounding Experiment) and LORE (Limb Ozone Retrieval Experiment) instruments are scheduled for reflight on Space Shuttle flight STS-107 in July 2002. In addition, the SAGE III (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) instrument will begin to make limb scattering measurements during Spring 2002. The optimal estimation technique is used to analyze visible and ultraviolet limb scattered radiances and produce a retrieved ozone profile. The algorithm used to analyze data from the initial flight of the SOLSE/LORE instruments (on Space Shuttle flight STS-87 in November 1997) forms the basis of the current algorithms, with expansion to take advantage of the increased multispectral information provided by SOLSE/LORE-2 and SAGE III. We also present detailed sensitivity analysis for these ozone retrieval algorithms. The primary source of ozone retrieval error is tangent height misregistration (i.e., instrument pointing error), which is relevant throughout the altitude range of interest, and can produce retrieval errors on the order of 10-20 percent due to a tangent height registration error of 0.5 km at the tangent point. Other significant sources of error are sensitivity to stratospheric aerosol and sensitivity to error in the a priori ozone estimate (given assumed instrument signal-to-noise = 200). These can produce errors up to 10 percent for the ozone retrieval at altitudes less than 20 km, but produce little error above that level.

  5. Stirring Up an Elastic Fluid: Critical Viscosity of Xenon-2 (CVX-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Robert F.; Moldover, Michael R.; Zimmerli, Gregory A.; Motil, Susan M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Whipped cream stays in place even when turned upside down. Yet it readily flows through the nozzle of a spray can to reach the dessert plate. This demonstrates the phenomenon of shear thinning that is important to many industrial and physical processes. Paints, film emulsions, and other complex solutions that are highly viscous under normal conditions but become thin and flow easily under shear forces. A simple fluid, such as water, does not exhibit shear thinning under normal conditions. Very close to the liquid-vapor critical point, where the distinction between liquid and vapor disappears, the fluid becomes more complex and is predicted to display shear thinning. At the critical point, xenon atoms interact over long distances in a classical model of cooperative phenomena. Physicists rely on this system to learn how long-range order arises. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of fluids. Viscosity originates from the interactions of individual molecules. It is so complicated that, except for the simplest gas, it cannot be calculated accurately from theory. Tests with critical fluids can provide key data, but are limited on Earth because critical fluids are highly compressed by gravity. CVX-2 employs a tiny metal screen vibrating between two electrodes in a bath of critical xenon. The vibrations and how they dampen are used to measure viscosity. CVX flew on STS-85 (1997), where it revealed that, close to the critical point, the xenon is partly elastic: it can 'stretch' as well as flow. For STS-107, the hardware has been enhanced to determine if critical xenon is a shear-thinning fluid.

  6. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  7. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford, with the Aft Engine shop, works at removing a heat shield on Columbia, in the Orbiter Processing Facility. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  8. Aft Engine shop worker removes a heat shield on Columbia's main engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Doug Buford (top), with the Aft Engine shop, along with another worker, removes a heat shield on one of Columbia's engines. After small cracks were discovered on the LH2 Main Propulsion System (MPS) flow liners in two other orbiters, program managers decided to move forward with inspections on Columbia before clearing it for flight on STS-107. After removal of the heat shields, the three main engines will be removed. Inspections of the flow liners will follow. The July 19 launch of Columbia on STS-107 has been delayed a few weeks

  9. Hubble Space Telescope Star Tracker ad Two-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanArsdall, John C.

    2005-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) normally requires three gyroscopes for three-axis rate control. The loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-107 resulted in the cancellation of a shuttle-based HST Servicing Mission 4. Therefore, HST must operate using the on-board hardware until an alternate means of servicing can be accomplished. The probability of gyro failure indicates that fewer than three gyros will be operable before any servicing mission can be performe& To mitigate this, and to extend the HST life expectancy, a rate estimation and control algorithm was developed that requires two gyros to measure rate about two axes, with the remaining axis rate estimated using one of three alternate sensors. Three-axis magnetometers (MSS) are used for coarse rate estimation during large maneuvers and during occultations of other sensors. Fixed-Head Star Trackers (FHSTs) are used for rate estimation during safe mode recovery and during transition to science operations. Fine rate estimation during science operations is performed using the Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs). The FHST mode (T2G) relies on star vectors as measured by the FHSTs to estimate vehicle rate about the axis not measured by the gyros. Since the FHSTs were not designed to estimate body rate, this method involves a unique set of problems that had to be overcome in the final design, such as the effect of FHST break tracks and moving targets on rate estimation. The solutions to these problems, as well as a detailed description of the design and implementation of the rate estimation are presented Also included are the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the T2G control law. A high fidelity HST simulator (HSTSIM) was used to verify T2G performance prior to on-orbit use. Results of these simulations are also presented. Finally, analysis of actual T2G on-orbit test results is presented for design validation.

  10. Aeromedical Lessons from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the aeromedical lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation. The contents include: 1) Introduction and Mission Response Team (MRT); 2) Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO); 3) Mishap Investigation Team (MIT); 4) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Mishap Response Plan; 5) Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP); and 6) STS-107 Crew Surgeon.

  11. Great (Flame) Balls of Fire! Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number-2 (SOFBALL-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ronney, Paul; Weiland, Karen J.; Over, Ann (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Everyone knows that an automobile engine wastes fuel and energy when it runs with a fuel-rich mixture. 'Lean' burning, mixing in more air and less fuel, is better for the environment. But lean mixtures also lead to engine misfiring and rough operation. No one knows the ultimate limits for lean operation, for 'weak' combustion that is friendly to the environment while still moving us around. This is where the accidental verification of a decades-old prediction may have strong implications for designing and running low-emissions engines in the 21st century. In 1944, Soviet physicist Yakov Zeldovich predicted that stationary, spherical flames are possible under limited conditions in lean fuel-air mixtures. Dr. Paul Ronney of the University of Southern California accidentally discovered such 'flame balls' in experiments with lean hydrogen-air mixtures in 1984 during drop-tower experiments that provided just 2.2 seconds of near weightlessness. Experiments aboard NASA's low-g aircraft confirmed the results, but a thorough investigation was hampered by the aircraft's bumpy ride. And stable flame balls can only exist in microgravity. The potential for investigating combustion at the limits of flammability, and the implications for spacecraft fire safety, led to the Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number (SOFBALL) experiment flown twice aboard the Space Shuttle on the Microgravity Sciences Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) in 1997. Success there led to the planned reflight on STS-107. Flame balls are the weakest fires yet produced in space or on Earth. Typically each flame ball produced only 1 watt of thermal power. By comparison, a birthday candle produces 50 watts. The Lewis-number measures the rate of diffusion of fuel into the flame ball relative to the rate of diffusion of heat away from the flame ball. Lewis-number mixtures conduct heat poorly. Hydrogen and methane are the only fuels that provide low enough Lewis-numbers to produce stable flame balls, and even then only for

  12. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Shear thirning will cause a normally viscous fluid -- such as pie filling or whipped cream -- to deform and flow more readily under high shear conditions. In shear thinning, a pocket of fluid will deform and move one edge forward, as depicted here.

  13. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Two

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, J. R.; Jenkins, D. R.; White, D. J.; Goodman, P. A.; Reingold, L. A.

    2003-01-01

    Volume II of the Report contains appendices that were cited in Volume I. The Columbia Accident Investigation Board produced many of these appendices as working papers during the investigation into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Other appendices were produced by other organizations (mainly NASA) in support of the Board investigation. In the case of documents that have been published by others, they are included here in the interest of establishing a complete record, but often at less than full page size. Contents include: CAIB Technical Documents Cited in the Report: Reader's Guide to Volume II; Appendix D. a Supplement to the Report; Appendix D.b Corrections to Volume I of the Report; Appendix D.1 STS-107 Training Investigation; Appendix D.2 Payload Operations Checklist 3; Appendix D.3 Fault Tree Closure Summary; Appendix D.4 Fault Tree Elements - Not Closed; Appendix D.5 Space Weather Conditions; Appendix D.6 Payload and Payload Integration; Appendix D.7 Working Scenario; Appendix D.8 Debris Transport Analysis; Appendix D.9 Data Review and Timeline Reconstruction Report; Appendix D.10 Debris Recovery; Appendix D.11 STS-107 Columbia Reconstruction Report; Appendix D.12 Impact Modeling; Appendix D.13 STS-107 In-Flight Options Assessment; Appendix D.14 Orbiter Major Modification (OMM) Review; Appendix D.15 Maintenance, Material, and Management Inputs; Appendix D.16 Public Safety Analysis; Appendix D.17 MER Manager's Tiger Team Checklist; Appendix D.18 Past Reports Review; Appendix D.19 Qualification and Interpretation of Sensor Data from STS-107; Appendix D.20 Bolt Catcher Debris Analysis.

  14. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Interior of the Equipment Module for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP-2) experiment that fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 (LSP-1 flew on Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997). The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner (yellow ellipse), similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a radiometer or heat sensor (blue circle), and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  15. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Image of soot (smoke) plume made for the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  16. Laminar Soot Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment under way during the Microgravity Sciences Lab-1 mission in 1997. LSP-2 will fly in the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001. The principal investigator is Dr. Gerard Faeth of the University of Michigan. LSP uses a small jet burner, similar to a classroom butane lighter, that produces flames up to 60 mm (2.3 in) long. Measurements include color TV cameras and a temperature sensor, and laser images whose darkness indicates the quantity of soot produced in the flame. Glenn Research in Cleveland, OH, manages the project.

  17. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The sample cell at the heart of CVX-2 will sit inside a thermostat providing three layers of insulation. The cell itself comprises a copper body that conducts heat efficiently and smoothes out thermal variations that that would destroy the xenon's uniformity. Inside the cell, the oscillating screen viscometer element is supported between two pairs of electrodes that deflect the screen and then measure screen motion.

  18. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (left) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  19. Critical Viscosity of Xenon investigators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Dr. Dr. Robert F. Berg (right), principal investigator and Dr. Micheal R. Moldover (left), co-investigator, for the Critical Viscosity of Xenon (CVX/CVX-2) experiment. They are with the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Although it does not easily combine with other chemicals, its viscosity at the critical point can be used as a model for a range of chemicals.

  20. Critical Viscosity of Xenon team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure (at left) that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister (right) holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

  1. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2001 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The thermostat for CVX sits inside the white cylinder on a support structure that is placed inside a pressure canister. A similar canister holds the electronics and control systems. The CVX-2 arrangement is identical. The principal investigator is Dr. Robert F. Berg (not shown) of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD. This is a detail view of MSFC 0100143.

  2. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Four

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    This is Volume Four of a set of six reports produced by NASA and other organizations which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Technical Documents included in this volume are: Appendix F.1 Water Absorption by Foam; Appendix F.2 Follow the TPS; Appendix F.3 MADS Sensor Data; Appendix F.4 ET Cryoinsulation; Appendix F.5 Space Shuttle STS-107 Columbia Accident Investigation, and External Tank Working Group Final Report - Volume 1.

  3. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Because xenon near the critical point will collapse under its own weight, experiments on Earth (green line) are limited as they get closer (toward the left) to the critical point. CVX in the microgravity of space (red line) moved into unmeasured territory that scientists had not been able to reach.

  4. KSC-03PD-1461

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto (foreground), Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., examines one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  5. KSC-03PD-1460

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dr. Dennis Morrison, NASA Johnson Space Center, processes one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  6. KSC-03PD-1471

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The crystals visible in this laboratory dish were part of an experiment carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  7. Critical Viscosity of Xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002 will measure the viscous behavior of liquid xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. Resembling a tiny bit of window screen, the oscillator at the heart of CVX-2 will vibrate between two pairs of paddle-like electrodes. The slight bend in the shape of the mesh has no effect on the data. What counts are the mesh's displacement in the xenon fluid and the rate at which the displacement dampens. The unit shown here is encased in a small test cell and capped with a sapphire windown to contain the xenon at high pressure.

  8. Water Mist Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002 in the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. The Center for the Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, is investigating the properties of mist fire suppression in microgravity with Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. These experiments consist of varying water droplet sizes and water mist concentrations applied to flame fronts of different propane/air mixtures. Observations from these tests will provide valuable information on the change of flame speed in the presence of water mist. Shown here is a flame front propagating through the Mist flame tube during 1-g testing at NASA/Glenn Research Center.

  9. Shear-thinning Fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Whipped cream and the filling for pumpkin pie are two familiar materials that exhibit the shear-thinning effect seen in a range of industrial applications. It is thick enough to stand on its own atop a piece of pie, yet flows readily when pushed through a tube. This demonstrates the shear-thinning effect that was studied with the Critical Viscosity of Xenon Experiment (CVX-2) on the STS-107 Research 1 mission in 2002. CVX observed the behavior of xenon, a heavy inert gas used in flash lamps and ion rocket engines, at its critical point. The principal investigator was Dr. Robert Berg of the National Institutes of Standards and Technology in Gaithersburg, MD.

  10. BIOPACK: the ground controlled late access biological research facility.

    PubMed

    van Loon, Jack J W A

    2004-03-01

    Future Space Shuttle flights shall be characterized by activities necessary to further build the International Space Station, ISS. During these missions limited resources are available to conduct biological experiments in space. The Shuttles' Middeck is a very suitable place to conduct science during the ISS assembly missions or dedicated science missions. The BIOPACK, which flew its first mission during the STS-107, provides a versatile Middeck Locker based research tool for gravitational biology studies. The core facility occupies the space of only two Middeck Lockers. Experiment temperatures are controlled for bacteria, plant, invertebrate and mammalian cultures. Gravity levels and profiles can be set ranging from 0 to 2.0 x g on three independent centrifuges. This provides the experimenter with a 1.0 x g on-board reference and intermediate hypogravity and hypergravity data points to investigate e.g. threshold levels in biological responses. Temperature sensitive items can be stored in the facilities' -10 degrees C and +4 degrees C stowage areas. During STS-107 the facility also included a small glovebox (GBX) and passive temperature controlled units (PTCU). The GBX provides the experimenter with two extra levels of containment for safe sample handling. This biological research facility is a late access (L-10 hrs) laboratory, which, when reaching orbit, could automatically be starting up reducing important experiment lag-time and valuable crew time. The system is completely telecommanded when needed. During flight system parameters like temperatures, centrifuge speeds, experiment commanding or sensor readouts can be monitored and changed when needed. Although ISS provides a wide range of research facilities there is still need for an STS-based late access facility such as the BIOPACK providing experimenters with a very versatile research cabinet for biological experiments under microgravity and in-flight control conditions.

  11. Medical Response, Search and Recovery during the Space Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107. After an event such as this, with high visibility and international interest, the operational challenge of recovering the crewmembers could not be underestimated. The Space Shuttle Program is organized to respond to a vehicle mishap using the resources of the Mishap Investigation Team (MIT). On the afternoon of Feb. 1, 2003, the MIT deployed to Barksdale Air Force Base (AFB), Louisiana. This location became the investigative center and interim storage location for crewmembers received from the Lufkin, Texas Disaster Field Office (DFO). The Lufkin DFO served as the primary area for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security of crewmember remains. More than 2,000 people from numerous organizations were involved with the recovery of the crew. All seven crewmembers of STS-107 were recovered and ceremonial last rights were administered. Astronaut and military personnel escorted the crew with honor to the MIT at Barksdale AFB, Louisiana. At Barksdale AFB a temporary morgue was established in an aircraft hangar and operated for approximately two weeks during which time coordination with the DFO field recovery teams, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) medical personnel, and the crew surgeons was on going. Families of crewmembers and NASA management were notified daily of the current findings. Working under the leadership of the MIT Lead, the medical team developed and executed a short-term plan to identify and relocate the crew with a military honor guard and protocol to the medical examiner at the Armed Forces Port Mortuary, Dover AFB, Delaware. After operations at Barksdale AFB were concluded the medical team transitioned back to Houston and a long-term plan was developed and implemented which involved the Air Force Mortuary Affairs at Randolph AFB, Texas. This plan was coordinated with search teams

  12. Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Ram Burn Observations (RAMBO) is a Department of Defense experiment that observes shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System engine burns for the purpose of improving plume models. On STS-107 the appropriate sensors will observe selected rendezvous and orbit adjust burns.

  13. KSC-03PD-1457

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., and Bob McLean, from the Southwest Texas State University, transfer to a new container material from one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  14. KSC-03PD-1459

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Bob McLean, Southwest Texas State University; Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc.; and Dennis Morrison, NASA Johnson Space Center, process one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  15. KSC-03PD-1472

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Barry Perlman, Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida, prepares a computer to receive data from an experiment carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  16. KSC-03PD-1463

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dr. Dennis Morrison, NASA Johnson Space Center, works with one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  17. KSC-03PD-1462

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., and Dr. Dennis Morrison, NASA Johnson Space Center, analyze one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  18. KSC-03PD-1456

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., examines closely the container containing one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  19. KSC-03PD-1458

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - A.K. Love, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., displays one of the boxes used for cancer cell research, an experiment carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  20. KSC-03PD-1470

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Bob McLean, Southwest Texas State University, and Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., study one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  1. KSC-03PD-1467

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., studies one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  2. DSMC simulations in support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter accident investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Boyles, Katie A.; LeBeau, Gerald J.

    2004-06-01

    Three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo simulations of Columbia Shuttle Orbiter flight STS-107 are presented. The aim of this work is to determine the aerodynamic and heating behavior of the Orbiter during aerobraking maneuvers and to provide piecewise integration of key scenario events to assess the plausibility of the candidate failure scenarios. The flight of the Orbiter is examined at two altitudes: 350-kft and 300-kft. The flowfield around the Orbiter and the heat transfer to it are calculated for the undamaged configuration. The flow inside the wing for an assumed damage to the leading edge in the form of a 10- inch hole is studied. The tragic loss of the Space Shuttle Columbia and her seven-member crew was followed by an investigation that lasted almost 7 months covering numerous failure scenarios. Due to the lack of physical data about flight STS-107 (especially in the high altitude part of it), numerical simulations were employed to help with the interpretation of the forensic evidence and the evaluation of the plausibility of the candidate scenarios. The conclusion of the investigation was that the physical cause of the loss of Columbia and its crew was a breach in the Thermal Protection System. To protect the aluminum structure of the Orbiter during re-entry, the Orbiter is covered with various materials collectively referred to as the Thermal Protection System. The three major components of the system are various types of heat-resistant tiles, blankets, and the Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) panels. The RCC panels are layers of graphite molded to the desired shape at very high temperatures. RCC is used for the Orbiter nose cap, chin panel, forward external tank attachment point, and wing leading edge panels and T-seals. RCC is a material capable of withstanding temperatures up to 2,000 K. Each wing leading edge consists of 22 RCC panels numbered from 1 to 22 moving outward on each wing. Because the shape of the wing changes from inboard to

  3. KSC-03PD-1464

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Barry Perlman, Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida, and Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., process one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  4. KSC-03PD-1469

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Barry Perlman, Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida; Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc.; and Dr. Dennis Morrison, NASA Johnson Space Center, process one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  5. KSC-03PD-1440

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - John Cassanto (center), with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., explains the use of the apparatus used for experiments on mission STS-107. At left is Barry Perlman, with Pembroke Pines Middle School in Florida; at right is Lou Friedman, executive director of the Planetary Society. The box was part of the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 that included the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS) experiment and crystals grown for cancer research. The GOBBSS experiment was sponsored by the Planetary Society, with joint participation of an Israeli and a Palestinian student, and developed by the Israeli Aerospace Medical Institute and JSC Astrobiology Center.

  6. KSC-03PD-1466

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Barry Perlman, Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida, and Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., analyze one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  7. KSC-03PD-1468

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Barry Perlman, Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida, examines one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107 as Bob McLean, Southwest Texas State University, looks on. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  8. KSC-03PD-1465

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - From left, Barry Perlman, Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida, and Valerie Cassanto, Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., process one of the experiments carried on mission STS-107. Several experiments were found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation. The latter was sponsored by the Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School.

  9. KSC-03PD-2396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese and American students gather at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Japanese girls are from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS- 107. The American students are from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  10. KSC-03PD-2394

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, place a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS- 107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  11. KSC-03PD-2390

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo on their visit to the Spacehab facility in Cape Canaveral, Fla. They were awarded the trip when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The girls planned a floral tribute at the STS-107 memorial stone at the facility. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  12. KSC-03PD-2393

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, carry a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia to place at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  13. KSC-03PD-2391

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, carry a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia to place at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  14. KSC-03PD-2392

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, carry a floral tribute to the crew of Columbia to place at the STS-107 memorial stone at the Spacehab facility, Cape Canaveral, Fla. The group was awarded the trip to Florida when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The group was also meeting with American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station and Payloads Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  15. KSC-03PD-2965

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Family members of the STS-107 astronauts and other dignitaries attending the Columbia Village dedication ceremony at the Florida Institute of Technology in Melbourne, Fla., enjoy a rendition of 'God Bless America' by the university's Players in Harmony. Each of the seven new residence halls in the complex is named for one of the STS-107 astronauts who perished during the Columbia accident -- Rick Husband, Willie McCool, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Ilan Ramon.

  16. KSC-03PD-2962

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Family members of the STS-107 astronauts and other dignitaries watch NASA T-38 jets fly over the Space Mirror Memorial at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex in a Missing Man Formation. During this dedication ceremony, the names of the STS-107 astronauts who lost their lives during the Columbia accident -- Rick Husband, Willie McCool, Laurel Clark, Michael Anderson, David Brown, Kalpana Chawla, and Ilan Ramon -- join the names of 17 other space heroes who gave their lives for the U.S. space program.

  17. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A; Hasenstein, K H

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  18. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.

    2003-05-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume = 14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 μl O 2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O 2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O 2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination.

  19. Oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Hasenstein, K. H.; Hasentein, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Plant experiments in earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and germinated in orbit to study gravity effects on the developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds, and this metabolism depends upon respiration, making oxygen one of the limiting factors in seed germination. In microgravity lack of run-off of excess water requires careful testing of water dispensation and oxygen availability. In preparation for a shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware (Magnetic Field Chamber, MFC). We tested between four to 32 seeds per chamber (air volume=14 mL) and after 36 h measured the root length. At 90 microliters O2 per seed (32 seeds/chamber), the germination decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%, compared to 8 seeds per chamber. Based on the percent germination and root length obtained in controlled gas mixtures between 3.6 and 21.6% O2 we determined the lower limit of reliable germination to be 10 vol. % O2 at atmospheric pressure. Although the oxygen available in the MFC's can support the intended number of seeds, the data show that seed storage and microgravity-related limitations may reduce germination. c2003 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  20. Simulation of Flow Through Breach in Leading Edge at Mach 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Alter, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    A baseline solution for CFD Point 1 (Mach 24) in the STS-107 accident investigation was modified to include effects of holes through the leading edge into a vented cavity. The simulations were generated relatively quickly and early in the investigation by making simplifications to the leading edge cavity geometry. These simplifications in the breach simulations enabled: 1) A very quick grid generation procedure; 2) High fidelity corroboration of jet physics with internal surface impingements ensuing from a breach through the leading edge, fully coupled to the external shock layer flow at flight conditions. These simulations provided early evidence that the flow through a 2 inch diameter (or larger) breach enters the cavity with significant retention of external flow directionality. A normal jet directed into the cavity was not an appropriate model for these conditions at CFD Point 1 (Mach 24). The breach diameters were of the same order or larger than the local, external boundary-layer thickness. High impingement heating and pressures on the downstream lip of the breach were computed. It is likely that hole shape would evolve as a slot cut in the direction of the external streamlines. In the case of the 6 inch diameter breach the boundary layer is fully ingested.

  1. CIRCE2/DEKGEN2

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Vicente J.

    2007-09-28

    CIRCE2 is a computer code for modeling the optical performance of three-dimensional dish-type and trough-type solar energy concentrators (possibly made up of several separate reflecting surfaces or "facets" of various curvatures and projected shapes). Statistical methods are used to evaluate the directional distribution of reflected rays from any given point on the conventrator. Given concentrator and receiver geometries, sunshape (angular distribution of incident rays from the sun), and concentrator imperfections such as surface roughness and random deviation in slope, the code predicts the flux spatio-angular distribution and total power incident upon the flat or volumetric receiver. Great freedom exists in the variety of concentrator and receiver configurations that can be modeled. Additionally, provisions for shading, blocking, and receiver aperturing are included. DEKGEN2 is a preprocessor designed to facilitate input of sun models and concentrator geometry and surface imperfections.

  2. Primary Disaster Field Office (DFO), Lufkin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherbee, James D.

    2005-01-01

    On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke apart during atmospheric re-entry on mission STS-107; the complexity of such an event cannot be underestimated. The Lufkin Disaster Field Office (DFO) served as the primary DFO for all operations, including staging assets and deploying field teams for search, recovery and security. There were many organizations that had operational experience with disaster recovery. Offers to help came from many groups including the White House Liaison Office, the Department of Defense (DOD), branches of local, state and federal government, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state police, fire departments, the Texas Forestry Service, the Texas Army National Guard, medical groups, various rescue forces, contractor companies, the Salvation Army, local businesses, and citizens of our country and especially East Texas. The challenge was to know how much help to accept and how to efficiently incorporate their valuable assistance into a comprehensive and cohesive operational plan. There were more than 2,000 people involved with search and recovery.

  3. Columbia Accident Investigation Board Report. Volume Five

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehmann, H. W.; Barry, J. L.; Deal, D. W.; Hallock, J. N.; Hess, K. W.

    2003-01-01

    Volume V of the Report contains appendices that were not cited in VolumeI. These consist of documents produced by NASA and other organizations, which were provided to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board in support of its inquiry into the February 1, 2003 destruction of the Space Shuttle Columbia The contents include:. Appendix G.1 Requirements and Procedures for Certification of Flight Readiness; Appendix G.2 Appendix R, Space Shuttle Program Contingency Action Plan; Appendix G.3 CAIB Charter, with Revisions; Appendix G.4 Group 1 Matrix Brief on Maintenance, Material, and Management; Appendix G.5 Vehicle Data Mapping(VDM) Team Final Report, Jun 13, 2003; Appendix G.6 SRB Working Group Presentation to CAIB; Appendix G. 7 Starfire Team Final Report, Jun 3, 2003; Appendix G.8 Using the Data and Observations from Flight STS-107, Executive Summary; Appendix G.9 Contracts, Incentives, and Safety/Technical Excellence; Appendix G.10 Detailed Summaries: Rogers Commission Report, ASAP Report, SIAT Report; Appendix G.11 Foam Application and Production Chart; Appendix G.12 Crew Survivability Report; and Appendix G.12 Aero/Aerothermal/ Thermal/Structures Team FinalReport, August 6, 2003.

  4. STS-114 Flight Day 10 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    On Flight Day 10 of the STS-114 mission the International Space Station (ISS) is seen in low lighting while the Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS), also known as Canadarm 2 grapples the Raffaello Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) in preparation for its undocking the following day. Members of the shuttle crew (Commander Eileen Collins, Pilot James Kelly, Mission Specialists Soichi Noguchi, Stephen Robinson, Andrew Thomas, Wendy Lawrence, and Charles Camarda) and the Expedition 11 crew (Commander Sergei Krikalev and NASA ISS Science Officer and Flight Engineer John Phillips) of the ISS read statements in English and Russian in a ceremony for astronauts who gave their lives. Interview segments include one of Collins, Robinson, and Camarda, wearing red shirts to commemorate the STS-107 Columbia crew, and one of Collins and Noguchi on board the ISS, which features voice over from an interpreter translating questions from the Japanese prime minister. The video also features a segment showing gap fillers on board Discovery after being removed from underneath the orbiter, and another segment which explains an experimental plug for future shuttle repairs being tested onboard the mid deck.

  5. Water Mist fire suppression experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Water Mist commercial research program is scheduled to fly an investigation on STS-107 in 2002. This investigation will be flown as an Experimental Mounting Structure (EMS) insert into the updated Combustion Module (CM-2), a sophisticated combustion chamber plus diagnostic equipment. (The investigation hardware is shown here mounted in a non-flight frame similar to the EMS.) Water Mist is a commercial research program by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS), a NASA Commercial Space Center located at the Colorado School of Mines, in Golden, CO and Industry Partner Environmental Engineering Concepts. The program is focused on developing water mist as a replacement for bromine-based chemical fire suppression agents (halons). By conducting the experiments in microgravity, interference from convection currents is minimized and fundamental knowledge can be gained. This knowledge is incorporated into models, which can be used to simulate a variety of physical environments. The immediate objective of the project is to study the effect of a fine water mist on a laminar propagating flame generated in a propane-air mixture at various equivalence ratios. The effects of droplet size and concentration on the speed of the flame front is used as a measure of the effectiveness of fire suppression in this highly controlled experimental environment.

  6. Laminar Jet Diffusion Flame Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (983KB, 9-second MPEG, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300184.html.

  7. A Series of Laminar Jet Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Study of the downlink data from the Laminar Soot Processes (LSP) experiment quickly resulted in discovery of a new mechanism of flame extinction caused by radiation of soot. Scientists found that the flames emit soot sooner than expected. These findings have direct impact on spacecraft fire safety, as well as the theories predicting the formation of soot -- which is a major factor as a pollutant and in the spread of unwanted fires. This sequence, using propane fuel, was taken STS-94, July 4 1997, MET:2/05:30 (approximate). LSP investigated fundamental questions regarding soot, a solid byproduct of the combustion of hydrocarbon fuels. The experiment was performed using a laminar jet diffusion flame, which is created by simply flowing fuel-like ethylene or propane -- through a nozzle and igniting it, much like a butane cigarette lighter. The LSP principal investigator was Gerard Faeth, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). LSP results led to a reflight for extended investigations on the STS-107 research mission in January 2003. Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (249KB JPEG, 1350 x 1524 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) The MPG from which this composite was made is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300185.html.

  8. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  9. Sand Volcano Following Earthquake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sand boil or sand volcano measuring 2 m (6.6 ft.) in length erupted in median of Interstate Highway 80 west of the Bay Bridge toll plaza when ground shaking transformed loose water-saturated deposit of subsurface sand into a sand-water slurry (liquefaction) in the October 17, 1989, Loma Prieta earthquake. Vented sand contains marine-shell fragments. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: J.C. Tinsley, U.S. Geological Survey)

  10. Lunar Crater Slumping Caused by Soil Grain Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter 2 oblique northward view towards Copernicus crater on the Moon shows crater wall slumping caused by soil liquefaction following the impact that formed the crater. The crater is about 100 km in diameter. The central peaks are visible towards the top of the image, rising about 400 m above the crater floor, and stretching for about 15 km. The northern wall of the crater is in the background. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  11. From Milk to Bones, Moving Calcium Through the Body: Calcium Kinetics During Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Lee, Angie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Did you know that when astronauts are in space, their height increases about two inches? This happens because the weightlessness of space allows the spine, usually compressed in Earth's gravity, to expand. While this change is relatively harmless, other more serious things can happen with extended stays in weightlessness, notably bone loss. From previous experiments, scientists have observed that astronauts lose bone mass at a rate of about one percent per month during flight. Scientists know that bone is a dynamic tissue - continually being made and repaired by specialized bone cells throughout life. Certain cells produce new bone, while other cells are responsible for removing and replacing old bone. Research on the mechanisms of bone metabolism and the effects of space flight on its formation and repair are part of the exciting studies that will be performed during STS-107. Calcium plays a central role because 1) it gives strength and structure to bone and 2) all types of cells require it to function normally. Ninety-nine percent of calcium in the body is stored in the skeleton. However, calcium may be released, or resorbed, from bone to provide for other tissues when you are not eating. To better understand how and why weightlessness induces bone loss, astronauts will participate in a study of calcium kinetics - that is, the movement of calcium through the body, including absorption from food, and its role in the formation and breakdown of bone.

  12. Re-Entry Aeroheating Analysis of Tile-Repair Augers for the Shuttle Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2007-01-01

    Computational re-entry aerothermodynamic analysis of the Space Shuttle Orbiter s tile overlay repair (TOR) sub-assembly is presented. Entry aeroheating analyses are conducted to characterize the aerothermodynamic environment of the TOR and to provide necessary inputs for future TOR thermal and structural analyses. The TOR sub-assembly consists of a thin plate and several augers and spacers that serve as the TOR fasteners. For the computational analysis, the Langley Aerothermodynamic Upwind Relaxation Algorithm (LAURA) is used. A 5-species non-equilibrium chemistry model with a finite rate catalytic recombination model and a radiation equilibrium wall condition are used. It is assumed that wall properties are the same as reaction cured glass (RCG) properties with a surface emissivity of epsilon = 0.89. Surface heat transfer rates for the TOR and tile repair augers (TRA) are computed at a STS-107 trajectory point corresponding to Mach 18 free stream conditions. Computational results show that the average heating bump factor (BF), which is a ratio of local heat transfer rate to a design reference point located at the damage site, for the auger head alone is about 1.9. It is also shown that the average BF for the combined auger and washer heads is about 2.0.

  13. KSC-03PD-0071

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Cast in late afternoon shadows, Space Shuttle Columbia, with its orange external tank and white solid rocket boosters, is revealed as the Rotating Service Structure rolls back . The Shuttle sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform. Columbia is scheduled for launch Jan. 16 at 10:39 a.m. EST on mission STS-107..

  14. KSC-03PD-1450

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto is one of the scientists recovering experiments found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  15. KSC-03PD-1453

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., works on an experiment found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  16. KSC-03PD-1455

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., works on an experiment found during the search for Columbia debris. Mike Casasanto, also with ITA, looks on. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  17. Microbial survival in space shuttle crash.

    PubMed

    McLean, Robert J C; Welsh, Allana K; Casasanto, Valerie A

    2006-03-01

    A slow growing, heat resistant bacterium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Microbispora sp., was recovered from the wreckage of the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia (STS-107). As this organism survived disintegration of the space craft, heat of reentry, and impact, it supports the possibility of a natural mechanism for the interplanetary spread of life by meteorites.

  18. KSC-03PD-2496

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Workers in the Columbia Debris Hangar move some of the STS-107 debris into boxes for transfer to storage in the Vehicle Assembly Building. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas.

  19. KSC-03PD-1519

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. The pitcher with the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida, starts the game on a night that hosted KSC employees. Before the game, attendees offered a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  20. KSC-03PD-1520

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. There is action on the baseball diamond during a game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  1. KSC-03PD-1517

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. The Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida, hosts KSC employees at a ballgame at Manatees Stadium. Before the game, attendees offered a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  2. KSC-03PD-1521

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted KSC employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  3. KSC-03PD-1522

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. KSC employees enjoy a baseball game at Manatees Stadium, home of the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. The team hosted the employees for the game, which included a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  4. KSC-03PD-2495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Workers in the Columbia Debris Hangar record the first items of the STS-107 debris to be transferred to storage in the Vehicle Assembly Building. About 83,000 pieces were shipped to KSC during search and recovery efforts in East Texas.

  5. KSC-03PD-1518

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Shuttle Launch Director Mike Leinbach throws out the first pitch at a local baseball game at Manatees Stadium. KSC employees were hosted by the Brevard Manatees, a minor league baseball team in Central Florida. Before the game, attendees offered a moment of silence to honor the STS-107 crew and two recovery workers who died in a helicopter crash.

  6. KSC-03PD-1443

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dennis Morrison, senior biotech program scientist, talks to the media about an experiment recovered during the search for Columbia debris. He is the principle investigator on microencapsulation and urokinase crystal growth included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107.

  7. KSC-03PD-1444

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dennis Morrison, senior biotech program scientist, talks to a reporter about an experiment recovered during the search for Columbia debris. He is the principle investigator on microencapsulation and urokinase crystal growth included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107.

  8. KSC-03PD-1445

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Dennis Morrison, senior biotech program scientist, talks to a reporter about an experiment recovered during the search for Columbia debris. He is the principle investigator on microencapsulation and urokinase crystal growth included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107.

  9. Student feels the difference of a neutral buoyancy tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Virginia student wears gloves to simulate the awkward feel and dexterity that astronauts experience when working in spacesuits. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107. (Digital camera image; no film original.

  10. Neurofibromatosis 2

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000795.htm Neurofibromatosis 2 To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2) is a disorder in which tumors form ...

  11. DIY2

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Peterka, Tom

    2015-05-01

    DIY2 is a data parallel out-of-core library, written in C++. It provides facilities for domain decomposition into blocks and abstracts both neighborhood and global communication patterns to the level of blocks. DIY2 supports automatic threading. It also provides a data serialization mechanism, using which it allows for automatic movement of blocks in and out of core.

  12. FOXP2

    PubMed Central

    Nudel, Ron; Newbury, Dianne F

    2013-01-01

    The forkhead box P2 gene, designated FOXP2, is the first gene implicated in a speech and language disorder. Since its discovery, many studies have been carried out in an attempt to explain the mechanism by which it influences these characteristically human traits. This review presents the story of the discovery of the FOXP2 gene, including early studies of the phenotypic implications of a disruption in the gene. We then discuss recent investigations into the molecular function of the FOXP2 gene, including functional and gene expression studies. We conclude this review by presenting the fascinating results of recent studies of the FOXP2 ortholog in other species that are capable of vocal communication. WIREs Cogn Sci 2013, 4:547–560. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1247 PMID:24765219

  13. Mariner 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Mariner 2 was the world's first successful interplanetary spacecraft. Launched August 27, 1962, on an Atlas-Agena rocket, Mariner 2 passed within about 34,000 kilometers (21,000 miles) of Venus, sending back valuable new information about interplanetary space and the Venusian atmosphere. Mariner 2 recorded the temperature at Venus for the first time, revealing the planet's very hot atmosphere of about 500 degrees Celsius (900 degrees Fahrenheit). The spacecraft's solar wind experiment measured for the first time the density, velocity, composition and variation over time of the solar wind.

  14. Robonaut 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    Almost 200 people from 15 countries have visited the International Space Station, but so far it has had only human crew members -- until now. Meet Robonaut 2, the latest generation of the Robonaut ...

  15. 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 003 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2,4 - TRIMETHYLPENTANE ( CAS No . 540 - 84 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2007 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has bee

  16. ATF2 Proposal Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, B.I.; Logachev, P.; Podgorny, F.; Telnov, V.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Jones, J.; Kalinin, A.; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; Braun, H.H.; Schulte, D.; Zimmermann, F.; Appleby, R.; Barlow, R.; Bailey, I.; Jenner, L.; Jones, R.; Kourevlev, G.; Elsen, E.; Vogel, V.; Walker, N.; /DESY /Fermilab /Hiroshima U. /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /Royal Holloway, U. of London /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /Valencia U. /Annecy, LAPP /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2006-02-27

    For achieving the high luminosity required at the International Linear Collider (ILC), it is critical to focus the beams to nanometer size with the ILC Beam Delivery System (BDS), and to maintain the beam collision with a nanometer-scale stability. To establish the technologies associated with this ultra-high precision beam handling, it has been proposed to implement an ILC-like final focus optics in an extension of the existing extraction beamline of ATF at KEK. The ATF is considered to be the best platform for this exercise, since it provides an adequate ultra-low emittance electron beam in a manner dedicated to the development of ILC. The two major goals for this facility, called ATF2, are: (A) Achievement of a 37 nm beam size, and (B) control of beam position down to 2 nm level. The scientific justification for the ATF2 project and its technical design have been described in Volume 1 of the ATF2 Proposal [1]. We present here Volume 2 of the ATF2 Proposal, in which we present specifics of the construction plans and the group organization to execute the research programs at ATF2. The sections in this report have been authored by relevant ATF2 subgroups within the International ATF Collaboration. The time line of the project is described in Section 2. Section 3 discuss the structure of the international collaboration. Sections 4 and 5 discuss budget considerations, which are presented as well as the design and construction tasks to be shared by the international collaboration at ATF2. Concluding remarks have been contributed by Dr. Ewan Paterson, Chair of the International Collaboration Board of the ATF collaboration.

  17. D2 to D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezhuthachan, Bobby; Mukhi, Sunil; Papageorgakis, Constantinos

    2008-07-01

    Starting from maximally supersymmetric (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory and using a duality transformation due to de Wit, Nicolai and Samtleben, we obtain the ghost-free Lorentzian 3-algebra theory that has recently been proposed to describe M2-branes. Our derivation does not invoke any properties of 3-algebras. Being derivable from SYM, the final theory is manifestly equivalent to it on-shell and should not be thought of as the IR limit that describes M2-branes, though it does have enhanced R-symmetry as well as superconformal symmetry off-shell.

  18. Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O.

    In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ < 0). High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that

  19. The oxygen requirement of germinating flax seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O.; Hasenstein, K.

    Experiments for earth orbit are typically prepared on the ground and often germinated in orbit in order to study gravity effects on developing seedlings. Germination requires the breakdown of storage compounds and respiration. In orbit the formation of a water layer around the seed may further limit oxygen availability. Therefore, the oxygen content of the available gas volume is one of the limiting factors for seed germination. In preparation for an upcoming shuttle experiment (MICRO on STS-107) we studied germination and growth of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) seedlings in the developed hardware. We tested per seed chamber (gas volume = 14 mL, O2 = 2.9 mL) between 4 to 32 seeds glued to germination paper by 1% (w/v) gum guar. A lexan cover and a gasket hermetically sealed each of the eight chambers. For imbibition of the seeds a previously optimized amount of distilled water was dispensed through sealed inlets. The seedlings were allowed to grow for either 32 to 48 h on a clinostat or without microgravity simulation. Then their root length was measured. With 32 seeds per chamber, four times the intended number of seeds for the flight, the germination rate decreased from 94 to 69%, and the root length was reduced by 20%. Experiments on the germination and root length in controlled atmospheres (5, 10, 15 and 21% O2 ) suggest that germination and growth for two days requires about 200 :l of O (1 mL air) per seed. Our2 experiments correlate oxygen dependency from seed mass and germination temperature, and analyze accumulation of gaseous metabolites (supported by NASA grant NAG10-0190).

  20. 2-Chloroacetophenone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Chloroacetophenone ; CASRN 532 - 27 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  1. 2-Chlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Chlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 57 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  2. 2-Chlorobutane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Chlorobutane ; CASRN 78 - 86 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  3. 2-Hexanone

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 008F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2 - HEXANONE ( CAS No . 591 - 78 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has been r

  4. 2-Methylnaphthalene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 03 / 010 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2 - METHYLNAPHTHALENE ( CAS No . 91 - 57 - 6 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2003 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been

  5. 2-Ethoxyethanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Ethoxyethanol ; CASRN 110 - 80 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Robonauta 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    Casi 200 personas de 15 países han visitado la Estación Espacial Internacional, pero, hasta ahora, la órbita sólo tuvo humanos como miembros de la tripulación. Robonauta 2, la última generación de ...

  7. 2-Methylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Methylphenol ; CASRN 95 - 48 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  8. 2-Nitropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Nitropropane ; CASRN 79 - 46 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  9. 2-Methoxyethanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 - Methoxyethanol ; CASRN 109 - 86 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  10. Beagle 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Sims, M. R.; Pullan, D.; Whitehead, S.; Thatcher, J.; Clemmet, J.; Linguard, S.; Underwood, J.; Richter, L.

    2000-07-01

    Beagle 2 is the British-led lander of the ESA Mars Express mission. The prime objectives of Beagle 2 are to (1) search for criteria relating to past life on Mars, (2) seek trace atmospheric species indicative of extant life, (3) measure the detailed atmospheric composition to establish the geological history of the planet and to document the processes involved in seasonal climatic changes or diurnal cycling, (4) investigate the oxidative state of the Martian surface, rock interiors and beneath boulders, (5) examine the geological nature of the rocks, their chemistry, mineralogy, petrology and age, (6) characterise the geomorphology of the landing site, and (7) appraise the environmental conditions including temperature, pressure, wind speed, UV flux, etc. The entry system comprises a front shield/aeroshell, a back cover/bioshield and release mechanisms. The descent system depends on a mortar, pilot chute, main parachute and main parachute release mechanism. The Lander itself has a clam-like structure and lands cocooned within gas-filled airbags. The outer shell provides energy absorption and thermal insulation within a casing that must spread the impact loads and resists tearing. Many of the Beagle 2 science instruments are integrated with a robotic arm that transports them to deploy them in positions where they can study or obtain samples of the rocks and soil. Sub-surface samples are obtained using a Pluto (PLanetary Undersurface TOol) which has the ability to crawl across, and burrow below the planetary surface. The constraints placed on Beagle 2 by mass restrictions of the Mars Express mission has meant that many innovations are necessary to ensure delivery of a sufficient science payload mass capable of the full range of measurements necessary to achieve the mission objectives. In particular a highly integrated approach to lander sytems and science instruments has been essential. This approach and the necessary technology developments have important

  11. Robonaut 2 (R2) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and uses of the second robot designed to work in space. The presentation reviews the motivation for developing Robonaut, the cooperative commercial relationship with General Motors, the evolution design of Robonaut Robonaut 2 improvements over the first robonaut (R1), Robonaut 2's hand dexterity, finger impedance control, tactile system, finger haptics, arm control, strength, neck movement and head sensors, human interaction, and the controller. Also the plans for use on board the International Space Station are reviewed. The patent for the Phalange Tactile Load Cell is included.

  12. 2p2 Team News

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, H.

    2001-03-01

    In December we welcomed Emanuel Galliano to our team. Emanuel is a French student at ESO Chile who is already familiar with La Silla, through his previous work with the DENIS group. He will be working primarily on operations at the 2.2-m. In February, however, we bade farewell to Emanuela Pompei after nearly two years with the team. Although Emanuela is leaving La Silla, she will remain with ESO in Chile, commencing work as a Staff Astronomer on Paranal in March. We wish her all the best in her move north.

  13. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels With BX-265 and PDL-1034 External Tank Foam for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1-fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2-subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3-full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with external tank foam impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated two types of debris projectiles: BX-265 and PDL-1034 external tank foam. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the foam and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  14. Impact Testing on Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Flat Panels with Ice Projectiles for the Space Shuttle Return to Flight Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melis, Matthew E.; Revilock, Duane M.; Pereira, Michael J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    2009-01-01

    Following the tragedy of the Orbiter Columbia (STS-107) on February 1, 2003, a major effort commenced to develop a better understanding of debris impacts and their effect on the space shuttle subsystems. An initiative to develop and validate physics-based computer models to predict damage from such impacts was a fundamental component of this effort. To develop the models it was necessary to physically characterize reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) along with ice and foam debris materials, which could shed on ascent and impact the orbiter RCC leading edges. The validated models enabled the launch system community to use the impact analysis software LS-DYNA (Livermore Software Technology Corp.) to predict damage by potential and actual impact events on the orbiter leading edge and nose cap thermal protection systems. Validation of the material models was done through a three-level approach: Level 1--fundamental tests to obtain independent static and dynamic constitutive model properties of materials of interest, Level 2--subcomponent impact tests to provide highly controlled impact test data for the correlation and validation of the models, and Level 3--full-scale orbiter leading-edge impact tests to establish the final level of confidence for the analysis methodology. This report discusses the Level 2 test program conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Ballistic Impact Laboratory with ice projectile impact tests on flat RCC panels, and presents the data observed. The Level 2 testing consisted of 54 impact tests in the NASA GRC Ballistic Impact Laboratory on 6- by 6-in. and 6- by 12-in. flat plates of RCC and evaluated three types of debris projectiles: Single-crystal, polycrystal, and "soft" ice. These impact tests helped determine the level of damage generated in the RCC flat plates by each projectile and validated the use of the ice and RCC models for use in LS-DYNA.

  15. Kinetics of HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2: Implications for Stratospheric H2O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, L. E.; Okumura, M.; Sander, S. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Toon, G. C.; Sen, B.; Blavier, J.-F.; Jucks, K. W.

    2002-05-01

    The reaction HO2 + HO2 -> H2O2 + O2(1) has been studied at 100 Torr and 222 K to 295 K. Experiments employing photolysis of Cl2/CH3OH/O2/N2 and F2/H2/O2/N2 gas mixtures to produce HO2 confirmed that methanol enhanced the observed reaction rate. At 100 Torr, zero methanol, k1 = (8.8 +/- 0.9) 10-13 × exp[(210 +/- 26)/T] cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (2σ uncertainties), which agrees with current recommendations at 295 K but is nearly 2 times slower at 231 K. The general expression for k1, which includes the dependence on bath gas density, is k1 = (1.5 +/- 0.2) × 10-12 × exp[(19 +/- 31)/T] + 1.7 × 10-33 × [M] × exp[1000/T], where the second term is taken from the JPL00-3 recommendation. The revised rate largely accounts for a discrepancy between modeled and measured [H2O2] in the lower to middle stratosphere.

  16. Effects of Wing Leading Edge Penetration with Venting and Exhaust Flow from Wheel Well at Mach 24 in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    A baseline solution for CFD Point 1 (Mach 24) in the STS-107 accident investigation was modified to include effects of: (1) holes through the leading edge into a vented cavity; and (2) a scarfed, conical nozzle directed toward the centerline of the vehicle from the forward, inboard corner of the landing gear door. The simulations were generated relatively quickly and early in the investigation because simplifications were made to the leading edge cavity geometry and an existing utility to merge scarfed nozzle grid domains with structured baseline external domains was implemented. These simplifications in the breach simulations enabled: (1) a very quick grid generation procedure; and (2) high fidelity corroboration of jet physics with internal surface impingements ensuing from a breach through the leading edge, fully coupled to the external shock layer flow at flight conditions. These simulations provided early evidence that the flow through a two-inch diameter (or larger) breach enters the cavity with significant retention of external flow directionality. A normal jet directed into the cavity was not an appropriate model for these conditions at CFD Point 1 (Mach 24). The breach diameters were of the same order or larger than the local, external boundary-layer thickness. High impingement heating and pressures on the downstream lip of the breach were computed. It is likely that hole shape would evolve as a slot cut in the direction of the external streamlines. In the case of the six-inch diameter breach the boundary layer is fully ingested. The intent of externally directed jet simulations in the second scenario was to approximately model aerodynamic effects of a relatively large internal wing pressure, fueled by combusting aluminum, which deforms the corner of the landing gear door and directs a jet across the windside surface. These jet interactions, in and of themselves, were not sufficiently large to explain observed aerodynamic behavior.

  17. Spacelab 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The most promising new technology for scientific research is America's Space Transportation System; the space shuttle and its companion facility, Spacelab. Spacelab is a versatile laboratory designed specifically to accommodate scientists and their instruments in low-Earth orbit. In a space laboratory, scientists can perform experiments that are impossible on Earth. They can also use very large instruments aboard the Shuttle, with the added benefit of bringing all their equipment, experiment samples, and data home for analysis. Spacelab 2 is one in a series of missions that gives the world's scientists a chance to do research in a well-equipped laboratory in space.

  18. The Reconstruction and Failure Analysis of The Space Shuttle Columbia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes a very detailed reconstruction plan and failure analysis of The Space Shuttle Columbia accident. The contents include: 1) STS-107 Timeline; 2) Foam Impact; 3) Recovery; 4) Reconstruction; 5) Reconstruction Plan; 6) Reconstruction Hanger; 7) Pathfinders; 8) Aluminum Pathfinder; 9) Early Analysis - Left MLG Door Area; 10) Emphasis Switched to Left Hand Wing Leading Edge; 11) Wing Leading Edge Subsystem (LESS); 12) 3D Reconstruction of Left WLE; 13) Left Wing Tile Table; 14) LESS Observations; 15) Left Hand Wing Debris Points to RCC 8/9 - Slumped Tile; 16) Reconstructed View of LC/P 9 tile with I/B Tile; 17) Reconstructed View of Lower C/P 9 Tile; 18) Carrier Panel 8 - Upper; 19) Left Hand Wing Debris Points to RCC 8/9 - Erosion and RCC with attach hole intact; 20) Erosion on Panel 8 Upper Outboard Rib; 21) RCC Panels 8 & 9 Erosion Features; 22) Slumping Source for Carrier Panel 9 Tile was Revealed; 23) Debris Indicated Highest Probability Initiation Site; 24) Left Hand Wing Debris Points to RCC 8/9- Metallic Deposits; 25) Relative Metallic Deposition on L/H Wing Materials; 26) Metallic Deposit Example, LH RCC 8; 27) High Level Questions; 28) Analysis Plan Challenges; 29) Analysis Techniques; 30) Analysis Approach; 31) RCC Panel 8 Erosion Features; 32) Radiographic Features; 33) Radiography WLE LH Panel 8; 34) LH RCC 8 Upper Apex; 35) LH RCC 8 - Deposit Feature: Thick Tear Shaped; 36) LH RCC 8 - Deposit Feature: Thick Globules; 37) LH RCC 8 - Deposit Feature: Spheroids; 38) LH RCC 8 - Deposit Feature: Uniform Deposit; 39) Significant Findings - Sampling All Other panels; 40) Proposed Breach Location and Plasma Flow; 41) Corroborating Information - RCC Panel Debris Locations; 42) Corroborating Information - LH OMS Pod Analysis; 43) Corroborating Information - Impact Testing; and 44) Overall Forensic Conclusions.

  19. ATox-Mss: From a space proven payload to a validated testsystem in Ecotoxicology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slenzka, K.; Duenne, M.; Jastorff, B.; Schirmer, M.

    The C.E.B.A.S. -Minimodul (Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System) is a space qualified aquatic microcosm of 8.6 litres volume of water. Several aquatic species can be reared in parallel. The minimodule is based on ideas and prototypes of V. Bluem from the University of Bochum. The flight qualified hardware was developed and manufactured at OHB-System under a contract of the German Space Agency DLR. It was flown already twice very successfully aboard shuttle flights STS-89 and -90. A third flight is manifested on STS 107 for July 2002. An improved module developed at- OHB is called C B R U - Closed Biological Research Unit Based on the C B R U characteristics: 1) being a closed system, it enables the calculation of the allocations of chemicals in this ecosystem. 2) being highly standardized, it is a tool for reproducible testruns, which is a necessity in ecotoxicology. 3) Testruns longer than 4 weeks are possible - important to measure chronic effects in an ecosystems, which is not possible with actual laboratory hardware. 4) Organisms of different trophic levels can be investigated, an application oriented research is feasable. C B R U is now the basis in the two year lasting project ATox-Mss (Aquatic Toxicology in the Multispecies system). It is an R&D project of an OHB science team and two science teams of University Bremen funded by the state of Bremen. Goal is the development of a functional model being the basis for commercial services in the field of ecotoxicological testing. First results of the ongoing tests will be presented at the assembly.

  20. Session 2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    3.1 Systems Analysis of Mitochondrial Pathogenesis Vamsi Mootha Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Mitochondrial dysfunction underlies a wide range of human diseases, including rare, monogenic diseases, common diseases, as well as the aging process itself. How cells cope with mitochondrial dysfunction is not fully understood. We performed complementary RNA, protein, and metabolite profiling of a cellular model of inducible mitochondrial dysfunction. In this talk I will describe these profiling results, as well as an adaptive pathway that they point to. The study provides insight into the pathogenesis of mitochondrial disorders 3.2 PTMomics – Towards Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Multiple PTMs from Biological Material Martin R. Larsen,1, Honggang Huang1, Cristina Alarcón2, Alistair V.G. Edwards1, Christopher Rhodes2, Giuseppe Palmisano3 1University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark; 2University of Chicago, IL, USA; 3University of Sao Paulo, Brazil Post- or co-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins refer to the reversible or irreversible addition of chemical modifying groups to proteins after or during their synthesis. Proteins have often multiple PTMs decorating the primary amino acid sequence and often these affect each other to produce a given function or activity of a protein. PTMomics can be defined as the global study of PTMs and is a relatively new research area aiming at understanding the function and consequences of PTMs of proteins in a cell. The success of PTMomics relies on the ability to efficiently purify the relevant PTMs and subsequently identify and characterize the nature and function of the PTM using for example mass spectrometric analysis. Previously, we have developed a number of successful methods for enrichment of phosphorylated peptides (1–3), sialylated N-linked glycopeptides (4, 5) and O-GLcNAcylated peptides (6) and we have combined some of these methods into strategies for simultaneous enrichment of several

  1. Efficient C2 functionalisation of 2H-2-imidazolines.

    PubMed

    Bon, Robin S; Sprenkels, Nanda E; Koningstein, Manoe M; Schmitz, Rob F; de Kanter, Frans J J; Dömling, Alexander; Groen, Marinus B; Orru, Romano V A

    2008-01-07

    Alkylation and oxidation of 2H-2-imidazolines, followed by regioselective deprotection, thionation and microwave-assisted Liebeskind-Srogl reaction, efficiently led to 2-aryl-2-imidazolines as new analogues of p53-hdm2 interaction inhibitors (Nutlins).

  2. KSC-03PP-0146

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - STS-107 David Brown chats with the Closeout Crew during final preparations of his launch and entry suit in the White Room. The environmentally controlled chamber is mated to Space Shuttle Columbia for entry into the Shuttle. The hatch is seen in the background right. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. The payload on Space Shuttle Columbia includes FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research) and the SHI Research Double Module (SHI/RDM), known as SPACEHAB. Experiments on the module range from material sciences to life sciences. Liftoff is scheduled for 10:39 a.m. EST.

  3. KSC-03PP-0149

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- STS-107 Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon, who represents the Israel Space Agency, chats with the Closeout Crew in the White Room before entering Columbia. The environmentally controlled chamber is mated to Space Shuttle Columbia for entry into the Shuttle. Ramon is the first Israeli astronaut to fly in the Shuttle. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. The payload on Space Shuttle Columbia includes FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science, Technology, Applications and Research) and the SHI Research Double Module (SHI/RDM), known as SPACEHAB. Experiments on the module range from material sciences to life sciences. Liftoff is scheduled for 10:39 a.m. EST.

  4. KSC-04PD-0128

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A member of the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community from Fort Hall, Idaho, reads a tribute to the crew of Columbia while another displays a handmade item with the STS-107 logo. Dancers from Shoshone-Bannock Junior- Senior High School performed a healing ceremony during the memorial held at the Space Memorial Mirror, in the KSC Visitor Complex. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

  5. KSC-04PD-0129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. A member of the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community from Fort Hall, Idaho, displays a handmade item with the STS-107 logo. Dancers from Shoshone- Bannock Junior-Senior High School performed a healing ceremony during the memorial held at the Space Memorial Mirror, in the KSC Visitor Complex. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. Students and staff of the Shoshone-Bannock Nation had an experiment on board Columbia. The public was invited to the memorial service, held in the KSC Visitor Complex, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

  6. Imperial Valley College 2+2+2 Project Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez, Ralph

    This handbook of the Imperial Valley College (IVC) 2+2+2 Project provides an overview of the development of an articulated education program for business and law enforcement careers, involving six local high schools and San Diego State University, Imperial Valley Campus. Following a brief introduction to the 2+2+2 project in section I, section II…

  7. KSC-03PD-1451

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The apparatus shown was designed to hold microcapsules for research on mission STS-107. It is one over several included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload. The box was recently recovered during the search for Columbia debris. The drug delivery system and spaceflight hardware was developed jointly by JSC, the Institute for Research Inc. and Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. to conduct microencapsulation experiments under microgravity conditions.

  8. Video of Tissue Grown in Space in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Principal investigator Leland Chung grew prostate cancer and bone stromal cells aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia during the STS-107 mission. Although the experiment samples were lost along with the ill-fated spacecraft and crew, he did obtain downlinked video of the experiment that indicates the enormous potential of growing tissues in microgravity. Cells grown aboard Columbia had grown far larger tissue aggregates at day 5 than did the cells grown in a NASA bioreactor on the ground.

  9. KSC-03PD-1452

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto and Bob McLean talk to a reporter about experiments found during the search for Columbia debris. Cassanto is with Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. and McLean is with the Southwest Texas State University. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  10. KSC-03PD-1454

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Valerie Cassanto, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., and Bob McLean, from the Southwest Texas State University, work on an experiment found during the search for Columbia debris. Included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 are urokinase cancer research, microencapsulation of drugs, the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS), and tin crystal formation.

  11. Dr. Gerard Faeth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Professor Gerard M. Faeth, Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Michigan, Arn Arbor, MI, is a principal investigator in NASA combustion science directed by Glenn Research Center. His projects include: Soot Processes in Freely-Propagating Laminar Premixed Flames; Investigation of Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames in Microgravity: A Paradigm for Soot Processes in Turbulent Flames (scheduled to fly on the STS-107 mission); and Flow/Soot- Formation in Nonbuoyant Laminar Diffusion Flames.

  12. Implementing Recommendations of the Columbia Accident Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ottens, B.; La, A.; Brown, T.; Parker, B.; Jenings, D.; Townsend, J.

    2004-01-01

    As many are aware, a piece of insulating foam liberated itself from the external tank and impacted the leading edge of Columbia during ascent on STS-107. It is believed that this impact left a hole in the thermal protection system (TPS), which protects the shuttle from hot plasma generated during re-entry. Unfortunately, the orbiter did not have the margin to withstand this compromise, and it is believed that the result of these events caused the loss of crew and orbiter.

  13. Workers Search for Columbia's Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Members of a US Forest Service search team walk a grid during a Columbia recovery search near the Hemphill, Texas site. The group is accompanied by a space program worker able to identify potential hazards of Shuttle parts. Workers from every NASA Center and numerous federal, state, and local agencies searched for Columbia's debris in the recovery effort. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  14. KSC-03PD-1289

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Baikonur Cosmodrome, Kazakhstan. Astronaut Edward T. Lu, NASA ISS science officer and flight engineer for Expedition Seven, smiles for a photo after donning his flight suit. Lu has an STS-107 patch on his suit in honor of the crew members lost on the Space Shuttle Columbia February 2003. Lu and fellow crew member Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Commander, were launched onboard a Soyuz rocket at 9:53 a.m. from Baikonur, Kazakhstan. Photo Credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  15. Student learns about the vestibular system in a microgravity demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Gary Coulter, a special assistant to NASA's life sciences researchers, explains the workings of the irner ear to a Virginia student. The chair rotates to disorient the vestibular system in a simulation of research on how astronauts adapt to space and readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  16. Microbial survival in space shuttle crash

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Robert J.C.; Welsh, Allana K.; Casasanto, Valerie A.

    2011-01-01

    A slow growing, heat resistant bacterium, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Microbispora sp., was recovered from the wreckage of the ill-fated space shuttle Columbia (STS-107). As this organism survived disintegration of the space craft, heat of reentry, and impact, it supports the possibility of a natural mechanism for the interplanetary spread of life by meteorites. PMID:21804644

  17. Student interacts with neutral buoyancy demonstration at Space Research and You outreach event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A Virginia student wears gloves inside a water tank to simulate the awkward feel and dexterity that astronauts experience when working in spacesuits. He is directed by Brad McLain for the Space Biology Museum Network. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  18. Khalid Alshibli shows a child MGM apparatus at outreach event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Khalid Alshibli of Louisiana State University, project scientist for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment, uses a jar of sand and a training model of the MGM apparatus to explain the experiment to two young Virginia students. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  19. Child Interacts with a Shear Strength Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Twila Schneider of Infinity Technology in Huntsville, AL, uses a small sand displacement box to explain the principles of the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment to two young Virginia students. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  20. 11 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.2 Definitions. (a) Commission. Commission... to 2 U.S.C. 437c(a), but does not include a proxy or other designated representative of...

  1. 11 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.2 Definitions. (a) Commission. Commission... to 2 U.S.C. 437c(a), but does not include a proxy or other designated representative of...

  2. 45 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Welfare... DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.2 Definitions. Agency head refers to the...) Office of the Secretary—Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; (2) Administration...

  3. 25 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.2... appealed (see § 2.9). Person includes any Indian or non-Indian individual, corporation, tribe or...

  4. 5 CFR 2.2 - Appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appointments. 2.2 Section 2.2... SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.2 Appointments. (a) OPM shall establish and administer a career-conditional...) Persons whose appointments are required by statute to be made on a permanent basis; (2) Employees...

  5. 11 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.2 Definitions. (a) Commission. Commission... to 2 U.S.C. 437c(a), but does not include a proxy or other designated representative of...

  6. 25 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.2... appealed (see § 2.9). Person includes any Indian or non-Indian individual, corporation, tribe or...

  7. 5 CFR 2.2 - Appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appointments. 2.2 Section 2.2... SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.2 Appointments. (a) OPM shall establish and administer a career-conditional...) Persons whose appointments are required by statute to be made on a permanent basis; (2) Employees...

  8. 45 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Welfare... DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.2 Definitions. Agency head refers to the...) Office of the Secretary—Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; (2) Administration...

  9. 45 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Welfare... DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.2 Definitions. Agency head refers to the...) Office of the Secretary—Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; (2) Administration...

  10. 5 CFR 2.2 - Appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appointments. 2.2 Section 2.2... SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.2 Appointments. (a) OPM shall establish and administer a career-conditional...) Persons whose appointments are required by statute to be made on a permanent basis; (2) Employees...

  11. 25 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.2... appealed (see § 2.9). Person includes any Indian or non-Indian individual, corporation, tribe or...

  12. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  13. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  14. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  15. 43 CFR 3190.2-2 - Funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Funding. 3190.2-2 Section 3190.2-2 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-2 Funding. (a) States and Tribes shall provide adequate funding... 100 percent for a cooperative agreement. (c) Funding shall be subject to the availability of funds....

  16. 43 CFR 3105.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 3105.2-2 Section 3105.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... § 3105.2-2 Purpose. When a lease or a portion thereof cannot be independently developed and operated...

  17. 11 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.2 Definitions. (a) Commission. Commission... to 2 U.S.C. 437c(a), but does not include a proxy or other designated representative of...

  18. 25 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.2... appealed (see § 2.9). Person includes any Indian or non-Indian individual, corporation, tribe or...

  19. 22 CFR 2.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose. 2.2 Section 2.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER OFFICIAL PERSONNEL § 2.2 Purpose. Section 1116(b)(2) of title 18 of the United States Code, as added by Pub. L. 92-539, An Act for...

  20. 5 CFR 2.2 - Appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appointments. 2.2 Section 2.2... SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.2 Appointments. (a) OPM shall establish and administer a career-conditional...) Persons whose appointments are required by statute to be made on a permanent basis; (2) Employees...

  1. 5 CFR 2.2 - Appointments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appointments. 2.2 Section 2.2... SYSTEM (RULE II) § 2.2 Appointments. (a) OPM shall establish and administer a career-conditional...) Persons whose appointments are required by statute to be made on a permanent basis; (2) Employees...

  2. 45 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Welfare... DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.2 Definitions. Agency head refers to the...) Office of the Secretary—Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; (2) Administration...

  3. 25 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.2... appealed (see § 2.9). Person includes any Indian or non-Indian individual, corporation, tribe or...

  4. 22 CFR 2.2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose. 2.2 Section 2.2 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER OFFICIAL PERSONNEL § 2.2 Purpose. Section 1116(b)(2) of title 18 of the United States Code, as added by Pub. L. 92-539, An Act for...

  5. 11 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.2 Definitions. (a) Commission. Commission... to 2 U.S.C. 437c(a), but does not include a proxy or other designated representative of...

  6. 45 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Welfare... DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.2 Definitions. Agency head refers to the...) Office of the Secretary—Assistant Secretary for Administration and Management; (2) Administration...

  7. 10 CFR 2.2 - Subparts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Subparts. 2.2 Section 2.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.2 Subparts. Each subpart other than subpart C of this part sets forth special rules applicable to the type of...

  8. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  9. 37 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES § 2.2 Definitions. (a) The Act as used in this part means...

  10. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  11. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  12. 10 CFR 2.2 - Subparts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Subparts. 2.2 Section 2.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.2 Subparts. Each subpart other than subpart C of this part sets forth special rules applicable to the type of proceeding described in the first section...

  13. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  14. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  15. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  16. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  17. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.2 Section 2.2 Wildlife... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND LOCATIONS § 2.2 Regional offices. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has eight... Complex, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232. (b) Southwest Regional Office (Region...

  18. 37 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES § 2.2 Definitions. (a) The Act as used in this part means...

  19. 10 CFR 2.2 - Subparts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Subparts. 2.2 Section 2.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.2 Subparts. Each subpart other than subpart C of this part sets forth special rules applicable to the type of proceeding described in the first section...

  20. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  1. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.2 Definitions. (a... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child;...

  2. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  3. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.2 Definitions. (a... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child;...

  4. 37 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES § 2.2 Definitions. (a) The Act as used in this part means...

  5. 45 CFR 1206.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 1206.2-2 Section 1206.2-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND... Refunding § 1206.2-2 Purpose. This subpart establishes rules and review procedures for the denial of...

  6. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  7. 10 CFR 2.2 - Subparts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subparts. 2.2 Section 2.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.2 Subparts. Each subpart other than subpart C of this part sets forth special rules applicable to the type of...

  8. 37 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES § 2.2 Definitions. (a) The Act as used in this part means...

  9. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.2 Definitions. (a... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child;...

  10. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  11. 10 CFR 2.2 - Subparts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Subparts. 2.2 Section 2.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.2 Subparts. Each subpart other than subpart C of this part sets forth special rules applicable to the type of...

  12. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  13. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.2 Definitions. (a... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child;...

  14. 18 CFR 2.2 - Transmission lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transmission lines. 2.2 Section 2.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... Under the Federal Power Act § 2.2 Transmission lines. In a public statement dated March 7, 1941,...

  15. 37 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES § 2.2 Definitions. (a) The Act as used in this part means...

  16. 36 CFR 2.2 - Wildlife protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wildlife protection. 2.2 Section 2.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.2 Wildlife protection. (a) The following are prohibited: (1)...

  17. 4 CFR 2.2 - References.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false References. 2.2 Section 2.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.2 References. (a) Subchapters III and IV of Chapter 7 of Title 31 U.S.C. (b) Title 5, United States Code....

  18. 12 CFR 2.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 2.2 Section 2.2 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.2 Definitions. (a... disability insurance. (c) Owning an interest includes: (1) Ownership through a spouse or minor child;...

  19. 45 CFR 1206.2-2 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 1206.2-2 Section 1206.2-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-2 Purpose....

  20. T2-Filtered T2 - T2 Exchange NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Eurydice, Marcel Nogueira; Montrazi, Elton Tadeu; Fortulan, Carlos Alberto; Bonagamba, Tito José

    2016-05-01

    This work introduces an alternative way to perform the T2 - T2 Exchange NMR experiment. Rather than varying the number of π pulses in the first CPMG cycle of the T2 - T2 Exchange NMR pulse sequence, as used to obtain the 2D correlation maps, it is fixed and small enough to act as a short T2-filter. By varying the storage time, a set of 1D measurements of T2 distributions can be obtained to reveal the effects of the migration dynamics combined with relaxation effects. This significantly reduces the required time to perform the experiment, allowing a more in-depth study of exchange dynamics and relaxation processes with improved signal-to-noise ratio. These aspects stand as basis of this novel experiment, T2-Filtered T2 - T2 Exchange NMR or simply T2 F-TREx.

  1. Na2MoO2As2O7

    PubMed Central

    Jouini, Raja; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Disodium molybdenum dioxide diarsenate, Na2MoO2As2O7, has been synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The structure is built up from MoAs2O12 linear units sharing corners to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels running along the a-axis direction in which the Na+ cations are located. In this framework, the AsV atoms are tetra­hedrally coordinated and form an As2O7 group. The MoVI atom is displaced from the center of an octa­hedron of O atoms. Two Na+ cations are disordered about inversion centres. Structural relationships between different compounds: A 2MoO2As2O7 (A = K, Rb), AMOP2O7 (A = Na, K, Rb; M = Mo, Nb) and MoP2O7 are discussed. PMID:23468669

  2. Superconductivity in 2-2-3 system Y2Ba2Cu2O(8+delta)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshi, H. H.; Baldha, G. J.; Jotania, R. B.; Joshi, S. M.; Mohan, H.; Pandya, P. B.; Pandya, H. N.; Kulkarni, R. G.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers synthesized a new high T(sub c) 2-2-3 superconductor Y2Ba2Cu3O(8+delta) by a special preparation technique and characterized it by ac-susceptibility measurements. Diamagnetism and Meissner effect sets in at low fields and superconducting transition onsets at 90 K. The systematic investigation of the real and imaginary components of ac-susceptibility as a function of temperature and applied ac magnetic field reveals that the magnetic behavior is that of a granular type superconductor.

  3. 2 CFR 215.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 215.2 Section 215.2 Grants and... § 215.2 Definitions. (a) Accrued expenditures means the charges incurred by the recipient during a given period requiring the provision of funds for: (1) Goods and other tangible property received; (2)...

  4. 2 CFR 215.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 215.2 Section 215.2 Grants and... § 215.2 Definitions. (a) Accrued expenditures means the charges incurred by the recipient during a given period requiring the provision of funds for: (1) Goods and other tangible property received; (2)...

  5. 2 CFR 215.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 215.2 Section 215.2 Grants and... § 215.2 Definitions. (a) Accrued expenditures means the charges incurred by the recipient during a given period requiring the provision of funds for: (1) Goods and other tangible property received; (2)...

  6. 2 CFR 215.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 215.2 Section 215.2 Grants and... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) General § 215.2 Definitions. (a) Accrued expenditures means the charges... tangible property received; (2) Services performed by employees, contractors, subrecipients, and...

  7. Bleach/acetic acid-promoted chlorinative ring expansion of [2.2.1]- and [2.2.2]-bicycles.

    PubMed

    Ruggles, Erik L; Maleczka, Robert E

    2002-10-31

    [formula: see text] Treatment of vinyl-substituted [2.2.1]- and [2.2.2]-bicyclocarbinols with NaOCl and AcOH provides [3.2.1]- and [3.2.2]-beta-chloro-bicycloketones, respectively. For [2.2.2]-bicycles, these chlorinative ring expansions are particularly efficient and selective.

  8. 75 FR 4292 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 2-Propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2... residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and 2-methylpropyl 2-methyl-2... permissible level for residues of 2-propenoic acid, 2-ethylhexyl ester, polymer with ethenylbenzene and...

  9. 2 CFR 200.2 - Acquisition cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquisition cost. 200.2 Section 200.2 Grants and Agreements Office of Management and Budget Guidance for Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.2 Acquisition cost. Acquisition...

  10. Computational study of the rovibrational spectra of CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, Geoff; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Dawes, Richard; Carrington, Tucker

    2016-12-01

    An intermolecular potential energy surface and rovibrational transition frequencies are computed for CO2-C2H2. An interpolating moving least squares method is used to fit ab initio points at the explicitly correlated coupled-cluster level. The rovibrational Schrödinger equation is solved with a symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm. The computed disrotatory and torsion vibrational levels of both CO2-C2H2 and CO2-C2D2 differ from those obtained by experimentalists by less than 0.5 cm-1. CO2-C2H2 has two equivalent minima with the monomers perpendicular to the inter-monomer axis. In contrast to many other Van der Waals dimers there is no disrotatory path that connects the minima. The tunnelling path follows the torsional coordinate over a high barrier and the splitting is therefore tiny. Using vibrational parent analysis we are able to fit and thus obtain rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants. Calculated rotational constants differ from their experimental counterparts by less than 0.001 cm-1.

  11. Electron attachment to sulfur oxyhalides: SOF2, SOCl2, SO2F2, SO2Cl2, and SO2FCl attachment rate coefficients, 300-900 K.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas M; Friedman, Jeffrey F; Caples, Connor M; Shuman, Nicholas S; Van Doren, Jane M; Bardaro, Michael F; Nguyen, Pho; Zweiben, Cindy; Campbell, Matthew J; Viggiano, A A

    2010-06-07

    Electron attachment to SOF(2), SOCl(2), SO(2)F(2), SO(2)FCl, and SO(2)Cl(2) was studied with two flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatuses over the temperature range 300-900 K. Attachment rate coefficients at 300 K are k(a) = 2.6+/-0.8x10(-10)(SOF(2)), 1.8+/-0.5x10(-8)(SOCl(2)), 4.8+/-0.7x10(-10)(SO(2)F(2)), 2.4+/-0.7x10(-9)(SO(2)Cl(2)), and 2.0+/-0.6x10(-7) cm(3) s(-1)(SO(2)FCl). Arrhenius plots of the data imply activation energies of 56+/-22 meV(SOF(2)), 92+/-40(SO(2)F(2)), 44+/-22 meV(SOCl(2)), and 29+/-15 meV(SO(2)Cl(2)). The rate coefficients for SO(2)FCl decrease slightly with temperature, commensurate with the decrease in the capture rate coefficient. Electron attachment to SOF(2) and SO(2)F(2) is nondissociative, while reaction with SOCl(2), SO(2)FCl, and SO(2)Cl(2) is dissociative. Dissociative attachment is dominated by channels arising from S-Cl bond cleavage but also includes a minor channel forming a dihalide product ion. Branching fraction data are reported for the dissociative attachment channels.

  12. Electron attachment to sulfur oxyhalides: SOF2, SOCl2, SO2F2, SO2Cl2, and SO2FCl attachment rate coefficients, 300-900 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Friedman, Jeffrey F.; Caples, Connor M.; Shuman, Nicholas S.; Van Doren, Jane M.; Bardaro, Michael F.; Nguyen, Pho; Zweiben, Cindy; Campbell, Matthew J.; Viggiano, A. A.

    2010-06-01

    Electron attachment to SOF2, SOCl2, SO2F2, SO2FCl, and SO2Cl2 was studied with two flowing-afterglow Langmuir-probe apparatuses over the temperature range 300-900 K. Attachment rate coefficients at 300 K are ka=2.6±0.8×10-10(SOF2), 1.8±0.5×10-8(SOCl2), 4.8±0.7×10-10(SO2F2), 2.4±0.7×10-9(SO2Cl2), and 2.0±0.6×10-7 cm3 s-1(SO2FCl). Arrhenius plots of the data imply activation energies of 56±22 meV(SOF2), 92±40(SO2F2), 44±22 meV(SOCl2), and 29±15 meV(SO2Cl2). The rate coefficients for SO2FCl decrease slightly with temperature, commensurate with the decrease in the capture rate coefficient. Electron attachment to SOF2 and SO2F2 is nondissociative, while reaction with SOCl2, SO2FCl, and SO2Cl2 is dissociative. Dissociative attachment is dominated by channels arising from S-Cl bond cleavage but also includes a minor channel forming a dihalide product ion. Branching fraction data are reported for the dissociative attachment channels.

  13. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OL) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access: OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  14. ITOUGH2 user`s guide version 2.2

    SciTech Connect

    Finsterle, S.

    1993-08-01

    ITOUGH2 is a program to estimate hydrogeologic model parameters for the numerical simulator TOUGH2. TOUGH2 was developed by Karsten Pruess at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for simulating non-isothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in porous and fractured media. ITOUGH2 solves the inverse problem by automatic model calibration based on an indirect approach, in which some function of the difference between observed and model-predicted system response and appropriately weighted prior information about the parameters is minimized using standard optimization techniques. ITOUGH2 also provides a detailed error analysis of the estimated parameter set, and employs some procedures to study error propagation for prediction runs. This report includes a review of the inverse modeling theory, and a detailed description of the program architecture, input language, and the various user features provided by ITOUGH2. A sample problem is given to illustrate code application.

  15. Water Remedial Investigation Report, Version 2.2. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    3-14 3.2 10 Chloride ......... .......................... 3-16 3.2.11 GC/MS Analysis ...LIST OF PLATES Plate I Cross Section A-A’ for Contamination Pathway Analysis Plate 2 Cross Section C-C’ for Contamination Pathway Analysis Plate 3...TASK 4/44 GC/MS ANALYSIS NETWORK DETECTION (D- 168 TO D-188) D.7 GC/MS DATA APPENDIX E HYDROCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND HYDROLOGIC CALCULATIONS WRLTOC 03

  16. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2... 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2'-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10326 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ester, polymer with butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2...-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2), 2,2′-(1,2-diazenediyl)bis - and 2,2... butyl 2-propenoate, ethyl 2-propenoate, zinc 2-methyl-2-propenoate (1:2) and zinc 2-propenoate (1:2),...

  19. Model 2 + 2 + 2 Tech Prep Program in Engineering Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hata, David M.

    In 1986, Portland Community College (PCC) received federal funding to expand its pilot 2 + 2 Tech Prep program in engineering technology to include five local high schools and to link the program to the upper-division engineering technology program at the Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT). Program results included the following: (1) eight high…

  20. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    ... TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) Project Title:  TES Discipline:  Tropospheric ... Earth Science Atmosphere Atmospheric Chemistry/Carbon and Hydrocarbon Compounds Order Data:  ...

  1. Antiferromagnetism of UO22H2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pankey, T.; Senftle, F.E.; Cuttitta, F.

    1963-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on UO2⋅xH2O for x=1.78 to x=2.13, and from 77° to 375°K. As the value of x decreased the susceptibility increased. Both these data and structural arguments imply that the formula of this compound is U(OH)4 rather than the dihydrate form. Based on this concept the data have been corrected for diamagnetism and also small amounts of UO2 and H2O which were present. The molar susceptibility of U4+ in U(OH)4 is nearly an order of magnitude less than in other uranium compounds, and it is suggested that this is probably due to superexchange between adjacent uranium atoms through intervening oxygen atoms.

  2. Theoretical study of the 2A2-2B2 separation of the alkali superoxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Sodupe, Mariona; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1992-01-01

    The computed 2A2-2B2 separations of the alkali superoxides are in good agreement with those deduced from electron-spin resonance spectra. The calculations definitively show that the ground state of CsO2 is 2A2. The larger than expected separation for CsO2, based on the trend from LiO2 to RbO2, is attributed primarily to the differential effects of core relaxation. The CsO2 dissociation energy is computed to be 42.7 kcal/mol, with an uncertainty conservatively estimated as +/- 4 kcal/mol.

  3. ECO2N V2.0

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Lehua; Spycher, Nicolas; Doughty, Christine; Pruess, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    ECO2N V2.0 is a fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator (Version 2.1) that was designed for applications to geologic sequestration of CO2 in saline aquifers and enhanced geothermal reservoirs. ECO2N V2.0 is an enhanced version of the previous ECO2N V1.0 module (Pruess, 2005). It expands the temperature range up to about 300oC whereas V1.0 can only be used for temperatures below about 110oC. V2.0 includes a comprehensive description of the thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of H2O - NaCl - CO2 mixtures, that reproduces fluid properties largely within experimental error for the temperature, pressure and salinity conditions 10 °C < T < 300 °C, P < 600 bar, and salinity up to halite saturation. This includes density, viscosity, and specific enthalpy of fluid phases as functions of temperature, pressure, and composition, as well as partitioning of mass components H2O, NaCl and CO2 among the different phases. In particular, V2.0 accounts for the effects of water on the thermophysical properties of the CO2-rich phase, which was ignored in V1.0, using a model consistent with the solubility models developed by Spycher and Pruess (2005, 2010). In terms of solubility models, V2.0 uses the same model for partitioning of mass components among the different phases (Spycher and Pruess, 2005) as V1.0 for the low temperature range (<99oC) but uses a new model (Spycher and Pruess, 2010) for the high temperature range (>109oC). In the transition range (99-109oC), a smooth interpolation is applied to estimate the partitioning as a function of the temperature. Flow processes can be modeled isothermally or non-isothermally, and phase conditions represented may include a single (aqueous or CO2-rich) phase, as well as two-phase (brine-CO2) mixtures. Fluid phases may appear or disappear in the course of a simulation, and solid salt may precipitate or dissolve. Note that the model cannot be applied to subcritical conditions that involves both liquid and gaseous CO2 unless

  4. Hubble Space Telescope Magnetometer and Two-Gyro Control Law Design, Implementation, and On-Orbit Performance. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wirzburger, John H.

    2005-01-01

    For f i h years, the science mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) required using at least three of six rate gyros for attitude control. In the past, HST has mitigated gyro hardware failures by replacement of the failed units through Space Shuttle Servicing Missions. Following the tragic loss of Space Shuttle Columbia on STS-107, the desire to have a safe haven for astronauts during missions has resulted in the cancellation of all planned maxu14 missions to HST. While a robotic servicing mission is being currently being planned, controlling with alternate sensors to replace failed gyros can extend the HST Science mission until the robotic mission can be performed and extend science at HST s end of life. A two-gym control law has been designed and implemented using magnetometers (Magnetic Sensing System - MSS), fixed head star trackers (FHSTs), and Fine Guidance Sensors (FGSs) to control vehicle rate about the missing gyro axis. The three aforementioned sensors are used in succession to reduce HST boresight jitter to less than 7 milli-arcseconds rms and attitude error to less than 10 milli-arcseconds prior to science imaging. The MSS and 2-Gyro (M2G) control law is used for large angle maneuvers and attitude control during earth occultation of FHSTs and FGSs. The Tracker and 2-Gyro (T2G) control law dampens M2G rates and corrects the majority of attitude error in preparation for guide star acquisition with the FGSs. The Fine Guidance Sensor and 2-Gyro (F2G) control law d a m p T2G rates and controls HST attitude during science imaging. This paper describes the M2G control law. Details of M2G algorithms are presented, including computation of the HST 3-axis attitude error estimate, design of the M2G control law, SISO hear stability analyses, and restrictions on operations to maintain the h d t h and safety requirement of a 10degree maximum attitude error. Results of simulations performed in HSTSIM, a high-fidelity non-linear time domain simulation, are

  5. K3VO2(V2As2O12)

    PubMed Central

    Ezzine, Safa; Zid, Mohamed Faouzi; Driss, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    A new potassium vanadium arsenate, tripotassium trivanadium bis­(arsenate) hexa­oxide, K3VO2(V2As2O12), was synthesized by a solid-state reaction at 743 K. The structure is built up from VO5 pyramids, VO4 tetra­hedra (.m. symmetry) and AsO4 tetra­hedra linked together by corner-sharing to form a three-dimensional framework. The two crystallographically independent K+ cations, one of which has .m. symmetry, are located in the inter­connected tunnels running along the a and b directions. PMID:21583723

  6. Peculiar magnetism of UAu2Si2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabata, Chihiro; Miura, Naoyuki; Uhlířová, Klára; Vališka, Michal; Saito, Hiraku; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Sechovský, Vladimír; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Single-crystalline UAu2Si2 has been grown by a floating-zone melting method, and its magnetic, thermal, and transport properties have been investigated through measurements of magnetization, specific heat, and electrical resistivity to reveal its peculiar magnetism. It is shown that UAu2Si2 undergoes a second-order phase transition at Tm = 19 K, which had been believed to be ferromagnetic ordering in the literature, from a paramagnetic phase to an uncompensated antiferromagnetic phase with spontaneous magnetization along the tetragonal c axis (the easy magnetization direction). The magnetic entropy analysis points to the itinerant character of 5 f electrons in the magnetic ordered state of UAu2Si2 with large enhancement of the electronic specific heat coefficient of γ ˜150 mJ/K2mol at 2 K. It also reveals the relatively isotropic crystalline electric field effect of this compound, with contrast to the other relative isostructural compounds. The observed magnetization curves strongly suggest that there is a parasitic ferromagnetic component developing below ˜50 K in high coercivity with the easy axis along the tetragonal c axis. The results are discussed in the context of evolution of magnetism within the entire family of isostructural U T2Si2 compounds.

  7. SU(2|2) supersymmetric mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Lechtenfeld, Olaf; Sidorov, Stepan

    2016-11-01

    We introduce a new kind of non-relativistic N = 8 supersymmetric mechanics, associated with worldline realizations of the supergroup SU(2|2) treated as a deformation of flat N = 8, d=1 supersymmetry. Various worldline SU(2|2) superspaces are constructed as coset manifolds of this supergroup, and the corresponding superfield techniques are developed. For the off-shell SU(2|2) multiplets ( 3 , 8 , 5), ( 4 , 8 , 4) and ( 5 , 8 , 3), we construct and analyze the most general superfield and component actions. Common features are mass oscillator-type terms proportional to the deformation parameter and a trigonometric realization of the superconformal group OSp(4∗|4) in the conformal cases. For the simplest ( 5 , 8 , 3) model the quantization is performed.

  8. Telecom 2-A (TC2A)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Latour, J.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-A (TC2A) are summarized. The Telecom 2-A will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  9. TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-10-25

    TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor (H2O) Limb (TL2H2OLS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Water Vapor Spatial Coverage:  27 x 23 km Limb ... Access:  OPeNDAP Parameters:  H2O Water Volume Mixing Radio Precision Vertical Resolution Order ...

  10. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2N) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.2 x 8.5 km nadir ... Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata ...

  11. K2SC: K2 Systematics Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aigrain, Suzanne; Parviainen, Hannu; Pope, Benjamin

    2016-05-01

    K2SC (K2 Systematics Correction) models instrumental systematics and astrophysical variability in light curves from the K2 mission. It enables the user to remove both position-dependent systematics and time-dependent variability (e.g., for transit searches) or to remove systematics while preserving variability (for variability studies). K2SC automatically computes estimates of the period, amplitude and evolution timescale of the variability for periodic variables and can be run on ASCII and FITS light curve files. Written in Python, this pipeline requires NumPy, SciPy, MPI4Py, Astropy (ascl:1304.002), and George (ascl:1511.015).

  12. TOUGH2 User's Guide Version 2

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.M.; Moridis, G.J.

    1999-11-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one, two, and three-dimensional porous and fractured media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. TOUGH2 was first released to the public in 1991; the 1991 code was updated in 1994 when a set of preconditioned conjugate gradient solvers was added to allow a more efficient solution of large problems. The current Version 2.0 features several new fluid property modules and offers enhanced process modeling capabilities, such as coupled reservoir-wellbore flow, precipitation and dissolution effects, and multiphase diffusion. Numerous improvements in previously released modules have been made and new user features have been added, such as enhanced linear equation solvers, and writing of graphics files. The T2VOC module for three-phase flows of water, air and a volatile organic chemical (VOC), and the T2DM module for hydrodynamic dispersion in 2-D flow systems have been integrated into the overall structure of the code and are included in the Version 2.0 package. Data inputs are upwardly compatible with the previous version. Coding changes were generally kept to a minimum, and were only made as needed to achieve the additional functionalities desired. TOUGH2 is written in standard FORTRAN77 and can be run on any platform, such as workstations, PCs, Macintosh, mainframe and supercomputers, for which appropriate FORTRAN compilers are available. This report is a self-contained guide to application of TOUGH2 to subsurface flow problems. It gives a technical description of the TOUGH2 code, including a discussion of the physical processes modeled, and the mathematical and numerical methods used. Illustrative sample problems are presented along with detailed instructions for preparing input data.

  13. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra.

  14. The IGF2 Locus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone regulating various cellular processes such as proliferation and apoptosis. IGF2 is vital to embryo development. The IGF2 locus covers approximately 150-kb genomic region on human chromosome 11, containing two imprinted genes, IGF2 and H19, sha...

  15. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, Adelbert; van de Sanden, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy efficiency.

  16. The ZCPR2 System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conn, Richard

    1983-01-01

    The two-part ZCPR2 System (system itself and related utilities) runs in place of CP/M 2.2 CCP. These public domain programs provide functions similar to those provided by CCP, but offer many enhancements. ZCPR2 programs, features, documentation, and uses are discussed. Problems in using ZCPR2 are also discussed. (JN)

  17. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  18. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  19. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  20. 42 CFR 2a.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS PROTECTION OF IDENTITY-RESEARCH SUBJECTS § 2a.2 Definitions. (a) Secretary means the Secretary of Health and Human Services and any other officer or employee of the Department of Health and Human Services to whom the...

  1. Vibrational investigations of CO2-H2O, CO2-(H2O)2, and (CO2)2-H2O complexes isolated in solid neon.

    PubMed

    Soulard, P; Tremblay, B

    2015-12-14

    The van der Waals complex of H2O with CO2 has attracted considerable theoretical interest as a typical example of a weak binding complex with a dissociation energy less than 3 kcal/mol. Up to now, experimental vibrational data are sparse. We have studied by FTIR the complexes involving CO2 and water molecules in solid neon. Many new absorption bands close to the well known monomers fundamentals give evidence for at least three (CO2)n-(H2O)m complexes, noted n:m. Concentration effects combined with a detailed vibrational analysis allow for the identification of sixteen, twelve, and five transitions for the 1:1, 1:2, and 2:1 complexes, respectively. Careful examination of the far infrared spectral region allows the assignment of several 1:1 and 1:2 intermolecular modes, confirmed by the observation of combinations of intra + intermolecular transitions, and anharmonic coupling constants have been derived. Our results demonstrate the high sensibility of the solid neon isolation to investigate the hydrogen-bonded complexes in contrast with the gas phase experiments for which two quanta transitions cannot be easily observed.

  2. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 001 F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,1,2,2 - TETRACHLOROETHANE ( CAS No . 79 - 34 - 5 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2010 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This docu

  3. 43 CFR 2911.2-2 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... appropriate State, county, or municipal airport licenses or permits, as well as such additional States and... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Airport § 2911.2-2 Applications. (a)...

  4. 2,4-/2,6-Dinitrotoluene mixture

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Dinitrotoluene mixture ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  5. Spectroscopic properties of gallium arsenide tetramers: Ga2As2, Ga2As2+ and Ga2As2-.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaolei

    2005-09-01

    Spectroscopic properties of the low-lying electronic states of Ga2As2 and its ions are studied using the complete active-space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and density function theory (DFT) followed by the coupled-cluster single and double substitutions (including triple excitations) (CCSD(T)) calculations. The stability of low-lying electronic states is examined by computing vibrational frequency. The energies of the ground states and a number of excited electronic states have been computed to predict the spectra of Ga2As2 and its ions. The ionization energy, electronic affinity, and atomization energy are estimated at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(d) level and compared with the available experimental results.

  6. Safety Testing of AGR-2 UCO Compacts 5-2-2, 2-2-2, and 5-4-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hunn, John D.; Morris, Robert Noel; Baldwin, Charles A.; Montgomery, Fred C.

    2016-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed on tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) coated-particle fuel compacts from the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program second irradiation experiment (AGR-2). This effort builds upon the understanding acquired throughout the AGR-1 PIE campaign, and is establishing a database for the different AGR-2 fuel designs. The AGR-2 irradiation experiment included TRISO fuel particles coated at BWX Technologies (BWXT) with a 150-mm-diameter engineering-scale coater. Two coating batches were tested in the AGR-2 irradiation experiment. Batch 93085 had 508-μm-diameter uranium dioxide (UO2) kernels. Batch 93073 had 427-μm-diameter UCO kernels, which is a kernel design where some of the uranium oxide is converted to uranium carbide during fabrication to provide a getter for oxygen liberated during fission and limit CO production. Fabrication and property data for the AGR-2 coating batches have been compiled and compared to those for AGR-1. The AGR-2 TRISO coatings were most like the AGR-1 Variant 3 TRISO deposited in the 50-mm-diameter ORNL lab-scale coater. In both cases argon-dilution of the hydrogen and methyltrichlorosilane coating gas mixture employed to deposit the SiC was used to produce a finer-grain, more equiaxed SiC microstructure. In addition to the fact that AGR-1 fuel had smaller, 350-μm-diameter UCO kernels, notable differences in the TRISO particle properties included the pyrocarbon anisotropy, which was slightly higher in the particles coated in the engineering-scale coater, and the exposed kernel defect fraction, which was higher for AGR-2 fuel due to the detected presence of particles with impact damage introduced during TRISO particle handling.

  7. H2O2: a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+)-sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

    PubMed

    Guillaume, Yves Claude; Lethier, Lydie; André, Claire

    2015-09-01

    In a previous paper Guillaume's group demonstrated that magnesium (Mg(2+) concentration range 0.00-2.60 mm) increased the passive diffusion of statins and thus played a role in their potential toxicity. In order to confirm an increase in this passive diffusion by divalent salt cations, the role of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the statin-immobilized artificial membrane (IAM) association was studied. It was demonstrated that calcium supplementation (Ca(2+) concentration range 0.00-3.25 mm) increases the statin passive diffusion. In addition, it was shown that the Ca(2+) effect on the statin-IAM association is higher than that of Mg(2+). These results show that Ca(2+) enhances the passive diffusion of drugs into biological membranes and thus their potential toxicity. Also, addition of H2O2 to the medium showed a hyperbolic response for the statin passive diffusion and this effect was enhanced for the highest Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) concentrations in the medium. H2O2 is likely to interact with the polar head groups of the IAM through dipole-dipole interactions. The conformational changes in H2O2-IAM result in a higher degree of exposure of hydrophobic areas, thus explaining why the binding of pravastatin, which showed the lowest logP value, was less affected by H2O2. This result shows the significant contribution of H2O2 and thus the oxidative stress on the statin passive diffusion. Much of the sensitivity derives from the action of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+), in turn supported the idea that H2O2 may serve a Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) sensing function in statin passive diffusion.

  8. Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Type 2 diabetes Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Type 2 diabetes, once known as adult-onset or noninsulin-dependent ... your body's important source of fuel. With type 2 diabetes, your body either resists the effects of ...

  9. H2 blockers

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcer disease - H2 blockers; PUD - H2 blockers; Gastroesophageal reflux - H2 blockers ... blockers are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This is a ...

  10. Infrared spectra of the Ne2-N2O, Ar2-N2O trimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Michaelian, K. H.; McKellar, A. R. W.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.

    2012-08-01

    Spectra of the van der Waals trimers Ar2-N2O and Ne2-N2O are studied in the region of the N2O ν1 fundamental (≈2220 cm-1) using a tunable quantum cascade laser to probe a pulsed supersonic expansion from a slit jet nozzle. Improved data are obtained for the dimers Ar-N2O and Ne-N2O, and the Q-branch of Ar3-N2O is tentatively assigned. The vibrational shifts for Nen-N2O are almost exactly linear for n = 0-2. However, for Arn-N2O the n = 2 band origin is slightly blue-shifted compared to the linear prediction, and the n = 3 origin (if correct) is more significantly blue-shifted (by 0.09 cm-1).

  11. NASA Now: Robonaut 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 is a machine that will help humans work and explore in space. R2 will work side by side with humans or go where the risks are too great for astronauts. R2 will expand construction capabi...

  12. TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-02-27

    TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Nadir (TL2CO2NS) News:  TES News ... Level:  L2 Platform:  TES/Aura L2 Carbon Dioxide Spatial Coverage:  5.3 x 8.5 km nadir ... Data: TES Order Tool Parameters:  Carbon Dioxide Order Data:  Search and Order:   Earthdata ...

  13. Electronic structure of U2PtC2 and U2RhC2

    DOE PAGES

    Ronning, F.; Zhu, J. -X.

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we present density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation of U2RhC2 and U2PtC2. We find the calculated density of states are significantly less than that measured by specific heat indicating the need for electronic correlations. The mass enhancement found for U2PtC2 is m*/mband ≈ 4.

  14. Theoretical study of the bonding of Nb(2+) to CH2, C2H2, and C2H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry

    1991-01-01

    The bonding of Nb(2+) with CH2, C2H2, and C2H4 is studied by using electronic structure calculations that include high levels of electron correlation. The binding energy for NbCH2(2+) is in good agreement with the lower bound determined from the reaction with CH4 but is significantly smaller than the value determined from the binding energy and ionization potential of NbCH2(+). The calculations and a new interpretation of the experiment indicate that the larger value is in error primarily because the ionization potential of NbCH2(+) determined from bracketing charge-exchange reactions is too small. The computed binding energy of NbC2H2(2+) is in good agreement with experiment. The calculations show that the bonding is predominantly covalent in character for both NbCH2(2+) and NbC2H2(2+), whereas for NbC2H4(2+) the electronic states that are predominantly ionic and covalent are nearly degenerate. The trend in binding energies, CH2 greater than C2H2 greater than C2H4, is consistent with the energy required to prepare the ligands for bonding.

  15. Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, Peter M.; Neidlinger, Hermann H.

    1991-01-01

    Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

  16. Polymerizable 2(2-hydroxynaphthyl)2H-benzotriazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Gomez, P.M.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1991-07-16

    Benzotriazole compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 is H, Cl, or OCH.sub.3 ; R.sub.2 is a hydroxynaphthyl group; and R.sub.3 is a vinyl unsaturated polymerizable group. Homopolymers or copolymers thereof are effective as UV light stabilizers and absorbers.

  17. Vicinal dihalonium ions: diprotonated and dimethylated chlorine [H2Cl2(2+), (CH3)2Cl2(2+)] and bromine [H2Br2(2+), (CH3)2Br2(2+)] dications.

    PubMed

    Olah, George A; Prakash, G K Surya; Rasul, Golam

    2010-04-13

    High level ab initio calculations at the MP2/cc-pVTZ, CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ, and CASSCF(6,6)/cc-pVTZ levels were performed to investigate geometries and energies of superelectrophilic diprotonated, and dimethylated molecular chlorine (Cl2) and bromine (Br2) dications. Diprotonated chlorine and diprotonated bromine dications 3a and 6a, respectively, were found to be lowest energy minima. The isomeric dications, 3b and 6b, are also minima on the potential energy surfaces but they are significantly less stable than the structures 3a and 6a by 33.6 and 30.9 kcal/mol, respectively. On the basis of computed G2 energies, proton affinities and related thermodynamic parameters were also calculated. Dications 3a and 6a have substantial kinetic barriers for deprotonation. Their homolytic dissociation are however facile. Dimethylated molecular chlorine and bromine dications 3g and 6g, respectively, were also found to be global energy minima. These vicinal dihalonium or the corresponding protosolvated species are expected to form either in the superacidic media or in the gas phase.

  18. Synthesis of 2-Alkenyl-2H-indazoles from 2-(2-Carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Huey; Liang, Kung-Yu; Tsai, Chang-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Chun; Hsiao, Hung-Chang; Li, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Chung-Hao; Wu, Hau-Chun

    2016-02-19

    A procedure has been developed for synthesis of 2-alkenyl-2H-indazoles starting from 2-(2-carbonylmethyl)-2H-indazoles, which are prepared by gallium/aluminium- and aluminium-mediated, direct, regioselective alkylation of indazoles with α-bromocarbonyl compounds. The structure of 3-(2H-indazol-2-yl)-2H-chromen-2-one was proven by X-ray crystallography. The styrene- and coumarin-2H-indazoles produced by using the new method were found to have interesting fluorescence properties.

  19. Kinetics of the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sander, S. P.; Peterson, M. E.

    1984-01-01

    The flash photolysis/ultraviolet absorption technique was used to measure the rate constants for the reaction HO2 + NO2 + M yields HO2NO2 + M over the pressure range 50-700 torr and temperature range 229-362 K using He, O2, and N2 as diluent gases. The data were fit to the expression derived by Troe (1979) and co-workers for describing the pressure and temperature dependence of reactions in the falloff region. By combining these data with recent measurements of the rate constant for HO2NO2 thermal decomposition values of 73.8 + or - 2 eu for the standard entropy and -12.6 + or - kcal/mol for the standard enthalpy of formation of HO2NO2 were obtained. A significant enhancement in the rate constant was observed when water vapor was added to the system.

  20. Does dinitrogen hydrogenation follow different mechanisms for [(eta5-C5Me4H)2Zr]2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) and {[PhP(CH2SiMe2NSiMe2CH2)PPh]Zr}2(mu2,eta2,eta2-N2) complexes? A computational study.

    PubMed

    Bobadova-Parvanova, Petia; Wang, Qingfang; Quinonero-Santiago, David; Morokuma, Keiji; Musaev, Djamaladdin G

    2006-09-06

    The mechanisms of dinitrogen hydrogenation by two different complexes--[(eta(5)-C(5)Me(4)H)(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), synthesized by Chirik and co-workers [Nature 2004, 427, 527], and {[P(2)N(2)]Zr}(2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)), where P(2)N(2) = PhP(CH(2)SiMe(2)NSiMe(2)CH(2))(2)PPh, synthesized by Fryzuk and co-workers [Science 1997, 275, 1445]--are compared with density functional theory calculations. The former complex is experimentally known to be capable of adding more than one H(2) molecule to the side-on coordinated N(2) molecule, while the latter does not add more than one H(2). We have shown that the observed difference in the reactivity of these dizirconium complexes is caused by the fact that the former ligand environment is more rigid than the latter. As a result, the addition of the first H(2) molecule leads to two different products: a non-H-bridged intermediate for the Chirik-type complex and a H-bridged intermediate for the Fryzuk-type complex. The non-H-bridged intermediate requires a smaller energy barrier for the second H(2) addition than the H-bridged intermediate. We have also examined the effect of different numbers of methyl substituents in [(eta(5)-C(5)Me(n)H(5)(-)(n))(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) for n = 0, 4, and 5 (n = 5 is hypothetical) and [(eta(5)-C(5)H(2)-1,2,4-Me(3))(eta(5)-C(5)Me(5))(2)Zr](2)(mu(2),eta(2),eta(2)-N(2)) and have shown that all complexes of this type would follow a similar H(2) addition mechanism. We have also performed an extensive analysis on the factors (side-on coordination of N(2) to two Zr centers, availability of the frontier orbitals with appropriate symmetry, and inflexibility of the catalyst ligand environment) that are required for successful hydrogenation of the coordinated dinitrogen.

  1. CARDIO-i2b2: integrating arrhythmogenic disease data in i2b2.

    PubMed

    Segagni, Daniele; Tibollo, Valentina; Dagliati, Arianna; Napolitano, Carlo; G Priori, Silvia; Bellazzi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The CARDIO-i2b2 project is an initiative to customize the i2b2 bioinformatics tool with the aim to integrate clinical and research data in order to support translational research in cardiology. In this work we describe the implementation and the customization of i2b2 to manage the data of arrhytmogenic disease patients collected at the Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri of Pavia in a joint project with the NYU Langone Medical Center (New York, USA). The i2b2 clinical research chart data warehouse is populated with the data obtained by the research database called TRIAD. The research infrastructure is extended by the development of new plug-ins for the i2b2 web client application able to properly select and export phenotypic data and to perform data analysis.

  2. Photocatalytic removal of M(2+) (Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Ag(+)) over new catalyst CuCrO(2).

    PubMed

    Ketir, W; Bouguelia, A; Trari, M

    2008-10-30

    The metal ions M(2+) (Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Ag(+)) are potentially toxic. Their electro deposition has been carried out in aqueous air-equilibrated CuCrO(2) suspension upon visible illumination. The delafossite CuCrO(2) is p-type semiconductor characterized by a low band gap (1.28 eV) and a long-term chemical stability. The corrosion rate is found to be 10(-2) micromol m(-2)month(-1) in aqua regia. The oxide has been elaborated through nitrate route where the specific surface area is increased via the surface/bulk ratio. A correlation exists between the dark M(2+) adsorption, the redox potential of M(2+/0) couple and the conduction band of CuCrO(2) positioned at -1.06 V(SCE). Ag(+) cannot be photoreduced because of its positive potential located far above the valence band. By contrast, Zn(2+) is efficiently deposited due to the large driving force at the interface. The improved photoactivity of copper with a deposition percentage (90%) is attributed to the strong dark adsorption onto the surface catalyst. The results indicate a competitive effect with the water reduction; it has been observed that the M(2+) deposition goes parallel with the hydrogen evolution. Such behavior is attributed to the low H(2) over voltage when ultra fine aggregate of M islands are photodeposited onto CuCrO(2) substrate.

  3. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  4. N 2- and O 2-broadening coefficients of C 2H 2 IR lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouanich, J. P.; Lambot, D.; Blanquet, G.; Walrand, J.

    1990-04-01

    Pressure-broadening parameters of six lines belonging to the ν5 band of C 2H 2 in collision with N 2 have been measured with a tunable diode-laser spectrometer in order to complete up to J = 33 our earlier measurements (D. Lambot, G. Blanquet, and J. P. Bouanich, J. Mol. Spectrosc.136, 86-92 (1989)) on the broadening of C 2H 2 by N 2 and O 2 at 297 K. These N 2- and O 2-broadening coefficients have been first calculated on the basis of the Anderson-Tsao-Curnutte theory; in this approach, we show that the short-range interactions which contribute significantly to the linewidths are not correctly treated. Next, we consider the improved semiclassical model proposed by Robert and Bonamy. The intermolecular potential consists in the addition of the atom-atom interaction model to the quadrupolar interactions. The limited radial spherical harmonics expansion of the atom-atom potential, from which expressions for the differential cross section were derived, appears to be quite insufficient at short intermolecular distances. Therefore, we use a more accurate representation of this potential, avoiding an inadequate truncation and keeping the analytic expressions obtained by Bonamy and Robert. In the calculations we take into account the contributions derived from the radial functions U000( r), U200( r), and U220( r), as well as from U400( r). A theoretical expression is obtained for the U400 contribution to the differential cross section. The results of the calculations arising from the exact radial expansion of the atom-atom potential appear to be significantly larger for high J lines than those arising from the truncated expansion. The latter results, which do not include adjustable atom-atom parameters, are in good agreement with experimental broadening coefficients for C 2H 2O 2 and in reasonable agreement (except at large J values) for C 2H 2N 2. It is also shown that the contributions to the linewidths derived from U400 are rather small for C 2H 2N 2 and more

  5. New NLC Final Focus

    SciTech Connect

    Raimondi, P.

    2004-10-11

    A novel design of the Final Focus has recently been proposed [1] and has been adopted now for the Next Linear Collider [2]. This new design has fewer optical elements and is much shorter, nonetheless achieving better chromatic properties. In this paper, the new final focus system is briefly discussed stressing one particular characteristic of the new design--its multi TeV energy reach.

  6. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  7. Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Mated Fingerprint Card Pairs 2 (MFCP2) (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 14 is being distributed for use in development and testing of automated fingerprint classification and matching systems on a set of images which approximate a natural horizontal distribution of the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) fingerprint classes. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  8. Thermal decomposition of (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O: Influence on structure, microstructure and hydrofluorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R.; Rivenet, M.; Berrier, E.; de Waele, I.; Arab, M.; Amaraggi, D.; Morel, B.; Abraham, F.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of uranyl peroxide tetrahydrate, (UO2)O2(H2O)2.2H2O, was studied by combining high temperature powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal analyses and spectroscopic techniques (Raman, IR and 1H NMR). In situ analyses reveal that intermediates and final uranium oxides obtained upon heating are different from that obtained after cooling at room temperature and that the uranyl precursor used to synthesize (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O, sulfate or nitrate, has a strong influence on the peroxide thermal behavior and morphology. The decomposition of (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O ex sulfate is pseudomorphic and leads to needle-like shaped particles of metastudtite, (UO2)O2(H2O)2, and UO3-x(OH)2x·zH2O, an amorphous phase found in air in the following of (UO2)O2(H2O)2 dehydration. (UO2)O2(H2O)2·2H2O and the compounds resulting from its thermal decomposition are very reactive towards hydrofluorination as long as their needle-like morphology is kept.

  9. Ciencias 2 (Science 2). [Student's Workbook].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raposo, Lucilia

    Ciencias 2 is the second in a series of elementary science textbooks written for Portuguese-speaking students. The text develops the basic skills that students need to study their surroundings and observe natural facts and phenomena by following scientific methods. The book is composed of 10 chapters and includes 57 lessons. Topics included are…

  10. Test of Written Language-2 (TOWL-2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteet, James A.

    1990-01-01

    The Test of Written Language-2, for use with students ages 7-17, identifies low achievement, determines strengths and weaknesses, and documents progress. The test assesses three language components (conventional, linguistic, and conceptual) using two formats (contrived and spontaneous.) This paper describes the test's administration, scoring,…

  11. The Grb2 adaptor.

    PubMed

    Chardin, P; Cussac, D; Maignan, S; Ducruix, A

    1995-08-01

    Grb2 is an 'adaptor' protein made of one SH2 and two SH3 domains. The SH3 domains bind to prolinerich motifs in the C-terminal part of the ras exchange factor Sos. Binding of the Grb2 SH2 domain to phosphotyrosine motifs on receptors, or other adaptor proteins such as Shc, recruits this Grb2/Sos complex at the plasma membrane where Sos stimulates nucleotide exchange on ras, then ras activates raf and leads to MAP kinase activation. The structure of Grb2, the precise motifs recognised by its SH2 and SH3 domains, the way Grb2 performs its function, a possible regulation of its association with Sos, and its ability to complex with other proteins in vivo, are discussed.

  12. K2V2O2(AsO4)2

    PubMed Central

    Belkhiri, Sabrina; Mezaoui, Djillali; Roisnel, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    The vanadium oxide arsenate with formula K2V2O2(AsO4)2, dipotassium divanadium(IV) dioxide diarsenate, has been synthesized by solid-state reaction in an evacuated silica ampoule. Its structure is isotypic with K2V2O2(PO4)2. The framework is built up from corner-sharing VO6 octa­hedra and AsO4 tetra­hedra, creating an infinite [VAsO8]∞ chain running along the a- and c-axis directions. The K+ cations are located in hexa­gonal tunnels, which are delimited by the connection of the [VAsO8]∞ chains. PMID:22807696

  13. Movie Trailer: 'Robonaut 2'

    NASA Video Gallery

    Robonaut 2 will become the first humanoid robot in space when it arrives at the International Space Station aboard shuttle Discovery on STS-133. This video spotlighting R2 is one in a series of six...

  14. CO2 -Responsive polymers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaojian; Theato, Patrick

    2013-07-25

    This Review focuses on the recent progress in the area of CO2 -responsive polymers and provides detailed descriptions of these existing examples. CO2 -responsive polymers can be categorized into three types based on their CO2 -responsive groups: amidine, amine, and carboxyl groups. Compared with traditional temperature, pH, or light stimuli-responsive polymers, CO2 -responsive polymers provide the advantage to use CO2 as a "green" trigger as well as to capture CO2 directly from air. In addition, the current challenges of CO2 -responsive polymers are discussed and the different solution methods are compared. Noteworthy, CO2 -responsive polymers are considered to have a prosperous future in various scientific areas.

  15. The site-2 protease.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Robert B

    2013-12-01

    The site-2 protease (S2P) is an unusually-hydrophobic integral membrane protease. It cleaves its substrates, which are membrane-bound transcription factors, within membrane-spanning helices. Although structural information for S2P from animals is lacking, the available data suggest that cleavage may occur at or within the lipid bilayer. In mammalian cells, S2P is essential owing to its activation of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs); in the absence of exogenous lipid, cells lacking S2P cannot survive. S2P is also important in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, activating several different membrane-bound transcription factors. Human patients harboring reduction-of-function mutations in S2P exhibit an array of pathologies ranging from skin defects to neurological abnormalities. Surprisingly, Drosophila melanogaster lacking S2P are viable and fertile. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Intramembrane Proteases.

  16. CO2 blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  17. Infrared Spectra of the NE_2-N_2O, AR_2-N_2O Trimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, M.; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N.; Michaelian, K. H.; McKellar, A. R. W.

    2013-06-01

    Spectra of the van der Waals trimers Ar_2-N_2O and Ne_2-N_2O are studied in the region of the N_2O ν_1 fundamental (˜2224 cm^{-1}) using a tunable quantum cascade laser to probe a pulsed supersonic expansion from a slit jet nozzle. Improved data are also obtained for the dimers Ar-N_2O and Ne-N_2O, with the latter representing a significant improvement on the best previous results. As well, a feature in the spectrum is tentatively assigned as the Q-branch of Ar_3-N_2O. The observed vibrational shifts for Ne_n-N_2O are almost exactly linear for n = 0-2. However, for Ar_n-N_2O the n = 2 band origin is slightly blue-shifted compared to the linear prediction, and the n = 3 origin (if correct) is more significantly blue-shifted (by 0.09 cm^{-1}).

  18. Communications satellite no. 2 (CS-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the Japanese CS-2 satellite is to provide national communications and industrial communications, such as special emergency and remote communications, and to contribute to the development of technology pertaining to communications satellites. Description and operating parameters of the following satellite components are presented: structure, communications system, telemetry/command system, electric power system, attitude and antenna control system, secondary propulsion system, apogee motor, framework, and heat control system.

  19. ALS2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Susanne A.; Carr, Lucinda; Deuschl, Guenther; Hopfner, Franziska; Stamelou, Maria; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bhatia, Kailash P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the genetic etiology in 2 consanguineous families who presented a novel phenotype of autosomal recessive juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with generalized dystonia. Methods: A combination of homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing in the first family and Sanger sequencing of candidate genes in the second family were used. Results: Both families were found to have homozygous loss-of-function mutations in the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2 (juvenile) (ALS2) gene. Conclusions: We report generalized dystonia and cerebellar signs in association with ALS2-related disease. We suggest that the ALS2 gene should be screened for mutations in patients who present with a similar phenotype. PMID:24562058

  20. The phase 2 NRA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Eric

    1992-01-01

    We present points of special interest to potential proposers for the Compton Observatory Phase 2 Guest Investigator (GI) program. A general summary of some of the most important details of the phase 2 NASA Research Announcement (NRA) is followed by an enumeration of the modes of participation and proposal types available to GI proposers. Finally, the method which is planned for the selection of the Phase 2 Guest Investigators in parallel with the development of a preliminary Phase 2 observing timeline is outlined. The ways in which the selection of targets by GI's could be affected by the Phase 2 timeline development procedure is described.

  1. Association reactions at low pressure. III. The C2H2+/C2H2 system.

    PubMed

    Anicich, V G; Sen, A D; Huntress, W T; McEwan, M J

    1990-11-15

    The association reactions, C4H2(+) + C2H2 and C4H3(+) + C2H2 have been examined at pressures between 8 x 10(-8) and 1 x 10(-4) Torr at 298 K in an ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer. Association occurred via two different mechanisms. At pressures below approximately 2 x 10(-6) Torr, the association was bimolecular having rate coefficients k2 = 2.7 x 10(-10) cm3 s-1 and 2.0 x 10(-10) cm3 s-1 for C4H2+ and C4H3+, respectively. At pressures above approximately 2 x 10(-6) Torr, termolecular association was observed with rate coefficients, k3 = 5.7 x 10(-23) cm6 s-1 and 1.3 x 10(-23) cm6 s-1 for C4H2+ and C4H3+, respectively, when M = C2H2. The termolecular rate constants with N2, Ar, Ne, and He as the third body, M, are also reported. We propose that the low pressure bimolecular association process was the result of radiative stabilization of the complex and the termolecular association process was the result of collisional stabilization. Elementary rate coefficients were obtained and the lifetime of the collision complex was > or = 57 microseconds for (C6H4+)* and > or = 18 microseconds for (C6H5+)*. At pressures below 1 x 10(-6) Torr, approximately 11% of the (C6H4+)* were stabilized by photon emission and the remaining approximately 89% reverted back to reactants, while approximately 24% of the (C6H5+)* were stabilized by photon emission and the remaining approximately 76% reverted back to reactants. The ionic products of the C2H2(+) + C2H2 reaction, C4H2+ and C4H3+, were found to be formed with enough internal energy that they did not react by the radiative association channel until relaxed by several nonreactive collisions with the bath gas.

  2. Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulac, J.; Alvarez, H.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Telecom 2-B and 2-C (TC2B and TC2C) are summarized. These Telecom missions will provide high-speed data link applications, telephone, and television service between France and overseas territories as a follow-on to TC2A. Mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  3. BSM Delta Qualification 2, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report, presented in three volumes, provides the results of a two-motor Delta Qualification 2 program conducted in 1993 to certify the following enhancements for incorporation into booster separation motor (BSM) flight hardware: vulcanized-in-place nozzle aft closure insulation; new iso-static ATJ bulk graphite throat insert material; adhesive EA 9394 for bonding the nozzle throat, igniter grain rod/centering insert/igniter case; deletion of the igniter adapter insulator ring; deletion of the igniter adapter/igniter case interface RTV; and deletion of loctite from igniter retainer plate threads. The enhancements above directly resulted from (1) the BSM total quality management (TQM) team initiatives to enhance the BSM producibility, and (2) the necessity to qualify new throat insert and adhesive systems to replace existing materials that will not be available. Testing was completed at both the component and motor levels. Component testing was accomplished to screen candidate materials (e.g., throat materials, adhesive systems) and to optimize processes (e.g., aft closure insulator vulcanization approach) prior to their incorporation into the test motors. Motor tests -- consisting of two motors, randomly selected by USBI's on-site quality personnel from production lot AAY, which were modified to accept the enhancements -- were completed to provide the final qualification of the enhancements for incorporation into flight hardware. Volume 2 details the environmental testing (vibration and shock) conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to which the motors were subjected prior to static tests.

  4. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM.

  5. Epitaxial 2D SnSe2/ 2D WSe2 van der Waals Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Aretouli, Kleopatra Emmanouil; Tsoutsou, Dimitra; Tsipas, Polychronis; Marquez-Velasco, Jose; Aminalragia Giamini, Sigiava; Kelaidis, Nicolaos; Psycharis, Vassilis; Dimoulas, Athanasios

    2016-09-07

    van der Waals heterostructures of 2D semiconductor materials can be used to realize a number of (opto)electronic devices including tunneling field effect devices (TFETs). It is shown in this work that high quality SnSe2/WSe2 vdW heterostructure can be grown by molecular beam epitaxy on AlN(0001)/Si(111) substrates using a Bi2Se3 buffer layer. A valence band offset of 0.8 eV matches the energy gap of SnSe2 in such a way that the VB edge of WSe2 and the CB edge of SnSe2 are lined up, making this materials combination suitable for (nearly) broken gap TFETs.

  6. [SGLT2 inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    SGLT2 is a glucose transporter which plays an important role for reabsorption of urinary glucose depending on the sodium concentration gradient. SGLT2 is mainly present in apical site of S1 segment of renal proximal tubule and accounts for approximately 90% of total urinary glucose reabsorption. SLC5a2, which codes SGLT2, is also known as the causative gene of familial renal glucosuria. SGLT2 inhibitors are attracting attention as newly developed oral anti-diabetic agents which improve glucose intolerance and also have an anti-obese effect by promoting urinary glucose excretion (UGE), which is a different pharmacological effect from other conventional anti-diabetic agents. In this review, we will discuss the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  7. Photolysis of H2O-H2O2 Mixtures: The Destruction of H2O2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Fama, M.; Baragiola, R. A.; Carlson, R. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present laboratory results on the loss of H2O2 in solid H2O + H2O2 mixtures at temperatures between 21 and 145 K initiated by UV photolysis (193 nm). Using infrared spectroscopy and microbalance gravimetry, we measured the decrease of the 3.5 micrometer infrared absorption band during UV irradiation and obtained a photodestruction cross section that varies with temperature, being lowest at 70 K. We use our results, along with our previously measured H2O2 production rates via ionizing radiation and ion energy fluxes from the spacecraft to compare H2O2 creation and destruction at icy satellites by ions from their planetary magnetosphere and from solar UV photons. We conclude that, in many cases, H2O2 is not observed on icy satellite surfaces because the H2O2 photodestruction rate is much higher than the production rate via energetic particles, effectively keeping the H2O2 infrared signature at or below the noise level.

  8. ALOS-2 initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankaku, Yukihiro; Suzuki, Shinichi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2015-10-01

    The Advanced Land Observing Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) was launched from Tanegashima Space Center by H-IIA rocket successfully on 24th May 2014. ALOS-2 carries the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2) as the state-of-the-art L-band SAR system which succeeds to PALSAR onboard ALOS. PALSAR-2 uses almost whole bandwidth allocated for L-band active sensor of Earth Exploration Satellites Service specified by the Radio Regulation in order to realize the high resolution observation, and also, it transmits more than 6 kW power for lower Noise Equivalent Sigma Zero using 180 TRMs driven by Gallium Nitride (GaN) amplifier which is the first use in space. Furthermore, because ALOS-2 carries the SAR system only, PALSAR-2 antenna can be mounted under the satellite body. It enables to observe right-/left-looking observation by satellite maneuvering. And the high accuracy orbit control to maintain the satellite within 500 m radius tube against the reference orbit enables high coherence for the InSAR processing. Using these new technologies, ALOS-2 has been operating to fulfill the mission requirements such as disaster monitoring and so on. This document introduces the initial result of ALOS-2 from the first year operation.

  9. About interleukin-2.

    PubMed

    1995-05-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that helps boost the body's immune system by causing T4 cells to proliferate, or increase in numbers. IL-2 is an approved drug, but not for treatment of AIDS or HIV-related conditions. IL-2 causes HIV growth, although growth rates appear to eventually slow down. Researchers are experimenting with low-dose IL-2 given by subcutaneous injection to see if the rise in T4 counts will restore the normal immune system function. Three new studies combining IL-2 with two other anti-HIV treatments are taking place at the National Institutes of Health and are accepting subjects. Participants interested in these studies, or studies at other sites around the country, should call the Network at (800) 734-7104 for information.

  10. SU(2) uncertainty limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabbir, Saroosh; Björk, Gunnar

    2016-05-01

    Although progress has been made recently in defining nontrivial uncertainty limits for the SU(2) group, a description of the intermediate states bound by these limits remains lacking. In this paper we enumerate possible uncertainty relations for the SU(2) group that involve all three observables and that are, moreover, invariant under SU(2) transformations. We demonstrate that these relations however, even taken as a group, do not provide sharp, saturable bounds. To find sharp bounds, we systematically calculate the variance of the SU(2) operators for all pure states belonging to the N =2 and N =3 polarization excitation manifold (corresponding to spin 1 and spin 3/2). Lastly, and perhaps counter to expectation, we note that even pure states can reach the maximum uncertainty limit.

  11. Deletion (2)(q37)

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.F.; Tolworthy, J.A.; Young, R.S.

    1994-06-01

    We report on a 5-month-old girl with widely spaced nipples, redundant nuchal skin, coarctation of the aorta, anal atresia with distal fistula, postnatal growth retardation, hypotonia, and sparse scalp hair. Initial clinical assessment suggested the diagnosis of Ullrich-Turner syndrome. Chromosome analysis showed a 46,XX,del(2)(q37) karyotype in peripheral lymphocytes. We compare her findings to those of other reported patients with terminal deletions of 2q. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The Delta 2 launcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ousley, Gilbert W., Sr.

    1991-12-01

    The utilization of the Delta 2 as the vehicle for launching Aristoteles into its near Sun synchronous orbit is addressed. Delta is NASA's most reliable launch vehicle and is well suited for placing the present Aristoteles spacecraft into a 400 m circular orbit. A summary of some of the Delta 2 flight parameters is presented. Diagrams of a typical Delta 2 two stage separation are included along with statistics on delta reliability and launch plans.

  13. Fatigue Crack Growth Characteristics of Thin Sheet Titanium Alloy Ti 6-2-2-2-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Stephen W.; Piascik, Robert S.

    2001-01-01

    Fatigue crack growth rates of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 as a function of stress ratio, temperature (24 or 177 C), tensile orientation and environment (laboratory air or ultrahigh vacuum) are presented. Fatigue crack growth rates of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 are also compared with two more widely used titanium alloys (Timetal 21S and Ti 6Al-4V). The fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) of Ti 6-2-2-2-2 in laboratory air is dependent upon stress ratio (R), particularly in the near-threshold and lower-Paris regimes. For low R (less than approximately 0.5), da/dN is influenced by crack closure behavior. At higher R (> 0.5), a maximum stress-intensity factor (K(sub max)) dependence is observed. Fatigue crack growth behavior is affected by test temperature between 24 and 177 C. For moderate to high applied cyclic-stress-intensity factors (delta-K), the slope of the log da/dN versus log delta-K curve is lower in 177 C laboratory air than 24 C laboratory air. The difference in slope results in lower values of da/dN for exposure to 177 C laboratory air compared to room temperature laboratory air. The onset of this temperature effect is dependent upon the applied R. This temperature effect has not been observed in ultrahigh vacuum. Specimen orientation has been shown to affect the slope of the log da/dN versus log delta-K curve in the Paris regime.

  14. Comparison of [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ and [Pd(PPh2NPh2)2]2+ as Electrocatalysts for H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Helm, Monte L.

    2014-09-22

    The complexes [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ and [Pd(PPh2NPh2)2]2+, where PPh2NPh2 is 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-diphenyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane, are compared as electrocatalysts for H2 production under identical experimental conditions. With [(DMF)H]+ as the acid in acetonitrile solution, [Pd(PPh2NPh2)2]2+ afforded a turnover frequency (TOF) of 230 s-1 for formation of H2 under dry conditions and a TOF of 640 s-1 when H2O was added. These rates are similar to the TOF’s of 590 s-1 (dry) and 720 s-1 (wet) that were previously measured for [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ using [(DMF)H]+. The [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ and [Pd(PPh2NPh2)2]2+ complexes both exhibited large current enhancements when treated with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). At a TFA concentration of 1.8 M, TOF values of 5670 s-1 and 2060 s-1 were measured for [Ni(PPh2NPh2)2(CH3CN)]2+ and [Pd(PPh2NPh2)2]2+, respectively. The fast rates observed using TFA are, in part, attributed to homoconjugation of TFA in acetonitrile solutions, which decreases the effective pKa of the acid. In support of this hypothesis, dramatically lower rates of H2 production were observed using p anisidinium, which has a pKa comparable to TFA but does not homoconjugate significantly in acetonitrile solutions. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is oper-ated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  15. Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion-2 (FSDC-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colantonio, Renato; Dietrich, Daniel; Haggard, John B., Jr.; Nayagan, Vedha; Dryer, Frederick L.; Shaw, Benjamin D.; Williams, Forman A.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results for the burning characteristics of fiber supported, liquid droplets in ambient Shuttle cabin air (21% oxygen, 1 bar pressure) were obtained from the Glove Box Facility aboard the STS-94/MSL-1 mission using the Fiber Supported Droplet Combustion - 2 (FSDC-2) apparatus. The combustion of individual droplets of methanol/water mixtures, ethanol, ethanol/water azeotrope, n-heptane, n-decane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures were studied in quiescent air. The effects of low velocity, laminar gas phase forced convection on the combustion of individual droplets of n-heptane and n-decane were investigated and interactions of two droplet-arrays of n-heptane and n-decane droplets were also studied with and without gas phase convective flow. Initial diameters ranging from about 2mm to over 6mm were burned on 80-100 micron silicon fibers. In addition to phenomenological observations, quantitative data were obtained in the form of backlit images of the burning droplets, overall flame images, and radiometric combustion emission measurements as a function of the burning time in each experiment. In all, 124 of the 129 attempted experiments (or about twice the number of experiments originally planned for the STS-94/MSL-1 mission) were conducted successfully. The experimental results contribute new observations on the combustion properties of pure alkanes, binary alkane mixtures, and simple alcohols for droplet sizes not studied previously, including measurements on individual droplets and two-droplet arrays, inclusive of the effects of forced gas phase convection. New phenomena characterized experimentally for the first time include radiative extinction of droplet burning for alkanes and the "twin effect" which occurs as a result of interactions during the combustion of two-droplet arrays. Numerical modeling of isolated droplet combustion phenomenon has been conducted for methanol/water mixtures, n-heptane, and n-heptane/n-hexadecane mixtures, and results

  16. Outsourcing CO2 Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, S. J.; Caldeira, K. G.

    2009-12-01

    CO2 emissions from the burning of fossil fuels are the primary cause of global warming. Much attention has been focused on the CO2 directly emitted by each country, but relatively little attention has been paid to the amount of emissions associated with consumption of goods and services in each country. This consumption-based emissions inventory differs from the production-based inventory because of imports and exports of goods and services that, either directly or indirectly, involved CO2 emissions. Using the latest available data and reasonable assumptions regarding trans-shipment of embodied carbon through third-party countries, we developed a global consumption-based CO2 emissions inventory and have calculated associated consumption-based energy and carbon intensities. We find that, in 2004, 24% of CO2 emissions are effectively outsourced to other countries, with much of the developed world outsourcing CO2 emissions to emerging markets, principally China. Some wealthy countries, including Switzerland and Sweden, outsource over half of their consumption-based emissions, with many northern Europeans outsourcing more than three tons of emissions per person per year. The United States is both a big importer and exporter of emissions embodied in trade, outsourcing >2.6 tons of CO2 per person and at the same time as >2.0 tons of CO2 per person are outsourced to the United States. These large flows indicate that CO2 emissions embodied in trade must be taken into consideration when considering responsibility for increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations.

  17. Tethers as Debris: Simulating Impacts of Kevlar Tethers on Shuttle Tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper I examined the effects of impacts of polymer tethers on aluminum plates using the SPHC hydrodynamic code. In this paper I apply tether models to a new target - models of Space Shuttle tiles developed during the STS 107 accident investigation. In this three-dimensional simulation, a short tether fragment strikes a single tile supported on an aluminum backing plate. A tile of the LI-900 material is modeled. Penetration and damage to the tile and the backwall are characterized for three normal impact velocities. The tether is modeled as a bundle of eight 1-mm strands, with the bundle having dimensions 2-mm x 4-mm x 20-cm. The bulk material properties used are those of Kevlar(TradeMark) 49, for which a Mie-Gruneisen multiphase equation of state (eos) is used. In addition, the strength model is applied in a linear sense, such that tensile loads along the strand length are supported, but there is no strength in the lateral directions. Tile models include the various layers making up the tile structure. The outermost layer is a relatively dense borosilicate glass, known as RCG, 0.5-mm thick. The RCG layer is present on the top and four sides of the tile. Below this coating is the bulk of the tile, 1.8- in thick, made of LI-900, a product consisting of rigidized fiberous silica with a density of 9 lWft3. Below the main insulating layer is a bottom layer of the same material that has been treated to increase its density by approximately 69% to improve its strength. This densified layer is bonded to a Strain Isolation Pad (SIP), modeled as a refractory felt fabric. The SIP is bonded to an aluminum 2024 wall 0.1-in thick. The tile and backwall materials use a Me-Gruneisen multiphase eos, with the exception of the SIP felt, which uses a fabric equation of state. Fabrics must be crushed to the full bulk material density before bulk material properties and a Mie-Gruneisen eos are applied. Tether fragment impact speeds of 3,7, and 10 km/s are simulated, with

  18. 1,2-Di-2-quinolylethene

    PubMed Central

    Fun, Hoong-Kun; Kia, Reza; Maity, Annada C.; Chakrabarty, Rinku; Goswami, Shyamaprosad

    2009-01-01

    The title compound, C20H14N2, comprises two crystallographically independent centrosymmetric mol­ecules (A and B) with different conformations due to the disorder of molecule B. The whole of mol­ecule B is disordered over two sets of positions, corresponding to a 180° rotation of the molecule, with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.780 (6):0.220 (6). The minor component of the disordered part in B has the same configuration as mol­ecule A, but the major component is different. The dihedral angle between the planes of mol­ecule A and mol­ecule B (major component) is 63.22 (3)°. The crystal structure is stabilized by inter­molecular C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21581953

  19. 2π or not 2π

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olley, Robert; McGovern, Iggy

    2008-04-01

    Robert Crease's article "Constant failure" (February p18) struck a chord with me - even after many years, I remember the feeling of "cognitive dissonance" I experienced when being taught that the formula for the circumference of a circle was 2πr rather than πD. Suggesting that Archimedes might have been wrong to have defined π as the ratio of circumference to diameter rather than radius, is, however, going a bit too far. In those days, the fundamental dichotomy was between the geometers who thought in terms of circumference, diameter and their ratio; and the astronomers, who used the radius in their calculation of chord tables. Hipparchus used a circle of radius of 3438 for his chord tables, since this is the nearest integer to the number of minutes in one radian, but Ptolemy preferred 3600 as it is easier to calculate with in the sexagesimal system. The geometers, however, did not think of their ratio as a number.

  20. CO2 laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, R E

    2001-07-01

    The CO2 Laser offers a variety of unique features in resurfacing facial photodamage and acne scarring. These include hemostasis, efficient removal of the epidermis in a single pass, thermally induced tissue tightening, and safe, predictable tissue interaction. Knowledge of these mechanisms will result in the capability of using the CO2 laser effectively and safely whether the goal is superficial or deep treatment.

  1. Web 2 Nowhere?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Web 2.0 seems to be all the rage these days. One cannot go to a library conference and attend presentations or stroll down the halls without hearing some mention of it in magical tones reserved for some great discovery. The excitement surrounding Web 2.0 reminds the author of the frenzy that gripped the country between 1848 and 1855, when…

  2. VZ-2 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Dynamically scaled free-flight model of the VZ-2 Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing (V/STOL) research airplane undergoing flight studies in the Full Scale Tunnel. The VZ-2 used the tilt-wing concept to transition from hovering flight to conventional forward flight. The Full-Scale aircraft was flown extensively at Langley. Photographed 6/21/1957.

  3. Elementary Science: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll County Public Schools, Westminster, MD.

    This grade 2 science curriculum guide contains three activity units: (1) insects; (2) measuring; and (3) sink or float. Each unit contains a rationale, teacher background material, lesson plans, and lists of resources including books, audiovisual materials, resource persons, and science activity modules. The lesson plans list the science processes…

  4. 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenol ; CASRN 120 - 83 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  5. Preparation of 2-Bromopentane.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, B. A.; Kohrman, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the preparation of 2-bromopentane from 2-pentanol might represent an instructive addition to a published description of pheromone synthesis in that it is economical, extends the synthetic nature of the problem, and amplifies the mechanistic vagaries of the substitution reaction. Theory, procedures used, and safety considerations are…

  6. Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A NASA News Release is presented which contains the following: (1) general release; (2) two views of Voyager 2 flight past Jupiter; (3) Voyager mission summary; (4) Voyager 1 science results; (5) Jupiter science objectives; (6) Jupiter the planet and its satellites; (7) Voyager experiments; (8) planet comparison; (9) a list of Voyager science investigators and (10) the Voyager team.

  7. Bacteriophage P2.

    PubMed

    Christie, Gail E; Calendar, Richard

    2016-01-01

    P2 is the original member of a highly successful family of temperate phages that are frequently found in the genomes of gram-negative bacteria. This article focuses on the organization of the P2 genome and reviews current knowledge about the function of each open reading frame.

  8. Douglas RD-2 Dolphin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1940-01-01

    Douglas RD-2 Dolphin: Originally purchased with the presumed use as a Presidential aircraft, this Douglas RD-2 was turned over to the NACA in December 1939 without ever fulfilling its intended role. The Dolphin was a type familiar to the NACA, who were testing a Army version of the Douglas amphibian, an OA-4V with a nosewheel.

  9. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrotoluene ; CASRN 121 - 14 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  10. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  11. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  12. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC`s. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  13. DOE-2 basics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    DOE-2 provides the building design and research communities with an up-to-date, unbiased, well-documented public-domain computer program for building energy analysis. DOE-2 predicts the hourly energy use and energy cost of a building given hourly weather information and a description of the building and its HVAC equipment and utility rate structure. DOE-2 is a portable FORTRAN program that can be used on a large variety of computers, including PC's. Using DOE-2, designers can determine the choice of building parameters that improve energy efficiency while maintaining thermal comfort. The purpose of DOE-2 is to aid in the analysis of energy usage in buildings; it is not intended to be the sole source of information relied upon for the design of buildings. The judgment and experience of the architect/engineer still remain the most important elements of building design.

  14. J-2 Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    This chart is an illustration of J-2 Engine characteristics. A cluster of five J-2 engines powered the Saturn V S-II (second) stage with each engine providing a thrust of 200,000 pounds. A single J-2 engine powered the S-IVB stage, the Saturn IB second stage, and the Saturn V third stage. The engine was uprated to provide 230,000 pounds of thrust for the fourth Apollo Saturn V flight and subsequent missions. Burning liquid hydrogen as fuel and using liquid oxygen as the oxidizer, the cluster of five J-2 engines for the S-II stage burned over one ton of propellant per second, during about 6 1/2 minutes of operation, to take the vehicle to an altitude of about 108 miles and a speed of near orbital velocity, about 17,400 miles per hour.

  15. 2-C-branched glycosides from 2'-carbonylalkyl 2-O-Ms(Ts)-C-glycosides. A tandem SN2-SN2 reaction via 1,2-cyclopropanated sugars.

    PubMed

    Shao, Huawu; Ekthawatchai, Sanchai; Wu, Shih-Hsiung; Zou, Wei

    2004-09-30

    [reaction: see text] Under basic conditions, 2'-aldehydo (acetonyl) 2-O-Ms(Ts)-alpha-C-glycosides undergo an intramolecular S(N)2 reaction to form 1,2-cyclopropanated sugars, which react with nucleophiles (alcohols, thiols, and azide) at the anomeric carbon to give 2-C-branched glycosides. By way of contrast, the 1,2-cyclopropanes derived from 2'-ketones only react with thiols to give 2-C-branched thioglycosides.

  16. SCN2A encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Katherine B.; McMahon, Jacinta M.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Tambunan, Dimira; Mackay, Mark T.; Rodriguez-Casero, Victoria; Webster, Richard; Clark, Damian; Freeman, Jeremy L.; Calvert, Sophie; Olson, Heather E.; Mandelstam, Simone; Poduri, Annapurna; Mefford, Heather C.; Harvey, A. Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objective: De novo SCN2A mutations have recently been associated with severe infantile-onset epilepsies. Herein, we define the phenotypic spectrum of SCN2A encephalopathy. Methods: Twelve patients with an SCN2A epileptic encephalopathy underwent electroclinical phenotyping. Results: Patients were aged 0.7 to 22 years; 3 were deceased. Seizures commenced on day 1–4 in 8, week 2–6 in 2, and after 1 year in 2. Characteristic features included clusters of brief focal seizures with multiple hourly (9 patients), multiple daily (2), or multiple weekly (1) seizures, peaking at maximal frequency within 3 months of onset. Multifocal interictal epileptiform discharges were seen in all. Three of 12 patients had infantile spasms. The epileptic syndrome at presentation was epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS) in 7 and Ohtahara syndrome in 2. Nine patients had improved seizure control with sodium channel blockers including supratherapeutic or high therapeutic phenytoin levels in 5. Eight had severe to profound developmental impairment. Other features included movement disorders (10), axial hypotonia (11) with intermittent or persistent appendicular spasticity, early handedness, and severe gastrointestinal symptoms. Mutations arose de novo in 11 patients; paternal DNA was unavailable in one. Conclusions: Review of our 12 and 34 other reported cases of SCN2A encephalopathy suggests 3 phenotypes: neonatal-infantile–onset groups with severe and intermediate outcomes, and a childhood-onset group. Here, we show that SCN2A is the second most common cause of EIMFS and, importantly, does not always have a poor developmental outcome. Sodium channel blockers, particularly phenytoin, may improve seizure control. PMID:26291284

  17. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are described for tetraalkyls, tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2,-trifluoroethanes.

  18. ER-2 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In this film clip, we see an ER-2 on its take off roll and climb as it departs from runway 22 at Edwards AFB, California. In 1981, NASA acquired its first ER-2 aircraft. The agency obtained a second ER-2 in 1989. These airplanes replaced two Lockheed U-2 aircraft, which NASA had used to collect scientific data since 1971. The U-2, and later the ER-2, were based at the Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, until 1997. In 1997, the ER-2 aircraft and their operations moved to NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Since the inaugural flight for this program, August 31, 1971, NASA U-2 and ER-2 aircraft have flown more than 4,000 data missions and test flights in support of scientific research conducted by scientists from NASA, other federal agencies, states, universities, and the private sector. NASA is currently using two ER-2 Airborne Science aircraft as flying laboratories. The aircraft, based at NASA Dryden, collect information about our surroundings, including Earth resources, celestial observations, atmospheric chemistry and dynamics, and oceanic processes. The aircraft also are used for electronic sensor research and development, satellite calibration, and satellite data validation. The ER-2 is a versatile aircraft well-suited to perform multiple mission tasks. It is 30 percent larger than the U-2 with a 20 feet longer wingspan and a considerably increased payload over the older airframe. The aircraft has four large pressurized experiment compartments and a high-capacity AC/DC electrical system, permitting it to carry a variety of payloads on a single mission. The modular design of the aircraft permits rapid installation or removal of payloads to meet changing mission requirements. The ER-2 has a range beyond 3,000 miles (4800 kilometers); is capable of long flight duration and can operate at altitudes up to 70,000 feet (21.3 kilometers) if required. Operating at an altitude of 65,000 feet (19.8 kilometers) the ER-2 acquires data

  19. Co2 geological sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu

    2004-11-18

    Human activities are increasingly altering the Earth's climate. A particular concern is that atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) may be rising fast because of increased industrialization. CO{sub 2} is a so-called ''greenhouse gas'' that traps infrared radiation and may contribute to global warming. Scientists project that greenhouse gases such as CO{sub 2} will make the arctic warmer, which would melt glaciers and raise sea levels. Evidence suggests that climate change may already have begun to affect ecosystems and wildlife around the world. Some animal species are moving from one habitat to another to adapt to warmer temperatures. Future warming is likely to exceed the ability of many species to migrate or adjust. Human production of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels (such as at coal-fired power plants) is not likely to slow down soon. It is urgent to find somewhere besides the atmosphere to put these increased levels of CO{sub 2}. Sequestration in the ocean and in soils and forests are possibilities, but another option, sequestration in geological formations, may also be an important solution. Such formations could include depleted oil and gas reservoirs, unmineable coal seams, and deep saline aquifers. In many cases, injection of CO2 into a geological formation can enhance the recovery of hydrocarbons, providing value-added byproducts that can offset the cost of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. Before CO{sub 2} gas can be sequestered from power plants and other point sources, it must be captured. CO{sub 2} is also routinely separated and captured as a by-product from industrial processes such as synthetic ammonia production, H{sub 2} production, and limestone calcination. Then CO{sub 2} must be compressed into liquid form and transported to the geological sequestration site. Many power plants and other large emitters of CO{sub 2} are located near geological formations that are amenable to CO{sub 2} sequestration.

  20. Rate constant and thermochemistry for K + O2 + N2 = KO2 + N2.

    PubMed

    Sorvajärvi, Tapio; Viljanen, Jan; Toivonen, Juha; Marshall, Paul; Glarborg, Peter

    2015-04-09

    The addition reaction of potassium atoms with oxygen has been studied using the collinear photofragmentation and atomic absorption spectroscopy (CPFAAS) method. KCl vapor was photolyzed with 266 nm pulses and the absorbance by K atoms at 766.5 nm was measured at various delay times with a narrow line width diode laser. Experiments were carried out with O2/N2 mixtures at a total pressure of 1 bar, over 748-1323 K. At the lower temperatures single exponential decays of [K] yielded the third-order rate constant for addition, kR1, whereas at higher temperatures equilibration was observed in the form of double exponential decays of [K], which yielded both kR1 and the equilibrium constant for KO2 formation. kR1 can be summarized as 1.07 × 10(-30)(T/1000 K)(-0.733) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1). Combination with literature values leads to a recommended kR1 of 5.5 × 10(-26)T(-1.55) exp(-10/T) cm(6) molecule(-2) s(-1) over 250-1320 K, with an error limit of a factor of 1.5. A van't Hoff analysis constrained to fit the computed ΔS298 yields a K-O2 bond dissociation enthalpy of 184.2 ± 4.0 kJ mol(-1) at 298 K and ΔfH298(KO2) = -95.2 ± 4.1 kJ mol(-1). The corresponding D0 is 181.5 ± 4.0 kJ mol(-1). This value compares well with a CCSD(T) extrapolation to the complete basis set limit, with all electrons correlated, of 177.9 kJ mol(-1).

  1. CO2-neutral fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  2. Web 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Becky

    The Web is growing and changing from a paradigm of static publishing to one of participation and interaction. This change has implications for people with disabilities who rely on access to the Web for employment, information, entertainment, and increased independence. The interactive and collaborative nature of Web 2.0 can present access problems for some users. There are some best practices which can be put in place today to improve access. New specifications such as Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) and IAccessible2 are opening the doors to increasing the accessibility of Web 2.0 and beyond.

  3. ATF2 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Christian, G.; Parker, B.; Schulte, D.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Wolski, A.; Elsen, E.; Sanuki, T.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Ross, M.; Wendt, M.; Takahashi, T.; Bai, S.; Gao, J.; Bolzon, B.; Geffroy, N.; Jeremie, A.; Apsimon, R.; Burrows, P.; /Oxford U., JAI /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Orsay, LAL /Phang Accelerator Lab /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Univ. of Tokyo U.

    2009-10-30

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  4. N2C2M2 Experimentation and Validation: Understanding Its C2 Approaches and Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    the organization and execution of the experiments, specifically, Col. Fernando Freire , LtCol. António Flambó, LtCol. José Martins, LtCol. Paulo ...of ELICIT Experimental Data. Paper presented at the 13th ICCRTS, Seattle, USA, 2008. [13.] Manso, Marco, and Paulo Nunes. ELICIT and the Future C2...detailed mapping between C2 CRM variables and ELICIT refer to: MANSO, Marco, and Paulo NUNES. ELICIT and the Future C2: Theoretical Foundations for the

  5. [Ni(PMe2NPh2)2](BF4)2 as an Electrocatalyst for H2 Production

    SciTech Connect

    Wiese, Stefan; Kilgore, Uriah J.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2012-03-16

    A mononuclear nickel(II) bis(diphosphine) complex [Ni(P{sub 2}{sup Me}N{sub 2}{sup Ph}){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2} (P{sub 2}{sup Me}N{sub 2}{sup Ph} = 1,5-diphenyl-3,7-dimethyl-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane) has been synthesized. This complex is an efficient electrocatalyst for hydrogen production by proton reduction. Using [(DMF)H]OTf as the acid and with added water, a turnover frequency of 6,700 s{sup -1} was obtained. Based on the understanding of previous studies and the measured hydride donor ability of [HNi(P{sub 2}{sup Me}N{sub 2}{sup Ph}){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}) ({Delta}G{sup o}{sub H-} = 54.0 kcal/mol), this complex was anticipated to have the highest turnover frequency for catalytic H{sub 2} production of any complex of this class reported to date.

  6. 2 CFR - Unknown Title

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Section Grants and Agreements Federal Agency Regulations for Grants and Agreements DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONPROCUREMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION Reserved ER28MR12.000...

  7. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  8. Treating Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... bodies need many nutrients — in different amounts — to work properly. So when you and the diabetes health ... 2 diabetes. Other times, pills that help insulin work better also need to be taken. These pills ...

  9. 4,12-Bis(2,2-dibromo-vinyl)[2.2]paracyclo-phane.

    PubMed

    Clément, Sébastien; Guyard, Laurent; Knorr, Michael; Däschlein, Christian; Strohmann, Carsten

    2009-02-13

    In the title compound, C(20)H(16)Br(4), both vinylic substituents were introduced by a Corey-Fuchs reaction using 4,12-diform-yl[2.2]paracyclo-phane as starting material. The title compound may be used as a valuable precursor for the synthesis of diethyn-yl[2.2]paracyclo-phane. The title mol-ecule is centrosymmetric with a crystallographic center of inversion between the centers of the two phenyl rings. A strong tilting is observed with an inter-planar angle between the best aromatic plane and the vinyl plane of 49.4 (5)°. No significant inter-molecular inter-actions are found in the crystal.

  10. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    PubMed Central

    Asthagiri, Ashok R; Parry, Dilys M; Butman, John A; Kim, H Jeffrey; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an autosomal-dominant multiple neoplasia syndrome that results from mutations in the NF2 tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q. It has a frequency of one in 25 000 livebirths and nearly 100% penetrance by 60 years of age. Half of patients inherit a germline mutation from an affected parent and the remainder acquire a de novo mutation for neurofibromatosis type 2. Patients develop nervous system tumours (schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, astrocytomas, and neurofibromas), peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmological lesions (cataracts, epiretinal membranes, and retinal hamartomas), and cutaneous lesions (skin tumours). Optimum treatment is multidisciplinary because of the complexities associated with management of the multiple, progressive, and protean lesions associated with the disorder. We review the molecular pathogenesis, genetics, clinical findings, and management strategies for neurofibromatosis type 2. PMID:19476995

  11. Psychiatric liability: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-08-01

    Psychiatric health care providers' liability extends from clinical cases--medication errors, misdiagnosis, etc.--to particular issues unique to the mental health care setting. Part 2 continues discussion begun in the July issue of lawsuits common to this setting.

  12. Terrestrial photovoltaic measurements, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The following major topics are discussed; (1) Terrestrial solar irradiance; (2) Solar simulation and reference cell calibration; and (3) Cell and array measurement procedures. Numerous related subtopics are also discussed within each major topic area.

  13. DM-2 Chilling

    NASA Video Gallery

    How do you chill down 1.4 million pounds of solid rocket fuel in the hot Utah desert? Lots of air conditioning! Learn how ATK chilled down DM-2, the second Ares first stage development motor in adv...

  14. Facts about Type 2

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... is Gestational Diabetes? How to Treat Gestational Diabetes Genetics of Diabetes Diabetes Myths A Day in the ... 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications ...

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectral study of [Mn(acs)2(2-pic)2(H2O)2] single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocakoç, Mehpeyker; Tapramaz, Recep

    2016-03-01

    Acesulfame potassium salt is a synthetic and non-caloric sweetener. It is also important chemically for its capability of being ligand in coordination compounds, because it can bind over Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms of carbonyl and sulfonyl groups and ring oxygen. Some acesulfame containing transition metal ion complexes with mixed ligands exhibit solvato and thermo chromic properties and these properties make them physically important. In this work single crystals of Mn+2 ion complex with mixed ligand, [Mn(acs)2(2-pic)2(H2O)2], was studied with electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. EPR parameters were determined. Zero field splitting parameters indicated that the complex was highly symmetric. Variable temperature studies showed no detectable chance in spectra.

  16. Stratospheric H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsaesser, H. W.; Harries, J. E.; Kley, D.; Penndorf, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present state of our knowledge and understanding of H2O in the stratosphere is reviewed. This reveals continuing discrepancies between observations and expectations following from the Brewer-Dobson hypothesis of stratospheric circulation. In particular, available observations indicate unexplained upward and poleward directed H2O gradients immediately downstream from the tropical tropopause and variable vertical gradients above 20 km which generally disagree with those expected from oxidation of CH4.

  17. VZ-2 Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Dynamically scaled free-flight model of the VZ-2 Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing (V/STOL) research airplane undergoing flight studies in the Full Scale Tunnel. The VZ-2 used the tilt-wing concept to transition from hovering flight to conventional forward flight. The Full-Scale aircraft was flown extensively at Langley. Photographed 6/21/1957. Photographed 6/21/1957.

  18. Mat2exo

    SciTech Connect

    2012-09-11

    MAT2EXO is a program which translates mesh data from Matlab mat-file format to Exodus II format. This tool is the inverse of the commonly used tool exo2mat which translates Exodus II data to the Matlab mat-file format. These tools provide a means for preprocessing an Exodus II model file or postprocessing an Exodus II results file using Matlab

  19. Triangular G2-Splines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    energy [1]. Judging the visual ap- pearance of the surfaces by their isophotes we got the best results with the 340 H. Prautzsch and G. Umlauf Fig. 7...An initial control net (left), parameter lines of the resulting G2-surface (middle), top-view of the surface showing isophotes (right). functional F...construction. The initial triangular control net has an irregular vertex of valence 5. The isophotes confirm that the resulting surface is G 2. Fig. 8

  20. Great Lakes Demonstration 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Representatives from CG Districts 1, 5 , 13, and 17  Enbridge Pipeline, Co.  EPA  National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)  Observers (CG...distances from the vessel‟s hull. (Figure 5 ) In that configuration, the recovery hose and hydraulic lines dragged across the surface of the nearby...No. CG-D-08-12 2. Government Accession Number 3. Recipient’s Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle Great Lakes Demonstration 2 Final Report 5

  1. MERRA-2: File Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosilovich, M. G.; Lucchesi, R.; Suarez, M.

    2015-01-01

    The second Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA-2) is a NASA atmospheric reanalysis that begins in 1980. It replaces the original MERRA reanalysis (Rienecker et al., 2011) using an upgraded version of the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5 (GEOS-5) data assimilation system. The file collections for MERRA-2 are described in detail in this document, including some important changes from those of the MERRA dataset (Lucchesi, 2012).

  2. alpha2-Adrenoreceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mayer, P; Imbert, T

    2001-06-01

    A review of the literature relating to the therapeutic potential of alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists published between 1990 and 2000 is presented. Although extensively studied since the early 1970s in a wide spectrum of therapeutic applications, the distinction of alpha2-adrenoceptor subtypes and some emerging evidence concerning new applications in neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, obesity and schizophrenia, have refreshed an interest in this class of agents.

  3. PISCES 2 users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, Terrence W.

    1987-01-01

    PISCES 2 is a programming environment and set of extensions to Fortran 77 for parallel programming. It is intended to provide a basis for writing programs for scientific and engineering applications on parallel computers in a way that is relatively independent of the particular details of the underlying computer architecture. This user's manual provides a complete description of the PISCES 2 system as it is currently implemented on the 20 processor Flexible FLEX/32 at NASA Langley Research Center.

  4. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  5. MD-2 binds cholesterol

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I.

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis. PMID:26806306

  6. Mineralization of Basalts in the CO2-H2O-SO2-O2 System

    SciTech Connect

    Schaef, Herbert T.; Horner, Jacob A.; Owen, Antionette T.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Loring, John S.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-05-01

    Sequestering carbon dioxide (CO2) containing minor amounts of co-contaminants in geologic formations was investigated in the laboratory through the use of high pressure static experiments. Five different basalt samples were immersed in water equilibrated with supercritical CO2 containing 1wt% sulfur dioxide (SO2) and 1wt% oxygen (O2) at reservoir conditions (~100 bar, 90°C) for 49 and 98 days. Gypsum (CaSO4) was a common precipitate, occurred early as elongated blades with striations, and served as substrates for other mineral products. Bimodal pulses of water released during dehydroxylation were key indicators along with X-ray diffraction for verifying the presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals. Well-developed pseudocubic jarosite crystals formed surface coatings, and in some instances mixtures of natrojarosite and natroalunite aggregated into spherically shaped structures measuring 100 μm in diameter. Reaction products were also characterized using infrared spectroscopy, which indicated OH and Fe-O stretching modes. The presences of jarosite-alunite group minerals were found in the lower wavenumber region from 700–400 cm-1. A strong preferential incorporation of Fe(III) into natrojarosite was attributed to the oxidation potential of O2. Evidence of CO2 was detected during thermal decomposition of precipitates, suggesting the onset of mineral carbonation.

  7. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies.

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-2 - Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection of sites within geohydrologic settings. 960.3-2-2-2 Section 960.3-2-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-2...

  13. NASA Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    The genesis of the space shuttle began in the 1930's when Eugene Sanger came up with the idea of a recyclable rocket plane that could carry a crew of people. The very first Shuttle to enter space was the Shuttle "Columbia" which launched on April 12 of 1981. Not only was "Columbia" the first Shuttle to be launched, but was also the first to utilize solid fuel rockets for U.S. manned flight. The primary objectives given to "Columbia" were to check out the overall Shuttle system, accomplish a safe ascent into orbit, and to return back to earth for a safe landing. Subsequent to its first flight Columbia flew 27 more missions but on February 1st, 2003 after a highly successful 16 day mission, the Columbia, STS-107 mission, ended in tragedy. With all Shuttle flight successes come failures such as the fatal in-flight accident of STS 107. As a result of the STS 107 accident, and other close-calls, the NASA Space Shuttle Program developed contingency procedures for a rescue mission by another Shuttle if an on-orbit repair was not possible. A rescue mission would be considered for a situation where a Shuttle and the crew were not in immediate danger, but, was unable to return to Earth or land safely. For Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS), plans were developed so the Shuttle crew would remain on board ISS for an extended period of time until rescued by a "rescue" Shuttle. The damaged Shuttle would subsequently be de-orbited unmanned. During the period when the ISS Crew and Shuttle crew are on board simultaneously multiple issues would need to be worked including, but not limited to: crew diet, exercise, psychological support, workload, and ground contingency support

  14. 76 FR 41135 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... and sodium 2-methyl-2- -1- propanesulfonate (1:1), peroxydisulfuric acid ( 202) sodium salt (1:2...-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, phenylmethyl ester, polymer with 2-propenoic acid and sodium 2-methyl- 2- -1-propanesulfonate (1:1), peroxydisulfuric acid ( 202) sodium salt (1:2)-initiated (also known here as: ``the...

  15. KCNQ2 encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Millichap, John J.; Park, Kristen L.; Tsuchida, Tammy; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Carmant, Lionel; Flamini, Robert; Joshi, Nishtha; Levisohn, Paul M.; Marsh, Eric; Nangia, Srishti; Narayanan, Vinodh; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Xilma R.; Patterson, Marc C.; Pearl, Phillip L.; Porter, Brenda; Ramsey, Keri; McGinnis, Emily L.; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Tracy, Molly; Tran, Baouyen; Venkatesan, Charu; Weckhuysen, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To advance the understanding of KCNQ2 encephalopathy genotype–phenotype relationships and to begin to assess the potential of selective KCNQ channel openers as targeted treatments. Methods: We retrospectively studied 23 patients with KCNQ2 encephalopathy, including 11 treated with ezogabine (EZO). We analyzed the genotype–phenotype relationships in these and 70 previously described patients. Results: The mean seizure onset age was 1.8 ± 1.6 (SD) days. Of the 20 EEGs obtained within a week of birth, 11 showed burst suppression. When new seizure types appeared in infancy (15 patients), the most common were epileptic spasms (n = 8). At last follow-up, seizures persisted in 9 patients. Development was delayed in all, severely in 14. The KCNQ2 variants identified introduced amino acid missense changes or, in one instance, a single residue deletion. They were clustered in 4 protein subdomains predicted to poison tetrameric channel functions. EZO use (assessed by the treating physicians and parents) was associated with improvement in seizures and/or development in 3 of the 4 treated before 6 months of age, and 2 of the 7 treated later; no serious side effects were observed. Conclusions: KCNQ2 variants cause neonatal-onset epileptic encephalopathy of widely varying severity. Pathogenic variants in epileptic encephalopathy are clustered in “hot spots” known to be critical for channel activity. For variants causing KCNQ2 channel loss of function, EZO appeared well tolerated and potentially beneficial against refractory seizures when started early. Larger, prospective studies are needed to enable better definition of prognostic categories and more robust testing of novel interventions. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that EZO is effective for refractory seizures in patients with epilepsy due to KCNQ2 encephalopathy. PMID:27602407

  16. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... kPa (14.7 psia)) which— (1) Is ignitable at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psia) when in a mixture of 13 percent or... cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas). For the purpose of this subchapter, a non-flammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas (Division 2.2) means any material (or mixture)...

  17. 49 CFR 173.115 - Class 2, Divisions 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3-Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... kPa (14.7 psia)) which— (1) Is ignitable at 101.3 kPa (14.7 psia) when in a mixture of 13 percent or... cryogenic gas, compressed gas in solution, asphyxiant gas and oxidizing gas). For the purpose of this subchapter, a non-flammable, nonpoisonous compressed gas (Division 2.2) means any material (or mixture)...

  18. Healthwatch-2 System Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barszcz, Eric; Mosher, Marianne; Huff, Edward M.

    2004-01-01

    Healthwatch-2 (HW-2) is a research tool designed to facilitate the development and testing of in-flight health monitoring algorithms. HW-2 software is written in C/C++ and executes on an x86-based computer running the Linux operating system. The executive module has interfaces for collecting various signal data, such as vibration, torque, tachometer, and GPS. It is designed to perform in-flight time or frequency averaging based on specifications defined in a user-supplied configuration file. Averaged data are then passed to a user-supplied algorithm written as a Matlab function. This allows researchers a convenient method for testing in-flight algorithms. In addition to its in-flight capabilities, HW-2 software is also capable of reading archived flight data and processing it as if collected in-flight. This allows algorithms to be developed and tested in the laboratory before being flown. Currently HW-2 has passed its checkout phase and is collecting data on a Bell OH-58C helicopter operated by the U.S. Army at NASA Ames Research Center.

  19. 14 CFR 2-2 - Basis of allocation between entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... 2-2 Section Sec. 2-2 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-2 Basis of allocation between entities. (a) The... prescribed by this system of accounts and reports, and (2) with respect to separate ventures, in...

  20. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or terms... term or terms of more than one year imposed pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 4205(b)(2) (or pursuant to former...

  1. 28 CFR 2.2 - Eligibility for parole; adult sentences.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 2.2 Section 2.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.2 Eligibility for parole; adult sentences. (a) A Federal prisoner serving a maximum term or terms... term or terms of more than one year imposed pursuant to 18 U.S.C. 4205(b)(2) (or pursuant to former...

  2. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  3. 43 CFR 3410.2-2 - Environmental analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Environmental analysis. 3410.2-2 Section 3410.2-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 3410.2-2 Environmental analysis. (a) Before an exploration license may be issued, the...

  4. 2 supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrara, Sergio; Kehagias, Alex; Porrati, Massimo

    2015-08-01

    We formulate R 2 pure supergravity as a scale invariant theory built only in terms of superfields describing the geometry of curved superspace. The standard supergravity duals are obtained in both "old" and "new" minimal formulations of auxiliary fields. These theories have massless fields in de Sitter space as they do in their non supersymmetric counterpart. Remarkably, the dual theory of R 2 supergravity in the new minimal formulation is an extension of the Freedman model, describing a massless gauge field and a massless chiral multiplet in de Sitter space, with inverse radius proportional to the Fayet-Iliopoulos term. This model can be interpreted as the "de-Higgsed" phase of the dual companion theory of R + R 2 supergravity.

  5. Biosphere 2 anew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The seven scientists who volunteered to live in Biosphere 2 for the past 6.5 months will be reentering the real world this Saturday, September 17, as Biosphere's new management team shifts into high gear to revitalize the $150 million sealed ecosystem's science plan. The new management team stepped in April 1 after a court order obtained by the project's owner Ed Bass kicked out its then prevailing management team. In mid-August, Biosphere 2 announced that it had joined forces with Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in a nonprofit venture to set a new research agenda for the reportedly troubled 3.2-acre facility. Biosphere has commissioned about a dozen white papers to be written during the next 7 months to help articulate the optimum science program. “The past really isn't the issue,” says biogeochemist Bruno Marino, Biosphere's new research director.

  6. CBI2: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sievers, Jonathan L.; CBI Collaboration

    2006-12-01

    The Cosmic Background Imager is a sensitive 13-element radio interferometer operating at 5070m in the Chilean Andes (the future ALMA site). We have upgraded the CBI's 0.9m dishes with 1.4m dishes, effectively doubling the sensitivity. CBI2's primary science goal is a better measurement of the CMB power spectrum in the ell 2000-3000 range, where previous CBI measurements found an excess of power at 30 GHz over what was expected. We will also observe galaxy clusters and diffuse emission in the Milky Way with CBI2. We present the current status of CBI2, the errors on the CMB spectrum we expect to achieve, and hopefully early results. The CBI is a collaboration between Caltech, CITA, NRAO, MPI-Radioastronomie, Oxford, Manchester, Universidad de Chile, and Universidad de Concepcion.

  7. TOUGH2 software qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Simmons, A.; Wu, Y.S.; Moridis, G.

    1996-02-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulation code for multi-dimensional coupled fluid and heat flow of multiphase, multicomponent fluid mixtures in porous and fractured media. It belongs to the MULKOM ({open_quotes}MULti-KOMponent{close_quotes}) family of codes and is a more general version of the TOUGH simulator. The MULKOM family of codes was originally developed with a focus on geothermal reservoir simulation. They are suited to modeling systems which contain different fluid mixtures, with applications to flow problems arising in the context of high-level nuclear waste isolation, oil and gas recovery and storage, and groundwater resource protection. TOUGH2 is essentially a subset of MULKOM, consisting of a selection of the better tested and documented MULKOM program modules. The purpose of this package of reports is to provide all software baseline documents necessary for the software qualification of TOUGH2.

  8. ATF2 Proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Grishanov, Boris Ivanovich; Logachev, Pavel; Podgorny, Fedor; Telnov, Valery; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa; Appleby, Robert; Jones, James; Kalinin, Alexander; Napoly, Olivier; Payet, Jacques; Braun, Hans-Heinrich; Schulte, Daniel; Zimmermann, Frank; Barlow, Roger; Bailey, Ian; Jenner, Leo; Jones, Roger; Kourevlev, German; Walker, Nick; Takahasi, Tohru; Gao, Jie; /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Oxford U. /KEK, Tsukuba /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Orsay, LAL /LBL, Berkeley /LLNL, Livermore /University Coll. London /Chiba, Natl. Inst. Rad. Sci. /North Carolina A-T State U. /Oregon U. /Pohang Accelerator Lab. /Queen Mary, U. of London /SLAC /Tokyo U.

    2005-08-23

    This document is the first of two volumes describing the ATF2 project. The present volume discusses the technical justification for ATF2 and presents a design description. Since the International Committee for Future Accelerator (ICFA) decision on the choice of technology, a world-wide collaboration on the design of the International Linear Collider (ILC) has rapidly progressed [1]. The formation of the Global Design Effort (GDE) will accelerate the work towards a final design. An important technical challenge is obviously the high gradient acceleration but what is similarly challenging is the collision of extremely small beams of a few nanometer size. The latter challenge has three distinct issues: creating small emittance beams, preserving the emittance during acceleration and transport, and focusing the beams to nanometers. Most studies have been done using computer simulations but many issues still remain that require experimental verification. Accelerator Test Facility (ATF) at KEK was built to create small emittance beams, and succeeded in obtaining an emittance that almost satisfies the ILC requirements [2]. In this proposal we present a project, ATF2, which addresses the focusing of the beam into a nanometer spot. The ATF2 project will extend the extraction beamline of the ATF with an ILC-type final focus system to create a tightly focused, stable beam by making use of the small emittance of the ATF. The layout is shown in Figure 1.1. In the longer term, the ATF2 project would also provide invaluable input for the CLIC design of a future multi-TeV collider.

  9. KSC-03PD-0072

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Cast in late afternoon shadows, Space Shuttle Columbia is revealed as the Rotating Service Structure rolls back. The Shuttle sits atop the Mobile Launcher Platform. Near the top is seen the orbiter access arm with the White Room at the end. The White Room provides entry into the Shuttle for the crew. Above the orange external tank is the gaseous oxygen vent arm and cap, called the 'beanie cap.' Columbia is scheduled for launch Jan. 16 at 10:39 a.m. EST on mission STS-107.

  10. General view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of the Orbiter Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility at Kennedy Space Center showing the payload bay doors open exposing the heat-dissipating radiator panels located on the inside of the payload bay doors. Also in the view is the boom portion of the boom sensor system deployed as part of the return to flight procedures after STS-107 to inspect the orbiter's thermal protection system. The Remote Manipulator System, the "Canadarm", and the airlock are seen in the background of the image. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  11. KSC-03PD-1446

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The apparatus shown was designed to hold microcapsules for research on mission STS-107. It is one over several included in the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload. The box was recently recovered during the search for Columbia debris. The drug delivery system and spaceflight hardware was developed jointly by JSC, the Institute for Research Inc. and Instrumentation Technology Associates Inc. to conduct microencapsulation experiments under microgravity conditions. This microcapsule contains an antibiotic for treating deep resistant pulmonary infections. Dr. Dennis Morrison, senior biotech project scientist, is principle investigator on microencapsulation and urokinase crystal growth.

  12. Student interacts with a visual distorter demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A student tries to insert plastic blocks into the correct holes in a baby's toy. The seemingly trivial task becomes nearly impossible when the prism glasses he is wearing reverse left and right. This is similar to tests used to measure how astronauts adapt to space and then readapt to Earth. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  13. DSMC Simulations in Support of the Columbia Shuttle Orbiter Accident Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyles, Katie; LeBeau, Gerald J.; Gallis, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo simulations of Columbia Shuttle Orbiter flight STS-107 are presented. The aim of this work is to determine the aerodynamic and heating behavior of the Orbiter during aerobraking maneuvers and to provide piecewise integration of key scenario events to assess the plausibility of the candidate failure scenarios. The flight of the Orbiter is examined at two altitudes: 350-kft and 300-kft. The flowfield around the Orbiter and the heat transfer to it are calculated for the undamaged configuration. The flow inside the wing for an assumed damage to the leading edge in the form of a 10- inch hole is studied.

  14. KSC-03PD-1439

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - George D'Heilly, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., Barry Perlman, with Pembroke Pines Middle School in Florida, John Cassanto, with ITA, and Lou Friedman, executive director of the Planetary Society, talk to the media about the experiments recovered during the search for Columbia debris. They were part of the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 that included the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS) experiment and crystals grown for cancer research. The GOBBSS experiment was sponsored by the Planetary Society, with joint participation of an Israeli and a Palestinian student, and developed by the Israeli Aerospace Medical Institute and JSC Astrobiology Center.

  15. KSC-03PD-1438

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - George D'Heilly and John Cassanto, scientists with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., display for the media part of the apparatus recovered during the search for Columbia debris. It was part of the Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 that included the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS) experiment and crystals grown for cancer research. The GOBBSS experiment was sponsored by the Planetary Society, with joint participation of an Israeli and a Palestinian student, and developed by the Israeli Aerospace Medical Institute and JSC Astrobiology Center.

  16. KSC-03PD-1442

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Barry Perlman (left), with Pembroke Pines Charter Middle School in Florida, talks to the media about some of the experiments recovered during the search for Columbia debris. At right are John Cassanto, with Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc., and Lou Friedman, executive director of the Planetary Society. The Commercial ITA Biomedical Experiments payload on mission STS-107 included the Growth of Bacterial Biofilm on Surfaces during Spaceflight (GOBBSS) experiment and crystals grown for cancer research. The GOBBSS experiment was sponsored by the Planetary Society, with joint participation of an Israeli and a Palestinian student, and developed by the Israeli Aerospace Medical Institute and JSC Astrobiology Center.

  17. Kriston Erikson learns about the MGM-III experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Khalid Alshibli of Louisiana State University, project scientist for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM-III) experiment, explains the MGM experiment to Kristen Erickson, acting deputy associate administrator in NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. A training model of the test cell is at right. The activity was part of the Space Research and You education event held by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research on June 25, 2002, in Arlington, VA, to highlight the research that will be conducted on STS-107.

  18. KSC-03PD-2406

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo during a visit to the Orbiter Processing Facility. They were awarded the trip to Kennedy Space Center when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The girls are accompanied by American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station/Payload Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  19. KSC-03PD-2405

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Japanese girls from Urawa Daiichi Girls High School, Urawa, Japan, pose for a group photo during a visit to the Space Station Processing Facility. They were awarded the trip to Kennedy Space Center when their experiments were chosen to fly on mission STS-107. The girls are accompanied by American students from Melbourne and Jacksonville, Fla. The National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and the KSC International Space Station/Payload Processing Directorate worked with the NASA KSC Education Programs and University Research Division to coordinate the students visit.

  20. KSC-04PD-0100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Friends, co-workers and families gather at the Space Memorial Mirror for KSCs special service remembering and honoring the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one- year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. The public was invited to the memorial service held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Participants included Center Director Jim Kennedy, Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott, Dr. Stephen Feldman, president of the Astronaut Memorial Foundation, and dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community in Fort Hall, Idaho.

  1. KSC-04PD-0107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Friends, co-workers and families gather at the Space Memorial Mirror for KSCs special service remembering and honoring the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one- year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. The public was invited to the memorial service held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Participants included Center Director Jim Kennedy, Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott, Dr. Stephen Feldman, president of the Astronaut Memorial Foundation, and dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community in Fort Hall, Idaho.

  2. KSC-04PD-0116

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Among the visitors placing flowers in the wire mesh fence surrounding the Space Memorial Mirror is one of the Indian dancers who performed a healing ceremony during a memorial service for the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one-year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. The public was invited to the memorial service, which included comments by Center Director Jim Kennedy and Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott. Scott is a former astronaut who flew on Columbia in 1997.

  3. KSC-04PD-0101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. Friends, co-workers and families gather at the Space Memorial Mirror for KSCs special service remembering and honoring the crew of Columbia. Feb. 1 is the one- year anniversary of the loss of the crew and orbiter Columbia in a tragic accident as the ship returned to Earth following mission STS-107. The public was invited to the memorial service held at the KSC Visitor Complex. Participants included Center Director Jim Kennedy, Deputy Director Woodrow Whitlow Jr., Executive Director of Florida Space Authority Winston Scott, Dr. Stephen Feldman, president of the Astronaut Memorial Foundation, and dancers from the Shoshone-Bannock Native American community in Fort Hall, Idaho.

  4. Operation HARDTACK 2, 1958.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-03

    AGG3 c 8 L7 x0 II I/ TAMALPAIS EVANS I _ 1 12/ 8 LOGAN 01_ iBLANCA 1 I RUSHMORE 1 2 91 MAZAMA EDDY MORA QUAY LEA I DONA ANA 4 7SOCORRO - -DE BACABJY I... RUSHMORE ....... ................... . 147 5.12.1 Department of Defense Participation in Scientific and Support Activities ..... ... 147 5.12.2... RUSHMORE , 22 October 1958, Mid-time 1600 ........ .................... 151 5-10 Initial Survey for Shot SANFORD, 26 October 1958, Mid-time 0242

  5. Fundamental Insulation Characteristics of Air, N2, CO2, N2/O2 and SF6/N2 Mixed Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Yagihashi, Yoshitaka; Endo, Fumihiro; Oomori, Takashi

    SF6 gas has excellent dielectric strength and interruption performance. For these reasons, it has been widely used for gas insulated switchgear (GIS). However, use of SF6 gas has become regulated under agreements set at the 1997 COP3. Presently, development of a gas circuit breaker (GCB) using CO2 gas and development of a high voltage vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) are being pursued. GIS consists of disconnectors (DS), earthing switches (ES) and buses in addition to GCB. Since the interruption performance is not an important requirement for DS, ES and BUS, use of a gas with high dielectric strength is better than use of a gas with good interruption performance. Air and N2 are not greenhouse gases, and their dielectric strengths are higher than those of other SF6 alternative gases, but only about one-third of the dielectric strength of SF6 gas. This paper deals with a suitable insulation gas which has no greenhouse effect as an SF6 alternative gas. The N2/O2 mixed gas was investigated by changing the ratio of O2. Moreover, the effect of an insulation coating was investigated and compared with the dielectric strength of SF6/N2 mixed gas. The dielectric strength of air under the coating condition was equal to that of 10%SF6/N2 mixed gas.

  6. First outer-sphere 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric compounds [M(H2O)6](1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbiturate)2·2H2O (M = Co2+, Ni2+): Crystal structure, spectroscopic and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Molokeev, Maxim S.; Lesnikov, Maxim K.; Atuchin, Victor V.

    2016-06-01

    Two new d-element compounds, [Co(H2O)6](Detba)2·2H2O (1) and [Ni(H2O)6](Detba)2·2H2O (2) (HDetba - 1,3-diethyl-2-thiobarbituric acid) were synthesized and characterized by single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction analysis, TG-DSC and FT-IR. Structural analysis revealed that (1) and (2) are discrete structures, in which M2+ ion (M = Co, Ni) is six-coordinated by water molecules and it forms an octahedron. The outer-sphere Detba- ions and H2O molecules participate in Osbnd H⋯(O/S) intermolecular hydrogen bonds which form the 2D layer. Thermal decomposition includes the stage of dehydration and the following stage of oxidation of Detba- with a release of CO2, SO2, H2O, NH3 and isocyanate gases.

  7. Basic Electricity. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmer, Donald C.

    This guide, the second (part 2) in a set of four guides, is designed for the student interested in a vocation in electrical work, and includes two units: Unit IV--Electrical Theory, covering thirteen lessons (matter, the atom, electrical charges in the atom, rules of electric charges, electricity, atoms in an electrical conductor, electrical…

  8. Medusae Fossae #2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Extensive wind-swept plains of the Medusae Fossae formation on Mars. This southern subframe image, frame 3104, is of a 3.0 x 4.7 km area centered near 2.0 degrees north, 163.8 degrees west.

    Figure caption from Science Magazine

  9. International Perspectives. Chapter 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acampora, Alfonso P., Ed.; Nebelkopf, Ethan, Ed.

    This document contains seven papers from the ninth World Conference of Therapeutic Communities that provide an international perspective on the therapeutic community (TC) movement as it is today. Papers include: (1) "What's Happening on an International Level" (William B. O'Brien); (2) "Therapeutic Communities of America"…

  10. VSOP-2 project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuboi, M.

    2008-07-01

    VSOP-2 project is a next generation Space-VLBI project approved in Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The nominal launch of the VSOP-2 spacecraft, ASTRO-G, is planed in FY2012 by a HIIA rocket as the 7th astronomy satellite in ISAS/JAXA. ASTRO-G satellite will employ a 9.23-m off-axis deployable reflector antenna (LDR) with a surface accuracy of 0.4 mm rms and cryogenically cooled receivers at 22, and 43 GHz and passively cooled receivers at 8 GHz in dual-polarization. A major axis of the orbit is 35,000 km, which will yield an angular resolution of 38 micro-arcseconds achievable at 43 GHz. Then VSOP-2 can observe innermost regions of AGN jets and astronomical masers at 10 times higher angular resolution compared to the previous Space-VLBI, VSOP(-1). These are ideal laboratories to experience physical phenomena in extreme conditions, which cannot be made in any laboratories on the earth. A phase-referencing capability of ASTRO-G satellite makes dramatic improvement of sensitivity and astrometric measurements possible. Basic design for the mechanical and thermal parts of ASTRO-G itself is on going. The radio telescope including the LDR is in EM phase. We would present the overview of VSOP-2 project.

  11. More2books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Mathematics Teacher, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Reach for the Stars is AAMT's data-collection activity for National Literacy and Numeracy Week, funded by the Australian Government. This year's activity was on the theme "More2books" and many thousands of students and their teachers explored the mathematics of the books in their classrooms. This article presents a version of the…

  12. [Fibroblast growth factor-2].

    PubMed

    Faitová, J

    2004-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor-2 is a member of a large family of proteins that bind heparin and heparan sulfate and modulate the function of a wide range of cell types. FGF-2 occurs in several isoforms resulting from alternative initiations of traslation: an 18 kDa cytoplasmic isoform and four larger molecular weight nuclear isoforms (22, 22.5, 24 and 34 kDa). It acts mainly through a paracrine/autocrine mechanism involving high affinity transmembrane receptors and heparan sulfate proteoglycan low affinity receptors. It is expressed mostly in tissues of mesoderm and neuroectoderm origin, and plays an important role in mesoderm induction, stimulates the growth and development of the new blood vessels (angiogenesis), normal wound healing and tissue development. FGF-2 positively regulates hematopoiesis by acting on various cellular targets: stromal cells, early and committed hematopoietic progenitors and possibly some mature blood cells. FGF-2 is a potent hematopoietic growth factor that is likely to play an important role in physiological and pathological hematopoiesis.

  13. Technology 2004, Vol. 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Proceedings from symposia of the Technology 2004 Conference, November 8-10, 1994, Washington, DC. Volume 2 features papers on computers and software, virtual reality simulation, environmental technology, video and imaging, medical technology and life sciences, robotics and artificial intelligence, and electronics.

  14. [4+2[sup +

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, H.; Javahery, G.; Petrie, S.; Bohme, D.K. )

    1994-06-02

    Results of an experimental study using the selected-ion flow tube (SIFT) technique are reported for ion-molecule reactions of C[sub 60][sup [center dot]+] with a variety of cycloalkenes and acyclic and cyclic dienes at 294 [+-] 2 K in helium gas at a pressure of 0.35 [+-] 0.01 Torr. Addition is observed only with 1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Rate coefficients were measured to be 1.0 and 1.5 x 10[sup [minus]11] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1], respectively. No reactions, k < 3 x 10[sup [minus]12] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1] s[sup [minus]1], were observed with 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, 1,3-pentadiene, cyclopentene, cyclohexene, furan, and 1,4-cyclohexadiene. These results provide indirect evidence for the occurrence of a Diels - Alder cycloaddition with 1,3-cyclopentadiene and 1,3-cyclohexadine. The addition reactions of these two molecules with C[sub 60][sup +] were found to be 5 [+-] 1 and 6 [+-] 2, respectively, faster than the addition reactions with C[sub 70][sup [center dot]+] for which rate coefficients of 2.0 and 2.5 x 10[sup [minus]12] cm[sup 3] molecule[sup [minus]1], respectively, were measured. 15 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  15. Cycloreversion of the CO2 trimer: a paradigmatic pseudopericyclic [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction.

    PubMed

    Villar López, Roberto; Nieto Faza, Olalla; Matito, Eduard; López, Carlos Silva

    2017-01-04

    Very recently, the CO2 trimer has been experimentally synthesized, isolated and characterized. This process opens new ways for the withdrawal and storage of this greenhouse gas. The trimer is reported to be stable up to -40 °C, with a lifetime of about 40 min at this temperature. At these or under harsher thermal conditions it reverts to the three monomers. The mechanism of this reaction has been theoretically studied and the electronic character of the associated transition state has been analyzed from a variety of perspectives (energetic, magnetic, electron localization and delocalization functions) which indicate that it has paradigmatic pseudopericyclic character. To allow for a comparative study, the isoelectronic fragmentations of cyclohexane into three units of ethylene and of benzene into three units of acetylene have been included in this work. The study of a similar series of formally forbidden-four-centered [2 + 2] cycloreversions confirmed the pseudopericyclic nature of these reactions when the CO2 dimer or trimer is involved.

  16. Rescue Manual. Module 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This learner manual for rescuers covers the current techniques or practices required in the rescue service. The second of 10 modules contains 5 chapters: (1) patient care and handling techniques; (2) rescue carries and drags; (3) emergency vehicle operations; (4) self-contained breathing apparatus; and (5) protective clothing. Key points, an…

  17. 2,4-Diaminotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Diaminotoluene ; CASRN 95 - 80 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  18. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  19. 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrophenol ; CASRN 51 - 28 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  20. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  1. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA 635 / R - 04 / 067 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2 - DIBROMOETHANE ( CAS No . 106 - 93 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2004 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has been revie

  2. Marketing 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germain, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    There is no doubt that today's student is much more savvy with using computers than the students of years gone by. This tech generation eagerly embraces the Internet, online searching, and the newer Web 2.0 technologies. This latter platform provides users with the ability to interact in a large virtual world, share/take (upload/download)…

  3. Internet 2 Access Grid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simco, Greg

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the Internet 2 Initiative, which is based on collaboration among universities, businesses, and government, focuses on the Access Grid, a Computational Grid that includes interactive multimedia within high-speed networks to provide resources to enable remote collaboration among the research community. (Author/LRW)

  4. Navigating Internet 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Douglas

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of Internet2 and the college or university's decision to participate in the network looks at the characteristics of the system and the advantages of access to it; infrastructure needed to participate; costs to the institution; considerations in making the decision to participate; and the consequences of waiting. (MSE)

  5. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  6. MC-2 Diacria Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-2 quadrangle, Diacria region of Mars. The northern two-thirds is dominated by relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by aureole deposits of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  7. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to 1000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  8. L2 Plasma Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, William C., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The second LaGrange point, 1.5 million miles from the Earth in the anti-solar direction, is becoming an important destination for scientific spacecraft. The quasi-stable gravity field requires little energy resources for station keeping and astronomical missions-infrared and microwave in particular-find the minimal impact from Earth albedo radiation and limited restrictions on viewing directions a tremendous advantage in their mission design. Spacecraft design for L2 missions will have to consider the plasma environments of the ambient solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetotail from energies of a few 10s of an eV through 10 s of keV in addition to enhanced energetic particle populations from 10s to l000 keV during solar energetic particle events. This presentation will provide a background on the appropriate L2 charged particle environments at L2 and describe modeling efforts at MSFC to develop environment specification tools for the L2 plasma environment.

  9. STS-2 suit preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Flight crew equipment specialists perform a checkout of an astronaut flight suit to be worn during STS-2 on Columbia. This particular suit is an Ejection Escape Suit (EES). Technician is examining the cuffs and sleeves (38928); equipment specialist installs prescription eyeglasses into the helmet of an astronaut flight suit (38929).

  10. Complex WS 2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitby, R. L. D.; Hsu, W. K.; Lee, T. H.; Boothroyd, C. B.; Kroto, H. W.; Walton, D. R. M.

    2002-06-01

    A range of elegant tubular and conical nanostructures has been created by template growth of (WS 2) n layers on the surfaces of single-walled carbon nanotube bundles. The structures exhibit remarkably perfect straight segments together with interesting complexities at the intersections, which are discussed here in detail in order to enhance understanding of the structural features governing tube growth.

  11. 'Stucco' Walls-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the microscopic imager, an instrument located on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' shows the partial 'clodding' or cementation of the sand-sized grains within the trench wall. The area in this image measures approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across and makes up half of the projected 'Stucco Walls' image.

  12. 2,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 105 - 67 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  14. 2,6-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,6 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 576 - 26 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. Six new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones from Agarwood.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tenji; Konoshima, Takao; Shimada, Yasuo; Kiyosawa, Shiu

    2002-03-01

    Six new chromones, 6-methoxy-2-[2-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyllchromone (2), 6,8-dihydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (3), 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (4), 6-hydroxy-2-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (5), 7-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (6), and 6-hydroxy-7-methoxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (7) were isolated from the ether extract of agarwood in addition to a known compound, 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone or flidersiachromone (1). Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods including UV, IR, and NMR spectral data and comparisons with the calculated values using the hydroxyl and methoxyl substituent increments of the chromone ring.

  16. Electronic states of PF 2 and PF +2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latifzadeh, Lida; Balasubramanian, K.

    1994-10-01

    The ground and excited electronic states of PF 2 and PF +2 have been investigated using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by multi-reference singles and doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) methods that include up to 1.2 million configurations. These states include X 2B 1, 4A 2, 2A 1(I), 2A 1(II), 2A 2, 2B 2(I), 2B 2(II), 4B 1, 2B 1(II) for PF 2 and 1A 1, 3B 1, 1B 1 for PF +2. Both all-electron computations employing large basis sets and relativistic effective core potentials using valence basis sets were carried out. The spectroscopic properties were determined for the bound states. The dissociation energy of PFF is obtained using the full second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) and CASSCF/MRSDCI methods.

  17. Biosphere2 and Earthbuzz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washburne, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to reach a broader audience, Biosphere 2, near Tucson, AZ, is participating in a network of science centers thanks to new funding through the Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth System Dynamics (NCED). Each of these centers will be tied together through an Earthbuzz kiosk, basically a networked web site that allows visitors to learn more about the work of leading local scientists in a very personal and captivating format. Content is currently being developed by Biosphere 2 researchers, staff, and graduate students that range from a public question and answer forum called “Scientist on the Spot” to science blogs by Biosphere 2 Fellows. It is hoped that this project will help educate the public about the Anthropocene, that is, the current geologic period that is so greatly affected by humankind’s impact on the health of the planet. Biosphere 2 provides a unique location to engage the public in this conversation for several reasons. First, no other destination on Earth gives the public such a physical immersion into what climate change might mean as does Biosphere 2. On the regular walking tour, visitors are guided through scaled down versions of an African savannah, a semi-arid thorn scrub, a coastal fog desert and a tropical rainforest. Digital displays of temperature and humidity confirm what your body is feeling - conditions ranging from desert aridity to tropical humidity. As one passes through the biomes of Biosphere 2, climate change is a whole body experience. Second, Biosphere 2 is also an active ecological research site - part of a unique network of sites run by the University of Arizona that allow scientists to study ecosystem processes across a range of scales - from microscopic root studies to studies encompassing large watersheds. In particular, a group of researchers is studying why large stands of pinion-juniper forests across the southwest have died in recent years. Biosphere2’s role in this

  18. Neuroprotective 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of Imperata cylindrica.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2006-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica afforded a new compound, 5-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (1), together with three known compounds, 5-hydroxy-2-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (2), flidersiachromone (3), and 5-hydroxy-2-styrylchromone (4). Among these four compounds, 1 and 2 showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.

  19. A study of the pseudogap state in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy HTSC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, V. M.; Mamedova, A. N.; Raqimov, S. S.; Selim-zade, R. I.; Tairov, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the effect of replacing calcium by zinc has on the transport properties of the BiSrCaCuO-2221 system. It is shown that the critical temperatures Tc of the Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox(B1) and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy(B2) samples are close (81 K and 80.72 K). However, the resistivity ρ of the Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy sample increases considerably, and the ratio ρB2/ρB1 ≈ 10 at 100 K. We use the local pair model to analyze the mechanism behind the formation of excess conductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox and Bi2Sr2ZnCu2Oy(B2), with consideration of the Aslamazov-Larkin theory near Tc. We determined the temperature T0 of the transition from the 2D fluctuation area to the 3D region (i.e., the 2D-3D crossover temperature). We calculated the coherence length of the fluctuation Cooper pairs along the c axis, ξc(0). It is shown that substituting Zn for Ca reduces ξc(0) by almost 1.5 times (4.8 Å and 3.3 Å, respectively), and also leads to a narrowing of both the pseudogap region and the superconducting fluctuation area near Tc. We determined the temperature dependence of the pseudogap Δ * T and Δ * (Tc). The increase of ρ, its specific temperature dependence and the significant decrease of T * in sample B2, all point to the destruction of local pairs at all high temperatures, i.e., to the suppression of the pseudogap by Zn doping.

  20. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the