Science.gov

Sample records for 2 yr 1

  1. Simulations of the pore structures for a M2G1yR derived channel forming peptide in membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Rawi, Ahlam N.; Al-Rawi, Asma; Chen, Jianhan; Herrera, Alvaro; Tomich, John; Rahman, Talat S.

    2008-03-01

    In an effort to develop a peptide-based compound suitable for clinical use as a channel replacement therapeutic for treating channelopathies such as cystic fibrosis, we present a reductionist model that appears to capture many of the biophysical properties of an intact ion channel using short channel-forming peptides. We have developed two anion selective channel-forming peptides with near native and altered properties from the peptides derived from the glycine receptor: NK4-M2GlyR-p22 WT (KKKKPAR-VGLGITTVLTMTTQS) and NK4-M2GlyR-p22 S22W (KKKKPARVGLGITTVLTMTTQW), respectively. Starting with the two structures determined by solution multidimensional NMR (800 MHz) in SDS, we used CHARMM and NAMD to perform molecular dynamics simulations on the monomers. Using the existing experimental data, we then built an initial 5- helix assembly by altering the tilted angle, rotational angle and pore radius. We investigated the impact of the single mutation at position 22 on the structure and dynamics of the pore formed in a membrane build in a hydrated POPC lipid bilayer. Probable structures for both assemblies are presented.

  2. Deferasirox in patients with iron overload secondary to hereditary hemochromatosis: results of a 1-yr Phase 2 study.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Rodolfo; Melo, Murilo R; de Moraes Bastos, Roberto; Santos, Paulo C J L; Guerra-Shinohara, Elivira M; Chiattone, Carlos; Ballas, Samir K

    2015-12-01

    This open-label, prospective, phase 2 study evaluated the safety and efficacy of deferasirox (10 ± 5 mg/kg/d) in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and iron overload refractory to or intolerant of phlebotomy. Ten patients were enrolled and all completed the 12-month treatment period. There were significant decreases from baseline to end of study (i.e., 12 months) in median serum ferritin (P < 0.001), mean transferrin saturation (P < 0.05), median liver iron concentration (P < 0.001), and mean alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.05). The median time to achieve serum ferritin reduction ≥50% compared to baseline was 7.53 months. The most common adverse events were mild, transient diarrhea (n = 5) and nausea (n = 2). No patient experienced an increase in serum creatinine that exceeded the upper limit of normal. These data confirm that deferasirox was well tolerated and effective in reducing iron burden in patients with hereditary hemochromatosis and could be a safe alternative to phlebotomy in selected patients.

  3. Plasma flows in the heliosheath along the Voyager 1 and 2 trajectories due to effects of the 11 yr solar cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Provornikova, E.; Opher, M.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Richardson, J. D.; Toth, G. E-mail: mopher@bu.edu E-mail: jdr@space.mit.edu

    2014-10-10

    We investigate the role of the 11 yr solar cycle variations in the solar wind (SW) parameters on the flows in the heliosheath using a new three-dimensional time-dependent model of the interaction between the SW and the interstellar medium. For boundary conditions in the model we use realistic time and the latitudinal dependence of the SW parameters obtained from SOHO/SWAN and interplanetary scintillation data for the last two solar cycles (1990-2011). This data set generally agrees with the in situ Ulysses measurements from 1991 to 2009. For the first ∼30 AU of the heliosheath the time-dependent model predicts constant radial flow speeds at Voyager 2 (V2), which is consistent with observations and different from the steady models that show a radial speed decrease of 30%. The model shows that V2 was immersed in SW with speeds of 500-550 km s{sup –1} upstream of the termination shock before 2009 and in wind with upstream speeds of 450-500 km s{sup –1} after 2009. The model also predicts that the radial velocity along the Voyager 1 (V1) trajectory is constant across the heliosheath, contrary to observations. This difference in observations implies that additional effects may be responsible for the different flows at V1 and V2. The model predicts meridional flows (VN) higher than those observed because of the strong bluntness of the heliosphere shape in the N direction in the model. The modeled tangential velocity component (VT) at V2 is smaller than observed. Both VN and VT essentially depend on the shape of the heliopause.

  4. MIIT: International in-situ testing of simulated HLW forms - performance of SRS simulated waste glass after 6 mos. , 1 yr. , 2 yrs. and 5 yrs. of burial at WIPP

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G. ); Lodding, A.R. ); Macedo, P.B. ); Clark, D.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The first field test, involving burial of simulated high-level waste (HLW) forms and package components, to be conducted in the United States, was begun in July of 1986. This program, called the Materials Interface Interactions Test or MIIT, comprises the largest cooperative field-testing venture in the international waste management community. Included in the study are over 900 waste form samples comprising 15 different systems supplied by 7 countries. Also included are about 300 potential canister or overpack metal samples along with more than 500 geologic and backfill specimens. There are almost 2000 relevant interactions that characterize this effort which is being conducted in the bedded salt site at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program represents a joint effort managed by Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, N.M., and Savannah River Laboratory in Aiken, S.C. and sponsored by the US Department of Energy. Also involved in MIIT are participants from various laboratories and universities in France, Germany, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. In July of 1991, the experimental portion of the 5-yr. MIIT program was completed. Although only about 5% of all MIIT samples have been assessed thus far, there are already interesting findings that have emerged. The present paper will discuss results obtained for SRS 165/TDS waste glass after burial of 6 mo., 1 yr. and 2 yrs., along with initial analyses of 5 yr. samples.

  5. Juan de Fuca plate: Aseismic subduction at 1. 8 cm/yr

    SciTech Connect

    Acharya, H.

    1981-11-01

    Volcanic activity in the Cascades in historic times suggests that the Juan de Fuca plate is underthrusting aseismically at about 1.8 cm/yr. This rate of underthrusting is identical to the rate computed from sediment studies.

  6. AmeriFlux US-SP2 Slashpine-Mize-clearcut-3yr,regen

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SP2 Slashpine-Mize-clearcut-3yr,regen. Site Description - Even aged slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantation. Planted in Jan. 1999.

  7. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Hurtig-Wennlöf, Anita; Sjöström, Michael; Herrmann, Wolfgang; Obeid, Rima; Owen, Jennifer R; Zeisel, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Academic achievement in adolescents is correlated with 1-carbon metabolism (1-CM), as folate intake is positively related and total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) negatively related to academic success. Because another 1-CM nutrient, choline is essential for fetal neurocognitive development, we hypothesized that choline and betaine could also be positively related to academic achievement in adolescents. In a sample of 15-yr-old children (n= 324), we measured plasma concentrations of homocysteine, choline, and betaine and genotyped them for 2 polymorphisms with effects on 1-CM, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T, rs1801133, and phosphatidylethanolamineN-methyltransferase (PEMT), rs12325817 (G>C). The sum of school grades in 17 major subjects was used as an outcome measure for academic achievement. Lifestyle and family socioeconomic status (SES) data were obtained from questionnaires. Plasma choline was significantly and positively associated with academic achievement independent of SES factors (paternal education and income, maternal education and income, smoking, school) and of folate intake (P= 0.009,R(2)= 0.285). With the addition of thePEMTrs12325817 polymorphism, the association value was only marginally changed. Plasma betaine concentration, tHcy, and theMTHFR677C>T polymorphism did not affect academic achievement in any tested model involving choline. Dietary intake of choline is marginal in many adolescents and may be a public health concern.-Nilsson, T. K., Hurtig-Wennlöf, A., Sjöström, M., Herrmann, W., Obeid, R., Owen, J. R., Zeisel, S. Plasma 1-carbon metabolites and academic achievement in 15-yr-old adolescents. PMID:26728177

  8. Academic Performance in Human Anatomy and Physiology Classes: A 2-Yr Study of Academic Motivation and Grade Expectation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W.; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-01-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic…

  9. Dietary calcium intake is associated with less gain in intra-abdominal adipose tissue over 1 yr

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Nikki C.; Alvarez, Jessica A.; Choquette, Suzanne S.; Hunter, Gary R.; Oster, Robert A.; Darnell, Betty E.; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    Calcium intake is reported to enhance weight loss with a preferential loss in trunk fat. Discrepant findings exist as to the effects of calcium intake on longitudinal changes in total fat mass and central fat deposition. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine associations between dietary calcium intake and 1-yr change in body composition and fat distribution, specifically intra-abdominal adipose tissue (IAAT). 119 healthy, premenopausal women were evaluated at baseline and 1 yr later. Average dietary calcium was determined via 4-day food records. Total fat was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) and IAAT by computed tomography. Over the study period, participants’ reported daily calcium and energy intakes were 610.0 ± 229.9 mg and 1623.1 ± 348.5 kcals, respectively. The mean change in weight, total fat, IAAT, and SAAT were +4.9 ± 4.4 kg, +5.3 ± 4.0 kg, +7.7 ± 19.5 cm2, and +49.3 ± 81.1 cm2, respectively. Average calcium intake was significantly, inversely associated with 1-yr change in IAAT (standardized β: −0.23, P<0.05) after adjusting for confounding variables. For every 100 mg/day of calcium consumed, gain in IAAT was reduced by 2.7 cm2. No significant associations were observed for average calcium intake with change in weight, total fat, or SAAT. In conclusion, dietary calcium intake was significantly associated with less gain in IAAT over 1 yr in premenopausal women. Further investigation is needed to verify these findings and determine the calcium intake needed to exert beneficial effects on fat distribution. PMID:20203630

  10. Competitive martial arts and aggressiveness: a 2-yr. longitudinal study among young boys.

    PubMed

    Reynes, Eric; Lorant, Jean

    2004-02-01

    This study is a follow-up study of Reynes and Lorant's studies assessing the effect of one year of judo and karate training on aggressiveness scores among young boys. The data reported here were obtained after a second year of practice, 14 judoka, 9 karateka, and 20 control participants who filled out the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire three times, 1 year apart. At the first assessment, all participants, born the same year, were 8 yr. old and at the third they were 10 yr. old. Analysis indicated that after two years of practice, karate training seemed to have neither positive nor negative effects on aggressiveness scores, while judo training seemed to have a negative effect on anger scores. However, the results suggested the importance of kata or meditation in training sessions on self-control acquisition for such young boys.

  11. Cardiac mitochondrial compromise in 1-yr-old Erythrocebus patas monkeys perinatally-exposed to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Divi, Rao L; Leonard, Sarah L; Kuo, Maryanne M; Walker, Brettania L; Orozco, Christine C; St Claire, Marisa C; Nagashima, Kunio; Harbaugh, Steven W; Harbaugh, Jeffrey W; Thamire, Chandrasekhar; Sable, Craig A; Poirier, Miriam C

    2005-01-01

    Hearts from 1-yr-old Erythrocebus patas monkeys were examined after in utero and 6-wk-postbirth exposure to antiretroviral nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Protocols were modeled on those given to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected pregnant women. NRTIs were administered daily to the dams for the last 20% or 50% of gestation, and to the infants for 6 wk after birth. Exposures included: no drug (n = 4); Zidovudine, 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT; n = 4); AZT/Lamivudine, (-)-beta-L-2', 3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (Epivir, 3TC) (n = 4); AZT/Didanosine (Videx, ddI) (n = 4); and Stavudine (Zerit, d4T)/3TC (n = 4). Echocardiograms and clinical chemistry showed no drug-related changes, but the d4T/3TC-exposed fetuses at 6 and 12 mo had increased white cell counts (p < 0.05). At 1 yr of age, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzyme activities were similar in heart mitochondria from all groups. Mitochondrial pathology, that included clones of damaged mitochondria (p < 0.05), was found in hearts of all 1-yr drug-exposed infants. Levels of mtDNA were elevated (p < 0.05) in hearts of all NRTI-exposed monkeys in the following order: control < d4T/3TC < AZT < AZT/3TC < AZT/ddI. The clinical status of NRTI-exposed infants, as evidenced by behavior, clinical chemistry, OXPHOS activity and echocardiogram, was normal. However, extensive mitochondrial damage with clusters of similar-appearing damaged heart mitochondria observed by electron microscopy, and an increase in mtDNA quantity, that persisted at 1 yr of age, suggest the potential for cardiotoxicity later in life.

  12. Change in self-reported oral health in relation to use of dental services over 2 yr.

    PubMed

    Brennan, David S; Spencer, A J; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye F

    2012-10-01

    To investigate change in oral health in relation to use of dental services, a random sample of 45- to 54-yr-old subjects from Adelaide, South Australia, was surveyed in 2004-2005 (n = 986, response rate = 44.4%). Service use and a global oral-health transition (GOHT) statement were collected over 2 yr. Worsening in oral health was reported from the GOHT statement by 25% of persons, while improvement was reported by 30%. Prevalence ratios (PRs, 95% CI), adjusted for sex, education, health card status, and toothbrushing, showed that worsening oral health was inversely associated with dental visiting (PR = 0.5, 0.4-0.7) and with scaling and cleaning services (PR = 0.6, 0.4-0.9), whereas extractions (PR = 2.3, 1.6-3.4) and dentures (PR = 2.2, 1.3-3.7) were associated with a higher prevalence of worsening. Scaling and cleaning services were associated with improvement in oral health (PR = 1.5, 1.01-2.3), while endodontic services were inversely associated with improvement (PR = 0.3, 0.1-0.9). Worsening in oral health was associated with extractions and dentures and was inversely associated with visiting and preventive care. Improvement in oral health was associated with preventive care and was inversely associated with endodontic treatment.

  13. A Trimodality Comparison of Volumetric Bone Imaging Technologies. Part II: 1-Yr Change, Long-Term Precision, and Least Significant Change

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Andy K. O.; Beattie, Karen A.; Min, Kevin K. H.; Merali, Zamir; Webber, Colin E.; Gordon, Christopher L.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Cheung, Angela M. W.; Adachi, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The previous article in this 3-part series demonstrated short-term precision and validity for volumetric bone outcome quantification using in vivo peripheral (p) quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) modalities at resolutions 200 μm or higher. However, 1-yr precision error and clinically significant references are yet to be reported for these modalities. This study examined 59 women with mean age of 75 ± 9 yr and body mass index of 26.84 ± 4.77 kg/m2, demonstrating the lowest 1-yr precision error, standard errors of the estimate, and least significant change values for high-resolution (hr) pQCT followed by pQCT, and 1.0-T pMRI for all volumetric bone outcomes except trabecular number. Like short-term precision, 1-yr statistics for trabecular separation were similar across modalities. Excluding individuals with a previous history of fragility fractures, or who were current users of antiresorptives reduced 1-yr change for bone outcomes derived from pQCT and pMR images, but not hr-pQCT images. In Part II of this 3-part series focused on trimodality comparisons of 1-yr changes, hr-pQCT was recommended to be the prime candidate for quantifying change where smaller effect sizes are expected, but pQCT was identified as a feasible alternative for studies expecting larger changes. PMID:25129406

  14. Molecular Mapping of YrSP and Its Relationship with Other Genes for Stripe Rust Resistance in Wheat Chromosome 2BL.

    PubMed

    Feng, J Y; Wang, M N; Chen, X M; See, D R; Zheng, Y L; Chao, S M; Wan, A M

    2015-09-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is an important disease of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best way to control the disease. YrSP, a gene originally from 'Spaldings Prolific' wheat and providing resistance to a broad spectrum of races, is used for differentiating P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races but its chromosomal location is not clear. To map YrSP, a near-isogenic line (AvSYrSPNIL) was backcrossed to the recurrent parent, Avocet S. Genetic analysis of the BC7F1, BC8, BC7F2, and BC7F3 progenies confirmed a single dominant gene for resistance. In total, 182 BC7F2 plants and their derived BC7F3 lines were phenotyped with an avirulent P. striiformis f. sp. tritici race and genotyped with simple-sequence repeat (SSR), single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), and sequence-tagged site (STS) markers. A linkage map was constructed with 3 SSR, 17 SNP, and 3 STS markers covering 23.3 centimorgans (cM). Markers IWA638 and dp269 were 0.6 cM proximal and 1.5 cM distal, respectively, to YrSP. The gene was mapped in chromosome bin 2BL-C-0.5, physically within the proximal 50% of the chromosome 2BL arm. Allelism tests based on F2 phenotypes indicated that YrSP is closely linked to but not allelic with genes Yr5, Yr7, Yr43, Yr44, and Yr53. Infection type data from tests with 10 historical and currently predominant P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races in the United States also demonstrated differences in specificity between YrSP and the other genes. The specificity of YrSP is useful in differentiating P. striiformis f. sp. tritici races and studying the plant-pathogen interactions, and the information of chromosomal location of the gene and its tightly linked markers should be useful in developing resistant cultivars when combined with other genes for resistance to stripe rust.

  15. Experimental limits on primordial black hole dark matter from the first 2 yr of Kepler data

    SciTech Connect

    Griest, Kim; Cieplak, Agnieszka M.; Lehner, Matthew J.

    2014-05-10

    We present our analysis on new limits of the dark matter (DM) halo consisting of primordial black holes (PBHs) or massive compact halo objects. We present a search of the first two yr of publicly available Kepler mission data for potential signatures of gravitational microlensing caused by these objects as well as an extensive analysis of the astrophysical sources of background error. These include variable stars, flare events, and comets or asteroids that are moving through the Kepler field. We discuss the potential of detecting comets using the Kepler light curves, presenting measurements of two known comets and one unidentified object, most likely an asteroid or comet. After removing the background events with statistical cuts, we find no microlensing candidates. We therefore present our Monte Carlo efficiency calculation in order to constrain the PBH DM with masses in the range of 2 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} to 10{sup –7} M {sub ☉}. We find that PBHs in this mass range cannot make up the entirety of the DM, thus closing a full order of magnitude in the allowed mass range for PBH DM.

  16. Ozone and fine particle in the western Yangtze River Delta: an overview of 1 yr data at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Nie, W.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-06-01

    This work presents an overview of 1 yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in eastern China. Ozone and PM2.5 showed strong seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and a formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1 yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes demonstrated that these episodes were generally associated with an air mass transport pathway over the mid-YRD, i.e., along the Nanjing-Shanghai axis with its city clusters, and showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Agricultural burning activities caused high PM2.5 and O3 pollution during harvest seasons, especially in June. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the mid-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5 pollution in this region. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions.

  17. Ozone and fine particle in the western Yangtze River Delta: an overview of 1-yr data at the SORPES station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, A. J.; Fu, C. B.; Yang, X. Q.; Sun, J. N.; Zheng, L. F.; Xie, Y. N.; Herrmann, E.; Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Kulmala, M.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents an overview of 1-yr measurements of ozone (O3) and fine particular matter (PM2.5) and related trace gases at a recently developed regional background site, the Station for Observing Regional Processes of the Earth System (SORPES), in the western part of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) in East China. O3 and PM2.5 showed distinguished seasonal cycles but with contrast patterns: O3 reached a maximum in warm seasons but PM2.5 in cold seasons. Correlation analysis suggests a VOC-sensitive regime for O3 chemistry and also indicates a substantial formation of secondary aerosols under conditions of high O3 in summer. Compared with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in China, our measurements report 15 days of O3 exceedance and 148 days of PM2.5 exceedance during the 1-yr period, suggesting a severe air pollution situation in this region. Case studies for typical O3 and PM2.5 episodes demonstrated that these episodes were generally associated with an air mass transport pathway over the mid-YRD, i.e. along the Nanjing-Shanghai axis with its city clusters, and showed that synoptic weather played an important role in air pollution, especially for O3. Agricultural burning activities caused high PM2.5 and O3 pollution during harvest seasons, especially in June. A calculation of potential source contributions based on Lagrangian dispersion simulations suggests that emissions from the YRD contributed to over 70% of the O3 precursor CO, with a majority from the middle-YRD. North-YRD and the North China Plain are the main contributors to PM2.5 pollution in this region, especially for the burning episode days. This work shows an important environmental impact from industrialization and urbanization in the YRD region, and suggests an urgent need for improving air quality in these areas through collaborative control measures among different administrative regions.

  18. UCAC3 PROPER MOTION SURVEY. I. DISCOVERY OF NEW PROPER MOTION STARS IN UCAC3 WITH 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1} BETWEEN DECLINATIONS -90{sup 0} AND -47{sup 0}

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, Charlie T.; Zacharias, Norbert; Henry, Todd J.

    2010-09-15

    This paper presents 442 new proper motion stellar systems in the southern sky between declinations -90{sup 0} and -47{sup 0} with 0.''40 yr{sup -1} > {mu} {>=} 0.''18 yr{sup -1}. These systems constitute a 25.3% increase in new systems for the same region of the sky covered by previous SuperCOSMOS RECONS (SCR) searches that used Schmidt plates as the primary source of discovery. Among the new systems are 25 multiples, plus an additional 7 new common proper motion (CPM) companions to previously known primaries. All stars have been discovered using the third U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) CCD Astrograph Catalog (UCAC3). A comparison of the UCAC3 proper motions to those from the Hipparcos, Tycho-2, Southern Proper Motion (SPM4), and SuperCOSMOS efforts is presented and shows that UCAC3 provides similar values and precision to the first three surveys. The comparison between UCAC3 and SuperCOSMOS indicates that proper motions in R.A. are systematically shifted in the SuperCOSMOS data but are consistent in decl. data, while overall showing a significantly higher scatter. Distance estimates are derived for stars having SuperCOSMOS Sky Survey B{sub J} , R{sub 59F}, and I{sub IVN} plate magnitudes and Two-Micron All Sky Survey infrared photometry. We find 15 systems estimated to be within 25 pc, including UPM 1710-5300 our closest new discovery estimated at 13.5 pc. Such new discoveries suggest that more nearby stars are yet to be found in these slower proper motion regimes, indicating that more work is needed to develop a complete map of the solar neighborhood.

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: NEOWISE reactivation mission: 2nd yr data (Nugent+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Sonnett, S.; Wright, E. L.

    2016-09-01

    We present diameters and albedos of asteroids from the second year of the Near-Earth Object Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (NEOWISE) mission following the reactivation of the spacecraft from hibernation in late 2013. Diameters and albedos of asteroids from the first year of the NEOWISE mission following reactivation are given in Nugent et al. 2015 (Cat. J/ApJ/814/117). NEOWISE is a space-based infrared telescope that obtains an image of the sky every 11 seconds simultaneously in two bands, W1 (3.4μm) and W2 (4.6μm). After successfully completing its prime mission in 2011, the WISE spacecraft was placed into hibernation for 32 months before being reactivated and renamed NEOWISE in late 2013. The goals of the NEOWISE mission are to discover, track, and characterize minor planets. Images and extracted source lists from all phases of the WISE and NEOWISE missions have been delivered to the public via the Infrared Science Archive (Cutri et al. 2012, http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/allsky/expsup/sec8_1.html; Cutri et al. 2015, http://wise2.ipac.caltech.edu/docs/release/neowise/expsup/), NASA's designated archive for infrared astronomical data. This second year of data provides multi-epoch observational data of uniform quality that can be used to better constrain the sizes, shapes, rotation state, and thermophysical properties of the 9092 asteroids in the reactivation Year 2 sample. We present preliminary diameters and albedos calculated from NEOWISE Year 2 Reactivation mission observations, which spanned 2014 December 13 to 2015 December 13. Diameters and albedos calculated from NEOWISE Year 2 Reactivation mission observations will be submitted to the Planetary Data System. NEOWISE discovered 198 Near-Earth Asteroid (NEAs) and comets during Years 1 and 2 of the Reactivation mission. In addition to observing 175 NEAs that had not had diameters measured previously from NEOWISE data, the Year 2 Reactivation mission obtained thermal infrared observations at

  20. Academic performance in human anatomy and physiology classes: a 2-yr study of academic motivation and grade expectation.

    PubMed

    Sturges, Diana; Maurer, Trent W; Allen, Deborah; Gatch, Delena Bell; Shankar, Padmini

    2016-03-01

    This project used a nonexperimental design with a convenience sample and studied the relationship between academic motivation, grade expectation, and academic performance in 1,210 students enrolled in undergraduate human anatomy and physiology (HAP) classes over a 2-yr period. A 42-item survey that included 28 items of the adapted academic motivation scale for HAP based on self-determination theory was administered in class during the first 3 wk of each semester. Students with higher grade point averages, who studied for longer hours and reported to be more motivated to succeed, did better academically in these classes. There was a significant relationship between students' scores on the adapted academic motivation scale and performance. Students were more extrinsically motivated to succeed in HAP courses than intrinsically motivated to succeed, and the analyses revealed that the most significant predictor of final grade was within the extrinsic scale (introjected and external types). Students' motivations remained stable throughout the course sequence. The data showed a significant relationship between HAP students' expected grade and their final grade in class. Finally, 65.5% of students overestimated their final grade, with 29% of students overestimating by two to four letter grades. PMID:26847254

  1. Tropical warming in the Timor Sea led deglacial Antarctic warming and atmospheric CO 2 rise by more than 500 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnthein, M.; Grootes, P. M.; Holbourn, A.; Kuhnt, W.; Kühn, H.

    2011-02-01

    On the basis of the radiocarbon ( 14C) plateau-tuning method, a new age model for Timor Sea Core MD01-2378 was established. It revealed a precise centennial-scale phasing of climate events in the ocean, cryo-, and atmosphere during the last deglacial and provides important new insights into causal linkages controlling events of global climate change. At Site MD01-2378, reservoir ages of surface waters dropped from 1600 yr prior to 20 cal ka to 250-500 yr after 18.8 cal ka. This evidence is crucial for generating a high-resolution age model for deglacial events in the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool. Sea-surface temperatures (SST) started to change near 18.8 cal ka, that is ~ 500 yr after the start of, presumably northern hemispheric, deglacial melt and sea level rise as shown by the benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope ratio (δ 18O). However, the SST rise occurred 500-1000 yr prior to the onset of deglacial Antarctic warming and the first major rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide at about 18 ka. The increase in SST may partly reflect reduced seasonal upwelling of cold subsurface waters along the eastern margin of the Indian Ocean, which is reflected by a doubling of the thermal gradient between the sea surface and the thermocline, a halving of chlorin productivity from 19 to 18.5 cal ka, and in particular, by the strong decrease in surface water reservoir ages. Two significant increases in deglacial Timor Sea surface salinities from 19 to 18.5 and 15.5 to 14.5 cal ka, may partly reflect the deglacial increase in the distance of local river mouths, partly an inter-hemispheric millennial-scale see-saw in tropical monsoon intensity, possibly linked to a deglacial increase in the dominance of Pacific El Niño regimes over Heinrich stadial 1.

  2. Alkyl substituted cyclic ethers in 2,300 M yr old Transvaal algal stromatolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zumberge, J. E.; Nagy, B.

    1975-01-01

    Two cyclic ethers have been identified for the first time from insoluble polymer-like kerogen in a Precambrian rock by ozonolysis, gas chromatography, and mass spectrometry. The ethers are 2-n-propyl-3-methyltetrahydrofuran and 2-n-propyltetrahydropyran. These compounds could prove to be the oldest indigenous biochemical fossils. The sample was obtained 750 m stratigraphically above the base of the Transvaal Sequence from an outcrop approximately 315 km north-east of Johannesburg, South Africa.

  3. Occurrence of parent-reported food hypersensitivities and food allergies among children aged 1-4 yr.

    PubMed

    Pyrhönen, Kaisa; Näyhä, Simo; Kaila, Minna; Hiltunen, Liisa; Läärä, Esa

    2009-06-01

    Food allergies (FAs) and hypersensitivities (FHSs) have rarely been studied in large unselected child populations. This population-based cross-sectional survey estimated the occurrence of FHS as perceived by parents and that of FA diagnosed by a physician among children aged 1-4 yr in south-eastern Finland. Before the scheduled annual follow-up visit to the local child health clinic, the parents of children who were born between 1 April, 2001 and 31 March, 2005, and living in the Province of South Karelia (data from Finnish Population Register) were mailed a questionnaire containing items on the child's background, physician-diagnosed FAs and FHSs perceived by the parents. The questionnaires were returned during the visit. Three thousand three hundred and eight (69%) out of the 4779 questionnaires were returned. The lifetime prevalence of physician-diagnosed FAs was 9%. In an additional 21%, FHSs were perceived by the parents only. In a further 19% at least one food item had been eliminated from the diet without any perception of symptoms, this proportion having a downward trend by age. Physician-diagnosed FAs were more common in boys than in girls. Cow's milk was the most commonly reported cause of food-associated symptoms (13% of all children). One-third of the children aged 1-4 yr suffered from food-associated symptoms, and in an additional fifth at least one food item had been eliminated from their diet, implying that every other child had possibly been subjected to some form of elimination diet. PMID:19538354

  4. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, L. M.; Schott, J.; Pollard, D.; Déqué, M.

    2012-08-01

    Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH) we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the South but decreases strongly in the North. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite - which consumes most of the CO2-decreases due to its retrograde solubility in both end members (South and North) of the transect. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the North-South transect show that dolomite weathering will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower lysocline expected in

  5. Rates of consumption of atmospheric CO2 through the weathering of loess during the next 100 yr of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddéris, Y.; Brantley, S. L.; François, L. M.; Schott, J.; Pollard, D.; Déqué, M.; Dury, M.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying how C fluxes will change in the future is a complex task for models because of the coupling between climate, hydrology, and biogeochemical reactions. Here we investigate how pedogenesis of the Peoria loess, which has been weathering for the last 13 kyr, will respond over the next 100 yr of climate change. Using a cascade of numerical models for climate (ARPEGE), vegetation (CARAIB) and weathering (WITCH), we explore the effect of an increase in CO2 of 315 ppmv (1950) to 700 ppmv (2100 projection). The increasing CO2 results in an increase in temperature along the entire transect. In contrast, drainage increases slightly for a focus pedon in the south but decreases strongly in the north. These two variables largely determine the behavior of weathering. In addition, although CO2 production rate increases in the soils in response to global warming, the rate of diffusion back to the atmosphere also increases, maintaining a roughly constant or even decreasing CO2 concentration in the soil gas phase. Our simulations predict that temperature increasing in the next 100 yr causes the weathering rates of the silicates to increase into the future. In contrast, the weathering rate of dolomite - which consumes most of the CO2 - decreases in both end members (south and north) of the transect due to its retrograde solubility. We thus infer slower rates of advance of the dolomite reaction front into the subsurface, and faster rates of advance of the silicate reaction front. However, additional simulations for 9 pedons located along the north-south transect show that the dolomite weathering advance rate will increase in the central part of the Mississippi Valley, owing to a maximum in the response of vertical drainage to the ongoing climate change. The carbonate reaction front can be likened to a terrestrial lysocline because it represents a depth interval over which carbonate dissolution rates increase drastically. However, in contrast to the lower pH and shallower

  6. Methods and preliminary findings of a cost-effectiveness study of glass-ionomer-based and composite resin sealant materials after 2 yr.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ann S; Chen, Xi; Fan, Mingwen; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-06-01

    The cost-effectiveness of glass-carbomer, conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) [without or with heat (light-emitting diode (LED) thermocuring) application], and composite resin sealants were compared after 2 yr in function. Estimated net costs per sealant were obtained from data on personnel time (measured with activity sampling), transportation, materials, instruments and equipment, and restoration costs for replacing failed sealants from a community trial involving 7- to 9-yr-old Chinese children. Cost data were standardized to reflect the placement of 1,000 sealants per group. Outcomes were the differences in the number of dentine caries lesions that developed between groups. The average sealant application time ranged from 5.40 min (for composite resin) to 8.09 min (for LED thermocured HVGIC), and the average cost per sealant for 1,000 performed per group (simulation sample) ranged from $US3.73 (for composite resin) to $US7.50 (for glass-carbomer). The incremental cost-effectiveness of LED thermocured HVGIC to prevent one additional caries lesion per 1,000 sealants performed was $US1,106 compared with composite resin. Sensitivity analyses showed that differences in the cost of materials across groups had minimal impact on the overall cost. Cost and effectiveness data enhance policymakers' ability to address issues of availability, access, and compliance associated with poor oral-health outcomes, particularly when large numbers of children are excluded from care, in economies where oral health services are still developing.

  7. Characterizing climate-change impacts on the 1.5-yr flood flow in selected basins across the United States: a probabilistic approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, John F.; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) model was applied to basins in 14 different hydroclimatic regions to determine the sensitivity and variability of the freshwater resources of the United States in the face of current climate-change projections. Rather than attempting to choose a most likely scenario from the results of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an ensemble of climate simulations from five models under three emissions scenarios each was used to drive the basin models. Climate-change scenarios were generated for PRMS by modifying historical precipitation and temperature inputs; mean monthly climate change was derived by calculating changes in mean climates from current to various future decades in the ensemble of climate projections. Empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) were fitted to the PRMS model output driven by the ensemble of climate projections and provided a basis for randomly (but representatively) generating realizations of hydrologic response to future climates. For each realization, the 1.5-yr flood was calculated to represent a flow important for sediment transport and channel geomorphology. The empirical probability density function (pdf) of the 1.5-yr flood was estimated using the results across the realizations for each basin. Of the 14 basins studied, 9 showed clear temporal shifts in the pdfs of the 1.5-yr flood projected into the twenty-first century. In the western United States, where the annual peak discharges are heavily influenced by snowmelt, three basins show at least a 10% increase in the 1.5-yr flood in the twenty-first century; the remaining two basins demonstrate increases in the 1.5-yr flood, but the temporal shifts in the pdfs and the percent changes are not as distinct. Four basins in the eastern Rockies/central United States show at least a 10% decrease in the 1.5-yr flood; the remaining two basins demonstrate decreases in the 1.5-yr flood, but the temporal shifts in the pdfs

  8. Cosmological constraints from measurements of type Ia supernovae discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 survey

    SciTech Connect

    Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.; Riess, A.; Rodney, S.; Brout, D.; Foley, R. J.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Czekala, I.; Drout, M.; Huber, M. E.; Tonry, J. L.; Narayan, G.; Smartt, S. J.; Schlafly, E.; Botticella, M. T.; and others

    2014-11-01

    We present griz {sub P1} light curves of 146 spectroscopically confirmed Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia; 0.03 < z < 0.65) discovered during the first 1.5 yr of the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey. The Pan-STARRS1 natural photometric system is determined by a combination of on-site measurements of the instrument response function and observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. We find that the systematic uncertainties in the photometric system are currently 1.2% without accounting for the uncertainty in the Hubble Space Telescope Calspec definition of the AB system. A Hubble diagram is constructed with a subset of 113 out of 146 SNe Ia that pass our light curve quality cuts. The cosmological fit to 310 SNe Ia (113 PS1 SNe Ia + 222 light curves from 197 low-z SNe Ia), using only supernovae (SNe) and assuming a constant dark energy equation of state and flatness, yields w=−1.120{sub −0.206}{sup +0.360}(Stat){sub −0.291}{sup +0.269}(Sys). When combined with BAO+CMB(Planck)+H {sub 0}, the analysis yields Ω{sub M}=0.280{sub −0.012}{sup +0.013} and w=−1.166{sub −0.069}{sup +0.072} including all identified systematics. The value of w is inconsistent with the cosmological constant value of –1 at the 2.3σ level. Tension endures after removing either the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) or the H {sub 0} constraint, though it is strongest when including the H {sub 0} constraint. If we include WMAP9 cosmic microwave background (CMB) constraints instead of those from Planck, we find w=−1.124{sub −0.065}{sup +0.083}, which diminishes the discord to <2σ. We cannot conclude whether the tension with flat ΛCDM is a feature of dark energy, new physics, or a combination of chance and systematic errors. The full Pan-STARRS1 SN sample with ∼three times as many SNe should provide more conclusive results.

  9. Lateglacial vegetation dynamics in the eastern Baltic region between 14,500 and 11,400 cal yr BP: A complete record since the Bølling (GI-1e) to the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veski, Siim; Amon, Leeli; Heinsalu, Atko; Reitalu, Triin; Saarse, Leili; Stivrins, Normunds; Vassiljev, Jüri

    2012-04-01

    This paper discusses a complete record of vegetation history since the Bølling (GI-1e) warming (14,500 cal yr BP) up to the Holocene in Latvia. To date, this is the only complete record of such age in the eastern Baltic area and the northernmost area for which Bølling records are present. Combining pollen evidence, pollen accumulation rates (PAR) and plant macrofossil data, we assess the local and regional vegetation development, and we attempt to separate the true Lateglacial vegetation signal by removing the obviously redeposited thermophilous pollen; however, we remove not only their signal, we discuss the possibilities of separating the redeposition signal of the so-called "local Lateglacial trees", pine and birch, by looking at their corrosion and degradation. The results show that the Bølling warming in the eastern Baltic area was a treeless tundra community consisting of the shrubs Betula nana, Dryas octopetala and Salix polaris. The Older Dryas cold spell is clearly recognised as a decline in the total concentration of plant macrofossils and PARs at between 14,200 and 13,500 cal yr BP. At 13,460 cal yr BP, the B. nana macrofossils disappear, and tree birch (Betula sect. Albae) appears, marking the start of tree birch forest. The presence of pine forest is confirmed by a variety of macrofossils, including bark, wood, needles and seeds, since 13,400 cal yr BP, at the same time at which pine stomata are found. The first identified pine stomata finds are associated with a Pinus PAR over 3000 grains cm-2 yr-1 and pine macrofossil finds with a Pinus PAR over 4000 grains cm-2 yr-1. During the warmest period of the GI-1a (Allerød) at 13,000-12,700 cal yr BP, a pine forest with deciduous trees (birch -Betula pendula and aspen -Populus tremula) developed in the study area. The Younger Dryas (GS-1) cooling strongly affected the floral composition in eastern Latvia. The PAR of the tree taxa declined abruptly from a maximum value at 12,700 to below 1000 grains cm-2

  10. Methods and preliminary findings of a cost-effectiveness study of glass-ionomer-based and composite resin sealant materials after 2 yr.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Ann S; Chen, Xi; Fan, Mingwen; Frencken, Jo E

    2014-06-01

    The cost-effectiveness of glass-carbomer, conventional high-viscosity glass-ionomer cement (HVGIC) [without or with heat (light-emitting diode (LED) thermocuring) application], and composite resin sealants were compared after 2 yr in function. Estimated net costs per sealant were obtained from data on personnel time (measured with activity sampling), transportation, materials, instruments and equipment, and restoration costs for replacing failed sealants from a community trial involving 7- to 9-yr-old Chinese children. Cost data were standardized to reflect the placement of 1,000 sealants per group. Outcomes were the differences in the number of dentine caries lesions that developed between groups. The average sealant application time ranged from 5.40 min (for composite resin) to 8.09 min (for LED thermocured HVGIC), and the average cost per sealant for 1,000 performed per group (simulation sample) ranged from $US3.73 (for composite resin) to $US7.50 (for glass-carbomer). The incremental cost-effectiveness of LED thermocured HVGIC to prevent one additional caries lesion per 1,000 sealants performed was $US1,106 compared with composite resin. Sensitivity analyses showed that differences in the cost of materials across groups had minimal impact on the overall cost. Cost and effectiveness data enhance policymakers' ability to address issues of availability, access, and compliance associated with poor oral-health outcomes, particularly when large numbers of children are excluded from care, in economies where oral health services are still developing. PMID:24799118

  11. CO2 enrichment alters diurnal stem radius fluctuations of 36-yr-old Larix decidua growing at the alpine tree line.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Melissa A; Zweifel, Roman; Dawes, Nicholas; Rixen, Christian; Hagedorn, Frank

    2014-06-01

    To understand how trees at high elevations might use water differently in the future, we investigated the effects of CO2 enrichment and soil warming (separately and combined) on the water relations of Larix decidua growing at the tree line in the Swiss Alps. We assessed diurnal stem radius fluctuations using point dendrometers and applied a hydraulic plant model using microclimate and soil water potential data as inputs. Trees exposed to CO2 enrichment for 9 yr showed smaller diurnal stem radius contractions (by 46 ± 16%) and expansions (42 ± 16%) compared with trees exposed to ambient CO2 . Additionally, there was a delay in the timing of daily maximum (40 ± 12 min) and minimum (63 ± 14 min) radius values for trees growing under elevated CO2 . Parameters optimized with the hydraulic model suggested that CO2 -enriched trees had an increased flow resistance between the xylem and bark, representing a more buffered water supply system. Soil warming did not alter diurnal fluctuation dynamics or the CO2 response. Elevated CO2 altered the hydraulic water flow and storage system within L. decidua trees, which might have contributed to enhanced growth during 9 yr of CO2 enrichment and could ultimately influence the future competitive ability of this key tree-line species. PMID:24571288

  12. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.; Kherbouche, F.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Cheng, H.; Dewilde, F.; Hachi, S.; Edwards, L. R.; Régnier, E.; Michelot, J.-L.

    2015-07-01

    Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied round the E-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate-culture relation at fine time scales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in N-Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  13. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated with prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, Northern Algeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.; Kherbouche, F.; Genty, D.; Blamart, D.; Cheng, H.; Dewilde, F.; Hachi, S.; Edwards, R. L.; Régnier, E.; Michelot, J.-L.

    2016-01-01

    Middle Holocene cultures have been widely studied around the Eastern-Mediterranean basin in the last 30 years and past cultural activities have been commonly linked with regional climate changes. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due to existing climatic evidence that has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and Eastern-Mediterranean basin, however, the scarcity of such records in the western part of the Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin and deciphering climate-culture relation at fine timescales. Here we report the first decadal-resolved Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the Western-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in Northern Algeria. Comparison of our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600, ca. 5200 and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean basin. New calibrated radiocarbon dating constrains reasonably well the age of rich anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave, which allows the comparison between in situ evidence of human occupation and of climate change. This approach shows that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4403 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kepler planetary candidates. V. 3yr Q1-Q12 (Rowe+, 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, J. F.; Coughlin, J. L.; Antoci, V.; Barclay, T.; Batalha, N. M.; Borucki, W. J.; Burke, C. J.; Bryson, S. T.; Caldwell, D. A.; Campbell, J. R.; Catanzarite, J. H.; Christiansen, J. L.; Cochran, W.; Gilliland, R. L.; Girouard, F. R.; Haas, M. R.; Helminiak, K. G.; Henze, C. E.; Hoffman, K. L.; Howell, S. B.; Huber, D.; Hunter, R. C.; Jang-Condell, H.; Jenkins, J. M.; Klaus, T. C.; Latham, D. W.; Li, J.; Lissauer, J. J.; McCauliff, S. D.; Morris, R. L.; Mullally, F.; Ofir, A.; Quarles, B.; Quintana, E.; Sabale, A.; Seader, S.; Shporer, A.; Smith, J. C.; Steffen, J. H.; Still, M.; Tenenbaum, P.; Thompson, S. E.; Twicken, J. D.; van Laerhoven, C.; Wolfgang, A.; Zamudio, K. A.

    2015-04-01

    We began with the transit-event candidate list from Tenenbaum et al. (2013ApJS..206....5T) based on a wavelet, adaptive matched filter to search 192313 Kepler targets for periodic drops in flux indicative of a transiting planet. Detections are known as Threshold Crossing Events (TCEs). Tenenbaum et al. utilized three years of Kepler photometric observations (Q1-Q12) -the same data span employed by this study based on SOC 8.3 as part of Data Release 21 (Thompson S. E., Christiansen J. L., Jenkins J. M. et al. Kepler (KSCI-19061-001)). (3 data files).

  15. Gaia science operations 1.5 yr into the nominal mission: concepts, experiences and lessons learned ESA/ESTE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammers, Uwe; Guerra, Rocio; Cheek, Neil; Siddiqui, Hassan; Jansen, Fred

    2015-12-01

    The European Space Agency's astrometry satellite Gaia was launched in December 2013 and started its scientific operations in July 2014 after an extended payload commissioning period. During the first year of the nominal mission the astrometric instrument alone has made around 250 Billion individual measurements which already now constitues one of the largest astronomical datasets in existence. Operations will continue for at least the next 4 years and after an extensive data processing effort an astronomical catalogue containing some 1.5 Billion celestial objects will be produced. We describe the chosen key concepts for handling the massive amounts of daily data at the Science Operations Centre at ESAC, Madrid, their initial processing and dissemination to the other five partner processing centres. We will also illustrate some of the great challenges that the mission data poses in terms of storage, processing, monitoring, and analysis.

  16. CMEs, the Tail of the Solar Wind Magnetic Field Distribution, and 11-yr Cosmic Ray Modulation at 1 AU. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E. W.; Ling, A. G.; Richardson, I. G.

    2003-01-01

    Using a recent classification of the solar wind at 1 AU into its principal components (slow solar wind, high-speed streams, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) for 1972-2000, we show that the monthly-averaged galactic cosmic ray intensity is anti-correlated with the percentage of time that the Earth is imbedded in CME flows. We suggest that this correlation results primarily from a CME related change in the tail of the distribution function of hourly-averaged values of the solar wind magnetic field (B) between solar minimum and solar maximum. The number of high-B (square proper subset 10 nT) values increases by a factor of approx. 3 from minimum to maximum (from 5% of all hours to 17%), with about two-thirds of this increase due to CMEs. On an hour-to-hour basis, average changes of cosmic ray intensity at Earth become negative for solar wind magnetic field values square proper subset 10 nT.

  17. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M.; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the “yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy” (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications. PMID:25206331

  18. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications.

  19. The yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy (yrRTA): a simple 2D/3D method for estimating deep gray matter atrophy in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, Manuel; Salas-Pacheco, José M; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Despite a strong correlation to outcome, the measurement of gray matter (GM) atrophy is not being used in daily clinical practice as a prognostic factor and monitor the effect of treatments in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This is mainly because the volumetric methods available to date are sophisticated and difficult to implement for routine use in most hospitals. In addition, the meanings of raw results from volumetric studies on regions of interest are not always easy to understand. Thus, there is a huge need of a methodology suitable to be applied in daily clinical practice in order to estimate GM atrophy in a convenient and comprehensive way. Given the thalamus is the brain structure found to be more consistently implied in MS both in terms of extent of atrophy and in terms of prognostic value, we propose a solution based in this structure. In particular, we propose to compare the extent of thalamus atrophy with the extent of unspecific, global brain atrophy, represented by ventricular enlargement. We name this ratio the "yearly rate of Relative Thalamic Atrophy" (yrRTA). In this report we aim to describe the concept of yrRTA and the guidelines for computing it under 2D and 3D approaches and explain the rationale behind this method. We have also conducted a very short crossectional retrospective study to proof the concept of yrRTA. However, we do not seek to describe here the validity of this parameter since these researches are being conducted currently and results will be addressed in future publications. PMID:25206331

  20. Second-language listening anxiety before and after a 1-yr. intervention in extensive listening compared with standard foreign language instruction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anna Ching-Shyang

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have shown that language anxiety is correlated negatively with language competence. This study tests the hypothesis that second language learners' listening anxiety might be reduced when listening skills improve. Building on previous research showing that extensive reading is as effective and efficient as formal instruction in acquiring English as a foreign language and is even more effective with longer treatment duration, changes in listening anxiety were explored under two different instructional approaches-extensive listening and formal instruction-over a 1-yr. period in a sample of 92 Chinese college students. Listening anxiety and listening comprehension tests were administered to the participants before and after the experiment. Analysis showed that the Extensive Listening group improved more compared to the Formal Instruction group in listening competence, but their mean anxiety score also rose significantly. Factors contributing to the unexpected outcome indicate that the increase in anxiety should be considered facilitative to learning.

  1. Source apportionment of fine PM and sub-micron particle number concentrations at a regional background site in the western Mediterranean: a 2.5 yr study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition and sources of ambient fine particulate matter (PM1) over a period of 2.5 yr for a regional background site in the western Mediterranean are presented in this work. Major components (such as SO12-, NO3-, NH4+, organic and elemental carbon) and trace elements were analysed and the emission sources affecting PM1 were determined using Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF). Furthermore, sub-micron particle number concentrations and the sources of these particles are also presented. Sources of sub-micron particles were determined by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The mean PM1 concentration for the measurement period was 8.9 μg m-3, with organic matter (OM) and sulphate comprising most of the mass (3.2 and 1.5 μg m-3). A clear seasonal variation was recorded with higher PM1 concentrations in summer (11.2 μg m-3) compared to winter (6.6 μg m-3). This summer increase was due to elevated levels of sulphate and OM. Six sources were identified by PMF: secondary organic aerosol, secondary nitrate, industrial, traffic + biomass burning, fuel oil combustion and secondary sulphate. The daily variations of these sources were also determined, whereby the typically anthropogenic sources displayed elevated concentrations during the week with reductions at weekends. Nitrate levels were elevated in winter and negligible in summer, whereas secondary sulphate levels underwent a contrasting seasonal evolution with highest concentrations in summer, similar to the fuel oil combustion source. The SOA source was influenced by episodes of sustained pollution as a result of anticyclonic conditions occurring during winter, giving rise to thermal inversions and the accumulation of pollutants in the mixing layer. Increased levels in summer were owing to higher biogenic emissions and regional recirculation of air masses. The industrial source decreased in August due to decreased emissions during the vacation period. Increases in the traffic + biomass burning source

  2. 10,000 yr record of extreme hydrologic events

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.L.; Bierman, P.R.; Lini, A.; Southon, J.

    2000-04-01

    Well-dated lacustrine sediments provide a hydrologic record indicating that the frequency and magnitude of runoff events, and by inference, storms, have varied over the past 10 k.y. in northern New England. The authors used five sediment cores and radiocarbon dating to develop a chronology of Holocene hydrologic events for the Ritterbush Pond basin, northern Vermont. Chemical and physical analyses allow them to identify 52 distinct layers of predominantly inorganic sediment that represent terrestrially derived material delivered to the pond by runoff events. The thickness of some layers suggests hydrologic events at least equal in size to, and probably much larger than, any storm or flood recorded during nearly 300 yr of written regional history. Layer thickness and frequency and, by analogy, storm size and recurrence, change through the Holocene. The largest events occurred 2620, 6840, and 9440 calibrated {sup 14}C years before present (cal {sup 14}C yr B.P.). The most frequent hydrologic events occurred in three periods: 1,750 to 2,620, 6,330 to 6,840, and > 8,600 cal yr B.P. The recurrence interval of layer deposition during stormy periods averages 130 {+-} 100 cal yr, whereas the recurrence interval during less stormy periods is longer, 270 {+-} 170 cal yr. The Ritterbush Pond event record illustrates the potential of inorganic lacustrine sediment to serve as a proxy record for estimating paleoflood frequency and deciphering climate change.

  3. Comparison of the process of care of acute severe asthma in adults admitted to hospital before and 1 yr after the publication of national guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pearson, M G; Ryland, I; Harrison, B D

    1996-10-01

    This study set out to assess the effect of publication of the British Guidelines on Asthma Management on the processes and outcomes of the inpatient care of acute severe asthma in the U.K. A criterion-based audit of all acute asthma admissions during August and September 1990 (immediately before) and in 1991 (1 yr after publication of the Guidelines) using eight criteria of process and outcome was performed. Thirty-six teaching and district general hospitals in England, Scotland and Wales took part. In total, 766 patients admitted in 1990, and 900 patients admitted in 1991, were studied. The 1990 and 1991 cohorts were very similar demographically and had asthma of comparable severity. Respiratory physicians achieved similar high performance rates of between 75 and 91% for seven of the eight criteria for both years. Respiratory physicians were significantly more likely to provide patients with a written management plan in 1991. General physicians' performance was significantly lower in both years, but overall there was a very small, but just significant, improvement in their performance in 1991. Some hospitals performed consistently well in both years. It is concluded that respiratory physicians consistently provide better asthma care than general physicians. Though statistically significant, the small degree of improvement was disappointing. Possible reasons include: insufficient time for the Guidelines to be incorporated into practice; inaccessibility of the Guidelines to general physicians; failure to accept responsibility for implementing the good practice reflected in the Guidelines; and an explicit need for strategies to implement the Guidelines beyond publication in a widely-read general medical journal.

  4. THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD. XXII. PARALLAX RESULTS FROM THE CTIOPI 0.9 m PROGRAM: TRIGONOMETRIC PARALLAXES OF 64 NEARBY SYSTEMS WITH 0.''5 {<=}{mu}{<=} 1.''0 yr{sup -1} (SLOWMO SAMPLE)

    SciTech Connect

    Riedel, Adric R.; Jao, Wei-Chun; Henry, Todd J.; Winters, Jennifer G.; Brown, Misty A.; Subasavage, John P.; Finch, Charlie T.; Ianna, Philip A.; Costa, Edgardo; Mendez, Rene A. E-mail: jao@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: winters@chara.gsu.ed E-mail: jsubasavage@ctio.noao.ed E-mail: pai@virginia.ed E-mail: rmendez@das.uchile.c

    2010-09-15

    We present trigonometric parallaxes of 64 stellar systems with proper motions between 0.''5 yr{sup -1} and 1.''0 yr{sup -1} from the ongoing Research Consortium On Nearby Stars parallax program at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory. All of the systems are south of decl. =+30, and 58 had no previous trigonometric parallaxes. In addition to parallaxes for the systems, we present proper motions, Johnson-Kron-Cousins VRI photometry, variability measurements, and spectral types. Nine of the systems are multiple; we present results for their components, three of which are new astrometric detections. Of the 64 systems, 56 are within 25 pc of the Sun and 52 of those are in the southern hemisphere, comprising 5.7% of the total number of known southern 25 pc systems.

  5. PACE-90 water and solute transport calculations for 0.01, 0.1, and 0. 5 mm/yr infiltration into Yucca Mountain; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    Dykhuizen, R.C.; Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.; Martinez, M.J.

    1991-12-01

    Numerical results are presented for the Performance Assessment Calculational Exercise (PACE-90). One- and two-dimensional water and solute transport are presented for steady infiltration into Yucca Mountain. Evenly distributed infiltration rates of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.5 mm/yr were considered. The calculations of solute transport show that significant amounts of radionuclides can reach the water table over 100,000 yr at the 0.5 mm/yr rate. For time periods less than 10,000 yr or infiltrations less than 0.1 mm/yr very little solute reaches the water table. The numerical simulations clearly demonstrate that multi-dimensional effects can result in significant decreases in the travel time of solute through the modeled domain. Dual continuum effects are shown to be negligible for the low steady state fluxes considered. However, material heterogeneities may cause local amplification of the flux level in multi-dimensional flows. These higher flux levels may then require modeling of a dual continuum porous medium.

  6. Education, occupation, noise exposure history and the 10-yr cumulative incidence of hearing impairment in older adults.

    PubMed

    Cruickshanks, Karen J; Nondahl, David M; Tweed, Ted S; Wiley, Terry L; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Chappell, Rick; Dalton, Dayna S; Nash, Scott D

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the 10-yr cumulative incidence of hearing impairment and associations of education, occupation and noise exposure history with the incidence of hearing impairment in a population-based cohort study of 3753 adults ages 48-92 yr at the baseline examinations during 1993-1995 in Beaver Dam, WI. Hearing thresholds were measured at baseline, 2.5 yr-, 5 yr-, and 10-yr follow-up examinations. Hearing impairment was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA)>25 dB HL at 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. Demographic characteristics and occupational histories were obtained by questionnaire. The 10-yr cumulative incidence of hearing impairment was 37.2%. Age (5 yr; Hazard Ratio (HR)=1.81), sex (M vs W; HR=2.29), occupation based on longest held job (production/operations/farming vs others; HR=1.34), marital status (unmarried vs married; HR=1.29) and education (<16 vs 16+yr; HR=1.40) were associated with the 10 yr incidence. History of noisy jobs was not associated with the 10-yr incidence of hearing impairment. The risk of hearing impairment was high, with women experiencing a slightly later onset. Markers of socioeconomic status were associated with hearing impairment, suggesting that hearing impairment in older adults may be associated with modifiable lifestyle and environmental factors, and therefore, at least partially preventable.

  7. Is it possible that a gravity increase of 20 μGal yr-1 in southern Tibet comes from a wide-range density increase?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Shuang; Wang, Qiuyu; Sun, Wenke

    2016-02-01

    With absolute gravimetric observations from 2010 to 2013 in the southern Tibet, Chen et al. (2016) reported a gravity increase of up to 20 μGal/yr and concluded that it is possible if there was a density increase in a disk range of 580 km in diameter. Here we used observations from the gravity satellites Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) over 12 years to evaluate whether the model was practical, because a mass accumulation in such a large spatial range is well within the detectability ability of GRACE. The gravity trend based on their model is orders of magnitude larger than the GRACE observation, thus negating its conclusions. We then evaluated contributions from seasonal variation, lakes, glaciers, rivers, precipitation, and snowfall and concluded that these factors cannot cause such a large gravity signal. Finally, we discussed some possible explanations for the gravity increase of 40 μGal in two years.

  8. Evidence of a prolonged drought ca. 4200 yr BP correlated to on-site prehistoric settlement abandonment from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave in semi-arid N-Algeria.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, J.

    2015-12-01

    Drought in Algeria is a recurring phenomenon and prolonged dry condition exerts a significant impact on local society. For instance, the most recent (1999-2002) drought, as part of a widespread drying in N-Hemisphere, brought this country considerable loss in regards to water resource and agricultural yields. A comprehensive understanding of past climate anomaly is relevant to predicting and mitigating future climate change effects. A few high-resolution well-dated paleoclimate records were recently established using speleothems in the Central and E-Mediterranean basin, but the scarcity of such records in W-Mediterranean prevents us from correlating past climate evolutions across the basin. Besides, climate deteriorations have long been argued to be linked with past cultural disruptions. However, in many cases such linkage is equivocal, in part due that existing climatic evidence has been derived from areas outside the distribution of ancient settlements, leading to uncertainty from complex spatial heterogeneity in both climate and demography. Here we present the first decadal-resolution Mid-Holocene climate proxy records from the W-Mediterranean basin based on the stable carbon and oxygen isotopes analyses of two U/Th dated stalagmites from the Gueldaman GLD1 Cave, N-Algeria. Comparing our records with those from Italy and Israel reveals synchronous (multi) centennial dry phases centered at ca. 5600 yr BP, ca. 5200 yr BP and ca. 4200 yr BP across the Mediterranean. New radiocarbon dating from this study well constrains the age of anthropogenic deposits (e.g., faunal remains, pottery, charcoal) excavated inside the cave. In-situ comparisons of evidence of climate and cultural change show that the timing of a prolonged drought at ca. 4400-3800 yr BP blankets the onset of cave abandonment shortly after ca. 4400 cal yr BP, supporting the hypothesis that a climate anomaly may have played a role in this cultural disruption.

  9. 10 Yr Spatial and Temporal Trends of PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern US Estimated Using High-resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 g m3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 g m3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 g m3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 g m3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The results showed

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 4yr 1.3mm VLBI observations of SgrA* with EHT (Fish+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fish, V. L.; Johnson, M. D.; Doeleman, S. S.; Broderick, A. E.; Psaltis, D.; Lu, R.-S.; Akiyama, K.; Alef, W.; Algaba, J. C.; Asada, K.; Beaudoin, C.; Bertarini, A.; Blackburn, L.; Blundell, R.; Bower, G. C.; Brinkerink, C.; Cappallo, R.; Chael, A. A.; Chamberlin, R.; Chan, C.-K.; Crew, G. B.; Dexter, J.; Dexter, M.; Dzib, S. A.; Falcke, H.; Freund, R.; Friberg, P.; Greer, C. H.; Gurwell, M. A.; Ho, P. T. P.; Honma, M.; Inoue, M.; Johannsen, T.; Kim, J.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Lamb, J.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Loeb, A.; Loinard, L.; MacMahon, D.; Marrone, D. P.; Moran, J. M.; Moscibrodzka, M.; Ortiz-Leon, G. N.; Oyama, T.; Ozel, F.; Plambeck, R. L.; Pradel, N.; Primiani, R. A.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Rosenfeld, K.; Rottmann, H.; Roy, A. L.; Ruszczyk, C.; Smythe, D. L.; Soohoo, J.; Spilker, J.; Stone, J.; Strittmatter, P.; Tilanus, R. P. J.; Titus, M.; Vertatschitsch, L.; Wagner, J.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Weintroub, J.; Woody, D.; Wright, M.; Yamaguchi, P.; Young, A.; Young, K. H.; Zensus, J. A.; Ziurys, L. M.

    2016-06-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) obtained detections of Sgr A* on closed triangles of baselines among stations in Arizona, California, and Hawaii in 2009, 2011, 2012, and 2013. In all cases, two 480MHz bands, centered at 229.089GHz and 229.601GHz (hereafter, low and high bands, respectively), were observed. One or more telescopes from each of three sites in Arizona, California, and Hawaii participated in each set of observations. The Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) Submillimeter Telescope (SMT) on Mt. Graham, Arizona, was used in all cases. Over the years of data analyzed here, the configuration of VLBI recording at these sites evolved as described in section 2.1. (1 data file).

  11. Field Investigations of Landscape Development in southeast Spain for use in Modeling Holocene (8,000 - 1,500 yr) Agropastoral Landuse and Landscape Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimaggio, E. N.; La Roca, N.; Arrowsmith, J. R.; Diez-Castillo, A.; Bernabeu, J.; Barton, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    Dramatic changes in land use were associated with the rise of agriculture in the mid Holocene in the Mediterranean region. Both the surface properties and the drainage networks were changed. Along with the direct modifications to surface properties (vegetation removal and change, sediment liberation and compaction) and consequent drainage alteration (terracing, canals), up and downstream responses in the watersheds communicated these changes throughout the landscape. The magnitude, rate, and feedbacks with the growing human populations are critical questions in our effort to assess human-landscape interactions. To investigate these relationships, recent field work in the Penaguila Valley in southeast Spain included landform mapping, alluvial deposit description, and sample collection emphasizing areas of active erosion, remnant land surfaces and their relation to archaeological sites. We have updated our geomorphic maps by refining the delineation of alluvial terraces, steep-walled (40m deep) drainages ("barrancos"), and hollows ("barrancos de fondo plano"). Hollows are curved, elongate, flat-bottomed gullies with steep walls (2-30m tall) and extend headward from the main barrancos. This work enables more accurate terrace correlations necessary for both landscape evolution modeling and interpretation of the development history of the basin. Alluvial terraces are crucial to this research because they record periods of past stable topography. In the Penaguila, sites dating back to late Mesolithic and early Neolithic (around 6600 BP) and subsequent periods (Chalcolithic and Bronze Age) are exposed on a prominent terrace surface mapped as Terrace A. This broad low relief surface is scarred by deep barrancos and hollow formation that expose bedrock marls and overlying alluvial deposits. Stratigraphic profiles and texture analyses of Terrace A deposits reveal overland flow facies and channel networks in reworked and CaCO3-encrusted marls, and several organic

  12. Non-linear alignment of El Niño to the 11-yr solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Warren B.; Liu, Zhengyu

    2008-10-01

    El Nino/La Nina episodes represent warm/cool phases of 2- to 7-yr period El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropical Pacific ocean-atmosphere system. Modeling studies find ENSO self-excited or driven by ambient noise. Here we find most El Nino and La Nina episodes from 1900-2005 grouped into non-commuting pairs that repeat every ~11 yrs, aligned with rising and falling transition phases of the ~11-yr period quasi-decadal oscillation (QDO). These alignments arise from non-linear phase locking of 3rd and 5th harmonics near 3.6- and 2.2-yr to the 1st harmonic near 11-yr period. Here we find these alignments replicated in both coupled general circulation model and conceptual model driven by 11-yr solar forcing, wherein the solar-forced 1st harmonic initiates a non-linear cascade of higher odd harmonics that are phase-locked with the same alignments as observed. These solar-forced 3rd and 5th harmonics explain ~52% of inter-annual variance in the Nino-3 temperature index from 1900-2005.

  13. Changes in aerobic power of men, ages 25-70 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, A. S.; Beard, E. F.; Wier, L. T.; Ross, R. M.; Stuteville, J. E.; Blair, S. N.

    1995-01-01

    This study quantified and compared the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of age, self-report physical activity (SR-PA), and body composition (%fat) on the decline of maximal aerobic power (VO2peak). The cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,499 healthy men ages 25-70 yr. The 156 men of the longitudinal sample were from the same population and examined twice, the mean time between tests was 4.1 (+/- 1.2) yr. Peak oxygen uptake was determined by indirect calorimetry during a maximal treadmill exercise test. The zero-order correlations between VO2peak and %fat (r = -0.62) and SR-PA (r = 0.58) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher that the age correlation (r = -0.45). Linear regression defined the cross-sectional age-related decline in VO2peak at 0.46 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Multiple regression analysis (R = 0.79) showed that nearly 50% of this cross-sectional decline was due to %fat and SR-PA, adding these lifestyle variables to the multiple regression model reduced the age regression weight to -0.26 ml.kg-1.min-1.yr-1. Statistically controlling for time differences between tests, general linear models analysis showed that longitudinal changes in aerobic power were due to independent changes in %fat and SR-PA, confirming the cross-sectional results.

  14. Land surface temperature changes in Northern Iberia since 4000 yr BP, based on δ13C of speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Chivelet, Javier; Muñoz-García, M. Belén; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Turrero, María J.; Ortega, Ana I.

    2011-05-01

    The surface temperature changes for the last 4000 years in northern inland Iberia (an area particularly sensitive to climate change) are determined by a high resolution study of carbon stable isotope records of stalagmites from three caves (Kaite, Cueva del Cobre, and Cueva Mayor) separated several tens of kilometers away in N Spain. Despite the local conditions of each cave, the isotopic series show a good overall coherence, and resulted to be strongly sensitive to surface temperature changes. The record reflects alternating warmer and colder intervals, always within a temperature range of 1.6 °C. The timing and duration of the intervals were provided by 43 230Th- 234U (ICP-MS) ages. Main climatic recognized periods are: (1) 3950-3000 yr BP: warm period punctuated by cool events around ~ 3950, 3550 and 3250 yr BP; (2) 2850-2500 yr BP cold interval (Iron Age Cold Period); (3) 2500-1650 yr BP moderate warm period (Roman Warm Period), with maximum temperatures between 2150 and 1750 yr BP; (4) 1650-1350 yr BP cold interval (Dark Ages Cold Period), with a thermal minimum at ~ 1500 yr BP; (5) 1350-750 yr BP warm period (Medieval Warm Period) punctuated by two cooler events at ~ 1250 and ~ 850 yr BP; (6) 750-100 yr BP cold period (Little Ice Age) with extremes occurring at 600-500 yr BP, 350-300 yr BP, and 150-100 yr BP; and (7) the last 150 years, characterized by rapid but no linear warming (Modern Warming). Remarkably, the presented records allow direct comparison of recent warming with former warm intervals such as the Roman or the Medieval periods. That comparison reveals the 20th century as the time with highest surface temperatures of the last 4000 years for the studied area. Spectral analysis of the time series shows consistent climatic cycles of ~ 400, ~ 900 and ~ 1300 yr, comparable with those recognized in the North Atlantic marine record, the Greenland ice cores, and other terrestrial records for the middle-late Holocene, suggesting common climate forcing

  15. 40 yr phase-out for conventional coal? If only!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socolow, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Myhrvold and Caldeira worked out the climate consequences of various ways in which the world's current fleet of coal power plants could evolve into something different [1]. They imagined one-fortieth of the world's coal plants being closed down each year for 40 years. Two limiting cases are (1) nothing is built to take the place of this power, because efficiency gains have made them unnecessary, and (2) coal plants exactly like those now running take their place. Since coal power is the most carbon-intensive form of power, all other options fall between these limits. They looked at six single-technology alternatives: taking over from coal as we know it are coal with carbon dioxide capture and storage, natural gas, nuclear power and three forms of intermittent renewables (presented as baseload options). Moreover, whatever the alternative, it remains in place unchanged from year 40 through year 100. Results are presented as 100 yr trajectories for the increment in the average global surface temperature due only to this power production. For the coal-for-coal scenario, the surface temperature increase is about 0.13 °C in 40 yr and 0.31 °C in 100 yr. For the efficiency-for-coal scenario, the rise is 0.07 °C in 40 yr and 0.06 °C in 100 yr. Clearly, temperature rise is approximately proportional to emissions and these are self-consistent answers. For example, after 40 yr efficiency-for-coal has brought approximately half the temperature rise of coal-for-coal, and there have been exactly half the emissions. The efficiency-for-coal trajectory falls ever so slightly between years 40 and 100, because once CO2 enters the atmosphere it lingers. As for the absolute magnitude of the coal-to-coal trajectory, today's global coal power production (8300 TWh in 2008) is almost exactly what would be produced from one thousand one-gigawatt coal plants running flat out (8760 TWh), which is the coal power production assumed by Myhrvold and Caldeira. From table S1 of their

  16. Causes of Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr: implications for northern hemispheric temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobashi, T.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Box, J. E.; Gao, C.-C.; Nakaegawa, T.

    2013-10-01

    Precise understanding of Greenland temperature variability is important in two ways. First, Greenland ice sheet melting associated with rising temperature is a major global sea level forcing, potentially affecting large populations in coming centuries. Second, Greenland temperatures are highly affected by North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO) and Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO). In our earlier study, we found that Greenland temperature deviated negatively (positively) from northern hemispheric (NH) temperature trend during stronger (weaker) solar activity owing to changes in atmospheric/oceanic changes (e.g. NAO/AO) over the past 800 yr (Kobashi et al., 2013). Therefore, a precise Greenland temperature record can provide important constraints on the past atmospheric/oceanic circulation in the region and beyond. Here, we investigated Greenland temperature variability over the past 4000 yr reconstructed from argon and nitrogen isotopes from trapped air in a GISP2 ice core, using a one-dimensional energy balance model with orbital, solar, volcanic, greenhouse gas, and aerosol forcings. The modelled northern Northern Hemisphere (NH) temperature exhibits a cooling trend over the past 4000 yr as observed for the reconstructed Greenland temperature through decreasing annual average insolation. With consideration of the negative influence of solar variability, the modelled and observed Greenland temperatures agree with correlation coefficients of r = 0.34-0.36 (p = 0.1-0.04) in 21 yr running means (RMs) and r = 0.38-0.45 (p = 0.1-0.05) on a centennial timescale (101 yr RMs). Thus, the model can explain 14 to 20% of variance of the observed Greenland temperature in multidecadal to centennial timescales with a 90-96% confidence interval, suggesting that a weak but persistent negative solar influence on Greenland temperature continued over the past 4000 yr. Then, we estimated the distribution of multidecadal NH and northern high-latitude temperatures

  17. Soccer increases bone mass in prepubescent boys during growth: a 3-yr longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zouch, Mohamed; Zribi, Anis; Alexandre, Christian; Chaari, Hamada; Frere, Delphine; Tabka, Zouhair; Vico, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of 3-yr soccer practice on bone acquisition in prepubescent boys. We investigated 65 boys (aged 10-13 yr, Tanner stage I) at baseline, among which only 40 boys (Tanner stages II and III) have continued the 3-yr follow-up: 23 soccer players (F) completed 2-5 h of training plus 1 competition game per week and 17 controls (C). Bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and bone mineral content (BMC, g) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at different sites. At baseline, BMD was higher in soccer players than in controls in the whole body and legs. In contrast, there was nonsignificant difference BMD in head, femoral neck, arms, and BMC in all measured sites between groups. At 3-yr follow-up, soccer players were found to have higher BMD and BMC at all sites than controls, except for head BMD and BMC and arms BMC in which the difference was nonsignificant between groups. During the 3-yr follow-up, the soccer players were found to gain significantly more in lumbar spine (31.2% ± 2.9% vs 23.9% ± 2.1%; p < 0.05), femoral neck (24.1% ± 1.8% vs 11.4% ± 1.9%; p < 0.001), whole body (16.5% ± 1.4% vs 11.8% ± 1.5%; p < 0.05), and nondominant arm BMD (18.2% ± 1.4% vs 13.6% ± 1.7%; p < 0.05) as well as lumbar spine (62.5% ± 20.1% vs 39.5% ± 20.1%; p < 0.001), femoral neck, (37.7% ± 14.2% vs 28.9% ± 12.8%; p < 0.05) and nondominant arm BMC (68.6% ± 22.9% vs 50.1% ± 22.4%; p < 0.05) than controls. In contrast, soccer players have less %BMD and %BMC changes in the head than controls. A nonsignificant difference was found in legs, dominant arm, head %BMD and %BMC changes, and whole-body %BMC changes between groups. In summary, we suggest that soccer has an osteogenic effect BMD and BMC in loaded sites in pubertal soccer players. The increased bone mass induced by soccer training in the stressed sites was associated to a decreased skull bone mass after 3 yr of follow-up.

  18. Global Sea Ice Coverage from Satellite Data: Annual Cycle and 35-Yr Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.

    2014-01-01

    Well-established satellite-derived Arctic and Antarctic sea ice extents are combined to create the global picture of sea ice extents and their changes over the 35-yr period 1979-2013. Results yield a global annual sea ice cycle more in line with the high-amplitude Antarctic annual cycle than the lower-amplitude Arctic annual cycle but trends more in line with the high-magnitude negative Arctic trends than the lower-magnitude positive Antarctic trends. Globally, monthly sea ice extent reaches a minimum in February and a maximum generally in October or November. All 12 months show negative trends over the 35-yr period, with the largest magnitude monthly trend being the September trend, at -68200 +/- 10500 km sq yr(exp -1) (-2.62% +/- 0.40%decade(exp -1)), and the yearly average trend being -35000 +/-5900 km sq yr(exp -1) (-1.47% +/- 0.25%decade(exp -1)).

  19. A 11,000 yr palaeotemperature reconstruction from the southern boreal zone in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, Maija; Seppä, Heikki

    2003-03-01

    The ecotone between the boreo-nemoral (hemiboreal) and the southern boreal vegetation zones constitutes the northern distributional limit of a number of thermophilous tree species in northern Europe and is, to a large extent, controlled by climatic conditions. We present a quantitative annual mean temperature reconstruction from a high-resolution pollen stratigraphy in southern boreal Finland, using a pollen-climate calibration model with a cross-validated prediction error of 0.9°C. Our model reconstructs low but steadily rising annual mean temperature from 10,700 to 9000 cal yr BP. At 8000-4500 cal yr BP reconstructed annual mean temperature reaches a period of highest values (Holocene thermal maximum) with particularly high temperatures (2.0-1.5°C higher than at present) at 8000-5800 cal yr BP. From 4500 cal yr BP to the present-day, reconstructed annual mean temperature gradually decreases by ca 1.5°C. Comparison of present results with palaeotemperature records from the Greenland ice cores, notably with the NorthGRIP δ18O record, shows marked similarities, suggesting parallel large-scale Holocene temperature trends between the North Atlantic and North European regions. The verification of the occurrence, timing, and nature of the short-term temperature fluctuations during the Holocene in the southern boreal zone in Europe requires replicate, high-resolution climate reconstructions from the region.

  20. A multi-proxy warm season temperature reconstruction (3400 cal yr BP - 1500 cal yr BP) from the varved sediments of Lake Silvaplana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Monique; Larocque, Isabelle; Grosjean, Martin

    2010-05-01

    reconstructions show synchronous episodes (2450 cal yr BP and 1950 cal yr BP) of anomalously warm temperatures, possibly related to solar activity. Combining these high-resolution and independent summer temperature reconstructions, based on novel and established methods, provides detailed information about the climate of continental Europe during the past several millennia including the Iron-Roman Age. References a Blass, A., Grosjean, M., Troxler, A., Sturm, M. The Holocene 17(1), 51 - 63 (2007). b Blass, A., Bigler, C., Grosjean, M., Sturm, M. Quaternary Research 68(2), 184 - 195 (2007). Larocque-Tobler, I., Grosjean, M., Heiri, O., Trachsel, M., Kamenik, C. Quaternary Science Reviews, accepted. Larocque-Tobler I., Grosjean, M., Heiri, O., Trachsel, M. The Holocene 19, 1201-1212 (2009). Larocque, I., Grosjean, M., Heiri, O., Bigler, C., Blass, A. Journal of Paleolimnology 41, 329-342 (2009). Leemann, A., Niessen, F. The Holocene 2 (3), 259 - 268 (1994). Nussbaumer et al., in prep. Ohlendorf, C., Niessen, F., Weissert, H., Climate Change 36, 391-411 (1997). a Trachsel et al., in review. b Trachsel et al., in review. Trachsel, M., Eggenberger, U., Blass, A., Sturm, M., Geophysical Research Letters 35, (2008).

  1. Effects of creatine supplementation and exercise training on fitness in men 55-75 yr old.

    PubMed

    Eijnde, Bert O; Van Leemputte, Marc; Goris, Marina; Labarque, Valery; Taes, Youri; Verbessem, Patricia; Vanhees, Luc; Ramaekers, Monique; Vanden Eynde, Bart; Van Schuylenbergh, Reinout; Dom, Rene; Richter, Erik A; Hespel, Peter

    2003-08-01

    effect of oral creatine supplementation (CR; 5 g/day) in conjunction with exercise training on physical fitness was investigated in men between 55 and 75 yr of age (n = 46). A double-blind randomized placebo-controlled (PL) trial was performed over a 6-mo period. Furthermore, a subgroup (n = 20) completed a 1-yr follow-up. The training program consisted of cardiorespiratory endurance training as well as moderate resistance training (2-3 sessions/wk). Endurance capacity was evaluated during a maximal incremental bicycle ergometer test, maximal isometric strength of the knee-extensor muscles was assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer, and body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing. Furthermore, in a subgroup (PL: n = 13; CR: n = 12) biopsies were taken from m. vastus lateralis to determine total creatine (TCr) content. In PL, 6 mo of training increased peak oxygen uptake rate (+16%; P < 0.05). Fat-free mass slightly increased (+0.3 kg; P < 0.05), whereas percent body fat slightly decreased (-1.2%; P < 0.05). The training intervention did not significantly change either maximal isometric strength or body weight. The responses were independent of CR. Still, compared with PL, TCr was increased by approximately 5% in CR, and this increase was closely correlated with initial muscle creatine content (r = -0.78; P < 0.05). After a 1-yr follow-up, muscle TCr was not higher in CR than in PL. Furthermore, the other measurements were not affected by CR. It is concluded that long-term creatine intake (5 g/day) in conjunction with exercise training does not beneficially impact physical fitness in men between 55 and 75 yr of age.

  2. Highly sensitive detection and discrimination of LR and YR microcystins based on protein phosphatases and an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Covaci, O I; Sassolas, A; Alonso, G A; Muñoz, R; Radu, G L; Bucur, B; Marty, J-L

    2012-08-01

    The inhibition characteristics of three different protein phosphatases by three microcystin (MC) variants--LR, YR, and RR--were studied. The corresponding K (I) for each enzyme-MC couple was calculated. The toxicity of MC varies in the following order: MC-LR > MC-YR > MC-RR. The sensitivity of the enzymes increased in the following order: mutant PP2A < mutant PP1 < natural PP2A. The best limit of detection obtained was 21.2 pM MC-LR using the most sensible enzyme. Methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile up to 2 % (v/v) may be used in inhibition measurements. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to discriminate two MC variants--LR and YR--using the differences in inhibition percentages measured with mutant PP1 and natural PP2A. The ANN is able to analyze mixtures with concentrations ranging from 8 to 98 pM MC-LR and 31 to 373 pM MC-YR.

  3. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 34 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOTOR COMPETENCE AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IS WEAKER IN THE 15-16 YR. ADOLESCENT AGE GROUP THAN IN YOUNGER AGE GROUPS (4-5 YR. AND 11-12 YR.).

    PubMed

    Haga, Monika; Gísladóttír, Thórdís; Sigmundsson, Hermundur

    2015-12-01

    Developing motor competence and physical fitness can affect the maintenance of a sufficient level of physical activity in children and adolescents. This study assesses the relationship between motor competence and physical fitness from childhood through early adolescence. A cross-sectional sample of 194 participants from 4 to 16 years old were divided into three groups; 4-6 yr. (n=42, M age=5.2, SD 0.6), 11-12 yr. (n=58, M age=12.4, SD=0.3), and 15-16 yr. (n=94, M age=15.9, SD=0.4). To assess motor competence, each child completed the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). To measure physical fitness, three tasks (strength, speed, and endurance) were selected from the Test of Physical Fitness (TPF). To analyze the significance of the difference between the correlation coefficient in the three age groups (samples) (4-6, 11-12, and 15-16 yr.), Fischer r-to-z transformation was used. The correlation (Pearson's) between motor competence and physical fitness in the age groups was statistically higher for the youngest age groups (4-6 and 11-12 yr.) and the adolescent group (age 15-16). The differences between the two youngest age groups were not statistically significant. The results demonstrate that the correlation between motor competence and physical fitness decreases with age. PMID:26595203

  5. 1,1,2-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 598 - 77 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  6. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloroethane ; CASRN 79 - 00 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  7. Technical details concerning development of a 1200-yr proxy index for global volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. J.; Unterman, M. B.

    2012-01-01

    This technical report describes details of developing a volcano forcing reconstruction (Crowley et al., 2008) for climate models that is based primarily on sulphate records in Antarctic and Greenland ice cores. The chronology of eruptions is considered accurate to within 1 yr for the interval AD 1104-2000 and 2 yr for AD 800-1103. The reconstruction involves: (1) calibration against satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates of the 1991 Pinatubo/Hudson eruptions; (2) partial validation against independent lunar estimates of AOD and global sulphate emissions; (3) partial assessment of uncertainties in AOD estimates; (4) assessment of possible tropical "false positives" in ice core reconstructions due to simultaneous occurrence of mid/high-latitude eruptions in each hemisphere; (5) identification of a new category of eruptions, termed "unipolar" tropical eruptions, in which the eruption plume penetrates mainly to polar regions in only the hemisphere of its eruption; (6) use of different growth curves for high- and low-latitude eruptions; (7) specification of 2/3 power shortwave scaling for eruptions larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption; and (8) compensatory introduction of an estimate of effective particle size that affects lifetime and scattering properties of stratospheric aerosols.

  8. 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrafluoroethane ; CASRN 811 - 97 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  9. Linkage maps of wheat stripe rust resistance genes Yr5 and Yr15 for use in marker assisted selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat stripe rust (also known as yellow rust) caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Eriks. is a serious global disease of wheat. Two important stripe rust resistance genes, Yr5 and Yr15, are being introgressed into wheat in several breeding programs and are the only known all-stage ...

  10. 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,1,2 - Tetrachloroethane ; CASRN 630 - 20 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  11. Technical details concerning development of a 1200 yr proxy index for global volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, T. J.; Unterman, M. B.

    2013-05-01

    This report describes details of developing a volcano forcing reconstruction (Crowley et al., 2008) for climate models that is based primarily on sulphate records in Antarctic and Greenland ice cores. The chronology of eruptions is considered accurate to within 1 yr for the interval AD 1104-2000 and about 2 yr for AD 800-1103. The reconstruction involves (1) calibration against satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) estimates of the 1991 Pinatubo/Hudson eruptions; (2) partial validation against independent lunar estimates of AOD and global sulphate emissions; (3) partial assessment of uncertainties in AOD estimates; (4) assessment of possible tropical "false positives" in ice core reconstructions due to simultaneous occurrence of mid/high-latitude eruptions in each hemisphere; (5) identification of a new category of eruptions, termed "unipolar" tropical eruptions, in which the eruption plume penetrates mainly to polar regions in only the hemisphere of its eruption; (6) use of different growth curves for high- and low-latitude eruptions; (7) specification of 2/3 power shortwave scaling for eruptions larger than the 1991 Pinatubo eruption; (8) introduction of an estimate of effective particle size that affects lifetime and scattering properties of stratospheric aerosols; and (9) utilization of bimonthly-resolution electrical conductivity measurements to estimate the eruption date of the 1258/1259 eruption as 1257.7±0.2. The data, and a high-temporal resolution reconstruction for climate models, are available at: 1:::::P1_STUDY_ID:14168"target="_blank">http://hurricane.ncdc.noaa.gov/pls/paleox/f?p=519:1:::::P1_STUDY_ID:14168.

  12. Alemtuzumab with corticosteroid minimization for pediatric deceased donor renal transplantation: a seven-yr experience.

    PubMed

    Supe-Markovina, Katarina; Melquist, Jonathan J; Connolly, Deirdre; DiCarlo, Heather N; Waltzer, Wayne C; Fine, Richard N; Darras, Frank S

    2014-06-01

    Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting CD52 receptors on B and T lymphocytes and is an effective induction agent in pediatric renal transplantation. We report a seven-yr experience using alemtuzumab induction and steroid-free protocol in the pediatric population as safe and effective. Twenty-one pediatric deceased donor renal transplants were performed at a single academic institution. All received induction with single-dose alemtuzumab and were maintained on a steroid-free protocol using TAC and MMF immunosuppression. There were 15 males and six females in the study whose ages ranged from one to 19 yr. The average follow-up was 32 months (range from 12 to 78.2 months and median 33.7 ± 23.7 months). All patients had immediate graft function. Graft survival was 95%, and patient survival was 100%. Mean 12 and 36 months eGFR were 63.33 ± 21.01 and 59.90 ± 15.27 mL/min/1.73m(2), respectively. Three patients developed acute T-cell-mediated rejection due to non-adherence while no recipients developed cytomegalovirus infection, PTLD, or polyoma BK viral nephropathy. Steroid avoidance with single-dose alemtuzumab induction provides adequate and safe immunosuppression in pediatric deceased donor renal transplant recipients receiving TAC and low-dose MMF maintenance therapy.

  13. 1400 yr multiproxy record of climate variability from the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richey, J.N.; Poore, R.Z.; Flower, B.P.; Quinn, T.M.

    2007-01-01

    A continuous decadal-scale resolution record of climate variability over the past 1400 yr in the northern Gulf of Mexico was constructed from a box core recovered in the Pigmy Basin, northern Gulf of Mexico. Proxies include paired analyses of Mg/Ca and δ18O in the white variety of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber and relative abundance variations of G. sacculifer in the foraminifer assemblages. Two multi-decadal intervals of sustained high Mg/Ca indicate that Gulf of Mexico sea surface temperatures (SSTs) were as warm or warmer than near-modern conditions between 1000 and 1400 yr B.P. Foraminiferal Mg/Ca during the coolest interval of the Little Ice Age (ca. 250 yr B.P.) indicate that SST was 22.5 °C below modern SST. Four minima in the Mg/Ca record between 900 and 250 yr B.P. correspond with the Maunder, Spörer, Wolf, and Oort sunspot minima, suggesting a link between changes in solar insolation and SST variability in the Gulf of Mexico. An abrupt shift recorded in both δ18Ocalcite and relative abundance of G. sacculifer occurred ca. 600 yr B.P. The shift in the Pigmy Basin record corresponds with a shift in the sea-salt-sodium (ssNa) record from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core, linking changes in high-latitude atmospheric circulation with the subtropical Atlantic Ocean.

  14. 3500 yr record of centennial-scale climate variability from the Western Pacific Warm Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langton, S. J.; Linsley, B. K.; Robinson, R. S.; Rosenthal, Y.; Oppo, D. W.; Eglinton, T. I.; Howe, S. S.; Djajadihardja, Y. S.; Syamsudin, F.

    2008-10-01

    We use geochemical data from a sediment core in the shallow-silledand intermittently dysoxic Kau Bay in Halmahera (Indonesia,lat 1°N, long 127.5°E) to reconstruct century-scaleclimate variability within the Western Pacific Warm Pool overthe past 3500 yr. Downcore variations in bulk sedimentary {delta}15Nappear to reflect century-scale variability in basin ventilation,attributed to changes in oceanographic conditions related tocentury-scale fluctuations in El Niño Southern Oscillation(ENSO). We infer an increase in century-scale El Niñoactivity beginning ca. 1700 yr B.P. with peaks in El Niñoactivity ca. 1500 yr B.P., 1150 yr B.P., and ca. 700 yr B.P.The Kau Bay results suggest that there was diminished ENSO amplitudeor frequency, or a departure from El Niño-likeconditions during the Medieval Warm Period, and distinctive,but steadily decreasing, El Niño activity during andafter the Little Ice Age.

  15. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are described for tetraalkyls, tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1 aryl-2,2,2,-trifluoroethanes.

  16. Global paleoclimatic data for 6000 yr B. P

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, T. III

    1985-08-01

    Pollen, lake level, and marine plankton data for the Holocene period (6000 yr B.P.) are documented in 53 datasets. The data are subdivided into nine groups by data type and geographic region for the pollen and marine plankton data types. Bibliographic citations associated with each site are included.

  17. 1,2-Dichloroethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloroethane ; CASRN 107 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  18. 1,2-Dichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 50 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. 26 CFR 2.1-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 2.1-1 Section 2.1-1 Internal... CONSTRUCTION RESERVE FUND § 2.1-1 Definitions. (a) As used in the regulations in this part, except as otherwise expressly provided— (1) Act means the Merchant Marine Act, 1936, as amended (46 U.S.C. 27). (2)...

  20. 5000 yr of paleoseismicity along the southern Dead Sea fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Y.; Le Béon, M.; Al-Qaryouti, M.

    2015-07-01

    The 1000-km-long left-lateral Dead Sea fault is a major tectonic structure of the oriental Mediterranean basin, bounding the Arabian Plate to the west. The fault is located in a region with an exceptionally long and rich historical record, allowing to document historical seismicity catalogues with unprecedented level of details. However, if the earthquake time series is well documented, location and lateral extent of past earthquakes remain often difficult to establish, if only based on historical testimonies. We excavated a palaeoseismic trench in a site located in a kilometre-size extensional jog, south of the Dead Sea, in the Wadi Araba. Based on the stratigraphy exposed in the trench, we present evidence for nine earthquakes that produced surface ruptures during a time period spanning 5000 yr. Abundance of datable material allows us to tie the five most recent events to historical earthquakes with little ambiguities, and to constrain the possible location of these historical earthquakes. The events identified at our site are the 1458 C.E., 1212 C.E., 1068 C.E., one event during the 8th century crisis, and the 363 C.E. earthquake. Four other events are also identified, which correlation with historical events remains more speculative. The magnitude of earthquakes is difficult to assess based on evidence at one site only. The deformation observed in the excavation, however, allows discriminating between two classes of events that produced vertical deformation with one order of amplitude difference, suggesting that we could distinguish earthquakes that started/stopped at our site from earthquakes that potentially ruptured most of the Wadi Araba fault. The time distribution of earthquakes during the past 5000 yr is uneven. The early period shows little activity with return interval of ˜500 yr or longer. It is followed by a ˜1500-yr-long period with more frequent events, about every 200 yr. Then, for the past ˜550 yr, the fault has switched back to a quieter mode

  1. 1,2-Dichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dichloropropane ; CASRN 78 - 87 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Diphenylhydrazine ; CASRN 122 - 66 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  3. 1,2-Dibromoethane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromoethane ; CASRN 106 - 93 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  4. On the Origin of Multidecadal to Centennial Greenland Temperature Anomalies Over the Past 800 yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobashi, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Kodera, K.; Box, J. E.; Nakaegawa, T.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    The surface temperature of the Greenland ice sheet is among the most important climate variables for assessing how climate change may impact human societies due to its association with sea level rise. However, the causes of multidecadal-to-centennial temperature changes in Greenland temperatures are not well understood, largely owing to short observational records. To examine these, we calculated the Greenland temperature anomalies (GTA[G-NH]) over the past 800 yr by subtracting the standardized northern hemispheric (NH) temperature from the standardized Greenland temperature. This decomposes the Greenland temperature variation into background climate (NH); polar amplification; and regional variability (GTA[G-NH]). The central Greenland polar amplification factor as expressed by the variance ratio Greenland/NH is 2.6 over the past 161 yr, and 3.3-4.2 over the past 800 yr. The GTA[G-NH] explains 31-35%of the variation of Greenland temperature in the multidecadal-to-centennial time scale over the past 800 yr. We found that the GTA[G-NH] has been influenced by solar-induced changes in atmospheric circulation patterns such as those produced by the North Atlantic Oscillation/Arctic Oscillation (NAO/AO). Climate modeling and proxy temperature records indicate that the anomaly is also likely linked to solar-paced changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and associated changes in northward oceanic heat transport.

  5. On the Response of Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) Stratospheric Oxone and Temperature to the 11-yr Solar Cycle Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented on responses in 14-yr time series of stratospheric ozone and temperature from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) to a solar cycle (SC-like) variation. The ozone time series are for ten, 20-degree wide, latitude bins from 45S to 45N and for thirteen "half-Umkehr" layers of about 2.5 km thickness and extending from 63 hPa to 0.7 hPa. The temperature time series analyses were restricted to pressure levels in the range of 2 hPa to 0.7 hPa. Multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques were applied to each of the 130 time series of zonally-averaged, sunrise plus sunset ozone points over that latitude/pressure domain. A simple, 11-yr periodic term and a linear trend term were added to the final MLR models after their seasonal and interannual terms had been determined. Where the amplitudes of the 11-yr terms were significant, they were in-phase with those of the more standard proxies for the solar uv-flux. The max minus min response for ozone is of order 2 to 3% from about 2 to 5 hPa and for the latitudes of 45S to 45N. There is also a significant max minus min response of order 1 K for temperature between 15S and 15N and from 2 to 0.7 hPa. The associated linear trends for ozone are near zero in the upper stratosphere. Negative ozone trends of 4 to 6%/decade were found at 10 to 20 hPa across the low to middle latitudes of both hemispheres. It is concluded that the analyzed responses from the HALOE data are of good quality and can be used to evaluate the responses of climate/chemistry models to a solar cycle forcing.

  6. Dental fear and sense of coherence among 18-yr-old adolescents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Sirkka; Rautava, Päivi; Saarinen, Maiju; Lahti, Satu; Mattila, Marja-Leena; Suominen, Sakari; Räihä, Hannele; Aromaa, Minna; Honkinen, Päivi-Leena; Sillanpää, Matti

    2013-06-01

    The aim was to investigate whether dental fear was associated with the sense of coherence (SOC) among 18-yr-old adolescents (n = 777). Cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort of a random sample of families from Finland and their first-born children were used. Dental fear was measured using the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale and categorized as high dental fear for scores of 19-25 and as no to moderate dental fear for scores of 5-18. Sense of coherence was measured using a 13-item version of Antonovsky's Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, dichotomized as scores 13-63 for weak SOC and as scores of 64-91 for strong SOC. Gender and education were included as background factors in the logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of high dental fear was 8%. Those reporting high dental fear reported more often a weaker SOC than did those with no to moderate dental fear (69% vs. 31%, OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.4), also when adjusted for gender and education (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-3.9). According to the theory of salutogenesis, as proposed by Antonovsky, SOC is a resource instrument especially in situations of tension or strain and hence a strong SOC might protect against high dental fear. PMID:23659257

  7. Drought variability in the Pacific Northwest from a 6,000-yr lake sediment record

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Abbott, Mark B.; Steinman, Byron; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Stansell, Nathan D.; Ortiz, Joseph D.; Rosenmeier, Michael F.; Finney, Bruce P.; Riedel, Jon

    2011-01-01

    We present a 6,000-yr record of changing water balance in the Pacific Northwest inferred from measurements of carbonate δ18O and grayscale on a sediment core collected from Castor Lake, Washington. This subdecadally resolved drought record tracks the 1,500-yr tree-ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions of Cook et al. [Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW (2004) Science 306:1015–1018] in the Pacific Northwest and extends our knowledge back to 6,000 yr B.P. The results demonstrate that low-frequency drought/pluvial cycles, with occasional long-duration, multidecadal events, are a persistent feature of regional climate. Furthermore, the average duration of multidecadal wet/dry cycles has increased since the middle Holocene, which has acted to increase the amplitude and impact of these events. This is especially apparent during the last 1,000 yr. We suggest these transitions were driven by changes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific and are related to apparent intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation over this interval and its related effects on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The Castor Lake record also corroborates the notion that the 20th century, prior to recent aridity, was a relatively wet period compared to the last 6,000 yr. Our findings suggest that the hydroclimate response in the Pacific Northwest to future warming will be intimately tied to the impact of warming on the El Niño Southern Oscillation. PMID:21368149

  8. Drought variability in the Pacific Northwest from a 6,000-yr lake sediment record.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Daniel B; Abbott, Mark B; Steinman, Byron; Polissar, Pratigya J; Stansell, Nathan D; Ortiz, Joseph D; Rosenmeier, Michael F; Finney, Bruce P; Riedel, Jon

    2011-03-01

    We present a 6,000-yr record of changing water balance in the Pacific Northwest inferred from measurements of carbonate δ(18)O and grayscale on a sediment core collected from Castor Lake, Washington. This subdecadally resolved drought record tracks the 1,500-yr tree-ring-based Palmer Drought Severity Index reconstructions of Cook et al. [Cook ER, Woodhouse CA, Eakin CM, Meko DM, Stahle DW (2004) Science 306:1015-1018] in the Pacific Northwest and extends our knowledge back to 6,000 yr B.P. The results demonstrate that low-frequency drought/pluvial cycles, with occasional long-duration, multidecadal events, are a persistent feature of regional climate. Furthermore, the average duration of multidecadal wet/dry cycles has increased since the middle Holocene, which has acted to increase the amplitude and impact of these events. This is especially apparent during the last 1,000 yr. We suggest these transitions were driven by changes in the tropical and extratropical Pacific and are related to apparent intensification of the El Niño Southern Oscillation over this interval and its related effects on the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The Castor Lake record also corroborates the notion that the 20th century, prior to recent aridity, was a relatively wet period compared to the last 6,000 yr. Our findings suggest that the hydroclimate response in the Pacific Northwest to future warming will be intimately tied to the impact of warming on the El Niño Southern Oscillation.

  9. Wisconsin Glaciation of the Sierra Nevada (79,000-15,000 yr B.P.) as recorded by rock flour in sediments of Owens Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Cummins, K.

    2001-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the clay-sized fractions of 564 continuous sediment samples (200-yr resolution) from composite core OL90/92 allow quantification of an abundance of glacial rock flour. Rock flour produced during glacier advances is represented by clay-sized plagioclase, K-feldspar, and biotite in homogeneous internal composition. The abundance of rock flour is deemed proportional to the intensity of glacies advances. Age control for the composite section is provided by combining previously published radiocarbon dates on organics, U/Th dates on ostracode shells, and U/Th dates on saline minerals from nearby Searles Lake correlated to OL92 by pollen. The rock flour record displays three levels of variability: (1) a dominant one of about 20,000 yr related to summer insolation and precipitation; (2) an intermediate one of 3000-5000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic Heinrich events; and (3) a minor one of 1000-2000 yr, perhaps related to North Atlantic thermohaline-driven air-temperature variation. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  10. Triton 2 (1B)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Michelle L.; Meiss, A. G.; Neher, Jason R.; Rudolph, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to perform a detailed design analysis on a conceptually designed preliminary flight trainer. The Triton 2 (1B) must meet the current regulations in FAR Part 23. The detailed design process included the tasks of sizing load carrying members, pulleys, bolts, rivets, and fuselage skin for the safety cage, empennage, and control systems. In addition to the regulations in FAR Part 23, the detail design had to meet established minimums for environmental operating conditions and material corrosion resistance.

  11. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A.; Carlson, P.R. ); Threlkeld, C.N.; Warden, A. )

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the [delta][sup +13]C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average [minus]29.3 0.1%. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average [delta][sup 13]C value of [minus]23.8 [+-]0.1%. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggestes a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt ([delta][sup +13]C = [minus]23.6%) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil-like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are given for tetraalkyl, tetraacid and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethane; (2) 1,1-bis (dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethane; or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2 trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  13. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Synthetic procedures are disclosed for tetraalkyls, tetraacids, and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis (dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethane, or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis (dialkylaryl) 1-aryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by the oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or aklyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  14. Substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and processes for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Synthetic procedures to tetraalkyls, tetraacids, and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl 2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethane, or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl) 1-aryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anilines. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  15. Substituted 1,1,1-Triaryl-2,2,2-Trifluoroethanes and Processes for their Synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alston, William B. (Inventor); Gratz, Roy F. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Synthetic procedures to tetraalkyls. tetraacids and dianhydrides substituted 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes which comprises: (1) 1.1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1-aryl-2,2,2 -trifluoroethane, (2) 1,1-bis(dicarboxyaryl)-1-aryl-2.2,2- trifluoroethane or (3) cyclic dianhydride or diamine of 1,1-bis(dialkylaryl)-1-aryl-2,2,2- trifluoroethanes. The synthesis of (1) is accomplished by the condensation reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with a dialkylaryl compound. The synthesis of (2) is accomplished by oxidation of (1). The synthesis dianhydride of (3) is accomplished by the conversion of (2) to its corresponding cyclic dianhydride. The synthesis of the diamine is accomplished by the similar reaction of an aryltrifluoromethyl ketone with aniline or alkyl substituted or disubstituted anihnes. Also, other derivatives of the above are formed by nucleophilic displacement reactions.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: XO-4b 3yr observations with DEMONEX (Villanueva+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, S. Jr; Eastman, J. D.; Gaudi, B. S.

    2016-06-01

    New observations of XO-4b were made using DEdicated MONitor of EXotransits (DEMONEX). DEMONEX monitored bright stars hosting known transiting planets over a 3yr period from 2008 to 2011 in order to provide a homogeneous data set of precise relative photometry for over 40 transiting systems. There are 20 nights of data from 2008 November to 2010 May taken during primary transits of XO-4b. All observations were made in the Sloan z band. (1 data file).

  17. Evaluation of marker-assisted selection for the stripe rust resistance gene Yr15, introgressed from wild emmer wheat

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Elitsur; Raats, Dina; Ronin, Yefim; Korol, Abraham B.; Grama, Adriana; Bariana, Harbans; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Schulman, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    Stripe rust disease is caused by the fungus Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and severely threatens wheat worldwide, repeatedly breaking resistance conferred by resistance genes and evolving more aggressive strains. Wild emmer wheat, Triticum dicoccoides, is an important source for novel stripe rust resistance (Yr) genes. Yr15, a major gene located on chromosome 1BS of T. dicoccoides, was previously reported to confer resistance to a broad spectrum of stripe rust isolates, at both seedling and adult plant stages. Introgressions of Yr15 into cultivated T. aestivum bread wheat and T. durum pasta wheat that began in the 1980s are widely used. In the present study, we aimed to validate SSR markers from the Yr15 region as efficient tools for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for introgression of Yr15 into wheat and to compare the outcome of gene introgression by MAS and by conventional phenotypic selection. Our findings establish the validity of MAS for introgression of Yr15 into wheat. We show that the size of the introgressed segment, defined by flanking markers, varies for both phenotypic selection and MAS. The genetic distance of the MAS marker from Yr15 and the number of backcross steps were the main factors affecting the length of the introgressed donor segments. Markers Xbarc8 and Xgwm493, which are the nearest flanking markers studied, were consistent and polymorphic in all 34 introgressions reported here and are therefore the most recommended markers for the introgression of Yr15 into wheat cultivars. Introgression directed by markers, rather than by phenotype, will facilitate simultaneous selection for multiple stripe rust resistant genes and will help to avoid escapees during the selection process.

  18. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  19. Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1931-01-01

    Boeing XF2B-1 (F2B-1): Serving as the prototype for the F2B-1 shipboard fighter, the XF2B-1 differed visually in having a pointed spinner and an unbalanced rudder. Like many aircraft of its day, the Boeing model 69 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.

  20. Z Draconis with two companions in a 2:1 mean-motion resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-Zhao; Şenavcι, Hakan Volkan; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2016-05-01

    All available mid-eclipse times of the eclipsing binary Z Draconis are analyzed, and three sets of cyclic variations with periods of 20.1, 29.96 and 59.88 yr are found. The low-amplitude variations with a period of 20.1 yr may be attributed to the unavoidable slight imperfection in the double-Keplerian model, which gives periods of 29.96 and 59.88 yr. Interestingly, the Z Draconis system is close to a 2:1 mean-motion resonance, or a 6:3:2 mean-motion resonance if the 20.1 yr period really exists. We also find that the best solutions tend to give the minimum eccentricities. Based on Kepler's third law, the outermost companion has a minimum mass of ˜ 0.77 M ⊙, whereas the middle companion is an M dwarf star with a mass of ˜ 0.40 M ⊙, suggesting that Z Draconis is a general N-body system.

  1. Z Draconis with two companions in a 2:1 mean-motion resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-Zhao; Şenavcι, Hakan Volkan; Qian, Sheng-Bang

    2016-05-01

    All available mid-eclipse times of the eclipsing binary Z Draconis are analyzed, and three sets of cyclic variations with periods of 20.1, 29.96 and 59.88 yr are found. The low-amplitude variations with a period of 20.1 yr may be attributed to the unavoidable slight imperfection in the double-Keplerian model, which gives periods of 29.96 and 59.88 yr. Interestingly, the Z Draconis system is close to a 2:1 mean-motion resonance, or a 6:3:2 mean-motion resonance if the 20.1 yr period really exists. We also find that the best solutions tend to give the minimum eccentricities. Based on Kepler's third law, the outermost companion has a minimum mass of ∼ 0.77 M ⊙, whereas the middle companion is an M dwarf star with a mass of ∼ 0.40 M ⊙, suggesting that Z Draconis is a general N-body system.

  2. Metabolism of 1-fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane, and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane.

    PubMed

    Yin, H; Jones, J P; Anders, M W

    1995-03-01

    1-Fluoro-1,1,2-trichloroethane (HCFC-131a), 1,2-dichloro-1,1-difluoroethane (HCFC-132b), and 1,1,1-trifluoro-2-chloroethane (HCFC-133a) were chosen as models for comparative metabolism studies on 1,1,1,2-tetrahaloethanes, which are under consideration as replacements for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Male Fischer 344 rats were given 10 mmol/kg ip HCFC-131a or HCFC-132b or exposed by inhalation to 1% HCFC-133a for 2 h. Urine collected in the first 24 h after exposure was analyzed by 19F NMR and GC/MS and with a fluoride-selective ion electrode for the formation of fluorine-containing metabolites. Metabolites of HCFC-131a included 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl glucuronide, 2,2-dichloro-2-fluoroethyl sulfate, dichlorofluoroacetic acid, and inorganic fluoride. Metabolites of HCFC-132b were characterized as 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl glucuronide, 2-chloro-2,2-difluoroethyl sulfate, chlorodifluoroacetic acid, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, and inorganic fluoride. HCFC-133a was metabolized to 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl glucuronide, trifluoroacetic acid, trifluoroacetaldehyde hydrate, trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct, inorganic fluoride, and a minor, unidentified metabolite. With HCFC-131a and HCFC-132b, glucuronide conjugates of 2,2,2-trihaloethanols were the major urinary metabolites, whereas with HCFC-133a, a trifluoroacetaldehyde-urea adduct was the major urinary metabolite. Analysis of metabolite distribution in vivo indicated that aldehydic metabolites increased as fluorine substitution increased in the order HCFC-131a < HCFC-132b < HCFC-133a. With NADPH-fortified rat liver microsomes, HCFC-133a and HCFC-132b were biotransformed to trifluoroacetaldehyde and chlorodifluoroacetaldehyde, respectively, whereas HCFC-131a was converted to dichlorofluoroacetic acid. No covalently bound metabolites were detected by 19F NMR spectroscopy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7766810

  3. 2300 yr history of seismicity from silting events in Lake Tadoussac, Charlevoix, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, R. )

    1990-09-01

    Silt layers in organic-rich lake sediments are interpreted to represent the historic earthquakes of 1638, 1663, 1791, 1870, and 1925 of the Charlevoix region of eastern Canada. This interpretation is based on the relative spacing of the layers and the accelerator-mass spectrometer {sup 14}C dating of a twig in one of the cores. The silt layers were presumably caused by landslides on tributary streams and by resuspension of the sediment. The cores contain up to 22 layers, 1 to 45 mm thick, over a depth equivalent to about 2300 yr. If there is a correlation between thickness and magnitude, there would have been four events of Richter magnitude 7.5 or greater in A.D. 1663, 1320, 60, and 320 B.C. The 18 other layers could correspond to earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 7. The recurrence interval from 300 B.C. to A.D. 800 is 120 yr, followed until A.D. 1500 by a quiet period, when there was a single large event. The recurrence interval from A.D. 1500 to the present is 75 yr.

  4. Blower upkeep, energy savings estimated at $20,000/yr

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, R.; Powers, J.

    1987-05-01

    Vinyl chloride gas must be removed from operating vessels in a polymerization process at Occidental Chemical, Addis, LA. If left intact, the gases can polymerize and form deposits. Considered for this function were reciprocating and liquid ring type compressors. They were rejected, however, because of anticipated high valve maintenance and energy consumption. Since high reliability and leak-free performance are essential, two double-mechanical-sealed, positive displacement blowers were installed with water injection in 1980. The blowers are designed for those special applications where gas leak tightness is required or where continuous, high-pressure or vacuum, single-stage or two-stage is needed. The lobe-type blowers were selected by Occidental because they were considered to be best suited for the low-pressure differential operation. All internal surfaces are specially cleaned to reduce contamination and may be operated with non-hydrocarbon lubricants. A back-up seal on the drive shaft provides protection against leakage of process gas to the atmosphere. Maintenance and energy savings are estimated at $20,000/yr. The blowers were used with the water injection technique because previous experience vinyl chloride monomer indicated that there were major deposits inside the compressors and ring units. The blowers have provided contaminant-free (oil-free) monomer, and the water injection has prevented the polymerization material from sticking to the surfaces of the blowers. This has ensured practically trouble-free operation, and has greatly reduced maintenance and operation downtime, significantly reducing cost.

  5. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  6. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  7. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  8. 26 CFR 1.453-1-1.453-2 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 1.453-1-1.453-2 Section 1.453-1-1.453-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Items of Gross Income Included §§ 1.453-11.453-2...

  9. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Mühle, J.; Weiss, R. F.; Salameh, P. K.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Ivy, D.; Prinn, R. G.

    2016-01-01

    High frequency, in situ observations from 11 globally distributed sites for the period 1994-2014 and archived air measurements dating from 1978 onward have been used to determine the global growth rate of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2). These observations have been combined with a range of atmospheric transport models to derive global emission estimates in a top-down approach. HFC-152a is a greenhouse gas with a short atmospheric lifetime of about 1.5 years. Since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The concentration of HFC-152a has grown substantially since the first direct measurements in 1994, reaching a maximum annual global growth rate of 0.84 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annual rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an annual average rate of growth in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The annual average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mole fraction in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to an annual average mole fraction of 10.1 ppt in 2014. Average annual mole fractions in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1998 and 2014 were 0.84 and 4.5 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mole fraction enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia, and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on

  10. Isla del Coco, on Cocos Plate, Converges with Isla de San Andrés, on the Caribbean Plate, at 78 mm/yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protti, M.; Gonzalez, V. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Doelger, S.

    2013-05-01

    Isla del Coco is the only land mass of the Cocos Plate that emerges above sea level. This makes it the only place where Cocos Plate motion can be measured using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) monitoring. Global Positioning System (GPS) observations have been carried out sporadically over more than two decades on Isla del Coco, allowing precise measurement of the motion of the Cocos Plate. Recently, in May 2011, a continuous GPS station was built and instrumented at Isla del Coco, in Wafer Bay, by OVSICORI UNA and UNAVCO, as part of the COCONet regional GNSS network. Position time series from this CGPS station (ISCO: Isla del Coco) show a steady motion of Isla del Coco at a speed of 90.9±1.5mm/yr in the N35oE direction in ITRF2008 and convergence with the Caribbean Plate at 78±1mm/yr. This result is consistent with the findings of the earliest GPS studies, and agrees within uncertainty with the estimated convergence rate of 76.4±2.6 mm/yr of the MORVEL plate motion model. MORVEL is based on an average over the last 780,000 years, and our result suggests that Cocos Caribbean plate motions have been constant over that time interval.

  11. Global and regional emissions estimates of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) from in situ and air archive observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmonds, P. G.; Rigby, M.; Manning, A. J.; Lunt, M. F.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; McCulloch, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Henne, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Reimann, S.; Wenger, A.; Mühle, J.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P. K.; Arnold, T.; Weiss, R. F.; Krummel, P. B.; Steele, L. P.; Dunse, B. L.; Miller, B. R.; Lunder, C. R.; Hermansen, O.; Schmidbauer, N.; Saito, T.; Yokouchi, Y.; Park, S.; Li, S.; Yao, B.; Zhou, L. X.; Arduini, J.; Maione, M.; Wang, R. H. J.; Prinn, R. G.

    2015-08-01

    High frequency, ground-based, in situ measurements from eleven globally-distributed sites covering 1994-2014, combined with measurements of archived air samples dating from 1978 onward and atmospheric transport models, have been used to estimate the growth of 1,1-difluoroethane (HFC-152a, CH3CHF2) mole fractions in the atmosphere and the global emissions required to derive the observed growth. HFC-152a is a significant greenhouse gas but since it does not contain chlorine or bromine, HFC-152a makes no direct contribution to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is therefore used as a substitute for the ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). HFC-152a has exhibited substantial atmospheric growth since the first measurements reaching a maximum annualised global growth rate of 0.81 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1 in 2006, implying a substantial increase in emissions up to 2006. However, since 2007, the annualised rate of growth has slowed to 0.38 ± 0.04 ppt yr-1 in 2010 with a further decline to an average rate of change in 2013-2014 of -0.06 ± 0.05 ppt yr-1. The average Northern Hemisphere (NH) mixing ratio in 1994 was 1.2 ppt rising to a mixing ratio of 10.2 ppt in December 2014. Average annual mixing ratios in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) in 1994 and 2014 were 0.34 and 4.4 ppt, respectively. We estimate global emissions of HFC-152a have risen from 7.3 ± 5.6 Gg yr-1 in 1994 to a maximum of 54.4 ± 17.1 Gg yr-1 in 2011, declining to 52.5 ± 20.1 Gg yr-1 in 2014 or 7.2 ± 2.8 Tg-CO2 eq yr-1. Analysis of mixing ratio enhancements above regional background atmospheric levels suggests substantial emissions from North America, Asia and Europe. Global HFC emissions (so called "bottom up" emissions) reported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are based on cumulative national emission data reported to the UNFCCC, which in turn are based on national consumption data. There appears to be a significant

  12. Neurocognitive outcomes at kindergarten entry after liver transplantation at <3 yr of age.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Charlene M T; Dinu, Irina A; Joffe, Ari R; Alton, Gwen Y; Yap, Jason Y K; Asthana, Sonel; Acton, Bryan V; Sauve, Reg S; Martin, Steven R; Kneteman, Norman M; Gilmour, Susan M

    2013-11-01

    This prospective inception cohort study determines kindergarten-entry neurocognitive abilities and explores their predictors following liver transplantation at age <3 yr. Of 52 children transplanted (1999-2008), 33 (89.2%) of 37 eligible survivors had psychological assessment at age 54.7 (8.4) months: 21 with biliary atresia, seven chronic cholestasis, and five acute liver failure. Neurocognitive scores (mean [s.d.], 100 [15]) as tested by a pediatric-experienced psychologist did not differ in relation to age group at transplant (≤12 months and >12 months): FSIQ, 93.9 (17.1); verbal (VIQ), 95.3 (16.5); performance (PIQ), 94.3 (18.1); and VMI, 90.5 (15.9), with >70% having scores ≥85, average or above. Adverse predictors from the pretransplant, transplant, and post-transplant (30 days) periods using univariate linear regressions for FSIQ were post-transplant use of inotropes, p = 0.029; longer transplant warm ischemia time, p = 0.035; and post-transplant highest serum creatinine, (p = 0.04). For PIQ, they were pretransplant encephalopathy, p = 0.027; post-transplant highest serum creatinine, p = 0.034; and post-transplant inotrope use, p = 0.037. For VMI, they were number of post-transplant infections, p = 0.019; post-transplant highest serum creatinine, p = 0.025; and lower family socioeconomic index, p = 0.039. Changes in care addressing modifiable predictors, including reducing acute post-transplant illness, pretransplant encephalopathy, transplant warm ischemia times, and preserving renal function, may improve neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:23961979

  13. 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane (CFC-113)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,1,2 - Trichloro - 1,2,2 - trifluoroethane ( CFC - 113 ) ; CASRN 76 - 13 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health

  14. The ˜ 1245 yr BP Asososca maar: New advances on recent volcanic stratigraphy of Managua (Nicaragua) and hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, Natalia; Avellán, Denis Ramón; Macías, José Luis; Scolamacchia, Teresa; Rodríguez, Dionisio

    2008-10-01

    Asososca maar is located at the western outskirts of Managua, Nicaragua, in the central part of the active, N-S trending and right-lateral Nejapa-Miraflores fault that marks an offset of the Middle America Volcanic Arc. It constitutes one of the ˜ 21 vents aligned along the fault, between the Chiltepe Volcanic Complex to the North and Ticomo vents to the South. Asososca consists of an East-West elongated crater filled by a lake, which is currently used for supplying part of Managua with drinking water (10% of the capital city demand). The crater excavated the previous topography, allowing the observation of a detailed Holocene stratigraphic record that should be taken into account for future hazard analyses. We present a geological map together with the detailed stratigraphy exposed inside and around Asososca crater aided by radiocarbon dating of paleosols. The pre-existing volcanic sequence excavated by Asososca is younger than 12,730 + 255/- 250 yr BP and is capped by the phreato-plinian Masaya Tuff (< 2000 yr BP). The pyroclastic deposits produced by Asososca maar (Asososca Tephra, in this work) display an asymmetric distribution around the crater and overlie the Masaya Tuff. The bulk of the Asososca Tephra is made of several bedsets consisting of massive to crudely stratified beds of blocks and lapilli at the base, and superimposed thinly stratified ash and lapilli beds with dune structures and impact sags. Coarser size-fractions (>- 2 ϕ) are dominated by accidental clasts, including basaltic to basaltic-andesitic, olivine-bearing scoriae lapilli, porphyritic and hypocrystalline andesite blocks and lapilli, altered pumice lapilli and ash, and ignimbrite fragments. Juvenile fragments were only identified in size-fractions smaller than - 1 ϕ in proportions lower than 25%, and consist of black moss-like, fused-shape, and poorly vesiculated, fresh glass fragments of basaltic composition (SiO 2 ˜ 48%). The Asososca Tephra is interpreted as due to the emplacement

  15. Cat sensitivity: 7-yr audit in children attending a paediatric allergy clinic in North Italy.

    PubMed

    Pescollderungg, L; Pietrobelli, A; Boner, A L

    2000-11-01

    Sensitivity to cats and exposure to cat allergen is a common cause of asthma exacerbation in children. To date, there is no data on the prevalence of cat sensitivity in children living in North Italy. Therefore, a 7-yr survey was performed in patients attending an allergy clinic for the first time. Skin prick tests (SPT) for perennial allergens and for pollens relevant to the region were performed in 4,957 children attending the outpatient clinic 1992-1998. A questionnaire on present or past cat ownership was presented to all cat-skin prick test positive children. An evaluation of cat ownership on the general population was made by telephone interview on a random sample of 1,268 families living in the same area. With a 3-mm wheal as a positive cut-off 439 (8.85%) children had a positive SPT to cats. Of these 103 (23.4%) had a cat at home and 336 (76.6%) never had a cat in the house. With a greater positive cut-off(a wheal diameter > or =4 mm) 140 (2.8%) showed a positive SPT to cats of these 35 (25%) had a cat at home and 105 (75%) had only an indirect exposure to the pet. Of the telephone interviewed families; 16% stated they had a cat at home. Cat sensitivity is less prevalent in Italy, in this hospital based population, compared with other European countries and this is in agreement with a lower rate of cat ownership. Cat sensitivity was three times more frequent in children who never had a cat at home, than in children living with cats, when the selected positive cut-off was either a wheal diameter of 3 mm or > or =4 mm. Thus in a population with a low prevalence of cat ownership public exposure seems to be more important than domestic exposure for the development of sensitivity.

  16. Equilibria of 1,1,2,-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on activated carbons

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, S.Y.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1995-07-01

    ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs) are now considered to be the prime contribution to stratospheric ozone depletion. As a result, the use of activated carbons to adsorb specific CFCs has received great attention. In this paper, the equilibrium adsorption characteristics of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane vapor on different-shaped carbons were studied. Adsorption isotherms of 1,2,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on an activated carbon pellet and an activated carbon felt were measured. The equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon pellet having a dual pore structure were expressed by the Redlich-Peterson equation, and equilibrium constants were expressed as functions of temperature from 298 to 393 K. On the other hand, the equilibria of 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane on the activated carbon felt having a relatively uniform pore structure were interpreted by the Dubinin-Radushkevich correlation based on the micropore volume filling theory. The affinity coefficient was correlated by the molar polarization.

  17. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation.

  18. The Liang Bua faunal remains: a 95k.yr. sequence from Flores, East Indonesia.

    PubMed

    van den Bergh, G D; Meijer, H J M; Due Awe, Rokhus; Morwood, M J; Szabó, K; van den Hoek Ostende, L W; Sutikna, T; Saptomo, E W; Piper, P J; Dobney, K M

    2009-11-01

    Excavations at Liang Bua, a limestone cave on the island of Flores, East Indonesia, have yielded a well-dated archaeological and faunal sequence spanning the last 95k.yr., major climatic fluctuations, and two human species -H. floresiensis from 95 to 17k.yr.(1), and modern humans from 11k.yr. to the present. The faunal assemblage comprises well-preserved mammal, bird, reptile and mollusc remains, including examples of island gigantism in small mammals and the dwarfing of large taxa. Together with evidence from Early-Middle Pleistocene sites in the Soa Basin, it confirms the long-term isolation, impoverishment, and phylogenetic continuity of the Flores faunal community. The accumulation of Stegodon and Komodo dragon remains at the site in the Pleistocene is attributed to Homo floresiensis, while predatory birds, including an extinct species of owl, were largely responsible for the accumulation of the small vertebrates. The disappearance from the sequence of the two large-bodied, endemic mammals, Stegodon florensis insularis and Homo floresiensis, was associated with a volcanic eruption at 17 ka and precedes the earliest evidence for modern humans, who initiated use of mollusc and shell working, and began to introduce a range of exotic animals to the island. Faunal introductions during the Holocene included the Sulawesi warty pig (Sus celebensis) at about 7ka, followed by the Eurasian pig (Sus scrofa), Long-tailed macaque, Javanese porcupine, and Masked palm civet at about 4ka, and cattle, deer, and horse - possibly by the Portuguese within historic times. The Holocene sequence at the site also documents local faunal extinctions - a result of accelerating human population growth, habitat loss, and over-exploitation. PMID:19058833

  19. DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 results and perspectives of the phase2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernabei, R.; Belli, P.; Cappella, F.; Caracciolo, V.; Cerulli, R.; Dai, C. J.; d'Angelo, A.; d'Angelo, S.; Di Marco, A.; He, H. L.; Incicchitti, A.; Kuang, H. H.; Ma, X. H.; Montecchia, F.; Sheng, X. D.; Wang, R. G.; Ye, Z. P.

    2016-07-01

    The DAMA/LIBRA experiment (˜ 250 kg of highly radio-pure NaI(Tl)) is running deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS) of the I.N.F.N. Here we briefly recall the results obtained in its first phase of measurements (DAMA/LIBRA-phase1; total exposure: 1.04 ton × yr). DAMA/LIBRA-phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI (cumulative exposure: 1.33 ton × yr) give evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo by exploiting the model-independent DM annual modulation signature. No systematic or side reaction able to mimic the exploited DM signature has been found or suggested by anyone over more than a decade. At present DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 is running with increased sensitivity.

  20. A level change in mutagenicity of Japanese tap water over the past 12 yr.

    PubMed

    Takanashi, Hirokazu; Kishida, Misako; Nakajima, Tsunenori; Ohki, Akira; Akiba, Michihiro

    2011-05-01

    A relative comparison study of mutagenicity in Japanese tap water was conducted for 1993 and 2005 surveys. It intended to assess the effects of advanced water treatment installations to water works, improvement of raw water quality and improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling. Sampling points (taps) were the same in both surveys. The results of 245 samples obtained by the Ames Salmonella mutagenicity test (Ames test) were analyzed. The Ames tests were conducted by using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains with and without exogenous activation (S9). With the exception of TA100-S9, the other conditions needed no discussion as a factor in the mutagenicity level change. The average mutagenicity in 1993 and 2005 under the conditions of TA100-S9 were 2600 and 1100 net revertantL(-1), respectively. This indicated that the mutagenicity level of Japanese tap water decreased during the 12-yr period. Particularly a remarkable decrease in mutagenicity was observed in the water works where the advanced water treatments were installed during the 12-yr period. The advanced water treatments were effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water. Mutagenicity also decreased in the water works with conventional water treatments; the improvement of residual HOCl concentration controlling was also considered to be effective in decreasing the mutagenicity of tap water.

  1. Diatom evidence for earthquake-induced subsidence and tsunami 300 yr ago in southern coastal Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hemphill-Haley, E.

    1995-01-01

    Fossil diatoms from four stratigraphic sections along the tidal Niawiakum River, southwestern Washington, provide an independent paleoecological test of a relative sea-level rise that has been attributed to subsidence during an inferred earthquake in the Cascadia subduction zone about 300 yr ago. Diatom assemblages in a buried soil and overlying mud indicate a sudden and lasting shift from marshes and forests near or above highest tides to mud flats and incipient tidal marshes, with a progressive return to high-level tidal marshes by sediment aggradation and, perhaps, gradual tectonic uplift. The maount of coseismic submergence required to generate the paleoecological changes observed at these sites could have ranged from a minimum of 0.8-1.0m to a maximum of ~3.0m. The following tsunami extended farther landward than was previously inferred from the stratigraphy. These data rule out proposed alternatives to the coseismic subsidence model - that is, climatically induced sea-level rise, temporary submergence caused by storms - and support the hypothesis that a great earthquake struck southwestern Washington 300 yr ago. -from Author

  2. Risk indicators for dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway.

    PubMed

    Mulic, Aida; Skudutyte-Rysstad, Rasa; Tveit, Anne B; Skaare, Anne B

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to investigate risk indicators associated with dental erosive wear among 18-yr-old subjects in Oslo, Norway. Of 3,206 adolescents invited to participate in a screening examination for erosive wear, 1,456 were examined (giving a response rate of 45%). As part of the examination all participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Associations between the presence of erosive lesions and the possible risk indicators were assessed by logistic regression analyses, taking into account the hierarchical relationships between the independent variables. Of all 18-yr-old subjects examined, 38% had at least one tooth with erosive lesions. Multivariate analyses showed significant associations between the presence of erosive wear and being male, brushing teeth once per day or less, episodes of vomiting, daily/weekly episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux, consumption of fruit juice and sugary soft drinks several times per day, as well as consumption of sugary soft drinks daily to once per week. In conclusion, in addition to gender, dietary habits such as frequent consumption of fruit juice and sugary soft drinks, and the occurrence of reflux and vomiting, appear to be risk indicators for erosive wear. When counselling adolescents at risk, the gender-specific risk indicators should be taken into account.

  3. A 33 yr constancy of the X-ray coronae of AR Lac and eclipse diagnosis of scale height

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Ratzlaff, Peter; Kashyap, Vinay; Wargelin, Bradford J.; Huenemoerder, David P.; Pease, Deron O.

    2014-03-01

    Extensive X-ray and EUV photometric observations of the eclipsing RS CVn system AR Lac were obtained over the years 1997-2013 with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Extreme-Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). During primary eclipse, High Resolution Camera count rates decrease by ∼40%. A similar minimum is seen during one primary eclipse observed by EUVE but not in others owing to intrinsic source variability. Little evidence for secondary eclipses is present in either the X-ray or EUV data, reminiscent of earlier X-ray and EUV observations. Primary eclipses allow us to estimate the extent of a spherically symmetric corona on the primary G star of about 1.3 R {sub ☉}, or 0.86 R {sub *}, and indicate that the G star is likely brighter than the K component by a factor of 2-5. Brightness changes not attributable to eclipses appear to be dominated by stochastic variability and are generally non-repeating. X-ray and EUV light curves cannot therefore be reliably used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of emission assuming that only eclipses and rotational modulation are at work. Moderate flaring is observed, where count rates increase by up to a factor of three above quiescence. Combined with older ASCA, Einstein, EXOSAT, ROSAT, and BeppoSAX observations, the data show that the level of quiescent coronal emission at X-ray wavelengths has remained remarkably constant over 33 yr, with no sign of variation due to magnetic cycles. Variations in base level X-ray emission seen by Chandra over 13 yr are only ∼10%, while variations back to pioneering Einstein observations in 1980 amount to a maximum of 45% and more typically about 15%.

  4. Bone mineral density of the calcaneus in 70- to 81-yr-old male athletes and a population sample.

    PubMed

    Suominen, H; Rahkila, P

    1991-11-01

    Bone mineral content (BMC/W) and density (BMD) were studied in 70- to 81-yr-old active male endurance-trained (long-distance runners, cross-country skiers, N = 67), strength-trained (throwers, weight-lifters, N = 14), and speed-trained (sprinters, jumpers, N = 16) athletes. A population sample of similar age (N = 42) served as a control group. The measurements were performed at the calcaneus by single-energy photon absorption. The endurance-trained athletes had higher bone width and depth, and the strength and speed-trained athletes higher bone depth than the control subjects. The three groups of athletes showed 19-28% higher BMC (g.cm-1) and BMC/W (g.cm-2) than the control group (P less than 0.01-0.001). When the results were corrected for bone depth by assessing BMD (g.cm-3), the mean differences between the athletes and controls were 11-16% (P less than 0.05-0.01, not significant for the strength group). The highest BMD values were associated with moderate training for running and cross-country skiing. BMD did not correlate with serum total testosterone, but there was a negative correlation between BMD and sex hormone binding globulin and a positive correlation between BMD and the free androgen index in the endurance group. The results indicate that athletes having a long-term training history and being still active at over 70 yr of age preserve superior trabecular bone mass compared with the average male population of the same age.

  5. 2000 yr record of Sacramento-San Joaquin river inflow to San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil bivalves (Macoma nasuta) contained in estuarine sediment are used to reconstruct a late Holocene record of salinity and stream flow in San Francisco Bay. Discharge into the bay is a particularly good indicator of paleoclimate in California because the bay`s influent streams drain 40% of the state. The isotopic record suggests that between about 1670 and 1900 calendar years (yr cal) B.P. inflow to the bay was substantially greater than the estimated prediversion inflow of 1100 M{sup 3}/s. An unconformity representing a 900 yr hiatus is present in the core between 1670 and 750 yr cal B.P., possibly caused by a major hydrological event. Over the past 750 yr, stream flow to San Francisco Bay has varied with a period of 200 yr; alternate wet and dry (drought) intervals typically have lasted 40 to 160 yr. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  6. A 2000 yr record of Sacramento San Joaquin River inflow to San Francisco Bay estuary, California

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Ingle, J.C.; Conrad, M.E.

    1995-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotopic measurements of fossil bivalves (Macoma nasuta) contained in estuarine sediment are used to reconstruct a late Holocene record of salinity and stream flow in San Francisco Bay. Discharge into the bay is a particularly good indicator of paleoclimate in California because the bay's influent streams drain 40 percent of the state, The isotopic record suggests that between about 1670 and 1900 calendar years (yr cal) B.P. inflow to the bay was substantially greater than the estimated prediversion inflow of 1100 m(3)/s, An unconformity representing a 900 yr hiatus is present in the core between 1670 and 750 yr cal B.P., possibly caused by a major hydrological event. Over the past 750 yr, stream flow to San Francisco Bay has varied with a period of 200 yr; alternate wet and dry (drought) intervals typically have lasted 40 to 160 yr.

  7. The 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes and process for their synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kray, W. D.; Rosser, R. W. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    New 1,1,1-triaryl-2,2,2-trifluoroethanes in which the aryl radicals carry one or more substituents were prepared by condensation of trifluoroacetophenones with substituted phenyl compounds in the presence of catalytic quantities of trifluoromethylsulfonic acid. The reaction can be carried out under reflux in toluene or, for strikingly better results in certain cases, reactants are simply stirred at room temperature for about 24 to 48 hours.

  8. TOUGH V2.1

    2011-06-01

    TOUGH2 is a numerical simulator for nonisothermal flows of multicomponent, multiphase fluids in one-, two-, and three-dimensional porous and fracture media. The chief applications for which TOUGH2 is designed are in geothermal reservoir engineering, nuclear waste disposal, environmental assessment and remediation, geologic carbon sequestration, and unsaturated and saturated zone hydrology. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package is an upgrade of TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574) and includes the following improvements and enhancements relative to TOUGH2 V2.0: - Includes allmore » known bug fixes - The module TMVOC (CR-1820) is fully integrated - The module ECO2N (CR-2202) is fully integrated - A fluid property module ECO2M has been added, that can seamlessly model CO2 storage and leakage scenarios, including transitions between super- and sub-critical fluids, and phase changes between liquid and gaseous CO2. The TOUGH2 V2.1 package also supports all legacy fluid property modules, i.e., those packaged into TOUGH2 V2.0 (CR-1574), which includes T2VOC (CR-1254).« less

  9. Characterisation of a new stripe rust resistance gene Yr47 and its genetic association with the leaf rust resistance gene Lr52.

    PubMed

    Bansal, U K; Forrest, K L; Hayden, M J; Miah, H; Singh, D; Bariana, H S

    2011-05-01

    Two Iranian common wheat landraces AUS28183 and AUS28187 from the Watkins collection showed high levels of seedling resistance against Australian pathotypes of leaf rust and stripe rust pathogens. Chi-squared analyses of rust response segregation among F(3) populations derived from crosses of AUS28183 and AUS28187 with a susceptible genotype AUS27229 revealed monogenic inheritance of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance. As both genotypes produced similar leaf rust and stripe rust infection types, they were assumed to carry the same genes. The genes were temporarily named as LrW1 and YrW1. Molecular mapping placed LrW1 and YrW1 in the short arm of chromosome 5B, about 10 and 15 cM proximal to the SSR marker gwm234, respectively, and the marker cfb309 mapped 8-12 cM proximal to YrW1. LrW1 mapped 3-6 cM distal to YrW1 in two F(3) populations. AUS28183 corresponded to the accession V336 of the Watkins collection which was the original source of Lr52. Based on the genomic location and accession records, LrW1 was concluded to be Lr52. Because no other seedling stripe rust resistance gene has previously been mapped in chromosome 5BS, YrW1 was permanently named as Yr47. A combination of flanking markers gwm234 and cfb309 with phenotypic assays could be used to ascertain the presence of Lr52 and Yr47 in segregating populations. This investigation characterised a valuable source of dual leaf rust and stripe rust resistance for deployment in new wheat cultivars. Transfer of Lr52 and Yr47 into current Australian wheat backgrounds is in progress.

  10. Near 3:2 and 2:1 mean motion resonance formation in the systems observed by Kepler

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Su; Ji, Jianghui E-mail: jijh@pmo.ac.cn

    2014-11-01

    The Kepler mission has released ∼4229 transiting planet candidates. There are approximately 222 candidate systems with three planets. Among them, the period ratios of planet pairs near 1.5 and 2.0 reveal that two peaks exist for which the proportions of the candidate systems are ∼7.0% and 18.0%, respectively. In this work, we study the formation of mean motion resonance (MMR) systems, particularly for the planetary configurations near 3:2 and 2:1 MMRs, and we concentrate on the interplay between the resonant configuration and the combination of stellar accretion rate, stellar magnetic field, speed of migration, and additional planets. We perform more than 1000 runs by assuming a system with a solar-like star and three surrounding planets. From the statistical results, we find that under the formation scenario, the proportions near 1.5 and 2.0 can reach 14.5% and 26.0%, respectively. In addition, M-dot =0.1×10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} is propitious toward the formation of 3:2 resonance, whereas M-dot =2×10{sup −8} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} contributes to the formation of 2:1 resonance. The speed-reduction factor of type I migration f {sub 1} ≥ 0.3 facilitates 3:2 MMRs, whereas f {sub 1} ≥ 0.1 facilitates 2:1 MMRs. If additional planets are present in orbits within the innermost or beyond the outermost planet in a three-planet system, 3:2:1 MMRs can be formed, but the original systems trapped in 4:2:1 MMRs are not affected by the supposed planets. In summary, we conclude that this formation scenario will provide a likely explanation for Kepler candidates involved in 2:1 and 3:2 MMRs.

  11. CO J = 2-1 EMISSION FROM EVOLVED STARS IN THE GALACTIC BULGE

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, Benjamin A.; Meixner, M.; Patel, N. A.; Otsuka, M.; Srinivasan, S.; Riebel, D.

    2013-03-01

    We observe a sample of eight evolved stars in the Galactic bulge in the CO J = 2-1 line using the Submillimeter Array with angular resolution of 1''-4''. These stars have been detected previously at infrared wavelengths, and several of them have OH maser emission. We detect CO J = 2-1 emission from three of the sources in the sample: OH 359.943 +0.260, [SLO2003] A12, and [SLO2003] A51. We do not detect the remaining five stars in the sample because of heavy contamination from the galactic CO emission. Combining CO data with observations at infrared wavelengths constraining dust mass loss from these stars, we determine the gas-to-dust ratios of the Galactic bulge stars for which CO emission is detected. For OH 359.943 +0.260, we determine a gas mass-loss rate of 7.9 ({+-}2.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 310 ({+-}89). For [SLO2003] A12, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 5.4 ({+-}2.8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 220 ({+-}110). For [SLO2003] A51, we find a gas mass-loss rate of 3.4 ({+-}3.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and a gas-to-dust ratio of 160 ({+-}140), reflecting the low quality of our tentative detection of the CO J = 2-1 emission from A51. We find that the CO J = 2-1 detections of OH/IR stars in the Galactic bulge require lower average CO J = 2-1 backgrounds.

  12. cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    cis - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 59 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  13. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  14. ex1ex2v2 Version 2.10

    SciTech Connect

    SJAARDEMA, GREGORY; SMITH, MARILYN; YARBERRY, VICTOR

    2007-09-12

    ex1ex2v2 is a translator program which will convert a database in exodus1 format to exodusII format. The exodus 1 format is a defined series of Fortran unformatted writes/reads; the exodusII format is defined by the ExodusII API.

  15. Search for X-ray induced decay of the 31-yr isomer of 178Hf using synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Bredeweg, T A; Cooper, J R; Gemmell, D S; Kraemer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Palmer, P; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2004-09-13

    Isomeric {sup 178}Hf (t{sub 1/2} = 31 yr, E{sub x} = 2.446 MeV, J{sup {pi}} = 16{sup +}) was bombarded by a white beam of x-rays from the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. A search was made for x-ray induced decay of the isomer by detecting prompt and delayed {gamma} rays associated with the decay. No induced decay was observed. Upper limits for such a process for x-ray energies between 7-100 keV were set. The limits between 7 and 30 keV are below {approx} 3 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that bypasses the 4-s isomer and {approx} 5 x 10{sup -27} cm{sup 2}-keV for induced decay that is delayed through this isomer, orders of magnitude below values at which induced decay was reported previously. These limits are consistent with what is known about the properties of atomic nuclei.

  16. Isolation of an Yr5 candidate gene for resistance to wheat stripe rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Yr5 gene from the Triticum spelta album wheat confers resistance to all races of the wheat stripe rust pathogen (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) identified so far in the US. To cloneYr5, a sequence tagged site (STS) marker developed from resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) markers co...

  17. Treatment of vasculitis and dermatitis in a 59-yr-old Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria; Reeder, Chris

    2012-09-01

    A 59-yr-old female Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) was diagnosed and treated for severe dermatitis. Lesions included large areas of depigmentation, erosions, and ulcerations on glabrous skin areas, limbs, and perineal region. Histopathologic lesions included a markedly edematous, focally eroded, ulcerative to necrotic epidermis; foci of keratinocyte apoptosis; and a mixed suppurative dermatitis. Most of the dermal vessels had variable hyalinized walls with plump endothelial cells and frequent intramural neutrophils, and some vessels had vascular thrombi consistent with vasculitis. Culture of the lesions yielded beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Morganella morgannii, and Enterococcus sp. The hippopotamus was successfully treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and pentoxifylline for more than 2 mo, and the condition did not recur over the subsequent 16 mo.

  18. Treatment of vasculitis and dermatitis in a 59-yr-old Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Maria; Reeder, Chris

    2012-09-01

    A 59-yr-old female Nile hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) was diagnosed and treated for severe dermatitis. Lesions included large areas of depigmentation, erosions, and ulcerations on glabrous skin areas, limbs, and perineal region. Histopathologic lesions included a markedly edematous, focally eroded, ulcerative to necrotic epidermis; foci of keratinocyte apoptosis; and a mixed suppurative dermatitis. Most of the dermal vessels had variable hyalinized walls with plump endothelial cells and frequent intramural neutrophils, and some vessels had vascular thrombi consistent with vasculitis. Culture of the lesions yielded beta-hemolytic Streptococcus, Morganella morgannii, and Enterococcus sp. The hippopotamus was successfully treated with sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, amoxicillin, and pentoxifylline for more than 2 mo, and the condition did not recur over the subsequent 16 mo. PMID:23082536

  19. Centennial and millennial-scale hydroclimate changes in northwestern Patagonia since 16,000 yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Patricio I.; Videla, Javiera

    2016-10-01

    We examine hydroclimate changes at centennial/millennial timescales since 16,000 yr BP in northwestern Patagonia based on the pollen and charcoal record from Lago El Salto, a small closed-basin lake located in the Chilean Lake District (41°38‧48.02″S, 73° 5‧48.42″W). We observe cold/wet conditions between 14,500-16,000 yr BP, followed by further cooling with increased precipitation until 13,000 yr BP, enhanced precipitation seasonality and/or variability between 11,600-13,000 yr BP, and an extended warm-and-dry interval between 7600 and 11,300 yr BP with peak paleofire activity. Colder-and-wetter than present conditions and muted paleofire activity prevail between 5300 and 7600 yr BP, followed by alternating cold/wet and centennial-scale warm/dry phases starting at 5300 yr BP with three conspicuous megadroughts since 2500 yr BP. The most recent megadrought occurred during the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We identify a cold reversal that spans the Antarctic Cold Reversal (ACR) and the Younger Dryas (YD) chrons with stronger-than-present westerly influence during the former and enhanced variability during the latter. These results extend the northern limit of strong cooling and increase in precipitation during the ACR and the southern limit of influence of strong hydrologic variations during the YD in terrestrial environments, suggesting an overlap in the spheres of influence of processes originating from southern and northern polar latitudes. An extended warm southern westerly wind (SWW)-minimum interval is evident between 7600 and 11,300 yr BP, followed by a rapid shift to cool-moist conditions between 5300 and 7600 yr BP brought by a mid-Holocene SWW maximum. Since then we observe centennial-scale hydroclimate variability, which has driven biodiversity and fire-regime shifts of evergreen temperate rainforests.

  20. Pathway for Biodegrading Microcystin-YR by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huimin; Wang, Huasheng; Xu, Qianqian; Lv, Le; Yin, Chunhua; Liu, Xiaolu; Du, Hongwu; Yan, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Harmful cyanobacterial blooms in waters have become a global environmental problem, this mainly due to the production and release of various microalgal toxins, in which microcystins (MCs) are distributed widely. Here, we focused on the study of a typical form of microcystins called microcystin-YR (MC-YR). It was found that initial 14.8 mg/L of MC-YR could be completely eliminated within 10 hr by the crude enzymes (CEs) of Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05, a promising bacterial strain we isolated and identified in our previous study. During the enzymatic biodegradation of MC-YR with time course, the peaks of two intermediate and two final products were observed on the profiles of HPLC at the wavelengths of 238 nm and 230 nm, respectively. Based on the analysis of m/z ratios of MC-YR and its four products by LC-MS/MS, we suggested that at least four enzymes were involved in the biodegradation of MC-YR by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05. The first enzyme microcystinase converted cyclic MC-YR to linear MC-YR as the first product. Then the second enzyme serine protease was found to cleave the target peptide bond between alanine (Ala) and tyrosine (Tyr) of linearized MC-YR, producing a tetrapeptide and a tripeptide as second products, which were Adda-Glu-Mdha-Ala and Tyr-Masp-Arg, respectively. Next, the third enzyme peptidase converted the tetrapeptide of Adda-Glu-Mdha-Ala to Adda. And the fourth enzyme cleaved the tripeptide of Tyr-Masp-Arg to produce Tyr and dipeptide (Masp-Arg), which has never been reported. These findings will help us better understand the biodegradation pathway of MC-YR by Sphingopyxis sp. USTB-05. PMID:25919632

  1. M2-F1 cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This photo shows the cockpit configuration of the M2-F1 wingless lifting body. With a top speed of about 120 knots, the M2-F1 had a simple instrument panel. Besides the panel itself, the ribs of the wooden shell (left) and the control stick (center) are also visible. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne to prove it could fly safely and to train pilots before they were towed behind a C-47

  2. RASCAL Version 2.1 workbook. Volume 2, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Athey, G.F.; Sjoreen, A.L.; McKenna, T.J.

    1994-12-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) was developed for use by the NRC personnel who respond to radiological emergencies. This workbook complements the RASCAL 2.1 User`s guide (NUREG/CR-5247, Vol. 1, Rev. 2). The workbook contains exercises designed to familiarize the user with the computer-based tools of RASCAL through hands-on problem solving. The workbook contains four major sections. The first is a RASCAL familiarization exercise to acquaint the user with the operation of the forms, menus, online help, and documentation. The latter three sections contain exercises in using the three tools of RASCAL Version 2.1: DECAY, FM-DOSE, and ST-DOSE. A discussion section describing how the tools could be used to solve the problems follows each set of exercises.

  3. trans-1,2-Dichloroethylene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    trans - 1,2 - Dichloroethylene ; CASRN 156 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for No

  4. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  5. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  6. 1,2-Epoxybutane (EBU)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Epoxybutane ( EBU ) ; CASRN 106 - 88 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  7. Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NO x -hydrocarbon chemistry: 1. Model formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuhang; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    1998-05-01

    We describe a global three-dimensional model for tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry with synoptic-scale resolution. A suite of 15 chemical tracers, including O3, NOx, PAN, HNO3, CO, H2O2, and various hydrocarbons, is simulated in the model. For computational expediency, chemical production and loss of tracers are parameterized as polynomial functions to fit the results of a detailed O3-NOx-hydrocarbon mechanism. The model includes state-of-the-art inventories of anthropogenic emissions and process-based formulations of natural emissions and deposition that are tied to the model meteorology. Improvements are made to existing schemes for computing biogenic emissions of isoprene and NO. Our best estimates of global emissions include among others 42 Tg N yr-1 for NOx (21 Tg N yr-1 from fossil fuel combustion, 12 Tg N yr-1 from biomass burning, 6 Tg N yr-1 from soils, and 3 Tg N yr-1 from lightning), and 37 Tg C yr-1 for acetone (1 Tg C yr-1 from industry, 9 Tg C yr-1 from biomass burning, 15 Tg C yr-1 from vegetation, and 12 Tg C yr-1 from oxidation of propane and higher alkanes).

  8. Halogen-bonded adduct of 1,2-dibromo-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane and 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane.

    PubMed

    Brisdon, Alan K; Muneer, Abeer M T; Pritchard, Robin G

    2015-10-01

    Halogen bonding is an intermolecular interaction capable of being used to direct extended structures. Typical halogen-bonding systems involve a noncovalent interaction between a Lewis base, such as an amine, as an acceptor and a halogen atom of a halofluorocarbon as a donor. Vapour-phase diffusion of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO) with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane results in crystals of the 1:1 adduct, C2Br2F4·C6H12N2, which crystallizes as an infinite one-dimensional polymeric structure linked by intermolecular N...Br halogen bonds [2.829 (3) Å], which are 0.57 Å shorter than the sum of the van der Waals radii.

  9. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, P; Mitsari, E; Romanini, M; Serra, P; Tamarit, J Ll; Zuriaga, M; Macovez, R

    2016-04-28

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids.

  10. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, P.; Mitsari, E.; Romanini, M.; Serra, P.; Tamarit, J. Ll.; Zuriaga, M.; Macovez, R.

    2016-04-01

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids.

  11. Orientational relaxations in solid (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, P; Mitsari, E; Romanini, M; Serra, P; Tamarit, J Ll; Zuriaga, M; Macovez, R

    2016-04-28

    We employ dielectric spectroscopy and molecular dynamic simulations to investigate the dipolar dynamics in the orientationally disordered solid phase of (1,1,2,2)tetrachloroethane. Three distinct orientational dynamics are observed as separate dielectric loss features, all characterized by a simply activated temperature dependence. The slower process, associated to a glassy transition at 156 ± 1 K, corresponds to a cooperative motion by which each molecule rotates by 180° around the molecular symmetry axis through an intermediate state in which the symmetry axis is oriented roughly orthogonally to the initial and final states. Of the other two dipolar relaxations, the intermediate one is the Johari-Goldstein precursor relaxation of the cooperative dynamics, while the fastest process corresponds to an orientational fluctuation of single molecules into a higher-energy orientation. The Kirkwood correlation factor of the cooperative relaxation is of the order of one tenth, indicating that the molecular dipoles maintain on average a strong antiparallel alignment during their collective motion. These findings show that the combination of dielectric spectroscopy and molecular simulations allows studying in great detail the orientational dynamics in molecular solids. PMID:27131555

  12. Broad N2H+ Emission toward the Protostellar Shock L1157-B1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Benedettini, M.; Busquet, G.; Caselli, P.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Podio, L.; Vasta, M.

    2013-10-01

    We present the first detection of N2H+ toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ~0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N2H+(1-0) line originated from the dense (>=105 cm-3) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N2H+ column density of a few 1012 cm-2 corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10-9. The N2H+ abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 104 yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (sime2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N2H+ is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N2H+ is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 104 cm-3, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  13. Contrasts Between Short- and Long-Term Erosion Rates in the NW Himalaya: Disequilibrium at 103 to 106-yr Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookhagen, B.; Burbank, D. W.; Strecker, M. R.; Thiede, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2006-12-01

    Along the Sutlej Valley in the NW Indian Himalaya, large tectonic and climatic gradients influence landscape evolution in different spatial and temporal domains. Here, we present (1) results from 8 new cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) river-sand samples that help quantify Holocene basin-wide erosion rates, (2) a surface- processes model based on specific stream power to explain the measured erosion rates in light of present-day climatic conditions, and (3) a comparison of short-term (103 - 104 yr) erosion and long-term (105 - 106 yr) exhumation rates based on published apatite fission-track (AFT) ages that reveal large spatiotemporal discrepancies. CRN-derived erosion rates from the upper Sutlej River draining ~30,000 km2 within the Tibetan Plateau average ~0.2 mm/yr (all rates represent an averaged value from Al and Be cosmogenic isotopes). Erosion rates, as measured from tributary catchments, increase downstream to a peak of ~3 mm/yr in the midst of the High Himalaya (~2000 m asl on the main stem). Near the toe of the Himalayan mountains, erosion rates based on detrital CRNs are ~1.1 mm/yr along the Sutlej main stem at river elevations of ~1000 m asl and thus represent an integrated rate over the entire catchment. Next, we compare the measurements to an erosion model that utilizes river discharge, width, and slope to calculate specific stream power, a proxy for the energy per unit stream length. In this numerical model, (1) river discharge is explicitly derived from calibrated, high resolution satellite-rainfall measurements (TRMM), (2) river width is taken from a discharge width scaling law adjusted to the Himalaya, and (3) river slope is taken from a hydrologically corrected, 90m Digital Elevation Model (SRTM) where data gaps have been carefully patched with DEMs derived from stereo-pair satellite imagery and other high-resolution datasets. Using the present-day monsoonal rainfall as input for discharge, a linear relation emerges between measured erosion rates and

  14. SUPESv.4.1.2

    SciTech Connect

    Red-Horse, J.; Mills-Curran, B.; Flanagan, D.; Taylor, L.; Sjaardema, G.

    2001-04-25

    SUPES is a collection of subprograms that perform frequently used non-numerical services for the engineering applications programmer. The three functional categories of SUPES are: (1) input command parsing, (2) dynamic memory management, and (3) system dependent utilities. The subprograms in categories one and two are written in standard FORTRAN-77, while the subprograms in category three are written provide a standarized FORTRAN interface to several system dependent features.

  15. Body configuration and joint moment analysis during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males.

    PubMed

    Horita, T; Kitamura, K; Kohno, N

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the body configurations and the joint function during standing long jump in 6-yr-old children and adult males. Twelve healthy adult males and eight (one male and seven females) 6-yr-old kindergartners participated in this study. Subjects performed standing long jump on a force platform with full effort. Body segment and joint angles were analyzed by high speed videography (100 frames.s-1). Using kinetic and kinematic data, joint moments, power, and work done were calculated through a free body diagram. Average standing long jump performances were +1.5 SD above Japanese norm in both adults and children. A wide range of motion of the lower limb segments during flight phase was found in the adults. In the crouch prior to take off, joint muscle power peaks appeared in the same order, and joint contribution to the total work done showed almost the same values in both adults and children. It is suggested that gross motor pattern before take off is almost accomplished by the 6-yr-old. Judging by hip joint work, adult performance was much better than that of children, since the adults exerted relatively higher negative work from the onset of preparatory movement to the point of lowest center of gravity during crouch. It was concluded that skilled 6-yr-old children have not fully developed either hip negative work during preparatory movement or body configuration in the flight phase, although gross motor pattern before take off phase was accomplished to skilled adult level. PMID:1943628

  16. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1-2 - Limitation on tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Limitation on tax. 1.1-2 Section 1.1-2 Internal... Surtaxes § 1.1-2 Limitation on tax. (a) Taxable years ending before January 1, 1971. For taxable years ending before January 1, 1971, the tax imposed by section 1 (whether by subsection (a) or subsection...

  19. A mathematical model of the sunspot cycle for the past 1000 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvador, R. J.

    2013-11-01

    Using many features of Ian Wilson's Tidal Torque theory, a mathematical model of the sunspot cycle has been created that reproduces changing sunspot cycle lengths and has an 85% correlation with the sunspot numbers from 1749 to 2013. The model makes a reasonable representation of the sunspot cycle for the past 1000 yr, placing all the solar minimums in their right time periods. More importantly, I believe the model can be used to forecast future solar cycles quantitatively for 30 yr and directionally for 100 yr. The forecast is for a solar minimum and quiet Sun for the next 30 to 100 yr. The model is a slowly changing chaotic system with patterns that are never repeated in exactly the same way. Inferences as to the causes of the sunspot cycle patterns can be made by looking at the model's terms and relating them to aspects of the Tidal Torque theory and, possibly, Jovian magnetic field interactions.

  20. Vibrational analysis of 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and 1,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, G. A.; Richardson, Mary Townsend

    1982-02-01

    Liquid-state IR and Raman spectra and solid-state IR spectra have been obtained for 1,2-dichloro-2-methylpropane and l,2-dibromo-2-methylpropane. Carbon-halogen stretching bands are observed in the liquid-state spectrum of the dichloro compound at 751, 725, 624 and 574 cm -1 and at 677, 640, 551 and 507 cm -1 in the liquid-state spectrum of the dibromo compound. Both compounds exist as P CTt HHH and P XT XHH conformations in the liquid, but only the P XT XHH conformer is present for each in the crystalline solid. Further Interpretation of the spectra was aided by normal coordinate calculations.

  1. Felodipine-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane-water (1/1/1).

    PubMed

    Solanko, Katarzyna A; Surov, Artem O; Perlovich, German L; Bauer-Brandl, Annette; Bond, Andrew D

    2012-11-01

    The title compound, C(18)H(19)Cl(2)NO(4)·C(6)H(12)N(2)·H(2)O, is a cocrystal hydrate containing the active pharmaceutical ingredient felodipine and diazabicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO). The DABCO and water molecules are linked through O-H···N hydrogen bonds into chains around 2(1) screw axes, while the felodipine molecules form N-H···O hydrogen bonds to the water molecules. The felodipine molecules adopt centrosymmetric back-to-back arrangements that are similar to those present in all of its four reported polymorphs. The dichlorophenyl rings also form π-stacking interactions. The inclusion of water molecules in the cocrystal, rather than formation of N-H···N hydrogen bonds between felodipine and DABCO, may be associated with steric hindrance that would arise between DABCO and the methyl groups of felodipine if they were directly involved in hydrogen bonding.

  2. Search for X-Ray Induced Acceleration of the Decay of the 31-yr Isomer 178Hf Using Synchrotron Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I; Banar, J C; Becker, J A; Gemmell, D S; Kraemer, A; Mashayekhi, A; McNabb, D P; Miller, G G; Moore, E F; Pangault, L N; Rundberg, R S; Schiffer, J P; Shastri, S D; Wang, T F; Wilhelmy, J B

    2002-05-09

    Releasing the energy stored in an isomeric nuclear state in a controlled way with an atomic or electromagnetic trigger is an attractive speculation: the energy gain may be on the order of the ratio of nuclear/atomic energies - MeV/keV. (Nuclear isomers are loosely defined as excited nuclear states with lifetimes longer than 10{sup -9} s.) Nuclear isomers, therefore, represent an opportunity for a stand-alone energy source if suitable schemes for trigger and control of the energy release can be found. Potential applications include space drive, as well as very bright {gamma}-ray sources. The nucleus {sup 178}Hf has a nuclear isomer with excitation energy E{sub x} = 2.447 MeV. The 2.447-MeV isomeric state decays slowly (t{sub 1/2} = 31 y) to the nearby state at 2.433 MeV. The J{sup {pi}} = 13{sup -} state loses energy in a rapid (t {approx} 10{sup -12} s) {gamma}-ray cascade ending at the 8{sup -} rotational band head which in turn decays via the ground-state rotational band cascade. The {gamma}-ray cascade is delayed at the 8{sup -} state at 1.147 MeV, since the 8{sup -} state is also isomeric, with t{sub 1/2} = 4 s. Very scarce quantities of the 16{sup +}, 31-yr isomer are available for research ({approx} 10{sup 15} atoms). Reports of triggered decay of the {sup 178}Hf isomer induced by x-rays delivered by a dental x-ray machine have been made [2,3]. Enhancements of {approx} 1 - 2% in the isomer decay rate (dN/dt = - (1 + {var_epsilon})N/{tau}) had been reported for various {gamma}-rays in the cascade (distinguished by red and vertical lines in Figure 1). The reported integrated cross section for triggering the decay is cm{sup 2} keV, so large as to demand new physics. We have sought to verify these reports taking advantage of the intense photon flux available at the Advanced Photon Source.

  3. Early diagenesis of recently deposited organic matter: A 9-yr time-series study of a flood deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesi, T.; Langone, L.; Goñi, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Miserocchi, S.; Bertotti, L.

    2012-04-01

    In Fall 2000, the Po River (Italy) experienced a 100-yr return period flood that resulted in a 1-25 cm-thick deposit in the adjacent prodelta (10-25 m water depth). In the following years, numerous post-depositional perturbations occurred including bioturbation, reworking by waves with heights exceeding 5 m, as well as periods of extremely high and low sediment supply. Cores collected in the central prodelta after the Fall 2000 flood and over the following 9 yr, allowed characterization of the event-strata in their initial state and documentation of their subsequent evolution. Sedimentological characteristics were investigated using X-radiographs and sediment texture analyses, whereas the composition of sedimentary organic matter (OM) was studied via bulk and biomarker analyses, including organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN), carbon stable isotope composition (δ13C), lignin phenols, cutin-products, p-hydroxy benzenes, benzoic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and fatty acids. The 9-yr time-series analysis indicated that roughly the lower half of the original event bed was preserved in the sediment record. Conversely, the upper half of the deposit experienced significant alterations including bioturbation, addition of new material, as well as coarsening. Comparison of the recently deposited material with 9-yr old preserved strata represented a unique natural laboratory to investigate the diagenesis of sedimentary OM in a non-steady system. Bulk data indicated that OC and TN were degraded at similar rates (loss ∼17%) whereas biomarkers exhibited a broad spectrum of reactivities (loss from ∼6% to ∼60%) indicating selective preservation during early diagenesis. Given the relevance of episodic sedimentation in several margins, this study has demonstrated the utility of event-response and time-series sampling of the seabed for understanding the early diagenesis in non-steady conditions.

  4. Possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes occurring 25 yr apart (1964 and 1989)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Carlson, Paul R.; Threlkeld, Charles N.; Warden, Augusta

    1993-09-01

    On March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez supertanker grounded on Bligh Reef, spilling North Slope crude oil into Prince William Sound, Alaska. Tracking the geochemical fate of this spilled oil has revealed, in addition to weathered products from the spill, minor oil residues on beaches from a distinctly different source. By using carbon isotopic compositions of whole-oil residues as a principal method of identification, we found that the δ13C values of Exxon Valdez oil (one sample) and its residues (eight samples from six islands) average -29.3 ±0.1‰. In contrast, the non-Exxon Valdez residues (15 samples from 12 localities) have an average δ13C value of -23.8 ±0.1‰. This tight distribution of carbon isotopic values suggests a single event to explain the non-Exxon Valdez residues. This event likely was the Great Alaska Earthquake of March 27, 1964. This quake and the subsequent tsunami destroyed asphalt storage facilities at the old Valdez town site, spilling asphalt (δ13C = -23.6‰) into Port Valdez fjord. From there the asphalt apparently advanced south into the sound. Thus, the possible connection between two Alaskan catastrophes, separated by 25 yr, is found in the minor oil- like residues that continue to mark the two events on the beaches of Prince William Sound.

  5. Validity of the SAT for Predicting Second-Year Grades: 2006 SAT Validity Sample. Statistical Report No. 2011-1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Krista D.; Patterson, Brian F.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the validity of the SAT for predicting two second-year outcomes: (1) second-year cumulative GPA (2nd Yr Cum GPA), and (2) second-year grade point average (2nd Yr GPA). Similar to the results for first-year grade point average (1st Yr GPA), the SAT is strongly correlated with second year outcomes. For many significant…

  6. Molecular structure studies of (1S,2S)-2-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(1H-inden-2-yl)-1H-inden-1-ol

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Paluch, Krzysztof; Scalabrino, Gaia; Frankish, Neil; Healy, Anne-Marie; Sheridan, Helen

    2015-01-01

    The single enantiomer (1S,2S)-2-benzyl-2,3-dihydro-2-(1H-inden-2-yl)-1H-inden-1-ol (2), has recently been synthesized and isolated from its corresponding diastereoisomer (1). The molecular and crystal structures of this novel compound have been fully analyzed. The relative and absolute configurations have been determined by using a combination of analytical tools including X-ray crystallography, X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRPD) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. PMID:25750458

  7. Pulmonary permeability in never-smokers between 21 and 67 yr of age

    SciTech Connect

    Groth, S.; Hermansen, F.; Rossing, N. )

    1989-07-01

    During the last 5-10 years, measurements of pulmonary clearance (PCl) of aerosolized {sup 99m}Tc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ({sup 99m}TC-DTPA) have become increasingly used as an index of pulmonary epithelial injury. The aim of this study was to apply a carefully defined procedure for measurements of PCl in healthy nonsmoking individuals and analyze whether sex, age, and height are clinically relevant confounders contributing to the range of interindividual variation. Measurements of regional ventilation (V) and perfusion (Q) were included to analyze whether these indexes are influenced by the same confounders. We studied 39 males and females between 21 and 67 yr of age. Average PCl of the lungs was 0.85 +/- 0.25%.min-1. There was a significant difference between PCl of the central and peripheral parts of the lungs (P less than 0.01). Regional V and Q were greater in the lower than in the upper halves of the lungs (P less than 0.01). There was no relation between PCl, V, or Q and the sex, age, and height of the individuals. It is concluded that when measuring PCl in adult individuals anthropometric measurements need not be considered.

  8. Temperature changes over the past 2000 yr in China and comparison with the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Q.; Hao, Z.; Zheng, J.; Shao, X.

    2013-05-01

    We use principal component regression and partial least squares regression to separately reconstruct a composite series of temperature variations in China, and associated uncertainties, at a decadal resolution over the past 2000 yr. The reconstruction is developed using proxy temperature data with relatively high confidence levels from five regions across China, and using a temperature series from observations by the Chinese Meteorological Administration, covering the period from 1871 to 2000. Relative to the 1851-1950 climatology, our two reconstructions show four warm intervals during AD 1-AD 200, AD 551-AD 760, AD 951-AD 1320, and after AD 1921, and four cold intervals during AD 201-AD 350, AD 441-AD 530, AD 781-AD 950, and AD 1321-AD 1920. The temperatures during AD 981-AD 1100 and AD 1201-AD 1270 are comparable to those of the Present Warm Period, but have an uncertainty of ±0.28 °C to ±0.42 °C at the 95% confidence interval. Temperature variations over China are typically in phase with those of the Northern Hemisphere (NH) after 1000, a period which covers the Medieval Climate Anomaly, the Little Ice Age, and the Present Warm Period. In contrast, a warm period in China during AD 541-AD 740 is not obviously seen in the NH.

  9. Continuous lake-sediment records of glaciation in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 12,500 14C yr B.P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.V.; May, Howard M.; Antweiler, R.C.; Brinton, T.I.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Smoot, J.P.; Lund, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    The chemistry of the carbonate-free clay-size fraction of Owens Lake sediments supports the use of total organic carbon and magnetic susceptibility as indicators of stadial-interstadial oscillations. Owens Lake records of total organic carbon, magnetic susceptibility, and chemical composition of the carbonate-free, clay-size fraction indicate that Tioga glaciation began ~24,500 and ended by ~13,600 14C yr B.P. Many of the components of glacial rock flour (e.g., TiO2, MnO, BaO) found in Owens Lake sediments achieved maximum values during the Tioga glaciation when valley glaciers reached their greatest extent. Total organic carbon and SiO2 (amorphous) concentrations reached minimum values during Tioga glaciation, resulting from decreases in productivity that accompanied the introduction of rock flour into the surface waters of Owens Lake. At least 20 stadial-interstadial oscillations occurred in the Sierra Nevada between 52,600 and 14,000 14C yr B.P. Total organic carbon data from a Pyramid Lake sediment core also indicate oscillations in glacier activity between >39,500 and ~13,600 14C yr B.P. Alpine glacier oscillations occurred on a frequency of ???1900 yr in both basins, suggesting that millennial-scale oscillations occurred in California and Nevada during most of the past 52,600 yr.

  10. EnergyPlus 1.2.2

    2005-05-01

    EnergyPlus (E+) is a new whole-building energy analysis program that combines the best capabilities and features from BLAST and DOE-2 along with new capabilities. E+ modular implementation facilitates extending the program and adding links to other programs. The fluid loops and HVAC components support a "manager-interface" simulation protocol that allows for the independent simulation of subsystems, each possibly using a customized solution procedure. Thus, the E+ program structure allows the solution to a particular subsystemmore » to be computed without affecting the solution schemes used for the other subsystems. This fundamental requirement enables the integration of external models in the El+ building systems simulation.« less

  11. Terrigeneous material supply to the Peruvian central continental shelf (Pisco 14° S) during the last 1100 yr: paleoclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briceño Zuluaga, F.; Sifeddine, A.; Caquineau, S.; Cardich, J.; Salvatteci, R.; Gutierrez, D.; Ortlieb, L.; Velazco, F.; Boucher, H.; Machado, C.

    2015-07-01

    In the Eastern Pacific, lithogenic input to the ocean is a response of the atmospheric and ocean system variability and their teleconnections over different timescales. Atmospheric (e.g., wind fields, precipitation), hydrological (e.g., fresh water plumes) and oceanic (e.g., currents) conditions determine the transport mode and the amount of lithogenic material transported from the continent to the continental shelf. Here, we present the grain size distribution of a composite record of two laminated sediment cores retrieved in the Peruvian continental shelf, covering the last ~1100 yr at sub-decadal to centennial time-series resolution. We then discuss the paleo-environmental significance and the climatic mechanisms involved. Four grain size modes were identified. Two are linked to aeolian inputs (M3: 53.0 μm and M4: 90.8 μm on average), the third is interpreted as a marker of sediment discharge (M2: 9.4 μm on average), and the last is without an associated origin (M1: ~3 μm). The coarsest components (M3 and M4) dominated during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Current Warm Period (CWP) periods, suggesting that aeolian transport increased as consequence of wind stress intensification. In contrast, M2 displays an opposite behavior, exhibiting an increase in fluvial terrigenous input during the Little Ice Age (LIA), in response to more humid conditions. Comparison with other South American paleoclimate records indicates that the observed changes are driven by interactions between meridional displacement of the Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and of the South Pacific Sub-tropical High (SPSH) at decadal and centennial time scales.

  12. A facile preparation of 1-(6-hydroxyindol-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one.

    PubMed

    Demopoulos, Vassilis John; Nicolaou, Ioannis; Zika, Chariklia

    2003-01-01

    An effective synthesis of 1-(6-hydroxyindol-1-yl)-2,2-dimethylpropan-1-one (4) was developed starting from 1H-indole (2). The key step involved suitable utilization of 4-(1-pyrrolidino)pyridine for the removal of the chloroacetyl moiety from chloroacetic acid 1-(2,2-dimethylpropionyl)-1H-indol-6-yl ester (3); a possible mechanism is, also, presented. Compound 4 might lead to selectively substituted derivatives, either on the phenolic-OH or the indolyl-NH, with putative biological interest. In this respect, we found that the core structure of 1H-indol-6-ol (1) possesses a degree of aldose reductase inhibitory potential, at a concentration of 100 microM. PMID:12520138

  13. Synthesis and acid-catalyzed transformations of 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2. 1. 1)hex-5-yl)-1-alkanones and 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo-(2. 1. 1)hex-5-yl)-1-alken-1-ones

    SciTech Connect

    Volkova, O.O.; Cherkaev, G.V.; Novikov, N.A.; Erman, M.B.; Aul'chenko, I.S.; Mochalin, V.B.

    1988-06-20

    The reaction of 1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2.1.1)hexane-5-carbaldehyde (photocitral B) with Grignard reagents followed by oxidation of the obtained alcohols gave 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2.1.1)hex-5-yl)-1-alkanones and 1-(1,6,6-trimethylbicyclo(2.1.1)hex-5-yl)-1-alken-1-ones, which isomerize to 1-(2,3,3-trimethyl-1-cyclopentenyl)-2-alkanones when heated in the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid. It was shown that the intermediate compounds in this reaction are 1-(2,2,3-trimethyl-3-cyclopentenyl)-2-alkanones. Underanalogous conditions photocitral B isomerizes to /alpha/-campholenaldehyde.

  14. 1,1- and 1,2-isomers of the diborane(4) compound B(2){1,2-(NH)(2)C(6)H(4)}(2) and a TCNQ Co-crystal of the 1,1-isomer.

    PubMed

    Alibadi, M A M; Batsanov, A S; Bramham, G; Charmant, J P H; Haddow, M F; Mackay, L; Mansell, S M; McGrady, J E; Norman, N C; Roffey, A; Russell, C A

    2009-07-21

    The synthesis and X-ray crystal structures of the diborane(4) isomers 1,1-B(2){1,2-(NH)(2)C(6)H(4)}(2) and 1,2-B(2){1,2-(NH)(2)C(6)H(4)}(2) are described together with the results of quantum chemical calculations which shed light on their relative stabilities and degree of aromaticity. Spectroscopic data are also provided for both isomers of the 4-methyl aryl derivative. The compound 1,1-B(2){1-O-2-(NH)C(6)H(4)}(2) has also been prepared and structurally characterised but no evidence was obtained for the corresponding 1,2-isomer. The compound 1,1-B(2){1,2-(NH)(2)C(6)H(4)}(2) forms a co-crystal with TCNQ, the structure of which is also reported.

  15. Analytic cross sections for 1 1S, to 1 1S to 2 1S, 1 1S to 2 1P transitions in helium by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukumar, C. V.; Faisal, F. H. M.

    1971-01-01

    The 1 1s yields 1 1s elastic and 1 1s yields 2 1s and 1 1s yields 2 excitation cross sections of Helium atoms by collision with a charged particle are obtained as analytic functions of incident velocity. The first order time dependent scattering theory is used. Numerical values of electron -He cross sections are obtained for incident energies in the range 30 eV to 800 eV and compared with earlier Born approximation calculations and with available experimental data. It is found that at 100 eV and above, the present results are in good agreement with the experimental results. They are also closer to the experimental results than the corresponding Born calculations.

  16. 43 CFR 2091.2-1 - Segregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of 270 days (See part 2710). The sales provisions of section 43 CFR 2711.1-2(d) provide for a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Segregation. 2091.2-1 Section 2091.2-1... Lands § 2091.2-1 Segregation. The publication of a Notice of Realty Action in the Federal...

  17. 43 CFR 2091.2-1 - Segregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of 270 days (See part 2710). The sales provisions of section 43 CFR 2711.1-2(d) provide for a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Segregation. 2091.2-1 Section 2091.2-1... Lands § 2091.2-1 Segregation. The publication of a Notice of Realty Action in the Federal...

  18. 43 CFR 2091.2-1 - Segregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of 270 days (See part 2710). The sales provisions of section 43 CFR 2711.1-2(d) provide for a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Segregation. 2091.2-1 Section 2091.2-1... Lands § 2091.2-1 Segregation. The publication of a Notice of Realty Action in the Federal...

  19. 43 CFR 2091.2-1 - Segregation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of 270 days (See part 2710). The sales provisions of section 43 CFR 2711.1-2(d) provide for a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Segregation. 2091.2-1 Section 2091.2-1... Lands § 2091.2-1 Segregation. The publication of a Notice of Realty Action in the Federal...

  20. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  1. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  2. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  3. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  4. 1 CFR 2.1 - Scope and purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope and purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.1 Scope and purpose. (a) This chapter sets forth the policies, procedures, and delegations under which...

  5. Gas-uptake pharmacokinetics of 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123).

    PubMed

    Loizou, G D; Urban, G; Dekant, W; Anders, M W

    1994-01-01

    The in vivo metabolic rate constants for the metabolism of the chlorofluorocarbon replacement 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) were determined for both male and female rats with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. Uptake studies with 500-5,000 ppm HCFC-123 indicated that a single saturable component was involved in both sexes, and no significant differences were observed in in vivo metabolic rate constants between male and female rats. The in vivo metabolic rate constants obtained from computer simulation studies were: for male rats--KM = 1.2 mg liter-1 (7.85 mumol liter-1) and Vmaxc = 7.20 +/- 0.28 mg kg-1 hr-1 (47.1 +/- 1.83 mumol kg-1 hr-1); for female rats--KM = 1.2 mg liter-1 (7.85 mumol liter-1) and Vmaxc = 7.97 +/- 0.30 mg kg-1 hr-1 (52.1 +/- 1.96 mumol kg-1 hr-1). The physiologically based pharmacokinetic model failed to simulate the reduction in HCFC-123 uptake in female rats at 2,000-5,000 ppm. The production and excretion of trifluoroacetic acid, the major urinary metabolite of HCFC-123, was also predicted by the physiologically based pharmacokinetic model with in vivo metabolic rate constants obtained in the gas-uptake simulation studies. Diallyl sulfide, a selective, mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 2E1, inhibited the metabolism of HCFC-123, as indicated by a decreased uptake of HCFC-123 and by a lowered urinary excretion of trifluoroacetic acid in diallyl sulfide-treated rats. PMID:7956723

  6. Toxicological Review of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Microcystins Lr, Rr, Yr and La (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Center for Environmental Assessment has prepared the Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a, Cylindrospermopsin and Microcystins (LR, RR, YR and LA) as a series of dose-response assessments to support the health assessment of unregulated contamina...

  7. Molecular mapping of stripe rust resistance gene Yr76 in winter club wheat cultivar Tyee

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tyee, one of the wheat cultivars used to differentiate races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) in the United States, was identified to have a single gene for all-stage resistance, tentatively named YrTye. To map the gene, Tyee was crossed with ‘Avocet Susceptible’ (AvS). Genetic analysi...

  8. Gene expression patterns in near isogenic lines for wheat rust resistance gene lr34/yr18.

    PubMed

    Hulbert, S H; Bai, J; Fellers, J P; Pacheco, M G; Bowden, R L

    2007-09-01

    ABSTRACT The Lr34/Yr18 resistance gene provides durable, adult-plant, slow rusting resistance to leaf rust, yellow rust, and several other diseases of wheat. Flag leaves may exhibit spontaneous leaf tip necrosis and tips are more resistant than leaf bases. Despite the importance of this gene, the mechanism of resistance is unknown. Patterns of expression for 55,052 transcripts were examined by microarray analysis in mock-inoculated flag leaves of two pairs of wheat near isogenic lines for Lr34/Yr18 (Jupateco 73S/Jupateco 73R and Thatcher/Thatcher-Lr34). The Thatcher isolines were also examined for patterns of expression after inoculation with leaf rust. Mock-inoculated leaf tips of resistant plants showed up-regulation of 57 transcripts generally associated with ABA inducibility, osmotic stress, cold stress, and/or seed maturation. Several transcripts may be useful as expression markers for Lr34/Yr18. Five transcripts were also up-regulated in resistant leaf bases. The possible role of these transcripts in resistance is discussed. In mock-inoculated plants, pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins were not up-regulated in resistant flag leaves compared with that in susceptible flag leaves. In inoculated plants, the same set of PR proteins was up-regulated in both resistant and susceptible flag leaves. However, expression was often higher in resistant plants, suggesting a possible role for Lr34/Yr18 in priming of defense responses.

  9. Properties of L=1 B(1) and B(2)* mesons.

    PubMed

    Abazov, V M; Abbott, B; Abolins, M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Aguilo, E; Ahn, S H; Ahsan, M; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Anastasoaie, M; Ancu, L S; Andeen, T; Anderson, S; Andrieu, B; Anzelc, M S; Arnoud, Y; Arov, M; Arthaud, M; Askew, A; Asman, B; Assis Jesus, A C S; Atramentov, O; Autermann, C; Avila, C; Ay, C; Badaud, F; Baden, A; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, P; Barberis, E; Barfuss, A-F; Bargassa, P; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bauer, D; Beale, S; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Begel, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bellantoni, L; Bellavance, A; Benitez, J A; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Berntzon, L; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatnagar, V; Biscarat, C; Blazey, G; Blekman, F; Blessing, S; Bloch, D; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Bolton, T A; Borissov, G; Bos, K; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, D; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Burdin, S; Burke, S; Burnett, T H; Buszello, C P; Butler, J M; Calfayan, P; Calvet, S; Cammin, J; Caron, S; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Cason, N M; Castilla-Valdez, H; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chan, K; Chandra, A; Charles, F; Cheu, E; Chevallier, F; Cho, D K; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Christofek, L; Christoudias, T; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clément, C; Clément, B; Coadou, Y; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M-C; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cutts, D; Cwiok, M; da Motta, H; Das, A; Davies, G; De, K; de Jong, S J; de Jong, P; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Degenhardt, J D; Déliot, F; Demarteau, M; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Dominguez, A; Dong, H; Dudko, L V; Duflot, L; Dugad, S R; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dyer, J; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Eno, S; Ermolov, P; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Ferapontov, A V; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Ford, M; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fu, S; Fuess, S; Gadfort, T; Galea, C F; Gallas, E; Galyaev, E; Garcia, C; Garcia-Bellido, A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geist, W; Gelé, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Gillberg, D; Ginther, G; Gollub, N; Gómez, B; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greenlee, H; Greenwood, Z D; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guo, J; Guo, F; Gutierrez, P; Gutierrez, G; Haas, A; Hadley, N J; Haefner, P; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Hall, I; Hall, R E; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hansson, P; Harder, K; Harel, A; Harrington, R; Hauptman, J M; Hauser, R; Hays, J; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegeman, J G; Heinmiller, J M; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hoeth, H; Hohlfeld, M; Hong, S J; Hooper, R; Hossain, S; Houben, P; Hu, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jain, S; Jakobs, K; Jarvis, C; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, C; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Juste, A; Käfer, D; Kahn, S; Kajfasz, E; Kalinin, A M; Kalk, J R; Kalk, J M; Kappler, S; Karmanov, D; Kasper, J; Kasper, P; Katsanos, I; Kau, D; Kaur, R; Kaushik, V; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y M; Khatidze, D; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Kirby, M H; Kirsch, M; Klima, B; Kohli, J M; Konrath, J-P; Kopal, M; Korablev, V M; Kothari, B; Kozelov, A V; Krop, D; Kryemadhi, A; Kuhl, T; Kumar, A; Kunori, S; Kupco, A; Kurca, T; Kvita, J; Lacroix, F; Lam, D; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lazoflores, J; Lebrun, P; Lee, W M; Leflat, A; Lehner, F; Lellouch, J; Lesne, V; Leveque, J; Lewis, P; Li, J; Li, Q Z; Li, L; Lietti, S M; Lima, J G R; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Lobo, L; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; Lounis, A; Love, P; Lubatti, H J; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Mackin, D; Madaras, R J; Mättig, P; Magass, C; Magerkurth, A; Makovec, N; Mal, P K; Malbouisson, H B; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Mao, H S; Maravin, Y; Martin, B; McCarthy, R; Melnitchouk, A; Mendes, A; Mendoza, L; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Merritt, K W; Meyer, J; Meyer, A; Michaut, M; Millet, T; Mitrevski, J; Molina, J; Mommsen, R K; Mondal, N K; Moore, R W; Moulik, T; Muanza, G S; Mulders, M; Mulhearn, M; Mundal, O; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Naumann, N A; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Nilsen, H; Nomerotski, A; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; O'Dell, V; O'Neil, D C; Obrant, G; Ochando, C; Onoprienko, D; Oshima, N; Osta, J; Otec, R; Y Garzón, G J Otero; Owen, M; Padley, P; Pangilinan, M; Parashar, N; Park, S-J; Park, S K; Parsons, J; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Pawloski, G; Penning, B; Perea, P M; Peters, K; Peters, Y; Pétroff, P; Petteni, M; Piegaia, R; Piper, J; Pleier, M-A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pogorelov, Y; Pol, M-E; Polozov, P; Pompos, A; Pope, B G; Popov, A V; Potter, C; da Silva, W L Prado; Prosper, H B; Protopopescu, S; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rakitine, A; Rangel, M S; Rani, K J; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Renkel, P; Reucroft, S; Rich, P; Rijssenbeek, M; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Robinson, S; Rodrigues, R F; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Safronov, G; Sajot, G; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Santoro, A; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schieferdecker, P; Schliephake, T; Schmitt, C; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Sengupta, S; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shary, V; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Shpakov, D; Siccardi, V; Simak, V; Sirotenko, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, R P; Snow, J; Snow, G R; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Sopczak, A; Sosebee, M; Soustruznik, K; Souza, M; Spurlock, B; Stark, J; Steele, J; Stolin, V; Stone, A; Stoyanova, D A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Strauss, E; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D; Strovink, M; Stutte, L; Sumowidagdo, S; Svoisky, P; Sznajder, A; Talby, M; Tamburello, P; Tanasijczuk, A; Taylor, W; Telford, P; Temple, J; Tiller, B; Tissandier, F; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tomoto, M; Toole, T; Torchiani, I; Trefzger, T; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Tuts, P M; Unalan, R; Uvarov, S; Uvarov, L; Uzunyan, S; Vachon, B; van den Berg, P J; van Eijk, B; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vartapetian, A; Vasilyev, I A; Vaupel, M; Verdier, P; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Villeneuve-Seguier, F; Vint, P; Vokac, P; Von Toerne, E; Voutilainen, M; Vreeswijk, M; Wagner, R; Wahl, H D; Wang, L; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weber, M; Weber, G; Weerts, H; Wenger, A; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; White, A; Wicke, D; Wilson, G W; Williams, M R J; Wimpenny, S J; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yacoob, S; Yamada, R; Yan, M; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Yip, K; Yoo, H D; Youn, S W; Yu, J; Yu, C; Yurkewicz, A; Zatserklyaniy, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zhang, D; Zhao, T; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zieminski, A; Zivkovic, L; Zutshi, V; Zverev, E G

    2007-10-26

    This Letter presents the first strong evidence for the resolution of the excited B mesons B(1) and B(2)* as two separate states in fully reconstructed decays to B(+)(*)pi(-). The mass of B(1) is measured to be 5720.6+/-2.4+/-1.4 MeV/c(2) and the mass difference DeltaM between B(2)* and B(1) is 26.2+/-3.1+/-0.9 MeV/c;{2}, giving the mass of the B(2)* as 5746.8+/-2.4+/-1.7 MeV/c(2). The production rate for B(1) and B(2)* mesons is determined to be a fraction (13.9+/-1.9+/-3.2)% of the production rate of the B+ meson. PMID:17995320

  10. Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7-yr constraints on f_NL with a fast wavelet estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casaponsa, B.; Barreiro, R. B.; Curto, A.; Martínez-González, E.; Vielva; P.

    2011-11-01

    A new method to constrain the local non-linear coupling parameter f_NL based on a fast wavelet decomposition is presented. Using a multiresolution wavelet adapted to the HEALPix pixelization, we have developed a method that is ˜ 10^2 times faster than previous estimators based on isotropic wavelets and ˜ 10^3 faster than the KSW bispectrum estimator, at the resolution of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data. The method has been applied to the WMAP 7-yr V+W combined map, imposing constraints on f_NL of -69 < f_NL < 65 at the 95 per cent CL. This result has been obtained after correcting for the contribution of the residual point sources which has been estimated to be Δ f_NL =7 ± 6. In addition, a Gaussianity analysis of the data has been carried out using the third order moments of the wavelet coefficients, finding consistency with Gaussianity. Although the constrainsts imposed on f_NL are less stringent than those found with optimal estimators, we believe that a very fast method, as the one proposed in this work, can be very useful, especially bearing in mind the large amount of data that will be provided by future experiments, such as the Planck satellite. Moreover, the localisation of wavelets allows one to carry out analyses on different regions of the sky. As an application, we have separately analysed the two hemispheres defined by the dipolar modulation proposed by Hoftuft et al. (2009, ApJ, 699, 985). We do not find any significant asymmetry regarding the estimated value of f_NL in those hemispheres.

  11. A 16-yr Comparison of Fine Particle and Aerosol Strong Acidity at the Interface Zone (1,540 m) and Within (452 m) the Planetary Boundary Layer of the Great Gulf and Presidential-Dry River Class I Wildernesses on the Presidential Range, New Hampshire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Georgia L.; Kimball, Kenneth; Hill, Bruce; Allen, George A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Seidel, Thomas M.; Doddridge, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    Mount Washington, NH in the White Mountain National Forest, is flanked to the north-northeast and south by two Class I Wilderness areas, the Great Gulf and Presidential Range-Dry River Wildernesses, respectively. The Clean Air Act protects Class I area natural resource values from air pollution. Aerosol sulfate, a fine particulate component that is often transported long distances, is a known contributor to visibility degradation and acidic deposition. We examined summertime fine particulate aerosol mass and sulfate, strong acidity and ammonium concentrations from 1988 to 2004 on Mount Washington at two elevations, 452 and 1,540 meters (msl). The former site is within, and the latter at the interface of, the planetary boundary layer. Comparisons of sampling interval durations (10 and 24 hours), site vs. site, and different sampling methods are made. We also examine the extent to which aerosol sulfate is neutralized. Ten hour (daytime) compared to 24 hour samples have higher mass and aerosol sulfate concentrations, however paired samples are well correlated. Fine mass concentrations compared between the 452 m and 1,540 m sites (standard temperature and pressure corrected) show a weak positive linear relationship with the later being approximately 34% lower. We attribute the lack of a strong correlation to the facts that the 1,540 m site is commonly at the interface of and even above the regional planetary boundary layer in summer and that it can intercept different air masses relative to the 452 m site. Sulfate is approximately 19% lower at the higher elevation site, but comprises a greater percentage of total fine mass; 42% compared to 35% for the high and low elevation site, respectively. Aerosol strong acidity was found to increase with increasing sulfate concentrations at both sites. At the high elevation site, elevated mass and sulfate concentrations are associated with westerly and southwesterly regional flows.

  12. 2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHWEST; GATES 1, 2, AND 3 SHOWING. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  13. The spectacular evolution of Supernova 1996al over 15 yr: a low-energy explosion of a stripped massive star in a highly structured environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetti, S.; Chugai, N. N.; Utrobin, V. P.; Cappellaro, E.; Patat, F.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Cupani, G.; Neuhäuser, R.; Caldwell, N.; Pignata, G.; Tomasella, L.

    2016-03-01

    Spectrophotometry of SN 1996al carried out throughout 15 yr is presented. The early photometry suggests that SN 1996al is a linear Type II supernova, with an absolute peak of MV ˜ -18.2 mag. Early spectra present broad asymmetric Balmer emissions, with superimposed narrow lines with P-Cygni profile, and He I features with asymmetric broad emission components. The analysis of the line profiles shows that the H and He broad components form in the same region of the ejecta. By day +142, the Hα profile dramatically changes: the narrow P-Cygni profile disappears, and the Hα is fitted by three emission components that will be detected over the remaining 15 yr of the supernova (SN) monitoring campaign. Instead, the He I emissions become progressively narrower and symmetric. A sudden increase in flux of all He I lines is observed between 300 and 600 d. Models show that the SN luminosity is sustained by the interaction of low-mass (˜1.15 M⊙) ejecta, expelled in a low kinetic energy (˜1.6 × 1050 erg) explosion, with highly asymmetric circumstellar medium. The detection of Hα emission in pre-explosion archive images suggests that the progenitor was most likely a massive star (˜25 M⊙ ZAMS) that had lost a large fraction of its hydrogen envelope before explosion, and was hence embedded in a H-rich cocoon. The low-mass ejecta and modest kinetic energy of the explosion are explained with massive fallback of material into the compact remnant, a 7-8-M⊙ black hole.

  14. Fragrance material review on 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,2-Ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,2-ethanediol, 1-phenyl-, 1,2-diacetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE fragrances.

  15. MOSS2D V1

    2001-01-31

    This software reduces the data from two-dimensional kSA MOS program, k-Space Associates, Ann Arbor, MI. Initial MOS data is recorded without headers in 38 columns, with one row of data per acquisition per lase beam tracked. The final MOSS 2d data file is reduced, graphed, and saved in a tab-delimited column format with headers that can be plotted in any graphing software.

  16. Climatic variability and human impact in Mesoamerica during the last 3,000 yr: the case of Lake Santa Maria Del Oro, Western Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, Margarita; Sosa, Susana; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Lozano, Socorro; Vázquez, Gabriel; Ortega, Beatriz; Vilaclara, Gloria

    2010-05-01

    During the last decades a number of lacustrine records from Mesoamerica have documented climatic changes and episodes of intense human impact. These records are concentrated in the Maya region and the in high altitude basins of central and eastern Mexico, few studies have been undertaken in western Mexico. We believe that a regional perspective of the recorded changes can provide a better understanding of the climatic trends and mechanisms controlling these changes as well as of the regional extent, intensity and timing of the episodes of human impact. For this reason we started a multidisciplinary project to study the lake sediments from Santa Maria del Oro (SMO), a crater lake in western-central Mexico (750 m asl). SMO is located in a region with tropical sub-humid climate(annual pp 1,250 mm/yr, mean annual temperature 21°C), with a short summer rainy season mainly related with the onset of the North American Monsoon (NAM) and the entrance of Pacific tropical storms and/or hurricanes. This site is therefore site sensitive to variations in the intensity of the NAM circulation. Two master sequences are available from this lake. A ca. 9 m long core (ca. 2,500 yr BP, with 8 AMS 14-C dates) was recovered using a Usinger piston corer from a relatively shallow area of the lake (12 m). These sediments are laminated, mostly with alternation of brown silt and sand layers. It has been studied for: magnetic mineralogy, ostracodes, geochemistry, TIC and TOC. We are now including diatom and pollen data to improve previous paleolimnological interpretations. The second sequence, also ca. 9 m long (ca. 4,500 yr BP, with 6 14-C AMS dates), was recovered using the Limnological Research Center (LRC at the U. of Minnesota) Kullemberg gravity corer (MOLE Mexico-USA-UK collaborative project). This sequence is also laminated, mostly between brown and black silts with finely laminated carbonate layers. High resolution ITRAX XRD elemental analysis data are available for this core. The

  17. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  18. Paleolimnology of Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, over the past 100 k yr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholz, C.A.; King, J.W.; Ellis, G.S.; Swart, Peter K.; Stager, J.C.; Colman, Steven M.

    2003-01-01

    New sediment core data from a unique slow-sedimentation rate site in Lake Tanganyika contain a much longer and continuous record of limnological response to climate change than have been previously observed in equatorial regions of central Africa. The new core site was first located through an extensive seismic reflection survey over the Kavala Island Ridge (KIR), a sedimented basement high that separates the Kigoma and Kalemie Basins in Lake Tanganyika. Proxy analyses of paleoclimate response carried out on core T97-52V include paleomagnetic and index properties, TOC and isotopic analyses of organic carbon, and diatom and biogenic silica analyses. A robust age model based on 11 radiocarbon (AMS) dates indicates a linear, continuous sedimentation rate nearly an order of magnitude slower here compared to other core sites around the lake. This age model indicates continuous sedimentation over the past 79 k yr, and a basal age in excess of 100 k yr. The results of the proxy analyses for the past ??? 20 k yr are comparable to previous studies focused on that interval in Lake Tanganyika, and show that the lake was about 350 m lower than present at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Repetitive peaks in TOC and corresponding drops in ??13C over the past 79 k yr indicate periods of high productivity and mixing above the T97-52V core site, probably due to cooler and perhaps windier conditions. From ??? 80 through ??? 58 k yr the ??13C values are relatively negative (-26 to -28???) suggesting predominance of algal contributions to bottom sediments at this site during this time. Following this interval there is a shift to higher values of ??13C, indicating a possible shift to C-4 pathway-dominated grassland-type vegetation in the catchment, and indicating cooler, dryer conditions from ??? 55 k yr through the LGM. Two seismic sequence boundaries are observed at shallow stratigraphic levels in the seismic reflection data, and the upper boundary correlates to a major discontinuity

  19. Production characters of straightbred, F1 and F2 cows: birth and weaning characters of terminal-cross calves.

    PubMed

    Sacco, R E; Baker, J F; Cartwright, T C; Long, C R; Sanders, J O

    1989-08-01

    Records of 2,449 births and 2,120 weanings of terminal-cross calves were used to characterize maternal productivity of first- and second-generation cows from a diallel of Angus, Brahman, Hereford, Holstein and Jersey when mated to third-breed sires. Third- and later-parity cows were randomly assigned after each parturition to Charolais and Red Poll bulls in multiple-sire pastures. Calves were weaned at approximately 7 mo of age; males were not castrated. A mixed model was assumed for data analysis. Effects included in the model were breed-type of dam, cow within breed-type of dam (random), breed of sire of calf, season of record, year of record, age of dam group, sex of calf and age of calf (covariate). Age of dam groups were 4- and 5-yr-olds, 6- and 7-yr-olds, 8-, 9- and 10-yr-olds, and those greater than 10 yr of age. Dependent variables were calf weight, shoulder width and hip width at birth, weaning weight, weaning height and survival to weaning. Holstein and Holstein crosses tended to produce the largest calves at birth and weaning. Among straightbred dams, the smallest calves were born to Brahman, whereas Hereford weaned the smallest calves. Brahman-Jersey dams produced the smallest calves at birth among crossbreds; Angus-Hereford cows weaned the smallest calves. Average maternal heterosis estimates for birth weight were small and non-significant. Calves of F1 crossbred dams were 17.4 kg heavier (P less than .01) and 1.70 cm taller (P less than .01) at weaning than calves of first-generation straightbred dams.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2793620

  20. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  1. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  2. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2006-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2006-10-01 2006-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) TRAMROADS AND LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of any unincorporated association which...

  4. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  5. 43 CFR 2812.1-2 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contents. 2812.1-2 Section 2812.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... Bay Revested Lands § 2812.1-2 Contents. (a) An individual applicant and each member of...

  6. 16 CFR 1.2 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedure. 1.2 Section 1.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROCEDURES Industry Guidance Advisory Opinions § 1.2 Procedure. (a) Application. The request for advice...

  7. 25 CFR 2.1 - Information collection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 2.1 Information collection. In accordance with Office of Management and Budget regulations in 5 CFR 1320.3(c), approval of information collections contained in this regulation is not required. ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Information collection. 2.1 Section 2.1 Indians BUREAU...

  8. 44 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2... GENERAL RULEMAKING; POLICY AND PROCEDURES General § 1.2 Definitions. (a) Rule or regulation means the...) Significant adverse effects on competition, employment, investment, productivity, innovation, or on...

  9. 15 CFR 287.2 - Definitions. 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 1 287.2 Section 287.2... CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT § 287.2 Definitions. 1 1 Definitions of accreditation, certification, conformity... issue definitions relevant to conformity assessment, such as the Codex Alimentarius Commission...

  10. 44 CFR 2.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL OMB CONTROL NUMBERS § 2.1 Purpose. This part collects and displays the control numbers assigned...

  11. 44 CFR 2.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL OMB CONTROL NUMBERS § 2.1 Purpose. This part collects and displays the control numbers assigned...

  12. 44 CFR 2.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL OMB CONTROL NUMBERS § 2.1 Purpose. This part collects and displays the control numbers assigned...

  13. 44 CFR 2.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL OMB CONTROL NUMBERS § 2.1 Purpose. This part collects and displays the control numbers assigned...

  14. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  15. 49 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES General § 1.2 Definitions. As used in this part, Administrator includes: (a) The Federal Aviation Administrator. (b) The Federal Highway Administrator. (c)...

  16. 7 CFR 1.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1.2 Section 1.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Official Records § 1.2 Policy. (a) Agencies of USDA shall comply with the time limits set forth in the FOIA and in this subpart for responding to...

  17. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with...

  18. 7 CFR 1b.2 - Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 1b.2 Policy. (a) All policies and programs of... environment for present and future generations. (b) Each USDA agency is responsible for compliance with...

  19. 44 CFR 2.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose. 2.1 Section 2.1 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL OMB CONTROL NUMBERS § 2.1 Purpose. This part collects and displays the control numbers assigned...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  1. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  2. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  4. 18 CFR 1b.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scope. 1b.2 Section 1b.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.2 Scope. This part applies to...

  5. The c.2030 yr BP Plinian eruption of El Misti volcano, Peru: Eruption dynamics and hazard implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobeñas, Gisela; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Bonadonna, Costanza; Boivin, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    'El Misti' volcano near the city of Arequipa in south Peru produced a Plinian eruption c.2030 yr BP that resulted in a tephra deposit consisting of three fallout layers, several pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits, a late stage, small debris-avalanche deposit, and lahar deposits. This VEI 4 Plinian eruption of El Misti has been selected as one of the reference eruptions for the hazard assessment and risk mitigation plan for the city of Arequipa. The Plinian column of this eruption rose up to 21-24 km and produced a tephra deposit over an area of at least 2580 km2 within the 5 cm-isopach line. The dispersal axis is oriented SW, i.e. towards the area of the basin and city of Arequipa. Later pumice- and lithic-rich PDC deposits were emplaced into radial valleys extending from the volcano up to a distance of at least 13 km. The eruption produced a minimum total bulk volume of 1.2 km3 (0.71 km3 DRE volume) of tephra and PDC deposits. Components of the tephra deposit consist of beige, gray and banded pumices, lithic fragments, a minor amount of cogenetic dacite clasts, and free crystals. The minimum volume of the tephra deposit varies between 0.2 and 0.6 km3 (exponential, power-law integration and inversion of TEPHRA2 analytical model). The tephra deposit is characterized by a bulk density of 1500 kg/m3 which results in a mass of 2.5-9.0 × 1011 kg. The maximum mass discharge rate (MDR) is 1.1 × 108 kg/s based on a plume height of 24 km. The estimated duration of the Plinian eruption ranges between 0.6 and 2.3 h. Grain size distribution, componentry, and SEM analyses of both the tephra and PDC deposits, combined with the reconstructed stratigraphic sequence of the deposit, suggest that the eruption took place in five stages: (1) generation of a 21-24 km-high eruptive column that deposited the lower tephra layer; (2) collapse of the crater walls and partial obstruction of the vent during a period of decreased intensity, which led to the formation of a thin sand

  6. Bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, bromotrifluoromethane + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, and bromotrifluoromethane + chloropentafluoroethane

    SciTech Connect

    Mishima, Kenji, Hongo, Masaru; Takagi, Toshiharu; Arai, Yasuhiko . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-01-01

    The bubble point pressures for chlorodifluoromethane (R22) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + 1,2-dichloro-1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (R114), and bromotrifluoromethane (R13B1) + chloropentafluoroethane (R115) were measured by a static method. Measurements were made at various compositions at temperatures from 298.15 K to near their critical temperature. The uncertainty of the pressures was estimated to be no greater than [plus minus]0.3%. The bubble point pressures for pure substances were correlated by the Wagner equation, and those for the mixtures were also correlated by the Wagner equation, using a corresponding states principle.

  7. TMI-2 pressure transmitter examination and evaluation of CF-1-PT1, CF-2-LT1, and CF-2-LT2. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Yancey, M.E.; Strahm, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    Pressure transmitters CF-1-PT1, CF-2-LT1, and CF-2-LT2 were removed from the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) Reactor Building and examined during FY-83. The purpose of the examination was to establish the operational characteristics and determine the failure mode of two of the three transmitters.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10122 - 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1′-[2-ethyl-2-[[(2-methyl-1-oxo-2-propen-1-yl)oxy]methyl]- 1,3...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 2-Propenoic acid, 2-methyl-, 1,1â²- methyl]- 1,3-propanediyl] ester, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, ethenylbenzene and 2-hydroxyethyl 2-methyl-2-propenoate. 721.10122 Section 721.10122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  13. Reconstructing a 180 yr record of natural and anthropogenic induced low-oxygen conditions from Louisiana continental shelf sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterman, L.E.; Poore, R.Z.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Turner, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Hypoxia on the Louisiana continental shelf is tied to nutrient Loading and freshwater stratification from the Mississippi River. Variations in the relative abundance of low-oxygen-tolerant benthic foraminifers in four sediment cores from the Louisiana shelf provide a proxy record of low-oxygen events. Core chronologies are obtained using 210Pb dating techniques. The foraminiferal data are consistent with previous studies indicating that the intensity of hypoxic events (oxygen <2 mg /L) has increased over the past 50 yr owing to the higher nutrient loading associated with the use of commercial fertilizer, and also reveal several low-oxygen events between A.D. 1817 and 1910, prior to the widespread use of fertilizer. The pre-1910 low-oxygen events are associated with high Mississippi River discharge rates, indicating that these low-oxygen episodes are related to natural variations in river drainage that enhance transport of nutrients and freshwater to the continental shelf. Our data show that the low-oxygen events of the past few decades were more extreme than any that occurred in the previous ???180 yr, and support the interpretation that the increased use of fertilizer has amplified an otherwise naturally occurring process. ?? 2005 Geological Society of America.

  14. Cold event at 8200 yr B.P. recorded in annually laminated lake sediments in eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veski, Siim; Seppä, Heikki; Ojala, Antti E. K.

    2004-08-01

    A quantitative annual mean temperature reconstruction from an annually laminated lake-sediment sequence in Estonia, eastern Europe, shows a distinct cold period at 8400 8080 yr B.P. (= before A.D. 2000); the timing is consistent with that seen in the Greenland ice-core data and various high-resolution records from western Europe. During maximal cooling at 8250 8150 yr B.P., the annual mean temperature in Estonia was ˜2.0 °C colder than prior to and ˜3.0 °C colder than after the cooling. The pollen-stratigraphic and sedimentological data suggest especially cold and snowy winter conditions. The duration and amplitude of the cold event agree with the modeled impact of a sudden freshening of the North Atlantic surface water and subsequent perturbation of the thermohaline circulation. Provided that the cold event was caused by a pulse of freshwater—from the melting Laurentide Ice Sheet—to the North Atlantic, the results indicate a strong teleconnection between the North Atlantic oceanic forcing and the east European climate at least up to long 26°E, mediated probably by the changing intensity of the zonal atmospheric circulation.

  15. Woody vegetation, fuel and fire track the melting of the Scandinavian ice-sheet before 9500 cal yr BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcaillet, Christopher; Hörnberg, Greger; Zackrisson, Olle

    2012-11-01

    New studies indicate the presence of early Holocene ice-free areas far north in Scandinavia. Post-glacial fire and vegetation were investigated based on sedimentary charcoal and pollen from two small lakes in northern Sweden. Accumulation of organic sediment started around 10,900 and 9200 cal yr BP, showing that both lake valleys were ice-free extremely early given their northerly location. Fire events started after 9600 cal yr BP and became less common around the '8.2-ka event'. Woody vegetation provided fuel that contributed to fires. The first vegetation in our pollen record consisted of Hippophae, Dryas, grasses and sedges. Subsequently broadleaved trees (Betula, Salix) increased in abundance and later Pinus, Alnus, ferns and Lycopodium characterized the vegetation. Pollen from Larix, Picea and Malus were also found. The change in vegetation composition was synchronous with the decrease in lake-water pH in the region, indicating ecosystem-scale processes; this occurred during a period of net global and regional warming. The changes in fire frequency and vegetation appear independent of regional trends in precipitation. The reconstructed fire history and vegetation support the scenario of early ice-free areas far north in Scandinavia during early Holocene warming, creating favorable conditions for woody plants and wildfires.

  16. Climatic Oscillations 10,000-155,000 yr B.P. at Owens Lake, California Reflected in Glacial Rock Flour Abundance and Lake Salinity in Core OL-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Menking, K.M.; Fitts, J.P.; Fitzpatrick, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    Chemical analyses of the acid-soluble and clay-size fractions of sediment samples (1500-yr resolution) reveal oscillations of lake salinity and of glacial advances in core OL-92 back to 155,000 yr B.P. Relatively saline conditions are indicated by the abundance of carbonate and smectite (both pedogenic and authigenic), reflected by Ca, Sr, and Mg in the acid-soluble suite, and by Cs2O, excess MgO, and LOI (loss on ignition) in the clay-size fraction. Rock flour produced during glacial advances is represented by the abundance of detrital plagioclase and biotite in the clay-size fraction, the ratio of which remains essentially constant over the entire time span. These phases are quantitatively represented by Na2O, TiO2, Ba, and Mn in the clay fraction. The rock-flour record indicates two major ice-advances during the penultimate glacial cycle corresponding to marine isotope stage (MIS) 6, no major advances during the last interglaciation (entire MIS 5), and three major advances during the last glacial cycle (MIS 2, 3, and 4). The ages of the latter three correspond rather well to 36Cl dates reported for Sierra Nevada moraines. The onset of the last interglaciation is shown by abrupt increases in authigenic CaCO3 and an abrupt decrease in rock flour, at about 118,000 yr B.P. according to our time scale. In contrast, the boundary appears to be gradual in the ??18O record in which the change from light to heavy values begins at about 140,000 yrs B.P. The exact position of the termination, therefore, may be proxy-dependent. Conditions of high carbonate and low rock flour prevailed during the entire period from 118,000 yr B.P. until the glacial advance at 53,000 yr B.P. signaled the end of this long interglaciation. ?? 1997 University of Washington.

  17. Precision polarizability measurements of atomic cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, Hannah; Kortyna, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    We report hyperfine-resolved scalar polarizabilities for cesium's 8 s 2S1 / 2 and 9 s 2S1 / 2 states using resonant two-photon spectroscopy. Two single-mode, external-cavity diode lasers drive the 6 s 2S1 / 2 --> 6 p 2P1 / 2 --> ns 2S1 / 2 transition (n = 8 or 9). Both laser beams are split and counter-propagate through an effusive beam and a vapor cell. An electric field applied across two parallel plates imposes Stark shifts on the ns 2S1 / 2 levels in the effusive beam. Electric-field strengths are measured in situ. The laser frequency is calibrated in the vapor cell using a phase modulation technique, with the modulation frequency referenced to the ground-state hyperfine splitting of atomic rubidium. Our measured 8 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 38370 +/- 380 a03, agrees with previous theory and experiments. Our measured 9 s 2S1 / 2 polarizability, 150700 +/- 1100 a03, agrees within two sigma of theory, but we are unaware of previous measurements. We also verify that these polarizabilities are independent of the hyperfine levels, placing upper limits on the differential polarizabilities of 200 +/- 260 a03 for the 8 s 2S1 / 2 state and 490 +/- 450 a03 for the 9 s 2S1 / 2 state. Supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-0653107.

  18. rac-(Z)-2-(2-Thienylmethylene)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-ol.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Venkatraj, M; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2007-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the racemic form of the title compound, C(12)H(15)NOS, contains four crystallographically independent molecules. The olefinic bond connecting the 2-thienyl and 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-ol moieties has Z geometry. Strong hydrogen bonding occurs in a directed co-operative O-H...O-H...O-H...O-H R(4)(4)(8) pattern that influences the conformation of the molecules. Co-operative C-H...pi interactions between thienyl rings are also present. The average dihedral angle between adjacent thienyl rings is 87.09 (4) degrees.

  19. Pollen-based biomes for Beringia 18,000, 6000 and 0 14C yr BP

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, M.E.; Anderson, P.M.; Brubaker, L.B.; Ager, T.A.; Andreev, A.A.; Bigelow, N.H.; Cwynar, L.C.; Eisner, Wendy R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hu, F.-S.; Jolly, D.; Lozhkin, A.V.; MacDonald, G.M.; Mock, C.J.; Ritchie, J.C.; Sher, A.V.; Spear, R.W.; Williams, J.W.; Yu, G.

    2000-01-01

    The objective biomization method developed by Prentice et al. (1996) for Europe was extended using modern pollen samples from Beringia and then applied to fossil pollen data to reconstruct palaeovegetation patterns at 6000 and 18,000 14C yr BP. The predicted modern distribution of tundra, taiga and cool conifer forests in Alaska and north-western Canada generally corresponds well to actual vegetation patterns, although sites in regions characterized today by a mosaic of forest and tundra vegetation tend to be preferentially assigned to tundra. Siberian larch forests are delimited less well, probably due to the extreme under-representation of Larix in pollen spectra. The biome distribution across Beringia at 6000 14C yr BP was broadly similar to today, with little change in the northern forest limit, except for a possible northward-advance in the Mackenzie delta region. The western forest limit in Alaska was probably east of its modern position. At 18,000 14C yr BP the whole of Beringia was covered by tundra. However, the importance of the various plant functional types varied from site to site, supporting the idea that the vegetation cover was a mosaic of different tundra types.

  20. Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria: a single Spanish center’s experience over the last 40 yr

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Linares, Cristina; Ojeda, Emilio; Forés, Rafael; Pastrana, Miguel; Cabero, Martín; Morillo, Daniel; Bautista, Guiomar; Baños, Isolina; Monteserín, Carmen; Bravo, Pilar; Jaro, Esther; Cedena, Teresa; Steegmann, Juan Luis; Villegas, Ana; Cabrera, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is a rare clonal disease. To date, many reviews and series have been described. We report the experience of our center by presenting a review of 56 PNH patient cases with an average age at diagnosis of 38 yr and follow-ups beginning at approximately 40 yr; the median survival rate was 11 yr. The average clonal size upon diagnosis was 48%, presenting a variable evolution. Thrombotic episodes and cancer were five each, and the main causes of death among our patients were equal at 8.9%. Radiological study by magnetic resonance imaging is presented as a fundamental technique for estimating the deposit of iron levels in the liver and kidney, as well as in some decisive cases at the start of eculizumab therapy. Sixteen patients have been treated with eculizumab so far in our series, and being a safe drug, it provides improvement in the patients’ quality of life, and the disappearance of clinical symptoms, and avoids the emergence of new thrombosis. PMID:24758317

  1. Dependence of energetic ion and electron intensities on proximity to the magnetically sectored heliosheath: Voyager 1 and 2 observations

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M. E.; Decker, R. B.; Brown, L. E.; Krimigis, S. M.; Drake, J. F.; Hamilton, D. C.; Opher, M.

    2014-02-01

    Taken together, the Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2) spacecraft have collected over 11 yr of data in the heliosheath. Despite extensive study, energetic particles and magnetic fields measured in the heliosheath have not been reconciled by existing models. In particular, the differences between the energetic particle intensity variations at V1 and V2 are unexplained. While energetic particle intensities at V1 change gradually over 7 yr in the heliosheath, those at V2 vary by a factor ∼10 in 1 yr. Energetic particle intensities at V2 show temporally coherent variations over a broad range of species and energies: from suprathermal ions (10s of keV) to galactic cosmic rays (>1 GeV), as well as electrons from 10s of keV to >100 MeV, corresponding to a range ∼10{sup 4} in particle gyroradii. Here we suggest that many of the intensity variations of energetic particle populations in the heliosheath are organized by their proximity to two fundamentally different regions—the unipolar heliosheath (UHS) and the sectored heliosheath (SHS). The SHS is a region of enhanced particle intensities, wherein particle transport, acceleration, and magnetic connectivity differ from those in the UHS. The SHS may serve as either a reservoir of energetic particles or as a region of enhanced transport, depending on the particle species and energy. Comparatively, particle intensities in the UHS are greatly reduced. We propose that the boundary between the SHS and UHS plays as important a role in the physics of heliosheath particles and fields as do the termination shock and heliopause.

  2. BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000690.htm BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene testing To use the sharing features on this ... br east ca ncer. What is the BRCA Gene Mutation? BRCA1 and BRCA2 are genes that suppress ...

  3. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  4. 17 CFR 2.1 - Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Description. 2.1 Section 2.1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.1 Description. Pursuant to section 2(a)(10) of the Commodity Exchange Act, as amended, 7 U.S.C. 4(i), the Commodity Futures Trading Commission has adopted...

  5. Characterization and molecular mapping of Yr52 for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in spring wheat germplasm PI 183527.

    PubMed

    Ren, R S; Wang, M N; Chen, X M; Zhang, Z J

    2012-09-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive diseases of wheat worldwide. Resistance is the best approach to control the disease. High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) stripe rust resistance has proven to be race non-specific and durable. However, genes conferring high-levels of HTAP resistance are limited in number and new genes are urgently needed for breeding programs to develop cultivars with durable high-level resistance to stripe rust. Spring wheat germplasm PI 183527 showed a high-level of HTAP resistance against stripe rust in our germplasm evaluations over several years. To elucidate the genetic basis of resistance, we crossed PI 183527 and susceptible wheat line Avocet S. Adult plants of parents, F(1), F(2) and F(2:3) progeny were tested with selected races under the controlled greenhouse conditions and in fields under natural infection. PI 183527 has a single dominant gene conferring HTAP resistance. Resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers in combination with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) were used to identify markers linked to the resistance gene. A linkage map consisting of 4 RGAP and 7 SSR markers was constructed for the resistance gene using data from 175 F(2) plants and their derived F(2:3) lines. Amplification of nulli-tetrasomic, ditelosomic and deletion lines of Chinese Spring with three RGAP markers mapped the gene to the distal region (0.86-1.0) of chromosome 7BL. The molecular map spanned a genetic distance of 27.3 cM, and the resistance gene was narrowed to a 2.3-cM interval flanked by markers Xbarc182 and Xwgp5258. The polymorphism rates of the flanking markers in 74 wheat lines were 74 and 30 %, respectively; and the two markers in combination could distinguish the alleles at the resistance locus in 82 % of tested genotypes. To determine the genetic relationship between this resistance gene and Yr39, a gene also on 7BL conferring HTAP resistance in

  6. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  7. 41 CFR 51-2.1 - Membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Membership. 51-2.1 Section 51-2.1 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM...

  8. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  9. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.4-2 - Elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Elections. 1.4-2 Section 1.4-2 Internal Revenue....4-2 Elections. (a) Making of election. The election to pay the optional tax imposed under section 3... the standard deduction provided by section 141. (b) Election under section 3 and election of...

  13. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's public purposes, programs and functions; (2) Established...

  14. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's public purposes, programs and functions; (2) Established...

  15. Paleoclimatic Inferences from a 120,000-Yr Calcite Record of Water-Table Fluctuation in Browns Room of Devils Hole, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Szabo, B. J.; Kolesar, Peter T.; Riggs, A.C.; Winograd, I.J.; Ludwig, K. R.

    1994-01-01

    The petrographic and morphologic differences between calcite precipitated below, at, or above the present water table and uranium-series dating were used to reconstruct a chronology of water-table fluctuation for the past 120,000 yr in Browns Room, a subterranean air-filled chamber of Devils Hole fissure adjacent to the discharge area of the large Ash Meadows groundwater flow system in southern Nevada. The water table was more than 5 m above present level between about 116,000 and 53,000 yr ago, fluctuated between about +5 and +9 m during the period between about 44,000 and 20,000 yr ago, and declined rapidly from +9 to its present level during the past 20,000 yr. Because the Ash Meadows groundwater basin is greater than 12,000 km2 in extent, these documented water-table fluctuations are likely to be of regional significance. Although different in detail, water-level fluctuation recorded by Browns Room calcites generally correlate with other Great Basin proxy palcoclimatic data.

  16. CYP2S1: A short review

    SciTech Connect

    Saarikoski, Sirkku T. . E-mail: sirkku.saarikoski@ktl.fi; Rivera, Steven P.; Hankinson, Oliver; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti

    2005-09-01

    A new member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, CYP2S1, has recently been identified in human and mouse. In this paper, we review the data currently available for CYP2S1. The human CYP2S1 gene is located in chromosome 19q13.2 within a cluster including CYP2 family members CYP2A6, CYP2A13, CYP2B6, and CYP2F1. These genes also show the highest homology to the human CYP2S1. The gene has recently been found to harbor genetic polymorphism. CYP2S1 is inducible by dioxin, the induction being mediated by the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AHR) and Aryl Hydrocarbon Nuclear Translocator (ARNT) in a manner typical for CYP1 family members. In line with this, CYP2S1 has been shown to be inducible by coal tar, an abundant source of PAHs, and it was recently reported to metabolize naphthalene. This points to the involvement of CYP2S1 in the metabolism of toxic and carcinogenic compounds, similar to other dioxin-inducible CYPs. CYP2S1 is expressed in epithelial cells of a wide variety of extrahepatic tissues. The highest expression levels have been observed in the epithelial tissues frequently exposed to xenobiotics, e.g., the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urinary tracts, and in the skin. The observed ubiquitous tissue distribution, as well as the expression of CYP2S1 throughout embryogenesis suggest that CYP2S1 is likely to metabolize important endogenous substrates; thus far, retinoic acid has been identified. In conclusion, CYP2S1 exhibits many features of interest for human health and thus warrants further investigation.

  17. Tissue acylation by the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J W; Pohl, L R; Martin, J L; Anders, M W

    1991-01-01

    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are being developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); because widespread human exposure to HCFCs may be expected, it is important to evaluate their toxicities thoroughly. Here we report studies on the bioactivation of the CFC substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) to an electrophilic intermediate that reacts covalently with liver proteins. HCFC-123 and its analog halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) were studied in rats by 19F NMR spectroscopy, and we found that a trifluoroacetylated lysine adduct was formed with liver proteins. Also, the pattern of proteins immunoreactive with hapten-specific anti-trifluoroacetylprotein antibodies was identical in livers of HCFC-123- and halothane-exposed rats. Because halothane causes an idiosyncratic, and sometimes fatal, hepatitis that is associated with an immune response against several trifluoroacetylated liver proteins, the present findings raise the possibility that humans exposed to HCFC-123 or structurally related HCFCs may be at risk of developing an immunologically mediated hepatitis. Images PMID:1996342

  18. Tissue acylation by the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.

    PubMed

    Harris, J W; Pohl, L R; Martin, J L; Anders, M W

    1991-02-15

    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are being developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); because widespread human exposure to HCFCs may be expected, it is important to evaluate their toxicities thoroughly. Here we report studies on the bioactivation of the CFC substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) to an electrophilic intermediate that reacts covalently with liver proteins. HCFC-123 and its analog halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) were studied in rats by 19F NMR spectroscopy, and we found that a trifluoroacetylated lysine adduct was formed with liver proteins. Also, the pattern of proteins immunoreactive with hapten-specific anti-trifluoroacetylprotein antibodies was identical in livers of HCFC-123- and halothane-exposed rats. Because halothane causes an idiosyncratic, and sometimes fatal, hepatitis that is associated with an immune response against several trifluoroacetylated liver proteins, the present findings raise the possibility that humans exposed to HCFC-123 or structurally related HCFCs may be at risk of developing an immunologically mediated hepatitis. PMID:1996342

  19. Tissue acylation by the chlorofluorocarbon substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane.

    PubMed

    Harris, J W; Pohl, L R; Martin, J L; Anders, M W

    1991-02-15

    Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are being developed as substitutes for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs); because widespread human exposure to HCFCs may be expected, it is important to evaluate their toxicities thoroughly. Here we report studies on the bioactivation of the CFC substitute 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) to an electrophilic intermediate that reacts covalently with liver proteins. HCFC-123 and its analog halothane (2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) were studied in rats by 19F NMR spectroscopy, and we found that a trifluoroacetylated lysine adduct was formed with liver proteins. Also, the pattern of proteins immunoreactive with hapten-specific anti-trifluoroacetylprotein antibodies was identical in livers of HCFC-123- and halothane-exposed rats. Because halothane causes an idiosyncratic, and sometimes fatal, hepatitis that is associated with an immune response against several trifluoroacetylated liver proteins, the present findings raise the possibility that humans exposed to HCFC-123 or structurally related HCFCs may be at risk of developing an immunologically mediated hepatitis.

  20. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) 1a/2a heteromers have a flexible 2:1/1:2 stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Bartoi, Tudor; Augustinowski, Katrin; Polleichtner, Georg; Gründer, Stefan; Ulbrich, Maximilian H.

    2014-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed proton-gated Na+ channels playing a role in tissue acidosis and pain. A trimeric composition of ASICs has been suggested by crystallization. Upon coexpression of ASIC1a and ASIC2a in Xenopus oocytes, we observed the formation of heteromers and their coexistence with homomers by electrophysiology, but could not determine whether heteromeric complexes have a fixed subunit stoichiometry or whether certain stoichiometries are preferred over others. We therefore imaged ASICs labeled with green and red fluorescent proteins on a single-molecule level, counted bleaching steps from GFP and colocalized them with red tandem tetrameric mCherry for many individual complexes. Combinatorial analysis suggests a model of random mixing of ASIC1a and ASIC2a subunits to yield both 2:1 and 1:2 ASIC1a:ASIC2a heteromers together with ASIC1a and ASIC2a homomers. PMID:24847067

  1. DOE-2, BDL summary. Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E.; Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S.

    1993-11-01

    This document contains summary information on all commands and keywords in the DOE-2 Building Description Language (BDL). It also contains supplementary tables and maps. The fundamentals of BDL are discussed in Chapter II of the Reference Manual (2.1A); detailed descriptions of the commands and keywords summarized here can be found in the Reference Manual (2.1A) and in the Supplement (2.1E).

  2. Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1930-01-01

    Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1: The Consolidated Fleet N2Y-1 aircraft were used as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. This N2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note that the vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA work. This N2Y was used for landing gear tests.

  3. The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1935-01-01

    The Consolidated Fleet XN2Y-1 was a Fleet 1 trainer purchased by the Navy for evaluation. The purchase of several N2Y-1 aircraft followed, for use as trainers for the pilots who would fly the 'parasite' fighters attached to the airships Akron and Macon. The XN2Y-1 was turned over to the NACA for research work. Note the that vertical surfaces are instrumented for NACA spin work.

  4. A 22 570 yr record of vegetational and climatic change from Wenhai Lake in the Hengduan Mountains biodiversity hotspot, Yunnan, Southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Y. F.; Song, X. Y.; Wortley, A. H.; Blackmore, S.; Li, C. S.

    2014-09-01

    an increase in Polygonaceae pollen in the upper 30 cm of the core. The marked decline in Quercus pollen, in particular, in the Wenhai core can be correlated with that observed in the Haligu core (situated about 2 km away) between 2400 cal. yr BP and the present.

  5. Alkyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes.

    PubMed

    Lidster, Benjamin J; Kumar, Dharam R; Spring, Andrew M; Yu, Chin-Yang; Helliwell, Madeleine; Raftery, James; Turner, Michael L

    2016-07-01

    [2.2]Paracyclophane-1,9-dienes substituted with n-octyl chains have been synthesised from the corresponding dithia[3.3]paracyclophanes using a benzyne induced Stevens rearrangement. The use of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl trifluoromethanesulfonate and tetra-n-butylammonium fluoride as the in situ benzyne source gave significantly improved yields over traditional sources of benzyne and enabled the preparation of n-octyl substituted [2.2]paracyclophane-1,9-dienes on a multi-gram scale.

  6. Development of a polysilicon process based on chemical vapor deposition, phase 1 and phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plahutnik, F.; Arvidson, A.; Sawyer, D.; Sharp, K.

    1982-01-01

    High-purity polycrystalline silicon was produced in an experimental, intermediate and advanced CVD reactor. Data from the intermediate and advanced reactors confirmed earlier results obtained in the experimental reactor. Solar cells were fabricated by Westinghouse Electric and Applied Solar Research Corporation which met or exceeded baseline cell efficiencies. Feedstocks containing trichlorosilane or silicon tetrachloride are not viable as etch promoters to reduce silicon deposition on bell jars. Neither are they capable of meeting program goals for the 1000 MT/yr plant. Post-run CH1 etch was found to be a reasonably effective method of reducing silicon deposition on bell jars. Using dichlorosilane as feedstock met the low-cost solar array deposition goal (2.0 gh-1-cm-1), however, conversion efficiency was approximately 10% lower than the targeted value of 40 mole percent (32 to 36% achieved), and power consumption was approximately 20 kWh/kg over target at the reactor.

  7. Characterization of Stripe Rust Resistance in Wheat Lines with Resistance Gene Yr17 and Implications for Evaluating Resistance and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Milus, Eugene A; Lee, Kevin D; Brown-Guedira, Gina

    2015-08-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, has been the most important foliar wheat disease in south central United States since 2000 when a new strain of the pathogen emerged. The resistance gene Yr17 was used by many breeding programs to develop resistant cultivars. Although Yr17 was classified as a seedling (all-stage) resistance gene conferring a low infection type, seedlings with Yr17 frequently had intermediate to high infection types when inoculated with isolates that caused little or no disease on adult plants of the same wheat lines. The objectives of this study were to determine how to best evaluate Yr17 resistance in wheat lines and to determine which factors made seedling tests involving Yr17 so variable. Stripe rust reactions on wheat seedlings with Yr17 were influenced by temperature, wheat genotype, pathogen isolate, and the leaf (first or second) used to assess the seedling reaction. The most critical factors for accurately evaluating Yr17 reactions at the seedling stage were to avoid night temperatures below 12°C, to use the first leaf to assess the seedling reaction, to use multiple differentials with Yr17 and known avirulent, partially virulent and virulent isolates as controls, and to recognize that intermediate infection types likely represent a level of partial virulence in the pathogen that is insufficient to cause disease on adult plants in the field.

  8. Gene expression patterns of wheat rust resistance gene Lr34/Yr18 indicate novel mode of action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lr34/Yr18 resistance gene provides durable, adult-plant, slow-rusting resistance to leaf rust and yellow rust of wheat. Patterns of gene expression were examined by microarray analysis in inoculated and mock-inoculated flag leaves of two pairs of near isogenic lines for Lr34/Yr18 (Thatcher/Thatc...

  9. 43 CFR 3465.2-1 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspections. 3465.2-1 Section 3465.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ENVIRONMENT Surface Management and Protection §...

  10. 43 CFR 3465.2-1 - Inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspections. 3465.2-1 Section 3465.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) ENVIRONMENT Surface Management and Protection §...

  11. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  12. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  13. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  14. 43 CFR 3140.2-1 - Forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Forms. 3140.2-1 Section 3140.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of...

  15. 1 CFR 15.2 - Information services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information services. 15.2 Section 15.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER PREPARATION, TRANSMITTAL, AND PROCESSING OF DOCUMENTS SERVICES TO FEDERAL AGENCIES General § 15.2 Information services. The Director of the...

  16. 1 CFR 455.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 455.2 Section 455.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS) § 455.2 Definitions. For the purpose of these procedures: (a) The term individual means a citizen of the United...

  17. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  18. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  19. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  20. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  1. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  2. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  3. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  4. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  5. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Composition. 1784.2-1 Section 1784.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Composition. (a) Each advisory committee shall be structured to provide fair membership balance,...

  6. 1 CFR 455.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 455.2 Section 455.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS) § 455.2..., symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual, such as social security number;...

  7. 1 CFR 455.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 455.2 Section 455.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (PRIVACY ACT REGULATIONS) § 455.2..., symbol, or other identifying particular assigned to the individual, such as social security number;...

  8. 1 CFR 456.2 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Organization. 456.2 Section 456.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.2 Organization. The Commission is the central planning agency for the Federal Government...

  9. 1 CFR 456.2 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Organization. 456.2 Section 456.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.2 Organization. The Commission is the central planning agency for the Federal Government...

  10. 1 CFR 456.2 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Organization. 456.2 Section 456.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.2 Organization. The Commission is the central planning agency for the Federal Government...

  11. 1 CFR 456.2 - Organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Organization. 456.2 Section 456.2 General Provisions MISCELLANEOUS AGENCIES NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION (FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT REGULATIONS) § 456.2 Organization. The Commission is the central planning agency for the Federal Government...

  12. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  13. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  14. 1 CFR 2.6 - Unrestricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Unrestricted use. 2.6 Section 2.6 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.6 Unrestricted use. Any person may reproduce or republish, without restriction, any material appearing in any...

  15. 1 CFR 8.2 - Orderly development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Orderly development. 8.2 Section 8.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.2 Orderly development. To assure orderly development of the Code of...

  16. A comparison of surface air temperature variability in three 1000-Yr. coupled ocean-atmosphere model integrations

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, R.J.; Hegerl, G.; Tett, S.

    2000-02-01

    This study compares the variability of surface air temperature in three long coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model integrations. It is shown that the annual mean climatology of the surface air temperatures (SAT) in all three models is realistic and the linear trends over the 1,000-yr integrations are small over most areas of the globe. Second, although there are notable differences among the models, the models' SAT variability is fairly realistic on annual to decadal timescales, both in terms of the geographical distribution and of the global mean values. A notable exception is the poor simulation of observed tropical Pacific variability. In the HadCM2 model, the tropical variability is overestimated, while in the GFDL and HAM3L models, it is underestimated. Also, the ENSO-related spectral peak in the globally averaged observed SAT differs from that in any of the models. The relatively low resolution required to integrate models for long time periods inhibits the successful simulation of the variability in this region. On timescales longer than a few decades, the largest variance in the models is generally located near sea ice margins in high latitudes, which are also regions of deep oceanic convection and variability related to variations in the thermohaline circulation. However, the exact geographical location of these maxima varies from model to model. The preferred patterns of interdecadal variability that are common to all three coupled models can be isolated by computing empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of all model data simultaneously using the common EOF technique. A comparison of the variance each model associated with these common EOF patterns shows that the models generally agree on the most prominent patterns of variability. However, the amplitudes of the dominant models of variability differ to some extent between the models and between the models and observations. For example, two of the models have a mode with relatively large

  17. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  18. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  19. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  20. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  1. 23 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY... shall have the following meaning: Administrator. The Federal Highway Administrator. Advertising policy... laws, heretofore or hereafter enacted, relating to Federal aid for highways. Latest available...

  2. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  3. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  4. 48 CFR 1.603-2 - Selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection. 1.603-2 Section 1.603-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities...

  5. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2 Section 1.602-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities...

  6. 26 CFR 1.709-2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.709-2 Section 1.709-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME... the Internal Revenue Code defines organizational expenses as expenses which: (1) Are incident to...

  7. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  8. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  9. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  10. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  11. 24 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... participates in carrying out such program or activity (such as a redeveloper in the Urban Renewal Program... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban...

  12. 8 CFR 1.2 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 1.2 Section 1.2 Aliens and... alien means an applicant for admission coming or attempting to come into the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien seeking transit through the United States at a port-of-entry, or an alien...

  13. 46 CFR 2.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 2.45-1 Section 2.45-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Classification Society... Government of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly. Classification society means an...

  14. 46 CFR 2.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 2.45-1 Section 2.45-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Classification Society... Government of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly. Classification society means an...

  15. 46 CFR 2.45-1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 2.45-1 Section 2.45-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Classification Society... Government of the State whose flag the ship is entitled to fly. Classification society means an...

  16. 48 CFR 1.602-2 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 1.602-2... ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Career Development, Contracting Authority, and Responsibilities 1.602-2 Responsibilities. Contracting officers are responsible for ensuring performance of all necessary actions...

  17. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's legal authorities, public purposes, programs, and functions;...

  18. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's legal authorities, public purposes, programs, and functions;...

  19. 1 CFR 9.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Scope. 9.2 Section 9.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER THE UNITED STATES... include— (1) Descriptions of the agency's legal authorities, public purposes, programs, and functions;...

  20. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...(a)) provides that “ he Secretary may authorize persons engaged in research on mental health... regulations in this part establish procedures under which any person engaged in research on mental health... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public...

  1. 42 CFR 2a.1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...(a)) provides that “ he Secretary may authorize persons engaged in research on mental health... regulations in this part establish procedures under which any person engaged in research on mental health... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability. 2a.1 Section 2a.1 Public...

  2. Hydroclimate variability in the low-elevation Atacama Desert over the last 2500 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayo, E. M.; Latorre, C.; Santoro, C. M.; Maldonado, A.; de Pol-Holz, R.

    2012-02-01

    Paleoclimate reconstructions reveal that Earth system has experienced sub-millennial scale climate changes over the past two millennia in response to internal/external forcing. Although sub-millennial hydroclimate fluctuations have been detected in the central Andes during this interval, the timing, magnitude, extent and direction of change of these events remain poorly defined. Here, we present a reconstruction of hydroclimate variations on the Pacific slope of the central Andes based on exceptionally well-preserved plant macrofossils and associated archaeological remains from a hyperarid drainage (Quebrada Maní, ∼21° S, 1000 m a.s.l.) in the Atacama Desert. During the late Holocene, riparian ecosystems and farming social groups flourished in the hyperarid Atacama core as surface water availability increased throughout this presently sterile landscape. Twenty-six radiocarbon dates indicate that these events occurred between 1050-680, 1615-1350 and 2500-2040 cal yr BP. Regional comparisons with rodent middens and other records suggest that these events were synchronous with pluvial stages detected at higher-elevations in the central Andes over the last 2500 yr. These hydroclimate changes also coincide with periods of pronounced SST gradients in the Tropical Pacific (La Niña-like mode), conditions that are conducive to significantly increased rainfall in the central Andean highlands and flood events in the low-elevation watersheds at inter-annual timescales. Our findings indicate that the positive anomalies in the hyperarid Atacama over the past 2500 yr represent a regional response of the central Andean climate system to changes in the global hydrological cycle at centennial timescales. Furthermore, our results provide support for the role of tropical Pacific sea surface temperature gradient changes as the primary mechanism responsible for climate fluctuations in the central Andes. Finally, our results constitute independent evidence for comprehending the

  3. O 2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Puckett, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    O 2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero-and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O 2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 ??mol L -1 yr -1 to more than 140 ??mol L -1 yr -1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr -1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 ??mol N L -1 yr -1; 0.06-0.30 yr -1) were observed in most areas with O 2 concentrations below 60 mol L -1, while higher rates (>100 mol N L -1 yr -1; >0.36 yr -1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O 2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O 2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O 2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation. copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. O2 reduction and denitrification rates in shallow aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoriero, Anthony J.; Puckett, Larry J.

    2011-12-01

    O2 reduction and denitrification rates were determined in shallow aquifers of 12 study areas representing a wide range in sedimentary environments and climatic conditions. Zero- and first-order rates were determined by relating reactant or product concentrations to apparent groundwater age. O2 reduction rates varied widely within and between sites, with zero-order rates ranging from <3 μmol L-1 yr-1 to more than 140 μmol L-1 yr-1 and first-order rates ranging from 0.02 to 0.27 yr-1. Moderate denitrification rates (10-100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; 0.06-0.30 yr-1) were observed in most areas with O2 concentrations below 60 μmol L-1, while higher rates (>100 μmol N L-1 yr-1; >0.36 yr-1) occur when changes in lithology result in a sharp increase in the supply of electron donors. Denitrification lag times (i.e., groundwater travel times prior to the onset of denitrification) ranged from <20 yr to >80 yr. The availability of electron donors is indicated as the primary factor affecting O2 reduction rates. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and/or sulfate (an indicator of sulfide oxidation) were positively correlated with groundwater age at sites with high O2 reduction rates and negatively correlated at sites with lower rates. Furthermore, electron donors from recharging DOC are not sufficient to account for appreciable O2 and nitrate reduction. These relations suggest that lithologic sources of DOC and sulfides are important sources of electrons at these sites but surface-derived sources of DOC are not. A review of published rates suggests that denitrification tends to occur more quickly when linked with sulfide oxidation than with carbon oxidation.

  5. Fragrance material review on 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2013-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-(3,3-Dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one is a member of the fragrance structural group Alkyl Cyclic Ketones. These fragrances can be described as being composed of an alkyl, R1, and various substituted and bicyclic saturated or unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons, R2, in which one of the rings may include up to 12 carbons. Alternatively, R2 may be a carbon bridge of C2-C4 carbon chain length between the ketone and cyclic hydrocarbon. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-(3,3-dimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-2-yl)ethane-1-one were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire Alkyl Cyclic Ketones will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Calow, P., Dagli, M., Fryer, A.D., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2013. A Toxicologic and Dermatologic Assessment of Alkyl Cyclic Ketones When Used as Fragrance Ingredients (submitted for publication) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Alkyl Cyclic Ketones in fragrances.

  6. Climate forcing and the response of vegetation and disturbances during the 'Populus Period', 2000-4000 cal yr BP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, V.; Brunelle, A.; Brewer, S.; Minckley, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    Paleoecological proxies, such as charcoal and pollen, are valuable tools for reconstructing previous fire regimes, vegetation change and ecosystem resilience. This study attempts to analyze fire severity and ecosystem response using lake sediments from southeastern Wyoming, during a unique period of time coined the 'Populus period' (Carter et al., 2013). The 'Populus period' (3,100-4,000 cal yr BP) was a time when vegetation composition changed from a lodgepole pine dominant system to a quaking aspen system. This change in vegetation altered the fire regime from a low frequency regime to a high disturbance regime. This study investigates 12 fire events from 2000-4000 cal yr BP to determine the ecological response associated with the fire events and to identify driver(s) associated with vegetation change and fire regimes. In order to determine fire severity, this study compares high-resolution charcoal and pollen data to peak magnitude data from CharAnalysis (a statistical treatment program). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) is used to set a threshold by which pollen taxa are associated with low or high severity fires. Preliminary LDA results suggest that low severity fires have a peak magnitude lower than 200 particles/cm2/episode and high severity fires have a peak magnitude higher than 200 particles/cm2/episode. Superposed epoch analysis (SEA) will be used to model pollen behavior through fire sample intervals to determine the ecology response associated with each of the 12 fires events. Statistical analysis using LDA and SEA can potentially be used in combination to determine fire severity and thus ecosystem resilience. Long-term reconstructions of fire severity can be beneficial for informing land managers in the 21st century.

  7. Liquid effluent FY 1996 program plan WBS 1.2.2.1. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Liquid Effluents Program supports the three Hanford Site mission components: (1) Clean up the site, (2) provide scientific and technological excellence to meet global needs, and (3) Partner in the economic diversification of the region. Nine Hanford Site objectives have been established for the Hanford Site programs to accomplish all three components of this mission.

  8. BLDG 1 LOOKING TOWARDS BLDG 2 & 2A Naval ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BLDG 1 LOOKING TOWARDS BLDG 2 & 2A - Naval Magazine Lualualei, Headquarters Branch, Administration Building, Between Constitution & Constellation Streets, east side of main quad, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Hexamethylenetetramine-4-nitrocatechol-water (1/2/1).

    PubMed

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Usman, Anwar; Fun, Hoong Kun; Poh, Bo Long; Karalai, Chatchanok

    2002-11-01

    In the title adduct, 1,3,5,7-tetraazatricyclo[3.3.1.1(3,7)]decane-4-nitrobenzene-1,2-diol-water (1/2/1), C(6)H(12)N(4).2C(6)H(5)NO(4).H(2)O, the hexamethylenetetramine molecule acts as an acceptor of intermolecular O-H.N hydrogen-bonding interactions from the water molecule and the hydroxy groups of one of the two symmetry-independent 4-nitrocatechol molecules. The structure is built from molecular layers which are stabilized by three intermolecular O-H.O, two intermolecular O-H.N and four intermolecular C-H.O hydrogen bonds. The layers are further interconnected by one additional intermolecular O-H.N and two intermolecular C-H.O hydrogen bonds.

  10. Phylogeography of influenza A H5N1 clade 2.2.1.1 in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Influenza A H5N1 has killed millions of birds and raises serious public health concern because of its potential to spread to humans and cause a global pandemic. While the early focus was in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is a new epicenter for the disease. This includes characterization of a variant clade 2.2.1.1, which has been found almost exclusively in Egypt. We analyzed 226 HA and 92 NA sequences with an emphasis on the H5N1 2.2.1.1 strains in Egypt using a Bayesian discrete phylogeography approach. This allowed modeling of virus dispersion between Egyptian governorates including the most likely origin. Results Phylogeography models of hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) suggest Ash Sharqiyah as the origin of virus spread, however the support is weak based on Kullback–Leibler values of 0.09 for HA and 0.01 for NA. Association Index (AI) values and Parsimony Scores (PS) were significant (p-value < 0.05), indicating that dispersion of H5N1 in Egypt was geographically structured. In addition, the Ash Sharqiyah to Al Gharbiyah and Al Fayyum to Al Qalyubiyah routes had the strongest statistical support. Conclusion We found that the majority of routes with strong statistical support were in the heavily populated Delta region. In particular, the Al Qalyubiyah governorate appears to represent a popular location for virus transition as it represented a large portion of branches in both trees. However, there remains uncertainty about virus dispersion to and from this location and thus more research needs to be conducted in order to examine this. Phylogeography can highlight the drivers of H5N1 emergence and spread. This knowledge can be used to target public health efforts to reduce morbidity and mortality. For Egypt, future work should focus on using data about vaccination and live bird markets in phylogeography models to study their impact on H5N1 diffusion within the country. PMID:24325606

  11. Bone marrow engraftment and associated dermatologic sequelae in a three-yr-old after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Johanna; Saavedra, Arturo P; Degar, Barbara A; Duncan, Christine N; Fawaz, Rima; Tan, Jennifer K; Schmidt, Birgitta A; Kim, Heung B; Huang, Jennifer T

    2015-03-01

    We present a case of a three-yr-old child with a history of multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis treated with systemic chemotherapy, who developed progressive liver failure and received an orthotopic split liver transplant while continuing on chemotherapy. One month following transplant, he developed acute graft-vs.-host disease of the skin and gastrointestinal tract. Peripheral blood chimerism studies post-transplant demonstrated an increasing predominance of donor lymphocytes and granulocytes. Shortly after, the patient developed vitiligo, and two yr after transplantation, the patient developed skin manifestations of psoriasis. We discuss and review the current literature, which demonstrates that chimerism following liver transplantation is rare and in our patient may be related to his profound immunosuppression around the time of liver transplant as well the development of acute graft-versus-host disease. While autoimmune disease can occur after solid organ and stem cell transplant, our patient developed skin manifestations of autoimmunity after liver transplantation, which is also rarely described. PMID:25516432

  12. Ontogenetic trends in gnostic hand function in 3- to 12-yr-old children.

    PubMed

    van Grunsven, W; Njiokiktjien, C; Vranken, M; Vuylsteke-Wauters, M

    2003-06-01

    The intimate relation between the sensory and motor functions of the hands during object manipulation and exploratory touch, the well-known improvement in object handling and constructive performance in ontogenesis and the emergent laterality thereof, assume changes in morphognostic capabilities in children. In this study we tried to corroborate the hypothesis of Mesker that mature and lateralized finger-thumb opposition is preceded by a stage of two-sided manual form agnosia in preschool children, followed by acquisition of morphognosis of the fingers and, finally, the thumbs. This study examined the development of gnostic hand function in 290 children from 3 to 11 years of age who drew the outlines of a meaningless wooden object passively felt with each hand without visual control. Analysis showed a clear ontogenetic change across the two age groups of increasing morphognostic function: 48% of the 6-yr.-olds drew correctly what the fingers of both left and right hands had perceived (thumbs, 14%). Of the 11-yr.-olds 91% and 61% performed perfectly with the right and left hands, respectively. The fingers preceded the thumbs in reproduction by most children, and the correct reproduction by the left thumb precedes that of the right thumb. The ontogenesis of bimanual sensorimotor functioning is discussed in the light of cortical and callosal development. PMID:12929757

  13. ATP modulates acute inflammation in vivo through dual oxidase 1-derived H2O2 production and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Sofia; López-Muñoz, Azucena; Candel, Sergio; Pelegrín, Pablo; Calado, Ângelo; Mulero, Victoriano

    2014-06-15

    Dual oxidase 1 (Duox1) is the NADPH oxidase responsible for the H2O2 gradient formed in tissues after injury to trigger the early recruitment of leukocytes. Little is known about the signals that modulate H2O2 release from DUOX1 and whether the H2O2 gradient can orchestrate the inflammatory response in vivo. In this study, we report on a dominant-negative form of zebrafish Duox1 that is able to inhibit endogenous Duox1 activity, H2O2 release and leukocyte recruitment after tissue injury, with none of the side effects associated with morpholino-mediated Duox1 knockdown. Using this specific tool, we found that ATP release following tissue injury activates purinergic P2Y receptors, and modulates Duox1 activity through phospholipase C (PLC) and intracellular calcium signaling in vivo. Furthermore, Duox1-derived H2O2 is able to trigger the NF-κB inflammatory signaling pathway. These data reveal that extracellular ATP acting as an early danger signal is responsible for the activation of Duox1 via a P2YR/PLC/Ca(2+) signaling pathway and the production of H2O2, which, in turn, is able to modulate in vivo not only the early recruitment of leukocytes to the wound but also the inflammatory response through activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  14. 3-Methyl-1-(prop-2-en-1-yl)quinoxalin-2(1H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Ramli, Youssef; Slimani, Rachid; Zouihri, Hafid; Lazar, Saïd; Essassi, E. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the mol­ecule of the title compound, C12H12N2O, the quinoxaline ring is planar with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.007 (15) Å. The dihedral angle between the quinoxaline and propenyl planes is 82.1 (2)°. The crystal packing is stabilized by offset π–π stacking between the quinoxaline rings [centroid–centroid distance = 3.8832 (9) Å]. PMID:21587981

  15. A caldera-forming eruption ~ 14,100 14C yr BP at Popocatépetl volcano, México: Insights from eruption dynamics and magma mixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Ceballos, Giovanni; Gardner, James E.; Siebe, Claus; Macías, José L.

    2012-02-01

    Volcán Popocatépetl (México) erupted ~ 14,100 14 C yr BP (~ 17,000 cal yr BP) producing the Tutti Frutti Plinian Eruption (TFPE). The eruption tapped two different silicic magmas (GT and MT) that mixed just prior and during the eruption, resulting in the collapse of the reservoir and formation of a caldera. Two fall deposits (GT and MT) and two series of pyroclastic flows (P01 and P02) were emplaced during the eruption. These were studied at 91 sites, where thicknesses were measured, and at many sites the five coarsest lithics observed in each unit were measured. Several samples from deposits were sieved for component analysis. The eruption began with intermittent, short lived eruptions that deposited the GT unit at proximal sites around the volcano. Next, the main Plinian phase of the eruption started, and the MT unit and a pyroclastic flow were deposited to the northwest of the present-day cone. Overall, ~ 3 km3 of magma were erupted. The pyroclastic flow within MT separates two fall units characterized by different pumice color and lithic content. During deposition of the lower unit (milky pumice) eruptive intensity reached 3 × 108 kg s- 1, producing a Plinian column 37 ± 2 km in height. After emplacement of the pyroclastic flow, a lithic-rich upper unit (orange pumice) was deposited with a peak intensity of 5 × 108 kg s- 1, producing a Plinian column 44 ± 2 km in height. Lithics in the TFPE vary from only volcanic (~ 5 vol.%) in GT, to volcanic, granodiorite, and metamorphic (up to 50 vol.%) in MT. The shift in components and lithic content was produced by the collapse of the reservoir. We suggest that the reservoir was over-pressured because of mixing between GT and MT magmas, and then relaxed when all of GT, and part of MT magma were tapped, triggering collapse. The characteristics of mixing were elucidated by studying banded pumice and mixed populations of crystals found in pumice from both units. In addition, the occurrence of An-rich plagioclase, Mg

  16. LANDSAT-1 and LANDSAT-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Flight performances of LANDSAT 1 and LANDSAT 2 are evaluated. The in-flight systems discussed are: (1) power supplies, (2) attitude control, (3) command/clock, (4) telemetry, (5) orbit adjust, (6) electrical interface, (7) thermal, (8) tape recorders, (9) multispectral scanner, (10) data collection and (11) magnetic moment compensating assembly. Tables are presented for easy reference.

  17. Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1944-01-01

    Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver: This Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver was flown by the NACA at Langley with an early radio-control system. Flying controls such as a spring tab were also examined with this airframe. Helldivers were also operated by the U. S. Army as A-25 Shrikes.

  18. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  19. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  20. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  1. 45 CFR 1210.1-2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 1210.1-2 Section 1210.1-2 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE VISTA... separation of any Trainee or Volunteer. Separate procedures, as detailed in the VISTA Handbook,...

  2. 3-2-1 Contact Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This guide to the television program 3-2-1 Contact covers 20 theme weeks. The program is designed to bring students into closer contact with the science and technology in their everyday lives. This guide includes: (1) a brief introduction to the contents of each week's shows; (2) a detailed discussion of each week's primary concepts as well as…

  3. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  4. 1 CFR 11.2 - Federal Register.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... monthly Federal Register Index, and the monthly LSA (List of CFR Sections Affected) is $808 per year for... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal Register. 11.2 Section 11.2 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER AVAILABILITY OF OFFICE OF THE FEDERAL...

  5. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (2010 Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS ...

  6. Atmospheric CO2 source and sink patterns over the Indian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadnavis, Suvarna; Kumar, K. Ravi; Tiwari, Yogesh K.; Pozzoli, Luca

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we examine CO2 emission hot spots and sink regions over India as identified from global model simulations during the period 2000-2009. CO2 emission hot spots overlap with locations of densely clustered thermal power plants, coal mines and other industrial and urban centres; CO2 sink regions coincide with the locations of dense forest. Fossil fuel CO2 emissions are compared with two bottom-up inventories: the Regional Emission inventories in ASia (REAS v1.11; 2000-2009) and the Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR v4.2) (2000-2009). Estimated fossil fuel emissions over the hot spot region are ˜ 500-950 gC m-2 yr-1 as obtained from the global model simulation, EDGAR v4.2 and REAS v1.11 emission inventory. Simulated total fluxes show increasing trends, from 1.39 ± 1.01 % yr-1 (19.8 ± 1.9 TgC yr-1) to 6.7 ± 0.54 % yr-1 (97 ± 12 TgC yr-1) over the hot spot regions and decreasing trends of -0.95 ± 1.51 % yr-1 (-1 ± 2 TgC yr-1) to -5.7 ± 2.89 % yr-1 (-2.3 ± 2 TgC yr-1) over the sink regions. Model-simulated terrestrial ecosystem fluxes show decreasing trends (increasing CO2 uptake) over the sink regions. Decreasing trends in terrestrial ecosystem fluxes imply that forest cover is increasing, which is consistent with India State of Forest Report (2009). Fossil fuel emissions show statistically significant increasing trends in all the data sets considered in this study. Estimated trend in simulated total fluxes over the Indian region is ˜ 4.72 ± 2.25 % yr-1 (25.6 TgC yr-1) which is slightly higher than global growth rate ˜ 3.1 % yr-1 during 2000-2010.

  7. Accessing 2,1-Borazaronaphthols: Self-Arylation of 1-Alkyl-2-aryl-3-bromo-2,1-borazaronaphthalenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Unlike their B-alkyl counterparts, brominated N-alkyl B-aryl 2,1-borazaronaphthalenes undergo a self-arylation reaction in the presence of a catalytic amount of palladium and base, in which the azaborine serves as both the electrophile and the nucleophile. The products of the self-arylation are air- and moisture-stable 2,1-borazaronaphthols, previously only observed in basic alcoholic solvents. The steric encumbrance of the azaborine appears to prevent formation of the corresponding boron acid anhydride, allowing access to a family of 2,1-borazaronaphthol derivatives. PMID:25133658

  8. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of 2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-Trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Y.; Sotani, T.

    1996-03-01

    The thermal conductivity and the viscosity data of CFC alternative refrigerant HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane; CHCl{sub 2}-CF{sub 3}) were critically evaluated and correlated on the basis of a comprehensive literature survey. Using the residual transport-property concept, we have developed the three-dimensional surfaces of the thermal conductivity-temperature-density and the viscosity-temperature-density. A dilute-gas function and an excess function of simple form were established for each property. The critical enhancement contribution was taken no account because reliable crossover equations of state and the thermal conductivity data are still missing in the critical region. The correlation for the thermal conductivity is valid at temperatures from 253 to 373 K, pressures up to 30 MPa, and densities up to 1623 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The correlation for the viscosity is valid at temperatures from 253 to 423 K, pressures up to 20 MPa, and densities up to 1608 kg{center_dot}m{sup -3}. The uncertainties of the present correlations are estimated to be 5% for both properties, since the experimental data are still scarce and somewhat contradictory in the vapor phase at present.

  9. Thermal conductivity and viscosity of 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Sotani, T.

    1996-03-01

    The thermal conductivity and the viscosity data of CFC alternative refrigerant HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane: CHCI2-CF3) were critically evaluated and correlated on the basis of a comprehensive literature survey. Using the residual transport-property concept, we have developed the three-dimensional surfaces of the thermal conductivity-temperature-density and the viscosity-temperature-density. A dilute-gas function and an excess function of simple form were established for each property. The critical enhancement contribution was taken no account because reliable crossover equations of state and the thermal conductivity data are still missing in the critical region. The correlation for the thermal conductivity is valid at temperatures from 253 to 373 K, pressures up to 30 MPa, and densities up to 1633 kg m-3. The correlation for the viscosity is valid at temperatures from 253 to 423 K, pressures up to 20 MPa. and densities up to 1608 kg·m-3. The uncertainties of the present correlations are estimated to be 50% for both properties, since the experimental data are still scarce and somewhat contradictory in the vapor phase at present.

  10. The quest for companions to post-common envelope binaries. IV. The 2:1 mean-motion resonance of the planets orbiting NN Serpentis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuermann, K.; Dreizler, S.; Hessman, F. V.

    2013-07-01

    We present 69 new mid-eclipse times of the young post-common envelope binary (PCEB) NN Ser, which was previously suggested to possess two circumbinary planets. We have interpreted the observed eclipse-time variations in terms of the light-travel time effect caused by two planets, exhaustively covering the multi-dimensional parameter space by fits in the two binary and ten orbital parameters. We supplemented the fits by stability calculations for all models with an acceptable χ2. An island of secularly stable 2:1 resonant solutions exists, which coincides with the global χ2 minimum. Our best-fit stable solution yields current orbital periods Po = 15.47 yr and Pi = 7.65 yr and eccentricities eo = 0.14 and ei = 0.22 for the outer and inner planets, respectively. The companions qualify as giant planets, with masses of 7.0 MJup and 1.7 MJup for the case of orbits coplanar with that of the binary. The two-planet model that starts from the present system parameters has a lifetime greater than 108 yr, which significantly exceeds the age of NN Ser of 106 yr as a PCEB. The resonance is characterized by libration of the resonant variable Θ1 and circulation of , the difference between the arguments of periapse of the two planets. No stable nonresonant solutions were found, and the possibility of a 5:2 resonance suggested previously by us is now excluded at the 99.3% confidence level. Table 1 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. AC conductivity and relaxation mechanism in (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Susmita; Barik, Subrat Kumar; Choudhary, R. N. P.

    2016-05-01

    In the present study we have synthesized polycrystalline sample of (Nd1/2Li1/2)(Fe1/2V1/2)O3 ceramic by a standard high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Studies of dielectric and electrical properties of the compound have been carried out in a wide range of temperature (RT - 400 °C) and frequency (1kHz - 1MHz) using complex impedance spectroscopic technique. The imaginary vs. real component of the complex impedance plot (Nyquist plot) of the prepared sample exhibits the existence of grain, grain boundary contributions in the complex electrical parameters and negative temperature coefficient of resistance (NTCR) type behavior like semiconductor. Details study of ac conductivity plot reveals that the material obeys universal Jonscher's power law.

  12. Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1943-01-01

    Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver: The front canopy came off this Curtiss SB2C-1 Helldiver while it was in flight, injuring pilot Herbert H. Hoover, but he recovered the plane back to the NACA at Langley Field. SB2Cs were license-built by Fairchild as SBFs and by Canadian Car and Foundry as SBWs. Helldivers were also flown by the British and Australians.

  13. Loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    2014-12-01

    As a first step to generalize the structure of loop quantum cosmology to the theories with the spacetime dimension other than four, the isotropic model of loop quantum cosmology in 2 +1 dimension is studied in this paper. We find that the classical big bang singularity is again replaced by a quantum bounce in the model. The similarities and differences between the (2 +1 )-dimensional model and the (3 +1 )-dimensional one are also discussed.

  14. Tracing of ca 800 yr old mining activity in peat bog using Pb elemental concentrations and isotope compositions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baron, S.; Carignan, J.; Ploquin, A.

    2003-04-01

    Sixty sites of slags have been documented on the Mont-Lozère in southern France. The petrographic analysis shows that slags are metallurgical wastes (800 to 850 yr BP) which certainly result from smelting activity for lead and silver extraction (Ploquin et al., 2001). The aims of this study are: 1) to trace the source of Pb ores which supplied the smelting sites, by using the Pb isotopic composition of several surrounding Pb deposits, 2) to evaluate the actual pollution caused by these slags, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of soils, water and vegetation, and 3) to document the pollution history of the region, by using elemental and isotopic compositions of peat bog cores collected in the neighbourhood of the historical smelting sites. The lead isotopic composition of galena collected in most surrounding ores is very similar to that of different slag samples. On the other hand, the high precision of the results allowed us to select the mineralised areas which were probably the ore sources. The Pb isotopic composition of slags is even more homogeneous: 208/206 Pb: 2.092±0.002; 206/207 Pb: 1.179±0.001; 208/204 Pb: 38.663±0.025; 207/204 Pb: 15.665±0.006; 206/204 Pb: 18.476±0.023, and will allow source tracing in the environment. The "Narses Mortes" peat bog, around which two smelting sites have been reported, is strongly minerotrophic and contains 8 to 60% ash. A 1.40 m core have been retrieved and divided into 58 individual samples. Minerotrophic peat bog records both atmospheric deposition, soils leaching and the grounwater influence. The measured metal concentrations are normalised to Al contents of peat bog samples and the metal/Al ratios are compared to that of the Mont-Lozère granite: relative excess in metal concentrations are found in peat bog samples. An increasing excess of most metals (Pb, Zn, Cd...) was measured for surface samples, from 55 cm depth to the top of the core (23 cm depth). This profil might be attributed to atmospheric

  15. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  16. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater. PMID:23046725

  17. Dehalogenimonas spp. can Reductively Dehalogenate High Concentrations of 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,2-Dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-Trichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Maness, Andrew D; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2012-01-01

    The contaminant concentrations over which type strains of the species Dehalogenimonas alkenigignens and Dehalogenimonas lykanthroporepellens were able to reductively dechlorinate 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were evaluated. Although initially isolated from an environment with much lower halogenated solvent concentrations, D. alkenigignens IP3-3T was found to reductively dehalogenate chlorinated alkanes at concentrations comparable to D. lykanthroporepellens BL-DC-9T. Both species dechlorinated 1,2-DCA, 1,2-DCP, and 1,1,2-TCA present at initial concentrations at least as high as 8.7, 4.0, and 3.5 mM, respectively. The ability of Dehalogenimonas spp. to carry out anaerobic reductive dechlorination even in the presence of high concentrations of chlorinated aliphatic alkanes has important implications for remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater.

  18. Preparation of 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole. [1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole

    DOEpatents

    Lee, K.Y.

    1985-03-05

    A new high density composition of matter, 1,1'-dinitro-3,3'-azo-1,2,4-triazole, has been synthesized using inexpensive, commonly available compounds. This compound has been found to be an explosive, and its use as a propellant is anticipated. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  19. Identification and mapping stripe rust resistance gene YrLM168a using extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class in a complicate genetic background.

    PubMed

    Feng, Junyan; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Yaxi; Jiang, Qiantao; Li, Wei; Pu, Zhien; Lan, Xiujin; Dai, Shoufen; Zhang, Min; Zheng, Youliang

    2015-12-01

    The identification and characterization of resistance genes effective against stripe rust of wheat is beneficial for modern wheat breeding programs. Molecular markers to such genes facilitate their deployment. The variety Milan has resistance that is effective against the predominant stripe rust races in the Sichuan region. Two resistant and two susceptible F8 lines from a cross between Milan and the susceptible variety Chuannong 16 were used to investigate inheritance of the Milan resistance. Three F2 populations were developed from crosses between the resistant lines and their susceptible sibling lines (LM168a × LM168c, LM168c × LM168a, LM168b × LM168d) and used for genetic analysis and molecular mapping of the genes for resistance. The stripe rust resistance in LM168a and LM168b was conferred by a single dominant gene, temporarily designated as YrLM168a. Forty-five extreme susceptible plants from the F2 families of LM168d × LM168b were genotyped with 836 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers to map YrLM168a. YrLM168a was mapped in chromosome 6BL. The nearest flanking markers Xwmc756 and Xbarc146 were 4.6 and 4.6 cM away from the gene at both sides, respectively. The amplification results of twenty extreme resistant (IT 0) and susceptible (IT 4) F2 plants of LM168c × LM168a and LM168a × LM168c with marker Xwmc756 further validated the mapping results. The study suggested that extreme individuals and recessive phenotype class can be successfully used for mapping genes, which should be efficient and reliable. In addition, the flanking markers near YrLM168a should be helpful in marker-assisted breeding.

  20. 1,2-Diazinium hydrogen chloranilate

    PubMed Central

    Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, C4H5N2 +·C6HCl2O4 −, there are three crystallographically independent 1,2-diazinium cations and hydrogen chloranilate anions. The anions are held together by pairs of O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form two types of dimers, one of which is centrosymmetric. The 1,2-diazinium cations are linked on both sides of each dimer via bifurcated N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds to give two kinds of 22 cation–anion associations. The 22 associations are linked by inter­molecular C—H⋯O and C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming a mol­ecular tape along the [230] direction. The tapes are further connected by C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:21580959

  1. Preparation, characterization, and reactions of 3-germabicyclo(3. 2. 1)octane and 2-germabicyclo(2. 2. 1)heptane derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Sommese, A.G.; Cremer, S.E. ); Campbell, J.A.; Thompson, M.R. )

    1990-06-01

    Ring closure of the bis-Grignard derived from cis-1,3-bis(bromomethyl)cyclopentane (5) on R{sub 2}GeCl{sub 2} (R = Ph or Me) afforded the 3-germabicyclo(3.2.1)octane system 6 or 7. Bromine cleavage of a phenyl group in 3,3-diphenyl-3-germabicyclo(3.2.1)octane (6) and subsequent nucleophilic displacement of the bromide allowed differing substitution on the germanium atom. Crystals of 6 were grown from 95% ethanol and found to crystallize in the orthorhombic space group P{sub na2}C{sub A}2{nu} (No. 33, variation) with Z = 4, a = 7.921 (2) {angstrom}, b = 31.565 (5) {angstrom}, c = 6.530 (2) {angstrom}. The physical and spectral properties of these new molecules are presented.

  2. Diffusion of pent-1-ene (1); air (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) pent-1-ene; (2) air

  3. Mortality from diabetes in Nauru. Results of 4-yr follow-up.

    PubMed

    Zimmet, P Z; Finch, C F; Schooneveldt, M G; King, H O; Thoma, K

    1988-04-01

    A population survey in 1982 confirmed that Nauruan adults suffer from an extremely high prevalence (24%) of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A follow-up study of the survey subjects was conducted in 1986. The aim was to assess the burden of diabetes to Nauruans in terms of premature mortality. Age-adjusted mortality rates for diabetic subjects were significantly increased when compared with normal subjects (relative risks for 4-yr mortality were 4.53 in men, P less than .01, and 3.96 in women, P less than .05). Although there was an excess number of deaths among diabetic subjects compared with normal subjects and subjects with impaired glucose tolerance, there was no significant association between cause of death and diabetes.

  4. The climate response to the 11-yr solar cycle in the CMIP5 historical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misios, Stergios; Mitchell, Daniel; Tourpali, Kleareti; Gray, Lesley; Matthes, Katja

    2014-05-01

    The variation of the incoming solar irradiance over the course of the 11-yr solar cycle is a significant source of stratospheric variability. Dynamical mechanisms could amplify and transfer solar signals from the stratosphere to the troposphere and even the surface in a "top-down" pathway. In the opposite direction, "bottom-up" mechanisms could mediate solar signals from the surface to the troposphere via air-sea coupling. The Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) provides an unprecedented opportunity to understand the climate response to the 11-yr solar cycle, as brought about from both "top-down" and "bottom-up" mechanisms, because for the first time different coupled models are driven by spectral solar irradiance and ozone changes. We here analyse archived "historical" simulations (1850-2005) with a lead/lag multiple linear regression model, focusing onto the troposphere and oceans. Our analysis identifies a delayed warming in the troposphere and surface, which is explained by the delayed response of the oceans. In fact, the delayed warming penetrates down to ~150 m from the ocean surface. A significant warming is identified over the western Pacific and Indian oceans whereas an anomalous cooling is simulated in the eastern Pacific. This meridional temperature dipole introduces changes in the Walker circulation, precipitation, convective activity with concomitant effects on the Northern Pacific. We further categorize models in "low- and high-top, depending on the inclusion or not of detailed stratospheric dynamics. This classification is found educative when the relative role of the "top-down" versus "bottom-up" forcing is investigated.

  5. The fossil wind structures of Eta Carinae: changes across one 5.54-yr cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas I.; Teodoro, Mairan; Clementel, Nicola; Corcoran, Michael; Damineli, Augusto; Groh, Jose H.; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Hillier, D. John; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Richardson, Noel D.; Weigelt, Gerd; Lindler, Don; Feggans, Keith

    2016-11-01

    Eta Carinae, the closest, active, massive binary containing a highly unstable Luminous Blue Variable, exhibits expanding, compressed wind shells, seen in emission, that are spatially and spectrally resolved by Hubble Space Telescope/Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. Starting in 2009 June, these structures were mapped across its 5.54-yr, highly elliptical, binary orbit to follow temporal changes in the light of [Fe III] 4659 Å and [Fe II] 4815 Å. The emissions trace portions of fossil wind shells, that were formed by wind-wind interactions across each cycle. Over the high-ionization state, dense arcs, photoionized by far-ultraviolet radiation from the hot secondary, are seen in [Fe III]. Other arcs, ionized by mid-ultraviolet radiation from the primary star, are seen in [Fe II]. The [Fe III] structures tend to be interior to [Fe II] structures that trace extensive, less disturbed primary wind. During the brief periastron passage when the secondary plunges deep into the primary's extremely dense wind, on the far side of primary star, high-ionization [Fe III] structures fade and reappear in [Fe II]. Multiple fossil wind structures were traced across the 5.7-yr monitoring interval. The strong similarity of the expanding [Fe II] shells suggests that the wind and photoionization properties of the massive binary have not changed substantially from one orbit to the next over the past several orbital cycles. These observations trace structures that can be used to test 3D hydrodynamical and radiative-transfer models of massive, interacting winds. They also provide a baseline for following future changes in η Car, especially of its winds and photoionization properties.

  6. The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural transition in Yuchisi, China and its global linkage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-06-01

    Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions.

  7. The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural transition in Yuchisi, China and its global linkage.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050-4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400-4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions. PMID:27283832

  8. The abrupt climate change near 4,400 yr BP on the cultural transition in Yuchisi, China and its global linkage

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianjun; Sun, Liguang; Chen, Liqi; Xu, Libin; Wang, Yuhong; Wang, Xinming

    2016-01-01

    Extreme climatic events have profound impacts on human society. Here we present the results of a study of organic biomarkers within a sedimentary section at the archaeological site of Yuchisi, eastern China, in order to reconstruct climatic variability during the Dawenkou (5,050–4,400 yr BP) and Longshan (4,400–4,000 yr BP) cultures. At ~4,400 yr BP, within the cultural transition horizon, abrupt changes in biomarkers, such as the fatty acid ratio C18:2/C18:0, 2C31/(C27 + C29), n-C18-ol and n-C30-ol, indicate the occurrence of local climate changes over the course of a few decades. These changes occurred during the transition from the Holocene warm period to a subsequent cold period which lasted for the following 600 years. This climatic shift has been recorded at numerous sites worldwide, and it is likely to have been the main cause of the widespread collapse of many isolated cultures at that time. The palaeoclimatic and archaeological data from the Yuchisi sediments may provide new insights into the relationship between climate change and prehistoric cultural transitions. PMID:27283832

  9. Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) signaling in oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Kaspar, James W; Niture, Suryakant K; Jaiswal, Anil K

    2009-11-01

    Nrf2:INrf2 (Keap1) are cellular sensors of chemical- and radiation-induced oxidative and electrophilic stress. Nrf2 is a nuclear transcription factor that controls the expression and coordinated induction of a battery of defensive genes encoding detoxifying enzymes and antioxidant proteins. This is a mechanism of critical importance for cellular protection and cell survival. Nrf2 is retained in the cytoplasm by an inhibitor, INrf2 which functions as an adapter for Cul3/Rbx1-mediated degradation of Nrf2. In response to oxidative/electrophilic stress, Nrf2 is switched on and then off by distinct early and delayed mechanisms. Oxidative/electrophilic modification of INrf2 cysteine 151 and/or protein kinase C phosphorylation of Nrf2 serine 40 results in the escape or release of Nrf2 from INrf2. Nrf2 is stabilized and translocates to the nucleus, forms heterodimers with unknown proteins, and binds the antioxidant response element, which leads to coordinated activation of gene expression. It takes less than 15 min from the time of exposure to switch on nuclear import of Nrf2. This is followed by activation of a delayed mechanism that controls the switching off of Nrf2 activation of gene expression. GSK3beta phosphorylates Fyn at an unknown threonine residue(s), leading to the nuclear localization of Fyn. Fyn phosphorylates Nrf2 tyrosine 568, resulting in the nuclear export of Nrf2, binding with INrf2, and degradation of Nrf2. The switching on and off of Nrf2 protects cells against free radical damage, prevents apoptosis, and promotes cell survival.

  10. Substrate interactions in dehalogenation of 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, and 1,1,2-trichloroethane mixtures by Dehalogenimonas spp.

    PubMed

    Dillehay, Jacob L; Bowman, Kimberly S; Yan, Jun; Rainey, Fred A; Moe, William M

    2014-04-01

    When chlorinated alkanes are present as soil or groundwater pollutants, they often occur in mixtures. This study evaluated substrate interactions during the anaerobic reductive dehalogenation of chlorinated alkanes by the type strains of two Dehalogenimonas species, D. lykanthroporepellens and D. alkenigignens. Four contaminant mixtures comprised of combinations of the chlorinated solvents 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), 1,2-dichloropropane (1,2-DCP), and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) were assessed for each species. Chlorinated solvent depletion and daughter product formation determined as a function of time following inoculation into anaerobic media revealed preferential dechlorination of 1,1,2-TCA over both 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP for both species. 1,2-DCA in particular was not dechlorinated until 1,1,2-TCA reached low concentrations. In contrast, both species concurrently dechlorinated 1,2-DCA and 1,2-DCP over a comparably large concentration range. This is the first report of substrate interactions during chlorinated alkane dehalogenation by pure cultures, and the results provide insights into the chlorinated alkane transformation processes that may be expected for contaminant mixtures in environments where Dehalogenimonas spp. are present. PMID:23990262

  11. SATB1 and 2 in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Brocato, Jason; Costa, Max

    2015-02-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding proteins 1 and 2 (SATB1/2) are nuclear matrix associated proteins that are transcription factors involved in chromatin remodeling and gene regulation. Expression of the SATB2 gene is tissue-specific, and the only epithelial cells expressing SATB2 are the glandular cells of the lower gastrointestinal tract where its expression is regulated by microRNA-31 (miR-31) and miR-182. SATB2, along with its homolog SATB1, are thought to be involved in various cancers with their roles in this disease being specific to the type of cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC) provides the largest association of SATB2 with cancer and the roles of SATB2 are better defined and more studied in CRC than in any other cancer type. SATB1 displays a negative association with SATB2 in CRC. The various studies that have investigated the involvement of SATB1 and 2 in CRC have produced consistent findings. Here, we form four major conclusions regarding the role of these proteins in CRC and their potential clinical value: (i) SATB2 is a sensitive marker to distinguish CRC from other cancer types, (ii) Reduced expression of SATB2 in CRC is associated with poor prognosis, (iii) High levels of SATB1 expression facilitate CRC and are associated with poor prognosis and (iv) Overexpression of miR-31 and -182 in CRC leads to more aggressive cancer. This review will describe several of the key investigations that established these conclusions and highlight results that offer opportunities for future research in the treatment and diagnosis of CRC. PMID:25543122

  12. 40 CFR 721.10435 - Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10435 Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3... chemical substance identified as phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)- (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10435 - Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10435 Phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3... chemical substance identified as phenol, 2-(1-methyl-1-phenylethyl)-4-(1,1,3,3-tetramethylbutyl)- (PMN...

  14. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. 93-113, (42...

  15. 45 CFR 1211.1-2 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VOLUNTEER GRIEVANCE PROCEDURES § 1211.1-2 Applicability. This part applies to all volunteers enrolled under part A of title I of the Domestic Volunteer Service Act of 1973, as amended, Pub. L. 93-113, (42...

  16. Cloaking spin-(1/2) matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, De-Hone

    2010-06-15

    A physical construct for the cloaking of relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves is proposed. It is shown that when the effective energy and mass of relativistic spin-(1/2) particles moving in an effective vector field in a spherical shell are controlled, their matter waves can be perfectly guided through the shell without any distortion or loss; that is, the construct provides a three-dimensional cloaking shell for relativistic spin-(1/2) matter waves. The proposal serves as the basis for some interesting applications such as providing a method to guide the matter waves of spin particles and an ideal setup to exhibit spin-spin interactions as well as perfect quantum interferences of some global effects in spin-(1/2) matter waves.

  17. Tsunami history of an Oregon coastal lake reveals a 4600 yr record of great earthquakes on the Cascadia subduction zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, H.M.; Nelson, A.R.; Hemphill-Haley, E.; Witter, R.C.

    2005-01-01

    Bradley Lake, on the southern Oregon coastal plain, records local tsunamis and seismic shaking on the Cascadia subduction zone over the last 7000 yr. Thirteen marine incursions delivered landward-thinning sheets of sand to the lake from nearshore, beach, and dune environments to the west. Following each incursion, a slug of marine water near the bottom of the freshwater lake instigated a few-year-to-several-decade period of a brackish (??? 4??? salinity) lake. Four additional disturbances without marine incursions destabilized sideslopes and bottom sediment, producing a suspension deposit that blanketed the lake bottom. Considering the magnitude and duration of the disturbances necessary to produce Bradley Lake's marine incursions, a local tsunami generated by a great earthquake on the Cascadia subduction zone is the only accountable mechanism. Extreme ocean levels must have been at least 5-8 m above sea level, and the cumulative duration of each marine incursion must have been at least 10 min. Disturbances without marine incursions require seismic shaking as well. Over the 4600 yr period when Bradley Lake was an optimum tsunami recorder, tsunamis from Cascadia plate-boundary earthquakes came in clusters. Between 4600 and 2800 cal yr B.P., tsunamis occurred at the average frequency of ??? 3-4 every 1000 yr. Then, starting ???2800 cal yr B.P., there was a 930-1260 yr interval with no tsunamis. That gap was followed by a ???1000 yr period with 4 tsunamis. In the last millennium, a 670-750 yr gap preceded the A.D. 1700 earthquake and tsunami. The A.D. 1700 earthquake may be the first of a new cluster of plate-boundary earthquakes and accompanying tsunamis. Local tsunamis entered Bradley Lake an average of every 390 yr, whereas the portion of the Cascadia plate boundary that underlies Bradley Lake ruptured in a great earthquake less frequently, about once every 500 yr. Therefore, the entire length of the subduction zone does not rupture in every earthquake, and Bradley

  18. Observations of PSR J1357-6429 at 2.1 GHz with the Australia Telescope Compact Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirichenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu.; Shternin, P.; Johnston, S.; Voronkov, M. A.; Danilenko, A.; Barsukov, D.; Lai, D.; Zyuzin, D.

    2015-09-01

    PSR J1357-6429 is a young and energetic radio pulsar detected in X-rays and γ-rays. It powers a compact pulsar wind nebula with a jet visible in X-rays and a large-scale plerion detected in X-ray and TeV ranges. Previous multiwavelength studies suggested that the pulsar has a significant proper motion of about 180 mas yr-1, implying an extremely high transverse velocity of about 2000 km s-1. In order to verify this, we performed radio-interferometric observations of PSR J1357-6429 with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) in the 2.1-GHz band. We detected the pulsar with a mean flux density of 212 ± 5 μJy and obtained the most accurate pulsar position: RA = 13^h57^m02{^s.}525(14), Dec. = -64°29'29{^''.}89(15). Using both new and archival ATCA data, we did not find any proper motion and estimated its 90 per cent upper limit as μ < 106 mas yr-1. The pulsar shows a highly polarized single pulse, as was observed earlier at 1.4 GHz. Spectral analysis revealed a shallow spectral index αν = 0.5 ± 0.1. Based on our new radio position of the pulsar, we discount the claim of an optical counterpart candidate reported previously.

  19. CO J = 2-1 and 4-3 Observations of Proto-planetary Nebulae: Time-variable Mass Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Bieging, John H.

    2005-05-01

    Observations made with the Heinrich Hertz Telescope of CO millimeter and submillimeter emission toward a sample of 22 proto-planetary nebula (PPN) candidates resulted in detections of 12 sources in the CO J=2-1 line. Of these 12, seven sources were also detected in the J=4-3 line. These 4-3 transitions are the highest yet observed in all but one of these PPNs. Statistical equilibrium/radiative transfer models were calculated for the CO emission in the circumstellar envelopes (CSEs), assuming various power-law density distributions. These models were compared with the intensity and profile shape of the observed spectra. For the region of the CSE probed by CO emission, the density laws must be steeper than inverse squared and are consistent with power laws between ρ~r-3 and r-4. These radial density distributions imply that the mass loss was not constant but increased during the last part of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Mass-loss rates at the end of the AGB for the three best-constrained sources are found to be 7.7×10-5 Msolar yr-1 (IRAS 22272+5435), 2.3×10-5 Msolar yr-1 (IRAS 07134+1005), and 1.3×10-5 Msolar yr-1 (IRAS 17436+5003) for the case of ρ~r-3. These time-varying mass-loss rates can be integrated to calculate the enclosed envelope masses ejected in the past ~10,000 yr. The ejected envelope masses close to the star lie in the range 0.02-0.30 Msolar these values are consistent with theoretical models, which indicate that <20% of the stellar mass loss occurs in the last 10,000 years of the AGB. These results are in contrast to some recent dust studies based on infrared emission, however, in which much higher envelope masses are determined. The density laws, mass-loss rates, and enclosed envelope masses that we derive furnish important constraints for evolutionary models of stars in the late AGB and during the transition to the planetary nebula phase.

  20. A high-resolution diatom-inferred palaeoconductivity and lake level record of the Aral Sea for the last 1600 yr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, Patrick; Mackay, Anson; Palagushkina, Olga; Leng, Melanie

    2007-05-01

    Formerly the world's fourth largest lake by area, the Aral Sea is presently undergoing extreme desiccation due to large-scale irrigation strategies implemented in the Soviet era. As part of the INTAS-funded CLIMAN project into Holocene climatic variability and the evolution of human settlement in the Aral Sea basin, fossil diatom assemblages contained within a sediment core obtained from the Aral Sea have been applied to a diatom-based inference model of conductivity ( r2 = 0.767, RMSEP = 0.469 log 10 μS cm - 1). This has provided a high-resolution record of conductivity and lake level change over the last ca. 1600 yr. Three severe episodes of lake level regression are indicated at ca. AD 400, AD 1195-1355 and ca. AD 1780 to the present day. The first two regressions may be linked to the natural diversion of the Amu Darya away from the Aral Sea and the failure of cyclones formed in the Mediterranean to penetrate more continental regions. Human activity, however, and in particular the destruction of irrigation facilities are synchronous with these early regressions and contributed to the severity of the observed low stands.

  1. 2. Threefourths view of bridge showing truss spans 1, 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Three-fourths view of bridge showing truss spans 1, 2, and 3 timber approach on south end, and relation of bridge to stream an adjoining terrain - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  2. Science Curriculum Guide, Levels 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newark School District, DE.

    The first two of four levels in a K-12 science curriculum are outlined. In Level 1 (grades K-2) and Level 2 (grades 3-5), science areas include the study of living things, matter and energy, and solar system and universe. Conveniently listed are page locations for educational and instructional objectives, cross-referenced to science area and coded…

  3. Bis(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) ether

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Bis ( 2 - chloro - 1 - methylethyl ) ether ; CASRN 108 - 60 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assess

  4. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... operates a fast food restaurant in State M and owns all of the stock of corporation Y, which owns and operates a fast food restaurant in State N. X and Y operate their businesses under franchises granted by D...-2T(i), as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2011....

  5. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... operates a fast food restaurant in State M and owns all of the stock of corporation Y, which owns and operates a fast food restaurant in State N. X and Y operate their businesses under franchises granted by D...-2T(i), as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2011....

  6. 26 CFR 1.355-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-2T(i), as contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised as of April 1, 2011. ... operates a fast food restaurant in State M and owns all of the stock of corporation Y, which owns and operates a fast food restaurant in State N. X and Y operate their businesses under franchises granted by...

  7. The NUHM2 after LHC Run 1

    DOE PAGES

    Buchmueller, O.; Cavanaugh, R.; Citron, M.; De Roeck, A.; Dolan, M. J.; Ellis, J. R.; Flächer, H.; Heinemeyer, S.; Malik, S.; Marrouche, J.; et al

    2014-12-17

    We make a frequentist analysis of the parameter space of the NUHM2, in which the soft supersymmetry (SUSY)-breaking contributions to the masses of the two Higgs multiplets, m2Hu,d, vary independently from the universal soft SUSY-breaking contributions m20 to the masses of squarks and sleptons. Our analysis uses the MultiNest sampling algorithm with over 4 × 10⁸ points to sample the NUHM2 parameter space. It includes the ATLAS and CMS Higgs mass measurements as well as the ATLAS search for supersymmetric jets + /ET signals using the full LHC Run 1 data, the measurements of BR(Bs→μ⁺μ⁻) by LHCb and CMS togethermore » with other B-physics observables, electroweak precision observables and the XENON100 and LUX searches for spin-independent dark-matter scattering. We find that the preferred regions of the NUHM2 parameter space have negative SUSY-breaking scalar masses squared at the GUT scale for squarks and sleptons, m20 < 0, as well as m2Hu < m2Hd < 0. The tension present in the CMSSM and NUHM1 between the supersymmetric interpretation of (g – 2)μ and the absence to date of SUSY at the LHC is not significantly alleviated in the NUHM2. We find that the minimum χ2 = 32.5 with 21 degrees of freedom (dof) in the NUHM2, to be compared with χ2/dof = 35.0/23 in the CMSSM, and χ2/dof = 32.7/22 in the NUHM1. We find that the one-dimensional likelihood functions for sparticle masses and other observables are similar to those found previously in the CMSSM and NUHM1.« less

  8. A new model of Earth's radial conductivity structure derived from over 10 yr of satellite and observatory magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Püthe, Christoph; Kuvshinov, Alexey; Khan, Amir; Olsen, Nils

    2015-12-01

    We present a new model of the radial (1-D) conductivity structure of Earth's mantle. This model is derived from more than 10 yr of magnetic measurements from the satellites Ørsted, CHAMP, SAC-C and the Swarm trio as well as the global network of geomagnetic observatories. After removal of core and crustal field as predicted by a recent field model, we fit the magnetic data with spherical harmonic coefficients describing ring current activity and associated induction effects and estimate global C-responses at periods between 1.5 and 150 d. The C-responses are corrected for 3-D effects due to induction in the oceans and inverted for a 1-D model of mantle conductivity using both probabilistic and deterministic methods. Very similar results are obtained, consisting of a highly resistive upper mantle, an increase in conductivity in and beneath the transition zone and a conductive lower mantle. Analysis of the Hessian of the cost function reveals that the data are most sensitive to structures at depths between 800 and 1200 km, in agreement with the results obtained from the probabilistic approach. Preliminary interpretation of the inverted conductivity structure based on laboratory-based conductivity profiles shows that the recovered structure in the lower mantle either requires higher temperatures or the presence of material of high conductivity related to ponding of carbonate melts below the transition zone.

  9. 78 FR 79007 - 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... the notice in the Federal Register of October 28, 2013 (78 FR 64243). The conference was held in... COMMISSION 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... reason of imports from China of 1,1,1,2- Tetrafluoroethane, provided for in subheadings 2903.39.20 of...

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  11. 1 and 2-Dimensional Line Transfer Package

    1990-07-01

    LXF1D is a one dimensional steady-state line transfer package designed to handle: overlapping and or interacting lines, planar, cylindrical, spherical (and special) geometries, doppler shifts, complete redistribution (CRD), partial redistribution (PRD). PRD requires the use of REDIST or some other package to produce emission profiles. LXF2D is a two dimensional version of LXF1D for xy and rz geometries. Both LXF1D and LXF2D are designed to be added to existing non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) codes withmore » a minimum of effort.« less

  12. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10418 - 1,2-Cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester. 721.10418 Section 721.10418 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-(phenylmethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance is identified as 1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, 1-butyl 2-(phenylmethyl) ester (PMN...

  15. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  16. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  17. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  18. 49 CFR 172.522 - EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3... INFORMATION, TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.522 EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES 1.3 placards. (a) Except for size and color, the EXPLOSIVES 1.1, EXPLOSIVES 1.2 and EXPLOSIVES...

  19. 1-Benzyl-4-(naphthalen-1-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Sánchez, Juan I.; Aguirre, Gerardo; Rivero, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H15N3, the benzyl group is almost perpendicular to the triazole ring [dihedral angle = 80.64 (8)°], while the napthyl group makes an angle of 30.27 (12)° with the plane of the triazole ring. This conformation is different from the 1-benzyl-4-phenyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole analogue, which has the benzyl ring system at an angle of 87.94° and the phenyl group at an angle of 3.35° to the plane of the triazole ring. PMID:21837221

  20. Spatial variations in the spectral index of polarized synchrotron emission in the 9 yr WMAP sky maps

    SciTech Connect

    Fuskeland, U.; Eriksen, H. K.; Næss, S. K.; Wehus, I. K. E-mail: h.k.k.eriksen@astro.uio.no E-mail: i.k.wehus@fys.uio.no

    2014-08-01

    We estimate the spectral index, β, of polarized synchrotron emission as observed in the 9 yr Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe sky maps using two methods, linear regression ({sup T}-T plot{sup )} and maximum likelihood. We partition the sky into 24 disjoint sky regions and evaluate the spectral index for all polarization angles between 0° and 85° in steps of 5°. Averaging over polarization angles, we derive a mean spectral index of β{sup all-sky} = –2.99 ± 0.01 in the frequency range of 23-33 GHz. We find that the synchrotron spectral index steepens by 0.14 from low to high Galactic latitudes, in agreement with previous studies, with mean spectral indices of β{sup plane} = –2.98 ± 0.01 and β{sup high-lat} = –3.12 ± 0.04. In addition, we find a significant longitudinal variation along the Galactic plane with a steeper spectral index toward the Galactic center and anticenter than toward the Galactic spiral arms. This can be well modeled by an offset sinusoidal, β(l) = –2.85 + 0.17sin (2l – 90°). Finally, we study synchrotron emission in the BICEP2 field, in an attempt to understand whether the claimed detection of large-scale B-mode polarization could be explained in terms of synchrotron contamination. Adopting a spectral index of β = –3.12, typical for high Galactic latitudes, we find that the most likely bias corresponds to about 2% of the reported signal (r = 0.003). The flattest index allowed by the data in this region is β = –2.5, and under the assumption of a straight power-law frequency spectrum, we find that synchrotron emission can account for at most 20% of the reported BICEP2 signal.

  1. Biodegradation of ethylene dibromide (1,2-dibromoethane [EDB]) in microcosms simulating in situ and biostimulated conditions.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Robert; Sheppard, Diane; Nüsslein, Klaus; Baek, Kyung-Hwa; Rieber, Khalil; Ergas, Sarina J; Forbes, Rose; Hilyard, Mark; Park, Chul

    2012-03-30

    Although 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB) is a common groundwater contaminant, there is the lack of knowledge surrounding EDB biodegradation, especially under aerobic conditions. We have performed an extensive microcosm study to investigate the biodegradation of EDB under simulated in situ and biostimulated conditions. The materials for soil microcosms were collected from an EDB-contaminated aquifer at the Massachusetts Military Reservation in Cape Cod, MA. This EDB plume has persisted for nearly 40 years in both aerobic and anaerobic EDB zones of the aquifer. Microcosms were constructed under environmentally relevant conditions (field EDB and DO concentrations; incubated at 12°C). The results showed that natural attenuation occurred under anaerobic conditions but not under aerobic conditions, explaining why aerobic EDB contamination is so persistent. EDB degradation rates were greater under biostimulated conditions for both the aerobic and anaerobic microcosms. Particularly for aerobic biostimulation, methane-amended microcosms degraded EDB, on average, at a first order rate eight times faster than unamended microcosms. The best performing replicate achieved an EDB degradation rate of 7.0 yr(-1) (half-life (t(1/2))=0.10 yr). Residual methane concentrations and the emergence of methanotrophic bacteria, measured by culture independent bacterial analysis, provided strong indications that EDB degradation in aerobic methane-amended microcosms occurred via cometabolic degradation. These results indicate the potential for enhanced natural attenuation of EDB and that methane could be considered co-substrate for EDB bioremediation for the EDB-contaminated groundwater in aerobic zone.

  2. DOE-2 supplement: Version 2.1E

    SciTech Connect

    Winkelmann, F.C.; Birdsall, B.E.; Buhl, W.F.; Ellington, K.L.; Erdem, A.E.; Hirsch, J.J.; Gates, S.

    1993-11-01

    This publication updates the DOE-2 Supplement form version 2.1D to version to 2.1E. It contains detailed discussions and instructions for using the features and enhancements introduced into the 2.1B, 2.1C, 2.1D, and 2.1E versions of the program. The building description section contains information on input functions in loads and systems, hourly report frequencies, saving files of hourly output for post processing, sharing hourly report data among program modules, the metric option, and input macros and general library features. The loads section contains information on sunspaces, sunspace modeling, window management and solar radiation, daylighting, trombe walls, fixed shades, fins and overhangs, shade schedules, self shades, heat distribution from lights, the Sherman-Grimsrud infiltrations method. terrain and height modification to wind speed, floor multipliers and interior wall types, improved exterior infrared radiation loss calculation, improved outside air film conductance calculation, window library, window frames, and switchable glazing. The systems section contains information on energy end use and meters, powered induction units, a packaged variable volume -- variable temperature system, a residential variable volume -- variable temperature system, air source heat pump enhancements, water loop heat pump enhancements, variable speed electric heat pump, gas heat pumps, hot water heaters, evaporative cooling, total gas solid-desiccant systems, add on desiccant cooling, water cooled condensers, evaporative precoolers outside air economizer control, optimum fan start, heat recovery from refrigerated case work, night ventilation, baseboard heating, moisture balance calculations, a residential natural ventilation algorithm, improved cooling coil model, system sizing and independent cooling and heating sizing ratios. The plant section contains information on energy meters, gas fired absorption chillers, engine driven compressor chillers, and ice energy storage.

  3. Dental and medical injections: prevalence of self-reported problems among 18-yr-old subjects in Norway.

    PubMed

    Vika, Margrethe; Raadal, Magne; Skaret, Erik; Kvale, Gerd

    2006-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported problems (fear, pain, unpleasantness, fainting) of dental and medical injections, and the extent to which such problems may lead to avoidance of necessary treatment. The study included a representative sample (n = 1385) of 18-yr-old students attending high schools in the county of Hordaland, Norway. Data were collected by use of questionnaires completed in the classrooms. More problems were reported during dental than medical injections. About 17% and 15% of participants reported high fear during their last dental and medical injection, respectively. Fainting had been experienced by 2% during a dental injection and by 7% during a medical injection. Avoidance of treatment when an injection is needed was 6.7% for dental treatment and 5.2% for medical treatment. In multiple regression analyses, fear was the only explanatory factor for the avoidance of dental treatment. It is concluded that self-reported problems of injections are prevalent in this age group, particularly among girls, and that it may lead to the avoidance of necessary treatment in 5-7% of the adolescent population.

  4. Around 200 new X-ray binary IDs from 13 YR of Chandra observations of the M31 center

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, R.; Garcia, M. R.; Primini, F.; Li, Z.; Baganoff, F. K.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    We have created 0.3-10 keV, 13 yr, unabsorbed luminosity lightcurves for 528 X-ray sources in the central 20' of M31. We have 174 Chandra observations spaced at ∼1 month intervals due to our transient monitoring program, deeper observations of the M31 nucleus, and some public data from other surveys. We created 0.5-4.5 keV structure functions (SFs) for each source for comparison with the ensemble SF of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We find 220 X-ray sources with luminosities ≳10{sup 35} erg s{sup –1} that have SFs with significantly more variability than the ensemble AGN SF, and which are likely X-ray binaries (XBs). A further 30 X-ray sources were identified as XBs using other methods. We therefore have 250 probable XBs in total, including ∼200 new identifications. This result represents great progress over the ∼50 XBs and ∼40 XB candidates previously identified out of the ∼2000 X-ray sources within the D {sub 25} region of M31; it also demonstrates the power of SF analysis for identifying XBs in external galaxies. We also identify a new transient black hole candidate, associated with the M31 globular cluster B128.

  5. Cytotoxicity and bioactivation mechanism of benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide and benzyl 1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-dienyl sulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Veltman, J.C.; Dekant, W.; Guengerich, F.P.; Anders, M.W.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolism and cytotoxicity of benzyl 1,2,3,4,4-pentachlorobuta-1,3-dienyl sulfide (1) and benzyl 2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl sulfide (2) were studied as an alternative test of the hypothesis that the toxicity of the cysteine S-conjugates S-(pentachlorobutadienyl)-L-cysteine and S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluoroethyl)-L-cysteine is associated with their metabolism to unstable thiols; the expectation was that the benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 would undergo cytochrome P-450 dependent benzylic hydroxylation and that the intermediate hemimercaptals would eliminate unstable, cytotoxic thiols. This expectation was realized: 1 and 2 were cytotoxic in isolated rat hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of 1 was greater in hepatocytes from phenobarbital-treated rats compared with control rats and in male then in female rats and was inhibited by carbon monoxide and 2-(N,N-diethylamino)ethyl 2,2-diphenylvalerate HCl (SKF 525-A). Benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 were metabolized to benzaldehyde by rat hepatic microsomal fractions and by a purified, reconstituted cytochrome P-450/sub PB-B/ system. Benzaldehyde was not cytotoxic. These results provide support for the hypothesis that benzyl sulfides 1 and 2 and the corresponding cysteine S-conjugates yield unstable thiols, which may give rise to acylating agents or to stable, but toxic, terminal products that are responsible for the cytotoxic effects of benzyl sulfides and cysteine S-conjugates.

  6. (Z)-2-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-one.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2003-11-01

    Crystals of the title compound, C(15)H(17)NO(3), were obtained from a condensation reaction of 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde with 1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-one and subsequent crystallization of the product from methanol. The title compound, containing a double bond that connects the azabicyclic ring system to the 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzylidene group, was obtained with Z geometry.

  7. MISR Level 1B2 Ellipsoid Data (MI1B2E_V2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras which measure radiance in four spectral bands. Global coverage is achieved in nine days. The cameras are arranged with one camera pointing toward the nadir, four cameras pointing forward and four cameras pointing aftward. It takes 7 minutes for all nine cameras to view the same surface location. The view angles relative to the surface reference ellipsoid, are 0, 26.1, 45.6, 60.0, and 70.5 degrees. The spectral band shapes are nominally gaussian, centered at 443, 555, 670, and 865 nm. The Ellipsoid product is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) ellipsoid, which approximates the Earth's shape at sea level. In this product, the radiances and associated altitudes are projected to the ellipsoid, so that higher elevation data appear displaced from their true location for non-nadir camera views, much as they are seen by the instrument. (A cloud at location F, or a mountain top at location T in the image below appears as if it is at location E.) The more oblique the camera view, or the higher in altitude the feature, the more displaced the elevated data will appear. This displacement is used to advantage in MISR stereo retrievals, and this product is the primary input to Level 2 top-of-atmosphere/cloud processing. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=563.2 km (cross-track); Longitude_Resolution=140.8 km (along-track); Horizontal_Resolution_Range=500 meters - < 1 km; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  8. Seismic sensitivity to sub-surface solar activity from 18 yr of GOLF/SoHO observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2015-06-01

    Solar activity has significantly changed over the last two Schwabe cycles. After a long and deep minimum at the end of Cycle 23, the weaker activity of Cycle 24 contrasts with the previous cycles. In this work, the response of the solar acoustic oscillations to solar activity is used in order to provide insights into the structural and magnetic changes in the sub-surface layers of the Sun during this on-going unusual period of low activity. We analyze 18 yr of continuous observations of the solar acoustic oscillations collected by the Sun-as-a-star GOLF instrument on board the SoHO spacecraft. From the fitted mode frequencies, the temporal variability of the frequency shifts of the radial, dipolar, and quadrupolar modes are studied for different frequency ranges that are sensitive to different layers in the solar sub-surface interior. The low-frequency modes show nearly unchanged frequency shifts between Cycles 23 and 24, with a time evolving signature of the quasi-biennial oscillation, which is particularly visible for the quadrupole component revealing the presence of a complex magnetic structure. The modes at higher frequencies show frequency shifts that are 30% smaller during Cycle 24, which is in agreement with the decrease observed in the surface activity between Cycles 23 and 24. The analysis of 18 yr of GOLF oscillations indicates that the structural and magnetic changes responsible for the frequency shifts remained comparable between Cycle 23 and Cycle 24 in the deeper sub-surface layers below 1400 km as revealed by the low-frequency modes. The frequency shifts of the higher-frequency modes, sensitive to shallower regions, show that Cycle 24 is magnetically weaker in the upper layers of Sun. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.orgThe following 68 GOLF frequency tables are available and Table A.1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  9. Slip-Rate on the Haiyuan Fault (Gansu, China), Over Time Scales of 10 yr to 10 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasserre, C.; Cavalié, O.; Doin, M.; Peltzer, G.; Sun, J.; Shen, Z.; Wang, Q.; Xu, X.

    2006-12-01

    deformation across the fault, consistent with left-lateral slip at a rate of ~1 cm/yr. The steep velocity gradient at the fault suggests an apparently shallow locking depth of 5 km that may be indicative of a weak fault zone. The InSAR rate is consistent with both the decadal slip-rate derived from GPS measurement campaigns in 1994, 1996, 1999 and 2005, and the Holocene slip-rate inferred from the offset morphology. These observations suggest a stable behavior of the fault over the past 10 kyr.

  10. MISR Level 1B2 Ellipsoid Data (MI1B2E_V1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diner, David J. (Principal Investigator)

    The MISR instrument consists of nine pushbroom cameras which measure radiance in four spectral bands. Global coverage is achieved in nine days. The cameras are arranged with one camera pointing toward the nadir, four cameras pointing forward and four cameras pointing aftward. It takes 7 minutes for all nine cameras to view the same surface location. The view angles relative to the surface reference ellipsoid, are 0, 26.1, 45.6, 60.0, and 70.5 degrees. The spectral band shapes are nominally gaussian, centered at 443, 555, 670, and 865 nm. The Ellipsoid product is referenced to the World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS84) ellipsoid, which approximates the Earth's shape at sea level. In this product, the radiances and associated altitudes are projected to the ellipsoid, so that higher elevation data appear displaced from their true location for non-nadir camera views, much as they are seen by the instrument. (A cloud at location F, or a mountain top at location T in the image below appears as if it is at location E.) The more oblique the camera view, or the higher in altitude the feature, the more displaced the elevated data will appear. This displacement is used to advantage in MISR stereo retrievals, and this product is the primary input to Level 2 top-of-atmosphere/cloud processing. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=2000-02-24; Stop_Date=] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=563.2 km (cross-track); Longitude_Resolution=140.8 km (along-track); Horizontal_Resolution_Range=250 meters - < 500 meters; Temporal_Resolution=about 15 orbits/day; Temporal_Resolution_Range=about 15 orbits/day].

  11. Resolving an 80-yr-old controversy: the beginning of the modern era of renal physiology.

    PubMed

    Jamison, Rex L

    2014-12-01

    Marcello Malpighi discovered the glomerulus that bears his name in the 17th century, but it was not until the middle of the 19th century, in 1842, that William Bowman in London published his studies of the histological structure of the glomerulus and proposed that urine formation begins with glomerular secretion. At nearly the same time in Marburg, Carl Ludwig, unaware of Bowman's findings, proposed that urine formation begins with glomerular filtration followed by tubule reabsorption. The controversy lasted 80 yr. Prominent investigators weighed in on both sides. Rudolph Heidenhain's findings in 1874 swung the pendulum toward Bowman's theory until Arthur Cushny published his book, The Secretion of Urine, in 1917, in which he found the evidence insufficient to prove either theory. In 1921, a young physician, Joseph Wearn, began his postresidency training in the laboratory of Alfred N. Richards. He read Cushny's book and learned how to expose the glomerulus of a living frog. Richards proposed that Wearn use that experimental preparation to inject epinephrine into the glomerulus. Wearn proposed a different experiment: instead of using injection, collect fluid from the glomerulus and analyze it. Richards agreed, and the landmark results of that experiment, published in 1924, settled the controversy. The modern era of renal physiology was born.

  12. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment.

  13. CLARA-SAL: a global 28-yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihelä, A.; Manninen, T.; Laine, V.; Andersson, K.; Kaspar, F.

    2012-09-01

    We present a novel 28-yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  14. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riihelä, A.; Manninen, T.; Laine, V.; Andersson, K.; Kaspar, F.

    2013-04-01

    We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  15. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji’erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment. PMID:26308646

  16. Wood Usage and Fire Veneration in the Pamir, Xinjiang, 2500 yr BP.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Wu, Xinhua; Tang, Zihua; Zhou, Xinying; Sun, Nan; Li, Xiaoqiang

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Pamir Plateau in Xinjiang Province, China, the Ji'erzankale Necropolis dates back to 2500 yr BP. Many materials that have been unearthed in this cemetery, including shoo konghou (musical instrument), bronze mirrors and glass beads, suggest cultural transference between East and West. Furthermore, small-sized and rounded fire altars made from sweet-scented Sabina were found for the first time and regarded as implements for fire veneration. We identified 70 wooden objects from 25 tombs within the Necropolis, and found that each object had been made from one of seven tree species. Analysis revealed that the inhabitants of the region mainly used the most widely available types of wood, namely Betula and Populus. People also specifically chose inflammable Populus wood to make hearth boards and hand drills (both are used for making fire by drilling), rigid Betula wood to craft wooden plates. Salix was used for fashioning wooden sticks, while sweet-scented Sabina was the preferred choice for making fire altars. Lonicera was selected for arrow shaft manufacture and Fraxinus syriaca, which has a beautiful grain, was chosen for making musical instruments. Conscious selection of different types of wood indicates that people of the Pamir Plateau were aware of the properties of various types of timbers, and were able to exploit these properties to the full. In turn, this demonstrates their wisdom and their ability to survive in, and adapt to, their local environment. PMID:26308646

  17. Interspecific Variation in SO2 Flux 1

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the relationships among stomatal, residual, and epidermal conductances in determining the flux of SO2 air pollution to leaves. Variations in leaf SO2 and H2O vapor fluxes were determined using four plant species: Pisum sativum L. (garden pea), Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. flacca (mutant of tomato), Geranium carolinianum L. (wild geranium), and Diplacus aurantiacus (Curtis) Jeps. (a native California shrub). Fluxes were measured using the mass-balance approach during exposure to 4.56 micromoles per cubic meter (0.11 microliters per liter) SO2 for 2 hours in a controlled environmental chamber. Flux through adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces with closed stomata ranged from 1.9 to 9.4 nanomoles per square meter per second for SO2, and 0.3 to 1.3 millimoles per square meter per second for H2O vapor. Flux of SO2 into leaves through stomata ranged from ∼0 to 8.5 (dark) and 3.8 to 16.0 (light) millimoles per square meter per second. Flux of H2O vapor from leaves through stomata ranged from ∼0 to 0.6 (dark) to 0.4 to 0.9 (light) millimole per square meter per second. Lycopersicon had internal flux rates for both SO2 and H2O vapor over twice as high as for the other species. Stomatal conductance based on H2O vapor flux averaged from 0.07 to 0.13 mole per square meter per second among the four species. Internal conductance of SO2 as calculated from SO2 flux was from 0.04 mole per square meter per second lower to 0.06 mole per square meter per second higher than stomatal conductance. For Pisum, Geranium, and Diplacus stomatal conductance was the same or slightly higher than internal conductance, indicating that, in general, SO2 flux could be predicted from stomatal conductance for H2O vapor. However, for the Lycopersicon mutant, internal leaf conductance was much higher than stomatal conductance, indicating that factors inside leaves can play a significant role in determining SO2 flux. PMID:16664551

  18. The galaxy cluster YSZ - LX and YSZ - M relations from the WMAP 5-yr data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melin, J.-B.; Bartlett, J. G.; Delabrouille, J.; Arnaud, M.; Piffaretti, R.; Pratt, G. W.

    2011-01-01

    We use multifrequency matched filters to estimate, in the WMAP 5-year data, the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) fluxes of 893 ROSAT NORAS/REFLEX clusters spanning the luminosity range LX,[0.1-2.4] keV = 2 × 1041 - 3.5 × 1045 erg s-1. The filters are spatially optimised by using the universal pressure profile recently obtained from combining XMM-Newton observations of the REXCESS sample and numerical simulations. Although the clusters are individually only marginally detected, we are able to firmly measure the SZ signal (> 10σ) when averaging the data in luminosity/mass bins. The comparison between the bin-averaged SZ signal versus luminosity and X-ray model predictions shows excellent agreement, implying that there is no deficit in SZ signal strength relative to expectations from the X-ray properties of clusters. Using the individual cluster SZ flux measurements, we directly constrain the Y500-LX and Y500-M500 relations, where Y500 is the Compton y-parameter integrated over a sphere of radius r500. The Y500-M500 relation, derived for the first time in such a wide mass range, has a normalisation Y^*500 = [ 1.60 ± 0.19] ×10-3 arcmin2 at M500 = 3 × 1014 h-1 M_⊙, in excellent agreement with the X-ray prediction of 1.54 × 10-3 arcmin2, and a mass exponent of α = 1.79 ± 0.17, consistent with the self-similar expectation of 5/3. Constraints on the redshift exponent are weak due to the limited redshift range of the sample, although they are compatible with self-similar evolution.

  19. X-1-2 on ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1951-01-01

    The Bell Aircraft Corporation X-1-2 aircraft on the ramp at NACA High Speed Flight Research Station located on the South Base of Muroc Army Air Field in 1947. The X-1-2 flew until October 23, 1951, completing 74 glide and powered flights with nine different pilots. The aircraft has white paint and the NACA tail band. The black Xs are reference markings for tracking purposes. They were widely used on NACA aircraft in the early 1950s. There were five versions of the Bell X-1 rocket-powered research aircraft that flew at the NACA High-Speed Flight Research Station, Edwards, California. The bullet-shaped X-1 aircraft were built by Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buffalo, N.Y. for the U.S. Army Air Forces (after 1947, U.S. Air Force) and the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The X-1 Program was originally designated the XS-1 for EXperimental Sonic. The X-1's mission was to investigate the transonic speed range (speeds from just below to just above the speed of sound) and, if possible, to break the 'sound barrier.' Three different X-1s were built and designated: X-1-1, X-1-2 (later modified to become the X-1E), and X-1-3. The basic X-1 aircraft were flown by a large number of different pilots from 1946 to 1951. The X-1 Program not only proved that humans could go beyond the speed of sound, it reinforced the understanding that technological barriers could be overcome. The X-1s pioneered many structural and aerodynamic advances including extremely thin, yet extremely strong wing sections; supersonic fuselage configurations; control system requirements; powerplant compatibility; and cockpit environments. The X-1 aircraft were the first transonic-capable aircraft to use an all-moving stabilizer. The flights of the X-1s opened up a new era in aviation. The first X-1 was air-launched unpowered from a Boeing B-29 Superfortress on Jan. 25, 1946. Powered flights began in December 1946. On Oct. 14, 1947, the X-1-1, piloted by Air Force Captain Charles 'Chuck' Yeager

  20. First Long-Term slip-Rate Along the San Andreas Fault Based on 10Be-26Al Surface Exposure Dating : The Biskra Palms Site, 23 mm/yr for the last 30,000 years.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woerd, J.; Klinger, Y.; Sieh, K.; Tapponnier, P.; Ryerson, F.

    2001-12-01

    Slip-rate along the San Andreas fault is known precisely at only two locations : at Wallace Creek, 34 +/- 3 mm/yr for the past 13,500 yrs and at Cajon Creek, 24.5+/- 3 mm/yr for the past 14,500 yrs. When compared to the long-term and far-field plate motion, these rates provide important constraint on how and where strain is accommodated across the plate boundary. Here we present a new determination of the slip-rate along the San Andreas Fault at Biskra Palms, based on 10Be-26Al surface exposure dating. The studied area is located southeast of the San Gorgonio restraining bend, a complex section of the fault which has not produced a large earthquake in historical time. At Biskra Palms, the San Andreas Fault offsets an alluvial fan (T2) about 700 m. Keller et al. (1982) recognized the importance of this site and estimated the age of the offset fan surfaces based on degree of soil development between 20 and 70 kyrs, providing a very loosely constraint slip-rate between 10 and 35 mm/yr. We have analyzed 21 quartz rich cobbles from the surface of the fan, upstream, downstream and within the fault zone. 10Be and 26Al measurements yield consistent results implying simple exposure at the surface. 7 samples collected on the T2 fan surface downstream yield an average exposure age of 30.7 +/- 2.1 kyrs. The tight cluster of these ages indicate no or minor pre-exposition during transport in the small catchment upstream. 7 samples from T2 upstream from the fault yield an average exposure age of 29.5 +/- 2.8 kyrs. One additional sample of this surface (38.4+/-3.6 kyrs) is older than the others and may have been pre-exposed before deposition on the fan. 2 samples from a T2 remnant within the fault zone yield an average age of 29.6 +/- 2.6 kyrs. 4 additional samples were collected from two smaller alluvial surfaces (T3 and T4) remnant found only upstream from the fault zone and yield average ages of 33.3 and 27.3 kyrs that are similar to the age of T2. This suggest that these

  1. M2-F1 simulator cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This early simulator of the M2-F1 lifting body was used for pilot training, to test landing techniques before the first ground tow attempts, and to test new control configurations after the first tow attempts and wind-tunnel tests. The M2-F1 simulator was limited in some ways by its analog simulator. It had only limited visual display for the pilot, as well. The wingless, lifting body aircraft design was initially conceived as a means of landing an aircraft horizontally after atmospheric reentry. The absence of wings would make the extreme heat of re-entry less damaging to the vehicle. In 1962, Dryden management approved a program to build a lightweight, unpowered lifting body as a prototype to flight test the wingless concept. It would look like a 'flying bathtub,' and was designated the M2-F1, the 'M' referring to 'manned' and 'F' referring to 'flight' version. It featured a plywood shell placed over a tubular steel frame crafted at Dryden. Construction was completed in 1963. The first flight tests of the M2-F1 were over Rogers Dry Lake at the end of a tow rope attached to a hopped-up Pontiac convertible driven at speeds up to about 120 mph. This vehicle needed to be able to tow the M2-F1 on the Rogers Dry Lakebed adjacent to NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC) at a minimum speed of 100 miles per hour. To do that, it had to handle the 400-pound pull of the M2-F1. Walter 'Whitey' Whiteside, who was a retired Air Force maintenance officer working in the FRC's Flight Operations Division, was a dirt-bike rider and hot-rodder. Together with Boyden 'Bud' Bearce in the Procurement and Supply Branch of the FRC, Whitey acquired a Pontiac Catalina convertible with the largest engine available. He took the car to Bill Straup's renowned hot-rod shop near Long Beach for modification. With a special gearbox and racing slicks, the Pontiac could tow the 1,000-pound M2-F1 110 miles per hour in 30 seconds. It proved adequate for the roughly 400 car tows that got the M2-F1 airborne

  2. Development of the California Current during the past 12,000 yr based on diatoms and silicoflagellates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Bukry, David

    2007-01-01

    Detailed diatom and silicoflagellates records in three cores from the offshore region of southern Oregon to central California reveal the evolution of the northern part of the California Current during the past 12,000 yr. The early Holocene, prior to ∼ 9 ka, was characterized by relatively warm sea surface temperatures (SST), owing to enhanced northerly flow of the subtropical waters comparable to the modern Davidson Current. Progressive strengthening of the North Pacific High lead to intensification of the southward flow of the California Current at ∼ 8 ka, resulting in increased coastal upwelling and relatively cooler SST which persisted until ∼ 5 ka. Reduced southward flow of the California Current between ∼ 4.8 ka and 3.6 ka may have been responsible for a period of decreased upwelling. Modern seasonal oceanographic cycles, as evidenced by increased spring–early summer coastal upwelling and warming of early fall SST evolved between 3.5 and 3.2 ka. Widespread occurrence of paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic change between ∼ 3.5–3.0 ka along the eastern margins of the North Pacific was likely a response to increasing ENSO variability in the tropical Pacific.

  3. Seasonal variation in hemoglobin a1c in korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Ji; Park, Seongkeun; Yi, Wangjin; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Oh, Tae Jung; Choi, Jinwook; Cho, Young Min

    2014-04-01

    A seasonal variation of glucose homeostasis in humans has been reported in various geographic regions. In this study, we examined seasonal variations in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes living in Korea. We analyzed 57,970 HbA1c values from 4,191 patients and the association of these values with ambient temperature for 3.5 yr. Overall, HbA1c exhibited its highest values from February to March and its lowest values from September to October (coefficient for cos t = -0.0743, P = 0.058) and the difference between the peak and nadir in a year was 0.16%-0.25%. A statistically significant seasonal variation was observed in the patients who were taking oral anti-diabetic drugs (OADs) without insulin treatment (coefficient for cos t = -0.0949, P < 0.05). The Spearman correlation coefficient between daily HbA1c values and the corresponding 3-month moving average ambient temperature was -0.2154 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.2711, -0.1580; P < 0.05). In conclusion, HbA1c values exhibited a seasonal variation in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes, with the highest values during the cold season, particularly in those who were treated with OADs, which should be taken into account in clinical practice for stable glucose control during the cold season.

  4. 43 CFR 1784.2-1 - Composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees § 1784.2-1... counsel and advice about public land and resource planning, retention, management and disposal. No...

  5. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  6. 1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2 - Dibromo - 3 - chloropropane ( DBCP ) ; CASRN 96 - 12 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessm

  7. Diffusion of cyclooctane (1); argon (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) cyclooctane; (2) argon

  8. Diffusion of cyclooctane (1); sulfur hexafluoride (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) cyclooctane; (2) sulfur hexafluoride

  9. Diffusion of cyclooctane (1); helium (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) cyclooctane; (2) helium

  10. Diffusion of cyclooctane (1); methane (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) cyclooctane; (2) methane

  11. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  12. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  13. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  14. 43 CFR 2916.2-1 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-1 Applications. (a... of fur farming. (5) A statement as to the kind of fur-bearing animals to be raised, and, if foxes, the color type; the number of fur-bearing animals the applicant proposes to have on the leased...

  15. Diffusion of air (1); furfural (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, J.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Gases in Gases, Liquids and their Mixtures' of Volume 15 `Diffusion in Gases, Liquids and Electrolytes' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV `Physical Chemistry'. It is part of the chapter of the chapter `Diffusion in Pure Gases' and contains data on diffusion of (1) air; (2) furfural

  16. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  17. 43 CFR 1815.1-2 - Applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL GUIDANCE Disaster Relief § 1815.1-2 Applications. (a) Place of filing. The application for relief shall be filed in the office which... particular disaster and its effect upon contract performance. (3) An estimate of the damages suffered. (4)...

  18. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation. On developed recreation sites and areas, no person shall, unless otherwise authorized: (a) Clean fish, game, other food, clothing or household articles at any outdoor hydrant, pump, faucet or fountain, or...

  19. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation. On developed recreation sites and areas, no person shall, unless otherwise authorized: (a) Clean fish, game, other food, clothing or household articles at any outdoor hydrant, pump, faucet or fountain, or...

  20. 43 CFR 8365.2-1 - Sanitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-1 Sanitation. On developed recreation sites and areas, no person shall, unless otherwise authorized: (a) Clean fish, game, other food, clothing or household articles at any outdoor hydrant, pump, faucet or fountain, or...

  1. 26 CFR 1.306-2 - Exception.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... dividends and isolated dispositions of section 306 stock by minority shareholders. Similarly, in the absence... TAXES Effects on Recipients § 1.306-2 Exception. (a) If a shareholder terminates his entire stock.... In determining whether a shareholder has terminated his entire interest in a corporation by...

  2. Steroids Update, Part 1 and Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Calvin; Duda, Marty

    1986-01-01

    Part 1 of this two-part article describes the views of a physician who believes that athletes who want to take steroids are best protected by receiving a prescription and monitoring. Part 2 discusses the more general view of physicians that steroids should not be prescribed but perhaps should be monitored. (MT)

  3. 26 CFR 1.856-2 - Limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-2 Limitations. (a) Effective date. The provisions of part II... taxable year, will not be considered a “real estate investment trust” for such year, within the meaning of such part II, unless it elects to be a real estate investment trust for such taxable year, or has...

  4. 32 CFR 2.1 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... government-unique contracting policies and practices, government-unique specifications and standards, and... include, but are not limited to: (1) Innovative contracting policies and practices; (2) Performance and commercial specifications and standards; (3) Innovative budget policies; (4) Establishing fair and...

  5. Writing Life 1 in Language 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Linda

    2005-01-01

    What is second language acquisition like from the learner's perspective? I examined published autobiographies authored by those who have documented their language learning journeys. One theme that recurred across the texts was Writing; a sub-theme was Writing life 1 in language 2. Some narrativists/learners described the dissonance, while others…

  6. 28 CFR 2.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... identical or comparable terms as used in chapter 311 of part IV of title 18 of the U.S. Code or 28 CFR..., AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees § 2.1 Definitions. As used in...

  7. BROAD N{sub 2}H{sup +} EMISSION TOWARD THE PROTOSTELLAR SHOCK L1157-B1

    SciTech Connect

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Gómez-Ruiz, A.; Vasta, M.; Viti, S.; Ceccarelli, C.; Lefloch, B.; Podio, L.; Caselli, P.

    2013-10-10

    We present the first detection of N{sub 2}H{sup +} toward a low-mass protostellar outflow, namely, the L1157-B1 shock, at ∼0.1 pc from the protostellar cocoon. The detection was obtained with the IRAM 30 m antenna. We observed emission at 93 GHz due to the J = 1-0 hyperfine lines. Analysis of this emission coupled with HIFI CHESS multiline CO observations leads to the conclusion that the observed N{sub 2}H{sup +}(1-0) line originated from the dense (≥10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) gas associated with the large (20''-25'') cavities opened by the protostellar wind. We find an N{sub 2}H{sup +} column density of a few 10{sup 12} cm{sup –2} corresponding to an abundance of (2-8) × 10{sup –9}. The N{sub 2}H{sup +} abundance can be matched by a model of quiescent gas evolved for more than 10{sup 4} yr, i.e., for more than the shock kinematical age (≅2000 yr). Modeling of C-shocks confirms that the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +} is not increased by the passage of the shock. In summary, N{sub 2}H{sup +} is a fossil record of the pre-shock gas, formed when the density of the gas was around 10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, and then further compressed and accelerated by the shock.

  8. The magnitude and proximate cause of ice-sheet growth since 35,000 yr B.P.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winograd, I.J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnitude of late Wisconsinan (post-35,000 yr B.P.) ice-sheet growth in the Northern Hemisphere is not well known. Ice volume at ???35,000 yr B.P. may have been as little as 20% or as much as 70% of the volume present at the last glacial maximum (LGM). A conservative evaluation of glacial-geologic, sea level, and benthic ??18O data indicates that ice volume at ???35,000 yr B.P. was approximately 50% of that extant at the LGM (???20,000 yr B.P.); that is, it doubled in about 15,000 yr. On the basis of literature for the North Atlantic and a sea-surface temperature (SST) data compilation, it appears that this rapid growth may have been forced by low-to-mid-latitude SST warming in both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with attendant increased moisture transport to high latitudes. The SST ice-sheet growth notion also explains the apparent synchroneity of late Wisconsinan mountain glaciation in both hemispheres.

  9. Temporal variations in lake levels since 30,000 Yr BP—An index of the global hydrological cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Street-Perrott, F. Alayne; Harrison, Sandra P.

    Fluctuations in the extent of closed lakes provide a detailed record of global and regional variations in the balance between precipitation and evaporation. The temporal sequence of hydrological fluctuations during the last 30,000 14C yr BP was reconstructed using published data from 198 lake basins between 41°S and 51°N. These data were coded at 1000-yr intervals in terms of lake status (an index of relative depth) and lake-level trend. The broad pattern of glacial/interglacial variations was established by aggregating the status/trend information from particular regions. There is an important contrast in lake behaviour north and south of the Tropic of Cancer. On the poleward side, phases of high lake levels were a very prominent feature of the last 30,000 yr compared with the intertropical belt and the Southern Hemisphere. Longitudinal asymmetry was also most pronounced in northern extratropical latitudes. During the last 13,000 yr, fluctuations on a shorter time scale (102-103 yr) are exhihited by individual lake-level curves from intertropical Africa, where they account for a significant proportion of the climatic variance.

  10. Dynamic relocation of the TORC1–Gtr1/2–Ego1/2/3 complex is regulated by Gtr1 and Gtr2

    PubMed Central

    Kira, Shintaro; Kumano, Yuri; Ukai, Hirofumi; Takeda, Eigo; Matsuura, Akira; Noda, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    TORC1 regulates cellular growth, metabolism, and autophagy by integrating various signals, including nutrient availability, through the small GTPases RagA/B/C/D in mammals and Gtr1/2 in budding yeast. Rag/Gtr is anchored to the lysosomal/vacuolar membrane by the scaffold protein complex Ragulator/Ego. Here we show that Ego consists of Ego1 and Ego3, and novel subunit Ego2. The ∆ego2 mutant exhibited only partial defects both in Gtr1-dependent TORC1 activation and Gtr1 localization on the vacuole. Ego1/2/3, Gtr1/2, and Tor1/Tco89 were colocalized on the vacuole and associated puncta. When Gtr1 was in its GTP-bound form and TORC1 was active, these proteins were preferentially localized on the vacuolar membrane, whereas when Gtr1 was in its GDP-bound form, they were mostly localized on the puncta. The localization of TORC1 to puncta was further facilitated by direct binding to Gtr2, which is involved in suppression of TORC1 activity. Thus regulation of TORC1 activity through Gtr1/Gtr2 is tightly coupled to the dynamic relocation of these proteins. PMID:26609069

  11. Taming the 1.2 m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, S.; Edwards, M.; Greenwald, D.; Kono, D.; Liang, D.; Lohnes, K.; Wright, V.; Spillar, E.

    2013-09-01

    Achievable residual jitter on the 1.2 m telescope at MSSS shown in Figure 1 has historically been limited to 10-20 arc-sec. peak in moderate wind conditions due to the combination of the dynamics associated with the twin telescopes on the common declination axis shaft, and the related control system behavior. Figure 1 1.2 m Telescope The lightly damped, low frequency fundamental vibration mode shape of the telescopes rotating out of phase on the common declination axis shaft severely degraded the performance of the prior controllers. This vibration mode is easily excited by external forces such as wind loading and internal torque commands from the mount control system. The relatively poor historic performance was due to a combination of the low error rejection of external disturbances, and the controller exciting the mode. A radical new approach has been implemented that has resulted in a decrease of jitter to less than 1 arcsec under most conditions. The new approach includes minor hardware modifications to provide active damping with accelerometers as feedback sensors. This architecture has allowed a bandwidth increase of almost an order of magnitude and eliminated the large amplitude motions at the mode natural frequency, resulting in much improved pointing and jitter performance. A representative comparison of historical versus new architecture performance is shown in Figure 2 for the declination axis.

  12. (E)-2-Methyl-3-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-1H-indole and (E)-3-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-2-phenyl-1H-indole.

    PubMed

    Sonar, Vijayakumar N; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A

    2005-08-01

    In the title compounds, C12H12N2O2, (I), and C17H14N2O2, (II), respectively, the indole rings are planar and the vinyl groups lie out of the indole planes, making dihedral angles of 33.48 (5) and 41.31 (8) degrees , respectively. In (II), the dihedral angle between the phenyl and indole ring planes is 32.06 (6) degrees . In both molecules, the double bond connecting the methylnitrovinyl group and the indole nucleus adopts an E configuration. Notwithstanding the differences in space group [C2/c for (I) and P2(1)2(1)2(1) for (II)], the mode of packing of compounds (I) and (II) is determined by similar intermolecular N-H...O hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming chains that run parallel to [101] in (I) and [001] in (II).

  13. 7. Photocopy of photographca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph--ca. 1927 (2 1/4 X 2 1/4' negative) DETAIL SHOWING ADAPTATION THAT ALLOWED USE OF UPPER END OF ORIGINAL FLUME AND LOWER END JUST RECONSTRUCTED - Power Flume No. 1, Tacoma, La Plata County, CO

  14. Nitrone Cycloadditions of 1,2-Cyclohexadiene

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Joyann S.; Styduhar, Evan D.; Pham, Hung V.; McMahon, Travis C.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the first 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of 1,2-cyclohexadiene, a rarely exploited strained allene. 1,2-Cyclohexadiene is generated in situ under mild conditions and trapped with nitrones to give isoxazolidine products in synthetically useful yields. The reactions occur regioselectively and exhibit a notable endo preference, thus resulting in the controlled formation of two new bonds and two stereogenic centers. DFT calculations of stepwise and concerted reaction pathways are used to rationalize the observed selectivities. Moreover, the strategic manipulation of nitrone cycloadducts demonstrates the utility of this methodology for the assembly of compounds bearing multiple heterocyclic units. These studies showcase the exploitation of a traditionally avoided reactive intermediate in chemical synthesis. PMID:26854652

  15. 40 CFR 721.10252 - Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10252 Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt... substance identified as thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-09-373; CAS No....

  16. 40 CFR 721.10252 - Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10252 Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt... substance identified as thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-09-373; CAS No....

  17. 40 CFR 721.10252 - Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10252 Thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt... substance identified as thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3), manganese(2+) salt (1:1) (PMN P-09-373; CAS No....

  18. DRG2 Regulates G2/M Progression via the Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Park, Neung-Hwa; Park, Jeong Woo; Han, In-Seob

    2016-01-01

    Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [3H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21. These findings identify a novel role of DRG2 in G2/M progression. PMID:27669826

  19. DRG2 Regulates G2/M Progression via the Cyclin B1-Cdk1 Complex.

    PubMed

    Jang, Soo Hwa; Kim, Ah-Ram; Park, Neung-Hwa; Park, Jeong Woo; Han, In-Seob

    2016-09-01

    Developmentally regulated GTP-binding protein 2 (DRG2) plays an important role in cell growth. Here we explored the linkage between DRG2 and G2/M phase checkpoint function in cell cycle progression. We observed that knockdown of DRG2 in HeLa cells affected growth in a wound-healing assay, and tumorigenicity in nude mice xenografts. Flow cytometry assays and [(3)H] incorporation assays indicated that G2/M phase arrest was responsible for the decreased proliferation of these cells. Knockdown of DRG2 elicited down-regulation of the major mitotic promoting factor, the cyclin B1/Cdk1 complex, but up-regulation of the cell cycle arresting proteins, Wee1, Myt1, and p21. These findings identify a novel role of DRG2 in G2/M progression. PMID:27669826

  20. Vapor-liquid equilibria for hydrogen fluoride + difluoromethane, + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, and + 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoromethane at 283.3 and 298.2 K

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.; Kim, H.; Lim, J.S.; Kim, J.D.; Lee, Y.Y.

    1996-01-01

    The production of refrigerants involves the separation of multicomponent mixtures containing hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride, and various chlorinated and fluorinated hydrocarbons. Therefore, it is essential to known the phase behavior of these mixtures. Isothermal vapor-liquid equilibria for hydrogen fluoride (HF) + difluoromethane (HFC-32), HF + 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), and HF + 1-chloro-1,2,2,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124) were measured by the P-T-x method at 283.3 and 298.2 K. Vapor compositions were calculated from these results. Among these systems, the HF + HFC-134a and HF + HCFC-124 systems exhibit minimum boiling azeotropes at both temperatures.

  1. Electron Excitation of Argon: 4s'[1/2]_1, 4p[1/2]_1, and 4p'[1/2]_0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipović, D. V.; Pejčev, V.; Marinković, B.; Vušković, L.

    1999-10-01

    A broad interest in low-energy electron collisions with argon has recently led to very sophisticated calculations.footnote D. H. Madison, C. M. Maloney, and J. B. Wang, J. Phys. B 31, 873 (1998).^,footnote S. Kaur, R. Srivastava, R. P. McEachran, and A. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 31, 4833 (1998).^,footnote V. Zeman, K. Bartschat, C, Noren, and J. W. McConkey, Phys. Rev. A 58, 1275 (1998). The agreement between theoretical results and the only existing full set of experimentally obtained absolute differential cross sectionsfootnote A. Chutjian and D. C. Cartwright, Phys. Rev. A 23, 2178 (1981). is not satisfactory. We have performed a set of experiments to resolve existing discrepancies between available data. At the conference we will present absolute differential cross sections for argon excited in 4s'[1/2]_1, 4p[1/2]_1, and 4p'[1/2]0 states by electron collision. The incident electron energies were in the range of 16 to 80 eV and overall energy resolution was 40 meV. The angular range covered in our experiments was 5^circ to 150^circ. Data were extrapolated to 0^circ and to 180^circ and numerically integrated to yield integral, momentum transfer, and viscosity cross sections.

  2. (7-Benzyloxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]indol-1-yl)acetic Acids as S1P1 Functional Antagonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    S1P1 is a validated target for treatment of autoimmune disease, and functional antagonists with superior safety and pharmacokinetic properties are being sought as second generation therapeutics. We describe the discovery and optimization of (7-benzyloxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]indol-1-yl)acetic acids as potent, centrally available, direct acting S1P1 functional antagonists, with favorable pharmacokinetic and safety properties. PMID:25516794

  3. Internal rotation for predicting conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane and 1,2-dichloroethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venâncio, Mateus F.; Dos Santos, Hélio F.; De Almeida, Wagner B.

    2016-06-01

    The contribution of internal rotation to the thermal correction of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) is estimated using the quantum pendulum model (QPM) to solve the characteristic Schrödinger equation. The procedure is applied to theoretical prediction of conformational population of 1,2-difluorethane (1,2-DFE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) molecules. The predicted population for the anti form was 37% and 75%, for 1,2-DFE and 1,2-DCE respectively, in excellent agreement with experimental gas phase data available, 37 ± 5% and 78 ± 5%. These results provide great support to the use of the QPM model to account for the low vibrational frequency modes effect on the calculation of thermodynamic properties.

  4. LARGE-SCALE STAR-FORMATION-DRIVEN OUTFLOWS AT 1 < z < 2 IN THE 3D-HST SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, Britt F.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Bezanson, Rachel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Wake, David; Whitaker, Katherine; Brammer, Gabriel; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Labbe, Ivo; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elizabete; Rix, Hans Walter; Schmidt, Kasper; Erb, Dawn K.; Fan Xiaohui; Kriek, Mariska; Marchesini, Danilo; and others

    2012-11-20

    We present evidence of large-scale outflows from three low-mass (log(M {sub *}/M {sub Sun }) {approx} 9.75) star-forming (SFR > 4 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}) galaxies observed at z = 1.24, z = 1.35, and z = 1.75 in the 3D-HST Survey. Each of these galaxies is located within a projected physical distance of 60 kpc around the sight line to the quasar SDSS J123622.93+621526.6, which exhibits well-separated strong (W {sup {lambda}2796} {sub r} {approx}> 0.8 A) Mg II absorption systems matching precisely to the redshifts of the three galaxies. We derive the star formation surface densities from the H{alpha} emission in the WFC3 G141 grism observations for the galaxies and find that in each case the star formation surface density well exceeds 0.1 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}, the typical threshold for starburst galaxies in the local universe. From a small but complete parallel census of the 0.65 < z < 2.6 galaxies with H {sub 140} {approx}< 24 proximate to the quasar sight line, we detect Mg II absorption associated with galaxies extending to physical distances of 130 kpc. We determine that the W{sub r} > 0.8 A Mg II covering fraction of star-forming galaxies at 1 < z < 2 may be as large as unity on scales extending to at least 60 kpc, providing early constraints on the typical extent of starburst-driven winds around galaxies at this redshift. Our observations additionally suggest that the azimuthal distribution of W{sub r} > 0.4 A Mg II absorbing gas around star-forming galaxies may evolve from z {approx} 2 to the present, consistent with recent observations of an increasing collimation of star-formation-driven outflows with time from z {approx} 3.

  5. Characterizing the rotational irregularities of the Vela pulsar from 21 yr of phase-coherent timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R. M.; Lentati, L. T.; Kerr, M.; Johnston, S.; Hobbs, G.; Manchester, R. N.

    2016-07-01

    Pulsars show two classes of rotational irregularities that can be used to understand neutron-star interiors and magnetospheres: glitches and timing noise. Here we present an analysis of the Vela pulsar spanning nearly 21 yr of observation and including eight glitches. We identify the relative pulse number of all of the observations between glitches, with the only pulse-number ambiguities existing over glitch events. We use the phase coherence of the timing solution to simultaneously model the timing noise and glitches in a Bayesian framework, allowing us to select preferred models for both. We find the glitches can be described using only permanent and transient changes in spin frequency, i.e. no step changes in frequency derivative. For all of the glitches, we only need two exponentially decaying changes in spin frequency to model the transient components. In contrast to previous studies, we find that the dominant transient components decay on a common ≈1300 d time-scale, and that a larger fraction (≳25 per cent) of glitch amplitudes are associated with these transient components. We also detect shorter-duration transient components of ≈25 d, as previously observed, but are limited in sensitivity to events with shorter durations by the cadence of our observations. The timing noise is well described by a steep power-law process that is independent of the glitches and subdominant to the glitch recovery. The braking index is constrained to be <8 with 95 per cent confidence. This methodology can be used to robustly measure the properties of glitches and timing noise in other pulsars.

  6. Eutrophication and carbon sources in Chesapeake Bay over the last 2700 yr: Human impacts in context

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bratton, J.F.; Colman, Steven M.; Seal, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    To compare natural variability and trends in a developed estuary with human-influenced patterns, stable isotope ratios (??13C and ??15N) were measured in sediments from five piston cores collected in Chesapeake Bay. Mixing of terrestrial and algal carbon sources primarily controls patterns of ??13Corg profiles, so this proxy shows changes in estuary productivity and in delivery of terrestrial carbon to the bay. Analyses of ??15N show periods when oxygen depletion allowed intense denitrification and nutrient recycling to develop in the seasonally stratified water column, in addition to recycling taking place in surficial sediments. These conditions produced 15N-enriched (heavy) nitrogen in algal biomass, and ultimately in sediment. A pronounced increasing trend in ??15N of +4??? started in about A.D. 1750 to 1800 at all core sites, indicating greater eutrophication in the bay and summer oxygen depletion since that time. The timing of the change correlates with the advent of widespread land clearing and tillage in the watershed, and associated increases in erosion and sedimentation. Isotope data show that the region has experienced up to 13 wet-dry cycles in the last 2700 yr. Relative sea-level rise and basin infilling have produced a net freshening trend overprinted with cyclic climatic variability. Isotope data also constrain the relative position of the spring productivity maximum in Chesapeake Bay and distinguish local anomalies from sustained changes impacting large regions of the bay. This approach to reconstructing environmental history should be generally applicable to studies of other estuaries and coastal embayments impacted by watershed development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Eutrophication and carbon sources in Chesapeake Bay over the last 2700 yr: human impacts in context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bratton, John F.; Colman, Steven M.; Seal, Robert R.

    2003-09-01

    To compare natural variability and trends in a developed estuary with human-influenced patterns, stable isotope ratios (δ 13C and δ 15N) were measured in sediments from five piston cores collected in Chesapeake Bay. Mixing of terrestrial and algal carbon sources primarily controls patterns of δ 13C org profiles, so this proxy shows changes in estuary productivity and in delivery of terrestrial carbon to the bay. Analyses of δ 15N show periods when oxygen depletion allowed intense denitrification and nutrient recycling to develop in the seasonally stratified water column, in addition to recycling taking place in surficial sediments. These conditions produced 15N-enriched (heavy) nitrogen in algal biomass, and ultimately in sediment. A pronounced increasing trend in δ 15N of +4‰ started in about A.D. 1750 to 1800 at all core sites, indicating greater eutrophication in the bay and summer oxygen depletion since that time. The timing of the change correlates with the advent of widespread land clearing and tillage in the watershed, and associated increases in erosion and sedimentation. Isotope data show that the region has experienced up to 13 wet-dry cycles in the last 2700 yr. Relative sea-level rise and basin infilling have produced a net freshening trend overprinted with cyclic climatic variability. Isotope data also constrain the relative position of the spring productivity maximum in Chesapeake Bay and distinguish local anomalies from sustained changes impacting large regions of the bay. This approach to reconstructing environmental history should be generally applicable to studies of other estuaries and coastal embayments impacted by watershed development.

  8. Fenton (H2O2/Fe) reaction involved in Penicillium sp. culture for DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane)] degradation.

    PubMed

    Izcapa-Treviño, Cecilia; Loera, Octavio; Tomasini-Campocosio, Araceli; Esparza-García, Fernando; Salazar-Montoya, Juan A; Díaz-Cervantes, María D; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to demonstrate that a Fenton (H(2)O(2)/Fe) reaction was involved in DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane)] degradation in a culture of Penicillium sp. spiked with FeSO(4). A commercial DDT mixture (10% DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], 30% o,p-DDT and 60% of p,p' -DDT) of 10 mg L(-1) was used. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), tartaric acid and oxalic acid were identified at 18 h in culture media, with and without added DDT; this correlated positively with lowering of pH from 5.8 to 2.7. Lower concentrations of oxalic acid and H(2)O(2) (7.9 and 52.6 mg L(-1), respectively) occurred in media with DDT at 30 h, in comparison to that one without DDT mixture (27.9 and 65.3 mg L(-1), respectively), at this time there was maximum degradation (87.7, 91.7 and 94.2%) for DDE, o,p-DDT and p,p'-DDT, respectively. We propose that the degradation of the DDT mixture by Penicillium sp. was through a Fenton reaction (H(2)O(2)/Fe) under acidic conditions produced in situ during the fungal culture amended with FeSO(4).

  9. ISO(2,1) chiral models and quantum gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomonson, P.; Skagerstam, B.-S.; Stern, A.

    1990-12-01

    We study gravity in 2 + 1 dimensions on the manifold M = D 2 × ℝ. A specific choice of boundary conditions leads to an equivalence of the system with a chiral Wess-Zumino-Novikov-Witten model associated with the group ISO(2,1). The model is written on the boundary S 1 × ℝ of M. We find induced representations of the corresponding Kac-Moody and Virasoro algebras with zero Virasoro anomaly.

  10. A major widespread climatic change around 5300 cal. yr BP at the time of the Alpine Iceman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magny, Michel; Haas, Jean Nicolas

    2004-07-01

    Palaeoenvironmental and archaeological data from Arbon Bleiche, Lake Constance (Switzerland) give evidence of a rapid rise in lake-level dated by tree-ring and radiocarbon to 5320 cal. yr BP. This rise event was the latest in a series of three successive episodes of higher lake-level between 5550 and 5300 cal. yr BP coinciding with glacier advance and tree-limit decline in the Alps. This west-central European climate change may have favoured the quick burial and the preservation of the Alpine Iceman recently found in the Tyrolean Alps. It has possible equivalents in many records from various regions in both hemispheres dating to 5600-5000 cal. yr BP and corresponds to global cooling and contrasting patterns of hydrological changes. This major mid-Holocene climate event marks the Hypsithermal/Neoglaciation transition possibly resulting from a combination of different factors including orbital forcing, changes in ocean circulation and variations in solar activity. Copyright

  11. Sr-Nd isotopic variations in the 4,965 yr BP "Ochre Pumice" plinian fallout of Popocatépetl: Preliminary results and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orsi, G.; Arana-Salinas, L.; Civetta, L.; Siebe, C.

    2013-05-01

    Popocatépetl (5452 masl), a Quaternary andesitic stratovolcano located 70 km SE of Mexico City in the central part of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB), is regarded as one of Mexico's potentially most dangerous volcanoes due to the highly explosive Plinian eruptions that are evidenced in its geological record. So far, only two of these eruptions have been studied in greater detail: The 14,100 yr BP "Tutti Frutti" (Sosa et al., 2012) and the 4,965 yr BP "Ochre" (Arana et al., 2010) eruptions. The latter is the subject of the present study. Isopach and isopleth maps of the "Ochre Pumice" (OP) indicate an eruption column height of 40 km and winds toward the NNE, where an area of 300 km2 was covered by >6 cm of pumice and ash. A minimum erupted volume was estimated at 5 km3, which corresponds to 1.7 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE). Stratigraphic relations indicate four different eruptive phases: pre-Plinian, Plinian 1, Plinian 2, and post-Plinian. The eruption started with the emplacement of pyroclastic flows. This initial explosive phase was followed by the most violent Plinian phase that first produced surges and then culminated with the eruption of the OP fallout deposit. As the eruption advanced, discharge rates became more intermittent and the height of the column fluctuated. Finally, the eruption column collapsed generating pumice-and-ash flows that were emplaced around the volcano. The juvenile component in the OP is mainly pumice, whereas the accidental components consist of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic clasts from the walls of the magma chamber and/or conduit. The vesicularity of the pumice decreases from bottom to top of the stratigraphic sequence while the crystal content increases. Previous studies at Popocatépetl established that compositions generally range from calcalkaline andesitic to dacitic. Chemical analyses of the OP pumice fallout show slight but significant variations. At the base it is less evolved (SiO2 = 61 wt.%) and it

  12. The MAT1-1:MAT1-2 ratio of Sporothrix globosa isolates in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Tsui, Clement K-M; Hamelin, Richard C; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Hiruma, Masataro; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2015-02-01

    In order to understand the reproductive biology of pathogenic species in the Sporothrix schenckii complex, we characterized the partial mating type (MAT1-1) loci of Sporothrix schenckii, as well as the S. globosa MAT1-1-1 gene, which encoded 262 amino acid sequences. The data confirmed that the MAT1-1 locus of S. globosa was divergent from the MAT1-2 locus of the opposite mating type, suggesting that the fungus is heterothallic. To determine the mating type ratio of 20 isolates from Japanese patients, we analyzed the MAT loci by specific PCR amplification of MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes. The MAT1-1-1 was detected in 5 isolates but not in the other 15 isolates with the presence of MAT1-2-1. The MAT1-1:1-2 ratio of S. globosa isolates in Japan was estimated to be 1:3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the sequences of the MAT1-1-1 were identical among S. globosa isolates but different from S. schenckii and Ophiostoma montium.

  13. Adsorption of dichlorodifluoromethane, chlorodifluoromethane, chloropentafluoroethane, 1,1-difluoroethane, and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane on silica gel

    SciTech Connect

    Frere, M.; Berlier, K.; Bougard, J.; Jadot, R. . Service de Thermodynamique)

    1994-10-01

    The CFC's (chlorofluorocarbons) are used as working refrigerants fluids. The most commonly used are R12, R22, and R502 (48.8% R22 and 51.2% R115). Recent concerns of the effects of CFC's on the ozone layer require the development of efficient recovery methods. One technique is to adsorb the fluids onto a porous medium such as silica gel. Thermodynamic data on the adsorption of dichlorodifluoromethane (R12), chlorodifluoromethane (R22), chloropentafluoroethane (R115), 1,1-difluoroethane (R152a), and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) on silica gel are required for the design of recovery units. The results are presented here.

  14. (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang Shigen; Guo Qi

    2007-11-15

    Approximate solutions of (1+2)-dimensional strongly nonlocal solitons (SNSs) are presented. It is shown that the power of a SNS in a nematic liquid crystal is in direct proportion to the second power of the degree of nonlocality, the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with a logarithmic nonlocal response is in inverse proportion to the second power of its beamwidth, and the power of a SNS in a nonlocal medium with an sth-power decay nonlocal response is in direct proportion to the (s+2)th power of the degree of nonlocality.

  15. A 12,000-Yr Pollen Record off Cape Hatteras: Pollen Sources and Mechanisms of Pollen Dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naughton, F.; Keigwin, L.; Peteet, D.; Costas, S.; Desprat, S.; Oliveira, D.; de Vernal, A.; Voelker, A.; Abrantes, F.

    2015-01-01

    Integrating both marine and terrestrial signals from the same sediment core is one of the primary challenges for understanding the role of ocean-atmosphere coupling throughout past climate changes. It is therefore vital to understand how the pollen signal of a given marine record reflects the vegetation changes of the neighboring continent. The comparison between the pollen record of marine core JPC32 (KNR178JPC32) and available terrestrial pollen sequences from eastern North America over the last 12,170 years indicates that the pollen signature off Cape Hatteras gives an integrated image of the regional vegetation encompassing the Pee Dee river, Chesapeake and Delaware hydrographic basins and is reliable in reconstructing the past climate of the adjacent continent. Extremely high quantities of pollen grains included in the marine sediments off Cape Hatteras were transferred from the continent to the sea, at intervals 10,100-8800 cal yr BP, 8300-7500 cal yr BP, 5800- 4300 cal yr BP and 2100-730 cal yr BP, during storm events favored by episodes of rapid sea-level rise in the eastern coast of US. In contrast, pollen grains export was reduced during 12,170-10,150 cal yr BP and 4200- 2200 cal yr BP, during episodes of intense continental dryness and slow sea level rise episodes or lowstands in the eastern coast of US. The near absence of reworked pollen grains in core JPC32 contrasts with the high quantity of reworked material in nearby but deeper located marine sites, suggesting that the JPC32 recordwas not affected by the DeepWestern Boundary Current (DWBC) since the end of the Younger Dryas and should be considered a key site for studying past climate changes in the western North Atlantic.

  16. 15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alta, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Abbott, Mark B.; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Bezada, Maximiliano; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2005-11-01

    Pollen analysis of sediments from a high-altitude (4215 m), Neotropical (9°N) Andean lake was conducted in order to reconstruct local and regional vegetation dynamics since deglaciation. Although deglaciation commenced ˜15,500 cal yr B.P., the area around the Laguna Verde Alta (LVA) remained a periglacial desert, practically unvegetated, until about 11,000 cal yr B.P. At this time, a lycopod assemblage bearing no modern analog colonized the superpáramo. Although this community persisted until ˜6000 cal yr B.P., it began to decline somewhat earlier, in synchrony with cooling following the Holocene thermal maximum of the Northern Hemisphere. At this time, the pioneer assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity superpáramo community that became established ˜9000 cal yr B.P. This replacement coincides with regional declines in temperature and/or available moisture. Modern, more diverse superpáramo assemblages were not established until ˜4600 cal yr B.P., and were accompanied by a dramatic decline in Alnus, probably the result of factors associated with climate, humans, or both. Pollen influx from upper Andean forests is remarkably higher than expected during the Late Glacial and early to middle Holocene, especially between 14,000 and 12,600 cal yr B.P., when unparalleled high values are recorded. We propose that intensification of upslope orographic winds transported lower elevation forest pollen to the superpáramo, causing the apparent increase in tree pollen at high altitude. The association between increased forest pollen and summer insolation at this time suggests a causal link; however, further work is needed to clarify this relationship.

  17. P2y receptor-mediated angiogenesis via vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    PubMed

    Rumjahn, Sharif M; Baldwin, Karla A; Buxton, Iain L O

    2007-01-01

    Pathological as well as physiological angiogenesis is known to be regulated by such factors as nucleotides and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Activated P2Y nucleotide receptors have been observed to associate and transactivate VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2), suggesting a cooperation between nucleotide and VEGF signaling in angiogenesis. P2YR mediated VEGFR2 signaling therefore may be important in describing the angiogenic signaling of nucleotides such as ATP. Here, we provide evidence that supports the notion of P2YR-VEGFR2 signaling. The significant angiogenic effect of P2Y1/2 receptor agonists (100 microM ATP and 10 microM 2MS-ATP) on endothelial cell tubulogenesis was suppressed back to near control levels upon addition of 1 microM SU1498 (specific VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor). We believe that this P2YR-VEFGR2 signaling is an important component of pathological, as well as physiological angiogenesis.

  18. Landsat-1 and Landsat-2 flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The flight performance of Landsat 1 and Landsat 2 is analyzed. Flight operations of the satellites are briefly summarized. Other topics discussed include: orbital parameters; power subsystem; attitude control subsystem; command/clock subsystem; telemetry subsystem; orbit adjust subsystem; magnetic moment compensating assembly; unified s-band/premodulation processor; electrical interface subsystem; thermal subsystem; narrowband tape recorders; wideband telemetry subsystem; attitude measurement sensor; wideband video tape recorders; return beam vidicon; multispectral scanner subsystem; and data collection subsystem.

  19. Methamphetamine Regulation of Sulfotransferase 1A1 and 2A1 Expression in Rat Brain Sections

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tianyan; Huang, Chaoqun; Chen, Yue; Xu, Jiaojiao; Shanbhag, Preeti Devaraya; Chen, Guangping

    2012-01-01

    Sulfotransferase catalyzed sulfation regulates the biological activities of various neurotransmitters/hormones and detoxifies xenobiotics. Rat sulfotransferase rSULT1A1 catalyzes the sulfation of neurotransmitters and xenobiotic phenolic compounds. rSULT2A1 catalyzes the sulfation of hydroxysteroids and xenobiotic alcoholic compounds. In this work, Western blot and real-time RT-PCR were used to investigate the effect of methamphetamine on rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 protein and mRNA expression in rat cerebellum, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. After 1-day treatment, significant induction of rSULT1A1 was observed only in the cerebellum; rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus. After 7-days of exposure, rSULT1A1 was induced in the cerebellum, frontal cortex, and hippocampus, while rSULT2A1 was induced significantly in all four regions. Western blot results agreed with the real-time RT-PCR results, suggesting that the induction occurred at the gene transcriptional level. Results indicate that rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 are expressed in rat frontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, and hippocampus. rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1are inducible by methamphetamine in rat brain sections in a time dependable manner. rSULT2A1 is more inducible than rSULT1A1 by methamphetamine in rat brain sections. Induction activity of methamphetamine is in the order of cerebellum > frontal cortex, hippocampus > striatum. These results suggest that the physiological functions of rSULT1A1 and rSULT2A1 in different brain regions can be affected by methamphetamine. PMID:23026138

  20. Structural studies of 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ammonium 2[(2-carboxyphenyl) disulfanyl]benzoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazil, Shiji; Ravindran, Reena; Sarau Devi, A.; Bijili, B. K.

    2012-08-01

    Reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine with 2-mercaptobenzoic acid afforded a proton transfer derivative, 1-phenyl-2,3-dimethyl-5-oxo-1,2-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-4-ammonium 2[(2-carboxyphenyl) disulfanyl]benzoate, (HAAP+ṡHTBA-), via the oxidation of 2-mercaptobenzoic acid into 2,2'-dithiobis(benzoic acid). The compound has been characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR and mass spectral data. The infrared spectrum suggests the existence of an ion-pair compound, which is further established by the single crystal X-ray analysis to be an extended 1D supramolecular chain network extending along 'b' cell direction. The compound shows good thermal stability.

  1. MISSE 1 and 2 Tray Temperature Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.

    2006-01-01

    The Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE 1 & 2) was deployed August 10,2001 and retrieved July 30,2005. This experiment is a co-operative endeavor by NASA-LaRC. NASA-GRC, NASA-MSFC, NASA-JSC, the Materials Laboratory at the Air Force Research Laboratory, and the Boeing Phantom Works. The objective of the experiment is to evaluate performance, stability, and long term survivability of materials and components planned for use by NASA and DOD on future LEO, synchronous orbit, and interplanetary space missions. Temperature is an important parameter in the evaluation of space environmental effects on materials. The MISSE 1 & 2 had autonomous temperature data loggers to measure the temperature of each of the four experiment trays. The MISSE tray-temperature data loggers have one external thermistor data channel, and a 12 bit digital converter. The MISSE experiment trays were exposed to the ISS space environment for nearly four times the nominal design lifetime for this experiment. Nevertheless, all of the data loggers provided useful temperature measurements of MISSE. The temperature measurement system has been discussed in a previous paper. This paper presents temperature measurements of MISSE payload experiment carriers (PECs) 1 and 2 experiment trays.

  2. Myelinating Schwann cells determine the internodal localization of Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kvbeta2, and Caspr.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, E J; Xu, Y T; Zhou, L; Messing, A; Peles, E; Chiu, S Y; Scherer, S S

    1999-01-01

    We examined the localization of Caspr and the K(+) channels Kv1.1 and Kv1.2, all of which are intrinsic membrane proteins of myelinated axons in the PNS. Caspr is localized to the paranode; Kv1. 1, Kv1.2 and their beta2 subunit are localized to the juxtaparanode. Throughout the internodal region, a strand of Caspr staining is flanked by a double strand of Kv1.1/Kv1.2/Kvbeta2 staining. This tripartite strand apposes the inner mesaxon of the myelin sheath, and forms a circumferential ring that apposes the innermost aspect of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. The localization of Caspr and Kv1.2 are not disrupted in mice with null mutations of the myelin associated glycoprotein, connexin32, or Kv1.1 genes. At all of these locations, Caspr and Kv1.1/Kv1.2/Kvbeta2 define distinct but interrelated domains of the axonal membrane that appear to be organized by the myelin sheath. PMID:10739575

  3. Complexation of 1-hexadecyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide with nickel nitrate in acetone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhiltsova, E. P.; Lukashenko, S. S.; Ibatullina, M. R.; Kutyreva, M. P.; Zakharova, L. Ya.

    2016-07-01

    The complexation of 1-hexadecyl-4-aza-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide with Ni(II) nitrate in acetone is studied by means of spectrophotometry (the Job-Ostromisslensky technique and molar ratios). The formation of 3: 1 and 1: 1 ligand: metal complexes is established and confirmed by mathematical modeling. The stability constants of the complexes and the change in the Gibbs free energy are determined.

  4. (1H-1,2,3-Benzotriazol-1-yl)methyl 2,2-dimethyl-propano-ate.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sen; Shen, Yingzhong

    2012-04-01

    In the title compound, C(12)H(15)N(3)O(2), the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the benzene and triazole rings is 0.331 (53) °. The side chain of the pivalate unit forms a dihedral angle of 69.04 (12)° with the benzotriazole unit. The ester group and two methyl groups of the pivalate unit are disordered with an occupancy ratio of 0.731 (3):0.269 (3). In the crystal, weak π-π stacking inter-actions are observed between inversion-related benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.9040 (1) Å].

  5. IDCS J1433.2+3306: AN INFRARED-SELECTED GALAXY CLUSTER AT z = 1.89

    SciTech Connect

    Zeimann, Gregory R.; Stanford, S. A.; Brodwin, Mark; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Mancone, Conor; Snyder, Gregory F.; Stern, Daniel; Eisenhardt, Peter; Dey, Arjun

    2012-09-10

    We report the discovery of an IR-selected galaxy cluster in the IRAC Distant Cluster Survey (IDCS). New data from the Hubble Space Telescope spectroscopically confirm IDCS J1433.2+3306 at z = 1.89 with robust spectroscopic redshifts for seven members, two of which are based on the 4000 A break. Detected emission lines such as [O II] and H{beta} indicate star formation rates of {approx}>20 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} for three galaxies within a 500 kpc projected radius of the cluster center. The cluster exhibits a red sequence with a scatter and color indicative of a formation redshift z{sub f} {approx}> 3.5. The stellar age of the early-type galaxy population is approximately consistent with those of clusters at lower redshift (1 1.5) suggesting that clusters at these redshifts are experiencing ongoing or increasing star formation.

  6. Virtual Machine Language 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Joseph E.; Grasso, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    VML (Virtual Machine Language) is an advanced computing environment that allows spacecraft to operate using mechanisms ranging from simple, time-oriented sequencing to advanced, multicomponent reactive systems. VML has developed in four evolutionary stages. VML 0 is a core execution capability providing multi-threaded command execution, integer data types, and rudimentary branching. VML 1 added named parameterized procedures, extensive polymorphism, data typing, branching, looping issuance of commands using run-time parameters, and named global variables. VML 2 added for loops, data verification, telemetry reaction, and an open flight adaptation architecture. VML 2.1 contains major advances in control flow capabilities for executable state machines. On the resource requirements front, VML 2.1 features a reduced memory footprint in order to fit more capability into modestly sized flight processors, and endian-neutral data access for compatibility with Intel little-endian processors. Sequence packaging has been improved with object-oriented programming constructs and the use of implicit (rather than explicit) time tags on statements. Sequence event detection has been significantly enhanced with multi-variable waiting, which allows a sequence to detect and react to conditions defined by complex expressions with multiple global variables. This multi-variable waiting serves as the basis for implementing parallel rule checking, which in turn, makes possible executable state machines. The new state machine feature in VML 2.1 allows the creation of sophisticated autonomous reactive systems without the need to develop expensive flight software. Users specify named states and transitions, along with the truth conditions required, before taking transitions. Transitions with the same signal name allow separate state machines to coordinate actions: the conditions distributed across all state machines necessary to arm a particular signal are evaluated, and once found true, that

  7. ON THE EXPANSION RATE, AGE, AND DISTANCE OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G266.21.2 (Vela Jr.)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, G. E.; Chow, K.; DeLaney, T.; Filipović, M. D.; Houck, J. C.; Pannuti, T. G.; Stage, M. D. E-mail: kc71135@gmail.com E-mail: m.filipovic@uws.edu.au E-mail: t.pannuti@moreheadstate.edu

    2015-01-10

    An analysis of Chandra ACIS data for two relatively bright and narrow portions of the northwestern rim of G266.21.2 (a.k.a. RX J0852.0-4622 or Vela Jr.) reveal evidence of a radial displacement of 2.40 ± 0.56 arcsec between 2003 and 2008. The corresponding expansion rate (0.42 ± 0.10 arcsec yr{sup –1} or 13.6% ± 4.2% kyr{sup –1}) is about half the rate reported for an analysis of XMM-Newton data from a similar, but not identical, portion of the rim over a similar, but not identical, time interval (0.84 ± 0.23 arcsec yr{sup –1}). If the Chandra rate is representative of the remnant as a whole, then the results of a hydrodynamic analysis suggest that G266.21.2 is between 2.4 and 5.1 kyr old if it is expanding into a uniform ambient medium (whether or not it was produced by a Type Ia or Type II event). If the remnant is expanding into the material shed by a steady stellar wind, then the age could be as much as 50% higher. The Chandra expansion rate and a requirement that the shock speed be greater than or equal to 1000 km s{sup –1} yields a lower limit on the distance of 0.5 kpc. An analysis of previously published distance estimates and constraints suggests G266.21.2 is no further than 1.0 kpc. This range of distances is consistent with the distance to the nearer of two groups of material in the Vela Molecular Ridge (0.7 ± 0.2 kpc) and to the Vel OB1 association (0.8 kpc)

  8. IRIS Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane (Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is releasing the draft report, Toxicological Review of 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane, that was distributed to Federal agencies and White House Offices for comment during the Science Discussion step of the IRIS Assessment Develo...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10577 - Benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)thio]-,4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10577 Benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2- -,4... substance identified as benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2- -,4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1) (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10577 - Benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)thio]-,4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10577 Benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2- -,4... substance identified as benzenamine, 5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-2- -,4-methylbenzenesulfonate (1:1) (PMN...

  11. Dechlorination of 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane by Aerobacter aerogenes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1967-01-01

    Whole cells or cell-free extracts of Aerobacter aerogenes catalyze the degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) in vitro to at least seven metabolites: 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE); 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD); 1-chloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDMU); 1-chloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDMS); unsym-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDNU); 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)acetate (DDA); and 4,4′-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP). The use of metabolic inhibitors together with pH and temperature studies indicated that discrete enzymes are involved. By use of the technique of sequential analysis, the metabolic pathway was shown to be: DDT → DDD →DDMU →DDMS → DDNU → DDA → DBP, or DDT → DDE. Dechlorination was marginally enhanced by light-activated flavin mononucleotide.

  12. Hydrogen bonds of 2-aminothiazoles in intermolecular complexes (1:1 and 1:2) with proton acceptors in solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisenko, V. E.; Koll, A.; Kolmakov, E. E.; Rjasnyi, A. G.

    2006-02-01

    IR spectra of the free molecules of 2-aminothiazole and 2-aminobenzothiazole and their H-bonded complexes of 1:1 composition with acetonitrile, dioxane, tetrahydrofourane, dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide and hexamethyl-phosphoramide in CCl 4 were studied in the range of stretching and deformational vibrations of the amino group. The complexes of 1:2 compositions were studied in undiluted aprotic solvents. The absorption band spectral characteristics of monomers and complexes were determined: M (0)—zero spectral moment (integrated band intensity B), M(1)—first spectral moment (band gravity center) and effective half-width (Δ ν1/2) eff which is related to the second central moment M(2): (Δ ν1/2) eff=2( M(2)) 1/2. The temperature influence on the absorption band spectral characteristics of the amino group stretching vibrations for monomers and 1:1 complexes were studied in the interval 283-323 K. It was shown that within the range mentioned above, spectral characteristics have practically linear dependence on temperature. Parameters of the linear regression equation Y= aT+ b ( Y= B, M(1), 2( M(2)) 1/2) were determined. It was stated that the temperature sensitivity a= ∂Y/ ∂T of spectral characteristics for 1:1 complexes of 2-aminothiazoles with proton acceptors is approximately 10 times higher than for monomers. The monomer-complex equilibrium constants K( T) (1:1) were calculated and the thermodynamical characteristics -Δ H and Δ S were determined, based on Vant-Hoff equation. For free (R-NH 2, R-NHD, R-ND 2) and H-bonded (1:1 and 1:2, with various proton acceptors) molecules of 2-aminothiazoles, the vibrational and electro optic problems were solved in the approximation of the six-coordinate valence force field model. The valence angles γ(HNH), force constants K(NH), electro optic parameters ∂μ/ ∂q (derivative of the dipole moment by the length of NH-bond) and ∂μ/ ∂q' (derivative of the dipole moment by the length of the neighboring NH

  13. 2-Amino-1-(2-carboxyl­atoeth­yl)pyrimidin-1-ium monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Christopher R.; Walker, Edwin H.; Fronczek, Frank R.

    2010-01-01

    In the title structure, C7H9N3O2·H2O, there are two formula units in the asymmetric unit. The mol­ecule is a zwitterion, containing a quaternary N atom and a deprotonated carboxyl group, with C—O distances in the range 1.256 (2)–1.266 (3) Å. The two independent mol­ecules form a hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(16) dimer about an approximate inversion center via N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, with N⋯O distances of 2.766 (2) and 2.888 (2) Å. O—H⋯O hydro­gen bonds involving the water mol­ecules and additional N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link these dimers, forming double chains. PMID:21589454

  14. M2-F1 in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    This 25-second clip shows Milt Thompson being towed in the M2-F1 behind a C-47 aircraft. The M2-F1 lifting body, dubbed the 'flying bathtub' by the media, was the precursor of a remarkable series of wingless flying vehicles that contributed data used in the Space Shuttles, the X-33 Advanced Technology Demonstrator for the next century's Reusable Launch Vehicle, and the X-38 Technology Demonstrator for crew return from the International Space Station. Based on the ideas and basic design of Alfred J. Eggers and others at the Ames Aeronautical Laboratory (now the Ames Research Center), Mountain View, California, in the mid-1950's, the M2-F1 was built in 1962-63 over a four-month period for a cost of only about $30,000, plus an additional $8,000-$10,000 for an ejection seat. Engineers and technicians at the NASA Flight Research Center (now NASA Dryden) kept costs low by designing and fabricating it partly in-house, with the plywood shell constructed by a local sailplane builder. Someone at the time estimated that it would have cost a major aircraft company $150,000 to build the same vehicle. Unlike the later lifting bodies, the M2-F1 was unpowered and was initially towed by a souped-up Pontiac convertible until it was airborne. Later a C-47 took over the towing duties. Flown by such famous research pilots as Milt Thompson, Bruce Peterson, Chuck Yeager, and Bill Dana, the lightweight flying bathtub demonstrated that a wingless vehicle shaped for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere from space could be flown and landed safely. Flown from 1963 to 1966, the lightweight M2-F1 paved the way for the heavyweight M2-F2, M2-F3, HL-10, X-24A, and X-24B lifting bodies that flew under rocket power after launch from a B-52 mothership. The heavyweights flew from 1966 to 1975, demonstrating the viability and versatility of the wingless configuration and the ability of a vehicle with low lift-over-drag characteristics to fly to high altitudes and then to land precisely with their rocket

  15. 1,2-Dihydropentalenes from Fulvenes by [6 + 2] Cycloadditions with 1-Isopropenylpyrrolidine

    PubMed Central

    Coşkun, Necdet; Ma, Jingxiang; Azimi, Saeed; Gärtner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In situ generated acetone pyrrolidine enamine undergoes [6 + 2] cycloadditions with fulvenes to give 1,2-dihydropentalenes. This ring annulation method works particularly well with 6-monosubstituted fulvenes and is subject to steric hindrance at C-6 of the fulvene. On the basis of mechanistic studies, optimal conditions have been developed for a one-pot synthesis of 1,2-dihydropentalenes using catalytic amounts of pyrrolidine. PMID:22029269

  16. HAER COLO,1COMCI,2A (sheet 1 of 2) Highline Canal, Sand ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER COLO,1-COMCI,2A- (sheet 1 of 2) - Highline Canal, Sand Creek Lateral, Beginning at intersection of Peoria Street & Highline Canal in Arapahoe County (City of Aurora), Sand Creek lateral Extends 15 miles Northerly through Araphoe County, City & County of Denver, & Adams County to its end point, approximately 1/4 mile Southest of intersectioin of D Street & Ninth Avenue in Adams County (Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City Vicinity), Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  17. Reinvestigating the clusters Koposov 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Paust, Nathaniel; Wilson, Danielle; Van Belle, Gerard

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the fundamental parameters of age, distance, and mass function slope for the poorly studied clusters Koposov 1 and Koposov 2. These clusters were discovered recently and tentatively classified as globular clusters. Using the Large Monolithic Imager on Lowell Observatory's Discovery Channel Telescope, we present photometry extending to V = 25, three to four magnitudes below the main sequence turnoffs for the clusters. We find the clusters have tidal radii of 15 pc and 10.7 pc and distances of 34.9 kpc and 33.3 kpc for Koposov 1 and Koposov 2, respectively. Studying the stellar content of the clusters, we use completeness-corrected star counts to reveal extremely faint total magnitudes of 2.01 and 0.03 in V, and steep Salpeter-like present-day mass functions. Finally, we show that the spatial positions of the clusters agree well with the position of the Sagittarius stream and conclude that these two objects are open clusters removed from the Sagittarius galaxy.

  18. BSM Delta qualification 2, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report, presented in three volumes, provides the results of a two-motor Delta Qualification 2 program conducted in 1993 to certify the following enhancements for incorporation into Booster Separation Motor (BSM) flight hardware: (1) vulcanized-in-place nozzle aft closure insulation; (2) new isostatic ATJ bulk graphite throat insert material; (3) adhesive EA 9394 for bonding the nozzle throat, igniter grain rod/centering insert/igniter case; (4) deletion of the igniter adapter insulator ring; (5) deletion of igniter adapter/igniter case interface RTV; and (6) deletion of Loctite from igniter retainer plate threads. The enhancements above directly resulted from (1) the BSM Total Quality Management (TQM) Team initiatives to enhance the BSM producibility, and (2) the necessity to qualify new throat insert and adhesive systems to replace existing materials that will not be available. Testing was completed at both the component and motor levels. Component testing was accomplished to screen candidate materials (e.g., throat materials, adhesive systems) and to optimize processes (e.g., aft closure insulator vulcanization approach) prior to their incorporation into the test motors. Motor testing - consisting of two motors, randomly selected by USBI's onsite quality personnel from production lot AAY, which were modified to accept the enhancements - were completed to provide the final qualification of the enhancements for incorporation into flight hardware. It is concluded that all of the enhancements herein tested are qualified to be incorporated into flight hardware for the BSM.

  19. BSM Delta qualification 2, volume 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-11-01

    This report, presented in three volumes, provides the results of a two-motor Delta Qualification 2 program conducted in 1993 to certify the following enhancements for incorporation into Booster Separation Motor (BSM) flight hardware: (1) vulcanized-in-place nozzle aft closure insulation; (2) new isostatic ATJ bulk graphite throat insert material; (3) adhesive EA 9394 for bonding the nozzle throat, igniter grain rod/centering insert/igniter case; (4) deletion of the igniter adapter insulator ring; (5) deletion of igniter adapter/igniter case interface RTV; and (6) deletion of Loctite from igniter retainer plate threads. The enhancements above directly resulted from (1) the BSM Total Quality Management (TQM) Team initiatives to enhance the BSM producibility, and (2) the necessity to qualify new throat insert and adhesive systems to replace existing materials that will not be available. Testing was completed at both the component and motor levels. Component testing was accomplished to screen candidate materials (e.g., throat materials, adhesive systems) and to optimize processes (e.g., aft closure insulator vulcanization approach) prior to their incorporation into the test motors. Motor testing - consisting of two motors, randomly selected by USBI's onsite quality personnel from production lot AAY, which were modified to accept the enhancements - were completed to provide the final qualification of the enhancements for incorporation into flight hardware. It is concluded that all of the enhancements herein tested are qualified to be incorporated into flight hardware for the BSM.

  20. 40 CFR 721.1637 - 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-[2-[[(4...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1- oxy]ethoxy]-3-(2-propenyloxy)-4-methylbenzenesulfonate... Substances § 721.1637 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(2-propenyloxy)-, bis(4-methylbenzene sulfonate); 2-propanol, 1-...