Science.gov

Sample records for 2 yr 1

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planetary candidates from 1st yr K2 mission (Vanderburg+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, A.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Bieryla, A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Welsh, S.; Johnson, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    During Campaign 0, K2 observed a field centered at RAJ2000=06:33:11.14,DEJ2000=+21:35:16.40, for a period of 80 days between March and May of 2014. During Campaign 1, K2 observed a field centered at RAJ2000=11:35:45.51,DEJ2000=+01:25:02.28 for 83 days between June and August of 2014. Field 2 of the K2 mission is centered at RAJ2000=16:24:30.34,DEJ2000=-22:26:50.28, and was observed for 79 days between 2014 August and November. Field 3 of the K2 mission is centered at RAJ2000=22:26:39.68,DEJ2000=-11:05:47.99, and was observed for 69 days between 2014 November and 2015 February. We observed 68 stars with the high-resolution Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES; on the 1.5m telescope at Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona; R=44000) at least once, collecting a total of 101 spectra, and extracted the spectra using the procedure described in Buchhave et al. (2010, J/ApJ/720/1118). See tables 3 and 4. (4 data files).

  2. Deferasirox in patients with iron overload secondary to hereditary hemochromatosis: results of a 1-yr Phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Rodolfo; Melo, Murilo R; de Moraes Bastos, Roberto; Santos, Paulo C J L; Guerra-Shinohara, Elivira M; Chiattone, Carlos; Ballas, Samir K

    2015-12-01

    This open-label, prospective, phase 2 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of deferasirox (10 ± 5 mg/kg/d) in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and iron overload refractory to or intolerant of phlebotomy. Ten patients were enrolled and all completed the 12-month treatment period. There were significant decreases from baseline to end of study (i.e., 12 months) in median serum ferritin (P < 0.001), mean transferrin saturation (P < 0.05), median liver iron concentration (P < 0.001), and mean alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05). The median time to achieve serum ferritin reduction ≥50% compared to baseline was 7.53 months. The most common adverse events were mild, transient diarrhea (n = 5) and nausea (n = 2). No patient experienced an increase in serum creatinine that exceeded the upper limit of normal. These data confirm that deferasirox was well tolerated and effective in reducing iron burden in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and could be a safe alternative to phlebotomy in selected patients. PMID:25684349

  3. Simulations of the pore structures for a M2G1yR derived channel forming peptide in membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawi, Ahlam N.; Al-Rawi, Asma; Chen, Jianhan; Herrera, Alvaro; Tomich, John; Rahman, Talat S.

    2008-03-01

    In an effort to develop a peptide-based compound suitable for clinical use as a channel replacement therapeutic for treating channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis, we present a reductionist model that appears to capture many of the biophysical properties of an intact ion channel using short channel-forming peptides. We have developed two anion selective channel-forming peptides with near native and altered properties from the peptides derived from the glycine receptor: NK4-M2GlyR-p22 WT (KKKKPAR-VGLGITTVLTMTTQS) and NK4-M2GlyR-p22 S22W (KKKKPARVGLGITTVLTMTTQW), respectively. Starting with the two structures determined by solution multidimensional NMR (800 MHz) in SDS, we used CHARMM and NAMD to perform molecular dynamics simulations on the monomers. Using the existing experimental data, we then built an initial 5- helix assembly by altering the tilted angle, rotational angle and pore radius. We investigated the impact of the single mutation at position 22 on the structure and dynamics of the pore formed in a membrane build in a hydrated POPC lipid bilayer. Probable structures for both assemblies are presented.

  4. Plasma Flows in the Heliosheath along the Voyager 1 and 2 Trajectories due to Effects of the 11 yr Solar Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provornikova, E.; Opher, M.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Richardson, J. D.; Toth, G.

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the role of the 11 yr solar cycle variations in the solar wind (SW) parameters on the flows in the heliosheath using a new three-dimensional time-dependent model of the interaction between the SW and the interstellar medium. For boundary conditions in the model we use realistic time and the latitudinal dependence of the SW parameters obtained from SOHO/SWAN and interplanetary scintillation data for the last two solar cycles (1990-2011). This data set generally agrees with the in situ Ulysses measurements from 1991 to 2009. For the first ~30 AU of the heliosheath the time-dependent model predicts constant radial flow speeds at Voyager 2 (V2), which is consistent with observations and different from the steady models that show a radial speed decrease of 30%. The model shows that V2 was immersed in SW with speeds of 500-550 km s-1 upstream of the termination shock before 2009 and in wind with upstream speeds of 450-500 km s-1 after 2009. The model also predicts that the radial velocity along the Voyager 1 (V1) trajectory is constant across the heliosheath, contrary to observations. This difference in observations implies that additional effects may be responsible for the different flows at V1 and V2. The model predicts meridional flows (VN) higher than those observed because of the strong bluntness of the heliosphere shape in the N direction in the model. The modeled tangential velocity component (VT) at V2 is smaller than observed. Both VN and VT essentially depend on the shape of the heliopause.

  5. Plasma flows in the heliosheath along the Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories due to effects of the 11 yr solar cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Provornikova, E.; Opher, M.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Richardson, J. D.; Toth, G. E-mail: mopher@bu.edu E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu

    2014-10-10

    We investigate the role of the 11 yr solar cycle variations in the solar wind (SW) parameters on the flows in the heliosheath using a new three-dimensional time-dependent model of the interaction between the SW and the interstellar medium. For boundary conditions in the model we use realistic time and the latitudinal dependence of the SW parameters obtained from SOHO/SWAN and interplanetary scintillation data for the last two solar cycles (1990-2011). This data set generally agrees with the in situ Ulysses measurements from 1991 to 2009. For the first ∼30 AU of the heliosheath the time-dependent model predicts constant radial flow speeds at Voyager 2 (V2), which is consistent with observations and different from the steady models that show a radial speed decrease of 30%. The model shows that V2 was immersed in SW with speeds of 500-550 km s{sup –1} upstream of the termination shock before 2009 and in wind with upstream speeds of 450-500 km s{sup –1} after 2009. The model also predicts that the radial velocity along the Voyager 1 (V1) trajectory is constant across the heliosheath, contrary to observations. This difference in observations implies that additional effects may be responsible for the different flows at V1 and V2. The model predicts meridional flows (VN) higher than those observed because of the strong bluntness of the heliosphere shape in the N direction in the model. The modeled tangential velocity component (VT) at V2 is smaller than observed. Both VN and VT essentially depend on the shape of the heliopause.

  6. MIIT: International in-situ testing of simulated HLW forms - performance of SRS simulated waste glass after 6 mos. , 1 yr. , 2 yrs. and 5 yrs. of burial at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G. ); Lodding, A.R. ); Macedo, P.B. ); Clark, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The first field test, involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms and package components, to be conducted in the United States, was begun in July of 1986. This program, called the Materials Interface Interactions Test or MIIT, comprises the largest cooperative field-testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by 7 countries. Also included are about 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are almost 2000 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which is being conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program represents a joint effort managed by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., and Savannah River Laboratory in Aiken, S.C. and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Also involved in MIIT are participants from various laboratories and universities in France, Germany, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In July of 1991, the experimental portion of the 5-yr. MIIT program was completed. Although only about 5% of all MIIT samples have been assessed thus far, there are already interesting findings that have emerged. The present paper will discuss results obtained for SRS 165/TDS waste glass after burial of 6 mo., 1 yr. and 2 yrs., along with initial analyses of 5 yr. samples.

  7. Juan de Fuca plate: Aseismic subduction at 1. 8 cm/yr

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1981-11-01

    Volcanic activity in the Cascades in historic times suggests that the Juan de Fuca plate is underthrusting aseismically at about 1.8 cm/yr. This rate of underthrusting is identical to the rate computed from sediment studies.

  8. Caries management strategies for primary molars: 1-yr randomized control trial results.

    PubMed

    Santamaria, R M; Innes, N P T; Machiulskiene, V; Evans, D J P; Splieth, C H

    2014-11-01

    Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. There is also increasing interest in techniques where no caries is removed. We present the 1-yr results of clinical efficacy for 3 caries management options for occlusoproximal cavitated lesions in primary molars: conventional restorations (CR; complete caries removal and compomer restoration), Hall technique (HT; no caries removal, sealing in with stainless steel crowns), and nonrestorative caries treatment (NRCT; no caries removal, opening up the cavity, teaching brushing and fluoride application). In sum, 169 children (3-8 yr old; mean, 5.56 ± 1.45 yr) were enrolled in this secondary care-based, 3-arm, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial. Treatments were carried out by specialist pediatric dentists or postgraduate trainees. One lesion per child received CR, HT, or NRCT. Outcome measures were clinical failure rates, grouped as minor failure (restoration loss/need for replacement, reversible pulpitis, caries progression, etc.) and major failure (irreversible pulpitis, abscess, etc.). There were 148 children (87.6%) with a minimum follow-up of 11 mo (mean, 12.23 ± 0.98 mo). Twenty teeth were recorded as having at least 1 minor failure: NRCT, n = 8 (5%); CR, n = 11 (7%); HT, n = 1 (1%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Only the comparison between NRCT and CR showed no significant difference (p = .79, 95% CI = 0.78 to 0.80). Nine (6%) experienced at least 1 major failure: NRCT, n = 4 (2%); CR, n = 5 (3%); HT, n = 0 (0%) (p = .002, 95% CI = 0.001 to 0.003). Individual comparison of NRCT and CR showed no statistically significant difference in major failures (p = .75, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.76). Success and failure rates were not significantly affected by pediatric dentists' level of experience (p = .13, 95% CI = 0.12 to 0.14). The HT was significantly more successful

  9. AmeriFlux US-SP2 Slashpine-Mize-clearcut-3yr,regen

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SP2 Slashpine-Mize-clearcut-3yr,regen. Site Description - Even aged slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantation. Planted in Jan. 1999.

  10. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Sjöström, Michael; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Owen, Jennifer R; Zeisel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Academic achievement in adolescents is correlated with 1-carbon metabolism (1-CM), as folate intake is positively related and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) negatively related to academic success. Because another 1-CM nutrient, choline is essential for fetal neurocognitive development, we hypothesized that choline and betaine could also be positively related to academic achievement in adolescents. In a sample of 15-yr-old children (n= 324), we measured plasma concentrations of homocysteine, choline, and betaine and genotyped them for 2 polymorphisms with effects on 1-CM, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, rs1801133, and phosphatidylethanolamineN-methyltransferase (PEMT), rs12325817 (G>C). The sum of school grades in 17 major subjects was used as an outcome measure for academic achievement. Lifestyle and family socioeconomic status (SES) data were obtained from questionnaires. Plasma choline was significantly and positively associated with academic achievement independent of SES factors (paternal education and income, maternal education and income, smoking, school) and of folate intake (P= 0.009,R(2)= 0.285). With the addition of thePEMTrs12325817 polymorphism, the association value was only marginally changed. Plasma betaine concentration, tHcy, and theMTHFR677C>T polymorphism did not affect academic achievement in any tested model involving choline. Dietary intake of choline is marginal in many adolescents and may be a public health concern.-Nilsson, T. K., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Sjöström, M., Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Owen, J. R., Zeisel, S. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents. PMID:26728177

  11. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  12. Molecular Mapping of YrSP and Its Relationship with Other Genes for Stripe Rust Resistance in Wheat Chromosome 2BL.

    PubMed

    Feng, J Y; Wang, M N; Chen, X M; See, D R; Zheng, Y L; Chao, S M; Wan, A M

    2015-09-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best way to control the disease. YrSP, a gene originally from 'Spaldings Prolific' wheat and providing resistance to a broad spectrum of races, is used for differentiating P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races but its chromosomal location is not clear. To map YrSP, a near-isogenic line (AvSYrSPNIL) was backcrossed to the recurrent parent, Avocet S. Genetic analysis of the BC7F1, BC8, BC7F2, and BC7F3 progenies confirmed a single dominant gene for resistance. In total, 182 BC7F2 plants and their derived BC7F3 lines were phenotyped with an avirulent P. striiformis f. sp. tritici race and genotyped with simple-sequence repeat (SSR), single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. A linkage map was constructed with 3 SSR, 17 SNP, and 3 STS markers covering 23.3 centimorgans (cM). Markers IWA638 and dp269 were 0.6 cM proximal and 1.5 cM distal, respectively, to YrSP. The gene was mapped in chromosome bin 2BL-C-0.5, physically within the proximal 50% of the chromosome 2BL arm. Allelism tests based on F2 phenotypes indicated that YrSP is closely linked to but not allelic with genes Yr5, Yr7, Yr43, Yr44, and Yr53. Infection type data from tests with 10 historical and currently predominant P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races in the United States also demonstrated differences in specificity between YrSP and the other genes. The specificity of YrSP is useful in differentiating P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races and studying the plant-pathogen interactions, and the information of chromosomal location of the gene and its tightly linked markers should be useful in developing resistant cultivars when combined with other genes for resistance to stripe rust. PMID:25871858

  13. Ozone and fine particle in the western Yangtze River Delta: an overview of 1-yr data at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an overview of 1-yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in East China. O3 and PM2.5 showed distinguished seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and also indicates a substantial formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1-yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes demonstrated that these episodes were generally associated with an air mass transport pathway over the mid-YRD, i.e. along the Nanjing-Shanghai axis with its city clusters, and showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Agricultural burning activities caused high PM2.5 and O3 pollution during harvest seasons, especially in June. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the middle-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5 pollution in this region, especially for the burning episode days. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions.

  14. Ozone and fine particle in the western Yangtze River Delta: an overview of 1 yr data at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Nie, W.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes demonstrated that these episodes were generally associated with an air mass transport pathway over the mid-YRD, i.e., along the Nanjing-Shanghai axis with its city clusters, and showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Agricultural burning activities caused high PM2.5 and O3 pollution during harvest seasons, especially in June. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5 pollution in this region. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions.

  15. Experimental limits on primordial black hole dark matter from the first 2 yr of Kepler data

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, Kim; Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Lehner, Matthew J.

    2014-05-10

    We present our analysis on new limits of the dark matter (DM) halo consisting of primordial black holes (PBHs) or massive compact halo objects. We present a search of the first two yr of publicly available Kepler mission data for potential signatures of gravitational microlensing caused by these objects as well as an extensive analysis of the astrophysical sources of background error. These include variable stars, flare events, and comets or asteroids that are moving through the Kepler field. We discuss the potential of detecting comets using the Kepler light curves, presenting measurements of two known comets and one unidentified object, most likely an asteroid or comet. After removing the background events with statistical cuts, we find no microlensing candidates. We therefore present our Monte Carlo efficiency calculation in order to constrain the PBH DM with masses in the range of 2 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} to 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉}. We find that PBHs in this mass range cannot make up the entirety of the DM, thus closing a full order of magnitude in the allowed mass range for PBH DM.

  16. Experimental Limits on Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter from the First 2 yr of Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griest, Kim; Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Lehner, Matthew J.

    2014-05-01

    We present our analysis on new limits of the dark matter (DM) halo consisting of primordial black holes (PBHs) or massive compact halo objects. We present a search of the first two yr of publicly available Kepler mission data for potential signatures of gravitational microlensing caused by these objects as well as an extensive analysis of the astrophysical sources of background error. These include variable stars, flare events, and comets or asteroids that are moving through the Kepler field. We discuss the potential of detecting comets using the Kepler light curves, presenting measurements of two known comets and one unidentified object, most likely an asteroid or comet. After removing the background events with statistical cuts, we find no microlensing candidates. We therefore present our Monte Carlo efficiency calculation in order to constrain the PBH DM with masses in the range of 2 × 10-9 M ⊙ to 10-7 M ⊙. We find that PBHs in this mass range cannot make up the entirety of the DM, thus closing a full order of magnitude in the allowed mass range for PBH DM.

  17. UCAC3 PROPER MOTION SURVEY. I. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS IN UCAC3 WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -90{sup 0} AND -47{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Henry, Todd J.

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents 442 new proper motion stellar systems in the southern sky between declinations -90{sup 0} and -47{sup 0} with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1}. These systems constitute a 25.3% increase in new systems for the same region of the sky covered by previous SuperCOSMOS RECONS (SCR) searches that used Schmidt plates as the primary source of discovery. Among the new systems are 25 multiples, plus an additional 7 new common proper motion (CPM) companions to previously known primaries. All stars have been discovered using the third U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3). A comparison of the UCAC3 proper motions to those from the Hipparcos, Tycho-2, Southern Proper Motion (SPM4), and SuperCOSMOS efforts is presented and shows that UCAC3 provides similar values and precision to the first three surveys. The comparison between UCAC3 and SuperCOSMOS indicates that proper motions in R.A. are systematically shifted in the SuperCOSMOS data but are consistent in decl. data, while overall showing a significantly higher scatter. Distance estimates are derived for stars having SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey B{sub J} , R{sub 59F}, and I{sub IVN} plate magnitudes and Two-Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry. We find 15 systems estimated to be within 25 pc, including UPM 1710-5300 our closest new discovery estimated at 13.5 pc. Such new discoveries suggest that more nearby stars are yet to be found in these slower proper motion regimes, indicating that more work is needed to develop a complete map of the solar neighborhood.

  18. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in 1 yr old New Zealand white (NZW) and watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit aortas

    SciTech Connect

    Pfister, S.L.; Schmitz, J.M.; Willerson, J.T.; Campbell, W.B.

    1986-03-01

    This study was designed to characterize the metabolism of arachidonic acid (AA) in normal and atherosclerotic aortas. Segments of aortas were obtained from 1 yr old NZW rabbits, and WHHL rabbits, a genetic model of athero-sclerosis resembling familial hypercholesterolemia. Aortas were incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 15 min with /sup 14/C-AA (5 x 10/sup -5/M) during stimulation by A23187. The media was extracted using octadecylsilica columns and resolved into metabolites by reverse-phase HPLC. Prostaglandins (PGs) were identified by comigration of /sup 14/C-metabolites with standards. The monoxygenated metabolites of AA (HETEs) were resolved by normal-phase HPLC, and their structures confirmed by GC-MS. In extracts from NZW and WHHL aortas, approximately 14% and 6% of the total radioactivity was converted to PGs and HETEs, respectively. The major PG produced by NZW and WHHL aortas was 6-keto PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ with lesser amounts of PGE/sub 2/. Similarly, NZW and WHHL aortas produced primarily 12- and 15-HETE with lesser amounts of 11-, 9-, 8-, and 5-HETE. There were no qualitative differences between NZW and WHHL aortas in PG and HETE production. Therefore, despite extensive atherosclerosis in aortas of WHHL rabbits, the vessels maintain the ability to synthesize PGs and HETEs.

  19. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXV. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -47{sup 0} AND 00{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Mark R.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Henry, Todd J.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Finch, Charlie T.; Subasavage, John P.; Hambly, Nigel C. E-mail: winters@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: jsubasavage@ctio.noao.edu

    2011-07-15

    We present 2817 new southern proper motion systems with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} and declination between -47{sup 0} and 00{sup 0}. This is a continuation of the SuperCOSMOS-RECONS (SCR) proper motion searches of the southern sky. We use the same photometric relations as previous searches to provide distance estimates based on the assumption that the objects are single main-sequence stars. We find 79 new red dwarf systems predicted to be within 25 pc, including a few new components of previously known systems. Two systems-SCR 1731-2452 at 9.5 pc and SCR 1746-3214 at 9.9 pc-are anticipated to be within 10 pc. We also find 23 new white dwarf (WD) candidates with distance estimates of 15-66 pc, as well as 360 new red subdwarf candidates. With this search, we complete the SCR sweep of the southern sky for stars with {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} and R{sub 59F} {<=} 16.5, resulting in a total of 5042 objects in 4724 previously unreported proper motion systems. Here we provide selected comprehensive lists from our SCR proper motion search to date, including 152 red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc (9 within 10 pc), 46 WDs (10 within 25 pc), and 598 subdwarf candidates. The results of this search suggest that there are more nearby systems to be found at fainter magnitudes and lower proper motion limits than those probed so far.

  20. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  1. Tropical warming in the Timor Sea led deglacial Antarctic warming and atmospheric CO 2 rise by more than 500 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnthein, M.; Grootes, P. M.; Holbourn, A.; Kuhnt, W.; Kühn, H.

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of the radiocarbon ( 14C) plateau-tuning method, a new age model for Timor Sea Core MD01-2378 was established. It revealed a precise centennial-scale phasing of climate events in the ocean, cryo-, and atmosphere during the last deglacial and provides important new insights into causal linkages controlling events of global climate change. At Site MD01-2378, reservoir ages of surface waters dropped from 1600 yr prior to 20 cal ka to 250-500 yr after 18.8 cal ka. This evidence is crucial for generating a high-resolution age model for deglacial events in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Sea-surface temperatures (SST) started to change near 18.8 cal ka, that is ~ 500 yr after the start of, presumably northern hemispheric, deglacial melt and sea level rise as shown by the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratio (δ 18O). However, the SST rise occurred 500-1000 yr prior to the onset of deglacial Antarctic warming and the first major rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide at about 18 ka. The increase in SST may partly reflect reduced seasonal upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the eastern margin of the Indian Ocean, which is reflected by a doubling of the thermal gradient between the sea surface and the thermocline, a halving of chlorin productivity from 19 to 18.5 cal ka, and in particular, by the strong decrease in surface water reservoir ages. Two significant increases in deglacial Timor Sea surface salinities from 19 to 18.5 and 15.5 to 14.5 cal ka, may partly reflect the deglacial increase in the distance of local river mouths, partly an inter-hemispheric millennial-scale see-saw in tropical monsoon intensity, possibly linked to a deglacial increase in the dominance of Pacific El Niño regimes over Heinrich stadial 1.

  2. Consequences of moderate ˜ 25,000 yr lasting emission of light CO 2 into the mid-Cretaceous ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Thomas; Wallmann, Klaus; Herrle, Jens O.; Hofmann, Peter; Stuesser, Isabel

    2007-07-01

    Future warming is predicted to shift the Earth system into a mode with progressive increase and vigour of extreme climate events possibly stimulating other mechanisms that invigorate global warming. This study provides new data and modelling investigating climatic consequences and biogeochemical feedbacks that happened in a warmer world ˜ 112 Myr ago. Our study focuses on the Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1b and explores how the Earth system responded to a moderate ˜ 25,000 yr lasting climate perturbation that is modelled to be less than 1 °C in global average temperature. Using a new chronological model for OAE 1b we present high-resolution elemental and bulk carbon isotope records from DSDP Site 545 from Mazagan Plateau off NW Africa and combine this information with a coupled atmosphere-land-ocean model. The simulations suggest that a perturbation at the onset of OAE 1b caused almost instantaneous warming of the atmosphere on the order of 0.3 °C followed by a longer (˜ 45,000 yr) period of ˜ 0.8 °C cooling. The marine records from DSDP Site 545 support that these moderate swings in global climate had immediate consequences for African continental supply of mineral matter and nutrients (phosphorous), subsequent oxygen availability, and organic carbon burial in the eastern subtropical Atlantic, however, without turning the ocean anoxic. The match between modelling results and stratigraphic isotopic data support previous studies [summarized in Jenkyns, H.C., 2003. Evidence for rapid climate change in the Mesozoic-Palaeogene greenhouse world. The Royal Society, 361: 1885-1916.] in that methane emission from marine hydrates, albeit moderate in dimension, may have been the trigger for OAE 1b, though we can not finally rule out alternative mechanisms. Following the hydrate mechanism a total of 1.15 × 10 18 g methane carbon ( δ13C = - 60 ‰), equivalent to about 10% to the total modern gas hydrate inventory, generated the δ13C carb profile recorded in

  3. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  4. Effects of carbon source on expression of alcohol oxidase activity and on morphologic pattern of YR-1 Strain, a filamentous fungus isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Robelo, Carmen Rodríguez; Novoa, Vanesa Zazueta; Zazueta-Sandoval, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Soluble alcohol oxidase (AO) activity was detected in the supernatant fraction of a high-speed centrifugation procedure after ballistic cellular homo-genization to break the mycelium from a filamentous fungus strain named YR-1, isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils. AO activity from aerobically grown mycelium was detected in growth media containing different carbon sources, including alcohols and hydrocarbons but not in glucose. In previous work, zymogram analysis conducted with crude extracts from aerobic mycelium of YR-1 strain indicated the existence of two AO enzymes originally named AO-1 and AO-2. In the present study, we were able to separate the AO-1 band into two bands depending on culture conditions, carbon source, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) separation conditions; the enzyme activity pattern in zymograms from cell-free extracts exhibited three different bands after native PAGE. New nomenclature was used for upper bands AO-1 and AO-2 and lower band AO-3, respectively. The expression of AO activity was studied in the absence of glucose in the culture media and in the presence of hydrocarbons or petroleum as sole carbon source, suggesting that AO expression could be subjected to two regulatory possibilities: carbon catabolite regulation by glucose and induction by hydrocarbons. The possibility of catabolic inhibition of AO by glucose in the active enzyme was also tested, and the results confirm that this kind of regulatory mechanism is not present in AO activity. PMID:15054203

  5. Preemptive heme oxygenase-1 gene delivery reveals reduced mortality and preservation of left ventricular function 1 yr after acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Simpson, Jeremy A; Brunt, Keith R; Ward, Christopher A; Hall, Sean R R; Kinobe, Robert T; Barrette, Valerie; Tse, M Yat; Pang, Stephen C; Pachori, Alok S; Dzau, Victor J; Ogunyankin, Kofo O; Melo, Luis G

    2007-07-01

    We reported previously that predelivery of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene to the heart by adeno-associated virus-2 (AAV-2) markedly reduces ischemia and reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. However, the effect of preemptive HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival and prevention of postinfarction heart failure has not been determined. We assessed the effect of HO-1 gene delivery on long-term survival, myocardial function, and left ventricular (LV) remodeling 1 yr after myocardial infarction (MI) using echocardiographic imaging, pressure-volume (PV) analysis, and histomorphometric approaches. Two groups of Lewis rats were injected with 2 x 10(11) particles of AAV-LacZ (control) or AAV-human HO-1 (hHO-1) in the anterior-posterior apical region of the LV wall. Six weeks after gene transfer, animals were subjected to 30 min of ischemia by ligation of the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion. Echocardiographic measurements and PV analysis of LV function were obtained at 2 wk and 12 mo after I/R. One year after acute MI, mortality was markedly reduced in the HO-1-treated animals compared with the LacZ-treated animals. PV analysis demonstrated significantly enhanced LV developed pressure, elevated maximal dP/dt, and lower end-diastolic volume in the HO-1 animals compared with the LacZ animals. Echocardiography showed a larger apical anterior-to-posterior wall ratio in HO-1 animals compared with LacZ animals. Morphometric analysis revealed extensive myocardial scarring and fibrosis in the infarcted LV area of LacZ animals, which was reduced by 62% in HO-1 animals. These results suggest that preemptive HO-1 gene delivery may be useful as a therapeutic strategy to reduce post-MI LV remodeling and heart failure. PMID:17322421

  6. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, L. M.; Schott, J.; Pollard, D.; Déqué, M.; Dury, M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH), we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the south but decreases strongly in the north. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite - which consumes most of the CO2 - decreases in both end members (south and north) of the transect due to its retrograde solubility. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the north-south transect show that the dolomite weathering advance rate will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower

  7. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, L. M.; Schott, J.; Pollard, D.; Déqué, M.

    2012-08-01

    Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH) we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the South but decreases strongly in the North. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite - which consumes most of the CO2-decreases due to its retrograde solubility in both end members (South and North) of the transect. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the North-South transect show that dolomite weathering will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower lysocline expected in

  8. Cosmological Constraints from Measurements of Type Ia Supernovae Discovered during the First 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Foley, R. J.; Huber, M. E.; Chornock, R.; Narayan, G.; Tonry, J. L.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Riess, A.; Kirshner, R. P.; Smartt, S. J.; Schlafly, E.; Rodney, S.; Botticella, M. T.; Brout, D.; Challis, P.; Czekala, I.; Drout, M.; Hudson, M. J.; Kotak, R.; Leibler, C.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; McCrum, M.; Milisavljevic, D.; Pastorello, A.; Sanders, N. E.; Smith, K.; Stafford, E.; Thilker, D.; Valenti, S.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; Zheng, Z.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Denneau, L.; Draper, P. W.; Flewelling, H.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Magnier, E. A.; Metcalfe, N.; Price, P. A.; Sweeney, W.; Wainscoat, R.; Waters, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present griz P1 light curves of 146 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia 0.03 < z < 0.65) discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The Pan-STARRS1 natural photometric system is determined by a combination of on-site measurements of the instrument response function and observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. We find that the systematic uncertainties in the photometric system are currently 1.2% without accounting for the uncertainty in the Hubble Space Telescope Calspec definition of the AB system. A Hubble diagram is constructed with a subset of 113 out of 146 SNe Ia that pass our light curve quality cuts. The cosmological fit to 310 SNe Ia (113 PS1 SNe Ia + 222 light curves from 197 low-z SNe Ia), using only supernovae (SNe) and assuming a constant dark energy equation of state and flatness, yields w=-1.120+0.360-0.206{(Stat)} +0.269-0.291{(Sys)}. When combined with BAO+CMB(Planck)+H 0, the analysis yields Ω _M=0.280+0.013-0.012 and w=-1.166+0.072-0.069 including all identified systematics. The value of w is inconsistent with the cosmological constant value of -1 at the 2.3σ level. Tension endures after removing either the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) or the H 0 constraint, though it is strongest when including the H 0 constraint. If we include WMAP9 cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints instead of those from Planck, we find w=-1.124+0.083-0.065, which diminishes the discord to <2σ. We cannot conclude whether the tension with flat ΛCDM is a feature of dark energy, new physics, or a combination of chance and systematic errors. The full Pan-STARRS1 SN sample with ~three times as many SNe should provide more conclusive results.

  9. Submillennial palynology and palaeoecology of the last glaciation at Taiquemó (˜50,000 cal yr, MIS 2 4) in southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heusser, C. J.; Heusser, L. E.

    2006-03-01

    Stratigraphic palynology of core HE94-2B from a mire at Taiquemó (42.17°S, 73.60°W) on Isla Grande de Chiloé is one of the most closely sampled, continuous Pleistocene records in southern South America. Chronology of the 655-cm core that extends from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 through the Lateglacial is controlled by 27 finite radiocarbon dates. Sampled at 1-cm intervals, the high temporal resolution (mean ˜85 yr cm -1) captures short-term palaeoecological changes and successional restabilization of plant communities. Preponderance of Gramineae (grass) with Nothofagus dombeyi type (southern beech) characterizing Subantarctic Parkland under a cold climate in MIS 4 was followed by a conspicuously milder interval that lasted for some ten millennia in MIS 3. Of greater frequency and diversity at this time were more thermophilic taxa associated with North Patagonian Evergreen Forest ( Podocarpus, Pilgerodendron type , Pseudopanax, Myrtaceae). Subsequently with increasing cold and hyperhumidity, N. dombeyi type-Gramineae assemblages that included Subantarctic Parkland indicator taxa ( Lepidothamnus, Astelia, Gaimardia) increased stepwise in MIS 2-3. Parkland maxima in MIS 2 during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) date to glacial advances between ˜17,800 and 33,400 cal yr BP. On deglaciation, Lateglacial North Patagonian Evergreen Forest was subject to short-term stadial and interstadial climatic fluctuations. The high-resolution Taiquemó pollen record details and supports previous conclusions of interhemispheric synchrony of climatic and glacial events.

  10. Characterizing climate-change impacts on the 1.5-yr flood flow in selected basins across the United States: a probabilistic approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model was applied to basins in 14 different hydroclimatic regions to determine the sensitivity and variability of the freshwater resources of the United States in the face of current climate-change projections. Rather than attempting to choose a most likely scenario from the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an ensemble of climate simulations from five models under three emissions scenarios each was used to drive the basin models. Climate-change scenarios were generated for PRMS by modifying historical precipitation and temperature inputs; mean monthly climate change was derived by calculating changes in mean climates from current to various future decades in the ensemble of climate projections. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) were fitted to the PRMS model output driven by the ensemble of climate projections and provided a basis for randomly (but representatively) generating realizations of hydrologic response to future climates. For each realization, the 1.5-yr flood was calculated to represent a flow important for sediment transport and channel geomorphology. The empirical probability density function (pdf) of the 1.5-yr flood was estimated using the results across the realizations for each basin. Of the 14 basins studied, 9 showed clear temporal shifts in the pdfs of the 1.5-yr flood projected into the twenty-first century. In the western United States, where the annual peak discharges are heavily influenced by snowmelt, three basins show at least a 10% increase in the 1.5-yr flood in the twenty-first century; the remaining two basins demonstrate increases in the 1.5-yr flood, but the temporal shifts in the pdfs and the percent changes are not as distinct. Four basins in the eastern Rockies/central United States show at least a 10% decrease in the 1.5-yr flood; the remaining two basins demonstrate decreases in the 1.5-yr flood, but the temporal shifts in the pdfs

  11. Cosmological constraints from measurements of type Ia supernovae discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S.; Brout, D.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Czekala, I.; Drout, M.; Huber, M. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Narayan, G.; Smartt, S. J.; Schlafly, E.; Botticella, M. T.; and others

    2014-11-01

    We present griz {sub P1} light curves of 146 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; 0.03 < z < 0.65) discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The Pan-STARRS1 natural photometric system is determined by a combination of on-site measurements of the instrument response function and observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. We find that the systematic uncertainties in the photometric system are currently 1.2% without accounting for the uncertainty in the Hubble Space Telescope Calspec definition of the AB system. A Hubble diagram is constructed with a subset of 113 out of 146 SNe Ia that pass our light curve quality cuts. The cosmological fit to 310 SNe Ia (113 PS1 SNe Ia + 222 light curves from 197 low-z SNe Ia), using only supernovae (SNe) and assuming a constant dark energy equation of state and flatness, yields w=−1.120{sub −0.206}{sup +0.360}(Stat){sub −0.291}{sup +0.269}(Sys). When combined with BAO+CMB(Planck)+H {sub 0}, the analysis yields Ω{sub M}=0.280{sub −0.012}{sup +0.013} and w=−1.166{sub −0.069}{sup +0.072} including all identified systematics. The value of w is inconsistent with the cosmological constant value of –1 at the 2.3σ level. Tension endures after removing either the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) or the H {sub 0} constraint, though it is strongest when including the H {sub 0} constraint. If we include WMAP9 cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints instead of those from Planck, we find w=−1.124{sub −0.065}{sup +0.083}, which diminishes the discord to <2σ. We cannot conclude whether the tension with flat ΛCDM is a feature of dark energy, new physics, or a combination of chance and systematic errors. The full Pan-STARRS1 SN sample with ∼three times as many SNe should provide more conclusive results.

  12. UCAC3 PROPER MOTION SURVEY. II. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS IN UCAC3 WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -47 Degree-Sign and 00 Degree-Sign

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Boyd, Mark R.; Henry, Todd J.; Hambly, Nigel C.

    2012-02-01

    We present 474 new proper motion stellar systems in the southern sky having no previously known components, with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} >{mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} between declinations -47 Degree-Sign and 0 Degree-Sign . In this second paper utilizing the U.S. Naval Observatory third CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3) we complete our sweep of the southern sky for objects in the proper motion range targeted by this survey with R magnitudes ranging from 9.80 to 19.61. The new systems contribute a {approx}16% increase in the number of new stellar systems for the same region of sky reported in previous SuperCOSMOS Research Consortium On Nearby Stars (RECONS) surveys. Among the newly discovered stellar systems are 16 multiples, plus an additional ten components that are new common proper motion companions to previously known objects. A comparison of UCAC3 proper motions to those from Hipparcos, Tycho-2, Southern Proper Motion, and SuperCOSMOS indicates that all proper motions are consistent to {approx}10 mas yr{sup -1}, with the exception of SuperCOSMOS. Distance estimates are derived for all stellar systems having SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey B{sub J} , R{sub 59F}, and I{sub IVN} plate magnitudes and Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) infrared photometry. We find five new red dwarf systems estimated to be within 25 pc. These discoveries support results from previous proper motion surveys suggesting that more nearby stellar systems are to be found, particularly in the fainter, slower moving samples. In this second paper utilizing the UCAC3 we complete our sweep of the southern sky for objects in the proper motion range targeted by this survey with R magnitudes ranging from 9.80 to 19.61.

  13. The Solar Neighborhood. XIII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 Meter Program: Stars with μ >= 1.0" yr-1 (MOTION Sample)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Subasavage, John P.; Brown, Misty A.; Ianna, Philip A.; Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Costa, Edgardo; Méndez, René A.

    2005-04-01

    We present the first set of definitive trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation. Full astrometric reductions for the program are discussed, including methods of reference star selection, differential color refraction corrections, and conversion of relative to absolute parallax. Using data acquired at the 0.9 m telescope at CTIO, full astrometric solutions and VRIJHKs photometry are presented for 36 red and white dwarf stellar systems with proper motions faster than 1.0" yr-1. Of these, 33 systems have their first ever trigonometric parallaxes, which comprise 41% of MOTION systems (those reported to have proper motions greater than 1.0" yr-1) south of δ=0deg that have no parallaxes. Four of the systems are new members of the RECONS 10 pc sample for which the first accurate trigonometric parallaxes are published here: DENIS J1048-3956 (4.04+/-0.03 pc), GJ 1128 (LHS 271, 6.53+/-0.10 pc), GJ 1068 (LHS 22, 6.97+/-0.09 pc), and GJ 1123 (LHS 263, 9.02+/-0.16 pc). In addition, two red subdwarf-white dwarf pairs, LHS 193AB and LHS 300AB, are identified. The white dwarf secondaries fall in a previously uncharted region of the H-R diagram.

  14. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrCH42 in Chinese wheat cultivar Chuanmai 42 and its allelism with Yr24 and Yr26.

    PubMed

    Li, G Q; Li, Z F; Yang, W Y; Zhang, Y; He, Z H; Xu, S C; Singh, R P; Qu, Y Y; Xia, X C

    2006-05-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most devastating diseases in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. The objectives of this study were to map a stripe rust resistance gene in Chinese wheat cultivar Chuanmai 42 using molecular markers and to investigate its allelism with Yr24 and Yr26. A total of 787 F2 plants and 186 F3 lines derived from a cross between resistant cultivar Chuanmai 42 and susceptible line Taichung 29 were used for resistance gene tagging. Also 197 F2 plants from the cross Chuanmai 42xYr24/3*Avocet S and 726 F2 plants from Chuanmai 42xYr26/3*Avocet S were employed for allelic test of the resistance genes. In all, 819 pairs of wheat SSR primers were used to test the two parents, as well as resistant and susceptible bulks. Subsequently, nine polymorphic markers were employed for genotyping the F2 and F3 populations. Results indicated that the stripe rust resistance in Chuanmai 42 was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated YrCH42, located close to the centromere of chromosome 1B and flanked by nine SSR markers Xwmc626, Xgwm273, Xgwm11, Xgwm18, Xbarc137, Xbarc187, Xgwm498, Xbarc240 and Xwmc216. The resistance gene was closely linked to Xgwm498 and Xbarc187 with genetic distances of 1.6 and 2.3 cM, respectively. The seedling tests with 26 PST isolates and allelic tests indicated that YrCH42, Yr24 and Yr26 are likely to be the same gene. PMID:16525837

  15. The Solar Neighborhood. XXIV. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: Stars with μ >= 1farcs0 yr-1 (MOTION Sample) and Subdwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Subasavage, John P.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Riedel, Adric R.; Ianna, Philip A.

    2011-04-01

    We present 41 trigonometric parallaxes of 37 stellar systems, most of which have proper motions greater than 1farcs0 yr-1. These are the first trigonometric parallaxes for 24 systems. Overall, there are 15 red dwarf systems and 22 red subdwarf systems in the sample. Five of the systems are multiples with directly detected companions, and we have discovered perturbations caused by unseen companions in two additional cases, the dwarf LHS 501 and the subdwarf LHS 440. The latter system may eventually provide important dynamical mass points on the subdwarf mass-luminosity relation. Two additional stars of note are LHS 272, the third closest M-type subdwarf at a distance of only 13.6 pc, and LHS 2734 AB, a high-velocity subdwarf binary with V tan> 700 km s-1, which likely exceeds the escape velocity of the Milky Way. We also report the first long-term variability study of cool subdwarfs indicating that cool subdwarfs are less photometrically variable than their main-sequence counterparts.

  16. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXIV. PARALLAX RESULTS FROM THE CTIOPI 0.9 m PROGRAM: STARS WITH {mu} {>=} 1.''0 yr{sup -1} (MOTION SAMPLE) AND SUBDWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Riedel, Adric R.; Subasavage, John P.; Ianna, Philip A. E-mail: thenry@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: riedel@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: philianna3@gmail.com

    2011-04-15

    We present 41 trigonometric parallaxes of 37 stellar systems, most of which have proper motions greater than 1.''0 yr{sup -1}. These are the first trigonometric parallaxes for 24 systems. Overall, there are 15 red dwarf systems and 22 red subdwarf systems in the sample. Five of the systems are multiples with directly detected companions, and we have discovered perturbations caused by unseen companions in two additional cases, the dwarf LHS 501 and the subdwarf LHS 440. The latter system may eventually provide important dynamical mass points on the subdwarf mass-luminosity relation. Two additional stars of note are LHS 272, the third closest M-type subdwarf at a distance of only 13.6 pc, and LHS 2734 AB, a high-velocity subdwarf binary with V{sub tan}> 700 km s{sup -1}, which likely exceeds the escape velocity of the Milky Way. We also report the first long-term variability study of cool subdwarfs indicating that cool subdwarfs are less photometrically variable than their main-sequence counterparts.

  17. Model experiments on the 100,000-yr glacial cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oerlemans, J.

    1980-10-01

    It is believed that during the Quaternary era changes in global ice volume were mainly due to changes in the size of the ice sheets on the Eurasian and American continents. Time spectra of oxygen isotope records from deep-sea cores and of the Earth's orbital parameters are remarkably similar in the 10,000-120,000-yr range1,2, suggesting that changes in global ice volume are forced by insolation variations. Model studies by Weertman3,4 and Pollard5 have confirmed this point to some extent: the 20,000- and 40,000-yr cycles can be reproduced, but the 100,000-yr cycle does not show up. Recently, Imbrie and Imbrie6 have fitted simple nonlinear mathematical models to δ18O curves. They found that reasonable fits are obtained if the time scale for ice-sheet growth is about 27,000 yr and for decay about 7,000 yr. The present study considers the problem of the 100,000-yr cycle in a similar way. Experiments with a Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet model show that the 100,000-yr cycle and its sawtooth shape may be explained by ice sheet/bedrock dynamics alone. This cycle seems to be an internally generated feature and is not forced by variations in the eccentricity of the Earth's orbit.

  18. School related factors and 1yr change in physical activity amongst 9–11 year old English schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Activity levels are known to decline with age and there is growing evidence of associations between the school environment and physical activity. In this study we investigated how objectively measured one-year changes in physical activity may be associated with school-related factors in 9- to 10-year-old British children. Methods Data were analysed from 839 children attending 89 schools in the SPEEDY (Sport, Physical Activity, and Eating behaviours: Environmental Determinants in Young People) study. Outcomes variables were one year changes in objectively measured sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, with baseline measures taken when the children were 9–10 years old. School characteristics hypothesised to be associated with change in physical activity were identified from questionnaires, grounds audits, and computer mapping. Associations were examined using simple and multivariable multilevel regression models for both school (9 am – 3 pm) and travel (8–9 am and 3–4 pm) time. Results Significant associations during school time included the length of the morning break which was found to be supportive of moderate (β coefficient: 0.68 [p: 0.003]) and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.52 [p: 0.002]) activities and helps to prevent adverse changes in sedentary time (β coefficient: -2.52 [p: 0.001]). During travel time, positive associations were found between the presence of safe places to cross roads around the school and changes in moderate (β coefficient: 0.83 [p:0.022]) and vigorous (β coefficient: 0.56 [p:0.001]) activity, as well as sedentary time (β coefficient: -1.61 [p:0.005]). Conclusion This study suggests that having longer morning school breaks and providing road safety features such as cycling infrastructure, a crossing guard, and safe places for children to cross the road may have a role to play in supporting the maintenance of moderate and vigorous activity behaviours, and preventing the development of sedentary

  19. CO2 enrichment alters diurnal stem radius fluctuations of 36-yr-old Larix decidua growing at the alpine tree line.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Melissa A; Zweifel, Roman; Dawes, Nicholas; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To understand how trees at high elevations might use water differently in the future, we investigated the effects of CO2 enrichment and soil warming (separately and combined) on the water relations of Larix decidua growing at the tree line in the Swiss Alps. We assessed diurnal stem radius fluctuations using point dendrometers and applied a hydraulic plant model using microclimate and soil water potential data as inputs. Trees exposed to CO2 enrichment for 9 yr showed smaller diurnal stem radius contractions (by 46 ± 16%) and expansions (42 ± 16%) compared with trees exposed to ambient CO2 . Additionally, there was a delay in the timing of daily maximum (40 ± 12 min) and minimum (63 ± 14 min) radius values for trees growing under elevated CO2 . Parameters optimized with the hydraulic model suggested that CO2 -enriched trees had an increased flow resistance between the xylem and bark, representing a more buffered water supply system. Soil warming did not alter diurnal fluctuation dynamics or the CO2 response. Elevated CO2 altered the hydraulic water flow and storage system within L. decidua trees, which might have contributed to enhanced growth during 9 yr of CO2 enrichment and could ultimately influence the future competitive ability of this key tree-line species. PMID:24571288

  20. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, Northern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.; Kherbouche, F.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Cheng, H.; Dewilde, F.; Hachi, S.; Edwards, R. L.; Régnier, E.; Michelot, J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied around the Eastern-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and Eastern-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate-culture relation at fine timescales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the Western-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in Northern Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  1. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.; Kherbouche, F.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Cheng, H.; Dewilde, F.; Hachi, S.; Edwards, L. R.; Régnier, E.; Michelot, J.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied round the E-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate-culture relation at fine time scales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in N-Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  2. Gaia science operations 1.5 yr into the nominal mission: concepts, experiences and lessons learned ESA/ESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Uwe; Guerra, Rocio; Cheek, Neil; Siddiqui, Hassan; Jansen, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's astrometry satellite Gaia was launched in December 2013 and started its scientific operations in July 2014 after an extended payload commissioning period. During the first year of the nominal mission the astrometric instrument alone has made around 250 Billion individual measurements which already now constitues one of the largest astronomical datasets in existence. Operations will continue for at least the next 4 years and after an extensive data processing effort an astronomical catalogue containing some 1.5 Billion celestial objects will be produced. We describe the chosen key concepts for handling the massive amounts of daily data at the Science Operations Centre at ESAC, Madrid, their initial processing and dissemination to the other five partner processing centres. We will also illustrate some of the great challenges that the mission data poses in terms of storage, processing, monitoring, and analysis.

  3. CMEs, the Tail of the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Distribution, and 11-yr Cosmic Ray Modulation at 1 AU. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Ling, A. G.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Using a recent classification of the solar wind at 1 AU into its principal components (slow solar wind, high-speed streams, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for 1972-2000, we show that the monthly-averaged galactic cosmic ray intensity is anti-correlated with the percentage of time that the Earth is imbedded in CME flows. We suggest that this correlation results primarily from a CME related change in the tail of the distribution function of hourly-averaged values of the solar wind magnetic field (B) between solar minimum and solar maximum. The number of high-B (square proper subset 10 nT) values increases by a factor of approx. 3 from minimum to maximum (from 5% of all hours to 17%), with about two-thirds of this increase due to CMEs. On an hour-to-hour basis, average changes of cosmic ray intensity at Earth become negative for solar wind magnetic field values square proper subset 10 nT.

  4. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the “yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy” (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications. PMID:25206331

  5. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications. PMID:25206331

  6. Second-language listening anxiety before and after a 1-yr. intervention in extensive listening compared with standard foreign language instruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have shown that language anxiety is correlated negatively with language competence. This study tests the hypothesis that second language learners' listening anxiety might be reduced when listening skills improve. Building on previous research showing that extensive reading is as effective and efficient as formal instruction in acquiring English as a foreign language and is even more effective with longer treatment duration, changes in listening anxiety were explored under two different instructional approaches-extensive listening and formal instruction-over a 1-yr. period in a sample of 92 Chinese college students. Listening anxiety and listening comprehension tests were administered to the participants before and after the experiment. Analysis showed that the Extensive Listening group improved more compared to the Formal Instruction group in listening competence, but their mean anxiety score also rose significantly. Factors contributing to the unexpected outcome indicate that the increase in anxiety should be considered facilitative to learning. PMID:20499548

  7. 10,000 yr record of extreme hydrologic events

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.L.; Bierman, P.R.; Lini, A.; Southon, J.

    2000-04-01

    Well-dated lacustrine sediments provide a hydrologic record indicating that the frequency and magnitude of runoff events, and by inference, storms, have varied over the past 10 k.y. in northern New England. The authors used five sediment cores and radiocarbon dating to develop a chronology of Holocene hydrologic events for the Ritterbush Pond basin, northern Vermont. Chemical and physical analyses allow them to identify 52 distinct layers of predominantly inorganic sediment that represent terrestrially derived material delivered to the pond by runoff events. The thickness of some layers suggests hydrologic events at least equal in size to, and probably much larger than, any storm or flood recorded during nearly 300 yr of written regional history. Layer thickness and frequency and, by analogy, storm size and recurrence, change through the Holocene. The largest events occurred 2620, 6840, and 9440 calibrated {sup 14}C years before present (cal {sup 14}C yr B.P.). The most frequent hydrologic events occurred in three periods: 1,750 to 2,620, 6,330 to 6,840, and > 8,600 cal yr B.P. The recurrence interval of layer deposition during stormy periods averages 130 {+-} 100 cal yr, whereas the recurrence interval during less stormy periods is longer, 270 {+-} 170 cal yr. The Ritterbush Pond event record illustrates the potential of inorganic lacustrine sediment to serve as a proxy record for estimating paleoflood frequency and deciphering climate change.

  8. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXII. PARALLAX RESULTS FROM THE CTIOPI 0.9 m PROGRAM: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF 64 NEARBY SYSTEMS WITH 0.''5 {<=}{mu}{<=} 1.''0 yr{sup -1} (SLOWMO SAMPLE)

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, Adric R.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Brown, Misty A.; Subasavage, John P.; Finch, Charlie T.; Ianna, Philip A.; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A. E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: winters@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: jsubasavage@ctio.noao.ed E-mail: pai@virginia.ed E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.c

    2010-09-15

    We present trigonometric parallaxes of 64 stellar systems with proper motions between 0.''5 yr{sup -1} and 1.''0 yr{sup -1} from the ongoing Research Consortium On Nearby Stars parallax program at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. All of the systems are south of decl. =+30, and 58 had no previous trigonometric parallaxes. In addition to parallaxes for the systems, we present proper motions, Johnson-Kron-Cousins VRI photometry, variability measurements, and spectral types. Nine of the systems are multiple; we present results for their components, three of which are new astrometric detections. Of the 64 systems, 56 are within 25 pc of the Sun and 52 of those are in the southern hemisphere, comprising 5.7% of the total number of known southern 25 pc systems.

  9. Molecular mapping of YrSP and its relationship with other genes for stripe rust resistance in wheat chromosome 2BL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best way to control the disease. YrSP, a gene originally from wheat variety Spaldings Prolific and providing resistance to a broad spectrum of races, is used for differen...

  10. PACE-90 water and solute transport calculations for 0.01, 0.1, and 0. 5 mm/yr infiltration into Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.; Martinez, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    Numerical results are presented for the Performance Assessment Calculational Exercise (PACE-90). One- and two-dimensional water and solute transport are presented for steady infiltration into Yucca Mountain. Evenly distributed infiltration rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mm/yr were considered. The calculations of solute transport show that significant amounts of radionuclides can reach the water table over 100,000 yr at the 0.5 mm/yr rate. For time periods less than 10,000 yr or infiltrations less than 0.1 mm/yr very little solute reaches the water table. The numerical simulations clearly demonstrate that multi-dimensional effects can result in significant decreases in the travel time of solute through the modeled domain. Dual continuum effects are shown to be negligible for the low steady state fluxes considered. However, material heterogeneities may cause local amplification of the flux level in multi-dimensional flows. These higher flux levels may then require modeling of a dual continuum porous medium.

  11. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated to on-site prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in semi-arid N-Algeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought in Algeria is a recurring phenomenon and prolonged dry condition exerts a significant impact on local society. For instance, the most recent (1999-2002) drought, as part of a widespread drying in N-Hemisphere, brought this country considerable loss in regards to water resource and agricultural yields. A comprehensive understanding of past climate anomaly is relevant to predicting and mitigating future climate change effects. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, but the scarcity of such records in W-Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin. Besides, climate deteriorations have long been argued to be linked with past cultural disruptions. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due that existing climatic evidence has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. Here we present the first decadal-resolution Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria. Comparing our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600 yr BP, ca. 5200 yr BP and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean. New radiocarbon dating from this study well constrains the age of anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave. In-situ comparisons of evidence of climate and cultural change show that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4400 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  12. 10 Yr Spatial and Temporal Trends of PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern US Estimated Using High-resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 g m3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 g m3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 g m3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 g m3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The results showed

  13. 10 yr spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern US estimated using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 μg m-3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 μg m-3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 μg m-3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 μg m-3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 4yr 1.3mm VLBI observations of SgrA* with EHT (Fish+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, V. L.; Johnson, M. D.; Doeleman, S. S.; Broderick, A. E.; Psaltis, D.; Lu, R.-S.; Akiyama, K.; Alef, W.; Algaba, J. C.; Asada, K.; Beaudoin, C.; Bertarini, A.; Blackburn, L.; Blundell, R.; Bower, G. C.; Brinkerink, C.; Cappallo, R.; Chael, A. A.; Chamberlin, R.; Chan, C.-K.; Crew, G. B.; Dexter, J.; Dexter, M.; Dzib, S. A.; Falcke, H.; Freund, R.; Friberg, P.; Greer, C. H.; Gurwell, M. A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Honma, M.; Inoue, M.; Johannsen, T.; Kim, J.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lamb, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Loeb, A.; Loinard, L.; MacMahon, D.; Marrone, D. P.; Moran, J. M.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Ortiz-Leon, G. N.; Oyama, T.; Ozel, F.; Plambeck, R. L.; Pradel, N.; Primiani, R. A.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Rosenfeld, K.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A. L.; Ruszczyk, C.; Smythe, D. L.; Soohoo, J.; Spilker, J.; Stone, J.; Strittmatter, P.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Titus, M.; Vertatschitsch, L.; Wagner, J.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Weintroub, J.; Woody, D.; Wright, M.; Yamaguchi, P.; Young, A.; Young, K. H.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) obtained detections of Sgr A* on closed triangles of baselines among stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. In all cases, two 480MHz bands, centered at 229.089GHz and 229.601GHz (hereafter, low and high bands, respectively), were observed. One or more telescopes from each of three sites in Arizona, California, and Hawaii participated in each set of observations. The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, was used in all cases. Over the years of data analyzed here, the configuration of VLBI recording at these sites evolved as described in section 2.1. (1 data file).

  15. Volatile composition of the phonolitic Laacher See magma (12,900 yr BP): implications for syn-eruptive degassing of S, F, Cl and H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harms, E.; Schmincke, H.-U.

    A volatile-rich and chemically zoned phonolitic magma reservoir was tapped successively during the eruption of Laacher See volcano ca. 12,900years BP and produced a tephra sequence consisting of phenocryst-poor, highly evolved phonolite at the base and phenocryst-rich, more mafic phonolite at the top. The stratospheric volatile loading was estimated by comparing pre- and post-eruptive S, F, Cl and H2O contents of undegassed glass inclusions and partially degassed matrix glasses. Glass inclusions (150-1490ppm S) and host matrix glasses (150-820ppm S) both document a strong S decrease during progressive magmatic differentiation, which is interpreted to be partially caused by crystallization of hauyne. The S6+/Stotal ratio of the pre-eruptive melt increased with differentiation from 8 to 71%, as indicated by S kα wavelength shift measurements in glass inclusions. Sulfate-rich, highly evolved phonolitic magma was erupted during Plinian and sulfide-rich, more mafic phonolitic magma during late phreatomagmatic phases. F and Cl became enriched during late stages of differentiation (glass inclusions: 690-4060ppm F, 1770-4400ppm Cl; matrix glasses: 680-3660ppm F, 2130-4330ppm Cl). The most differentiated melts (maximum 13wt% Na2O) occur only as matrix glass and are extremely F enriched (5080-8780ppm) but Cl depleted (460-2820ppm), suggesting that F was retained in the melt, whereas some Cl was lost during pre- and/or syn-eruptive degassing. The H2O contents of glass inclusions increase irregularly with differentiation (2.5-5.7wt%). Matrix glasses are H2O depleted (0.2-2.8wt%) compared to most glass inclusions, showing that most H2O was released to the atmosphere by explosive degassing. A mass balance calculation yields a syn-eruptive volatile release of 1.9 Tg Stotal, 6.6 Tg Cl and 403 Tg H2O from the melt. This is a minimum estimate, since S and Cl could have accumulated in a separate fluid phase as indicated by fluid inclusions in hauyne and pre-eruption H2O contents

  16. Comparison of Magnetic, Geochemical and Biological Proxies Signals in a ca. 2,000 yr Record from the Tropical Lowlands of Eastern Mexico.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, M.; Beatriz, O.; Ma. Del Socorro, L.; Rodríguez, A.

    2007-05-01

    Pollen, diatoms, geochemical, magnetic and non-magnetic mineral analyses were conducted on a lacustrine sequence from a maar lake on the tropical lowlands of eastern Mexico. Chronological framework for this lake is based on age determinations by 210-Pb, 137-Cs and 14-C. The studied sequence covers the last ca. 2000 yr, a time of important environmental transformations in the area due to climatic variability as well as human impact since the early Olmec societies until the recent forest clearance of the 20th century. Through these analyses we investigated the processes that affected the magnetic mineralogy in order to construct a model of past environmental changes, and compare it with the biological proxy records (diatoms and pollen) and the archeological record. Inferred climatic changes for this area are further compared with the documented climatic changes in the northern hemisphere of tropical America. Volcanic activity has played a major influence on sediment magnetic properties, as a purveyor of Ti-magnetites/Ti-maghemites, and as a factor of instability in the environment. Moisture availability has been determinant for the diatom and pollen records, and human impact is mostly reflected in the pollen and geochemical records. Direct observations of magnetic minerals and ratios of geochemical (Fe, Ti), and ferrimagnetic (χ f ) and paramagnetic (χ p) susceptibility (χ) data, are used as parameters for magnetite dissolution (χ p/χ, Fe/χ f ), and precipitation (χ f/Ti) of magnetic minerals. Evidence of agricultural practices associated with increased erosion, deforestation, higher evaporation rates, lower lake levels, anoxia and reductive diagenesis in non-sulphidic conditions are inferred for laminated sediments between A.D. 20-850. This deposit matches the period of historical crisis and multiyear droughts that contributed to the collapse of the Maya civilization. Dissolution of magnetite, a high organic content, framboidal pyrite and a change in the

  17. Reconstruction of geomagnetic activity and near-Earth interplanetary conditions over the past 167 yr - Part 1: A new geomagnetic data composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lockwood, M.; Barnard, L.; Nevanlinna, H.; Owens, M. J.; Harrison, R. G.; Rouillard, A. P.; Davis, C. J.

    2013-11-01

    We present a new composite of geomagnetic activity which is designed to be as homogeneous in its construction as possible. This is done by only combining data that, by virtue of the locations of the source observatories used, have similar responses to solar wind and IMF (interplanetary magnetic field) variations. This will enable us (in Part 2, Lockwood et al., 2013a) to use the new index to reconstruct the interplanetary magnetic field, B, back to 1846 with a full analysis of errors. Allowance is made for the effects of secular change in the geomagnetic field. The composite uses interdiurnal variation data from Helsinki for 1845-1890 (inclusive) and 1893-1896 and from Eskdalemuir from 1911 to the present. The gaps are filled using data from the Potsdam (1891-1892 and 1897-1907) and the nearby Seddin observatories (1908-1910) and intercalibration achieved using the Potsdam-Seddin sequence. The new index is termed IDV(1d) because it employs many of the principles of the IDV index derived by Svalgaard and Cliver (2010), inspired by the u index of Bartels (1932); however, we revert to using one-day (1d) means, as employed by Bartels, because the use of near-midnight values in IDV introduces contamination by the substorm current wedge auroral electrojet, giving noise and a dependence on solar wind speed that varies with latitude. The composite is compared with independent, early data from European-sector stations, Greenwich, St Petersburg, Parc St Maur, and Ekaterinburg, as well as the composite u index, compiled from 2-6 stations by Bartels, and the IDV index of Svalgaard and Cliver. Agreement is found to be extremely good in all cases, except two. Firstly, the Greenwich data are shown to have gradually degraded in quality until new instrumentation was installed in 1915. Secondly, we infer that the Bartels u index is increasingly unreliable before about 1886 and overestimates the solar cycle amplitude between 1872 and 1883 and this is amplified in the proxy data used

  18. Regional climate model simulations for Europe at 6 k and 0.2 k yr BP: sensitivity to changes in anthropogenic deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strandberg, G.; Kjellström, E.; Poska, A.; Wagner, S.; Gaillard, M.-J.; Trondman, A.-K.; Mauri, A.; Birks, H. J. B.; Bjune, A. E.; Davis, B. A. S.; Fyfe, R.; Giesecke, T.; Kalnina, L.; Kangur, M.; Kaplan, J. O.; van der Knaap, W. O.; Kokfelt, U.; Kuneš, P.; Latałowa, M.; Marquer, L.; Mazier, F.; Nielsen, A. B.; Smith, B.; Seppä, H.; Sugita, S.

    2013-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate the direct effects of anthropogenic deforestation on simulated climate at two contrasting periods in the Holocene, ~6 k BP and ~0.2 k BP in Europe. We apply RCA3, a regional climate model with 50 km spatial resolution, for both time periods, considering three alternative descriptions of the past vegetation: (i) potential natural vegetation (V) simulated by the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, (ii) potential vegetation with anthropogenic land cover (deforestation) as simulated by the HYDE model (V + H), and (iii) potential vegetation with anthropogenic land cover as simulated by the KK model (V + K). The KK model estimates are closer to a set of pollen-based reconstructions of vegetation cover than the HYDE model estimates. The climate-model results show that the simulated effects of deforestation depend on both local/regional climate and vegetation characteristics. At ~6 k BP the extent of simulated deforestation in Europe is generally small, but there are areas where deforestation is large enough to produce significant differences in summer temperatures of 0.5-1 °C. At ~0.2 k BP, simulated deforestation is much more extensive than previously assumed, in particular according to the KK model. This leads to significant temperature differences in large parts of Europe in both winter and summer. In winter, deforestation leads to lower temperatures because of the differences in albedo between forested and unforested areas, particularly in the snow-covered regions. In summer, deforestation leads to higher temperatures in central and eastern Europe since evapotranspiration from unforested areas is lower than from forests. Summer evaporation is already limited in the southernmost parts of Europe under potential vegetation conditions and, therefore, cannot become much lower. Accordingly, the albedo effect dominates also in summer, which implies that deforestation causes a decrease in temperatures. Differences in summer temperature due to

  19. Changes in aerobic power of men, ages 25-70 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Beard, E. F.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak). The cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,499 healthy men ages 25-70 yr. The 156 men of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 4.1 (+/- 1.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill exercise test. The zero-order correlations between VO2peak and %fat (r = -0.62) and SR-PA (r = 0.58) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher that the age correlation (r = -0.45). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.46 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.79) showed that nearly 50% of this cross-sectional decline was due to %fat and SR-PA, adding these lifestyle variables to the multiple regression model reduced the age regression weight to -0.26 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results.

  20. Do self-efficacy and depression predict oral impacts on daily performances across time? A 2-yr follow-up of students in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Åstrøm, Anne N; Lie, Stein A; Mbawalla, Hawa

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the longitudinal validity of the oral impacts on daily performance (OIDP) and to identify psychosocial determinants, in terms of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms, of the OIDP across time. Following conceptual frameworks of oral health, it was hypothesized that sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors predict oral impacts across time at both population- averaged and person-specific levels. Whether the effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors were accounted for, totally or in part, by psychosocial factors were also investigated. Self administered questionnaires and oral clinical examinations at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) were completed by 1,714 and 727 secondary school students, respectively. Generalized equalized equations and a random intercept model were used to account for the dependency in repeated observations. Mean OIDP change scores were negative (worsened) among those who reported worsened self-reported oral health. Psychosocial, clinical, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with oral impacts at the population-averaged and person-specific levels. Mediation of sociodemographic and clinical variables according to psychosocial variables was not observed. Satisfactory longitudinal evaluative properties of the OIDP, and independent effects of psychosocial factors on oral impacts across time, were confirmed among secondary school students in Tanzania. PMID:27086611

  1. 40 yr phase-out for conventional coal? If only!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolow, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Myhrvold and Caldeira worked out the climate consequences of various ways in which the world's current fleet of coal power plants could evolve into something different [1]. They imagined one-fortieth of the world's coal plants being closed down each year for 40 years. Two limiting cases are (1) nothing is built to take the place of this power, because efficiency gains have made them unnecessary, and (2) coal plants exactly like those now running take their place. Since coal power is the most carbon-intensive form of power, all other options fall between these limits. They looked at six single-technology alternatives: taking over from coal as we know it are coal with carbon dioxide capture and storage, natural gas, nuclear power and three forms of intermittent renewables (presented as baseload options). Moreover, whatever the alternative, it remains in place unchanged from year 40 through year 100. Results are presented as 100 yr trajectories for the increment in the average global surface temperature due only to this power production. For the coal-for-coal scenario, the surface temperature increase is about 0.13 °C in 40 yr and 0.31 °C in 100 yr. For the efficiency-for-coal scenario, the rise is 0.07 °C in 40 yr and 0.06 °C in 100 yr. Clearly, temperature rise is approximately proportional to emissions and these are self-consistent answers. For example, after 40 yr efficiency-for-coal has brought approximately half the temperature rise of coal-for-coal, and there have been exactly half the emissions. The efficiency-for-coal trajectory falls ever so slightly between years 40 and 100, because once CO2 enters the atmosphere it lingers. As for the absolute magnitude of the coal-to-coal trajectory, today's global coal power production (8300 TWh in 2008) is almost exactly what would be produced from one thousand one-gigawatt coal plants running flat out (8760 TWh), which is the coal power production assumed by Myhrvold and Caldeira. From table S1 of their

  2. Colorado IDDM Registry. Incidence and validation of IDDM in children aged 0-17 yr.

    PubMed

    Hamman, R F; Gay, E C; Cruickshanks, K J; Cook, M; Lezotte, D C; Klingensmith, G J; Chase, H P

    1990-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) among children aged 0-17 yr for age, sex, season, and urban and rural residence of onset in Colorado. Retrospective registration of new-onset cases was conducted from 1978 to 1980, and then prospective registration continued through 1983 with the use of physician reporting with hospital validation. The annual incidence of IDDM was 15.2/100,000 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.1, 16.3), with little difference between the sexes. The highest incidence was in the 10- to 14-yr age-group for both sexes. There was a seasonal peak of winter onset in those aged 10-17 yr, with similar patterns between sex and ethnic groups. No temporal trend over the 6 yr was seen, although an excess of cases was seen for 15- to 17-yr-old boys in 1980-1982. Rates were similar for urban and rural areas of the state. Case ascertainment was estimated to be 93.2% complete (95% CI 91.5, 95.5). Incidence was similar in Colorado to other populations in the United States at similar latitudes. These data serve as a baseline for evaluation of changes in incidence over time, by region, and for the identification of possible outbreaks. PMID:2351028

  3. [Microsatellite marker linked with stripe rust resistant gene Yr9 in wheat].

    PubMed

    Weng, Dong-Xu; Xu, Shi-Chang; Lin, Rui-Ming; Wan, An-Min; Li, Jing-Peng; Wu, Li-Ren

    2005-09-01

    SSR analysis was performed using a wheat near-isogenic line (NIL) Taichuang29 * 6/ Lovrin13, which carried the resistance gene Yr9 against wheat stripe rust and its recurrent parent Taichung29 as materials. After screening with 32 SSR primers on 1B chromosome, reproducible polymorphic DNA fragment amplified by Xgwm582 was identified. Genetic linkage was tested in 177 segregating F2 plants. The results indicated that microsatellite marker Xgwm582 was linked with gene Yr9 resistant to wheat stripe rust. A genetic distance of 3. 7 cM was calculated. PMID:16201237

  4. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene YrSN104 in Chinese wheat line Shaannong 104.

    PubMed

    Asad, Muhammad Azeem; Xia, Xianchun; Wang, Chengshe; He, Zhonghu

    2012-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a serious yield-limiting factor for wheat production worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify and map a stripe rust resistance gene in wheat line Shaannong 104 using SSR markers. F(1), F(2) and F(3) populations from Shaannong 104/Mingxian 169 were inoculated with Chinese Pst race CYR32 in a greenhouse. Shaannong 104 carried a single dominant gene, YrSN104. Six potential polymorphic SSR markers identified in bulk segregant analysis were used to genotype F(2) and F(3) families. YrSN104 was closely linked with all six SSR markers on chromosome 1BS with genetic distances of 2.0 cM (Xgwm18, Xgwm273, Xbarc187), 2.6 cM (Xgwm11, Xbarc137) and 5.9 cM (Xbarc240). Pedigree analysis, pathogenicity tests using 26 Pst races, haplotyping of associated markers on isogenic lines carrying known stripe rust resistance genes, and associations with markers suggested that YrSN104 was a new resistance gene or an allele at the Yr24/Yr26 locus on chromosome 1BS. Deployment of YrSN104 singly or in combination to elite genotypes could play an effective role to lessen yield losses caused by stripe rust. PMID:22967144

  5. Soccer increases bone mass in prepubescent boys during growth: a 3-yr longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Zribi, Anis; Alexandre, Christian; Chaari, Hamada; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Vico, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3-yr soccer practice on bone acquisition in prepubescent boys. We investigated 65 boys (aged 10-13 yr, Tanner stage I) at baseline, among which only 40 boys (Tanner stages II and III) have continued the 3-yr follow-up: 23 soccer players (F) completed 2-5 h of training plus 1 competition game per week and 17 controls (C). Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. At baseline, BMD was higher in soccer players than in controls in the whole body and legs. In contrast, there was nonsignificant difference BMD in head, femoral neck, arms, and BMC in all measured sites between groups. At 3-yr follow-up, soccer players were found to have higher BMD and BMC at all sites than controls, except for head BMD and BMC and arms BMC in which the difference was nonsignificant between groups. During the 3-yr follow-up, the soccer players were found to gain significantly more in lumbar spine (31.2% ± 2.9% vs 23.9% ± 2.1%; p < 0.05), femoral neck (24.1% ± 1.8% vs 11.4% ± 1.9%; p < 0.001), whole body (16.5% ± 1.4% vs 11.8% ± 1.5%; p < 0.05), and nondominant arm BMD (18.2% ± 1.4% vs 13.6% ± 1.7%; p < 0.05) as well as lumbar spine (62.5% ± 20.1% vs 39.5% ± 20.1%; p < 0.001), femoral neck, (37.7% ± 14.2% vs 28.9% ± 12.8%; p < 0.05) and nondominant arm BMC (68.6% ± 22.9% vs 50.1% ± 22.4%; p < 0.05) than controls. In contrast, soccer players have less %BMD and %BMC changes in the head than controls. A nonsignificant difference was found in legs, dominant arm, head %BMD and %BMC changes, and whole-body %BMC changes between groups. In summary, we suggest that soccer has an osteogenic effect BMD and BMC in loaded sites in pubertal soccer players. The increased bone mass induced by soccer training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull bone mass after 3 yr of follow-up. PMID:25592396

  6. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-established satellite-derived Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents are combined to create the global picture of sea ice extents and their changes over the 35-yr period 1979-2013. Results yield a global annual sea ice cycle more in line with the high-amplitude Antarctic annual cycle than the lower-amplitude Arctic annual cycle but trends more in line with the high-magnitude negative Arctic trends than the lower-magnitude positive Antarctic trends. Globally, monthly sea ice extent reaches a minimum in February and a maximum generally in October or November. All 12 months show negative trends over the 35-yr period, with the largest magnitude monthly trend being the September trend, at -68200 +/- 10500 km sq yr(exp -1) (-2.62% +/- 0.40%decade(exp -1)), and the yearly average trend being -35000 +/-5900 km sq yr(exp -1) (-1.47% +/- 0.25%decade(exp -1)).

  7. Metastatic congenital adrenocortical carcinoma: a case report with tumor remission at 3 1/2 years.

    PubMed

    Godil, M A; Atlas, M P; Parker, R I; Priebe, C J; Zerah, M M; Kane, P; Tsung, J; Wilson, T A

    2000-11-01

    We describe a case of metastasizing congenital adrenocortical carcinoma and a follow-up of 3 1/2 yr. Treatment with surgery and mitotane was associated with multiple complications. The patient was in remission at 3 1/2 yr. Because of the rarity of this condition, we discuss step-by-step problems encountered during management. PMID:11095414

  8. Effect of 7 yr of experimental drought on vegetation dynamics and biomass storage of an eastern Amazonian rainforest.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Galbraith, David; Almeida, Samuel; Portela, Bruno Takeshi Tanaka; da Costa, Mauricio; Silva Junior, João de Athaydes; Braga, Alan P; de Gonçalves, Paulo H L; de Oliveira, Alex A R; Fisher, Rosie; Phillips, Oliver L; Metcalfe, Daniel B; Levy, Peter; Meir, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    *At least one climate model predicts severe reductions of rainfall over Amazonia during this century. Long-term throughfall exclusion (TFE) experiments represent the best available means to investigate the resilience of the Amazon rainforest to such droughts. *Results are presented from a 7 yr TFE study at Caxiuanã National Forest, eastern Amazonia. We focus on the impacts of the drought on tree mortality, wood production and above-ground biomass. *Tree mortality in the TFE plot over the experimental period was 2.5% yr(-1), compared with 1.25% yr(-1) in a nearby control plot experiencing normal rainfall. Differences in stem mortality between plots were greatest in the largest (> 40 cm diameter at breast height (dbh)) size class (4.1% yr(-1) in the TFE and 1.4% yr(-1) in the control). Wood production in the TFE plot was c. 30% lower than in the control plot. Together, these changes resulted in a loss of 37.8 +/- 2.0 Mg carbon (C) ha(-1) in the TFE plot (2002-2008), compared with no change in the control. *These results are remarkably consistent with those from another TFE (at Tapajós National Forest), suggesting that eastern Amazonian forests may respond to prolonged drought in a predictable manner. PMID:20553386

  9. Isolated intestinal transplants vs. liver-intestinal transplants in adult patients in the United States: 22 yr of OPTN data.

    PubMed

    Desai, Chirag S; Gruessner, Angelika C; Khan, Khalid M; Fishbein, Thomas M; Jie, Tun; Rodriguez Rilo, Horacio L; Gruessner, Rainer W G

    2012-01-01

    We examined the outcomes of adult intestinal transplants (ITx); isolated ITx vs. liver-intestinal transplants (L-ITx) were compared using the UNOS database (1987-2009). Of 759 ITx transplants in 687 patients, 463 (61%) were isolated and 296 (39%) were L-ITx. Patient survival for primary isolated ITx at one, three, and five yr was 84%, 66.7%, and 54.2%; and primary L-ITx was, 67%, 53.3%, and 46% (p = 0.0005). Primary isolated ITx graft survival at one, three, and five yr was 80.7%, 57.6%, 42.8%; primary L-ITx was 64.1%, 51%, 44.1% (p = 0.0003 at one, three yr, Wilcoxon test). For retransplants (n = 72), patient and graft survival for isolated ITx (n = 41) at five yr was 40% in era 1 (1987-2000) and 16% in era 2 (p = 0.47); for retransplanted L-ITx (n = 31), it improved from 14% to 64% in era 2 (p = 0.01). Cox regression: creatinine >1.3 mg/dL and pre-transplant hospitalization were negative predictors for outcome of both; bilirubin >1.3 mg/dL was a negative predictor for isolated ITx and donor age >40 yr for L-ITx. Isolated ITx should be considered prior to liver disease for adults with intestinal failure; L-ITx is preferable for retransplantation. PMID:22192061

  10. Changes in aerobic power of women, ages 20-64 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Beard, E. F.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1996-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak) of women. The cross-sectional sample consisted of 409 healthy women, ages 20-64 yr. The 43 women of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 3.7 (+/-2.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill test. The zero-order correlation of -0.742 between VO2peak and %fat was significantly (P < 0.05) higher then the SR-PA (r = 0.626) and age correlations (r = -0.633). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.537 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.851) showed that adding %fat and SR-PA and their interaction to the regression model reduced the age regression weight of -0.537, to -0.265 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results. These findings are consistent with men's data from the same lab showing that about 50% of the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak was due to %fat and SR-PA.

  11. Molecular tagging of stripe rust resistance gene YrZH84 in Chinese wheat line Zhou 8425B.

    PubMed

    Li, Z F; Zheng, T C; He, Z H; Li, G Q; Xu, S C; Li, X P; Yang, G Y; Singh, R P; Xia, X C

    2006-04-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most damaging diseases in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). With the objective of identifying and tagging new genes for resistance to stripe rust, F1, F2 and F3 populations from the cross Zhou 8425B/Chinese Spring were inoculated with Chinese PST isolate CYR32 in the greenhouse. A total of 790 SSR primers were used to test the parents and resistant and susceptible bulks. The resulting seven polymorphic markers on chromosome 7BL were used for genotyping F2 and F3 populations. Results indicated that Zhou 8425B carries a single dominant resistance gene, temporarily designated YrZH84, closely linked to SSR markers Xcfa2040-7B and Xbarc32-7B with genetic distances of 1.4 and 4.8 cM, respectively. In a seedling test with 25 PST isolates, the reaction patterns of YrZH84 were different from those of lines carrying Yr2 and Yr6. It was concluded that YrZH84 is probably a new stripe rust resistance gene. PMID:16450183

  12. Maximal skin vascular conductance in subjects aged 5-85 yr.

    PubMed

    Martin, H L; Loomis, J L; Kenney, W L

    1995-07-01

    This study examined maximal forearm skin vascular conductance (FVCmax) as a function of age in 74 healthy male and female subjects ranging in age from 5 to 85 yr. The skin temperature of the left forearm was uniformly clamped at 42 degrees C by spraying a fine mist of water over the surface. Forearm blood flow (FBF) was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography (Hg-in-Silastic strain gauge). After 60 min of heating, a reactive hyperemia maneuver was performed to verify that forearm skin blood flow was maximal by using laser Doppler flowmetry to isolate the skin component of FBF. The maximal FBF of each subject was then divided by mean arterial pressure to yield FVCmax (in ml.100 ml-1.min-1.100 mmHg-1), i.e., minimal resistance. The model that best fits the data was curvilinear, as described by FVCmax = 13.1 + 86.9 (age-0.75) (r2 = 0.52, P < 0.001). The exclusion of subjects younger than 18 yr of age simplified the model to a linear fit with a slope of -0.16 conductance units/yr for adults. Interindividual variability remained constant across the entire age span. Once the age effect was considered, there were no significant effects of gender, adiposity, resting blood pressure, physical activity level, or body surface area on FVCmax. PMID:7559234

  13. The adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 are important determinants of partial resistance to powdery mildew in bread wheat line Saar.

    PubMed

    Lillemo, M; Asalf, B; Singh, R P; Huerta-Espino, J; Chen, X M; He, Z H; Bjørnstad, A

    2008-05-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici is a major disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that can be controlled by resistance breeding. The CIMMYT bread wheat line Saar is known for its good level of partial and race non-specific resistance, and the aim of this study was to map QTLs for resistance to powdery mildew in a population of 113 recombinant inbred lines from a cross between Saar and the susceptible line Avocet. The population was tested over 2 years in field trials at two locations in southeastern Norway and once in Beijing, China. SSR markers were screened for association with powdery mildew resistance in a bulked segregant analysis, and linkage maps were created based on selected SSR markers and supplemented with DArT genotyping. The most important QTLs for powdery mildew resistance derived from Saar were located on chromosomes 7DS and 1BL and corresponded to the adult plant rust resistance loci Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29. A major QTL was also located on 4BL with resistance contributed by Avocet. Additional QTLs were detected at 3AS and 5AL in the Norwegian testing environments and at 5BS in Beijing. The population was also tested for leaf rust (caused by Puccinia triticina) and stripe rust (caused by P. striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistance and leaf tip necrosis in Mexico. QTLs for these traits were detected on 7DS and 1BL at the same positions as the QTLs for powdery mildew resistance, and confirmed the presence of Lr34/Yr18 and Lr46/Yr29 in Saar. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr34/Yr18 locus has recently been named Pm38. The powdery mildew resistance gene at the Lr46/Yr29 locus is designated as Pm39. PMID:18347772

  14. Maternal health and lifestyle and caries experience in preschool children. A longitudinal study from pregnancy to age 5 yr

    PubMed Central

    Wigen, Tove I; Wang, Nina J

    2011-01-01

    In this study, associations were explored between maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy and in early childhood and preschool children’s caries experience. The study is based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and on data from the Public Dental Services. A total of 1348 children were followed from pregnancy to age 5 yr. A clinical dental examination was performed at age 5 yr. Questionnaires were completed by the mothers during pregnancy and the first 18 months of life, and as part of the dental examination. Results from the multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that having an obese mother (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.1), with a diet containing more fat (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.12.5) or sugar (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12.3) than recommended, with low education (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.12.3) or having one or both parents of non-western origin (OR 5.4, 95% CI 2.8–10.6) were statistically significant risk indicators for caries experience at age 5 yr. In conclusion, maternal weight and intake of sugar and fat in pregnancy were associated with caries experience in preschool children. These characteristics may enable early referral to the dental services and preventive care to be delivered. PMID:22112032

  15. Mapping a stripe rust resistance gene YrC591 in wheat variety C591 with SSR and AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Niu, Y C; Chen, X M

    2009-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici (PST), is one of the most destructive diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To determine inheritance of stripe rust resistance and map the resistance gene(s) in wheat variety C591, F(1), F(2,) and F(3) progenies derived from the Taichung 29 x C591 cross were inoculated with Chinese PST race CY32 in the greenhouse. Genetic analysis identified a single dominant gene, temporarily designated YrC591. A total of 178 SSR and 130 AFLP markers were used to test the parents and resistant and susceptible bulks. From the bulk segregant analysis, seven polymorphic SSR and two AFLP markers were selected for genotyping the F(2) population. SSR marker Xcfa2040-7B, and SCAR marker SC-P35M48 derived from AFLP marker P35M48 ( 373 ) were identified to be closely linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances of 8.0 and 11.7 cM, respectively. The SSR markers mapped the resistance gene on chromosome arm 7BL. In the seedling test with five PST races, the reaction patterns of C591 were different from wheat cultivars or lines carrying Yr2 or Yr6 that also are found on chromosome 7B. The results indicate that YrC591 is probably a novel stripe rust resistance gene. PMID:18946654

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  17. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  18. Quantitative remote sensing study indicates doubling of coastal erosion rate in past 50 yr along a segment of the Arctic coast of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars, J.C.; Houseknecht, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    A new quantitative coastal land gained-and-lost method uses image analysis of topographic maps and Landsat thematic mapper short-wave infrared data to document accelerated coastal land loss and thermokarst lake expansion and drainage. The data span 1955-2005 along the Beaufort Sea coast north of Teshekpuk Lake in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Some areas have undergone as much as 0.9 km of coastal erosion in the past 50 yr. Land loss attributed to coastal erosion more than doubled, from 0.48 km2 yr-1 during 1955-1985 to 1.08 km2 yr-1 during 1985-2005. Coastal erosion has breached thermokarst lakes, causing initial draining of the lakes followed by marine floodng. Although inland thermokarst lakes show some uniform expansion, lakes breached by coastal erosion display lake expansion several orders of magnitude greater than inland lakes. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  19. Linkage maps of wheat stripe rust resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 for use in marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust (also known as yellow rust) caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. is a serious global disease of wheat. Two important stripe rust resistance genes, Yr5 and Yr15, are being introgressed into wheat in several breeding programs and are the only known all-stage ...

  20. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  1. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  2. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  3. Technical details concerning development of a 1200 yr proxy index for global volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. J.; Unterman, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes details of developing a volcano forcing reconstruction (Crowley et al., 2008) for climate models that is based primarily on sulphate records in Antarctic and Greenland ice cores. The chronology of eruptions is considered accurate to within 1 yr for the interval AD 1104-2000 and about 2 yr for AD 800-1103. The reconstruction involves (1) calibration against satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates of the 1991 Pinatubo/Hudson eruptions; (2) partial validation against independent lunar estimates of AOD and global sulphate emissions; (3) partial assessment of uncertainties in AOD estimates; (4) assessment of possible tropical "false positives" in ice core reconstructions due to simultaneous occurrence of mid/high-latitude eruptions in each hemisphere; (5) identification of a new category of eruptions, termed "unipolar" tropical eruptions, in which the eruption plume penetrates mainly to polar regions in only the hemisphere of its eruption; (6) use of different growth curves for high- and low-latitude eruptions; (7) specification of 2/3 power shortwave scaling for eruptions larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption; (8) introduction of an estimate of effective particle size that affects lifetime and scattering properties of stratospheric aerosols; and (9) utilization of bimonthly-resolution electrical conductivity measurements to estimate the eruption date of the 1258/1259 eruption as 1257.7±0.2. The data, and a high-temporal resolution reconstruction for climate models, are available at: 1:::::P1_STUDY_ID:14168"target="_blank">http://hurricane.ncdc.noaa.gov/pls/paleox/f?p=519:1:::::P1_STUDY_ID:14168.

  4. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  5. 1400 yr multiproxy record of climate variability from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, J.N.; Poore, R.Z.; Flower, B.P.; Quinn, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A continuous decadal-scale resolution record of climate variability over the past 1400 yr in the northern Gulf of Mexico was constructed from a box core recovered in the Pigmy Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Proxies include paired analyses of Mg/Ca and δ18O in the white variety of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber and relative abundance variations of G. sacculifer in the foraminifer assemblages. Two multi-decadal intervals of sustained high Mg/Ca indicate that Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were as warm or warmer than near-modern conditions between 1000 and 1400 yr B.P. Foraminiferal Mg/Ca during the coolest interval of the Little Ice Age (ca. 250 yr B.P.) indicate that SST was 22.5 °C below modern SST. Four minima in the Mg/Ca record between 900 and 250 yr B.P. correspond with the Maunder, Spörer, Wolf, and Oort sunspot minima, suggesting a link between changes in solar insolation and SST variability in the Gulf of Mexico. An abrupt shift recorded in both δ18Ocalcite and relative abundance of G. sacculifer occurred ca. 600 yr B.P. The shift in the Pigmy Basin record corresponds with a shift in the sea-salt-sodium (ssNa) record from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core, linking changes in high-latitude atmospheric circulation with the subtropical Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Large scale directional anomalies in the WMAP 5yr ILC map

    SciTech Connect

    Gruppuso, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    We study the alignments of the low multipoles of CMB anisotropies with specific directions in the sky (i.e. the dipole, the north Ecliptic pole, the north Galactic pole and the north Super Galactic pole). Performing 10{sup 5} random extractions we have found that: 1) separately quadrupole and octupole are mildly orthogonal to the dipole but when they are considered together, in analogy to Copi2006, we find an unlikely orthogonality at the level of 0.8% C.L.; 2) the multipole vectors associated to l = 4 are unlikely aligned with the dipole at 99.1% C.L.; 3) the multipole vectors associated to l = 5 are mildly orthogonal to the dipole but when we consider only maps that show exactly the same correlation among the multipoles as in the observed WMAP 5yr ILC, these multipole vectors are unlikely orthogonal to the dipole at 99.7% C.L.

  7. Stratigraphic evidence of desertification in the west-central Great Plains within the past 1000 yr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madole, R.F.

    1994-01-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic relations, archaeological data, and eight radiocarbon ages at five widely scattered localities in northeastern Colorado indicate that eolian sand was mobilized over broad areas within the past 1000 yr. The mobilization began after 1 ka, was episodic, and ended at some as yet undetermined time prior to the latter part of the 19th century. Given that climate-model simulations suggest only slight variation in average surface temperature and annual precipitation in this region during the past 1000 yr, this part of the Great Plains evidently is near the threshold of widespread eolian sand transport under the present climate. -Author

  8. Chiller-heater unit nets building 2-yr payback

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, J.

    1983-05-09

    A 500-ton double-absorption Hitachi Paraflow chiller-heater that switches from purchased steam to natural gas will reduce a Manhattan office building's energy costs by 55% and achieve a two-year payback. The new system replaces a steam-powered, single-stage absorption chiller. By reusing heat in a second-stage generator, the Hitachi unit uses only half as many Btus per ton as a conventional chiller. (DCK)

  9. Global paleoclimatic data for 6000 yr B. P

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, T. III

    1985-08-01

    Pollen, lake level, and marine plankton data for the Holocene period (6000 yr B.P.) are documented in 53 datasets. The data are subdivided into nine groups by data type and geographic region for the pollen and marine plankton data types. Bibliographic citations associated with each site are included.

  10. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are described for tetraalkyls, tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2,-trifluoroethanes.

  11. 5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the southern Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Y.; Le Béon, M.; Al-Qaryouti, M.

    2015-07-01

    The 1000-km-long left-lateral Dead Sea fault is a major tectonic structure of the oriental Mediterranean basin, bounding the Arabian Plate to the west. The fault is located in a region with an exceptionally long and rich historical record, allowing to document historical seismicity catalogues with unprecedented level of details. However, if the earthquake time series is well documented, location and lateral extent of past earthquakes remain often difficult to establish, if only based on historical testimonies. We excavated a palaeoseismic trench in a site located in a kilometre-size extensional jog, south of the Dead Sea, in the Wadi Araba. Based on the stratigraphy exposed in the trench, we present evidence for nine earthquakes that produced surface ruptures during a time period spanning 5000 yr. Abundance of datable material allows us to tie the five most recent events to historical earthquakes with little ambiguities, and to constrain the possible location of these historical earthquakes. The events identified at our site are the 1458 C.E., 1212 C.E., 1068 C.E., one event during the 8th century crisis, and the 363 C.E. earthquake. Four other events are also identified, which correlation with historical events remains more speculative. The magnitude of earthquakes is difficult to assess based on evidence at one site only. The deformation observed in the excavation, however, allows discriminating between two classes of events that produced vertical deformation with one order of amplitude difference, suggesting that we could distinguish earthquakes that started/stopped at our site from earthquakes that potentially ruptured most of the Wadi Araba fault. The time distribution of earthquakes during the past 5000 yr is uneven. The early period shows little activity with return interval of ˜500 yr or longer. It is followed by a ˜1500-yr-long period with more frequent events, about every 200 yr. Then, for the past ˜550 yr, the fault has switched back to a quieter mode

  12. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. 2.1 Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, J. H.; Kasch, K.-U.; Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '2.1 Introduction' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects'.

  14. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  15. On the Origin of Multidecadal to Centennial Greenland Temperature Anomalies Over the Past 800 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobashi, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Kodera, K.; Box, J. E.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH]) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH) temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]). The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31-35%of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  16. On the origin of multidecadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Kodera, K.; Box, J. E.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-03-01

    The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH]) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH) temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]). The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31-35% of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of an experimental caries-control regimen in a 3.4-yr randomized clinical trial among 11-12-yr-old Finnish schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Hietasalo, Pauliina; Seppä, Liisa; Lahti, Satu; Niinimaa, Ahti; Kallio, Jouko; Aronen, Pasi; Sintonen, Harri; Hausen, Hannu

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of an experimental caries-control regimen in a randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted in Pori, Finland, in 2001-2005. Children (n = 497) who were 11-12 yr of age and had at least one active initial caries lesion at baseline were studied. The children in the experimental group (n = 250) were offered an individually designed patient-centered regimen for caries control. The children in the control group (n = 247) received standard dental care. Furthermore, the whole population was exposed to continuous community-level oral health promotion. Individual costs of treatment procedures and outcomes (DMFS increment score) for the follow-up period of 3.4 yr were calculated for each child in both groups. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was euro 34.07 per averted DMF surface. The experimental regimen was more effective, and also more costly. However, the total costs decreased year after year, and for the last 2 yr the experimental regimen was less expensive than the standard dental care. The experimental regimen would probably have been more cost-effective than standard dental care if the follow-up period had been longer, the regimen less comprehensive, and/or if dental nurses had conducted the preventive procedures. PMID:20121937

  18. On the Response of Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Stratospheric Oxone and Temperature to the 11-yr Solar Cycle Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented on responses in 14-yr time series of stratospheric ozone and temperature from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) to a solar cycle (SC-like) variation. The ozone time series are for ten, 20-degree wide, latitude bins from 45S to 45N and for thirteen "half-Umkehr" layers of about 2.5 km thickness and extending from 63 hPa to 0.7 hPa. The temperature time series analyses were restricted to pressure levels in the range of 2 hPa to 0.7 hPa. Multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques were applied to each of the 130 time series of zonally-averaged, sunrise plus sunset ozone points over that latitude/pressure domain. A simple, 11-yr periodic term and a linear trend term were added to the final MLR models after their seasonal and interannual terms had been determined. Where the amplitudes of the 11-yr terms were significant, they were in-phase with those of the more standard proxies for the solar uv-flux. The max minus min response for ozone is of order 2 to 3% from about 2 to 5 hPa and for the latitudes of 45S to 45N. There is also a significant max minus min response of order 1 K for temperature between 15S and 15N and from 2 to 0.7 hPa. The associated linear trends for ozone are near zero in the upper stratosphere. Negative ozone trends of 4 to 6%/decade were found at 10 to 20 hPa across the low to middle latitudes of both hemispheres. It is concluded that the analyzed responses from the HALOE data are of good quality and can be used to evaluate the responses of climate/chemistry models to a solar cycle forcing.

  19. 26 CFR 2.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 2.1-1 Section 2.1-1 Internal... CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-1 Definitions. (a) As used in the regulations in this part, except as otherwise expressly provided— (1) Act means the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 27). (2)...

  20. Trend and magnitude of changes in climate variables and reference evapotranspiration over 116-yr period in the Platte River Basin, central Nebraska-USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irmak, Suat; Kabenge, Isa; Skaggs, Kari E.; Mutiibwa, Denis

    2012-02-01

    SummarySome studies that investigate the climate change and hydrologic balance relationships utilize reference (potential) evapotranspiration ( ETref) to either calculate the changes in trends and magnitude of actual ET or to determine changes in atmospheric demand. In such cases, it is important to acquire robust ETref estimates to correctly assess the impact of changes in meteorological variables on atmospheric evaporative demand, hydrologic balances, response of vegetation to climate, and their interactions. Despite its crucial importance, unfortunately, ETref is sometimes poorly addressed in climate change studies as some studies utilize temperature or radiation-based empirical equations due to various reasons (unavailability of climate data to solve combination-based energy balance equations, etc.). Since many climate variables that affect ETref rates have been changing and are expected to change in the future, single-variable equations for estimating the trend in ETref should be avoided due to the inherent nature of the trend passed to ETref from the variable. Here, we showed an integrated approach of practical and robust procedures that are already exist to estimate necessary climate variables [incoming shortwave radiation ( R s), net radiation ( R n), wind speed at 2-m ( u2), relative humidity (RH), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD)] only from observed maximum and minimum air temperatures ( Tmax and Tmin) and precipitation ( P) data to be used in Penman-Monteith-type combination-based energy balance equations to predict grass-and alfalfa-reference evapotranspiration ( ET o and ET r, respectively). We analyzed the trends and magnitudes of change in meteorological variables for a 116-yr period from 1893 to 2008 in the agro-ecosystem-dominated Platte River Basin in central Nebraska, USA. Although we found a significant ( P < 0.05) increase in Tmin and Tavg at a rate 0.038 °C yr -1 and 0.0187 °C yr -1, respectively, and insignificant increase in u2 and VPD, we

  1. Dental fear and sense of coherence among 18-yr-old adolescents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Sirkka; Rautava, Päivi; Saarinen, Maiju; Lahti, Satu; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Suominen, Sakari; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna; Honkinen, Päivi-Leena; Sillanpää, Matti

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether dental fear was associated with the sense of coherence (SOC) among 18-yr-old adolescents (n = 777). Cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort of a random sample of families from Finland and their first-born children were used. Dental fear was measured using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and categorized as high dental fear for scores of 19-25 and as no to moderate dental fear for scores of 5-18. Sense of coherence was measured using a 13-item version of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, dichotomized as scores 13-63 for weak SOC and as scores of 64-91 for strong SOC. Gender and education were included as background factors in the logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of high dental fear was 8%. Those reporting high dental fear reported more often a weaker SOC than did those with no to moderate dental fear (69% vs. 31%, OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.4), also when adjusted for gender and education (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-3.9). According to the theory of salutogenesis, as proposed by Antonovsky, SOC is a resource instrument especially in situations of tension or strain and hence a strong SOC might protect against high dental fear. PMID:23659257

  2. An 8000-yr Record of Vegetation and Sedimentation Change from Kaau Crater, Hawaii Shows Mid-Holocene Climate Variability in the Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, O.; Beilman, D.

    2014-12-01

    Kaau Crater is located on Oahu, Hawaii, and was formed about 1 million years ago. The crater is a wetland about 450 m in diameter, which has been accumulating sediment since at least 25,866 cal yr BP. Sediment accumulation environments suitable for stratigraphic paleoscience studies in tropical mountaintop locations, relatively unaffected by humans, are scarce. This research aims to provide a comprehensive multi-millennial record of environmental change over time, including a reconstruction of precipitation and temperature. A continuous 450 cm organic sediment core was raised from Kaau Crater and analyzed for bulk density, organic matter (OM), stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and sediment accumulation rate as well as fossil pollen. Thirteen radiocarbon measurements show that the profile represents 14,087 years of sedimentation, and continuous sedimentation since ~8000 cal yr BP. Bulk density was typically about 0.17 g cm-3, but is particularly high (0.56 g cm-3) in sediments deposited between 5800 and 4400 cal yr BP. High variability during this time period is also seen in OM, stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, and sediment accumulation rate. The OM content varies greatly throughout the core, from 12 to 94%. The 13C and 15N range -28.3 to -26.1‰ and 0.7 to 5.7‰. Maximum sedimentation and organic matter accumulation is between 6810-3942 cal yr BP, during which time, the organic C accumulation rate is 46.1 g m-2 yr-1. The C:N ratio is most variable during the mid-Holocene and the maximum is at 6326 cal yr BP. Thirty-eight pollen types were identified representing a mixture of dry- to wet-tolerant taxa. A reconstruction of annual precipitation suggests substantial variation on multi-centennial and shorter scales, particularly during the mid-Holocene (-643.4-5654 mm anomaly), but a lack of Holocene-scale wetting or drying. A reconstruction of mean annual temperature shows an overall multi-millennial cooling trend at the crater more pronounced after 5400

  3. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  4. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  5. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  6. Vapor-liquid equilibria for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, H.

    1996-07-01

    Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria were determined for two binary mixtures of refrigerants with a circulation type apparatus. The 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) + 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124) system was studied at 296.45, 302.25, and 307.25 K. The 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124) + 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-142b) system was studied at 298.15 and 312.15 K. At each temperature, the pressure and vapor and liquid compositions were measured. Results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state.

  7. [A microsatellite marker linked to the stripe rust resistance gene YrV23 in the wheat variety Vilmorin23].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Bing; Xu, Shi-Chang; Xu, Zhong; Liu, Tai-Guo; Lin, Rui-Ming

    2006-03-01

    Vilmorin23 is an internationally used differential host variety for studies on the interactions between wheat stripe rust and wheat. It contains the stripe rust resistance gene YrV23 and is potentially an important source of stripe rust resistance worldwide. SSR analysis was performed on the wheat NIL Taichuang 29*6/YrV23 carrying the resistant gene YrV23 against stripe rust, Vilmorin 23 and its recurrent parent Taichung 29. Fifty pairs of SSR primers on wheat chromosome 2B were screened and a reproducible polymorphic DNA fragment amplified by Xwmc356 was found. Genetic linkage was tested on 150 segregating F2 plants. It showed that the microsatellite marker Xwmc356 was linked to the resistance gene YrV23 with a genetic distance of 9.4 cM. PMID:16551597

  8. The plinian fallout associated with Quilotoa's 800 yr BP eruption, Ecuadorian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mothes, Patricia A.; Hall, Minard L.

    2008-09-01

    Large volcanic eruptions at dacitic or rhyolitic volcanoes often generate exceptional volumes of fine ash that mantles an area up to a million km 2. These eruptions are characterized by extreme fragmentation of the magma and hence extraordinary dispersal of ash and are categorized as plinian, ultraplinian, or phreatoplinian events. Large-volume co-ignimbrites or co-plinian ashes are often produced by such eruptions. High fragmentation indices of > 90% are attributed to the violent eruption of silicic magma, especially if augmented by fuel-coolant reactions produced when abundant external water interacts with the magma. The present study documents a case where the fine ash (≤ 1 mm diameter) fall deposit related to the plinian phase of the eruption comprises the overwhelming bulk - about 87 wt.% of the eruptive products. This is another example demonstrating the predominance of a widespread, fine-grained, co-plinian ash which follows the initial coarser lapilli fall. Historical eruptions at two other Andean volcanoes Quizapu, (Chile) and Huaynaputina, (Peru), and at Santa Maria, (Guatemala) and Novarupta, (Alaska) produced similar ash fall sequences. Quilotoa's 800 yr BP eruption, in the Ecuadorian Andes, is an example of a powerful plinian eruption at a small dacitic volcano. It produced a crystal-rich, fine-grained ash layer which mantled an extrapolated ˜ 810,000 km 2 with ≥ 1 mm thickness and has a bulk magma volume of about 18.3 km 3. Stratigraphic and petrographic studies, as well as granulometric and density analyses were employed to investigate these eruptive products, particularly the distal co-plinian fall deposits. The eruptive cycle consisted of a phreatomagmatic triggering, the establishment of a powerful sustained plinian column and subsequently partial column collapses, leading to widespread surge and ash flow activity. Quilotoa's 800 yr BP eruption has a (VEI) Volcano Explosivity Index = 6, and generated a maximum column height of about 35 km and

  9. Oaks and ice: Linking Continental North American and North Atlantic Climate Proxies Between 9.5 and 14 k yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, M. C.; Guyette, R. P.

    2007-12-01

    Climate and plant growth data from agriculturally important continental regions is often limited in time series length and resolution. Recent work on the dendrochronology of buried sub-fossil oak (Quercus macrocarpa, Quercus bicolor) collected from streams in Missouri and Iowa, USA has yielded climate-sensitive tree-ring data within the last 14 k yr BP. We present the development of the American Long Oak Chronology (ALOC) and report on variations in tree growth and North Atlantic climate between 9.5 and 14 k yr BP. Oaks dated using 14C and density dating methods show decreased growth and depleted δ 13C coincident with North Atlantic climate proxies. The growth (basal area increment) of oak trees was significantly (p = 0.01) less (6.5 cm2 yr-1) during the Younger Dryas compared to growth (11.2 cm2 yr-1) before and after. Mean maximum annual basal area increment (17.0 cm2 yr-1) was reduced by 54 percent during the Younger Dryas. Between-tree growth variance is about 75 percent less during the Younger Dryas than it is during the post glacial period. This variance reduction within a tree population likely reflects limits on growth switching from highly variable endogenous factors (forest competition) to regional exogenous factors (climate). Three point moving averages of the mean ring width of the oak trees and temporally paired δ 18O values from Greenland ice cores (GRIP, GISP2) are correlated (r = 0.57) during the post glacial climate period. Values of δ 13C in oak wood are found to be positively and significantly correlated (r = 0.78) with temporally paired δ 18O values. The termination of the Younger Dryas in mid-continental North America oak was marked by an expected and abrupt increase in the climate sensitive stable isotope δ 13C at about 11,550 yr BP. These results indicate that climate changes during the glacial-Holocene transition in mid- continental North America were approximately synchronous with those in the North Atlantic (~ 4,500 km northeast of

  10. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R. ); Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A. )

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the [delta][sup +13]C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average [minus]29.3 0.1%. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average [delta][sup 13]C value of [minus]23.8 [+-]0.1%. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggestes a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt ([delta][sup +13]C = [minus]23.6%) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil-like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Triton 2 (1B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michelle L.; Meiss, A. G.; Neher, Jason R.; Rudolph, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a detailed design analysis on a conceptually designed preliminary flight trainer. The Triton 2 (1B) must meet the current regulations in FAR Part 23. The detailed design process included the tasks of sizing load carrying members, pulleys, bolts, rivets, and fuselage skin for the safety cage, empennage, and control systems. In addition to the regulations in FAR Part 23, the detail design had to meet established minimums for environmental operating conditions and material corrosion resistance.

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XO-4b 3yr observations with DEMONEX (Villanueva+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, S. Jr; Eastman, J. D.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2016-06-01

    New observations of XO-4b were made using DEdicated MONitor of EXotransits (DEMONEX). DEMONEX monitored bright stars hosting known transiting planets over a 3yr period from 2008 to 2011 in order to provide a homogeneous data set of precise relative photometry for over 40 transiting systems. There are 20 nights of data from 2008 November to 2010 May taken during primary transits of XO-4b. All observations were made in the Sloan z band. (1 data file).

  13. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and Processes for their Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic procedures to tetraalkyls. tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1.1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1-aryl-2,2,2 -trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1-aryl-2.2,2- trifluoroethane or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1-aryl-2,2,2- trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anihnes. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  14. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are given for tetraalkyl, tetraacid and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis (dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  15. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic procedures to tetraalkyls, tetraacids, and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  16. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are disclosed for tetraalkyls, tetraacids, and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis (dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by the oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or aklyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  17. Relationship Between BMD and Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Indian Women Older Than 50 Yr.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Yashdeep; Marwaha, Raman K; Kukreja, Subhash; Bhadra, Kuntal; Narang, Archana; Mani, Kalaivani; Mithal, Ambrish; Tandon, Nikhil

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to study the relationship of morphometric vertebral fractures with bone mineral density (BMD) in Indian women older than 50 yr. Four hundred fifteen healthy Indian women older than 50 yr (mean age: 62.8 yr) underwent lateral X-rays of the lumbar and thoracic spine. Genant's semiquantitative method was used to diagnose and classify morphometric vertebral fractures. BMD was measured by DXA at lumbar spine and total hip. Recruited subjects underwent anthropometric, biochemical, and hormonal evaluation. Vertebral fractures were present in 17.1% (95% confidence interval: 13.5, 20.8) subjects. Prevalence of osteoporosis based on BMD was 35.7%. By adding those with prevalent fractures, the number of women requiring therapy for osteoporosis would increase to 46.5%. The BMD measured at femur neck, total hip, and lumbar spine (L1eL4) was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. BMD was not found to be lower in women with vertebral fractures as compared with those without fractures. Significant number of additional subjects with BMD in the normal or osteopenic range become eligible for osteoporosis treatment when presence of vertebral fracture is used as an independent indication for such treatment. PMID:26050877

  18. Z Draconis with two companions in a 2:1 mean-motion resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-Zhao; Şenavcι, Hakan Volkan; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2016-05-01

    All available mid-eclipse times of the eclipsing binary Z Draconis are analyzed, and three sets of cyclic variations with periods of 20.1, 29.96 and 59.88 yr are found. The low-amplitude variations with a period of 20.1 yr may be attributed to the unavoidable slight imperfection in the double-Keplerian model, which gives periods of 29.96 and 59.88 yr. Interestingly, the Z Draconis system is close to a 2:1 mean-motion resonance, or a 6:3:2 mean-motion resonance if the 20.1 yr period really exists. We also find that the best solutions tend to give the minimum eccentricities. Based on Kepler's third law, the outermost companion has a minimum mass of ∼ 0.77 M ⊙, whereas the middle companion is an M dwarf star with a mass of ∼ 0.40 M ⊙, suggesting that Z Draconis is a general N-body system.

  19. 2300 yr history of seismicity from silting events in Lake Tadoussac, Charlevoix, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, R. )

    1990-09-01

    Silt layers in organic-rich lake sediments are interpreted to represent the historic earthquakes of 1638, 1663, 1791, 1870, and 1925 of the Charlevoix region of eastern Canada. This interpretation is based on the relative spacing of the layers and the accelerator-mass spectrometer {sup 14}C dating of a twig in one of the cores. The silt layers were presumably caused by landslides on tributary streams and by resuspension of the sediment. The cores contain up to 22 layers, 1 to 45 mm thick, over a depth equivalent to about 2300 yr. If there is a correlation between thickness and magnitude, there would have been four events of Richter magnitude 7.5 or greater in A.D. 1663, 1320, 60, and 320 B.C. The 18 other layers could correspond to earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7. The recurrence interval from 300 B.C. to A.D. 800 is 120 yr, followed until A.D. 1500 by a quiet period, when there was a single large event. The recurrence interval from A.D. 1500 to the present is 75 yr.

  20. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  1. Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1): Serving as the prototype for the F2B-1 shipboard fighter, the XF2B-1 differed visually in having a pointed spinner and an unbalanced rudder. Like many aircraft of its day, the Boeing model 69 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  2. Isla del Coco, on Cocos Plate, Converges with Isla de San Andrés, on the Caribbean Plate, at 78 mm/yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Doelger, S.

    2013-05-01

    Isla del Coco is the only land mass of the Cocos Plate that emerges above sea level. This makes it the only place where Cocos Plate motion can be measured using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) monitoring. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations have been carried out sporadically over more than two decades on Isla del Coco, allowing precise measurement of the motion of the Cocos Plate. Recently, in May 2011, a continuous GPS station was built and instrumented at Isla del Coco, in Wafer Bay, by OVSICORI UNA and UNAVCO, as part of the COCONet regional GNSS network. Position time series from this CGPS station (ISCO: Isla del Coco) show a steady motion of Isla del Coco at a speed of 90.9±1.5mm/yr in the N35oE direction in ITRF2008 and convergence with the Caribbean Plate at 78±1mm/yr. This result is consistent with the findings of the earliest GPS studies, and agrees within uncertainty with the estimated convergence rate of 76.4±2.6 mm/yr of the MORVEL plate motion model. MORVEL is based on an average over the last 780,000 years, and our result suggests that Cocos Caribbean plate motions have been constant over that time interval.

  3. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P. K.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Ivy, D.; Prinn, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    High frequency, in situ observations from 11 globally distributed sites for the period 1994-2014 and archived air measurements dating from 1978 onward have been used to determine the global growth rate of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2). These observations have been combined with a range of atmospheric transport models to derive global emission estimates in a top-down approach. HFC-152a is a greenhouse gas with a short atmospheric lifetime of about 1.5 years. Since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The concentration of HFC-152a has grown substantially since the first direct measurements in 1994, reaching a maximum annual global growth rate of 0.84 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annual rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an annual average rate of growth in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The annual average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mole fraction in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to an annual average mole fraction of 10.1 ppt in 2014. Average annual mole fractions in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1998 and 2014 were 0.84 and 4.5 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mole fraction enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia, and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on

  4. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Mühle, J.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P. K.; Arnold, T.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    High frequency, ground-based, in situ measurements from eleven globally-distributed sites covering 1994-2014, combined with measurements of archived air samples dating from 1978 onward and atmospheric transport models, have been used to estimate the growth of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) mole fractions in the atmosphere and the global emissions required to derive the observed growth. HFC-152a is a significant greenhouse gas but since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). HFC-152a has exhibited substantial atmospheric growth since the first measurements reaching a maximum annualised global growth rate of 0.81 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annualised rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an average rate of change in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mixing ratio in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to a mixing ratio of 10.2 ppt in December 2014. Average annual mixing ratios in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1994 and 2014 were 0.34 and 4.4 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mixing ratio enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on national consumption data. There appears to be a significant

  5. The ˜ 1245 yr BP Asososca maar: New advances on recent volcanic stratigraphy of Managua (Nicaragua) and hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Natalia; Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodríguez, Dionisio

    2008-10-01

    Asososca maar is located at the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua, in the central part of the active, N-S trending and right-lateral Nejapa-Miraflores fault that marks an offset of the Middle America Volcanic Arc. It constitutes one of the ˜ 21 vents aligned along the fault, between the Chiltepe Volcanic Complex to the North and Ticomo vents to the South. Asososca consists of an East-West elongated crater filled by a lake, which is currently used for supplying part of Managua with drinking water (10% of the capital city demand). The crater excavated the previous topography, allowing the observation of a detailed Holocene stratigraphic record that should be taken into account for future hazard analyses. We present a geological map together with the detailed stratigraphy exposed inside and around Asososca crater aided by radiocarbon dating of paleosols. The pre-existing volcanic sequence excavated by Asososca is younger than 12,730 + 255/- 250 yr BP and is capped by the phreato-plinian Masaya Tuff (< 2000 yr BP). The pyroclastic deposits produced by Asososca maar (Asososca Tephra, in this work) display an asymmetric distribution around the crater and overlie the Masaya Tuff. The bulk of the Asososca Tephra is made of several bedsets consisting of massive to crudely stratified beds of blocks and lapilli at the base, and superimposed thinly stratified ash and lapilli beds with dune structures and impact sags. Coarser size-fractions (>- 2 ϕ) are dominated by accidental clasts, including basaltic to basaltic-andesitic, olivine-bearing scoriae lapilli, porphyritic and hypocrystalline andesite blocks and lapilli, altered pumice lapilli and ash, and ignimbrite fragments. Juvenile fragments were only identified in size-fractions smaller than - 1 ϕ in proportions lower than 25%, and consist of black moss-like, fused-shape, and poorly vesiculated, fresh glass fragments of basaltic composition (SiO 2 ˜ 48%). The Asososca Tephra is interpreted as due to the emplacement

  6. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  7. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  8. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  9. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  10. 2.2.1 Ionizing Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasch, K.-U.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.2.1 Ionizing Radiation' of the Section '2.2 Kinds of Radiation' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the contents:

  11. High resolution 900 yr volcanic and climatic record from the Vostok area, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, E. Yu.; Khodzher, T. V.; Golobokova, L. P.; Onischuk, N. A.; Lipenkov, V. Ya.; Ekaykin, A. A.; Osipova, O. P.

    2013-05-01

    Detailed volcanic record of the last 900 yr (1093-2010 AD) has been received using high resolution (2-3 samples per accumulation year) sulfate measurements in four snow/firn cores from the Vostok station area, East Antarctica. Totally, 33 volcanic events have been identified in the record, including well-known low latitude eruption signals found in many polar ice cores (e.g., Pinatubo 1991, Agung 1963, Krakatoa 1883, Tambora 1815, Huanaputina 1600, Kuwae 1452), however in comparison with other Antarctic sites the record has more events covering the last 900 yr. The strongest volcanic signals occurred during mid-13th, mid-15th and 18th centuries. The largest volcanic signal of Vostok (both in sulfate concentration and flux) is the 1452 AD Kuwae eruption. Average snow accumulation rate calculated for the period 1093-2010 AD is 21.3 ± 2.3 mm H2O. Accumulation record demonstrates a slight positive trend, however sharply increased accumulation rate during the periods from 1600 to 1815 AD (by 11% from long-term mean) and from 1963 to 2010 AD (by 15%) are typical features of the site. Na+ record shows strong decadal-scale variability probably connected with coupled changes in atmospheric transport patterns over Antarctica (meridional circulation change) and local glaciology. The obtained high resolution climatic records suggest a high sensitivity of the Vostok location to environmental changes in Southern Hemisphere.

  12. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  13. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation. PMID:19058833

  14. Comparison of simulated and observed N2O gas emission rates from bioenergy cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrous oxide is the largest greenhouse gas source from crop systems. DAYCENT was used to compare N2O emissions from the following 3 bioenergy cropping systems: switchgrass, reed canarygrass, and a rotation of 3 yr corn, 1 yr soybeans, and 4 yr alfalfa. Although DAYCENT did not always capture the ob...

  15. On the constancy of the lunar cratering flux over the past 3.3 billion yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing a method that minimizes random fluctuations in sampling crater populations, it can be shown that the ejecta deposit of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and the region surrounding the Apollo 12 landing site have incremental crater size-frequency distributions that can be expressed as log-log linear functions over the diameter range from 0.1 to 1 km. Slopes are indistinguishable for the three populations, probably indicating that the surfaces are dominated by primary craters. Treating the crater populations of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and Apollo 12 as primary crater populations contaminated, but not overwhelmed, with secondaries, allows an attempt at calibration of the post-heavy bombardment cratering flux. Using the age of Tycho as 109 m.y., Copernicus as 800 m.y., and Apollo 12 as 3.26 billion yr, there is no basis for assuming that the flux has changed over the past 3.3 billion yr. This result can be used for dating intermediate aged surfaces by crater density.

  16. DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 results and perspectives of the phase2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; d'Angelo, A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; He, H. L.; Incicchitti, A.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Montecchia, F.; Sheng, X. D.; Wang, R. G.; Ye, Z. P.

    2016-07-01

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment (˜ 250 kg of highly radio-pure NaI(Tl)) is running deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. Here we briefly recall the results obtained in its first phase of measurements (DAMA/LIBRA-phase1; total exposure: 1.04 ton × yr). DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI (cumulative exposure: 1.33 ton × yr) give evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo by exploiting the model-independent DM annual modulation signature. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. At present DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 is running with increased sensitivity.

  17. [2+2+1] cyclization of allenes.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, S; Inagaki, F; Mukai, C

    2014-05-01

    The [2+2+1] cyclization of an alkyne, an alkene and carbon monoxide, i.e., the Pauson-Khand reaction, is one of the most powerful tools for constructing a five-membered ring. In place of the alkene or alkyne part, the use of an allene functionality has proven to make this reaction more valuable for organic synthesis. This review focuses on the origin and progress of the allenic [2+2+1] cyclocarbonylation, including the chirality transfer of the allene and its synthetic applications. PMID:24514744

  18. Equilibria of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.Y.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-07-01

    ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) are now considered to be the prime contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a result, the use of activated carbons to adsorb specific CFCs has received great attention. In this paper, the equilibrium adsorption characteristics of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane vapor on different-shaped carbons were studied. Adsorption isotherms of 1,2,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on an activated carbon pellet and an activated carbon felt were measured. The equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon pellet having a dual pore structure were expressed by the Redlich-Peterson equation, and equilibrium constants were expressed as functions of temperature from 298 to 393 K. On the other hand, the equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon felt having a relatively uniform pore structure were interpreted by the Dubinin-Radushkevich correlation based on the micropore volume filling theory. The affinity coefficient was correlated by the molar polarization.

  19. A 33 yr constancy of the X-ray coronae of AR Lac and eclipse diagnosis of scale height

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Ratzlaff, Peter; Kashyap, Vinay; Wargelin, Bradford J.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Pease, Deron O.

    2014-03-01

    Extensive X-ray and EUV photometric observations of the eclipsing RS CVn system AR Lac were obtained over the years 1997-2013 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). During primary eclipse, High Resolution Camera count rates decrease by ∼40%. A similar minimum is seen during one primary eclipse observed by EUVE but not in others owing to intrinsic source variability. Little evidence for secondary eclipses is present in either the X-ray or EUV data, reminiscent of earlier X-ray and EUV observations. Primary eclipses allow us to estimate the extent of a spherically symmetric corona on the primary G star of about 1.3 R {sub ☉}, or 0.86 R {sub *}, and indicate that the G star is likely brighter than the K component by a factor of 2-5. Brightness changes not attributable to eclipses appear to be dominated by stochastic variability and are generally non-repeating. X-ray and EUV light curves cannot therefore be reliably used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of emission assuming that only eclipses and rotational modulation are at work. Moderate flaring is observed, where count rates increase by up to a factor of three above quiescence. Combined with older ASCA, Einstein, EXOSAT, ROSAT, and BeppoSAX observations, the data show that the level of quiescent coronal emission at X-ray wavelengths has remained remarkably constant over 33 yr, with no sign of variation due to magnetic cycles. Variations in base level X-ray emission seen by Chandra over 13 yr are only ∼10%, while variations back to pioneering Einstein observations in 1980 amount to a maximum of 45% and more typically about 15%.

  20. Diatom evidence for earthquake-induced subsidence and tsunami 300 yr ago in southern coastal Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fossil diatoms from four stratigraphic sections along the tidal Niawiakum River, southwestern Washington, provide an independent paleoecological test of a relative sea-level rise that has been attributed to subsidence during an inferred earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone about 300 yr ago. Diatom assemblages in a buried soil and overlying mud indicate a sudden and lasting shift from marshes and forests near or above highest tides to mud flats and incipient tidal marshes, with a progressive return to high-level tidal marshes by sediment aggradation and, perhaps, gradual tectonic uplift. The maount of coseismic submergence required to generate the paleoecological changes observed at these sites could have ranged from a minimum of 0.8-1.0m to a maximum of ~3.0m. The following tsunami extended farther landward than was previously inferred from the stratigraphy. These data rule out proposed alternatives to the coseismic subsidence model - that is, climatically induced sea-level rise, temporary submergence caused by storms - and support the hypothesis that a great earthquake struck southwestern Washington 300 yr ago. -from Author

  1. Obstetric and long-term kidney outcomes in renal transplant recipients: a 40-yr single-center study.

    PubMed

    Stoumpos, Sokratis; McNeill, Susan H; Gorrie, Morag; Mark, Patrick B; Brennand, Janet E; Geddes, Colin C; Deighan, Christopher J

    2016-06-01

    Female renal transplant recipients of childbearing age may ask what the outcomes are for pregnancy and whether pregnancy will affect graft function. We analyzed obstetric and transplant outcomes among renal transplant recipients in our center who have been pregnant between 1973 and 2013. A case-cohort study was performed identifying 83 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant controls matched for sex, age, transplant vintage, and creatinine. There were 138 pregnancies reported from 89 renal transplant recipients. There were live births in 74% of pregnancies with high prevalence of prematurity (61%), low birth weight (52%), and pre-eclampsia (14%). Lower eGFR (OR 0.98; p = 0.05) and higher uPCR (OR 1.86; p = 0.02) at conception were independent predictors for poor composite obstetric outcome. Lower eGFR (OR 0.98; p = 0.04), higher uPCR (OR 1.50; p = 0.04), and live organ donation (OR 0.35; p = 0.02) were predictors of ≥20% loss of eGFR between immediately pre-pregnancy and one yr after delivery. There was no difference in eGFR at one, five, and 10 yr in pregnant women compared with non-pregnant controls and a pregnancy was not associated with poorer 10-yr transplant or 20-yr patient survival. Despite high rates of obstetric complications, most women had successful pregnancies with good long-term transplant function. PMID:26992458

  2. 2000 yr record of Sacramento-San Joaquin river inflow to San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil bivalves (Macoma nasuta) contained in estuarine sediment are used to reconstruct a late Holocene record of salinity and stream flow in San Francisco Bay. Discharge into the bay is a particularly good indicator of paleoclimate in California because the bay`s influent streams drain 40% of the state. The isotopic record suggests that between about 1670 and 1900 calendar years (yr cal) B.P. inflow to the bay was substantially greater than the estimated prediversion inflow of 1100 M{sup 3}/s. An unconformity representing a 900 yr hiatus is present in the core between 1670 and 750 yr cal B.P., possibly caused by a major hydrological event. Over the past 750 yr, stream flow to San Francisco Bay has varied with a period of 200 yr; alternate wet and dry (drought) intervals typically have lasted 40 to 160 yr. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  3. A 2000 yr record of Sacramento San Joaquin River inflow to San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil bivalves (Macoma nasuta) contained in estuarine sediment are used to reconstruct a late Holocene record of salinity and stream flow in San Francisco Bay. Discharge into the bay is a particularly good indicator of paleoclimate in California because the bay's influent streams drain 40 percent of the state, The isotopic record suggests that between about 1670 and 1900 calendar years (yr cal) B.P. inflow to the bay was substantially greater than the estimated prediversion inflow of 1100 m(3)/s, An unconformity representing a 900 yr hiatus is present in the core between 1670 and 750 yr cal B.P., possibly caused by a major hydrological event. Over the past 750 yr, stream flow to San Francisco Bay has varied with a period of 200 yr; alternate wet and dry (drought) intervals typically have lasted 40 to 160 yr.

  4. GPS-derived estimates of crustal deformation in the central and north Ionian Sea, Greece: 3-yr results from NOANET continuous network data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, A.; Marinou, A.; Anastasiou, D.; Paradissis, D.; Papazissi, K.; Tzavaras, P.; Drakatos, G.

    2013-07-01

    Ionian Sea (western Greece) is a plate-boundary region of high seismicity and complex tectonics, dominated by frequent earthquake activity along the right-lateral Cephalonia transform fault. We present an analysis of 30-s GPS data from five (5) continuous stations of NOANET (NOA permanent GPS network) spanning the period 2007-2010. Our results show N-S crustal shortening onshore Lefkada island of the order of 2-3 mm/yr which is probably related to increased locking on the offshore Lefkada fault. We also calculated a large difference (1:3) in the principal strain rate amplitude between extension and shortening for the central Ionian Sea.

  5. Characterisation of a new stripe rust resistance gene Yr47 and its genetic association with the leaf rust resistance gene Lr52.

    PubMed

    Bansal, U K; Forrest, K L; Hayden, M J; Miah, H; Singh, D; Bariana, H S

    2011-05-01

    Two Iranian common wheat landraces AUS28183 and AUS28187 from the Watkins collection showed high levels of seedling resistance against Australian pathotypes of leaf rust and stripe rust pathogens. Chi-squared analyses of rust response segregation among F(3) populations derived from crosses of AUS28183 and AUS28187 with a susceptible genotype AUS27229 revealed monogenic inheritance of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. As both genotypes produced similar leaf rust and stripe rust infection types, they were assumed to carry the same genes. The genes were temporarily named as LrW1 and YrW1. Molecular mapping placed LrW1 and YrW1 in the short arm of chromosome 5B, about 10 and 15 cM proximal to the SSR marker gwm234, respectively, and the marker cfb309 mapped 8-12 cM proximal to YrW1. LrW1 mapped 3-6 cM distal to YrW1 in two F(3) populations. AUS28183 corresponded to the accession V336 of the Watkins collection which was the original source of Lr52. Based on the genomic location and accession records, LrW1 was concluded to be Lr52. Because no other seedling stripe rust resistance gene has previously been mapped in chromosome 5BS, YrW1 was permanently named as Yr47. A combination of flanking markers gwm234 and cfb309 with phenotypic assays could be used to ascertain the presence of Lr52 and Yr47 in segregating populations. This investigation characterised a valuable source of dual leaf rust and stripe rust resistance for deployment in new wheat cultivars. Transfer of Lr52 and Yr47 into current Australian wheat backgrounds is in progress. PMID:21344185

  6. Calculated trends and the atmospheric abundance of 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane using automated in-situ gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurements recorded at Mace Head, Ireland, from October 1994 to March 1997

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; O'Doherty, S.; Huang, J.; Prinn, R.; Derwent, R. G.; Ryall, D.; Nickless, G.; Cunnold, D.

    1998-01-01

    The first in-situ measurements by automated gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer are reported for 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, (HCFC-141b), and 1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, (HCFC-142b). These compounds are steadily replacing the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as refrigerants, foam-blowing agents, and solvents. The concentrations of all three compounds are shown to be rapidly increasing in the atmosphere, with 134a increasing at a rate of 2.05±0.02 ppt yr-1 over the 30 months of observations. Similarly, 141b and 142b increased at rates of 2.49±0.03 and 1.24±0.02 ppt yr-1, respectively, over the same period. The concentrations recorded at the atmospheric research station at Mace Head, Ireland, on January 1, 1996, the midpoint of the time series, were 3.67 ppt (134a), 7.38 ppt (141b), and 8.78 ppt (142b). From these observations we optimally estimate the HCFC and HFC emissions using a 12-box global model and OH concentrations derived from global 1,1,1-trichloroethane (CCl3CH3) measurements. Comparing two methods of estimating emissions with independent industry estimates shows satisfactory agreement for 134a and 141b, while for 142b, industry estimates are less than half those required to explain our observations.

  7. Allelic analysis of stripe rust resistance genes on wheat chromosome 2BS.

    PubMed

    Luo, P G; Hu, X Y; Ren, Z L; Zhang, H Y; Shu, K; Yang, Z J

    2008-11-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiormis Westend f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important foliar diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) worldwide. Stripe rust resistance genes Yr27, Yr31, YrSp, YrV23, and YrCN19 on chromosome 2BS confer resistance to some or all Chinese P. striiormis f. sp. tritici races CYR31, CYR32, SY11-4, and SY11-14 in the greenhouse. To screen microsatellite (SSR) markers linked with YrCN19, F1, F2, and F3 populations derived from cross Ch377/CN19 were screened with race CYR32 and 35 SSR primer pairs. Linkage analysis indicated that the single dominant gene YrCN19 in cultivar CN19 was linked with SSR markers Xgwm410, Xgwm374, Xwmc477, and Xgwm382 on chromosome 2BS with genetic distances of 0.3, 7.9, 12.3, and 21.2 cM, respectively. Crosses of CN19 with wheat lines carrying other genes on chromosome 2B showed that all were located at different loci. YrCN19 is thus different from the other reported Yr genes in chromosomal location and resistance response and was therefore named Yr41. Prospects and strategies of using Yr41 and other Yr genes in wheat improvement for stripe rust resistance are discussed. PMID:18956025

  8. Near 3:2 and 2:1 mean motion resonance formation in the systems observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Su; Ji, Jianghui E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler mission has released ∼4229 transiting planet candidates. There are approximately 222 candidate systems with three planets. Among them, the period ratios of planet pairs near 1.5 and 2.0 reveal that two peaks exist for which the proportions of the candidate systems are ∼7.0% and 18.0%, respectively. In this work, we study the formation of mean motion resonance (MMR) systems, particularly for the planetary configurations near 3:2 and 2:1 MMRs, and we concentrate on the interplay between the resonant configuration and the combination of stellar accretion rate, stellar magnetic field, speed of migration, and additional planets. We perform more than 1000 runs by assuming a system with a solar-like star and three surrounding planets. From the statistical results, we find that under the formation scenario, the proportions near 1.5 and 2.0 can reach 14.5% and 26.0%, respectively. In addition, M-dot =0.1×10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} is propitious toward the formation of 3:2 resonance, whereas M-dot =2×10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} contributes to the formation of 2:1 resonance. The speed-reduction factor of type I migration f {sub 1} ≥ 0.3 facilitates 3:2 MMRs, whereas f {sub 1} ≥ 0.1 facilitates 2:1 MMRs. If additional planets are present in orbits within the innermost or beyond the outermost planet in a three-planet system, 3:2:1 MMRs can be formed, but the original systems trapped in 4:2:1 MMRs are not affected by the supposed planets. In summary, we conclude that this formation scenario will provide a likely explanation for Kepler candidates involved in 2:1 and 3:2 MMRs.

  9. CO J = 2-1 EMISSION FROM EVOLVED STARS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M.; Patel, N. A.; Otsuka, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.

    2013-03-01

    We observe a sample of eight evolved stars in the Galactic bulge in the CO J = 2-1 line using the Submillimeter Array with angular resolution of 1''-4''. These stars have been detected previously at infrared wavelengths, and several of them have OH maser emission. We detect CO J = 2-1 emission from three of the sources in the sample: OH 359.943 +0.260, [SLO2003] A12, and [SLO2003] A51. We do not detect the remaining five stars in the sample because of heavy contamination from the galactic CO emission. Combining CO data with observations at infrared wavelengths constraining dust mass loss from these stars, we determine the gas-to-dust ratios of the Galactic bulge stars for which CO emission is detected. For OH 359.943 +0.260, we determine a gas mass-loss rate of 7.9 ({+-}2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 310 ({+-}89). For [SLO2003] A12, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 5.4 ({+-}2.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 220 ({+-}110). For [SLO2003] A51, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 3.4 ({+-}3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 160 ({+-}140), reflecting the low quality of our tentative detection of the CO J = 2-1 emission from A51. We find that the CO J = 2-1 detections of OH/IR stars in the Galactic bulge require lower average CO J = 2-1 backgrounds.

  10. The 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and process for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kray, W. D.; Rosser, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    New 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes in which the aryl radicals carry one or more substituents were prepared by condensation of trifluoroacetophenones with substituted phenyl compounds in the presence of catalytic quantities of trifluoromethylsulfonic acid. The reaction can be carried out under reflux in toluene or, for strikingly better results in certain cases, reactants are simply stirred at room temperature for about 24 to 48 hours.

  11. TOUGH V2.1

    2011-06-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one-, two-, and three-dimensional porous and fracture media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, geologic carbon sequestration, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package is an upgrade of TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574) and includes the following improvements and enhancements relative to TOUGH2 V2.0: - Includes allmore » known bug fixes - The module TMVOC (CR-1820) is fully integrated - The module ECO2N (CR-2202) is fully integrated - A fluid property module ECO2M has been added, that can seamlessly model CO2 storage and leakage scenarios, including transitions between super- and sub-critical fluids, and phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO2. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package also supports all legacy fluid property modules, i.e., those packaged into TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574), which includes T2VOC (CR-1254).« less

  12. TOUGH V2.1

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one-, two-, and three-dimensional porous and fracture media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, geologic carbon sequestration, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package is an upgrade of TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574) and includes the following improvements and enhancements relative to TOUGH2 V2.0: - Includes all known bug fixes - The module TMVOC (CR-1820) is fully integrated - The module ECO2N (CR-2202) is fully integrated - A fluid property module ECO2M has been added, that can seamlessly model CO2 storage and leakage scenarios, including transitions between super- and sub-critical fluids, and phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO2. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package also supports all legacy fluid property modules, i.e., those packaged into TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574), which includes T2VOC (CR-1254).

  13. Search for X-ray induced decay of the 31-yr isomer of 178Hf using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Bredeweg, T A; Cooper, J R; Gemmell, D S; Kraemer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Palmer, P; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2004-09-13

    Isomeric {sup 178}Hf (t{sub 1/2} = 31 yr, E{sub x} = 2.446 MeV, J{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}) was bombarded by a white beam of x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A search was made for x-ray induced decay of the isomer by detecting prompt and delayed {gamma} rays associated with the decay. No induced decay was observed. Upper limits for such a process for x-ray energies between 7-100 keV were set. The limits between 7 and 30 keV are below {approx} 3 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that bypasses the 4-s isomer and {approx} 5 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that is delayed through this isomer, orders of magnitude below values at which induced decay was reported previously. These limits are consistent with what is known about the properties of atomic nuclei.

  14. Search for x-ray induced decay of the 31-yr isomer of 178Hf using synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, I.; Banar, J. C.; Becker, J. A.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Cooper, J. R.; Gemmell, D. S.; Kraemer, A.; Mashayekhi, A.; McNabb, D. P.; Miller, G. G.; Moore, E. F.; Palmer, P.; Pangault, L. N.; Rundberg, R. S.; Schiffer, J. P.; Shastri, S. D.; Wang, T.-F.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2005-02-01

    Isomeric 178Hf (t1/2=31 yr, Ex=2.446MeV, Jπ=16+) was bombarded by a white beam of x rays from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A search was made for x-ray induced decay of the isomer by detecting prompt and delayed γ rays associated with the decay. No induced decay was observed. Upper limits for such a process for x-ray energies between 7 and 100 keV were set. The limits between 7 and 30 keV are below ≈3×10-27 cm2keV for induced decay that bypasses the 4-s isomer and ≈5×10-27 cm2keV for induced decay that is delayed through this isomer, which are orders of magnitude below values at which induced decay was reported previously. These limits are consistent with what is known about the properties of atomic nuclei.

  15. Isolation of an Yr5 candidate gene for resistance to wheat stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Yr5 gene from the Triticum spelta album wheat confers resistance to all races of the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) identified so far in the US. To cloneYr5, a sequence tagged site (STS) marker developed from resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) markers co...

  16. Generation and characterization of 1,2-diaryl-1,1,2,2-tetramethyldisilane cation radicals.

    PubMed

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Haze, Olesya; Dinnocenzo, Joseph P

    2010-05-21

    Nanosecond laser flash photolysis methods were used to generate and spectrally characterize the cation radicals of 1,2-diaryl-1,1,2,2,-tetramethyldisilanes (Ar = p-X-Ph, X = H, CH(3), OCH(3)) in hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) at room temperature. The disilane cation radicals rapidly reacted with methanol, with bimolecular rate constants ranging from 0.63 to 2.1 x 10(8) M(-1) s(-1). The cation radicals were found to react with tert-butanol 4-5 times more slowly than methanol, consistent with a small steric effect for nucleophile-assisted fragmentation of the Si-Si bond. The standard potentials for oxidation of the disilanes in HFIP were determined by two different methods: first, by measuring equilibrium constants for electron exchange between the disilanes and the cation radical of hexaethylbenzene and, second, by combining electrochemical data from cyclic voltammetry with the lifetimes of the disilane cation radicals measured by laser flash photolysis in the same media. Agreement between the two methods was excellent (1,2-di-p-methoxyphenyl-1,1,2,2,-tetramethyldisilane by slow scan cyclic voltammetry in acetonitrile was not found to be reversible, in contrast to prior literature reports. Possible explanations for the prior results are proposed. PMID:20405871

  17. The Duck Redux: An Improved Proper-Motion Upper Limit for the Pulsar B1757-24 near the Supernova Remnant G5.4-1.2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazek, J. A.; Gaensler, B. M.; Chatterjee, S.; van der Swaluw, E.; Camilo, F.; Stappers, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    ``The Duck'' is a complicated nonthermal radio system, consisting of the energetic radio pulsar B1757-24, its surrounding pulsar wind nebula G5.27-0.90, and the adjacent supernova remnant (SNR) G5.4-1.2. PSR B1757-24 was originally claimed to be a young (~15,000 yr) and extreme-velocity (>~1500 km s-1) pulsar, which had penetrated and emerged from the shell of the associated SNR G5.4-1.2 but recent upper limits on the pulsar's motion have raised serious difficulties with this interpretation. We here present 8.5 GHz interferometric observations of the nebula G5.27-0.90 over a 12 yr baseline, doubling the time span of previous measurements. These data correspondingly allow us to halve the previous upper limit on the nebula's westward motion to 14 mas yr-1 (5 σ), allowing a substantive reevaluation of this puzzling object. We rule out the possibility that the pulsar and SNR were formed from a common supernova explosion ~15,000 yr ago, as implied by the pulsar's characteristic age, but conclude that an old (>~70,000 yr) pulsar/SNR association, or a situation in which the pulsar and SNR are physically unrelated, are both still viable explanations.

  18. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  19. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  20. ex1ex2v2 Version 2.10

    2007-09-12

    ex1ex2v2 is a translator program which will convert a database in exodus1 format to exodusII format. The exodus 1 format is a defined series of Fortran unformatted writes/reads; the exodusII format is defined by the ExodusII API.

  1. M2-F1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the cockpit configuration of the M2-F1 wingless lifting body. With a top speed of about 120 knots, the M2-F1 had a simple instrument panel. Besides the panel itself, the ribs of the wooden shell (left) and the control stick (center) are also visible. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47

  2. On the origin of multi-decadal to centennial Greenland temperature anomalies over the past 800 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Kodera, K.; Box, J. E.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2012-11-01

    The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies associated with accelerating sea level rise. However, the causes of multi-decadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine the causes of the Greenland temperature variability, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA(G-NH)) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardised NH temperature from the standardised Greenland temperature. It decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); Polar amplification; and Regional variability (GTA(G-NH)). The Central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio = Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA explains 31-35% of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multi-decadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. Another orthogonal component of the Greenland and NH temperatures, GTP(G+NH) (Greenland temperature plus = standardized Greenland temperature + standardized NH temperature) exhibited the multi-decadal variations that were likely induced by large volcanic eruptions, increasing greenhouse gasses, and internal variation of climate. We found that the GTA(G-NH) has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modelling indicates that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and to associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  3. Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Kitamura, K; Kohno, N

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body configurations and the joint function during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Twelve healthy adult males and eight (one male and seven females) 6-yr-old kindergartners participated in this study. Subjects performed standing long jump on a force platform with full effort. Body segment and joint angles were analyzed by high speed videography (100 frames.s-1). Using kinetic and kinematic data, joint moments, power, and work done were calculated through a free body diagram. Average standing long jump performances were +1.5 SD above Japanese norm in both adults and children. A wide range of motion of the lower limb segments during flight phase was found in the adults. In the crouch prior to take off, joint muscle power peaks appeared in the same order, and joint contribution to the total work done showed almost the same values in both adults and children. It is suggested that gross motor pattern before take off is almost accomplished by the 6-yr-old. Judging by hip joint work, adult performance was much better than that of children, since the adults exerted relatively higher negative work from the onset of preparatory movement to the point of lowest center of gravity during crouch. It was concluded that skilled 6-yr-old children have not fully developed either hip negative work during preparatory movement or body configuration in the flight phase, although gross motor pattern before take off phase was accomplished to skilled adult level. PMID:1943628

  4. RASCAL Version 2.1 workbook. Volume 2, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G.F.; Sjoreen, A.L.; McKenna, T.J.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) was developed for use by the NRC personnel who respond to radiological emergencies. This workbook complements the RASCAL 2.1 User`s guide (NUREG/CR-5247, Vol. 1, Rev. 2). The workbook contains exercises designed to familiarize the user with the computer-based tools of RASCAL through hands-on problem solving. The workbook contains four major sections. The first is a RASCAL familiarization exercise to acquaint the user with the operation of the forms, menus, online help, and documentation. The latter three sections contain exercises in using the three tools of RASCAL Version 2.1: DECAY, FM-DOSE, and ST-DOSE. A discussion section describing how the tools could be used to solve the problems follows each set of exercises.

  5. Broad N2H+ Emission toward the Protostellar Shock L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Podio, L.; Vasta, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first detection of N2H+ toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ~0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N2H+(1-0) line originated from the dense (>=105 cm-3) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N2H+ column density of a few 1012 cm-2 corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10-9. The N2H+ abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 104 yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (sime2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N2H+ is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N2H+ is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 104 cm-3, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  6. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  7. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  8. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  9. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  10. (1S,2R,2'S)- and (1S,2S, 2'S)-1-phenyl-2-phenylthio-2-(tetrahydropyran-2'-ylthio)ethanol diastereoisomers at 193 K.

    PubMed

    Kansikas, J; Sipilä, K

    2000-11-01

    In the synthesis of 1-phenyl-2-phenylthio-2-(tetrahydropyran-2-ylthio)ethanol, C(19)H(22)O(2)S(2), four diastereoisomers are formed. Two non-centrosymmetric enantiomeric forms which crystallize in space groups P2(1)2(1)2(1) and Pna2(1) are presented. The former has an intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl group and the O atom of the tetrahydropyran ring. In the latter isomer, the hydroxyl group forms an intermolecular hydrogen bond to the O atom of the tetrahydropyranyl group of a neighbouring molecule, joining the molecules into chains in the c-axis direction; the O.O distances are 2.962 (4) and 2.764 (3) A, respectively. The tetrahydropyran rings are in chair conformations in both isomers and the S side chain has an equatorial orientation in the former, but an axial orientation in the latter molecule. PMID:11077307

  11. Halogen-bonded adduct of 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

    PubMed

    Brisdon, Alan K; Muneer, Abeer M T; Pritchard, Robin G

    2015-10-01

    Halogen bonding is an intermolecular interaction capable of being used to direct extended structures. Typical halogen-bonding systems involve a noncovalent interaction between a Lewis base, such as an amine, as an acceptor and a halogen atom of a halofluorocarbon as a donor. Vapour-phase diffusion of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane results in crystals of the 1:1 adduct, C2Br2F4·C6H12N2, which crystallizes as an infinite one-dimensional polymeric structure linked by intermolecular N...Br halogen bonds [2.829 (3) Å], which are 0.57 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii. PMID:26422219

  12. Early diagenesis of recently deposited organic matter: A 9-yr time-series study of a flood deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Goñi, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Miserocchi, S.; Bertotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    In Fall 2000, the Po River (Italy) experienced a 100-yr return period flood that resulted in a 1-25 cm-thick deposit in the adjacent prodelta (10-25 m water depth). In the following years, numerous post-depositional perturbations occurred including bioturbation, reworking by waves with heights exceeding 5 m, as well as periods of extremely high and low sediment supply. Cores collected in the central prodelta after the Fall 2000 flood and over the following 9 yr, allowed characterization of the event-strata in their initial state and documentation of their subsequent evolution. Sedimentological characteristics were investigated using X-radiographs and sediment texture analyses, whereas the composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) was studied via bulk and biomarker analyses, including organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C), lignin phenols, cutin-products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and fatty acids. The 9-yr time-series analysis indicated that roughly the lower half of the original event bed was preserved in the sediment record. Conversely, the upper half of the deposit experienced significant alterations including bioturbation, addition of new material, as well as coarsening. Comparison of the recently deposited material with 9-yr old preserved strata represented a unique natural laboratory to investigate the diagenesis of sedimentary OM in a non-steady system. Bulk data indicated that OC and TN were degraded at similar rates (loss ∼17%) whereas biomarkers exhibited a broad spectrum of reactivities (loss from ∼6% to ∼60%) indicating selective preservation during early diagenesis. Given the relevance of episodic sedimentation in several margins, this study has demonstrated the utility of event-response and time-series sampling of the seabed for understanding the early diagenesis in non-steady conditions.

  13. [Genetic analysis and SSR mapping on an new stem stripe rust resistance gene YrY206 in Aegilops tauschii].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiquan; Lang, Jie; Ma, Shuqin; Zhang, Baoshi

    2008-08-01

    A wheat stripe rust resistance gene was screened out from Aegilops tauschii which is relative genera of wheat species, broadening the genetic basis of the anti-disease character of wheat species. By hybridizing diversed Ae. Tauschii species, which is either resistant or susceptible to wheat stripe rust, a dominant wheat stripe rust resistance gene was detected from Ae. Tauschii (Coss.) Schmal Y206. The novel gene was temporarily designated as YrY206. By bulk segregation analysis, four microsatellite markers Wmc11a, Xgwm71c, Xgwm161 and Xgwm183 were found to be linked to YrY206 with genetic distances of 4.0, 3.3, 1.5 and 9.3 cM, respectively. According to the locations of the linked markers, the resistance gene was located on chromosome 3DS. Based on the chromosomal location and the resistance pattern of the gene, YrY206 should be a novel stripe rust resistance gene. PMID:18998554

  14. Use of annual ABPM, and repeated carotid scan and echocardiography to monitor cardiovascular health over nine yr in pediatric and young adult renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Balzano, Rita; Lindblad, Ylva Tranaeus; Vavilis, Georgios; Jogestrand, Tomas; Berg, Ulla B; Krmar, Rafael T

    2011-09-01

    In adult hypertensive patients, increased cIMT and LVH are independent risk factors for cardiovascular events. We have previously observed that in pediatric RTRs with tight control of BP, cIMT did not progress over time. This investigation is an extension of the aforementioned study aimed at re-examining cIMT and also reporting serial echocardiography results. Twenty-two RTRs aged 9.4 ± 3.3 yr at their baseline carotid scan underwent two additional vascular ultrasounds during a follow-up of 9.1 ± 0.9 yr. Carotid scan and echocardiography examinations were carried out simultaneously with ABPM. Antihypertensive therapy was determined according to the recipient's ABPM results, which were performed at yearly intervals. Baseline cIMT was significantly greater in RTRs than in healthy controls. There was no statistical evidence of systematic changes in cIMT over time. At the last examination, 14 of 17 RTRs with treated hypertension had controlled hypertension (prevalence 82%; 95% CI, 56.5-96.2), and the overall prevalence of LVH was 4.5% (95% CI, -0.01 to 23.5). The lack of progression of cIMT over time and the low prevalence of LVH might reflect the effect of long-standing BP control. PMID:21884348

  15. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, P; Mitsari, E; Romanini, M; Serra, P; Tamarit, J Ll; Zuriaga, M; Macovez, R

    2016-04-28

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids. PMID:27131555

  16. Validity of the SAT for Predicting Second-Year Grades: 2006 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the validity of the SAT for predicting two second-year outcomes: (1) second-year cumulative GPA (2nd Yr Cum GPA), and (2) second-year grade point average (2nd Yr GPA). Similar to the results for first-year grade point average (1st Yr GPA), the SAT is strongly correlated with second year outcomes. For many significant…

  17. The collimated outflows of the planetary nebula Hu 1-2: proper motion and radial velocity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, L. F.; Blanco, M.; Guerrero, M. A.; Riera, A.

    2012-04-01

    Hu 1-2 is a planetary nebula that contains an isolated knot located north-west of the main nebula, which could be related to a collimated outflow. We present a subarcsecond Hα+[N II] image and a high-resolution, long-slit spectrum of Hu 1-2 that allow us to identify the south-eastern counterpart of the north-western knot and to establish their high-velocity (>340 km s-1), collimated bipolar outflow nature. The detection of the north-western knot in Palomar Observatory Sky Atlas (POSS) red plates allows us to carry out a proper motion analysis by combining three POSS red plates and two narrow-band Hα+[N II] CCD images, with a time baseline of ≃57 yr. A proper motion of 20 ± 6 mas yr-1 along position angle 312°± 15° and a dynamical age of 1375? yr are obtained for the bipolar outflow. The measured proper motion and the spatio-kinematical properties of the bipolar outflow yield a lower limit of 2.7 kpc for the distance to Hu 1-2. The Andalucia Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (ALFOSC) is provided by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA) under a joint agreement with the University of Copenhagen and NOTSA. The IACUB uncrossed echelle spectrograph was built in a collaboration between the IAC and the Queen's University of Belfast.

  18. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  19. SUPESv.4.1.2

    2001-04-25

    SUPES is a collection of subprograms that perform frequently used non-numerical services for the engineering applications programmer. The three functional categories of SUPES are: (1) input command parsing, (2) dynamic memory management, and (3) system dependent utilities. The subprograms in categories one and two are written in standard FORTRAN-77, while the subprograms in category three are written provide a standarized FORTRAN interface to several system dependent features.

  20. SWEET 2.1 Ontologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raskin, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The Semantic Web for Earth and Environmental Terminology (SWEET) ontologies represent a mid- to upper-level concept space for all of Earth and Planetary Science and associated data and applications The latest version (2.1) has been reorganized to improve long-term maintainability. Accompanying the ontologies is a mapping to the CF Standard Name Table and the GCMD Science Keywords. As a higher level concept space, terms can be readily mapped across these vocabularies through the intermediate use of SWEET.

  1. Putative Thinopyrum intermedium-derived stripe rust resistance gene Yr50 maps on wheat chromosome arm 4BL.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Chang, Zhijian; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yang, Zujun; Li, Xin; Jia, Juqing; Zhan, Haixian; Guo, Huijuan; Wang, Jianming

    2013-01-01

    Stripe rust-resistant wheat introgression line CH223 was developed by crossing the resistant partial amphiploid TAI7047 derived from Thinopyrum intermedium with susceptible cultivars. The resistance is effective against all the existing Chinese stripe rust races, including the most widely virulent and predominant pathotypes CYR32 and CYR33. Cytological analyses using GISH detected no chromosomal segments from Th. intermedium. It was presumed that the segment was too small to be detected. Normal bivalent pairing at meiosis in CH223 and its hybrids confirmed its stability. Genetic analysis of the F(1), F(2), F(3) and BC(1) populations from crosses of CH223 with susceptible lines indicated that resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. The resistance gene was mapped using an F(2:3) population from Taichung 29/CH223. The gene was linked to five co-dominant genomic SSR markers, Xgwm540, Xbarc1096, Xwmc47, Xwmc310 and Xgpw7272, and flanked by Xbarc1096 and Xwmc47 at 8.0 and 7.2 cM, respectively. Using the Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic and ditelosomic lines, the polymorphic markers and the resistance gene were assigned to chromosome arm 4BL. As no permanently named stripe rust resistance genes had been assigned to chromosome 4BL, this new resistance gene is designated Yr50. The gene, together with the identified closely linked markers, could be used in marker-assisted selection to combine two or more resistance genes in a single genotype. PMID:23052018

  2. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Carlson, Paul R.; Threlkeld, Charles N.; Warden, Augusta

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the δ13C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average -29.3 ±0.1‰. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average δ13C value of -23.8 ±0.1‰. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggests a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt (δ13C = -23.6‰) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil- like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound.

  3. PEF variability, bronchial responsiveness and their relation to allergy markers in a random population (20-70 yr).

    PubMed

    Boezen, H M; Postma, D S; Schouten, J P; Kerstjens, H A; Rijcken, B

    1996-07-01

    We investigated the coherence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability in their relation to allergy markers and respiratory symptoms in 399 subjects (20-70 yr). Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine was defined by both the provocative dose causing a fall in FEV1 of 20%, and the dose-response slope. PEF variability was determined as diurnal PEF variation (amplitude percent mean) and between-day PEF variation. Skin tests positivity, serum total IgE, and specific IgE (RAST) for house-dust mite (HDM), cat, timothy grass, and birch ("pollen") were determined, as well as the number of peripheral blood eosinophils. Wheeze and nocturnal dyspnea were defined as asthma-like symptoms; dyspnea > or = grade 3, cough and phlegm as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-like symptoms. The reciprocal of the dose-response slope and PEF variability were significantly correlated (r = -0.39). Subjects with a positive skin test for HDM (odds ratio [OR] = 3.9), cat (OR = 8.3), or pollen (OR = 3.6), or specific IgE for HDM (OR = 2.3), cat (OR = 3.4), or pollen (OR = 1.9) had increased risk of BHR compared with the reference group (all p values < 0.05). Higher levels of serum total IgE were significantly associated with higher odds for BHR (OR = 2.5 per log unit). There was no significant association between skin test positivity, serum total IgE, or presence of specific IgE and PEF variability. Neither BHR nor PEF variability were associated with higher numbers of peripheral blood eosinophils. There are different associations of BHR and PEF variability with allergy markers. Although BHR and PEF variability are significantly correlated, they cannot be used interchangeably in epidemiologic settings. PMID:8680695

  4. Continuous lake-sediment records of glaciation in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 12,500 14C yr B.P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; May, Howard M.; Antweiler, R.C.; Brinton, T.I.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Smoot, J.P.; Lund, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    The chemistry of the carbonate-free clay-size fraction of Owens Lake sediments supports the use of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility as indicators of stadial-interstadial oscillations. Owens Lake records of total organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, and chemical composition of the carbonate-free, clay-size fraction indicate that Tioga glaciation began ~24,500 and ended by ~13,600 14C yr B.P. Many of the components of glacial rock flour (e.g., TiO2, MnO, BaO) found in Owens Lake sediments achieved maximum values during the Tioga glaciation when valley glaciers reached their greatest extent. Total organic carbon and SiO2 (amorphous) concentrations reached minimum values during Tioga glaciation, resulting from decreases in productivity that accompanied the introduction of rock flour into the surface waters of Owens Lake. At least 20 stadial-interstadial oscillations occurred in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. Total organic carbon data from a Pyramid Lake sediment core also indicate oscillations in glacier activity between >39,500 and ~13,600 14C yr B.P. Alpine glacier oscillations occurred on a frequency of ???1900 yr in both basins, suggesting that millennial-scale oscillations occurred in California and Nevada during most of the past 52,600 yr.

  5. GIS-Based Paleotopographic Reconstructions of the Queen Elizabeth Islands at 8500 14C yr B.P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, S. C.; Leverington, D. W.

    2009-12-01

    Until ~11,000 14C yr B.P., the Queen Elizabeth Islands of the Canadian High Arctic were covered by the Innuitian Ice Sheet and by the northernmost extent of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The loading of the crust by these ice masses resulted in glacio-isostatic subsidence, most notably in the eastern part of the archipelago. Gradual deglaciation of the region was accompanied by differential glacio-isostatic rebound, with areas of greatest rebound corresponding to areas of greatest prior loading and subsidence. Changes in the effects of glacial loading and unloading, combined with changes in the volume and loading effects of sea water, progressively transformed the paleogeography of the region during deglaciation. In this research, geographic information system (GIS) software was used to reconstruct the topography (including bathymetry) of the Queen Elizabeth Islands at 8500 14C yr B.P. Both moderate-resolution (1 arc minute per pixel) and high-resolution (3 arc seconds per pixel) databases of paleotopography were created by subtracting interpolated isobase data (derived from England et al., 2006) from databases of modern topography. These paleotopographic databases were used to generate cartographic visualizations and to quantify aspects of the forms and extents of straits and major islands. The greater elevations and steeper slopes of the peripheries of large eastern islands such as Ellesmere and Devon resulted in surface areas at 8500 14C yr B.P. that were only ~8% less than at present, despite the concentration of glacial loading here. The lower elevations and slopes of islands in the central part of the archipelago facilitated the substantial and even complete submergence of landmasses below sea level at 8500 14C yr B.P. For example, Bathurst Island had a surface area that was ~45% less than that of today, and islands including Loughheed, Graham, and Byam Martin were almost entirely submerged below the surface of an open sea at this time. The geometries of local

  6. Pulmonary permeability in never-smokers between 21 and 67 yr of age

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, S.; Hermansen, F.; Rossing, N. )

    1989-07-01

    During the last 5-10 years, measurements of pulmonary clearance (PCl) of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ({sup 99m}TC-DTPA) have become increasingly used as an index of pulmonary epithelial injury. The aim of this study was to apply a carefully defined procedure for measurements of PCl in healthy nonsmoking individuals and analyze whether sex, age, and height are clinically relevant confounders contributing to the range of interindividual variation. Measurements of regional ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) were included to analyze whether these indexes are influenced by the same confounders. We studied 39 males and females between 21 and 67 yr of age. Average PCl of the lungs was 0.85 +/- 0.25%.min-1. There was a significant difference between PCl of the central and peripheral parts of the lungs (P less than 0.01). Regional V and Q were greater in the lower than in the upper halves of the lungs (P less than 0.01). There was no relation between PCl, V, or Q and the sex, age, and height of the individuals. It is concluded that when measuring PCl in adult individuals anthropometric measurements need not be considered.

  7. Vegetation History of Pleasant Island, Southeastern Alaska, since 13,000 yr B.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Barbara C. S.; Engstrom, Daniel R.

    1996-09-01

    A 13,000-year history of late-Quaternary vegetational and climatic change has been derived from lacustrine sediments from Pleasant Island in the Glacier Bay region of southeastern Alaska. Early arrival of lodgepole pine and mountain hemlock, indicated by the presence of pollen and conifer stomata, suggests expansion from refugia in the Alexander Archipelago. A short-term climatic reversal, possibly correlated with the European Younger Dryas, is inferred from the expansion of tundra elements and deposition of inorganic sediments between 10,600 and 9900 14C yr B.P. Two peat cores from the lake catchment verify Holocene vegetation changes and aid in the separation of biogenic from climatic forces affecting vegetation history. Differences in pollen representation among the three cores illustrate the variation among pollen-collecting substrates, as well as the spatial heterogeneity of peatland development and its dependence on local hydrology. Initial peat accumulation and soil paludification, occasioned by increases in temperature and precipitation in the early Holocene, allowed western and mountain hemlock to replace sitka spruce 8500-8000 yr B. P. Open muskeg became widespread about 7000 yr B. P. and allowed lodgepole pine to reinvade the region after a 2000-yr absence. The extensive replacement of fen elements by bog taxa at 3400 yr B. P. suggests increased paludification due to changing hydrologic conditions; its correlation with the upland expansion of Tsuga heterophyllasuggests the onset of a cooler/wetter Neoglacial climate in southeastern Alaska.

  8. CO(2), CO, and Hg emissions from the Truman Shepherd and Ruth Mullins coal fires, eastern Kentucky, USA.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Jennifer M K; Henke, Kevin R; Hower, James C; Engle, Mark A; Stracher, Glenn B; Stucker, J D; Drew, Jordan W; Staggs, Wayne D; Murray, Tiffany M; Hammond, Maxwell L; Adkins, Kenneth D; Mullins, Bailey J; Lemley, Edward W

    2010-03-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) emissions were quantified for two eastern Kentucky coal-seam fires, the Truman Shepherd fire in Floyd County and the Ruth Mullins fire in Perry County. This study is one of the first to estimate gas emissions from coal fires using field measurements at gas vents. The Truman Shepherd fire emissions are nearly 1400t CO(2)/yr and 16kg Hg/yr resulting from a coal combustion rate of 450-550t/yr. The sum of CO(2) emissions from seven vents at the Ruth Mullins fire is 726+/-72t/yr, suggesting that the fire is consuming about 250-280t coal/yr. Total Ruth Mullins fire CO and Hg emissions are estimated at 21+/-1.8t/yr and >840+/-170g/yr, respectively. The CO(2) emissions are environmentally significant, but low compared to coal-fired power plants; for example, 3.9x10(6)t CO(2)/yr for a 514-MW boiler in Kentucky. Using simple calculations, CO(2) and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the U.S. are estimated at 1.4x10(7)-2.9x10(8)t/yr and 0.58-11.5t/yr, respectively. This initial work indicates that coal fires may be an important source of CO(2), CO, Hg and other atmospheric constituents. PMID:20071005

  9. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2..., polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. (a) Chemical...-propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene,...

  13. Hybrid fitting of a hydrosystem model using dense spatio-temporally distributed data: the Beauce aquifer functioning over 40 yr (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, C.; Flipo, N.; Poulin, M.; Krimissa, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on the Beauce aquifer (8 000 km2, unconfined) over a 40-year period. The mono-layer aquifer system is part of the hydrosystem Loire (surface basin of 117 000 km2) which is composed of a multi-layer aquifer system. This area is documented with various types of structural (land use, geology) and hydrological data (precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, water volume withdrawn at pumping wells and their location) from which a distributed process-based model has been implemented to model the surface, the unsaturated zone and the aquifer system. The surface model contains 37 620 cells ranging from 1 to 16 km2, 16 141 among them are river cells. Beauce aquifer unit is simulated with 4 489 groundwater cells. To understand the Beauce hydrological functioning and quantify exchanged fluxes, a pragmatic hybrid fitting method has been developed. First the parameters of the water mass balance module are calibrated based on in-river gauging stations selected from a morphological analysis. Then the surface and river routing modules are calibrated based on the analysis of flood discharge peaks at 157 gauging stations. After a pre-calibration of the surface modules for the whole Loire basin, the hybrid fitting methodology focuses on the Beauce aquifer system. It couples manual and automatic iterative calibration. Roughly, the automatic calibration aims at inversing a low water piezometric head map for a steady state using the successive flux estimation. Then the transient manual calibration aims at calibrating others parameters in transient state. The model performances are assessed with a multicriteria approach using global RMSE and bias, and criteria computed for 78 piezometers and for 157 gauging stations. Inspired from soft computing techniques, the hybrid fitting methodology involves three data subsets: a calibration one (10 yr), a validation one (10 yr) and a test one (35 yr). The global RMSE on piezometric head is around 2.5 m for the three subsets

  14. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  15. The 8200 cal yr BP cooling event in eastern North America and the utility of midge analysis for Holocene temperature reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurek, Joshua; Cwynar, Les C.; Spear, Ray W.

    2004-03-01

    Between about 8400 and 8000 cal yr BP two sites from the White Mountains of eastern North America record loss-on-ignition (LOI) reductions in the organic content of lake sediment. At Speck Pond LOI values reach a near-Holocene minimum of 35% whereas at Surplus Pond LOI values are maintained near 35% for about 100 cal yr. We interpret this change in LOI as a response to the 8200 cal yr BP cooling event known to occur throughout the circum-North Atlantic region. Detailed midge (including Chironomidae, Chaoboridae, and Ceratopogonidae) analyses were used to measure changes in summer surface-water temperatures from about 8800 to 8000 cal yr BP at both sites. Midge-inferred temperatures are highly variable at Speck Pond (ranging from 12.2°C to 16.7°C) whereas a "no-analogue" situation persists at Surplus Pond with inferred temperatures near 30°C. These results bring into question the usefulness of midges as a climate proxy to infer relatively brief, small-magnitude Holocene climatic events such as the 8200 cal yr BP cooling event.

  16. Progress towards measuring the 2S1 / 2 to 2P1 / 2 interval in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vutha, A. C.; Bezginov, N.; Ferchichi, I.; Hessels, E. A.

    2015-05-01

    There is a large discrepancy between the CODATA value for the proton charge radius, and its determinations from muonic hydrogen measurements. This discrepancy is referred to as the proton radius puzzle. Improved measurements on atomic hydrogen can elucidate the origins of this discrepancy. We have constructed an experiment to measure the Lamb shift (n = 2 ,S1 / 2 -->P1 / 2) in a fast beam of atomic hydrogen. Using a novel separated-oscillatory-fields method and high signal-to-noise ratio detection, we can measure the center of this transition with a statistical uncertainty approaching 10-5 of its natural linewidth. We report on our studies of systematic effects, and on our progress towards a new measurement of the proton charge radius. We acknowledge funding from NSERC, CFI, CRC, ORF, and NIST.

  17. Molecular mapping of Yr53, a new gene for stripe rust resistance in durum wheat accession PI 480148 and its transfer to common wheat.

    PubMed

    Xu, L S; Wang, M N; Cheng, P; Kang, Z S; Hulbert, S H; Chen, X M

    2013-02-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. It is essential to identify new genes for effective resistance against the disease. Durum wheat PI 480148, originally from Ethiopia, was resistant in all seedling tests with several predominant Pst races in the US under controlled greenhouse conditions and at multiple locations subject to natural infection for several years. To map the resistance gene(s) and to transfer it to common wheat, a cross was made between PI 480148 and susceptible common wheat genotype Avocet S (AvS). Resistant F(3) plants with 42 chromosomes were selected cytologically and by testing with Pst race PST-100. A total of 157 F(4) plants from a single F(3) plant with 2n = 42 tested with PST-100 segregated in a 3 resistant: 1 susceptible ratio, indicating that a single dominant gene from PI 480148 conferred resistance. Using the F(3:4) population and the resistance gene-analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, the gene was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 2B. SSR marker Xwmc441 and RGAP marker XLRRrev/NLRRrev ( 350 ) flanked the resistance gene by 5.6 and 2.7 cM, respectively. The effective resistance of the gene to an Australian Pst isolate virulent to Yr5, which is also located on 2BL and confers resistance to all US Pst races, together with an allelism test of the two genes, indicated that the gene from PI 480148 is different from Yr5 and should be a new and useful gene for resistance to stripe rust. Resistant common wheat lines with plant types similar to AvS were selected for use in breeding programs. PMID:23090143

  18. Triethyl-ammonium (indane-1,2,3-trione 1,2-dioximato-κ(2)N(1),O(2))(indane-1,2,3-trione 2-oximato 1-oxime-κ(2)N(1),O(2))nickel(II).

    PubMed

    Zhong, Baoyun; Li, Shengli; Chen, Guifang

    2012-04-01

    In the title compound, (C(6)H(16)N)[Ni(C(9)H(4)N(2)O(3))(C(9)H(5)N(2)O(3))], the Ni(II)ion is four-coordinated by two N atoms and two O atoms from two indane-1,2,3-trione-1,2-dioxime ligands. The two organic ligands are linked by an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonds. PMID:22589799

  19. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Normal Taxes and Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax...

  20. EnergyPlus 1.2.2

    2005-05-01

    EnergyPlus (E+) is a new whole-building energy analysis program that combines the best capabilities and features from BLAST and DOE-2 along with new capabilities. E+ modular implementation facilitates extending the program and adding links to other programs. The fluid loops and HVAC components support a "manager-interface" simulation protocol that allows for the independent simulation of subsystems, each possibly using a customized solution procedure. Thus, the E+ program structure allows the solution to a particular subsystemmore » to be computed without affecting the solution schemes used for the other subsystems. This fundamental requirement enables the integration of external models in the El+ building systems simulation.« less

  1. Analysis of the Lr34/Yr18 rust resistance region in wheat germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An insertion/deletion size variant located at the csLV34 locus on chromosome 7D within an intron sequence of a sulphate transporter-like gene tightly linked to the Lr34/Yr18 dual rust resistance was used to examine a global collection of wheat cultivars, landraces and D genome containing diploid and...

  2. Gene expression patterns in near isogenic lines for wheat rust resistance gene lr34/yr18.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, S H; Bai, J; Fellers, J P; Pacheco, M G; Bowden, R L

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The Lr34/Yr18 resistance gene provides durable, adult-plant, slow rusting resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, and several other diseases of wheat. Flag leaves may exhibit spontaneous leaf tip necrosis and tips are more resistant than leaf bases. Despite the importance of this gene, the mechanism of resistance is unknown. Patterns of expression for 55,052 transcripts were examined by microarray analysis in mock-inoculated flag leaves of two pairs of wheat near isogenic lines for Lr34/Yr18 (Jupateco 73S/Jupateco 73R and Thatcher/Thatcher-Lr34). The Thatcher isolines were also examined for patterns of expression after inoculation with leaf rust. Mock-inoculated leaf tips of resistant plants showed up-regulation of 57 transcripts generally associated with ABA inducibility, osmotic stress, cold stress, and/or seed maturation. Several transcripts may be useful as expression markers for Lr34/Yr18. Five transcripts were also up-regulated in resistant leaf bases. The possible role of these transcripts in resistance is discussed. In mock-inoculated plants, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were not up-regulated in resistant flag leaves compared with that in susceptible flag leaves. In inoculated plants, the same set of PR proteins was up-regulated in both resistant and susceptible flag leaves. However, expression was often higher in resistant plants, suggesting a possible role for Lr34/Yr18 in priming of defense responses. PMID:18944173

  3. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Microcystins Lr, Rr, Yr and La (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  4. 26 CFR 1.117-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations. 1.117-2 Section 1.117-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.117-2 Limitations. (a) Individuals who are candidates for degrees—(1) In general. Under the limitations provided by section 117(b)(1)...

  5. 26 CFR 1.117-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations. 1.117-2 Section 1.117-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.117-2 Limitations. (a) Individuals who are candidates for degrees—(1) In general. Under the limitations provided by section 117(b)(1)...

  6. Analytic cross sections for 1 1S, to 1 1S to 2 1S, 1 1S to 2 1P transitions in helium by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukumar, C. V.; Faisal, F. H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The 1 1s yields 1 1s elastic and 1 1s yields 2 1s and 1 1s yields 2 excitation cross sections of Helium atoms by collision with a charged particle are obtained as analytic functions of incident velocity. The first order time dependent scattering theory is used. Numerical values of electron -He cross sections are obtained for incident energies in the range 30 eV to 800 eV and compared with earlier Born approximation calculations and with available experimental data. It is found that at 100 eV and above, the present results are in good agreement with the experimental results. They are also closer to the experimental results than the corresponding Born calculations.

  7. The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr: a low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, S.; Chugai, N. N.; Utrobin, V. P.; Cappellaro, E.; Patat, F.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Cupani, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Caldwell, N.; Pignata, G.; Tomasella, L.

    2016-03-01

    Spectrophotometry of SN 1996al carried out throughout 15 yr is presented. The early photometry suggests that SN 1996al is a linear Type II supernova, with an absolute peak of MV ˜ -18.2 mag. Early spectra present broad asymmetric Balmer emissions, with superimposed narrow lines with P-Cygni profile, and He I features with asymmetric broad emission components. The analysis of the line profiles shows that the H and He broad components form in the same region of the ejecta. By day +142, the Hα profile dramatically changes: the narrow P-Cygni profile disappears, and the Hα is fitted by three emission components that will be detected over the remaining 15 yr of the supernova (SN) monitoring campaign. Instead, the He I emissions become progressively narrower and symmetric. A sudden increase in flux of all He I lines is observed between 300 and 600 d. Models show that the SN luminosity is sustained by the interaction of low-mass (˜1.15 M⊙) ejecta, expelled in a low kinetic energy (˜1.6 × 1050 erg) explosion, with highly asymmetric circumstellar medium. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor was most likely a massive star (˜25 M⊙ ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7-8-M⊙ black hole.

  8. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  9. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  10. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  11. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  12. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  13. A 16-yr Comparison of Fine Particle and Aerosol Strong Acidity at the Interface Zone (1,540 m) and Within (452 m) the Planetary Boundary Layer of the Great Gulf and Presidential-Dry River Class I Wildernesses on the Presidential Range, New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Georgia L.; Kimball, Kenneth; Hill, Bruce; Allen, George A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Seidel, Thomas M.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    Mount Washington, NH in the White Mountain National Forest, is flanked to the north-northeast and south by two Class I Wilderness areas, the Great Gulf and Presidential Range-Dry River Wildernesses, respectively. The Clean Air Act protects Class I area natural resource values from air pollution. Aerosol sulfate, a fine particulate component that is often transported long distances, is a known contributor to visibility degradation and acidic deposition. We examined summertime fine particulate aerosol mass and sulfate, strong acidity and ammonium concentrations from 1988 to 2004 on Mount Washington at two elevations, 452 and 1,540 meters (msl). The former site is within, and the latter at the interface of, the planetary boundary layer. Comparisons of sampling interval durations (10 and 24 hours), site vs. site, and different sampling methods are made. We also examine the extent to which aerosol sulfate is neutralized. Ten hour (daytime) compared to 24 hour samples have higher mass and aerosol sulfate concentrations, however paired samples are well correlated. Fine mass concentrations compared between the 452 m and 1,540 m sites (standard temperature and pressure corrected) show a weak positive linear relationship with the later being approximately 34% lower. We attribute the lack of a strong correlation to the facts that the 1,540 m site is commonly at the interface of and even above the regional planetary boundary layer in summer and that it can intercept different air masses relative to the 452 m site. Sulfate is approximately 19% lower at the higher elevation site, but comprises a greater percentage of total fine mass; 42% compared to 35% for the high and low elevation site, respectively. Aerosol strong acidity was found to increase with increasing sulfate concentrations at both sites. At the high elevation site, elevated mass and sulfate concentrations are associated with westerly and southwesterly regional flows.

  14. 7 CFR 1a.2 - Authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorization. 1a.2 Section 1a.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES § 1a.2 Authorization. Any official of the Office of Inspector General who is designated by the Inspector General according to §§ 1a.3 and 1a.5...

  15. Experiment TGV-2 - Search for double beta decay of 106Cd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhadze, N. I.; Briançon, Ch.; Brudanin, V. B.; Čermák, P.; Egorov, V. G.; Klimenko, A. A.; Kovalík, A.; Rukhadze, E. N.; Shitov, Yu. A.; Šimkovic, F.; Štekl, I.; Timkin, V. V.

    2012-08-01

    New limits (at 90% C.L.) on double beta decay of Cd106-T(0νEC/EC)>1.7×1020 yr and T(2νEC/EC)>4.2×1020 yr were obtained in a preliminary calculation of data accumulated for 12900 h on the TGV-2 spectrometer.

  16. Properties of L=1 B(1) and B(2)* mesons.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-10-26

    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B(1) and B(2)* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B(+)(*)pi(-). The mass of B(1) is measured to be 5720.6+/-2.4+/-1.4 MeV/c(2) and the mass difference DeltaM between B(2)* and B(1) is 26.2+/-3.1+/-0.9 MeV/c;{2}, giving the mass of the B(2)* as 5746.8+/-2.4+/-1.7 MeV/c(2). The production rate for B(1) and B(2)* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9+/-1.9+/-3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson. PMID:17995320

  17. Paleolimnology of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, over the past 100 k yr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholz, C.A.; King, J.W.; Ellis, G.S.; Swart, Peter K.; Stager, J.C.; Colman, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    New sediment core data from a unique slow-sedimentation rate site in Lake Tanganyika contain a much longer and continuous record of limnological response to climate change than have been previously observed in equatorial regions of central Africa. The new core site was first located through an extensive seismic reflection survey over the Kavala Island Ridge (KIR), a sedimented basement high that separates the Kigoma and Kalemie Basins in Lake Tanganyika. Proxy analyses of paleoclimate response carried out on core T97-52V include paleomagnetic and index properties, TOC and isotopic analyses of organic carbon, and diatom and biogenic silica analyses. A robust age model based on 11 radiocarbon (AMS) dates indicates a linear, continuous sedimentation rate nearly an order of magnitude slower here compared to other core sites around the lake. This age model indicates continuous sedimentation over the past 79 k yr, and a basal age in excess of 100 k yr. The results of the proxy analyses for the past ??? 20 k yr are comparable to previous studies focused on that interval in Lake Tanganyika, and show that the lake was about 350 m lower than present at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Repetitive peaks in TOC and corresponding drops in ??13C over the past 79 k yr indicate periods of high productivity and mixing above the T97-52V core site, probably due to cooler and perhaps windier conditions. From ??? 80 through ??? 58 k yr the ??13C values are relatively negative (-26 to -28???) suggesting predominance of algal contributions to bottom sediments at this site during this time. Following this interval there is a shift to higher values of ??13C, indicating a possible shift to C-4 pathway-dominated grassland-type vegetation in the catchment, and indicating cooler, dryer conditions from ??? 55 k yr through the LGM. Two seismic sequence boundaries are observed at shallow stratigraphic levels in the seismic reflection data, and the upper boundary correlates to a major discontinuity

  18. 26 CFR 1.121-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations. 1.121-2 Section 1.121-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.121-2 Limitations. (a) Dollar limitations—(1) In general. A taxpayer may exclude from gross income up to $250,000 of gain from the sale...

  19. 26 CFR 1.121-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limitations. 1.121-2 Section 1.121-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income § 1.121-2 Limitations. (a) Dollar limitations—(1) In general. A taxpayer may exclude from gross income up to $250,000 of gain from the sale...

  20. 26 CFR 1.169-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.169-2 Section 1.169-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.169-2 Definitions. (a) Certified pollution control facility—(1) In...

  1. The c.2030 yr BP Plinian eruption of El Misti volcano, Peru: Eruption dynamics and hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobeñas, Gisela; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Bonadonna, Costanza; Boivin, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    'El Misti' volcano near the city of Arequipa in south Peru produced a Plinian eruption c.2030 yr BP that resulted in a tephra deposit consisting of three fallout layers, several pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits, a late stage, small debris-avalanche deposit, and lahar deposits. This VEI 4 Plinian eruption of El Misti has been selected as one of the reference eruptions for the hazard assessment and risk mitigation plan for the city of Arequipa. The Plinian column of this eruption rose up to 21-24 km and produced a tephra deposit over an area of at least 2580 km2 within the 5 cm-isopach line. The dispersal axis is oriented SW, i.e. towards the area of the basin and city of Arequipa. Later pumice- and lithic-rich PDC deposits were emplaced into radial valleys extending from the volcano up to a distance of at least 13 km. The eruption produced a minimum total bulk volume of 1.2 km3 (0.71 km3 DRE volume) of tephra and PDC deposits. Components of the tephra deposit consist of beige, gray and banded pumices, lithic fragments, a minor amount of cogenetic dacite clasts, and free crystals. The minimum volume of the tephra deposit varies between 0.2 and 0.6 km3 (exponential, power-law integration and inversion of TEPHRA2 analytical model). The tephra deposit is characterized by a bulk density of 1500 kg/m3 which results in a mass of 2.5-9.0 × 1011 kg. The maximum mass discharge rate (MDR) is 1.1 × 108 kg/s based on a plume height of 24 km. The estimated duration of the Plinian eruption ranges between 0.6 and 2.3 h. Grain size distribution, componentry, and SEM analyses of both the tephra and PDC deposits, combined with the reconstructed stratigraphic sequence of the deposit, suggest that the eruption took place in five stages: (1) generation of a 21-24 km-high eruptive column that deposited the lower tephra layer; (2) collapse of the crater walls and partial obstruction of the vent during a period of decreased intensity, which led to the formation of a thin sand

  2. 2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 SHOWING. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  3. Climatic Oscillations 10,000-155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California Reflected in Glacial Rock Flour Abundance and Lake Salinity in Core OL-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Menking, K.M.; Fitts, J.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the acid-soluble and clay-size fractions of sediment samples (1500-yr resolution) reveal oscillations of lake salinity and of glacial advances in core OL-92 back to 155,000 yr B.P. Relatively saline conditions are indicated by the abundance of carbonate and smectite (both pedogenic and authigenic), reflected by Ca, Sr, and Mg in the acid-soluble suite, and by Cs2O, excess MgO, and LOI (loss on ignition) in the clay-size fraction. Rock flour produced during glacial advances is represented by the abundance of detrital plagioclase and biotite in the clay-size fraction, the ratio of which remains essentially constant over the entire time span. These phases are quantitatively represented by Na2O, TiO2, Ba, and Mn in the clay fraction. The rock-flour record indicates two major ice-advances during the penultimate glacial cycle corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, no major advances during the last interglaciation (entire MIS 5), and three major advances during the last glacial cycle (MIS 2, 3, and 4). The ages of the latter three correspond rather well to 36Cl dates reported for Sierra Nevada moraines. The onset of the last interglaciation is shown by abrupt increases in authigenic CaCO3 and an abrupt decrease in rock flour, at about 118,000 yr B.P. according to our time scale. In contrast, the boundary appears to be gradual in the ??18O record in which the change from light to heavy values begins at about 140,000 yrs B.P. The exact position of the termination, therefore, may be proxy-dependent. Conditions of high carbonate and low rock flour prevailed during the entire period from 118,000 yr B.P. until the glacial advance at 53,000 yr B.P. signaled the end of this long interglaciation. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  4. Does an asymmetric thermohaline-ice-sheet oscillator drive 100 000-yr glacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.

    2000-05-01

    A hypothesis is presented that late Quaternary 100 000-yr glacial cycles are driven by an asymmetric thermohaline-ice-sheet oscillator that emerged in the global climate system 650 000-950 000 yr ago, perhaps when the main source of Northern Hemisphere deep-water production shifted south from the Arctic into the Nordic seas. It is hypothesised that the asymmetry is due to the increasing difficulty after 950 000 years ago of resetting an interglacial mode of the critical Nordic limb of the salinity conveyor once it switches off and an ensuing iceberg flux enters the areas of downwelling. A possible reason for both a southward shift and the resulting asymmetry is uplift of the Greenland-Scotland submarine ridge from activity of the Iceland mantle plume.In this hypothesis an individual 100 000-yr glacial cycle begins when the northernmost limb of the salinity conveyor in the Nordic seas is curtailed, or even switched off, perhaps due to the growing strength of competing Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) generated by interglacial recession of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) from the West Antarctic Rift System. Such recession produces southern marginal seas where dense shelf water can collect and overflow into the abyss. When northern ice sheets, nucleated by this circulation switch, develop marine components that calve icebergs into the Nordic seas, the salinity conveyor can no longer revert to an interglacial mode from orbital forcing, as it did prior to 950 000 yr ago. In order to reset an interglacial circulation mode of the conveyor, ice sheets must continue to grow for 100 000 years until they capture enough excess volume to produce a gravitational collapse of marine-based components, so massive that all grounded ice is flushed from North Atlantic continental shelves. The outburst of icebergs produced by this collapse cripples the glacial mode of overturning in the northern North Atlantic. Once this collapse ends, however, the Nordic seas become nearly free of

  5. 26 CFR 1.861-2 - Interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... applicable to taxable years beginning before January 1, 1967, (see 26 CFR part 1 revised April 1, 1971... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Interest. 1.861-2 Section 1.861-2 Internal... Interest. (a) In general. (1) Gross income consisting of interest from the United States or any agency...

  6. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  7. Synthetic utilization of 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane.

    PubMed

    Notsu, Keiji; Zushi, Yasuyuki; Ota, Shin; Kawasaki-Takasuka, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    β-Substituted α-fluoro-α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acids have been successfully synthesized, usually in a (Z)-stereospecific manner by way of a stepwise or a one-pot three-step procedure starting from 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124), one of the major byproducts of the industrial process for tetrafluoroethene formation from chlorofluoromethane (HCFC-22). PMID:21732447

  8. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: a single Spanish center's experience over the last 40 yr.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Linares, Cristina; Ojeda, Emilio; Forés, Rafael; Pastrana, Miguel; Cabero, Martín; Morillo, Daniel; Bautista, Guiomar; Baños, Isolina; Monteserín, Carmen; Bravo, Pilar; Jaro, Esther; Cedena, Teresa; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Villegas, Ana; Cabrera, José Rafael

    2014-10-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disease. To date, many reviews and series have been described. We report the experience of our center by presenting a review of 56 PNH patient cases with an average age at diagnosis of 38 yr and follow-ups beginning at approximately 40 yr; the median survival rate was 11 yr. The average clonal size upon diagnosis was 48%, presenting a variable evolution. Thrombotic episodes and cancer were five each, and the main causes of death among our patients were equal at 8.9%. Radiological study by magnetic resonance imaging is presented as a fundamental technique for estimating the deposit of iron levels in the liver and kidney, as well as in some decisive cases at the start of eculizumab therapy. Sixteen patients have been treated with eculizumab so far in our series, and being a safe drug, it provides improvement in the patients' quality of life, and the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and avoids the emergence of new thrombosis. PMID:24758317

  9. Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, M.E.; Anderson, P.M.; Brubaker, L.B.; Ager, T.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Cwynar, L.C.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hu, F.-S.; Jolly, D.; Lozhkin, A.V.; MacDonald, G.M.; Mock, C.J.; Ritchie, J.C.; Sher, A.V.; Spear, R.W.; Williams, J.W.; Yu, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective biomization method developed by Prentice et al. (1996) for Europe was extended using modern pollen samples from Beringia and then applied to fossil pollen data to reconstruct palaeovegetation patterns at 6000 and 18,000 14C yr BP. The predicted modern distribution of tundra, taiga and cool conifer forests in Alaska and north-western Canada generally corresponds well to actual vegetation patterns, although sites in regions characterized today by a mosaic of forest and tundra vegetation tend to be preferentially assigned to tundra. Siberian larch forests are delimited less well, probably due to the extreme under-representation of Larix in pollen spectra. The biome distribution across Beringia at 6000 14C yr BP was broadly similar to today, with little change in the northern forest limit, except for a possible northward-advance in the Mackenzie delta region. The western forest limit in Alaska was probably east of its modern position. At 18,000 14C yr BP the whole of Beringia was covered by tundra. However, the importance of the various plant functional types varied from site to site, supporting the idea that the vegetation cover was a mosaic of different tundra types.

  10. Influence of immigration and other factors on caries in 12- and 15-yr-old children.

    PubMed

    Almerich-Silla, José M; Montiel-Company, José M

    2007-10-01

    In recent years the Valencia region has undergone mass immigration, mainly of people from eastern Europe, North Africa, and Latin America. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of immigration on caries prevalence and experience in 12- and 15-yr-old children in the Valencia region, and to relate this to other socio-economic and oral hygiene-related variables. The data were obtained from the epidemiological study of oral health carried out in the Valencia Region in 2004. The study group comprised 478, 12-yr-old children and 401, 15-yr-old children. Immigration status, age, toothbrushing frequency, and intake of cariogenic foods between meals showed significant association in a multiple linear regression model using the decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT) count as the dependent variable. Of all the predictive variables, the one that made the highest contribution to the model was immigration status. In a multiple logistic regression analysis with caries presence as the dependent variable, immigration status, intake of cariogenic foods, social class, and age were significantly associated with the presence of caries. As immigrant children have significantly higher caries levels than Spanish children, future public health service planning should pay attention to this risk group. PMID:17850426

  11. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  12. A 10,900 yr lacustrine record of hydroclimate variability inferred from stable isotope analysis of authigenic carbonate, west-central Newfoundland, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkenbinder, M. S.; Pompeani, D. P.; Abbott, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes that precipitate carbonate minerals within the water column provide an important archive to investigate hydroclimate variability and the isotopic composition of paleo-precipitation. Terrestrial isotope records of δ18O and δ13C spanning the Holocene from sub-Arctic eastern Canada are rare, in contrast to the relatively numerous marine records available from the Labrador Sea and North Atlantic Ocean. In an effort to improve understanding of the spatial and temporal variability in terrestrial hydroclimate from Newfoundland, Canada during the Holocene, we utilized stable isotopes of oxygen preserved in authigenic calcite from sediment cores recovered from Cheeseman Lake (informal name; 49.351, -57.603; 180 m asl); a small (0.2 km2), surficially-open lake located near the coast of west-central Newfoundland. A composite 2.63 m core was recovered from 4.1 m water at Cheeseman Lake in August, 2012. Cores were analyzed for dry bulk density, loss-on-ignition analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and carbonate stable isotopes of δ18O and δ13C. Age control is provided by 210Pb and 8 AMS 14C dates from terrestrial macrofossils and mollusk shells. Surface water samples from several regional lakes and rivers were also collected and analyzed for δ18O and δD to investigate the sensitivity of Cheeseman Lake to changes in hydroclimate variability. Instrumental weather data from a nearby weather station and monthly precipitation δ18O and δD data from a Canadian Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (CNIP) station at Bay d'Espoir (south-central Newfoundland) are used to investigate modern lake-catchment hydrologic and water isotope relationships. Preliminary results demonstrate that authigenic calcite is preserved continuously in Cheeseman Lake from 10,900 to 1,600 yr BP. Water stable isotope samples and the Bay d'Espoir CNIP data indicate that surface waters at Cheeseman Lake plot along the local meteoric water line, indicating a high degree of

  13. Susceptibility of pigeons to clade 1 and 2.2 high pathogenicity avian influenza H5N1 virus.

    PubMed

    Smietanka, Krzysztof; Minta, Zenon; Wyrostek, Krzysztof; Jóźwiak, Michal; Olszewska, Monika; Domańska-Blicharz, A Katarzyna; Reichert, A Michał; Pikuła, Anna; Habyarimana, Adelite; van den Berg, Thierry

    2011-03-01

    To assess the susceptibility of pigeons (Columba livia) to infection with H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV), four groups of 1-yr-old and 4-wk-old racing pigeons (10 birds in each group) were inoculated oculonasally with 106 50% egg infectious dose (EID50) of A/crested eagle/Belgium/01/2004 (clade 1) or A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 (clade 2.2). Contact specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were kept in the same isolators as young pigeons (two chickens per group). At 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14 days postinfection (PI) two pigeons from each infected group were selected randomly, and oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs (pigeons and contact chickens) as well as a number of internal organs (pigeons) were collected for viral RNA detection in real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) and histopathology. At the end of the experiment (14 days PI) blood samples from two pigeons in each group and from contact SPF chickens were also collected, and sera were tested using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (bELISA). During the observation period all pigeons remained clinically healthy, and no gross lesions were observed in any of the infected groups. SPF contact chickens were also healthy and negative in RRT-PCR and HI tests. However, the clade 1 H5N1 virus produced more sustained infection manifested by the presence of histopathologic changes (consisting mainly of mild to moderate hemorrhagic and inflammatory lesions), prolonged persistence of viral RNA (detectable between 3 and 10 days PI) in a variety of tissues of both adult and juvenile birds (with highest RNA load in lungs and brain) as well as slight viral shedding from the trachea and cloaca, but without transmission to SPF contact chickens. Additionally, two clade 1-infected adult pigeons sacrificed at the end of experiment showed seroconversion in bELISA and HI test (using homologous virus as antigen). The viral RNA was found only at day 3 PI in one adult

  14. Dependence of energetic ion and electron intensities on proximity to the magnetically sectored heliosheath: Voyager 1 and 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M. E.; Decker, R. B.; Brown, L. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Drake, J. F.; Hamilton, D. C.; Opher, M.

    2014-02-01

    Taken together, the Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) spacecraft have collected over 11 yr of data in the heliosheath. Despite extensive study, energetic particles and magnetic fields measured in the heliosheath have not been reconciled by existing models. In particular, the differences between the energetic particle intensity variations at V1 and V2 are unexplained. While energetic particle intensities at V1 change gradually over 7 yr in the heliosheath, those at V2 vary by a factor ∼10 in 1 yr. Energetic particle intensities at V2 show temporally coherent variations over a broad range of species and energies: from suprathermal ions (10s of keV) to galactic cosmic rays (>1 GeV), as well as electrons from 10s of keV to >100 MeV, corresponding to a range ∼10{sup 4} in particle gyroradii. Here we suggest that many of the intensity variations of energetic particle populations in the heliosheath are organized by their proximity to two fundamentally different regions—the unipolar heliosheath (UHS) and the sectored heliosheath (SHS). The SHS is a region of enhanced particle intensities, wherein particle transport, acceleration, and magnetic connectivity differ from those in the UHS. The SHS may serve as either a reservoir of energetic particles or as a region of enhanced transport, depending on the particle species and energy. Comparatively, particle intensities in the UHS are greatly reduced. We propose that the boundary between the SHS and UHS plays as important a role in the physics of heliosheath particles and fields as do the termination shock and heliopause.

  15. Characterization and molecular mapping of Yr52 for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat germplasm PI 183527.

    PubMed

    Ren, R S; Wang, M N; Chen, X M; Zhang, Z J

    2012-09-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance has proven to be race non-specific and durable. However, genes conferring high-levels of HTAP resistance are limited in number and new genes are urgently needed for breeding programs to develop cultivars with durable high-level resistance to stripe rust. Spring wheat germplasm PI 183527 showed a high-level of HTAP resistance against stripe rust in our germplasm evaluations over several years. To elucidate the genetic basis of resistance, we crossed PI 183527 and susceptible wheat line Avocet S. Adult plants of parents, F(1), F(2) and F(2:3) progeny were tested with selected races under the controlled greenhouse conditions and in fields under natural infection. PI 183527 has a single dominant gene conferring HTAP resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in combination with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) were used to identify markers linked to the resistance gene. A linkage map consisting of 4 RGAP and 7 SSR markers was constructed for the resistance gene using data from 175 F(2) plants and their derived F(2:3) lines. Amplification of nulli-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines of Chinese Spring with three RGAP markers mapped the gene to the distal region (0.86-1.0) of chromosome 7BL. The molecular map spanned a genetic distance of 27.3 cM, and the resistance gene was narrowed to a 2.3-cM interval flanked by markers Xbarc182 and Xwgp5258. The polymorphism rates of the flanking markers in 74 wheat lines were 74 and 30 %, respectively; and the two markers in combination could distinguish the alleles at the resistance locus in 82 % of tested genotypes. To determine the genetic relationship between this resistance gene and Yr39, a gene also on 7BL conferring HTAP resistance in

  16. C2H2F4 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 1 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  17. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  18. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  19. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  20. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  1. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2008-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2008-10-01 2008-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT.... and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  2. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT,DEPARTMENT OF... Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any...

  4. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  6. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applications. 2916.2-1 Section 2916.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a) Qualifications of applicants. Any...

  8. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sanitation. 8365.2-1 Section 8365.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation....

  9. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sanitation. 8365.2-1 Section 8365.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation....

  10. 26 CFR 1.565-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitations. 1.565-2 Section 1.565-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Deduction for Dividends Paid § 1.565-2 Limitations. (a) General rule. Amounts... of the actual distributions and the consent distributions. (c) Section 316 Limitation. (1)...

  11. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  12. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  13. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  14. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  15. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  16. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  17. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  18. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  19. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals...

  20. 11 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRIVACY ACT § 1.2 Definitions. As defined in the Privacy Act of 1974 and for the purposes of this part, unless otherwise required by the context, the following terms shall have these meanings: Act means the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.341-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.341-2 Section 1.341-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Collapsible Corporations; Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.341-2 Definitions. (a) Determination of collapsible corporation. (1)...

  2. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  3. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  4. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  5. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  6. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  7. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  9. Bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, bromotrifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and bromotrifluoromethane + chloropentafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Kenji, Hongo, Masaru; Takagi, Toshiharu; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    The bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane (R22) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), and bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + chloropentafluoroethane (R115) were measured by a static method. Measurements were made at various compositions at temperatures from 298.15 K to near their critical temperature. The uncertainty of the pressures was estimated to be no greater than [plus minus]0.3%. The bubble point pressures for pure substances were correlated by the Wagner equation, and those for the mixtures were also correlated by the Wagner equation, using a corresponding states principle.

  10. Changes in the Bathymetry and Volume of Glacial Lake Agassiz Between 11,000 and 9300 14C yr B.P.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leverington, David W.; Mann, Jason D.; Teller, James T.

    2000-09-01

    The volume and surface area of glacial Lake Agassiz varied considerably during its 4000-year history. Computer models for seven stages of Lake Agassiz were used to quantify these variations over the lake's early history, between about 11,000 and 9300 14C yr B.P. (ca. 13,000 to 10,300 cal yr B.P.). Just after formation of the Herman strandlines (ca. 11,000 14C yr B.P.), the volume of Lake Agassiz appears to have decreased by >85% as a consequence of the abrupt rerouting of overflow to its eastern outlet from its southward routing into the Mississippi River basin. This drainage released about 9500 km3 of water into the North Atlantic Ocean via the Great Lakes and Gulf of St. Lawrence. Following closure of this eastern routing of overflow, the lake reached its maximum size at about 9400 14C yr B.P. with an area of >260,000 km2 and a volume of >22,700 km3. A second major reduction in volume occurred shortly after that, when its volume decreased >10% following the opening of the Kaiashk outlet to the east into the Great Lakes, and 2500-7000 km3 of water was released into the North Atlantic Ocean. These discharges may have affected ocean circulation and North Atlantic Deep Water production.

  11. 1-vinyl-4-alkyl-1,2,4-triazolium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Ermakova, T.G.; Chipanina, N.N.; Gritza, A.I.; Kuznetsova, N.P.; Lopyrev, V.A.; Tatarova, L.A.

    1985-04-01

    Quaternary salts based on 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been synthesized. Alkyl iodides and bromides and dimethyl sulfate served as the quaternizing agent. Polymeric quaternary salts of 1-vinyl-1,2,4-triazole have been obtained by alkylation of its polymer.

  12. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  13. El Congreso: Program Improvement Project, Evaluation Report YR 2. Region IX Migrant Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Alberto M.

    The program "El Congreso" is a leadership development project that is designed to help migrant students become effective role models for their peers and gangs in their communities. The focus is not on remediation, but on enhancement of the migrant student's academic and social strengths. It is hoped that El Congreso students will show an increase…

  14. Glide of dislocations in <1 1 1>{3 2 1} slip system: an atomistic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terentyev, D.; Bakaev, A.; Van Neck, D.; Zhurkin, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    Atomistic calculations are performed to investigate plastic slip in the <1 1 1>{3 2 1} system in body-centred cubic iron. Several modern interatomic potentials, developed over the last decade, are applied to compute the stacking fault γ-line energy in the {3 2 1} plane and the results are compared with the ab initio prediction. The applied potentials have shown strong deviations, but several potentials acquired good qualitative agreement with the ab initio data. Depending on the applied potential, the lowest value of the Peierls stress for the edge dislocation (ED) is 50 MPa (Ackland and Bacon from 1997) and the highest is 550 MPa (Dudarev and Derlet from 2005), while for the screw dislocation it is much higher, in the range 1-2 GPa. At finite temperature, however, the flow stress of the ED is found to decrease exponentially reaching a negligible value at about 200 K, irrespective of the applied potential. On the basis of the data obtained using Ackland-Mendelev potential from 2004, we conclude that the slip resistance of the <1 1 1>{3 2 1} system is in between the resistance of the <1 1 1>{1 1 0} and <1 1 1>{1 1 2} slip systems.

  15. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000690.htm BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing To use the sharing features on this ... br east ca ncer. What is the BRCA Gene Mutation? BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress ...

  16. A 22 570 yr record of vegetational and climatic change from Wenhai Lake in the Hengduan Mountains biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y. F.; Song, X. Y.; Wortley, A. H.; Blackmore, S.; Li, C. S.

    2014-09-01

    an increase in Polygonaceae pollen in the upper 30 cm of the core. The marked decline in Quercus pollen, in particular, in the Wenhai core can be correlated with that observed in the Haligu core (situated about 2 km away) between 2400 cal. yr BP and the present.

  17. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  18. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  19. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  20. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  1. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  2. O 2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Puckett, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    O 2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero-and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O 2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 ??mol L -1 yr -1 to more than 140 ??mol L -1 yr -1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr -1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 ??mol N L -1 yr -1; 0.06-0.30 yr -1) were observed in most areas with O 2 concentrations below 60 mol L -1, while higher rates (>100 mol N L -1 yr -1; >0.36 yr -1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O 2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O 2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O 2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation. copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. O2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Puckett, Larry J.

    2011-12-01

    O2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero- and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 μmol L-1 yr-1 to more than 140 μmol L-1 yr-1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr-1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; 0.06-0.30 yr-1) were observed in most areas with O2 concentrations below 60 μmol L-1, while higher rates (>100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; >0.36 yr-1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation.

  4. 26 CFR 1.851-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations. 1.851-2 Section 1.851-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-2 Limitations... more issuers which meet the following limitations: (a) The entire amount of the securities of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.856-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limitations. 1.856-2 Section 1.856-2 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-2 Limitations. (a) Effective date. The... the 30-percent-of-gross-income limitation. (3) Commitment fees. For purposes of section 856(c)...

  6. 26 CFR 1.527-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Definitions. 1.527-2 Section 1.527-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.527-2 Definitions. For purposes of section 527 and...

  7. 26 CFR 1.527-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.527-2 Section 1.527-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.527-2 Definitions. For purposes of section 527 and...

  8. 26 CFR 1.527-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.527-2 Section 1.527-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.527-2 Definitions. For purposes of section 527 and...

  9. 26 CFR 1.527-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Definitions. 1.527-2 Section 1.527-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Farmers' Cooperatives § 1.527-2 Definitions. For purposes of section 527 and...

  10. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.6664-2 - Underpayment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Underpayment. 1.6664-2 Section 1.6664-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6664-2 Underpayment. (a) Underpayment defined. In...

  15. 26 CFR 1.341-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.341-2 Section 1.341-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Collapsible Corporations; Foreign Personal Holding Companies § 1.341-2 Definitions. (a) Determination of collapsible corporation....

  16. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  17. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  18. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required...

  19. 26 CFR 1.6001-2 - Returns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns. 1.6001-2 Section 1.6001-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information and Returns § 1.6001-2 Returns. For rules relating to returns required to be made...

  20. 26 CFR 1.190-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.190-2 Section 1.190-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.190-2 Definitions. For purposes of section 190 and the...

  1. 26 CFR 1.190-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.190-2 Section 1.190-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations (continued) § 1.190-2 Definitions. For purposes of section 190 and...

  2. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's public purposes, programs and functions; (2) Established...

  3. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's public purposes, programs and functions; (2) Established...

  4. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  5. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  6. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA TRAINEE DESELECTION AND VOLUNTEER EARLY TERMINATION PROCEDURES General § 1210.1-2 Scope. (a) This part applies to all Trainees and...

  7. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Applicability. 1211.1-2 Section 1211.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the...

  8. Gene expression patterns of wheat rust resistance gene Lr34/Yr18 indicate novel mode of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lr34/Yr18 resistance gene provides durable, adult-plant, slow-rusting resistance to leaf rust and yellow rust of wheat. Patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis in inoculated and mock-inoculated flag leaves of two pairs of near isogenic lines for Lr34/Yr18 (Thatcher/Thatc...

  9. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  10. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  11. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Emergency Management Agency. (e) Major rule means any regulation that is likely to result in: (1) An...

  12. Structural basis of the impact sensitivities of 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, and 4-nitro-2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.B.; Ryan, R.R.; Ritchie, J.P.; Hall, J.H.; Bachrach, S.M. )

    1989-01-26

    The isomeric pairs 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole differ dramatically in their impact sensitivity. Since these pairs of compounds have identical oxygen balance this strongly suggests that there is a difference in the decomposition mechanism. The authors report here the x-ray crystal structure, molecular orbital calculations, and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the four compounds. The picryl substituents are essentially identical in all four cases. The most significant structural difference in the X-ray structures and in the molecular orbital calculations is a decrease in the N2-N3 bond length, accompanied by a lengthening of the adjacent bonds, in the two 1-picryl isomers relative to the corresponding bond lengths in the 2-picryl isomers. Molecular orbital calculations show that this leads to a low activation energy for the elimination of N{sub 2} from the 1-picryl isomers. They suggest that this initial step then leads to a reactive intermediate and is responsible for the large difference in sensitivity.

  13. A comparison of surface air temperature variability in three 1000-Yr. coupled ocean-atmosphere model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, R.J.; Hegerl, G.; Tett, S.

    2000-02-01

    This study compares the variability of surface air temperature in three long coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model integrations. It is shown that the annual mean climatology of the surface air temperatures (SAT) in all three models is realistic and the linear trends over the 1,000-yr integrations are small over most areas of the globe. Second, although there are notable differences among the models, the models' SAT variability is fairly realistic on annual to decadal timescales, both in terms of the geographical distribution and of the global mean values. A notable exception is the poor simulation of observed tropical Pacific variability. In the HadCM2 model, the tropical variability is overestimated, while in the GFDL and HAM3L models, it is underestimated. Also, the ENSO-related spectral peak in the globally averaged observed SAT differs from that in any of the models. The relatively low resolution required to integrate models for long time periods inhibits the successful simulation of the variability in this region. On timescales longer than a few decades, the largest variance in the models is generally located near sea ice margins in high latitudes, which are also regions of deep oceanic convection and variability related to variations in the thermohaline circulation. However, the exact geographical location of these maxima varies from model to model. The preferred patterns of interdecadal variability that are common to all three coupled models can be isolated by computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of all model data simultaneously using the common EOF technique. A comparison of the variance each model associated with these common EOF patterns shows that the models generally agree on the most prominent patterns of variability. However, the amplitudes of the dominant models of variability differ to some extent between the models and between the models and observations. For example, two of the models have a mode with relatively large

  14. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  15. CYP2S1: a short review.

    PubMed

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T; Rivera, Steven P; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:16054184

  16. Synthesis, structure, and reactivity of 1,2-(1{prime},1{prime},2{prime},2{prime}-tetramethyldisilane-1{prime},2{prime})carborane

    SciTech Connect

    Rege, F.M. de; Kassebaum, J.D.; Scott, B.L.; Abney, K.D.; Balaich, G.J.

    1999-02-08

    The novel strained compound 1,2-(1{prime},1{prime},2{prime},2{prime}-tetramethyldisilane-1{prime},2{prime})carborane (1) was synthesized by the reaction of 1,2-dilithiocarborane and dichlorotetramethyldisilane. Compound 1 was characterized by solution methods and its structure determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In contrast to its organic analogue o-(disilanyl)-phenylene, the reaction of 1 with ethanol leads to cleavage of a Si-C bond rather than a Si-Si bond. Similarly to other cyclic disilanes, exposure of a solution of 1 to oxygen leads to the insertion of an oxygen atom into the Si-Si bond. The structure of the oxygen inserted product was also determined by X-ray crystallography. The general chemistry and attempts at polymerizing 1 are briefly discussed.

  17. Hydroclimate variability in the low-elevation Atacama Desert over the last 2500 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayo, E. M.; Latorre, C.; Santoro, C. M.; Maldonado, A.; de Pol-Holz, R.

    2012-02-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions reveal that Earth system has experienced sub-millennial scale climate changes over the past two millennia in response to internal/external forcing. Although sub-millennial hydroclimate fluctuations have been detected in the central Andes during this interval, the timing, magnitude, extent and direction of change of these events remain poorly defined. Here, we present a reconstruction of hydroclimate variations on the Pacific slope of the central Andes based on exceptionally well-preserved plant macrofossils and associated archaeological remains from a hyperarid drainage (Quebrada Maní, ∼21° S, 1000 m a.s.l.) in the Atacama Desert. During the late Holocene, riparian ecosystems and farming social groups flourished in the hyperarid Atacama core as surface water availability increased throughout this presently sterile landscape. Twenty-six radiocarbon dates indicate that these events occurred between 1050-680, 1615-1350 and 2500-2040 cal yr BP. Regional comparisons with rodent middens and other records suggest that these events were synchronous with pluvial stages detected at higher-elevations in the central Andes over the last 2500 yr. These hydroclimate changes also coincide with periods of pronounced SST gradients in the Tropical Pacific (La Niña-like mode), conditions that are conducive to significantly increased rainfall in the central Andean highlands and flood events in the low-elevation watersheds at inter-annual timescales. Our findings indicate that the positive anomalies in the hyperarid Atacama over the past 2500 yr represent a regional response of the central Andean climate system to changes in the global hydrological cycle at centennial timescales. Furthermore, our results provide support for the role of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature gradient changes as the primary mechanism responsible for climate fluctuations in the central Andes. Finally, our results constitute independent evidence for comprehending the

  18. Climate forcing and the response of vegetation and disturbances during the 'Populus Period', 2000-4000 cal yr BP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, V.; Brunelle, A.; Brewer, S.; Minckley, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoecological proxies, such as charcoal and pollen, are valuable tools for reconstructing previous fire regimes, vegetation change and ecosystem resilience. This study attempts to analyze fire severity and ecosystem response using lake sediments from southeastern Wyoming, during a unique period of time coined the 'Populus period' (Carter et al., 2013). The 'Populus period' (3,100-4,000 cal yr BP) was a time when vegetation composition changed from a lodgepole pine dominant system to a quaking aspen system. This change in vegetation altered the fire regime from a low frequency regime to a high disturbance regime. This study investigates 12 fire events from 2000-4000 cal yr BP to determine the ecological response associated with the fire events and to identify driver(s) associated with vegetation change and fire regimes. In order to determine fire severity, this study compares high-resolution charcoal and pollen data to peak magnitude data from CharAnalysis (a statistical treatment program). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to set a threshold by which pollen taxa are associated with low or high severity fires. Preliminary LDA results suggest that low severity fires have a peak magnitude lower than 200 particles/cm2/episode and high severity fires have a peak magnitude higher than 200 particles/cm2/episode. Superposed epoch analysis (SEA) will be used to model pollen behavior through fire sample intervals to determine the ecology response associated with each of the 12 fires events. Statistical analysis using LDA and SEA can potentially be used in combination to determine fire severity and thus ecosystem resilience. Long-term reconstructions of fire severity can be beneficial for informing land managers in the 21st century.

  19. STRATIGRAPHY OF GLACIAL LAKE OJIBWAY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE 8200 YR EVENT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowell, T.; Stroup, J. S.; Breckenridge, A. J.; Smith, C. A.; Moser, J. V.; Sagredo, E.

    2009-12-01

    Determining the timing and routing of meltwater discharges from relic ice sheets into the oceans remains problematic. One example is the suggested Holocene drainage of Lake Ojibway that covered portions Ontario and Quebec. Radiocarbon ages on marine shells overlying proglacial lake sediments south of Hudson’s Bay provide minimum ages about 8200 cal yr BP leading Barber et al. (1999) to suggest drainage of this lake was a trigger for the so-called 8200 yr cold event. Anteves (1925) reported multiple varve sections that he suggested represented some 1800 years covering the evolution of Lake Ojibway and its precursor. Thus placing the varve stratigraphy into an absolute time framework could confirm the Barber hypothesis. Alternatively, if the lake drained before the 8200 yr event or drained multiple times, it would imply a more complex relationship between meltwater discharge and climate change. One complication is that evidence for a reactivation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, locally called the Cochrane Readvance, exists in the basin. Subottom profiling of some 30 lakes reveals that in areas outside the Cochrane limit, bedrock basins contain thick (up to 30 m) glaciaolacustrine sequences. These are generally conformable sequences draping over the bedrock. In limited cases slight unconformities lie below the most recent erosion (at local wave base) and organic lacustrine sediments. Areas covered by the Cochrane advance display a thin stratigraphy; notably lacking are glaciolacustrine sequences. The stratigraphy recovered in core sequences (N=16) show a similar pattern: thin with very limited varves over the Cochrane and thicker sequences in the larger basins. However examination of sediments show that the stratigraphy is predominately glacier proximal sediment (not distal varves) with local unconformities and evidence of slumping. This implies localized sedimentation sources. Of these only two are classic varves which allow potential correlation with the sequence

  20. Kinetics of the fluorination/chlorination of 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Coulson, D.R. )

    1993-07-01

    The kinetics of the catalytic fluorination and chlorination of 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124) by HF and HCl to give pentafluoroethane (HFC-125) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123), respectively, were examined in order to further define the mechanisms of these reactions. An HF-treated preparation of 2% CoCl[sub 2] on Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] was used as a catalyst. Reaction of deuterium-labeled HCFC-124 With HF or HCl showed the deuterium to be retained in both reactant and products, suggesting the absence of carbenoid or olefinic intermediates in these halogenations. Thermodynamic and thermokinetic properties of these halogenations were also determined in order to determine the extent of contributions of reverse reactions to the kinetics of these halogenations. Kinetic studies indicated that these halogenations are consistent with a classical Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism where both HX (X = F or Cl) and HCFC-124 are adsorbed on identical active sites of the catalyst in the rate-determining step. 17 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plahutnik, F.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Sharp, K.

    1982-01-01

    High-purity polycrystalline silicon was produced in an experimental, intermediate and advanced CVD reactor. Data from the intermediate and advanced reactors confirmed earlier results obtained in the experimental reactor. Solar cells were fabricated by Westinghouse Electric and Applied Solar Research Corporation which met or exceeded baseline cell efficiencies. Feedstocks containing trichlorosilane or silicon tetrachloride are not viable as etch promoters to reduce silicon deposition on bell jars. Neither are they capable of meeting program goals for the 1000 MT/yr plant. Post-run CH1 etch was found to be a reasonably effective method of reducing silicon deposition on bell jars. Using dichlorosilane as feedstock met the low-cost solar array deposition goal (2.0 gh-1-cm-1), however, conversion efficiency was approximately 10% lower than the targeted value of 40 mole percent (32 to 36% achieved), and power consumption was approximately 20 kWh/kg over target at the reactor.

  2. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a/2a heteromers have a flexible 2:1/1:2 stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Bartoi, Tudor; Augustinowski, Katrin; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan; Ulbrich, Maximilian H

    2014-06-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed proton-gated Na(+) channels playing a role in tissue acidosis and pain. A trimeric composition of ASICs has been suggested by crystallization. Upon coexpression of ASIC1a and ASIC2a in Xenopus oocytes, we observed the formation of heteromers and their coexistence with homomers by electrophysiology, but could not determine whether heteromeric complexes have a fixed subunit stoichiometry or whether certain stoichiometries are preferred over others. We therefore imaged ASICs labeled with green and red fluorescent proteins on a single-molecule level, counted bleaching steps from GFP and colocalized them with red tandem tetrameric mCherry for many individual complexes. Combinatorial analysis suggests a model of random mixing of ASIC1a and ASIC2a subunits to yield both 2:1 and 1:2 ASIC1a:ASIC2a heteromers together with ASIC1a and ASIC2a homomers. PMID:24847067

  3. DOE-2, BDL summary. Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E.; Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S.

    1993-11-01

    This document contains summary information on all commands and keywords in the DOE-2 Building Description Language (BDL). It also contains supplementary tables and maps. The fundamentals of BDL are discussed in Chapter II of the Reference Manual (2.1A); detailed descriptions of the commands and keywords summarized here can be found in the Reference Manual (2.1A) and in the Supplement (2.1E).

  4. C2H2F4 1,1,2,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demaison, J.

    This document is part of Part 1 of Subvolume D 'Asymmetric Top Molecules' of Volume 29 'Molecular Constants Mostly from Microwave, Molecular Beam, and Sub-Doppler Laser Spectroscopy' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group II 'Molecules and Radicals'.

  5. Vought O2U-1 Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Vought O2U-1 Corsair: The Vought O2U-1 was the first Vought airplane to carry the name Corsair. The O2U was built as an observation aircraft for the Navy, and the example flown by the NACA for evaluation and cowling tests was one of the last O2U-1s built. This Corsair came from the Naval Reserve squadron at Naval Air Station Anacostia, Washington, D. C.

  6. Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1: The Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1 aircraft were used as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. This N2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note that the vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA work. This N2Y was used for landing gear tests.

  7. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of the various USDA agencies shall be planned, developed, and implemented so as to achieve the goals and to follow the procedures declared by...

  8. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  9. Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, Suvarna; Kumar, K. Ravi; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Pozzoli, Luca

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we examine CO2 emission hot spots and sink regions over India as identified from global model simulations during the period 2000-2009. CO2 emission hot spots overlap with locations of densely clustered thermal power plants, coal mines and other industrial and urban centres; CO2 sink regions coincide with the locations of dense forest. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are compared with two bottom-up inventories: the Regional Emission inventories in ASia (REAS v1.11; 2000-2009) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4.2) (2000-2009). Estimated fossil fuel emissions over the hot spot region are ˜ 500-950 gC m-2 yr-1 as obtained from the global model simulation, EDGAR v4.2 and REAS v1.11 emission inventory. Simulated total fluxes show increasing trends, from 1.39 ± 1.01 % yr-1 (19.8 ± 1.9 TgC yr-1) to 6.7 ± 0.54 % yr-1 (97 ± 12 TgC yr-1) over the hot spot regions and decreasing trends of -0.95 ± 1.51 % yr-1 (-1 ± 2 TgC yr-1) to -5.7 ± 2.89 % yr-1 (-2.3 ± 2 TgC yr-1) over the sink regions. Model-simulated terrestrial ecosystem fluxes show decreasing trends (increasing CO2 uptake) over the sink regions. Decreasing trends in terrestrial ecosystem fluxes imply that forest cover is increasing, which is consistent with India State of Forest Report (2009). Fossil fuel emissions show statistically significant increasing trends in all the data sets considered in this study. Estimated trend in simulated total fluxes over the Indian region is ˜ 4.72 ± 2.25 % yr-1 (25.6 TgC yr-1) which is slightly higher than global growth rate ˜ 3.1 % yr-1 during 2000-2010.

  10. A skill assessment of the biogeochemical model REcoM2 coupled to the Finite Element Sea Ice-Ocean Model (FESOM 1.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Sidorenko, D.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Völker, C.

    2014-11-01

    In coupled biogeochmical-ocean models, the choice of numerical schemes in the ocean circulation component can have a large influence on the distribution of the biological tracers. Biogeochemical models are traditionally coupled to ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), which are based on dynamical cores employing quasi-regular meshes, and therefore utilize limited spatial resolution in a global setting. An alternative approach is to use an unstructured-mesh ocean model, which allows variable mesh resolution. Here, we present initial results of a coupling between the Finite Element Sea Ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) and the biogeochemical model REcoM2 (Regulated Ecosystem Model 2), with special focus on the Southern Ocean. Surface fields of nutrients, chlorophyll a and net primary production (NPP) were compared to available data sets with a focus on spatial distribution and seasonal cycle. The model produces realistic spatial distributions, especially regarding NPP and chlorophyll a, whereas the iron concentration becomes too low in the Pacific Ocean. The modelled NPP is 32.5 Pg C yr-1 and the export production 6.1 Pg C yr-1, which is lower than satellite-based estimates, mainly due to excessive iron limitation in the Pacific along with too little coastal production. The model performs well in the Southern Ocean, though the assessment here is hindered by the lower availability of observations. The modelled NPP is 3.1 Pg C yr-1 in the Southern Ocean and the export production 1.1 Pg C yr-1. All in all, the combination of a circulation model on an unstructured grid with a biogeochemical-ocean model shows similar performance to other models at non-eddy-permitting resolution. It is well suited for studies of the Southern Ocean, but on the global scale deficiencies in the Pacific Ocean would have to be taken into account.

  11. Recurrence of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor in the remnant liver 13 yr after resection.

    PubMed

    Nishimori, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Noriyuki; Sakurai, Yasuo; Mitsui, Shinya; Kang, Jong-Hon; Yoshida, Masafumi; Nomura, Masashi; Fuminori, Itokawa; Ishiwatari, Hirotoshi; Matsunaga, Takahiro; Osanai, Manabu; Katanuma, Akio; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Anbo, Yoshinori; Masuda, Tomoshige; Kashimura, Nobuichi; Shinohara, Toshiya; Maguchi, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    We report here a case of primary hepatic carcinoid tumor (PHCT) recurring in the remnant liver 13 yr and 10 mo after first resection. A 70-yr-old man developed four hypervascular tumors in the liver in December 2003. He had undergone curative left-lobe hepatectomy for PHCT in February 1990. Histopathological examination of the tumor biopsy specimen showed that the tumor was composed of uniform round-to-oval cells with solid arrangement and the tumor cells stained positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, and neuron-specific enolase. We diagnosed this case as an intrahepatic metastasis of PHCT with a long latency period, based on the fact that no primary site of carcinoid tumor could be found despite intensive examination and the immunohistochemical findings of the resected tumors were essentially same as those of PHCT in 1990. Although PHCT is reported to have a more favorable prognosis than other hepatic cancer or metastatic carcinoid tumor in the liver, long-term observation is recommended. PMID:15879630

  12. A solar origin for the large lunar magnetic field at 4.0 billion yr ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, S. K.; Mellema, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    A new method (Shaw, 1974) for paleointensity determination has been applied to three subsamples of one polymict breccia, 72215 (of age 4.0 billion yr) to yield an average paleointensity of 0.41 Oe at the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon around the time of breccia formation. Of the present models for lunar magnetism, only the Sonett and Runcorn (1974) model of a central iron core dynamo can explain the presence of such a large field in early lunar history. However, because of the similarity in size of this field and that for the early solar system deduced from carbonaceous chondrites, we draw attention to an apparently little-considered possibility: that the large magnetic field in early lunar history was external and solar in origin, and emanated from a pre-main sequence T-Tauri stage sun. Therefore, there should be no record of such a large magnetic field in lunar rocks younger than approximately 4.0 billion yr.

  13. Climate, agriculture, and cycles of human occupation over the last 4000 yr in southern Zacatecas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, Michelle; Fisher, Christopher T.; Nelson, Ben A.; Molina Garza, Roberto S.; Collins, Shawn K.; Pearsall, Deborah M.

    2010-07-01

    Scholars attribute the growth and decline of Classic period (AD 200-900) settlements in the semi-arid northern frontier zone of Mesoamerica to rainfall cycles that controlled the extent of arable land. However, there is little empirical evidence to support this claim. We present phytolith, organic carbon, and magnetic susceptibility analyses of a 4000-yr alluvial record of climate and human land use from the Malpaso Valley, the site of one such Classic frontier community. The earliest farming occupation is detected around 500 BC and appears related to a slight increase of aridity, similar to the level of the modern day valley. By AD 500, the valley's Classic period Mesoamerican settlements were founded under these same dry conditions, which continued into the Postclassic period. This indicates that the La Quemada occupation did not develop during a period of increased rainfall, but rather an arid phase. The most dramatic changes detected in the valley resulted from the erosion associated with Spanish Colonial grazing and deforestation that began in the 16th century. The landscape of the modern Malpaso Valley is thus primarily the product of a series of intense and rapid transformations that were concentrated within the last 400 yr.

  14. Bone marrow engraftment and associated dermatologic sequelae in a three-yr-old after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Johanna; Saavedra, Arturo P; Degar, Barbara A; Duncan, Christine N; Fawaz, Rima; Tan, Jennifer K; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Kim, Heung B; Huang, Jennifer T

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of a three-yr-old child with a history of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis treated with systemic chemotherapy, who developed progressive liver failure and received an orthotopic split liver transplant while continuing on chemotherapy. One month following transplant, he developed acute graft-vs.-host disease of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Peripheral blood chimerism studies post-transplant demonstrated an increasing predominance of donor lymphocytes and granulocytes. Shortly after, the patient developed vitiligo, and two yr after transplantation, the patient developed skin manifestations of psoriasis. We discuss and review the current literature, which demonstrates that chimerism following liver transplantation is rare and in our patient may be related to his profound immunosuppression around the time of liver transplant as well the development of acute graft-versus-host disease. While autoimmune disease can occur after solid organ and stem cell transplant, our patient developed skin manifestations of autoimmunity after liver transplantation, which is also rarely described. PMID:25516432

  15. A caldera-forming eruption ~ 14,100 14C yr BP at Popocatépetl volcano, México: Insights from eruption dynamics and magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Ceballos, Giovanni; Gardner, James E.; Siebe, Claus; Macías, José L.

    2012-02-01

    Volcán Popocatépetl (México) erupted ~ 14,100 14 C yr BP (~ 17,000 cal yr BP) producing the Tutti Frutti Plinian Eruption (TFPE). The eruption tapped two different silicic magmas (GT and MT) that mixed just prior and during the eruption, resulting in the collapse of the reservoir and formation of a caldera. Two fall deposits (GT and MT) and two series of pyroclastic flows (P01 and P02) were emplaced during the eruption. These were studied at 91 sites, where thicknesses were measured, and at many sites the five coarsest lithics observed in each unit were measured. Several samples from deposits were sieved for component analysis. The eruption began with intermittent, short lived eruptions that deposited the GT unit at proximal sites around the volcano. Next, the main Plinian phase of the eruption started, and the MT unit and a pyroclastic flow were deposited to the northwest of the present-day cone. Overall, ~ 3 km3 of magma were erupted. The pyroclastic flow within MT separates two fall units characterized by different pumice color and lithic content. During deposition of the lower unit (milky pumice) eruptive intensity reached 3 × 108 kg s- 1, producing a Plinian column 37 ± 2 km in height. After emplacement of the pyroclastic flow, a lithic-rich upper unit (orange pumice) was deposited with a peak intensity of 5 × 108 kg s- 1, producing a Plinian column 44 ± 2 km in height. Lithics in the TFPE vary from only volcanic (~ 5 vol.%) in GT, to volcanic, granodiorite, and metamorphic (up to 50 vol.%) in MT. The shift in components and lithic content was produced by the collapse of the reservoir. We suggest that the reservoir was over-pressured because of mixing between GT and MT magmas, and then relaxed when all of GT, and part of MT magma were tapped, triggering collapse. The characteristics of mixing were elucidated by studying banded pumice and mixed populations of crystals found in pumice from both units. In addition, the occurrence of An-rich plagioclase, Mg

  16. 1 CFR 456.2 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organization. 456.2 Section 456.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.2 Organization. The Commission is the central planning agency for the Federal Government...

  17. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  18. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  19. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  20. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  1. 43 CFR 3453.2-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application. 3453.2-1 Section 3453.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  2. 43 CFR 3453.2-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application. 3453.2-1 Section 3453.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  3. 43 CFR 3453.2-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application. 3453.2-1 Section 3453.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  4. 43 CFR 3453.2-1 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application. 3453.2-1 Section 3453.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MANAGEMENT OF EXISTING LEASES Transfers by...

  5. Vought O2U-1 Corsair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Vought O2U-1 Corsair: Suspended from the roof of the NACA's hangar at Langley Field, this Vought O2U-1 Corsair retains its float undercarriage, a contrast to other O2Us flown by the NACA which were operated on wheeled landing gear.

  6. 1 CFR 301.2 - Purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purposes. 301.2 Section 301.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE CONFERENCE OF THE UNITED STATES ORGANIZATION AND PURPOSE § 301.2 Purposes. The purposes of the Administrative Conference are— (a) To provide suitable arrangements through which...

  7. 1 CFR 15.2 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Information services. 15.2 Section 15.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.2 Information services. The Director of the...

  8. 1 CFR 15.2 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information services. 15.2 Section 15.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.2 Information services. The Director of the...

  9. 1 CFR 15.2 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Information services. 15.2 Section 15.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.2 Information services. The Director of the...

  10. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  11. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  12. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  13. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  14. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  15. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  16. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  17. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  18. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  19. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  20. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  1. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  2. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  3. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  4. 28 CFR 2.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identical or comparable terms as used in chapter 311 of part IV of title 18 of the U.S. Code or 28 CFR... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Definitions. 2.1 Section 2.1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH...

  5. 1 and 2 Dimensional Bose Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogels, Johnny; Gorlitz, Axel; Raman, Chandra; Gustavson, Todd; Drndic, Marija; Leanhardt, Aaron; Abo-Shaeer, Jamil; Loew, Robert; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2001-05-01

    We have created condensates in which the zero point motion exceeds the mean field enegy in either 2 (1D-condensate) or 1 dimension (2D-condensate). We describe the optical traps and magnetic traps being used, their limitations, and the regimes that are accessible. Some of our 1D condensates should have limited coherence properties (quasi-condensates).

  6. 26 CFR 1.709-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.709-2 Section 1.709-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... the Internal Revenue Code defines organizational expenses as expenses which: (1) Are incident to...

  7. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., appliances, services, or allowances therefor or to valuations, costs or accounting, or practices relating to... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND...

  8. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  9. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  10. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  12. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  13. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  14. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  15. 50 CFR 2.1 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., endangered species stations, fishery assistance offices, national fish hatcheries, national wildlife refuges... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.1 Section 2.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

  16. 50 CFR 2.1 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., endangered species stations, fishery assistance offices, national fish hatcheries, national wildlife refuges... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.1 Section 2.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

  17. 50 CFR 2.1 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., endangered species stations, fishery assistance offices, national fish hatcheries, national wildlife refuges... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.1 Section 2.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

  18. 50 CFR 2.1 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., endangered species stations, fishery assistance offices, national fish hatcheries, national wildlife refuges... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.1 Section 2.1 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL...

  19. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's legal authorities, public purposes, programs, and functions;...

  20. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's legal authorities, public purposes, programs, and functions;...

  1. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's legal authorities, public purposes, programs, and functions;...

  2. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  3. ATP modulates acute inflammation in vivo through dual oxidase 1-derived H2O2 production and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sofia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Candel, Sergio; Pelegrín, Pablo; Calado, Ângelo; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-06-15

    Dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) is the NADPH oxidase responsible for the H2O2 gradient formed in tissues after injury to trigger the early recruitment of leukocytes. Little is known about the signals that modulate H2O2 release from DUOX1 and whether the H2O2 gradient can orchestrate the inflammatory response in vivo. In this study, we report on a dominant-negative form of zebrafish Duox1 that is able to inhibit endogenous Duox1 activity, H2O2 release and leukocyte recruitment after tissue injury, with none of the side effects associated with morpholino-mediated Duox1 knockdown. Using this specific tool, we found that ATP release following tissue injury activates purinergic P2Y receptors, and modulates Duox1 activity through phospholipase C (PLC) and intracellular calcium signaling in vivo. Furthermore, Duox1-derived H2O2 is able to trigger the NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. These data reveal that extracellular ATP acting as an early danger signal is responsible for the activation of Duox1 via a P2YR/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling pathway and the production of H2O2, which, in turn, is able to modulate in vivo not only the early recruitment of leukocytes to the wound but also the inflammatory response through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. PMID:24842759

  4. Stereodynamics of small 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines.

    PubMed

    Kamuf, Matthias; Trapp, Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Diaziridines are very interesting representatives of organic compounds containing stereogenic nitrogen atoms. In particular, 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines show extraordinarily high stereointegrity. The lone electron pairs of the nitrogen atoms are in trans configuration, avoiding a four-electron repulsive interaction. Furthermore, the trans configuration of the substituents at the nitrogen atoms is energetically favored because of reduced steric interactions. Therefore only two stereoisomers (enantiomers) are observed. At elevated temperatures the enantiomers are interconverting because of the limited stereointegrity of the chirotopic nitrogen atoms. The enantiomerization rate constants and the activation parameters of interconversion are of great interest. Here, we investigated the stereodynamics of a set of small 1,2-dialkyldiaziridines bearing short substituents (Me, Et, iPr, tBu), using enantioselective dynamic gas chromatography (DGC). Separation of enantiomers of all compounds, including the highly volatile 1,2-dimethyldiaziridine, was achieved using heptakis(2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-β-cyclodextrin in 50% PS086 (w/w) as chiral stationary phase in fused silica capillaries with a length of up to 50 m. Measurements at variable temperatures were performed and reaction rate constants were determined using the unified equation of chromatography implemented in the software DCXplorer. The activation barriers at room temperature for 1-(tert-butyl)-2-ethyldiaziridine, ΔG(╪)(298K) = 123.8 kJ mol(-1) (ΔH(╪) = 115.5±2.9 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(╪) = -28±1 J mol(-1) K(-1)), and 1-ethyl-2-isopropyldiaziridine, ΔG(╪)(298K) = 124.2 kJ mol(-1) (ΔH(╪) = 113.1±2.4 kJ mol(-1), ΔS(╪) = -37±2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), were determined, representing some of the highest values observed for nitrogen inversion in diaziridines. PMID:23401088

  5. Liquid effluent FY 1996 program plan WBS 1.2.2.1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Liquid Effluents Program supports the three Hanford Site mission components: (1) Clean up the site, (2) provide scientific and technological excellence to meet global needs, and (3) Partner in the economic diversification of the region. Nine Hanford Site objectives have been established for the Hanford Site programs to accomplish all three components of this mission.

  6. Renormalons and 1/Q2 corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoury, R.; Zakharov, V. I.

    1997-06-01

    We argue that the appearance of the Landau pole in the running coupling of QCD introduces 1/Q2 power corrections in current correlator functions. These terms are not accounted for by the standard operator product expansion and is the price to be paid for the lack of a unique definition of the running coupling at the 1/Q2 level. We review also possible phenomenological implications of the 1/Q2 terms in an alternative language of ultraviolet renormalon.

  7. BLDG 1 LOOKING TOWARDS BLDG 2 & 2A Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 LOOKING TOWARDS BLDG 2 & 2A - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  8. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.1 Membership. Under the JWOD Act, the Committee is...

  9. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.1 Membership. Under the JWOD Act, the Committee is...

  10. The quest for companions to post-common envelope binaries. IV. The 2:1 mean-motion resonance of the planets orbiting NN Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuermann, K.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F. V.

    2013-07-01

    We present 69 new mid-eclipse times of the young post-common envelope binary (PCEB) NN Ser, which was previously suggested to possess two circumbinary planets. We have interpreted the observed eclipse-time variations in terms of the light-travel time effect caused by two planets, exhaustively covering the multi-dimensional parameter space by fits in the two binary and ten orbital parameters. We supplemented the fits by stability calculations for all models with an acceptable χ2. An island of secularly stable 2:1 resonant solutions exists, which coincides with the global χ2 minimum. Our best-fit stable solution yields current orbital periods Po = 15.47 yr and Pi = 7.65 yr and eccentricities eo = 0.14 and ei = 0.22 for the outer and inner planets, respectively. The companions qualify as giant planets, with masses of 7.0 MJup and 1.7 MJup for the case of orbits coplanar with that of the binary. The two-planet model that starts from the present system parameters has a lifetime greater than 108 yr, which significantly exceeds the age of NN Ser of 106 yr as a PCEB. The resonance is characterized by libration of the resonant variable Θ1 and circulation of , the difference between the arguments of periapse of the two planets. No stable nonresonant solutions were found, and the possibility of a 5:2 resonance suggested previously by us is now excluded at the 99.3% confidence level. Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. 1,2,3-Triazoles as inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Caldelari, Daniela; Dilek, Nahzli; Reichenbach, Patrick; Ascencao, Kelly; Irving, Melita; Coukos, George; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays. Our approach yielded low molecular weight inhibitors of IDO2, the most active displaying an IC50 value of 51μM for mIDO2, and twofold selectivity over hIDO1. These compounds could be useful as molecular probes to investigate the biological role of IDO2, and could inspire the design of new IDO2 inhibitors. PMID:27469130

  12. Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozère in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.092±0.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.179±0.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.663±0.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.665±0.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.476±0.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozère granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric

  13. 2 CFR 215.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purpose. 215.1 Section 215.1 Grants and Agreements OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET CIRCULARS AND GUIDANCE Reserved UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) General § 215.1 Purpose. This part establishes uniform...

  14. Fluoride ion-catalyzed 1,2-desilylative defluorination: syntheses of 1-substituted 2,2-difluorostyrenes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Uneyama, Kenji

    2007-07-20

    1-(3'-Chlorophenyl)-1-trimethylsilyl-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane has been prepared in an excellent yield by the Mg-promoted defluorinative silylation of 3-chloropentafluoroethylbenzene and transformed to a series of 1-substituted 2,2-difluorostyrenes by fluoride ion-catalyzed 1,2-desilylative defluorination. PMID:17583960

  15. Identification and mapping stripe rust resistance gene YrLM168a using extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class in a complicate genetic background.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junyan; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Yaxi; Jiang, Qiantao; Li, Wei; Pu, Zhien; Lan, Xiujin; Dai, Shoufen; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Youliang

    2015-12-01

    The identification and characterization of resistance genes effective against stripe rust of wheat is beneficial for modern wheat breeding programs. Molecular markers to such genes facilitate their deployment. The variety Milan has resistance that is effective against the predominant stripe rust races in the Sichuan region. Two resistant and two susceptible F8 lines from a cross between Milan and the susceptible variety Chuannong 16 were used to investigate inheritance of the Milan resistance. Three F2 populations were developed from crosses between the resistant lines and their susceptible sibling lines (LM168a × LM168c, LM168c × LM168a, LM168b × LM168d) and used for genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the genes for resistance. The stripe rust resistance in LM168a and LM168b was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrLM168a. Forty-five extreme susceptible plants from the F2 families of LM168d × LM168b were genotyped with 836 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map YrLM168a. YrLM168a was mapped in chromosome 6BL. The nearest flanking markers Xwmc756 and Xbarc146 were 4.6 and 4.6 cM away from the gene at both sides, respectively. The amplification results of twenty extreme resistant (IT 0) and susceptible (IT 4) F2 plants of LM168c × LM168a and LM168a × LM168c with marker Xwmc756 further validated the mapping results. The study suggested that extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class can be successfully used for mapping genes, which should be efficient and reliable. In addition, the flanking markers near YrLM168a should be helpful in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:26113523

  16. Synthesis of N1-tritylethane-1,1,2,2-d4-1,2-diamine: a novel mono-protected C-deuterated ethylenediamine synthon

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jun; Hong, Kunlun; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2012-01-01

    A convenient and high-yield synthesis for N1-tritylethane-1,1,2,2-d4-1,2-diamine, a novel mono-protected ethylenediamine-C-d4, is reported. N1-tritylethane-1,1,2,2-d4-1,2-diamine was prepared in three steps from ethylene oxide-d4 in a combined yield in the range 68-76%. Also reported is a synthesis of ethylenediamine-C-d4 in two steps from 1,2-dibromoethane-d4 in a combined yield in the range 61-65%.

  17. Phylogeography of influenza A H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza A H5N1 has killed millions of birds and raises serious public health concern because of its potential to spread to humans and cause a global pandemic. While the early focus was in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is a new epicenter for the disease. This includes characterization of a variant clade 2.2.1.1, which has been found almost exclusively in Egypt. We analyzed 226 HA and 92 NA sequences with an emphasis on the H5N1 2.2.1.1 strains in Egypt using a Bayesian discrete phylogeography approach. This allowed modeling of virus dispersion between Egyptian governorates including the most likely origin. Results Phylogeography models of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) suggest Ash Sharqiyah as the origin of virus spread, however the support is weak based on Kullback–Leibler values of 0.09 for HA and 0.01 for NA. Association Index (AI) values and Parsimony Scores (PS) were significant (p-value < 0.05), indicating that dispersion of H5N1 in Egypt was geographically structured. In addition, the Ash Sharqiyah to Al Gharbiyah and Al Fayyum to Al Qalyubiyah routes had the strongest statistical support. Conclusion We found that the majority of routes with strong statistical support were in the heavily populated Delta region. In particular, the Al Qalyubiyah governorate appears to represent a popular location for virus transition as it represented a large portion of branches in both trees. However, there remains uncertainty about virus dispersion to and from this location and thus more research needs to be conducted in order to examine this. Phylogeography can highlight the drivers of H5N1 emergence and spread. This knowledge can be used to target public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality. For Egypt, future work should focus on using data about vaccination and live bird markets in phylogeography models to study their impact on H5N1 diffusion within the country. PMID:24325606

  18. A skill assessment of the biogeochemical model REcoM2 coupled to the finite element sea-ice ocean model (FESOM 1.3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schourup-Kristensen, V.; Sidorenko, D.; Wolf-Gladrow, D. A.; Völker, C.

    2014-07-01

    In coupled ocean-biogeochemical models, the choice of numerical schemes in the ocean circulation component can have a large influence on the distribution of the biological tracers. Biogeochemical models are traditionally coupled to ocean general circulation models (OGCMs), which are based on dynamical cores employing quasi regular meshes, and therefore utilize limited spatial resolution in a global setting. An alternative approach is to use an unstructured-mesh ocean model, which allows variable mesh resolution. Here, we present initial results of a coupling between the Finite Element Sea-ice Ocean Model (FESOM) and the biogeochemical model REcoM2, with special focus on the Southern Ocean. Surface fields of nutrients, chlorophyll a and net primary production were compared to available data sets with focus on spatial distribution and seasonal cycle. The model produced realistic spatial distributions, especially regarding net primary production and chlorophyll a, whereas the iron concentration became too low in the Pacific Ocean. The modelled net primary production was 32.5 Pg C yr-1 and the export production 6.1 Pg C yr-1. This is lower than satellite-based estimates, mainly due to the excessive iron limitation in the Pacific along with too little coastal production. Overall, the model performed better in the Southern Ocean than on the global scale, though the assessment here is hindered by the lower availability of observations. The modelled net primary production was 3.1 Pg C yr-1 in the Southern Ocean and the export production 1.1 Pg C yr-1. All in all, the combination of a circulation model on an unstructured grid with an ocean biogeochemical model shows similar performance to other models at non-eddy-permitting resolution. It is well suited for studies of the Southern Ocean, but on the global scale deficiencies in the Pacific Ocean would have to be taken into account.

  19. Arabidopsis MSI1 connects LHP1 to PRC2 complexes.

    PubMed

    Derkacheva, Maria; Steinbach, Yvonne; Wildhaber, Thomas; Mozgová, Iva; Mahrez, Walid; Nanni, Paolo; Bischof, Sylvain; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Hennig, Lars

    2013-07-17

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins form essential epigenetic memory systems for controlling gene expression during development in plants and animals. However, the mechanism of plant PcG protein functions remains poorly understood. Here, we probed the composition and function of plant Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). This work established the fact that all known plant PRC2 complexes contain MSI1, a homologue of Drosophila p55. While p55 is not essential for the in vitro enzymatic activity of PRC2, plant MSI1 was required for the functions of the EMBRYONIC FLOWER and the VERNALIZATION PRC2 complexes including trimethylation of histone H3 Lys27 (H3K27) at the target chromatin, as well as gene repression and establishment of competence to flower. We found that MSI1 serves to link PRC2 to LIKE HETEROCHROMATIN PROTEIN 1 (LHP1), a protein that binds H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo and is required for a functional plant PcG system. The LHP1-MSI1 interaction forms a positive feedback loop to recruit PRC2 to chromatin that carries H3K27me3. Consequently, this can provide a mechanism for the faithful inheritance of local epigenetic information through replication. PMID:23778966

  20. 3-Methyl-1-(prop-2-en-1-yl)quinoxalin-2(1H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Youssef; Slimani, Rachid; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Essassi, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, C12H12N2O, the quinoxaline ring is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.007 (15) Å. The dihedral angle between the quinoxaline and propenyl planes is 82.1 (2)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between the quinoxaline rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8832 (9) Å]. PMID:21587981

  1. Yr45, a new wheat gene for stripe rust resistance on the long arm of chromosome 3D.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Chen, X M; Wang, M N; Jing, J X

    2011-01-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Growing resistant cultivars is the most effective approach to control the disease, but only a few genes confer effective all-stage resistance against the current populations of the pathogen worldwide. It is urgent to identify new genes for diversifying sources of resistance genes and for pyramiding genes for different types of resistance in order to achieve high levels of durable resistance for sustainable control of stripe rust. The common spring wheat genotype 'PI 181434', originally from Afghanistan, was resistant in all greenhouse and field tests in our previous studies. To identify the resistance gene(s) PI 181434 was crossed with susceptible genotype 'Avocet Susceptible'. Adult plants of 103 F(2) progeny were tested in the field under the natural infection of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici. Seedlings of the parents, F(2) and F(3) were tested with races PST-100 and PST-127 of the pathogen under controlled greenhouse conditions. The genetic study showed that PI 181434 has a single dominant gene conferring all-stage resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) techniques were used to identify molecular markers linked to the gene. A linkage map of 8 RGAP and 2 SSR markers was constructed for the gene using data from the 103 F(2) plants and their derived F(3) lines tested in the greenhouse. Amplification of the complete set of nulli-tetrasomic lines and selected ditelosomic lines of Chinese Spring with an RGAP marker and the two SSR markers mapped the gene on the long arm of chromosome 3D. Because it is the first gene for stripe rust resistance mapped on chromosome 3DL and different from all previously named Yr genes, the gene in PI 181434 was designated Yr45. Polymorphism rates of the two closest flanking markers, Xwgp115 and Xwgp118, in 45 wheat genotypes were 73.3 and 82.2%, respectively. Single

  2. The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural transition in Yuchisi, China and its global linkage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions. PMID:27283832

  3. The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural transition in Yuchisi, China and its global linkage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050-4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400-4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions. PMID:27283832

  4. The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural transition in Yuchisi, China and its global linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-06-01

    Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions.

  5. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Flight performances of LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 are evaluated. The in-flight systems discussed are: (1) power supplies, (2) attitude control, (3) command/clock, (4) telemetry, (5) orbit adjust, (6) electrical interface, (7) thermal, (8) tape recorders, (9) multispectral scanner, (10) data collection and (11) magnetic moment compensating assembly. Tables are presented for easy reference.

  6. 1 CFR 456.2 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 456.2 Section 456.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT... Section; (d) Management Services Section; (e) Planning and Programming Division; (f) Review...

  7. 3-2-1 Contact Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This guide to the television program 3-2-1 Contact covers 20 theme weeks. The program is designed to bring students into closer contact with the science and technology in their everyday lives. This guide includes: (1) a brief introduction to the contents of each week's shows; (2) a detailed discussion of each week's primary concepts as well as…

  8. Vought SB2U-1 Vindicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1937-01-01

    Vought SB2U-1 Vindicator: The graceful lines of an airplane were aided by a concerted effort in drag reduction. Here a Vought SB2U-1 Vindicator is studied in Langley's 30 x 60 Full Scale Tunnel. This evaluation took place in September 1937.

  9. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePlus

    The BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene test is a blood test that can tell you if you have a higher risk of getting cancer. The name ... BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress malignant tumors (cancer) in ... change (become mutated) they do not suppress tumors like they ...

  10. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  11. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  12. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  13. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  14. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  15. The climate response to the 11-yr solar cycle in the CMIP5 historical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misios, Stergios; Mitchell, Daniel; Tourpali, Kleareti; Gray, Lesley; Matthes, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The variation of the incoming solar irradiance over the course of the 11-yr solar cycle is a significant source of stratospheric variability. Dynamical mechanisms could amplify and transfer solar signals from the stratosphere to the troposphere and even the surface in a "top-down" pathway. In the opposite direction, "bottom-up" mechanisms could mediate solar signals from the surface to the troposphere via air-sea coupling. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the climate response to the 11-yr solar cycle, as brought about from both "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms, because for the first time different coupled models are driven by spectral solar irradiance and ozone changes. We here analyse archived "historical" simulations (1850-2005) with a lead/lag multiple linear regression model, focusing onto the troposphere and oceans. Our analysis identifies a delayed warming in the troposphere and surface, which is explained by the delayed response of the oceans. In fact, the delayed warming penetrates down to ~150 m from the ocean surface. A significant warming is identified over the western Pacific and Indian oceans whereas an anomalous cooling is simulated in the eastern Pacific. This meridional temperature dipole introduces changes in the Walker circulation, precipitation, convective activity with concomitant effects on the Northern Pacific. We further categorize models in "low- and high-top, depending on the inclusion or not of detailed stratospheric dynamics. This classification is found educative when the relative role of the "top-down" versus "bottom-up" forcing is investigated.

  16. Affine Kac-Moody symmetric spaces related with A1^{(1)}, A2^{(1)},} A2^{(2)}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Saudamini; Pati, K. C.

    2014-08-01

    Symmetric spaces associated with Lie algebras and Lie groups which are Riemannian manifolds have recently got a lot of attention in various branches of Physics for their role in classical/quantum integrable systems, transport phenomena, etc. Their infinite dimensional counter parts have recently been discovered which are affine Kac-Moody symmetric spaces. In this paper we have (algebraically) explicitly computed the affine Kac-Moody symmetric spaces associated with affine Kac-Moody algebras A1^{(1)}, A2^{(1)}, A2^{(2)}. We hope these types of spaces will play similar roles as that of symmetric spaces in many physical systems.

  17. Accessing 2,1-Borazaronaphthols: Self-Arylation of 1-Alkyl-2-aryl-3-bromo-2,1-borazaronaphthalenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Unlike their B-alkyl counterparts, brominated N-alkyl B-aryl 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes undergo a self-arylation reaction in the presence of a catalytic amount of palladium and base, in which the azaborine serves as both the electrophile and the nucleophile. The products of the self-arylation are air- and moisture-stable 2,1-borazaronaphthols, previously only observed in basic alcoholic solvents. The steric encumbrance of the azaborine appears to prevent formation of the corresponding boron acid anhydride, allowing access to a family of 2,1-borazaronaphthol derivatives. PMID:25133658

  18. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of 2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y.; Sotani, T.

    1996-03-01

    The thermal conductivity and the viscosity data of CFC alternative refrigerant HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane; CHCl{sub 2}-CF{sub 3}) were critically evaluated and correlated on the basis of a comprehensive literature survey. Using the residual transport-property concept, we have developed the three-dimensional surfaces of the thermal conductivity-temperature-density and the viscosity-temperature-density. A dilute-gas function and an excess function of simple form were established for each property. The critical enhancement contribution was taken no account because reliable crossover equations of state and the thermal conductivity data are still missing in the critical region. The correlation for the thermal conductivity is valid at temperatures from 253 to 373 K, pressures up to 30 MPa, and densities up to 1623 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The correlation for the viscosity is valid at temperatures from 253 to 423 K, pressures up to 20 MPa, and densities up to 1608 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The uncertainties of the present correlations are estimated to be 5% for both properties, since the experimental data are still scarce and somewhat contradictory in the vapor phase at present.

  19. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  20. Loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2014-12-01

    As a first step to generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with the spacetime dimension other than four, the isotropic model of loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension is studied in this paper. We find that the classical big bang singularity is again replaced by a quantum bounce in the model. The similarities and differences between the (2 +1 )-dimensional model and the (3 +1 )-dimensional one are also discussed.

  1. Alkyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes.

    PubMed

    Lidster, Benjamin J; Kumar, Dharam R; Spring, Andrew M; Yu, Chin-Yang; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Turner, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    [2.2]Paracyclophane-1,9-dienes substituted with n-octyl chains have been synthesised from the corresponding dithia[3.3]paracyclophanes using a benzyne induced Stevens rearrangement. The use of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride as the in situ benzyne source gave significantly improved yields over traditional sources of benzyne and enabled the preparation of n-octyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes on a multi-gram scale. PMID:27249777

  2. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  3. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  4. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Department of Justice, as defined in 8 CFR 1001.1(e). Case, unless the context otherwise requires, means any... in 8 CFR 1001.1(l). Immigration officer means the following employees of the Department of Homeland... designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security as provided in 8 CFR 2.1. Lawfully admitted for...

  5. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Department of Justice, as defined in 8 CFR 1001.1(e). Case, unless the context otherwise requires, means any... in 8 CFR 1001.1(l). Immigration officer means the following employees of the Department of Homeland... designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security as provided in 8 CFR 2.1. Lawfully admitted for...

  6. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Department of Justice, as defined in 8 CFR 1001.1(e). Case, unless the context otherwise requires, means any... in 8 CFR 1001.1(l). Immigration officer means the following employees of the Department of Homeland... designated by the Secretary of Homeland Security as provided in 8 CFR 2.1. Lawfully admitted for...

  7. Preparation of 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole. [1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.

    1985-03-05

    A new high density composition of matter, 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole, has been synthesized using inexpensive, commonly available compounds. This compound has been found to be an explosive, and its use as a propellant is anticipated. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Cisplatin inhibits MEK1/2

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tetsu; Tsigelny, Igor F.; Götz, Andreas W.; Howell, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin (cDDP) is known to bind to the CXXC motif of proteins containing a ferrodoxin-like fold but little is known about its ability to interact with other Cu-binding proteins. MEK1/2 has recently been identified as a Cu-dependent enzyme that does not contain a CXXC motif. We found that cDDP bound to and inhibited the activity of recombinant MEK1 with an IC50 of 0.28 μM and MEK1/2 in whole cells with an IC50 of 37.4 μM. The inhibition of MEK1/2 was relieved by both Cu+1 and Cu+2 in a concentration-dependent manner. cDDP did not inhibit the upstream pathways responsible for activating MEK1/2, and did not cause an acute depletion of cellular Cu that could account for the reduction in MEK1/2 activity. cDDP was found to bind MEK1/2 in whole cells and the extent of binding was augmented by supplementary Cu and reduced by Cu chelation. Molecular modeling predicts 3 Cu and cDDP binding sites and quantum chemistry calculations indicate that cDDP would be expected to displace Cu from each of these sites. We conclude that, at clinically relevant concentrations, cDDP binds to and inhibits MEK1/2 and that both the binding and inhibitory activity are related to its interaction with Cu bound to MEK1/2. This may provide the basis for useful interactions of cDDP with other drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway signaling. PMID:26155939

  9. Design for a Moore No. 1 1/2 lathe

    SciTech Connect

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    To increase our capability to machine small spherical parts, we are designing an ultraprecision lathe based on a Moore No. 1 1/2 measuring machine. The machine is being designed for single axis cutting, utilizing an accurate rotary table for spherical cuts. This report summarizes the design and presents an error budget analysis for the design.

  10. Diffusion of 1-iodo-propane (1); air (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 1-iodo-propane; (2) air

  11. Diffusion of 1-iodo-propane (1); helium (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 1-iodo-propane; (2) helium

  12. Diffusion of 1-iodo-butane (1); helium (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 1-iodo-butane; (2) helium

  13. A new model of Earth's radial conductivity structure derived from over 10 yr of satellite and observatory magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Khan, Amir; Olsen, Nils

    2015-12-01

    We present a new model of the radial (1-D) conductivity structure of Earth's mantle. This model is derived from more than 10 yr of magnetic measurements from the satellites Ørsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the Swarm trio as well as the global network of geomagnetic observatories. After removal of core and crustal field as predicted by a recent field model, we fit the magnetic data with spherical harmonic coefficients describing ring current activity and associated induction effects and estimate global C-responses at periods between 1.5 and 150 d. The C-responses are corrected for 3-D effects due to induction in the oceans and inverted for a 1-D model of mantle conductivity using both probabilistic and deterministic methods. Very similar results are obtained, consisting of a highly resistive upper mantle, an increase in conductivity in and beneath the transition zone and a conductive lower mantle. Analysis of the Hessian of the cost function reveals that the data are most sensitive to structures at depths between 800 and 1200 km, in agreement with the results obtained from the probabilistic approach. Preliminary interpretation of the inverted conductivity structure based on laboratory-based conductivity profiles shows that the recovered structure in the lower mantle either requires higher temperatures or the presence of material of high conductivity related to ponding of carbonate melts below the transition zone.

  14. Molecular approach to evaluate biostimulation of 1,2-dibromoethane in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Baek, Kyunghwa; McKeever, Robert; Rieber, Kahlil; Sheppard, Diane; Park, Chul; Ergas, Sarina J; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of co-substrate amendments on EDB biodegradation under aerobic conditions. Microcosms were established using contaminated soil and groundwater samples and maintained under in situ conditions to determine EDB degradation rates, and the diversity and abundance of EDB degrading indigenous bacteria. After 100days of incubation, between 25% and 56% of the initial EDB was degraded in the microcosms, with added jet fuel providing highest degradation rates (2.97±0.49yr(-1)). In all microcosms, the quantity of dehalogenase genes did not change significantly, while the number of BTEX monooxygenase and phenol hydroxylase genes increased with jet fuel amendments. These results indicate that EDB was not degraded by prior dehalogenation, but rather by cometabolism with adapted indigenous microorganisms. This is also reflected in the history of the plume, which originated from an aviation gasoline pipeline leak. This study suggests that biostimulation of EDB is possible at aerobic groundwater sites. PMID:22940321

  15. 40 CFR 721.10435 - Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10435 Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3... chemical substance identified as phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)- (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10435 - Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10435 Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3... chemical substance identified as phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)- (PMN...

  17. Substrate interactions in dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane mixtures by Dehalogenimonas spp.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Jacob L; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2014-04-01

    When chlorinated alkanes are present as soil or groundwater pollutants, they often occur in mixtures. This study evaluated substrate interactions during the anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated alkanes by the type strains of two Dehalogenimonas species, D. lykanthroporepellens and D. alkenigignens. Four contaminant mixtures comprised of combinations of the chlorinated solvents 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were assessed for each species. Chlorinated solvent depletion and daughter product formation determined as a function of time following inoculation into anaerobic media revealed preferential dechlorination of 1,1,2-TCA over both 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP for both species. 1,2-DCA in particular was not dechlorinated until 1,1,2-TCA reached low concentrations. In contrast, both species concurrently dechlorinated 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP over a comparably large concentration range. This is the first report of substrate interactions during chlorinated alkane dehalogenation by pure cultures, and the results provide insights into the chlorinated alkane transformation processes that may be expected for contaminant mixtures in environments where Dehalogenimonas spp. are present. PMID:23990262

  18. Antineoplastic agents LXIV: 1,4-Bis(2'-chloroethyl)-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane dihydrogen dimaleate.

    PubMed

    Pettit, G R; Gieschen, D P; Pettit, W E

    1979-12-01

    The 1,4-bis(2'-chloroethyl)-1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane dication (II) exhibits remarkable antineoplastic activity. Detailed evaluation of several dianion derivatives showed a curative response level against the murine P-388 lymphocytic leukemia, colon 26, CD8F1 mammary, and the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma (rat) tumor systems. In addition, significant cancer chemotherapeutic activity was found against the murine L-1210 lymphoid leukemia, colon 38, and B16 melanocarcinoma tumor systems. The bicyclo dication (II) first was isolated, evaluated, and stored as the diperchlorate derivative (IIa). Because of the promising anticancer activity of IIa, procedures were developed for obtaining other anion derivatives for comparative biological purposes. Several naturally occurring substances were evaluated, and the dihydrogen dimaleate derivative (IIi) obtained by an ion-exchange technique was the most suitable. PMID:529047

  19. Spatial Variations in the Spectral Index of Polarized Synchrotron Emission in the 9 yr WMAP Sky Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuskeland, U.; Wehus, I. K.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.

    2014-08-01

    We estimate the spectral index, β, of polarized synchrotron emission as observed in the 9 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps using two methods, linear regression ("T-T plot") and maximum likelihood. We partition the sky into 24 disjoint sky regions and evaluate the spectral index for all polarization angles between 0° and 85° in steps of 5°. Averaging over polarization angles, we derive a mean spectral index of βall-sky = -2.99 ± 0.01 in the frequency range of 23-33 GHz. We find that the synchrotron spectral index steepens by 0.14 from low to high Galactic latitudes, in agreement with previous studies, with mean spectral indices of βplane = -2.98 ± 0.01 and βhigh-lat = -3.12 ± 0.04. In addition, we find a significant longitudinal variation along the Galactic plane with a steeper spectral index toward the Galactic center and anticenter than toward the Galactic spiral arms. This can be well modeled by an offset sinusoidal, β(l) = -2.85 + 0.17sin (2l - 90°). Finally, we study synchrotron emission in the BICEP2 field, in an attempt to understand whether the claimed detection of large-scale B-mode polarization could be explained in terms of synchrotron contamination. Adopting a spectral index of β = -3.12, typical for high Galactic latitudes, we find that the most likely bias corresponds to about 2% of the reported signal (r = 0.003). The flattest index allowed by the data in this region is β = -2.5, and under the assumption of a straight power-law frequency spectrum, we find that synchrotron emission can account for at most 20% of the reported BICEP2 signal.

  20. Spatial variations in the spectral index of polarized synchrotron emission in the 9 yr WMAP sky maps

    SciTech Connect

    Fuskeland, U.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.; Wehus, I. K. E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.no

    2014-08-01

    We estimate the spectral index, β, of polarized synchrotron emission as observed in the 9 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps using two methods, linear regression ({sup T}-T plot{sup )} and maximum likelihood. We partition the sky into 24 disjoint sky regions and evaluate the spectral index for all polarization angles between 0° and 85° in steps of 5°. Averaging over polarization angles, we derive a mean spectral index of β{sup all-sky} = –2.99 ± 0.01 in the frequency range of 23-33 GHz. We find that the synchrotron spectral index steepens by 0.14 from low to high Galactic latitudes, in agreement with previous studies, with mean spectral indices of β{sup plane} = –2.98 ± 0.01 and β{sup high-lat} = –3.12 ± 0.04. In addition, we find a significant longitudinal variation along the Galactic plane with a steeper spectral index toward the Galactic center and anticenter than toward the Galactic spiral arms. This can be well modeled by an offset sinusoidal, β(l) = –2.85 + 0.17sin (2l – 90°). Finally, we study synchrotron emission in the BICEP2 field, in an attempt to understand whether the claimed detection of large-scale B-mode polarization could be explained in terms of synchrotron contamination. Adopting a spectral index of β = –3.12, typical for high Galactic latitudes, we find that the most likely bias corresponds to about 2% of the reported signal (r = 0.003). The flattest index allowed by the data in this region is β = –2.5, and under the assumption of a straight power-law frequency spectrum, we find that synchrotron emission can account for at most 20% of the reported BICEP2 signal.

  1. Regulation of PHLDA1 Expression by JAK2-ERK1/2-STAT3 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Ji Hyo; Huang, Bin; Park, Dae-Weon; Baek, Suk-Hwan

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling cascades and gene regulation are mainly involved in diseases, such as immunity and inflammation. In this study, microarray analysis was performed using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and Raw 264.7 cells to identify novel proteins involved in the TLR2-mediated cellular response. We found that pleckstrin homology-like domain family, member 1 (PHLDA1) is a novel gene up-regulated by TLR2 stimulation and determined the unique signaling pathway for its expression. Treatment with TLR2 agonist Pam3 CSK4 increased mRNA, protein, and fluorescence staining of PHLDA1. Induction of PHLDA1 by TLR2 stimulation disappeared from TLR2 KO mice-derived BMDM. Among janus kinase (JAK) family members, JAK2 was involved in TLR2-stimulated PHLDA1 expression. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) also participated in PHLDA1 expression downstream of the JAK2. Interestingly, ERK1/2 was an intermediate between JAK2 and STAT3. In silico analysis revealed the presence of highly conserved γ-activated sites within mouse PHLDA1 promoter and confirmed the JAK2-STAT3 pathway is important to Pam3 CSK4 -induced PHLDA1 transcription. These findings suggest that the JAK2-ERK1/2-STAT3 pathway is an important signaling pathway for PHLDA1 expression and that these proteins may play a critical role in eliciting TLR2-mediated immune and inflammatory response. PMID:26239656

  2. 26 CFR 1.851-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-2 Limitations. (a... manufacturing or of any other general classification of industry, but issuers shall be construed to be...

  3. 2 CFR 1.110 - Issuing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Title 2 of the CFR § 1.110 Issuing authorities. OMB issues this subtitle. Each Federal agency that has a chapter in subtitle B of this...

  4. 2 CFR 1.110 - Issuing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Title 2 of the CFR § 1.110 Issuing authorities. OMB issues this subtitle. Each Federal agency that has a chapter in subtitle B of this...

  5. 2 CFR 1.110 - Issuing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Title 2 of the CFR § 1.110 Issuing authorities. OMB issues this subtitle. Each Federal agency that has a chapter in subtitle B of this...

  6. 2 CFR 1.110 - Issuing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Title 2 of the CFR § 1.110 Issuing authorities. OMB issues this subtitle. Each Federal agency that has a chapter in subtitle B of this...

  7. Repeated century-scale droughts over the past 13,000 yr near the Hudson River watershed, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, Paige E.; Shuman, Bryan N.; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.; MacDonald, Dana

    2011-05-01

    Long-term sediment and ground-penetrating radar data from Davis Pond, a small lake near the Hudson River valley, reveal past droughts in a historically humid region that presently supplies water to millions of people in and around New York City. A minimum of eleven sandy paleoshoreline deposits in the lake date from 13.4 to 0.6 cal ka BP. The deposits span 1500 to 200 yr between bracketing radiocarbon ages, and intrude into lacustrine silts up to 9.0 m below the modern lake surface in a transect of six sediment cores. Three low stands, ca. 13.4-10.9, 9.2 and 8.2 cal ka BP indicate low regional moisture balance when low temperatures affected the North Atlantic region. Consistent with insolation trends, water levels rose from ca. 8.0 cal ka BP to present, but five low stands interrupted the rise and are likely associated with ocean-atmosphere interactions. Similar to evidence from other studies, the data from Davis Pond indicate repeated multi-century periods of prolonged or frequent droughts super-imposed on long-term regional trends toward high water levels. The patterns indicate that water supplies in this heavily populated region have continuously varied at multiple time scales and confirm that humid regions such as the northeastern United States are more prone to severe drought than historically expected.

  8. The SIR-2 Experiment on Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mall, U.; Nathues, A.; SIR-2 Collaboration

    2009-04-01

    The SIR-2 experiment, flying on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, is a near-infrared point spectrometer of the second-generation built by a European collaboration around the Max-Planck Institute for Solar System Research. SIR-2 has been designed based on the heritage of the SIR Technology experiment on ESA's SMART-1 mission, in order to investigate the mineralogical composition of the Moon for a period of two years. The SIR-2 instrument, which will operate in conjunction with the Indian Hyper-Spectral Imaging spectrometer (HySI) on board Chandrayaan-1, will cover, together with HySi, a combined spectral range of 0.4 to 2.4 m. We will explain the SIR-2 experiment and report on the performance of the instrument during its commissioning phase to deliver high spatial and spectral near-infrared data from its first 100 km polar orbits around the Moon.

  9. Around 200 New X-Ray Binary IDs from 13 yr of Chandra Observations of the M31 Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Primini, F.; Li, Z.; Baganoff, F. K.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We have created 0.3-10 keV, 13 yr, unabsorbed luminosity lightcurves for 528 X-ray sources in the central 20' of M31. We have 174 Chandra observations spaced at ~1 month intervals due to our transient monitoring program, deeper observations of the M31 nucleus, and some public data from other surveys. We created 0.5-4.5 keV structure functions (SFs) for each source for comparison with the ensemble SF of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We find 220 X-ray sources with luminosities gsim1035 erg s-1 that have SFs with significantly more variability than the ensemble AGN SF, and which are likely X-ray binaries (XBs). A further 30 X-ray sources were identified as XBs using other methods. We therefore have 250 probable XBs in total, including ~200 new identifications. This result represents great progress over the ~50 XBs and ~40 XB candidates previously identified out of the ~2000 X-ray sources within the D 25 region of M31; it also demonstrates the power of SF analysis for identifying XBs in external galaxies. We also identify a new transient black hole candidate, associated with the M31 globular cluster B128.

  10. Vought SB2U-1 Vindicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Vought SB2U-1 Vindicator: This Vought SB2U-1 Vindicator was acquired for one month in late 1938 from NAS Anacostia, Washington, D. C. Anacostia was the source of many of the naval aircraft flown by the NACA, in part due to its proximity and in part became it was the Navy's flight test base. The nose slot cowling was aimed at improving engine cooling.

  11. Phylogenetic aspects of nucleobindin-2/nesfatin-1.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Haneesha; Unniappan, Suraj

    2013-01-01

    Nesfatin-1 is an eighty two amino acid, naturally occurring multifunctional protein encoded in the precursor nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2). A comparison of sequences indicates that NUCB2 is present in a number of animals, from hydra to humans. The 30 amino acid mid-segment of nesfatin-1 is considered to be the bioactive core of the protein, and this region displays the highest identity among nesfatin-1 sequences reported thus far. Similar to the sequence relationships observed, the tissue-specific expression and biological actions of nesfatin-1 also appear to be highly conserved across species. For example, brain is a major tissue abundantly expressing nesfatin- 1 in several species. It has been shown that various key regions of the rat, mouse and goldfish brain, which are involved in the regulation of feeding and metabolism express nesfatin-1. Exogenous administration of nesfatin-1 results in a decrease in the food intake of rats, mice and goldfish. In addition, nesfatin-1 has been shown to regulate a number of other physiological processes including hormone secretion from the pancreatic islets and pituitary gland, stress and behavior. While nesfatin-1 research still remains an emerging area in physiology, the literature available thus far clearly shows that nesfatin-1 is an important regulator of homeostasis in animals. PMID:23537083

  12. A coupled experiment with LICOM2 as the ocean component of CESM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Pengfei; Liu, Hailong; Xue, Wei; Li, Huimin; Jiang, Jinrong; Song, Mirong; Song, Yi; Wang, Fuchang; Zhang, Minghua

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model version 2 (LICOM2) was implemented to replace the original ocean component in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.4 (CESM1) to form a new coupled model referred to as CESM1+LICOM2. The simulation results from a 300-yr preindustrial experiment by using this model were evaluated against both observations and the Flexible Global Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System Model with grid-atmospheric model version 2 (FGOALS-g2). It was found that CESM1+LICOM2 simulates well the mean features of the ocean, sea ice, and atmosphere, relative to models used in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Experiment (CMIP5), when compared with observations. The spatial distribution of SST bias in CESM1+LICOM2 is similar to that in the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). The simulated climate variabilities, such as ENSO and Pacific decadal oscillation, are also reasonably simulated when compared with observations. The successful implementation of LICOM2 in the CESM1 framework greatly enhances the capability of LICOM2 in conducting high-resolution simulations and model tuning. Compared with FGOALS-g2, the simulations of both SST and Atlantic meridional overturning circulation are significantly improved in CESM1+LICOM2. The former can be mainly attributed to the atmospheric model, and the latter to the improvement in the parameterization of diapycnal mixing. The study provides a base to further improve the present version of LICOM and its functionalities in the coupled model FGOALS at both low and high resolutions.

  13. 78 FR 76857 - 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Register of October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64243). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on November 12, 2013... COMMISSION 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injured by reason of imports from China of 1,1,1,2- Tetrafluoroethane, provided for in subheading...

  14. 78 FR 79007 - 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... the notice in the Federal Register of October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64243). The conference was held in... COMMISSION 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of 1,1,1,2- Tetrafluoroethane, provided for in subheadings 2903.39.20 of...

  15. Diffusion of air (1); furan-2-yl-methanethiol (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) furan-2-yl-methanethiol

  16. Diffusion of 2-iodo-propane (1); helium (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 2-iodo-propane; (2) helium

  17. Diffusion of 2-iodo-butane (1); helium (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 2-iodo-butane; (2) helium

  18. Diffusion of 2-iodo-propane (1); air (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) 2-iodo-propane; (2) air

  19. 2 CFR 1.110 - Issuing authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grants and Agreements ABOUT TITLE 2 OF THE CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND SUBTITLE A Introduction to Title 2 of the CFR § 1.110 Issuing authorities. OMB issues this subtitle. Each Federal agency that has a chapter in subtitle B of this title issues that chapter....

  20. Science Curriculum Guide, Levels 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The first two of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum are outlined. In Level 1 (grades K-2) and Level 2 (grades 3-5), science areas include the study of living things, matter and energy, and solar system and universe. Conveniently listed are page locations for educational and instructional objectives, cross-referenced to science area and coded…

  1. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.1 Membership. Under the JWOD Act, the Committee is composed... conversant with the problems incident to the employment of blind individuals; one who is conversant with...

  2. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-2T(i), as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2011. .... Corporation X is engaged in the manufacture and sale of toys and the manufacture and sale of candy. The shareholders of X wish to protect the candy business from the risks and vicissitudes of the toy...

  3. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-2T(i), as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2011. .... Corporation X is engaged in the manufacture and sale of toys and the manufacture and sale of candy. The shareholders of X wish to protect the candy business from the risks and vicissitudes of the toy...

  4. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-2T(i), as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2011. .... Corporation X is engaged in the manufacture and sale of toys and the manufacture and sale of candy. The shareholders of X wish to protect the candy business from the risks and vicissitudes of the toy...

  5. 15 CFR 287.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS GUIDANCE ON FEDERAL CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT § 287.2 Definitions. 1 1 Definitions of accreditation, certification, conformity... person meets requirements defined in a specific section(s) of the CFR. The referenced section(s)...

  6. 15 CFR 287.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS GUIDANCE ON FEDERAL CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT § 287.2 Definitions. 1 1 Definitions of accreditation, certification, conformity... person meets requirements defined in a specific section(s) of the CFR. The referenced section(s)...

  7. 15 CFR 287.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS GUIDANCE ON FEDERAL CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT § 287.2 Definitions. 1 1 Definitions of accreditation, certification, conformity... person meets requirements defined in a specific section(s) of the CFR. The referenced section(s)...

  8. 15 CFR 287.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS GUIDANCE ON FEDERAL CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT § 287.2 Definitions. 1 1 Definitions of accreditation, certification, conformity... person meets requirements defined in a specific section(s) of the CFR. The referenced section(s)...

  9. Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( 2 - chloro - 1 - methylethyl ) ether ; CASRN 108 - 60 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  10. MISR Level 1B2 Terrain Data (MI1B2T_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras which measure radiance in four spectral bands. Global coverage is achieved in nine days. The cameras are arranged with one camera pointing toward the nadir, four cameras pointing forward and four cameras pointing aftward. It takes 7 minutes for all nine cameras to view the same surface location. The view angles relative to the surface reference ellipsoid, are 0, 26.1, 45.6, 60.0, and 70.5 degrees. The spectral band shapes are nominally gaussian, centered at 443, 555, 670, and 865 nm. The Terrain data are re-projected to the terrain altitude. In this product, surface data from all cameras will appear in the same geographic location. Thus, this product is the primary input to Level 2 aerosol/surface processing, which requires co-registration of the L1B2 imagery at the surface. Clouds will still be displaced due to their elevation above the surface, but this time with respect to the terrain rather than the ellipsoid. (The mountain location T is now assigned the geographic location at T, and the Cloud at F appears at the geographic location T.) In Level 2 aerosol/surface processing, algorithms are applied to screen out the clouds. Terrain data only exist for MISR blocks containing some land. [Location=GLOBAL LAND] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=563.2 km (cross-track); Longitude_Resolution=140.8 km (along-track).; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  11. The NUHM2 after LHC Run 1

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Citron, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dolan, M. J.; Ellis, J. R.; Flächer, H.; Heinemeyer, S.; Malik, S.; Marrouche, J.; et al

    2014-12-17

    We make a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the NUHM2, in which the soft supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking contributions to the masses of the two Higgs multiplets, m2Hu,d, vary independently from the universal soft SUSY-breaking contributions m20 to the masses of squarks and sleptons. Our analysis uses the MultiNest sampling algorithm with over 4 × 10⁸ points to sample the NUHM2 parameter space. It includes the ATLAS and CMS Higgs mass measurements as well as the ATLAS search for supersymmetric jets + /ET signals using the full LHC Run 1 data, the measurements of BR(Bs→μ⁺μ⁻) by LHCb and CMS togethermore » with other B-physics observables, electroweak precision observables and the XENON100 and LUX searches for spin-independent dark-matter scattering. We find that the preferred regions of the NUHM2 parameter space have negative SUSY-breaking scalar masses squared at the GUT scale for squarks and sleptons, m20 < 0, as well as m2Hu < m2Hd < 0. The tension present in the CMSSM and NUHM1 between the supersymmetric interpretation of (g – 2)μ and the absence to date of SUSY at the LHC is not significantly alleviated in the NUHM2. We find that the minimum χ2 = 32.5 with 21 degrees of freedom (dof) in the NUHM2, to be compared with χ2/dof = 35.0/23 in the CMSSM, and χ2/dof = 32.7/22 in the NUHM1. We find that the one-dimensional likelihood functions for sparticle masses and other observables are similar to those found previously in the CMSSM and NUHM1.« less

  12. Seismic sensitivity to sub-surface solar activity from 18 yr of GOLF/SoHO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-06-01

    Solar activity has significantly changed over the last two Schwabe cycles. After a long and deep minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the weaker activity of Cycle 24 contrasts with the previous cycles. In this work, the response of the solar acoustic oscillations to solar activity is used in order to provide insights into the structural and magnetic changes in the sub-surface layers of the Sun during this on-going unusual period of low activity. We analyze 18 yr of continuous observations of the solar acoustic oscillations collected by the Sun-as-a-star GOLF instrument on board the SoHO spacecraft. From the fitted mode frequencies, the temporal variability of the frequency shifts of the radial, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes are studied for different frequency ranges that are sensitive to different layers in the solar sub-surface interior. The low-frequency modes show nearly unchanged frequency shifts between Cycles 23 and 24, with a time evolving signature of the quasi-biennial oscillation, which is particularly visible for the quadrupole component revealing the presence of a complex magnetic structure. The modes at higher frequencies show frequency shifts that are 30% smaller during Cycle 24, which is in agreement with the decrease observed in the surface activity between Cycles 23 and 24. The analysis of 18 yr of GOLF oscillations indicates that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for the frequency shifts remained comparable between Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 in the deeper sub-surface layers below 1400 km as revealed by the low-frequency modes. The frequency shifts of the higher-frequency modes, sensitive to shallower regions, show that Cycle 24 is magnetically weaker in the upper layers of Sun. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe following 68 GOLF frequency tables are available and Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  13. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  14. PERFORMANCE AND SERUM GLUCOSE, INSULIN, IGF-1, AND NEFA CONCENTRATIONS OF CALVES NURSING BEEF COWS CONSUMING HIGH-LINOLEATE OR HIGH-OLEATE SAFFLOWER SEED SUPPLEMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three-year-old Angus ' Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 or 6 at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of dietary lipid supplementation on suckling calf ADG and calf serum concentrations of glucose, insulin, IGF-1, and NEFA. Beg...

  15. 1 and 2-Dimensional Line Transfer Package

    1990-07-01

    LXF1D is a one dimensional steady-state line transfer package designed to handle: overlapping and or interacting lines, planar, cylindrical, spherical (and special) geometries, doppler shifts, complete redistribution (CRD), partial redistribution (PRD). PRD requires the use of REDIST or some other package to produce emission profiles. LXF2D is a two dimensional version of LXF1D for xy and rz geometries. Both LXF1D and LXF2D are designed to be added to existing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) codes withmore » a minimum of effort.« less

  16. CLARA-SAL: a global 28-yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihelä, A.; Manninen, T.; Laine, V.; Andersson, K.; Kaspar, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present a novel 28-yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  17. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihelä, A.; Manninen, T.; Laine, V.; Andersson, K.; Kaspar, F.

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  18. Constraints on the topology of the Universe derived from the 7-yr WMAP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bielewicz, P.; Banday, A. J.

    2011-04-01

    We impose constraints on the topology of the Universe determined from a search for matched circles in the temperature anisotropy patterns of the 7-yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. We pay special attention to the sensitivity of the method to residual foreground contamination of the sky maps and show that for a full-sky estimate of the CMB signal (the Internal Linear Combination map) such residuals introduce a non-negligible effect on the statistics of matched circles. In order to reduce this effect, we perform the analysis on maps for which the most contaminated regions have been removed. A search for pairs of matched back-to-back circles in the higher resolution WMAP W-band map allows tighter constraints to be imposed on topology. Our results rule out universes with topologies that predict pairs of such circles with radii larger than αmin≈ 10°. This places a lower bound on the size of the fundamental domain for a flat universe of about 27.9 Gpc. This bound is close to the upper limit on the size of Universe possible to be detected by the method of matched circles, i.e. the diameter of the observable Universe is 28.3 Gpc.

  19. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji’erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment. PMID:26308646

  20. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment. PMID:26308646

  1. Resolving an 80-yr-old controversy: the beginning of the modern era of renal physiology.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Rex L

    2014-12-01

    Marcello Malpighi discovered the glomerulus that bears his name in the 17th century, but it was not until the middle of the 19th century, in 1842, that William Bowman in London published his studies of the histological structure of the glomerulus and proposed that urine formation begins with glomerular secretion. At nearly the same time in Marburg, Carl Ludwig, unaware of Bowman's findings, proposed that urine formation begins with glomerular filtration followed by tubule reabsorption. The controversy lasted 80 yr. Prominent investigators weighed in on both sides. Rudolph Heidenhain's findings in 1874 swung the pendulum toward Bowman's theory until Arthur Cushny published his book, The Secretion of Urine, in 1917, in which he found the evidence insufficient to prove either theory. In 1921, a young physician, Joseph Wearn, began his postresidency training in the laboratory of Alfred N. Richards. He read Cushny's book and learned how to expose the glomerulus of a living frog. Richards proposed that Wearn use that experimental preparation to inject epinephrine into the glomerulus. Wearn proposed a different experiment: instead of using injection, collect fluid from the glomerulus and analyze it. Richards agreed, and the landmark results of that experiment, published in 1924, settled the controversy. The modern era of renal physiology was born. PMID:25434011

  2. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  3. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  4. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  5. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  6. T2 can be greater than 2T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevian, H. M.; Skinner, J. L.

    1989-08-01

    We consider a quantum-mechanical two-level system under the influence of both diagonal and off-diagonal stochastic perturbations, and focus on the decay times T1 and T2, which refer to the relaxation to equilibrium of the populations and relative phase of the two levels, respectively. From both theoretical and experimental viewpoints one traditionally expects that T22T1. On the other hand, from a fourth-order cumulant expansion calculation of the asymptotic time dependence of the density matrix elements, Budimir and Skinner [J. Stat. Phys. 49, 1029 (1987)] showed that, in fact, in some instances T2>2T1. In this paper we solve the stochastic model numerically, which leads to the exact time dependence of the density matrix at all times. We find that the analytic prediction that T2>2T1 is not only correct, but also meaningful, in the sense that the density matrix elements decay exponentially after only a short transient time.

  7. The 1:1 adduct of caffeine and 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)acetic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Moazzam H.; Yunus, Uzma; Saeed, Sohail; Shah, Syed Raza; Wong, Wing-Tak

    2011-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title adduct [systematic name: 2-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl)acetic acid–1,3,7-trimethyl-1,2,3,6-tetra­hydro-7H-purine-2,6-dione (1/1)], C8H10N4O2·C10H7NO4, the components are linked by an O—H⋯N hydrogen-bond and no proton transfer occurs. PMID:22058908

  8. Development of the California Current during the past 12,000 yr based on diatoms and silicoflagellates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David

    2007-01-01

    Detailed diatom and silicoflagellates records in three cores from the offshore region of southern Oregon to central California reveal the evolution of the northern part of the California Current during the past 12,000 yr. The early Holocene, prior to ∼ 9 ka, was characterized by relatively warm sea surface temperatures (SST), owing to enhanced northerly flow of the subtropical waters comparable to the modern Davidson Current. Progressive strengthening of the North Pacific High lead to intensification of the southward flow of the California Current at ∼ 8 ka, resulting in increased coastal upwelling and relatively cooler SST which persisted until ∼ 5 ka. Reduced southward flow of the California Current between ∼ 4.8 ka and 3.6 ka may have been responsible for a period of decreased upwelling. Modern seasonal oceanographic cycles, as evidenced by increased spring–early summer coastal upwelling and warming of early fall SST evolved between 3.5 and 3.2 ka. Widespread occurrence of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic change between ∼ 3.5–3.0 ka along the eastern margins of the North Pacific was likely a response to increasing ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific.

  9. The magnitude and proximate cause of ice-sheet growth since 35,000 yr B.P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winograd, I.J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of late Wisconsinan (post-35,000 yr B.P.) ice-sheet growth in the Northern Hemisphere is not well known. Ice volume at ???35,000 yr B.P. may have been as little as 20% or as much as 70% of the volume present at the last glacial maximum (LGM). A conservative evaluation of glacial-geologic, sea level, and benthic ??18O data indicates that ice volume at ???35,000 yr B.P. was approximately 50% of that extant at the LGM (???20,000 yr B.P.); that is, it doubled in about 15,000 yr. On the basis of literature for the North Atlantic and a sea-surface temperature (SST) data compilation, it appears that this rapid growth may have been forced by low-to-mid-latitude SST warming in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with attendant increased moisture transport to high latitudes. The SST ice-sheet growth notion also explains the apparent synchroneity of late Wisconsinan mountain glaciation in both hemispheres.

  10. Effect of B-Ions Substitution in [(K1/2Bi1/2)-(Na1/2Bi1/2)](Ti-B)O3 System with B=Zr, Fe1/2Nb1/2, Zn1/3Nb2/3 or Mg1/3Nb2/3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akutsu, Tatsuya; Asada, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Koji; Hachiga, Shinji; Kurosaki, Takeshi; Ikagawa, Osamu; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Hozumi, Katsuhiro; Kawamura, Takeshi; Amakawa, Takashi; Hirota, Ken-ichi; Ikeda, Takuro

    1995-09-01

    Phase relationship in the [(K1/2Bi1/2)1- y(Na1/2Bi1/2) y](Ti1- xB x)O3 system with B=Zr, Fe1/2Nb1/2, Zn1/3Nb2/3 or Mg1/3Nb2/3 has been investigated by dielectric measurement and X-ray diffractometry. All of the bi-binary systems were solid-soluble throughout the entire composition range. With increasing y and x, ferroelectric Curie point decreased and the ɛ-T curve became flat. Composition dependence of the transition temperature was examined by varying x or y. Phase diagrams were mostly determined at room temperature on square diagrams except for a restricted area in the vicinity of (Na1/2B1/2)ZrO3, which involved a tetragonally distorted phase and could not be accounted for. The ferroelectric tetragonal phase was confined within a narrow range of x<0.1 and the rhombohedral phase was dominant in all of the systems studied here.

  11. DOE-2 supplement: Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E.; Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S.

    1993-11-01

    This publication updates the DOE-2 Supplement form version 2.1D to version to 2.1E. It contains detailed discussions and instructions for using the features and enhancements introduced into the 2.1B, 2.1C, 2.1D, and 2.1E versions of the program. The building description section contains information on input functions in loads and systems, hourly report frequencies, saving files of hourly output for post processing, sharing hourly report data among program modules, the metric option, and input macros and general library features. The loads section contains information on sunspaces, sunspace modeling, window management and solar radiation, daylighting, trombe walls, fixed shades, fins and overhangs, shade schedules, self shades, heat distribution from lights, the Sherman-Grimsrud infiltrations method. terrain and height modification to wind speed, floor multipliers and interior wall types, improved exterior infrared radiation loss calculation, improved outside air film conductance calculation, window library, window frames, and switchable glazing. The systems section contains information on energy end use and meters, powered induction units, a packaged variable volume -- variable temperature system, a residential variable volume -- variable temperature system, air source heat pump enhancements, water loop heat pump enhancements, variable speed electric heat pump, gas heat pumps, hot water heaters, evaporative cooling, total gas solid-desiccant systems, add on desiccant cooling, water cooled condensers, evaporative precoolers outside air economizer control, optimum fan start, heat recovery from refrigerated case work, night ventilation, baseboard heating, moisture balance calculations, a residential natural ventilation algorithm, improved cooling coil model, system sizing and independent cooling and heating sizing ratios. The plant section contains information on energy meters, gas fired absorption chillers, engine driven compressor chillers, and ice energy storage.

  12. Regio- and Stereoselective [2+2] Photodimerization of 3-Substituted 2-Alkoxy-2-oxo-2H-1,2-Benzoxaphosphorines

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolova, Rositca D.; Vayssilov, Georgi; Rodios, Nestor; Bojilova, Anka

    2002-05-31

    Diethyl 1,2-benzoxaphosphorine-3-carboxylates 5 undergo a regio- and stereoselective [2+2] photodimerization reaction in methanol solution under the action of sunlight, giving in all cases the corresponding anti head-to-tail dimers 6 and 7. Concerning the stereogenic P atom, the photodimerization is also stereoselective, and the centrosymmetric stereoisomer 6 predominates over the non symmetric P-epimer 7.

  13. MISR Level 1A CCD, 1B1, 1B2, and Browse Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-01

    ... Mode L1B2 data processing. Added ProductVersion Attribute to metadata of all products. New ancillary files: ... and AN data, as well as Band-to-Band transform fix. ROI Image Matching improvements to blunder detection algorithm and to Image Coordinate Correction. New ancillary files: ...

  14. BROAD N{sub 2}H{sup +} EMISSION TOWARD THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1

    SciTech Connect

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Caselli, P.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first detection of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ∼0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) line originated from the dense (≥10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density of a few 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10{sup –9}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 10{sup 4} yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (≅2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N{sub 2}H{sup +} is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  15. Reaction of 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones with 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane

    SciTech Connect

    Trzhtsinskaya, B.V.; Kositsyna, E.I.; Pertsikov, B.Z.; Rudakova, E.V.; Voronov, V.K.; Skvortsova, G.G.

    1987-08-01

    Addition of 1-chloro-2,3-epoxypropane to 1,2,4-triazole-3-thiones depending on the ratio of the reactants leads to the formation of 3-(1-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)-3-(1-chloro-2-hydroxypropylthio)-1,2,4-triazoles. 3-Hydroxy-1,2,4-triazolo(2,3-b) tetrahydro-1,3-triazines have been synthesized by intramolecular cyclization of the monoadducts. IR spectra were recorded on a Specord 75-IR instrument as a thin layer, in KBr pellets, an in chloroform solution; PMR spectra were recorded on a Tesla BS-497 instrument (100 MHz) at 20/sup 0/C in CD/sub 3/OD with TMS as internal standard.

  16. MISR Level 1B2 Ellipsoid Data (MI1B2E_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras which measure radiance in four spectral bands. Global coverage is achieved in nine days. The cameras are arranged with one camera pointing toward the nadir, four cameras pointing forward and four cameras pointing aftward. It takes 7 minutes for all nine cameras to view the same surface location. The view angles relative to the surface reference ellipsoid, are 0, 26.1, 45.6, 60.0, and 70.5 degrees. The spectral band shapes are nominally gaussian, centered at 443, 555, 670, and 865 nm. The Ellipsoid product is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) ellipsoid, which approximates the Earth's shape at sea level. In this product, the radiances and associated altitudes are projected to the ellipsoid, so that higher elevation data appear displaced from their true location for non-nadir camera views, much as they are seen by the instrument. (A cloud at location F, or a mountain top at location T in the image below appears as if it is at location E.) The more oblique the camera view, or the higher in altitude the feature, the more displaced the elevated data will appear. This displacement is used to advantage in MISR stereo retrievals, and this product is the primary input to Level 2 top-of-atmosphere/cloud processing. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=563.2 km (cross-track); Longitude_Resolution=140.8 km (along-track); Horizontal_Resolution_Range=500 meters - < 1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  17. Grignard-mediated reduction of 2,2,2-trichloro-1-arylethanones.

    PubMed

    Essa, Ali H; Lerrick, Reinner I; Çiftçi, Eçe; Harrington, Ross W; Waddell, Paul G; Clegg, William; Hall, Michael J

    2015-05-28

    2,2,2-Trichloro-1-aryl-ethanones can be reduced by RMgX to the corresponding 2,2-dichloro-1-arylethen-1-olates and trapped with a range of electrophiles resulting in either reduction, reduction/aldol, reduction/Claisen condensation or reduction/aldol-Tishchenko products. In addition we demonstrate that 2,2-dichloro-1-arylethen-1-olates undergo counter-ion controlled Darzens condensations, which can be followed by a thermal rearrangement as a route to 1,3-diaryl-3-chloropropane-1,2-diones. PMID:25906144

  18. Surface tension for 1,1,1-trifluorethane (R-143a), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R-225ca), and 1,3-dichloro-1,2,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R-225cb)

    SciTech Connect

    Higashi, Yukihiro; Shibata, Takahide; Okada, Masaaki

    1997-05-01

    The surface tensions for 1,1,1-trifluoroethane (R-143a), 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R-134a), 1,1-dichloro-2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R-225ca), and 1,3-dichloro-1,2,2,3,3-pentafluoropropane (R-225cb) have been measured by the differential capillary rise method. The results were obtained in the temperature range between 273 K and 343 K. The experimental uncertainties of temperature and surface tension are estimated to be within {+-}20 mK and {+-}0.15 mN/m, respectively. A correlation for the surface tension as a function of temperature is presented.

  19. Spin-1/2 Optical Lattice Clock

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, N. D.; Ludlow, A. D.; Barber, Z. W.; Fortier, T. M.; Diddams, S. A.; Jiang, Y.; Jefferts, S. R.; Heavner, T. P.; Parker, T. E.; Oates, C. W.

    2009-08-07

    We experimentally investigate an optical clock based on {sup 171}Yb (I=1/2) atoms confined in an optical lattice. We have evaluated all known frequency shifts to the clock transition, including a density-dependent collision shift, with a fractional uncertainty of 3.4x10{sup -16}, limited principally by uncertainty in the blackbody radiation Stark shift. We measured the absolute clock transition frequency relative to the NIST-F1 Cs fountain clock and find the frequency to be 518 295 836 590 865.2(0.7) Hz.

  20. 2 1/2 -D compressible reconnection model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skender, M.; Vršnak, B.

    The exact solution of the jump conditions on the RD/SMS discontinuity system in a two-and-half-dimensional (2 1/2 -D) symmetrical reconnection model enables one to analyse the outflowing jet characteristics in dependence on the inflow velocity, and to follow changes in transition to the two-dimensional model. Implications arising from the exact solution and its relevance for solar flares are discussed.