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Sample records for 2 3-dimensional cross

  1. Correlation Between Arthroscopy Simulator and Video Game Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study of 30 Volunteers Comparing 2- and 3-Dimensional Video Games.

    PubMed

    Jentzsch, Thorsten; Rahm, Stefan; Seifert, Burkhardt; Farei-Campagna, Jan; Werner, Clément M L; Bouaicha, Samy

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between arthroscopy simulator performance and video game skills. This study compared the performances of 30 volunteers without experience performing arthroscopies in 3 different tasks of a validated virtual reality knee arthroscopy simulator with the video game experience using a questionnaire and actual performances in 5 different 2- and 3-dimensional (D) video games of varying genres on 2 different platforms. Positive correlations between knee arthroscopy simulator and video game performances (ρ = 0.63, P < .001) as well as experiences (ρ = 0.50, P = .005) were found. The strongest correlations were found for the task of catching (hooking) 6 foreign bodies (virtual rings; "triangulation") and the dribbling performance in a sports game and a first-person shooter game, as well as the meniscus resection and a tile-matching puzzle game (all ρ ≥ 0.60, P < .001). No correlations were found for any of the knee arthroscopy simulator tasks and a strategy game. Although knee arthroscopy performances do not correlate with 2-D strategy video game skills, they show a correlation with 2-D tile-matching puzzle games only for easier tasks with a rather limited focus, and highly correlate with 3-D sports and first-person shooter video games. These findings show that experienced and good 3-D gamers are better arthroscopists than nonexperienced and poor 3-D gamers. Level II, observational cross-sectional study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  3. Quantitative comparison of operative skill using 2- and 3-dimensional monitors during laparoscopic phantom tasks.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Masayasu; Kanaji, Shingo; Otake, Yoshito; Harada, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Masashi; Oshikiri, Taro; Nakamura, Tetsu; Suzuki, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yuki; Hiasa, Yuta; Sato, Yoshinobu; Kakeji, Yoshihiro

    2017-05-01

    The recent development of stereoscopic images using 3-dimensional monitors is expected to improve techniques for laparoscopic operation. Several studies have reported technical advantages in using 3-dimensional monitors with regard to operative accuracy and working speed, but there are few reports that analyze forceps motions by 3-dimensional optical tracking systems during standardized laparoscopic phantom tasks. We attempted to develop a 3-dimensional motion analysis system for assessing laparoscopic tasks and to clarify the efficacy of using stereoscopic images from a 3-dimensional monitor to track forceps movement during laparoscopy. Twenty surgeons performed 3 tasks (Task 1: a simple operation by the dominant hand, Task 2: a simple operation using both hands, Task 3: a complicated operation using both hands) under 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional systems. We tracked and recorded the motion of forceps tips with an optical marker captured by a 3-dimensional position tracker. We analyzed factors such as forceps path lengths, operation times, and technical errors for each task and compared the results of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional monitors. Mean operation times and technical errors were improved significantly for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system compared with the 2-dimensional system; in addition, mean path lengths for the forceps tips were shorter for all tasks performed under the 3-dimensional system. We found that stereoscopic images using a 3-dimensional monitor improved operative techniques with regard to increased accuracy and shorter path lengths for forceps movement, which resulted in a shorter operation time for basic phantom laparoscopic tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  5. Comparison of 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Metacarpal Fracture Plating Constructs Under Cyclic Loading.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Eric P; Burns, Geoffrey T; Oak, Nikhil R; Lawton, Jeffrey N

    2017-03-01

    Metacarpal fractures are commonly treated by a variety of means including casting or open reduction internal fixation when unacceptable alignment is present following attempted closed reduction. Dorsal plating with either single-row 2-dimensional or double-row 3-dimensional plates has been proposed. This study's purpose was to determine if there are any differences in fixation construct stability under cyclic loading and subsequent load to failure between the lower profile 3-dimensional and the larger 2-dimensional plates in a metacarpal fracture gap sawbone model. Thirty metacarpal cortico-cancellous synthetic bones were cut with a 1.75-mm gap between the 2 fragments simulating mid-diaphyseal fracture comminution. Half of the metacarpals were plated with 2.0-mm locking 2-dimensional plates and half with 1.5-mm locking 3-dimensional plates. The plated metacarpals were mounted into a materials testing apparatus and cyclically loaded under cantilever bending for 2,000 cycles at 70 N, then 2,000 cycles at 120 N, and finally monotonically loaded to failure. Throughout testing, fracture gap sizes were measured, failure modes were recorded, and construct strength and stiffness values were calculated. All 3-dimensional constructs survived both cyclic loading conditions. Ten (67%) 2-dimensional constructs survived both loading conditions, whereas 5 (33%) failed the 120-N loading at 1377 ± 363 cycles. When loaded to failure, the 3-dimensional constructs failed at 265 N ± 21 N, whereas the 2-dimensional constructs surviving cyclic loading failed at 190 N ± 17 N. The shorter, thinner 3-dimensional metacarpal plates demonstrated increased resistance to failure in a cyclic loading model and increased load to failure compared with the relatively longer, thicker 2-dimensional metacarpal plates. The lower-profile 3-dimensional metacarpal plate fixation demonstrated greater stability for early postoperative resistance than the thicker 2-dimensional fixation, whereas the smaller

  6. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions

    PubMed Central

    DiCesare, Christopher A.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Noehren, Brian W.; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are physically and financially devastating but affect a relatively small percentage of the population. Prospective identification of risk factors for ACL injury necessitates a large sample size; therefore, study of this injury would benefit from a multicenter approach. Purpose: To determine the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures of a single-leg cross drop task across 3 institutions. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five female high school volleyball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion data of each participant performing the single-leg cross drop were collected at 3 institutions over a period of 4 weeks. Coefficients of multiple correlation were calculated to assess the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures during the landing phase of the movement. Results: Between-centers reliability for kinematic waveforms in the frontal and sagittal planes was good, but moderate in the transverse plane. Between-centers reliability for kinetic waveforms was good in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the single-leg cross drop task has moderate to good reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures across institutions after implementation of a standardized testing protocol. Clinical Relevance: Multicenter collaborations can increase study numbers and generalize results, which is beneficial for studies of relatively rare phenomena, such as ACL injury. An important step is to determine the reliability of risk assessments across institutions before a multicenter collaboration can be initiated. PMID:26779550

  7. Retrodeformable cross sections for 3-dimensional structural analysis, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. E.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental tectonic problem is how deformation proceeds from hinterland to foreland in a fold and thrust belt (FTB). Wedge models explain many of the first-order observations found in most FTBs such as the internal deformation of material, thickening of hinterland, presence of a basal décollement, and an overall wedge shape that tapers to the foreland. These models currently have not been tested at the scale of the individual folds and faults. Moreover, most of the data available on, for instance, the sequence of events is best dated in the syntectonic sediments. Timing of uplift and motion of interior structures are not clear when using dates from these syntectonic sediments to some extent because an absolute connection between them is lacking. The purpose of this project is to develop a model for the evolution of the Ouachita orogen through the construction of a series of retrodeformable cross sections. A novel aspect of these cross sections is the combination of new and published thermal (i.e., illite ‘crystallinity’) and thermochronologic (i.e., zircon fission track) data collected at a variety of stratigraphic depths along the lines of section. These data will help to determine the cessation of thrust motion as well as the initial depth from which the thrust sheet emerged. An Ordovician Mazarn sample in the eastern exposed orogenic core has zircon grains with 55% reset fission track ages, whereas an overlying Ordovician Blakely sample about ~30 km to the southwest along strike has 15% being reset. Illite ‘crystallinity’ (IC) values indicate maximum burial metamorphism temperatures of anchizone (~250-350°C) coinciding with the location of the Ordovician Mazarn sample. Regionally, IC decreases from the culmination of the Benton Uplift and to the southwest along regional strike for samples that have similar stratigraphic age. These new timing and thermal constraints on an improved kinematic model are the necessary first steps in testing wedge models

  8. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  9. Comparison of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional conformal treatment plans in gastric cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Adas, Yasemin Guzle; Andrieu, Meltem Nalca; Hicsonmez, Ayse; Atakul, Tugba; Dirican, Bahar; Aktas, Caner; Yilmaz, Sercan; Akyurek, Serap; Gokce, Saban Cakir; Ergocen, Salih

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative chemoradiotherapy is accepted as standard treatment for stage IB-IV, M0 gastric cancer. Radiotherapy (RT) planning of gastric cancer is important because of the low radiation tolerance of surrounding critical organs. The purpose of this study was to compare the dosimetric aspects of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) treatment plans, with the twin aims of evaluating the adequacy of 2D planning fields on coverage of planning target volume (PTV) and 3D conformal plans for both covering PTV and reducing the normal tissue doses. Thirty-six patients with stage II-IV gastric adenocarcinoma were treated with adjuvant chemoradiotherapy using 3DRT. For each patient, a second 2D treatment plan was generated. The two techniques were compared for target volume coverage and dose to normal tissues using dose volume histogram (DVH) analysis. 3DRT provides more adequate coverage of the target volume. Comparative DVHs for the left kidney and spinal cord demonstrate lower radiation doses with the 3D technique. 3DRT produced better dose distributions and reduced radiation doses to left kidney and spinal cord compared to the 2D technique. For this reason it can be predicted that 3DRT will result in better tumor control and less normal tissue complications.

  10. Kinematic comparison and description of the 3-dimensional shoulder kinematics of 2 shoulder rotation tests.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Augusto Gil; Morais, Nuno

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare shoulder external rotation range of motion (ROM) during the hand-behind-neck (HBN) test and a standard shoulder external rotation test and to describe the 3-dimensional scapular motion during the HBN test. An electromagnetic tracking device was used to assess the dominant shoulder of 14 healthy participants while performing active full ROM in a standard shoulder external rotation test in an elevated position (EREP) and in the HBN test. The humeral and scapular 3-dimensional positions at the end of EREP and HBN were compared using a paired-sample t test. A correlation analysis was performed between humeral and scapular angles to assess the contribution of scapular motion to the full shoulder ROM during the HBN test. No significant differences were found between the HBN test and the EREP at the end-range of the glenohumeral external rotation (HBN: 15.6° ± 6.3° vs EREP: 23.4° ± 4.7°; P = .08) and on scapular internal-external rotation (HBN test: 21.2° ± 6.3° vs EREP: 15.6° ± 1.8°; P = .23). Significant differences were found in scapular upward rotation (HBN: 21.2° ± 6.3° vs EREP: 15.6° ± 1.8°; P < .01) and scapular spinal tilt (HBN: -0.4° ± 2.3° vs EREP: 8.1° ± 2.1°; P < .01). There was a positive correlation between the humeral angles and scapular internal and posterior spinal tilt angles with the HBN test. The results of the present study showed that, in young asymptomatic participants with no known shoulder pathology, the end-range of shoulder rotation was similar in the HBN test and in a standard shoulder rotation test. During the HBN test, the scapula assumed a more internal and anterior spinal tilted position at the end-range of active shoulder external rotation. These results suggest that the HBN test may be used to assess the end-range of glenohumeral external rotation. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  12. Inter-surface interactions in a 3-dimensional topological insulator : Bi2Se3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hosub; Song, Jung-Hwan; Freeman, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    Recently much attention has focused on 3-dimensional strong topological insulators as a new quantum state of matter, such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. One of their intriguing features is a topologically protected surface state whose quasiparticle dispersion shows a Dirac cone. Due to lack of backscattering and robustness against disorder and interaction, surface states have the potential to be perfect conducting channels which carry not only charge but also spin currents. Here, we present a theoretical study of electronic structures and surfaces of thin film Bi2Se3 using the highly precise FLAPW methodfootnotetext Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B, 24, 864 (1981). Our calculated results focus on the interaction between surface states on opposing sides of the slab. The gap opening from the inter-surface interaction can be easily explained by simple symmetry arguments considering both time-reversal and spatial inversion. For a 6 quintuple layer slab (˜6 nm), a 1.06 meV gap at the γ point survives due to the inter-surface interactions, and we discuss how to preserve the massless excitations despite this inter-surface interaction.

  13. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  14. MAPAG: a computer program to construct 2- and 3-dimensional antigenic maps.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, R C; Retegui, L A; Roguin, L P

    1994-01-01

    The contact area between an antibody (Ab) and the antigen (Ag) is called antigenic determinant or epitope. The first step in the characterization of an Ag by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is to map the relative distribution of the corresponding epitopes on the Ag surface. The computer program MAPAG has been devised to automatically construct antigenic maps. MAPAG is fed with a binary matrix of experimental data indicating the ability of paired MAb to bind or not simultaneously to the Ag. The program is interactive menu-driven and allows the user an easy data handling. MAPAG utilizes iterative processes to construct and to adjust the final map, which is graphically shown as a 2- or a 3-dimensional model. Additionally, the antigenic map obtained can be optionally modified by the user or readjusted by the program. The suitability of MAPAG was illustrated by running experimental data from literature and comparing antigenic maps constructed by the program with those elaborated by the investigators without the assistance of a computer. Furthermore, since some MAb could present negative allosteric effects leading to misinterpretation of data, MAPAG has been provided with an approximate reasoning module to solve such anomalous situations. Results indicated that the program can be successfully employed as a simple, fast and reliable antigenic model-builder.

  15. The value of preoperative 3-dimensional over 2-dimensional valve analysis in predicting recurrent ischemic mitral regurgitation after mitral annuloplasty.

    PubMed

    Wijdh-den Hamer, Inez J; Bouma, Wobbe; Lai, Eric K; Levack, Melissa M; Shang, Eric K; Pouch, Alison M; Eperjesi, Thomas J; Plappert, Theodore J; Yushkevich, Paul A; Hung, Judy; Mariani, Massimo A; Khabbaz, Kamal R; Gleason, Thomas G; Mahmood, Feroze; Acker, Michael A; Woo, Y Joseph; Cheung, Albert T; Gillespie, Matthew J; Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C

    2016-09-01

    Repair for ischemic mitral regurgitation with undersized annuloplasty is characterized by high recurrence rates. We sought to determine the value of pre-repair 3-dimensional echocardiography over 2-dimensional echocardiography in predicting recurrence at 6 months. Intraoperative transesophageal 2-dimensional echocardiography and 3-dimensional echocardiography were performed in 50 patients undergoing undersized annuloplasty for ischemic mitral regurgitation. Two-dimensional echocardiography annular diameter and tethering parameters were measured in the apical 2- and 4-chamber views. A customized protocol was used to assess 3-dimensional annular geometry and regional leaflet tethering. Recurrence (grade ≥2) was assessed with 2-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography at 6 months. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional annular geometry were similar in all patients with ischemic mitral regurgitation. Preoperative 2- and 3-dimensional leaflet tethering were significantly higher in patients with recurrence (n = 13) when compared with patients without recurrence (n = 37). Multivariate logistic regression revealed preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 32.0° (area under the curve, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.95; P = .002) and preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle as an independent predictor of recurrence with an optimal cutoff value of 29.9° (area under the curve, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.84-1.00; P < .001). The predictive value of the 3-dimensional geometric multivariate model can be augmented by adding basal aneurysm/dyskinesis (area under the curve, 0.94; 95% confidence interval, 0.87-1.00; P < .001). Preoperative 3-dimensional echocardiography P3 tethering angle is a stronger predictor of ischemic mitral regurgitation recurrence after annuloplasty than preoperative 2-dimensional echocardiography posterior

  16. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  17. Prenatal visualization of the pituitary gland using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography: comparison to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Katorza, Eldad; Bault, Jean-Philippe; Gilboa, Yinon; Yinon, Yoav; Hoffmann, Chen; Achiron, Reuven

    2012-10-01

    The pituitary gland is crucially important in the function of the endocrine axis. So far, antenatal depiction of the pituitary gland was possible only using magnetic resonance imaging. We describe antenatal visualization of the pituitary gland using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. The appearance of the gland on sonography seems to be superior compares to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging. In cases with midline anomalies of the brain, face, or cranium, depiction of the pituitary gland is feasible and recommended.

  18. Calculation of 3-dimensional choking mass flow in turbomachinery with 2-dimensional flow models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsanis, T.

    1977-01-01

    An approach is considered for obtaining an approximate flow solution in the case of a cross-sectional flow surface within a guided channel, taking into account a pair of typical turbine blades with three-dimensional orthogonal surfaces across the flow passage, the calculation of the mass flow across the throat in the case of a 2-D passage with curved walls, and the determination of the choking mass flow. It is pointed out that the choking solution for a three-dimensional guided passage in a blade row can be obtained in a very similar manner by satisfying momentum equations for the blade-to-blade and the hub-to-tip direction. A considered example involves the calculation of the choking mass flow for a centrifugal compressor impeller in an automotive application.

  19. Comparison between Radiographic (2-dimensional and 3-dimensional) and Histologic Findings of Periapical Lesions Treated with Apical Surgery.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Michael M; Bingisser, Andreas C; Reichart, Peter A; Sendi, Pedram; Bosshardt, Dieter D; von Arx, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance of 2- and 3-dimensional radiography and histopathology in the diagnosis of periapical lesions. Patients were consecutively enrolled in this study provided that preoperative periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computed tomographic imaging of the tooth to be treated with apical surgery were performed. The periapical lesional tissue was histologically analyzed by 2 blinded examiners. The final histologic diagnosis was compared with the radiographic assessments of 4 blinded observers. The initial study material included 62 teeth in the same number of patients. Four lesions had to be excluded during processing, resulting in a final number of 58 evaluated cases (31 women and 27 men, mean age = 55 years). The final histologic diagnosis of the periapical lesions included 55 granulomas (94.8%) and 3 cysts (5.2%). Histologic analysis of the tissue samples from the apical lesions exhibited an almost perfect agreement between the 2 experienced investigators with an overall agreement of 94.83% (kappa = 0.8011). Radiographic assessment overestimated cysts by 28.4% (cone-beam computed tomographic imaging) and 20.7% (periapical radiography), respectively. Comparing the correlation of the radiographic diagnosis of 4 observers with the final histologic diagnosis, 2-dimensional (kappa = 0.104) and 3-dimensional imaging (kappa = 0.111) provided only minimum agreement. To establish a final diagnosis of an apical radiolucency, the tissue specimen should be evaluated histologically and specified as a granuloma (with/without epithelium) or a cyst. Analysis of 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional radiographic images alike results only in a tentative diagnosis that should be confirmed with biopsy. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A (3 + 3)-dimensional "hypercubic" oxide-ionic conductor: type II Bi2O3-Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chris D; Schmid, Siegbert; Blanchard, Peter E R; Petříček, Vaclav; McIntyre, Garry J; Sharma, Neeraj; Maljuk, Andrey; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A; Kharton, Vladislav V; Gutmann, Matthias; Withers, Ray L

    2013-05-01

    The high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated "hypercubic" structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an "inflated" pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system.

  1. Fine designing 3-dimensional ZnO nanowalls with TiO2 nanoparticles for DSSC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Bayatloo, Elham

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we report a low-cost low-temperature hydrothermal technique for covering 3-dimensional (3-D) electrodeposited ZnO nanowall with thin layer of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles on FTO substrate for dye-sensitized solar cell application, in a way that morphology and crystal structure of ZnO nanowalls were preserved. Comparing photovoltaic characteristics of devices with and without TiO2-coating layer, it was revealed that the 3-D ZnO/TiO2-nanostructured photoanode resulted in a 35 % cell performance improved mostly because of enhancement of short-circuit current density ( J sc) and open-circuit voltage ( V oc). The XRD pattern showed that 3-D ZnO nanowalls and TiO2 compose of wurtzite and anatase phases, respectively.

  2. Prenatal 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional ultrasonography diagnosis and autoptic findings of isolated ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Bianca, S; Bartoloni, G; Auditore, S; Reale, A; Tetto, C; Ingegnosi, C; Pirruccello, B; Ettore, G

    2006-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare congenital malformation, commonly associated with intracardiac anomalies. It is due to a defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in an extrathoracic location of the heart. We report prenatal 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D ultrasonography diagnosis and postnatal autoptic findings of an isolated ectopia cordis with tricuspid atresia. Ectopia cordis prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. 3D ultrasonography may add more detailed visualization of the heart anomaly even if the 2D ultrasonography alone permits the prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrical management should include a careful search for associated anomalies, especially cardiac, and the assessment of fetal karyotype. As this is considered a sporadic anomaly, the recurrence risk is low and no genetic origin is known. Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Measuring the volume of uterine fibroids using 2- and 3-dimensional ultrasound and comparison with histopathology.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Nikica; Zivković, Kreiimir; Despot, Albert; Paić, Josip; Zelić, Ana

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was clinical testing of the reliability and usability of three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) ultrasound (US) technology. The ultimate aim and purpose of this study was to establish ultrasound methods, standards and protocols for determining the volume of any gynecologic organ or tumor. The study included 31 women in reproductive age and postmenopause. All patients were examined with a RIC 5-9 3D-endovaginal probe (4.3-7.5 MHz) on a Voluson 730 Pro ultrasound device. The volume of myomas was measured by using the existing 2D and 3D ultrasound methods on the above mentioned device. All patients underwent myomectomy or hysterectomy due to clinically and ultrasonographically diagnosed uterine myomas indicating operative intervention. After the operation, the pathologist determined the volume of removed myomas by measuring them in a gauge bowl containing water, i.e. using Archimedes' principle (lift), serving as the control group with histopathologic diagnosis. A total of 155 myoma volumes were processed on 2D display, 31 myoma volumes were preoperatively measured on 3D display and 31 myoma volumes were measured by the pathologist. The values of US measurements for each US method were expressed as mean value of all measurements of myoma volumes. Statistical processing of the results and Student's t-test for independent samples revealed that the 2nd examined US method (measuring of myoma by using an ellipse and the longer tumor diameter) and 4th examined US method (measuring of myoma by using the longer and shorter tumor diameters together with establishing their mean values) in 2D US technique, as well as the 6th examined US method in 3D US technique showed no significant measurement differences in comparison with control measurement in a gauge bowl containing water (p < 0.05), indicating acceptability of the US methods for verifying tumor volumes. The standard error in determining the volume of myomas by the above US methods varied

  4. Echocardiographic anatomy of the mitral valve: a critical appraisal of 2-dimensional imaging protocols with a 3-dimensional perspective.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Feroze; Hess, Philip E; Matyal, Robina; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Wang, Angela; Qazi, Aisha; Panzica, Peter J; Lerner, Adam B; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    To highlight the limitations of traditional 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic mitral valve (MV) examination methodologies, which do not account for patient-specific transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) probe adjustments made during an actual clinical perioperative TEE examination. Institutional quality-improvement project. Tertiary care hospital. Attending anesthesiologists certified by the National Board of Echocardiography. Using the technique of multiplanar reformatting with 3-dimensional (3D) data, ambiguous 2D images of the MV were generated, which resembled standard midesophageal 2D views. Based on the 3D image, the MV scallops visualized in each 2D image were recognized exactly by the position of the scan plane. Twenty-three such 2D MV images were created in a presentation from the 3D datasets. Anesthesia staff members (n = 13) were invited to view the presentation based on the 2D images only and asked to identify the MV scallops. Their responses were scored as correct or incorrect based on the 3D image. The overall accuracy was 30.4% in identifying the MV scallops. The transcommissural view was identified correctly >90% of the time. The accuracy of the identification of A1, A3, P1, and P3 scallops was <50%. The accuracy of the identification of A2P2 scallops was ≥50%. In the absence of information on TEE probe adjustments performed to acquire a specific MV image, it is possible to misidentify the scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. P1 and P2 components of human visual evoked potentials are modulated by depth perception of 3-dimensional images.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Shu; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Otsuka, Saika; Baba, Yasuhisa; Wang, Chuanwei; Li, Mei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Ueda, Naohisa; Koyano, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yume

    2010-03-01

    To determine the cerebral activity correlated with depth perception of 3-dimensional (3D) images, by recording of human visual evoked potentials (VEPs). Two figures consisting of smaller and larger squares were presented alternately. VEPs were recorded in two conditions. In condition I, we used two figures which yielded flat 2-dimensional images. In condition II, we used two figures which yielded 3D images, which were concave and convex, respectively. P1, P2, and N1/P2 amplitude were significantly greater in condition II than in condition I. The P1/N1 amplitude tended to be greater in condition II than in condition I. P1 and N1 were predominantly distributed over the right temporo-parieto-occipital regions. P2 and N2 were distributed over bilateral parieto-occipital regions. The difference in P1 amplitude between two conditions can be explained by the difference between conditions, one of which yielded depth perception while the other did not, since previous studies showed that P1 and N1 are modulated by perception of images in depth. The role of P2 and the mechanism responsible for the increase in P2 amplitude during condition II remain unknown. We recorded VEPs and identified electrophysiological correlates of depth perception with 3D images produced by concave/convex figures.

  6. Treatment of mandibular angle fracture with a 2mm, 3 dimensional rectangular grid compression miniplates: A prospective clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Mansuri, Samir; Abdulkhayum, Abdul Mujeeb; Gazal, Giath; Hussain, Mohammed Abid Zahir

    2013-01-01

    Background: Surgical treatment of fracture mandible using an internal fixation has changed in the last decades to achieve the required rigidity, stability and immediate restoration of function. The aim of the study was to do a Prospective study of 10 patients to determine the efficacy of rectangular grid compression miniplates in mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was carried out using 2.0 rectangular grid compression miniplates and 8 mm multidirectional screws as a rigid internal fixation in 10 patients without post operative intermaxillary fixation (IMF). Follow up was done for period of 6 months. Results: All fractures were healed with an absolute stability in post operative period. None of the patient complained of post operative difficulty in occlusion. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that rectangular grid compression miniplates was rigid, reliable and thus can be recommended for the treatment of mandibular angle fractures. How to cite this article: Mansuri S, Abdulkhayum AM, Gazal G, Hussain MA. Treatment of mandibular angle fracture with a 2mm, 3 dimensional rectangular grid compression miniplates: A prospective clinical study. J Int Oral Health 2013;5(6):93-100 . PMID:24453452

  7. The Arp2/3 complex mediates multigeneration dendritic protrusions for efficient 3-dimensional cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anjil; Bajpai, Saumendra; Trenton, Nicholaus; Jayatilaka, Hasini; Longmore, Gregory D; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Arp2/3 is a protein complex that nucleates actin filament assembly in the lamellipodium in adherent cells crawling on planar 2-dimensional (2D) substrates. However, in physiopathological situations, cell migration typically occurs within a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, and little is known about the role of Arp2/3 and associated proteins in 3D cell migration. Using time resolved live-cell imaging and HT1080, a fibrosarcoma cell line commonly used to study cell migration, we find that the Arp2/3 complex and associated proteins N-WASP, WAVE1, cortactin, and Cdc42 regulate 3D cell migration. We report that this regulation is caused by formation of multigeneration dendritic protrusions, which mediate traction forces on the surrounding matrix and effective cell migration. The primary protrusions emanating directly from the cell body and prolonging the nucleus forms independent of Arp2/3 and dependent on focal adhesion proteins FAK, talin, and p130Cas. The Arp2/3 complex, N-WASP, WAVE1, cortactin, and Cdc42 regulate the secondary protrusions branching off from the primary protrusions. In 3D matrices, fibrosarcoma cells as well as migrating breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer cells do not display lamellipodial structures. This study characterizes the unique topology of protrusions made by cells in a 3D matrix and show that these dendritic protrusions play a critical role in 3D cell motility and matrix deformation. The relative contribution of these proteins to 3D migration is significantly different from their role in 2D migration.

  8. Comparison between 3-dimensional cranial ultrasonography and conventional 2-dimensional cranial ultrasonography in neonates: impact on reinterpretation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu Jin; Choi, Young Hun; Cho, Hyun Hae; Lee, So Mi; Park, Ji Eun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In-One

    2017-05-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate impact of 3-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (3DUS) on reinterpretation of cranial ultrasonography images in neonates in comparison with 2-dimensional cranial ultrasonography (2DUS). We retrospectively enrolled 50 consecutive young infants who simultaneously underwent both 2DUS and 3DUS scanning from February to March 2015. Two pediatric radiologists independently reviewed both scans for overall image quality on a 5-point scale. Five features were evaluated in both scans: the presence of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), ventriculomegaly (VM), abnormality of periventricular echogenicity (PVE), and focal parenchymal lesions (FL). The concordance rate between the two scanning modes was calculated. The confidence level for each finding on a 3-point scale and the scanning time were compared between the two scanning modes. Interobserver agreement was evaluated using kappa statistics. Both scans demonstrated similar overall image quality in terms of reinterpretation (range of mean values, 3.81 to 4.02). GMH, IVH, VM, and FL showed perfect concordance, while PVE showed a concordance rate of 91.4% between the two modes by both reviewers. 3DUS was associated with a higher diagnostic confidence in the evaluation of GMH, IVH, and FL than 2DUS (P<0.05) for both reviewers. For PVE, 3DUS received a significantly higher confidence score than 2DUS from one of the reviewers. The mean scanning time for 2DUS and 3DUS was 92.75 seconds and 36 seconds, respectively. Interobserver agreement for qualitative scoring was moderate to substantial. In reinterpretation, 3DUS showed very high concordance with 2DUS and a similar image quality. 3DUS also increased diagnostic confidence for several image findings and significantly decreased scan time.

  9. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kwon, Sojung; Nam, Seo Hee; Jung, Jae Woo; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Ji Eon; Cheong, Jin-Gyu; Cho, Chang Yun; Kim, Somi; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Tai Young; Jung, Min-Kyo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jung Weon

    2017-04-01

    Membrane proteins sense extracellular cues and transduce intracellular signaling to coordinate directionality and speed during cellular migration. They are often localized to specific regions, as with lipid rafts or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains; however, the dynamic interactions of tetraspanins with diverse receptors within tetraspanin-enriched microdomains on cellular surfaces remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated effects of tetraspan(in) TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5)-enriched microdomains (T5ERMs) on the directionality of cell migration. Physical association of TM4SF5 with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin α5 was visualized by live fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and higher-resolution microscopy at the leading edge of migratory cells, presumably forming TM4SF5-enriched microdomains. Whereas TM4SF5 and EGFR colocalized at the migrating leading region more than at the rear, TM4SF5 and integrin α5 colocalized evenly throughout cells. Cholesterol depletion and disruption in TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, including N-glycosylation and palmitoylation, altered TM4SF5 interactions and cellular localization, which led to less cellular migration speed and directionality in 2- or 3-dimensional conditions. TM4SF5 controlled directional cell migration and invasion, and importantly, these TM4SF5 functions were dependent on cholesterol, TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, and EGFR and integrin α5 activity. Altogether, we showed that TM4SF5 dynamically interacted with EGFR and integrin α5 in migratory cells to control directionality and invasion.-Kim, H.-J., Kwon, S., Nam, S. H., Jung, J. W., Kang, M., Ryu, J., Kim, J. E., Cheong, J.-G., Cho, C. Y., Kim, S., Song, D.-G., Kim, Y.-N., Kim, T. Y., Jung, M.-K., Lee, K.-M., Pack, C.-G., Lee, J. W. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments. © FASEB.

  10. Automated Patient Identification and Localization Error Detection Using 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Registration of Kilovoltage X-Ray Setup Images

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, James M. Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether kilovoltage x-ray projection radiation therapy setup images could be used to perform patient identification and detect gross errors in patient setup using a computer algorithm. Methods and Materials: Three patient cohorts treated using a commercially available image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system that uses 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional (2D-3D) image registration were retrospectively analyzed: a group of 100 cranial radiation therapy patients, a group of 100 prostate cancer patients, and a group of 83 patients treated for spinal lesions. The setup images were acquired using fixed in-room kilovoltage imaging systems. In the prostate and cranial patient groups, localizations using image registration were performed between computed tomography (CT) simulation images from radiation therapy planning and setup x-ray images corresponding both to the same patient and to different patients. For the spinal patients, localizations were performed to the correct vertebral body, and to an adjacent vertebral body, using planning CTs and setup x-ray images from the same patient. An image similarity measure used by the IGRT system image registration algorithm was extracted from the IGRT system log files and evaluated as a discriminant for error detection. Results: A threshold value of the similarity measure could be chosen to separate correct and incorrect patient matches and correct and incorrect vertebral body localizations with excellent accuracy for these patient cohorts. A 10-fold cross-validation using linear discriminant analysis yielded misclassification probabilities of 0.000, 0.0045, and 0.014 for the cranial, prostate, and spinal cases, respectively. Conclusions: An automated measure of the image similarity between x-ray setup images and corresponding planning CT images could be used to perform automated patient identification and detection of localization errors in radiation therapy treatments.

  11. Is a 3-Dimensional Stress Balance Ice-Stream Model Really Better Than a 2-Dimensional "Reduced Order" Ice-Stream Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O.; Macayeal, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    With growing observational awareness of numerous ice-stream processes occurring on short time and spatial scales, e.g., sub-ice-stream lake volume changes and grounding-line sediment wedge build-up, the question of how well models based on "reduced-order" dynamics can simulate ice-stream behavior becomes paramount. Reduced-order models of ice-streams are typically 2-dimensional, and capture only the largest-magnitude terms in the stress tensor (with other terms being constrained by various assumptions). In predicting the overall magnitude and large-scale pattern of ice-stream flow, the reduced-order models appear to be adequate. Efforts underway in the Glaciological Community to create 3-dimensional models of the "full" ice-stream stress balance, which relax the assumptions associated with reduced-order models, suggest that a cost/benefit analysis should be done to determine how likely these efforts will be fruitful. To assess the overall benefits of full 3-dimensional models in relation to the simpler 2-dimensional counterparts, we present model solutions of the full Stokes equations for ice-stream flow over a variety of basal perturbations (e.g., a sticky spot, a subglacial lake, a grounding line). We also present the solutions derived from reduced 2-dimensional models, and compare the two solutions to estimate effects of simplifications and neglected terms, as well as to advise on what circumstances 3-dimensional models are preferable to 2-dimensional models.

  12. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  13. Customized Polymethylmethacrylate Cranioplasty Implants Using 3-Dimensional Printed Polylactic Acid Molds: Technical Note with 2 Illustrative Cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hay, Joe; Smayra, Tarek; Moussa, Ronald

    2017-09-01

    Prefabricated customized cranioplasty implants are anatomically more accurate than manually shaped acrylic implants but remain costly. The authors describe a new cost-effective technique of producing customized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cranioplasty implants with the use of prefabricated 3-dimensional (3D) printed molds. The first patient had a left frontal cranial defect after a craniotomy for a glial tumor. A 3D image of his skull was obtained from axial 0.6-mm computed tomography (CT) scan images. The image of the implant was generated by a digital subtraction mirror-imaging process using the normal side of his cranium as a model. The second patient had a bifrontal defect after the resection of an infected customized polyetheretherketone implant. A 3D image of the infected implant was directly obtained from an axial 0.6-mm CT scan before discarding it. The images were then used to produce for each patient a mold of the external surface of the cranium using a low-cost polylactic acid 3D printer. Intraoperatively, each mold was put in a sterile bag and then used to cast a customized PMMA implant subsequently trimmed before fixation. Both patients had excellent cosmetic results and underwent postoperative CT scans that showed excellent restoration of the symmetrical contours of the cranium. No neurologic or infectious complications occurred over a 6-month follow-up for either patient. Making customized PMMA cranioplasty implants via 3D printed polylactic acid molds is a cost-effective technique for delayed reconstruction of various cranial defects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  15. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  16. Protein Expression Differences of 2-Dimensional and Progressive 3-Dimensional Cell Cultures of Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer Cell Line H460.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maddaly; Mohan, Divya K; Sahu, Bellona

    2016-11-18

    Non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) constitutes about 75-80% of lung cancers. The challenge to tackle cancers is in early diagnosis and arriving at safer therapeutic options. In vitro studies using cancer cell lines continue to contribute significantly in understanding cancers. Cell culture methods have evolved and the recent developments in 3 dimensional (3D) cell cultures are inducing greater resemblance of the in vitro cultured cells with in vivo conditions. In this study, we established 3D aggregates of H460 cell line on agarose hydrogels and studied the protein expression differences among cells grown as monolayers (2D) and the progressively developing 3D aggregates from days 2 to 10. Analysis included matching of those proteins expressed by the developing aggregates and the available literature on progressing tumors in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The use of TOUGH2 for the LBL/USGS 3-dimensional site-scale model of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.; Chen, G.; Haukwa, C.

    1995-03-01

    The three-dimensional site-scale numerical model of the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is under continuous development and calibration through a collaborative effort between Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The site-scale model covers an area of about 30 km{sup 2} and is bounded by major fault zones to the west (Solitario Canyon Fault), east (Bow Ridge Fault) and perhaps to the north by an unconfirmed fault (Yucca Wash Fault). The model consists of about 5,000 grid blocks (elements) with nearly 20,000 connections between them the grid was designed to represent the most prevalent geological and hydro-geological features of the site including major faults, and layering and bedding of the hydro-geological units. Further information about the three-dimensional site-scale model is given by Wittwer et al. and Bodvarsson et al.

  18. 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic large-scale de novo patterning by mammalian cells through phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Cachat, Elise; Liu, Weijia; Martin, Kim C.; Yuan, Xiaofei; Yin, Huabing; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides an opportunity for the construction and exploration of alternative solutions to biological problems - solutions different from those chosen by natural life. To this end, synthetic biologists have built new sensory systems, cellular memories, and alternative genetic codes. There is a growing interest in applying synthetic approaches to multicellular systems, especially in relation to multicellular self-organization. Here we describe a synthetic biological system that confers large-scale de novo patterning activity on 2-D and 3-D populations of mammalian cells. Instead of using the reaction-diffusion mechanisms common in real embryos, our system uses cadherin-mediated phase separation, inspired by the known phenomenon of cadherin-based sorting. An engineered self-organizing, large-scale patterning system requiring no prior spatial cue may be a significant step towards the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues. PMID:26857385

  19. 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic large-scale de novo patterning by mammalian cells through phase separation.

    PubMed

    Cachat, Elise; Liu, Weijia; Martin, Kim C; Yuan, Xiaofei; Yin, Huabing; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A

    2016-02-09

    Synthetic biology provides an opportunity for the construction and exploration of alternative solutions to biological problems - solutions different from those chosen by natural life. To this end, synthetic biologists have built new sensory systems, cellular memories, and alternative genetic codes. There is a growing interest in applying synthetic approaches to multicellular systems, especially in relation to multicellular self-organization. Here we describe a synthetic biological system that confers large-scale de novo patterning activity on 2-D and 3-D populations of mammalian cells. Instead of using the reaction-diffusion mechanisms common in real embryos, our system uses cadherin-mediated phase separation, inspired by the known phenomenon of cadherin-based sorting. An engineered self-organizing, large-scale patterning system requiring no prior spatial cue may be a significant step towards the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues.

  20. Graphene-based nanocomposites for structural and functional applications: using 2-dimensional materials in a 3-dimensional world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samorì, P.; Kinloch, I. A.; Feng, X.; Palermo, V.

    2015-09-01

    Graphene-based composites are currently the only application of graphene already commercialized on a large scale. However, the performance of such products is not comparable to that of pristine graphene sheets, measured at the nanoscale, which easily outperform well-established materials such as steel, silicon, or copper. A key reason for this difference in properties is that it is not yet fully understood how two-dimensional (2D) -based composites work at the nanoscale level and, more importantly, what is the ultimate performance (mechanical, electrical, etc.) that can be achieved when they are included in a bulk material. In the first year of the ramp-up phase of the Flagship, the ‘Nanocomposites’ work package has studied how to improve the processing, interaction, and performance of graphene and related materials (GRMs) in three-dimensional (3D) composites. This article offers a quick overview of some of the main results obtained within this rapidly evolving field.

  1. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  2. Clinical and 3-Dimensional Analyses of Nasal Forms After Secondary Correction of Cleft Lip-Nose Deformities Using Extended Spreader Cartilage Graft With a Cross-Lap Joint Technique.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Norifumi; Okawachi, Takako; Matsumoto, Kouzou; Kimura, Namiko; Kibe, Toshiro; Fuchigami, Takao

    2016-07-01

    A surgical strategy for definitive cleft lip-nasal correction that stably provides symmetric and natural nasal forms has not been established to date. The purpose of this study was to describe our surgical techniques and 3-dimensional (3D) assessment results after the definitive correction of cleft lip-nose deformity using an extended spreader cartilage graft with a cross-lap joint technique to achieve a rigid strut for lower lateral cartilage repositioning to obtain a desirable nasal tip projection. This study enrolled 14 patients with unilateral cleft lip (UCL) with or without cleft palate and 8 patients with bilateral cleft lip (BCL) with or without cleft palate who underwent definitive nose correction and were followed for 1 to 3 years. All patients were treated by open rhinoplasty, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilage, use of an extended spreader cartilage graft with a cross-lap joint technique for nasal tip support, and medial-upward advancement of nasolabial components with vestibular expansion by a free mucosal graft. For the BCL nose, pedicle flaps from rim skin were used for columella lengthening. Preoperative and postoperative nasal forms were 3-dimensionally analyzed by use of 3D images serially obtained in 12 patients. The postoperative nasal forms were satisfactorily improved in all patients, without any serious postoperative complications. Preoperative and postoperative 3D analyses showed a significantly projected nasal tip in the postoperative noses of patients in both the UCL group and the BCL group (P < .01 and P < .05, respectively) and a sharper nasal tip angle in the BCL group (P < .05). Lateral deviation of the nasal tip was significantly improved in the center of the face in patients in the UCL group (P < .01). The results of this study suggest that the extended spreader cartilage graft using the cross-lap joint graft technique is useful to provide a desirable projection of the nasal tip in the center of the face on definitive

  3. Application of Curved MPR Algorithm to High Resolution 3 Dimensional T2 Weighted CISS Images for Virtual Uncoiling of Membranous Cochlea as an Aid for Cochlear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Y

    2017-01-01

    Introduction With the use of various surgical techniques, types of implants, the preoperative assessment of cochlear dimensions is becoming increasingly relevant prior to cochlear implantation. High resolution CISS protocol MRI gives a better assessment of membranous cochlea, cochlear nerve, and membranous labyrinth. Curved Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR) algorithm provides better images that can be used for measuring dimensions of membranous cochlea. Aim To ascertain the value of curved multiplanar reconstruction algorithm in high resolution 3-Dimensional T2 Weighted Gradient Echo Constructive Interference Steady State (3D T2W GRE CISS) imaging for accurate morphometry of membranous cochlea. Materials and Methods Fourteen children underwent MRI for inner ear assessment. High resolution 3D T2W GRE CISS sequence was used to obtain images of cochlea. Curved MPR reconstruction algorithm was used to virtually uncoil the membranous cochlea on the volume images and cochlear measurements were done. Results Virtually uncoiled images of membranous cochlea of appropriate resolution were obtained from the volume data obtained from the high resolution 3D T2W GRE CISS images, after using curved MPR reconstruction algorithm mean membranous cochlear length in the children was 27.52 mm. Maximum apical turn diameter of membranous cochlea was 1.13 mm, mid turn diameter was 1.38 mm, basal turn diameter was 1.81 mm. Conclusion Curved MPR reconstruction algorithm applied to CISS protocol images facilitates in getting appropriate quality images of membranous cochlea for accurate measurements. PMID:28384958

  4. Leiomyoma Cells in 3-Dimensional Cultures Demonstrate an Attenuated Response to Fasudil, a Rho-Kinase Inhibitor, When Compared to 2-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Minnie; Britten, Joy; Segars, James

    2014-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomata are common benign tumors in women of reproductive age and demonstrate an attenuated response to mechanical signaling that involves Rho and integrins. To further characterize the impairment in Rho signaling, we studied the effect of Rho-kinase inhibitor, fasudil, on extracellular matrix production, in 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of leiomyoma and myometrial cells. Leiomyoma 2D cultures demonstrated a rapid decrease in gene transcripts and protein for fibronectin, procollagen 1A, and versican. In 3D cultures, fibronectin and procollagen 1A proteins demonstrated increased levels at lower concentrations of fasudil, followed by a concentration-dependent decrease. Versican protein increased up to 3-fold, whereas fibromodulin demonstrated a significant decrease of 1.92-fold. Myometrial 2D or 3D cultures demonstrated a decrease in all proteins after 72 hours of treatment. The 3D leiomyoma cultures demonstrated a significant increase in active RhoA, followed by a concentration-dependent decrease at higher concentrations. A concentration-dependent increase in phospho-extracellular regulated signal kinase and proapoptotic protein Bax was observed in 3D leiomyoma cultures. Fasudil relaxed the contraction of the 3D collagen gels caused by myometrium and leiomyoma cell growth. These findings indicate that the altered state of Rho signaling in leiomyoma was more clearly observed in 3D cultures. The results also suggest that fasudil may have clinical applicability for treatment of uterine leiomyoma. PMID:25084783

  5. Correlation between the 2-Dimensional Extent of Orbital Defects and the 3-Dimensional Volume of Herniated Orbital Content in Patients with Isolated Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Moon, Myeong Ho; Lee, Yong Hae; Koh, In Chang; Kim, Kyu Nam; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2-dimensional (2D) extent of orbital defects and the 3-dimensional (3D) volume of herniated orbital content in patients with an orbital wall fracture. Methods This retrospective study was based on the medical records and radiologic data of 60 patients from January 2014 to June 2016 for a unilateral isolated orbital wall fracture. They were classified into 2 groups depending on whether the fracture involved the inferior wall (group I, n=30) or the medial wall (group M, n=30). The 2D area of the orbital defect was calculated using the conventional formula. The 2D extent of the orbital defect and the 3D volume of herniated orbital content were measured with 3D image processing software. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between the 2D and 3D parameters. Results Varying degrees of positive correlation were found between the 2D extent of the orbital defects and the 3D herniated orbital volume in both groups (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.568−0.788; R2=32.2%−62.1%). Conclusions Both the calculated and measured 2D extent of the orbital defects showed a positive correlation with the 3D herniated orbital volume in orbital wall fractures. However, a relatively large volume of herniation (>0.9 cm3) occurred not infrequently despite the presence of a small orbital defect (<1.9 cm2). Therefore, estimating the 3D volume of the herniated content in addition to the 2D orbital defect would be helpful for determining whether surgery is indicated and ensuring adequate surgical outcomes. PMID:28194344

  6. Evaluation of Heart Dose for Left-Sided Breast Cancer Patients Over an 11-Year Period Spanning the Transition From 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Planning.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer S; Chen, Josephine; Weinberg, Vivian K; Fowble, Barbara; Sethi, Rajni A

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated heart dose from left breast radiotherapy with 2-dimensional (2D) versus 3-dimensional (3D) plans. Treatment plans from patients treated with standard fractionation for left breast cancer from 2003 to 2013 were reviewed, with patients grouped into 3 cohorts: 2003 to 2004 ("2D", with computed tomography scans for dose calculation but fields defined using simulation films; n = 29), 2005 to 2006 ("2D-post," after several influential articles on heart dose were published; n = 31), and 2007 to 2013 ("3D"; n = 256). All patients were treated with free-breathing technique. Heart volumes were retrospectively contoured for the earlier 2 cohorts. Mean heart dose (MHD) and percentage of structure receiving at least 25 Gy (V25 Gy) and percentage of structure receiving at least 5 Gy for the whole heart, left ventricle (LV), right ventricle (RV), and both ventricles were recorded and compared among cohorts. MHD was 345 cGy (2D), 213 cGy (2D-post) and 213 cGy (3D). LV V25 Gy was 6.3%, 1.5%, and 1.1%, respectively. Lower doses were seen over time for all indices (analysis of variance, P < .0001). Post hoc tests indicated significantly higher doses for 2D versus 2D-post or 3D cohorts (P ≤ .001) for all parameters except RV V25 Gy (P = .24). Heart doses were higher with 2D versus 3D plans. Cardiac doses and resulting toxicity with modern 3D planning might be lower than those in previous reports. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  8. A 2-year follow-up of changes after bimaxillary surgery in patients with mandibular prognathism: 3-dimensional analysis of pharyngeal airway volume and hyoid bone position.

    PubMed

    Shin, Je-Hwa; Kim, Min-Ah; Park, In-Young; Park, Yang-Ho

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this study were to use 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to evaluate how the upper airway and hyoid bone position changed after orthognathic surgery in patients with skeletal Class III malocclusions and to analyze the relations among upper airway changes, the change in the position of the hyoid bone, and postsurgical stability. CBCT scans were obtained from 15 patients with mandibular prognathism before surgery (T0), 6 months after surgery (T1), 1 year after surgery (T2), and 2 years after surgery (T3). Positional displacement of the hyoid bone was assessed using the coordinates at T0, T1, T2, and T3. In addition, the volume of each patient's pharyngeal airway was measured. Differences in CBCT scans at the established time points were determined by the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to determine the relations among changes in hyoid bone position, airway volume, and skeletal reference points. The hyoid bone moved backward at 6 months after surgery (T0 to T1), and the total volume of the pharyngeal airway was considerably decreased at the same time points. At 1 year after surgery (T1 to T2), although the hyoid moved more posteriorly and the total volume of the pharyngeal airway was decreased, the changes were not major. At 2 years after surgery, the hyoid bone moved anteriorly and the size of the upper pharyngeal airway was increased (T2 to T3). The hyoid bone moved posteriorly and the pharyngeal airway volume was decreased at 6 months after bimaxillary surgery. These measurements had a tendency to recover at 2 years postoperatively. The decrease in pharyngeal airway volume was not correlated with positional changes of the hyoid bone. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Focal Liver Lesions: Real-time 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Compared With 2-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Chieh; Yan, Kun; Lee, San-Kan; Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-06-24

    This study sought to evaluate the application of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) to diagnose focal liver lesions and to compare these results with those from 2-dimensional (2D) contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with focal liver lesions were examined by 2D contrast-enhanced US, 3D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI for lesion characterization, and biopsies and comprehensive clinical diagnoses served as reference standards. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and intermodality agreement were assessed. The number of contrast agent injections and lesions observed per injection were calculated for 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US. The number and display quality of the feeding arteries observed with 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US were assessed. A total of 117 patients with 151 focal liver lesions were enrolled, including 67 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of liver metastasis, and 33 cases of benign liver lesions. No significant differences were found among the modalities. The sensitivity values for 3D contrast-enhanced US, 2D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI were 96%, 95%, and 93%, respectively; the specificity values were 87%, 84%, and 89%; and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.92, 0.90, and 0.92. The intermodality agreement was excellent (κ > 0.77). Fewer contrast agent injections were needed, and more lesions and feeding arteries were more clearly displayed on 3D than 2D contrast-enhanced US (P < .001). Real-time 3D contrast-enhanced US is useful for diagnosing focal liver lesions and for observing feeding arteries with fewer contrast agent injections. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  10. Comparative effectiveness of 3-dimensional vs 2-dimensional and high-definition vs standard-definition neuroendoscopy: a preclinical randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Hani J; Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P; Di Marco, Aimee; Pratt, Philip; Nandi, Dipankar; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-04-01

    Although the potential benefits of 3-dimensional (3-D) vs 2-dimensional (2-D) and high-definition (HD) vs standard-definition (SD) endoscopic visualization have long been recognized in other surgical fields, such endoscopes are generally considered too large and bulky for use within the brain. The recent development of 3-D and HD neuroendoscopes may therefore herald improved depth perception, better appreciation of anatomic details, and improved overall surgical performance. To compare simultaneously the effectiveness of 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. Ten novice neuroendoscopic surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was adopted to compare 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. The primary outcomes were time to task completion and accuracy. The secondary outcomes were perceived task workload using the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Task Load Index and subjective impressions of the endoscopes using a 5-point Likert scale. Time to task completion was significantly shorter when using the 3-D vs the 2-D neuroendoscopy (P = .001), and accuracy of probe placement was significantly greater when using the HD vs the SD neuroendoscopy (P = .009). We found that 3-D endoscopy significantly improved perceived depth perception (P < .001), HD endoscopy significantly improved perceived image quality (P < .001), and both improved participants' overall impression (P < .001). Three-dimensional neuroendoscopy and HD neuroendoscopy have differing but complementary effects on surgical performance, suggesting that neither alone can completely compensate for the lack of the other. There is therefore strong preclinical evidence to justify 3-D HD neuroendoscopy.

  11. Comparative Effectiveness of 3-Dimensional vs 2-Dimensional and High-Definition vs Standard-Definition Neuroendoscopy: A Preclinical Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Hughes-Hallett, Archie; Cundy, Thomas P.; Di Marco, Aimee; Pratt, Philip; Nandi, Dipankar; Darzi, Ara; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although the potential benefits of 3-dimensional (3-D) vs 2-dimensional (2-D) and high-definition (HD) vs standard-definition (SD) endoscopic visualization have long been recognized in other surgical fields, such endoscopes are generally considered too large and bulky for use within the brain. The recent development of 3-D and HD neuroendoscopes may therefore herald improved depth perception, better appreciation of anatomic details, and improved overall surgical performance. OBJECTIVE: To compare simultaneously the effectiveness of 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. METHODS: Ten novice neuroendoscopic surgeons were recruited from a university hospital. A preclinical randomized crossover study design was adopted to compare 3-D vs 2-D and HD vs SD neuroendoscopy. The primary outcomes were time to task completion and accuracy. The secondary outcomes were perceived task workload using the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Task Load Index and subjective impressions of the endoscopes using a 5-point Likert scale. RESULTS: Time to task completion was significantly shorter when using the 3-D vs the 2-D neuroendoscopy (P = .001), and accuracy of probe placement was significantly greater when using the HD vs the SD neuroendoscopy (P = .009). We found that 3-D endoscopy significantly improved perceived depth perception (P < .001), HD endoscopy significantly improved perceived image quality (P < .001), and both improved participants’ overall impression (P < .001). CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional neuroendoscopy and HD neuroendoscopy have differing but complementary effects on surgical performance, suggesting that neither alone can completely compensate for the lack of the other. There is therefore strong preclinical evidence to justify 3-D HD neuroendoscopy. ABBREVIATIONS: HD, high definition SD, standard definition PMID:24220007

  12. Comparison of 2- and 3-Dimensional Sonography for Estimation of Birth Weight and Neonatal Adiposity in the Setting of Suspected Fetal Macrosomia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Kelly S; Stetzer, Bradley; Catalano, Patrick M; Myers, Stephen A

    2016-06-01

    To compare the accuracy of 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) fetal measurements for prediction of birth weight Z score and neonatal adiposity (percent body fat) in the setting of suspected fetal macrosomia. We conducted a prospective observational study of term singleton pregnancies with suspected macrosomia. Patients were enrolled on admission to labor and delivery and underwent sonographic examinations. Within 48 hours of delivery, neonatal anthropometric measurements were obtained. Thirty-four neonates were included in the analysis. Mothers were very obese (mean body mass index ± SD, 39.1 ± 7.8 kg/m(2)); 56.5% were white; and 39.1% had diabetes. Neonates were 38% female and had a mean birth weight of 3940.0 ± 496.8 g, percent body fat of 18.5% ± 4.0%, and Ponderal index of 2.8 ± 0.3 g/cm(3). Mean 2D estimated fetal weight was 3973 ± 443 g; mean 3D estimated fetal weight was 3803 ± 528 g; and mean thigh volume was 102.5 ± 19.6 cm(3). Both 2D and 3D measurements accounted for about half the variance in predicted birth weight (R(2) for 2D = 0.53, 71% within 10% of birth weight; R(2) for 3D = 0.47, 65% within 10% of birth weight). Thigh volume Z score was the prenatal parameter most highly correlated with both birth weight Z score (R(2) = 0.52; r = 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-0.84; P < .001) and percent body fat (R(2) = 0.22; r = 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.17-0.69; P = .04). In our population of fetuses with suspected macrosomia, fractional thigh volume was the best sonographic estimate of neonatal percent body fat and birth weight Z score. Future research on prediction of neonatal weight and adiposity in macrosomic fetuses should include an estimate of fetal soft tissue given the generalized increase in body fat of these fetuses. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. A Comparison of 2- and 3-dimensional Healing Assessment after Endodontic Surgery Using Cone-beam Computed Tomographic Volumes or Periapical Radiographs.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Tom; Sonntag, David; Kohli, Meetu R; Setzer, Frank C

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the assessment of healing after endodontic microsurgery using 2-dimensional (2D) periapical films versus 3-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. The healing of 51 teeth from 44 patients was evaluated using Molven's criteria (2D) and modified PENN 3D criteria. The absolute area (2D) and volume (3D) changes of apical lesions preoperatively and at follow-up were calculated by segmentation using OsiriX software (Pixmeo, Bernex, Switzerland) and ITK-Snap (free software). There was a significant difference between the mean preoperative lesion volumes of 95.34 mm(3) (n = 51, standard deviation [SD] ±196.28 mm(3)) versus 6.48 mm(3) (n = 51, SD ±17.70 mm(3)) at follow-up (P < .05). The mean volume reduction was 83.7%. Preoperatively, mean lesion areas on periapical films were 13.55 mm(2) (n = 51, SD ±18.80 mm(2)) and 1.83 mm(2) (n = 51, SD ±.68 mm(2)) at follow-up (P < .05). According to Molven's criteria, 40 teeth were classified as complete healing, 7 as incomplete healing, and 4 as uncertain healing. Based on the modified PENN 3D criteria, 33 teeth were classified as complete healing, 14 as limited healing, 1 as uncertain healing, and 3 as unsatisfactory healing. The variation in the distribution of the 2D and 3D healing classifications was significantly different (P < .05). Periapical healing statuses incomplete healing or uncertain healing according to Molven's criteria could be clearly classified using 3D criteria. CBCT analysis allowed a more precise evaluation of periapical lesions and healing of endodontic microsurgery than periapical films. Significant differences existed between the 2 methods. Over the observation period, the mean periapical lesion sizes significantly decreased in volume. Given the correct indications, the use of CBCT imaging may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of healing of endodontic surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  14. Quantitative assessment of fatty infiltration and muscle volume of the rotator cuff muscles using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Noboru; Oguro, Sota; Okuda, Shigeo; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Nagura, Takeo

    2017-10-01

    In patients with rotator cuff tears, muscle degeneration is known to be a predictor of irreparable tears and poor outcomes after surgical repair. Fatty infiltration and volume of the whole muscles constituting the rotator cuff were quantitatively assessed using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. Ten shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, 10 shoulders with an isolated supraspinatus tear, and 10 shoulders with a massive tear involving supraspinatus and infraspinatus were compared with 10 control shoulders after matching age and sex. With segmentation of muscle boundaries, the fat fraction value and the volume of the whole rotator cuff muscles were computed. After reliabilities were determined, differences in fat fraction, muscle volume, and fat-free muscle volume were evaluated. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were regarded as excellent for fat fraction and muscle volume. Tendon rupture adversely increased the fat fraction value of the respective rotator cuff muscle (P < .002). In the massive tear group, muscle volume was significantly decreased in the infraspinatus (P = .035) and increased in the teres minor (P = .039). With subtraction of fat volume, a significant decrease of fat-free volume of the supraspinatus muscle became apparent with a massive tear (P = .003). Three-dimensional measurement could evaluate fatty infiltration and muscular volume with excellent reliabilities. The present study showed that chronic rupture of the tendon adversely increases the fat fraction of the respective muscle and indicates that the residual capacity of the rotator cuff muscles might be overestimated in patients with severe fatty infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of 2 noninvasive, markerless reconstruction techniques in biplane high-speed fluoroscopy for 3-dimensional research of bovine distal limb kinematics.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M; Reich, E; Grund, S; Mülling, C K W; Geiger, S M

    2017-10-01

    Lameness severely impairs cattle's locomotion, and it is among the most important threats to animal welfare, performance, and productivity in the modern dairy industry. However, insight into the pathological alterations of claw biomechanics leading to lameness and an understanding of the biomechanics behind development of claw lesions causing lameness are limited. Biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography is a new approach for the analysis of skeletal motion. Biplane high-speed videos in combination with bone scans can be used for 3-dimensional (3D) animations of bones moving in 3D space. The gold standard, marker-based animation, requires implantation of radio-opaque markers into bones, which impairs the practicability for lameness research in live animals. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the comparative accuracy of 2 noninvasive, markerless animation techniques (semi-automatic and manual) in 3D animation of the bovine distal limb. Tantalum markers were implanted into each of the distal, middle, and proximal phalanges of 5 isolated bovine distal forelimbs, and biplane high-speed x-ray videos of each limb were recorded to capture the simulation of one step. The limbs were scanned by computed tomography to create bone models of the 6 digital bones, and 3D animation of the bones' movements were subsequently reconstructed using the marker-based, the semi-automatic, and the manual animation techniques. Manual animation translational bias and precision varied from 0.63 ± 0.26 mm to 0.80 ± 0.49 mm, and rotational bias and precision ranged from 2.41 ± 1.43° to 6.75 ± 4.67°. Semi-automatic translational values for bias and precision ranged from 1.26 ± 1.28 mm to 2.75 ± 2.17 mm, and rotational values varied from 3.81 ± 2.78° to 11.7 ± 8.11°. In our study, we demonstrated the successful application of biplane high-speed fluoroscopic kinematography to gait analysis of bovine distal limb. Using the manual animation technique, kinematics

  16. The usefulness of 3-dimensional endoscope systems in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Yuichi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    The image quality and performance of 3-dimensional video image systems has improved along with improvements in technology. However, objective evaluation on the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems is insufficient. Therefore, we decided to investigate the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems using the objective endoscopic surgery technology evaluating apparatus that we have developed, the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD). The participants were 28 student volunteers enrolled in Hiroshima University (17 men and 11 women, age: median 22.5, range 20-25), with no one having experienced endoscopic surgery training. Testing was carried out by dividing the subjects into two groups to initially carry out HUESAD with 2-dimensional video imaging (N = 14) and with 3-dimensional video imaging (N = 14). Questionnaires were carried out along with the investigation regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. The task was carried out for approximately 15 min regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. Lastly, the Mental Rotation Test, which is a standard space perception ability test, was used to evaluate the space perception ability. No difference was observed in the nauseous and uncomfortable feeling of practitioners between the two groups. Regarding smoothness, no difference was observed between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging (p = 0.8665). Deviation (space perception ability) and approaching time (accuracy) were significantly lower with 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging. Moreover, the approaching time (accuracy) significantly improved in 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging in the group with low space perception ability (p = 0.0085). Objective evaluation using HUESAD and subjective evaluation by questionnaire revealed that endoscopic surgery techniques significantly improved in 3-dimensional video

  17. Skills Comparison in Pediatric Residents Using a 2-Dimensional versus a 3-Dimensional High-Definition Camera in a Pediatric Laparoscopic Simulator.

    PubMed

    Guanà, Riccardo; Ferrero, Luisa; Garofalo, Salvatore; Cerrina, Alessia; Cussa, Davide; Arezzo, Alberto; Schleef, Jurgen

    Advantages in 3-dimensional (3D) laparoscopy are mostly described in adults for better depth perception, precise visualization of anatomical structures, as well as for complex surgical maneuvers in small spaces. Using Visionsense III stereoscopic endoscopy system (Neuromed Spa), we performed a comparative study between surgical skills achievements using 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D laparoscopic equipment in a pediatric laparoscopic surgery simulator model. Three skills were evaluated both in 2D and 3D modalities. Pediatric residents (n = 20) without any previous laparoscopic experience were randomly divided in 2 groups and evaluated doing the established tasks in a laparoscopic simulator validated for pediatric surgery. Switching the type of vision from 2D to 3D or vice versa, we evaluated bimanual dexterity, efficiency, and efficacy. Three tasks were proposed-task 1: transfer of objects (6 pegs transferred one-by-one on a pegboard); task 2: pattern cutting (cutting a paper, following a circular dotted line); and task 3: threading eyelet (transfer, twisting and passing through a eyelet-shaped support, a specific 3D object). Performance was measured using a scoring system rewarding precision and speed. Any physical discomfort related to the 3D vision was recorded. Of the 20 participants included, 10 began the skills in the 2D modality and then performed them in 3D, and the other 10 began in 3D and ended in 2D. Overall task 1 performance (time and number of errors) was significantly better using stereoscopic compared with monoscopic visualization. Both groups experienced a 35.6% decrease in the time needed to complete the peg transfer using 3D instead of 2D. In task 2, the 3D performance was superior (less time to correctly cut the paper along the dotted line), but did not reach statistical significance. In task 3, the residents experienced with 3D a 31.7% decrease in the time necessary to complete the passage of the object trough the eyelet. Most participants (65

  18. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  19. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  20. Chaotic Advection in a Bounded 3-Dimensional Potential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Smith, Lachlan; Lester, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    3-dimensional potential, or Darcy flows, are central to understanding and designing laminar transport in porous media; however, chaotic advection in 3-dimensional, volume-preserving flows is still not well understood. We show results of advecting passive scalars in a transient 3-dimensional potential flow that consists of a steady dipole flow and periodic reorientation. Even for the most symmetric reorientation protocol, neither of the two invarients of the motion are conserved; however, one invarient is closely shadowed by a surface of revolution constructed from particle paths of the steady flow, creating in practice an adiabatic surface. A consequence is that chaotic regions cover 3-dimensional space, though tubular regular regions are still transport barriers. This appears to be a new mechanism generating 3-dimensional chaotic orbits. These results contast with the experimental and theoretical results for chaotic scalar transport in 2-dimensional Darcy flows. Wiggins, J. Fluid Mech. 654 (2010).

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the body trunk using a single-slab, 3-dimensional, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence with high sampling efficiency (SPACE) for high spatial resolution imaging: initial clinical experiences.

    PubMed

    Lichy, Matthias Philipp; Wietek, Beate M; Mugler, John P; Horger, Wilhelm; Menzel, Marion Irene; Anastasiadis, Aristotelis; Siegmann, Katja; Niemeyer, Thomas; Königsrainer, Arnulf; Kiefer, Berthold; Schick, Fritz; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter

    2005-12-01

    The authors conducted a clinical evaluation of single-slab, 3-dimensional, T2-weighted turbo-spin-echo (TSE) with high sampling efficiency (SPACE) for high isotropic body imaging with large field-of-view (FoV). Fifty patients were examined in clinical routine with SPACE (regions of interest: pelvis n=30, lower spine n=12, upper spine n=6, extremities n=4) at 1.5 T. For achieving a high sampling efficiency, parallel imaging, high turbofactor, and magnetization restore pulses were used. In contrast to a conventional TSE imaging technique with constant flip angle refocusing, the refocusing pulse train of the SPACE sequence consists of variable flip angle radiofrequency pulses along the echo train. Signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio of SPACE images were of sufficient diagnostic value. The possibility of image reconstruction in multiple planes was of clinical relevance in all cases and simplified data analysis. The achievement of 3-dimensional, T2-weighted TSE magnetic resonance imaging with isotropic and high spatial resolution and interactive 3-dimensional visualization essentially improve the diagnostic potential of magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  3. Labial morphology: a 3-dimensional anthropometric study.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Virgilio F; Rosati, Riccardo; Peretta, Redento; Dellavia, Claudia; Sforza, Chiarella

    2009-09-01

    To develop a noninvasive 3-dimensional method to evaluate labial morphology and to assess gender-related differences in healthy young adults. Dental and lip impressions of 11 men and 10 women aged 21 to 34 years, with sound, full, permanent dentition were obtained. The models were digitized and 3-dimensional virtual reproductions obtained. The labial thickness, vermilion area, and volume of the upper and lower lips were measured from the digital reconstructions. The male and female data were compared using Student's t test. The mean lip thickness was significantly larger (P = .02) in men (14.3 mm) than in women (12.3 mm). The lower lip was thicker than the upper lip. The vermilion width was larger in men (75 mm) than in women (70 mm), and no differences were found for vermilion height (10 mm). In the upper lip, the height/width ratio was significantly larger in women (14.1%) than in men (12.3%). The vermilion surface area was slightly larger in men than in women (upper lip area: women, 467 mm(2); men, 501 mm(2); lower lip area: women, 491 mm(2); men, 569 mm(2)). The labial volume was significantly larger in men (upper lip, 2,390 mm(3); lower lip, 2,902 mm(3)) than in women (upper lip, 1,743 mm(3); lower lip, 1,764 mm(3); P = .021). The upper/lower lip area and volume ratios were similar in the 2 genders. Overall, men had larger lips than women. The inferior lip height/width ratio was similar in both genders, and men had a relatively thinner upper lip than women.

  4. Teleportation of a 3-dimensional GHZ State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Wang, Huai-Sheng; Li, Peng-Fei; Song, He-Shan

    2012-05-01

    The process of teleportation of a completely unknown 3-dimensional GHZ state is considered. Three maximally entangled 3-dimensional Bell states function as quantum channel in the scheme. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional GHZ state.

  5. 3-Dimensional Response of Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Composites 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S. R. Soni, S. Chandrashekara, G. P . Tandon, U. Santhosh, T. Isiao 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPRT...any layer, these are U, V, W, 11, V , X, *, P , ,p2, s, , s 2 , t, , t2 where the first six refer to the weighted displacement functions and the three...0, U, V, H, al, , P , ,S and t1 . Additionally there were three extra variables p2N, s2N and t2 N in layer N (at the free surface of the laminate

  6. Airway growth and development: a computerized 3-dimensional analysis.

    PubMed

    Schendel, Stephen A; Jacobson, Richard; Khalessi, Sadri

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the changes in the normal upper airway during growth and development using 3-dimensional computer analysis from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data to provide a normative reference. The airway size and respiratory mode are known to have a relationship to facial morphology and the development of a malocclusion. The use of CBCT, 3-dimensional imaging, and automated computer analysis in treatment planning allows the upper airway to be precisely evaluated. In the present study, we evaluated the growth of the airway using 3-dimensional analysis and CBCT data from age 6 through old age, in 1300 normal individuals. The airway size and length increase until age 20 at which time a variable period of stability occurs. Next, the airway at first decreases slowly in size and then, after age 40, more rapidly. Normative data are provided in the present study for age groups from 6 to 60 years in relation to the airway total volume, smallest cross-sectional area and vertical length of the airway. This 3-dimensional data of the upper airway will provide a normative reference as an aid in the early understanding of respiration and dentofacial anatomy, which will help in early treatment planning. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  8. A 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Probe Visuospatial Trainer.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Ryan T; Dove, Jesse C; Ratzlaff, Robert A; Diaz-Gomez, Jose L; Cox, Daniel J; Simon, Leslie V

    2017-09-04

    Training adult learners to use ultrasound in clinical practice relies on the ability of the learner to apply visuospatial concepts to the anatomy of the human body. We describe a visuospatial trainer that replicates the housing of an ultrasound transducer, through which a linear laser projects light in the same plane and orientation as the ultrasonic sound waves. We use this trainer in combination with a porcine heart dissection laboratory to teach bedside cardiac ultrasound and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Off-the-shelf components, including an on/off switch, a laser, and 2 ampere batteries are connected in series and placed inside the 3-dimensional (3D)-printed housing. The trainer's laser emission projects a red line that visually represents the ultrasound's field. Learners project the laser against a porcine or human heart in the orientation of the TTE window they wish to obtain and then dissect the heart in that plane, allowing for visualization of how grayscale images are obtained from 3D structures. Previous research has demonstrated that visuospatial aptitude is correlated with ultrasound procedural performance. We present this trainer and educational method as a specific training intervention that could enhance the visuospatial ability of the ultrasound learner. This visuospatial trainer and educational method present a novel process for enhancing learner understanding of 2-dimensional ultrasound images as they relate to 3D structures. Having a clear understanding of how images are generated in cross section may translate into more proficient adaptation of cardiac ultrasound and TTE.

  9. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  10. Effect of hypoxia on the proliferation of porcine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells in 2- and 3-dimensional culture.

    PubMed

    Burian, Egon; Probst, Florian; Palla, Benjamin; Riedel, Christina; Saller, Maximilian Michael; Cornelsen, Matthias; König, Florian; Schieker, Matthias; Otto, Sven

    2017-03-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) currently represent a promising tool for the regeneration of large bony defects. Therefore, it is pivotal to find the best cell source within the body and the best conditions for in vitro cellular expansion. This study compared cellular response of MSCs and ASCs from a porcine animal in normoxic (21% O2) and hypoxic (2% O2) cell culture conditions via 2D and 3D experimental settings. The effect of constant exposure to hypoxia on primary pig stem cells was evaluated by two methods. First, a cumulative population doublings (cumPD) over a period of 40 days, a metabolic activity assay in both 2D and 3D beta-TCP-PHB scaffolds, followed by analysis of osteogenic differentiation potential in cell monolayers. Our results displayed enhanced cell culture proliferation in 2% O2 for both MSCs and ASCs, with impaired osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. The impact of constant hypoxia on porcine MSCs and ASCs exhibited a statistically significant decrease in osteogenic differentiation under hypoxic conditions with the MSCs. Our data suggest that MSCs and ASCs expanded in hypoxic culture conditions, might be more suitable for use in the clinical setting where large cell numbers are required. When differentiated in normoxic conditions, MSCs showed the highest osteogenic differentiation potential and might be the best choice of cells with consideration to bone repair. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Young children’s ability to use 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional symbols to show placements of body touches and hidden objects

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Nicole; London, Kamala; Bruck, Maggie

    2015-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated 3- to 5-year-old children’s ability to use dolls and human figure drawings as symbols to map body touches. In Experiment 1 stickers were placed on different locations of children’s bodies, and they were asked to indicate the location of the sticker using three different symbols: a doll, a human figure drawing, and the adult researcher. Performance on the tasks increased with age, but many 5-year-olds did not attain perfect performance. Surprisingly, younger children made more errors on the 2D human figure drawing task compared to the 3D doll and adult tasks. In Experiment 2, we compared children’s ability to use 3D and 2D symbols to indicate body touch as well as to guide their search for a hidden object. We replicated the findings of Experiment 1 for the body touch task: for younger children, 3D symbols were easier to use than 2D symbols. However, the reverse pattern was found for the object locations task with children showing superior performance using 2D drawings over 3D models. Though children showed developmental improvements in using dolls and drawings to show where they were touched, less than two-thirds of the 5-year-olds performed perfectly on the touch tasks. Developmental as well as forensic implications of these results are discussed. PMID:25781003

  12. Wind-tunnel tests on a 3-dimensional fixed-geometry scramjet inlet at M = 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. N.; Trexler, C. A.; Souders, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a baseline scramjet inlet model having fixed geometry and swept leading edges at M = 2.30, 2.96, 3.95, and 4.60 in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The unit Reynolds number of the tests was held constant at 6.56 million per meter (2 million per foot). The objectives of the tests were to establish inlet performance and starting characteristics in the lower Mach number range of operation (less than M = 5). Surface pressures obtained on the inlet components are presented, along with the results of the internal flow surveys made at the throat and capture stations of the inlet. Contour plots of the inlet-flow-field parameters such as Mach numbers, pressure recovery, flow capture, local static and total pressure ratios at the survey stations are shown for the test Mach numbers.

  13. Comparison between muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on the 3-dimensional magnetic ordering of La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4-y/

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Y.J.; Kossler, W.J.; Kempton, J.R.; Yu, X.H.; Schone, H.E.; Opie, D.; Stronach, C.E.; Brewer, J.H.; Kiefl, R.F.; Kreitzman, S.R.; Luke, G.M.; Riseman, T.; Williams, D.L.; Ansaldo, E.J.; Endoh, Y.; Kudo, E.; Yamada, K.; Johnston, D.C.; Alvarez, M.; Goshorn, D.P.; Hidaka, Y.; Oda, M; Enomoto, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Murakami, T.

    1988-01-01

    Muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on powder and single-crystal specimens of La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4-v/ are compared. The apparent difference between the muon and neutron results for the ordered moment in the antiferromagnetic state is interpreted as the signature of increasingly short-ranged spatial spin correlations with increasing oxygen content.

  14. Comparison between muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on the 3-dimensional magnetic ordering of La2CuO(4-y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Kempton, J. R.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Opie, D.; Stronach, C. E.; Brewer, J. H.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on powder and single-crystal specimens of La2CuO(4-y) are compared. The apparent difference between the muon and neutron results for the ordered moment in the antiferromagnetic state is interpreted as the signature of increasingly short-ranged spatial spin correlations with increasing oxygen content.

  15. Comparison between muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on the 3-dimensional magnetic ordering of La2CuO(4-y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Kempton, J. R.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Opie, D.; Stronach, C. E.; Brewer, J. H.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on powder and single-crystal specimens of La2CuO(4-y) are compared. The apparent difference between the muon and neutron results for the ordered moment in the antiferromagnetic state is interpreted as the signature of increasingly short-ranged spatial spin correlations with increasing oxygen content.

  16. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  17. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  18. 1-Dimensional AgVO3 nanowires hybrid with 2-dimensional graphene nanosheets to create 3-dimensional composite aerogels and their improved electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liying; Xu, Yimeng; Lei, Yong; Liu, Haimei

    2014-04-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous composite aerogels have been synthesized via an innovative in situ hydrothermal method assisted by a freeze-drying process. In this hybrid structure, one-dimensional (1D) AgVO3 nanowires are uniformly dispersed on two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheet surfaces and/or are penetrated through the graphene sheets, forming 3D porous composite aerogels. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the composite aerogels exhibit high discharge capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability.

  19. Inter-observer agreement between 2-dimensional CT versus 3-dimensional I-Space model in the Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Drijkoningen, Tessa; Knoter, Robert; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Beeres, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The I-Space is a radiological imaging system in which Computed Tomography (CT)-scans can be evaluated as a three dimensional hologram. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of virtual reality (I-Space) in diagnosing acute occult scaphoid fractures. Methods: A convenient cohort of 24 patients with a CT-scan from prior studies, without a scaphoid fracture on radiograph, yet high clinical suspicion of a fracture, were included in this study. CT-scans were evaluated in the I-Space by 7 observers of which 3 observers assessed the scans in the I-Space twice. The observers in this study assessed in the I-Space whether the patient had a scaphoid fracture. The kappa value was calculated for inter- and intra-observer agreement. Results: The Kappa value varied from 0.11 to 0.33 for the first assessment. For the three observers who assessed the CT-scans twice; observer 1 improved from a kappa of 0.33 to 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.74, P=0.01), observer 2 from 0.17 to 0.78 (95% CI 0.36-1.0, P<0.001), and observer 3 from 0.11 to 0.24 (95% CI 0.0-0.77, P=0.24). Conclusion: Following our findings the I-Space has a fast learning curve and has a potential place in the diagnostic modalities for suspected scaphoid fractures. PMID:27847847

  20. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  1. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  2. Optimization of 3-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3-dimensional laser scanners.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Yassouridis, Alexander; Zimmermann, Alexander; Brockmann, Gernot; Wöhnl, Antonia; Blaschke, Matthias; Eder, Maximilian; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Rosenberg, Robert; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Biemer, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility.

  3. Variables influencing the accuracy of 2-dimensional and real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for assessment of small volumes, areas, and distances: an in vitro study using static tissue-mimicking phantoms.

    PubMed

    Herberg, Ulrike; Brand, Manuel; Bernhardt, Christine; Trier, Hans Georg; Breuer, Johannes

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity, accuracy, and reproducibility of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography for small distances, areas, and volumes. Real-time 3D echocardiography using matrix technology was performed in small calibrated tissue-mimicking phantoms and compared with 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography. In a systematic variation of variables on data acquisition and analysis including different 3D workstations (manual disk summation versus semiautomatic border detection), the relative contributions of sources of errors were determined. The clinical relevance of the in vitro findings was assessed in 5 neonates and infants. Distance calculation was valid (mean relative error ± SD, -0.15% ± 1.2%). Underestimation of areas and volumes was significant for both 2D and 3D echocardiography (area: 2D, -7.0% ± 2.9%; 3D, -6.0% ± 2.8%; volume: 2D, -13.1% ± 4.5%; 3D, -6.7% ± 2.5%; P < .05). Adjustment of compression and gain on data acquisition (difference of the means: 2D, 11.6%; 3D, 17.9%), gain on postprocessing (3D, 3.4%), and the border detection algorithm on analysis (2D, 4.8%; 3D, 16.6%) had a highly significant effect on volume and area calculations (P < .001). In vivo, compression and gain on acquisition (3D, 19.1%) and the 3D workstation on analysis (3D, 22.2%) had a highly significant impact on left ventricular volumetry (P < .001). Real-time 3D echocardiography is a reliable method for calculation of small distances, areas, and volumes comparable with the size of the neonatal and infant heart. Variables influencing boundary identification during image acquisition and analysis have a significant impact on 2D and 3D area and volume calculations. Standardized protocols are mandatory to avoid these sources of error in both clinical practice and research.

  4. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  5. Evaluation of the Diagnostic Accuracy of Conventional 2-Dimensional and 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography for Assessing Canine Sacral and Pelvic Fractures by Radiologists, Orthopedic Surgeons, and Veterinary Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Stieger-Vanegas, Susanne M; Senthirajah, Sri Kumar Jamie; Nemanic, Sarah; Baltzer, Wendy; Warnock, Jennifer; Hollars, Katelyn; Lee, Scott S; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    To determine, using 3 groups of evaluators of varying experience reading orthopedic CT studies, if 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) provides a more accurate and time efficient method for diagnosis of canine sacral and pelvic fractures, and displacements of the sacroiliac and coxofemoral joints compared with 2-dimensional computed tomography (2D-CT). Retrospective clinical and prospective study. Dogs (n = 23): 12 dogs with traumatic pelvic fractures, 11 canine cadavers with pelvic trauma induced by a lateral impactor. All dogs had a 2D-CT exam of the pelvis and subsequent 3D-CT reconstructions from the 2D-CT images. Both 2D-CT and 3D-CT studies were anonymized and randomly presented to 2 veterinary radiologists, 2 veterinary orthopedic surgeons, and 2 veterinary medical students. Evaluators classified fractures using a confidence scale and recorded the duration of evaluation for each modality and case. 3D-CT was a more time-efficient technique for evaluation of traumatic sacral and pelvic injuries compared with 2D-CT in all evaluator groups irrespective of experience level reading orthopedic CT studies. However, for radiologists and surgeons, 2D-CT was the more accurate technique for evaluating sacral and pelvic fractures. 3D-CT improves sacral and pelvic fracture diagnosis when added to 2D-CT; however, 3D-CT has a reduced accuracy for evaluation of sacral and pelvic fractures if used without concurrent evaluation of 2D-CT images. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles.

    PubMed

    Cevidanes, Lucia H S; Ruellas, Antonio C O; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-05-01

    The aims of this article are to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article's online version for viewing and downloading using the reader's software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader's software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. When submitting manuscripts, authors can now upload 3D models that will allow readers to

  7. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  8. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  9. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  10. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  11. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  12. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  13. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  14. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  15. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  16. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  17. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  18. Distance stereotest using a 3-dimensional monitor for adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongshin; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of a contour-based 3-dimensional (3-D) monitor distance stereotest (distance 3-D stereotest) and to measure the maximum horizontal disparity that can be fused with disparity vergence for determining the largest measurable disparity of true stereopsis. Observational case series. Sixty-four normal adult subjects (age range, 23 to 39 years) were recruited. Contour-based circles (crossed disparity, 5000 to 20 seconds of arc; Microsoft Visual Studio C(++) 6.0; Microsoft, Inc, Seattle, Washington, USA) were generated on a 3-D monitor (46-inch stereoscopic display) using polarization glasses and were presented to subjects with normal binocularity at 3 m. While the position of the stimulus changed among 4 possible locations, the subjects were instructed to press the corresponding position of the stimulus on a keypad. The results with the new distance 3-D stereotest were compared with those from the distance Randot stereotest. The results of the distance 3-D stereotest and the distance Randot stereotests were identical in 64% and within 1 disparity level in 97% of normal adults. Scores obtained with the 2 tests showed a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.324, P = .009). The half-width of the 95% limit of agreement was 0.47 log seconds of arc (1.55 octaves) using the distance 3-D stereotest--similar to or better than that obtained with conventional distance stereotests. The maximum binocular disparity that can be fused with vergence was 1828 ± 794 seconds of arc (range, 4000 to 500). The distance 3-D stereotest showed good concordance with the distance Randot stereotest and relatively good test-retest reliability, supporting the validity of the distance 3-D stereotest. The normative data set obtained from the present study can serve as a useful reference for quantitative assessment of a wide range of binocular sensory abnormalities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  20. 3-dimensional bioprinting for tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Gu, Bon Kang; Choi, Dong Jin; Park, Sang Jun; Kim, Min Sup; Kang, Chang Mo; Kim, Chun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, referred to as additive manufacturing (AM) or rapid prototyping (RP), have acquired reputation over the past few years for art, architectural modeling, lightweight machines, and tissue engineering applications. Among these applications, tissue engineering field using 3D printing has attracted the attention from many researchers. 3D bioprinting has an advantage in the manufacture of a scaffold for tissue engineering applications, because of rapid-fabrication, high-precision, and customized-production, etc. In this review, we will introduce the principles and the current state of the 3D bioprinting methods. Focusing on some of studies that are being current application for biomedical and tissue engineering fields using printed 3D scaffolds.

  1. Classification of (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Geng Qiaozhi; Ren Mingming; Chen Zhiqi

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we focus on (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras. To begin with, we give some properties on (n+3)-dimensional n-Lie algebras. Then based on the properties, we obtain the classification of (n+3)-dimensional metric n-Lie algebras.

  2. NRG Oncology-Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 1014: 1-Year Toxicity Report From a Phase 2 Study of Repeat Breast-Preserving Surgery and 3-Dimensional Conformal Partial-Breast Reirradiation for In-Breast Recurrence.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Douglas W; Winter, Kathryn A; Kuerer, Henry M; Haffty, Bruce G; Cuttino, Laurie W; Todor, Dorin A; Simone, Nicole L; Hayes, Shelly B; Woodward, Wendy A; McCormick, Beryl; Cohen, Randi J; Sahijdak, Walter M; Canaday, Daniel J; Brown, Doris R; Currey, Adam D; Fisher, Christine M; Jagsi, Reshma; White, Julia

    2017-08-01

    To determine the associated toxicity, tolerance, and safety of partial-breast reirradiation. Eligibility criteria included in-breast recurrence occurring >1 year after whole-breast irradiation, <3 cm, unifocal, and resected with negative margins. Partial-breast reirradiation was targeted to the surgical cavity plus 1.5 cm; a prescription dose of 45 Gy in 1.5 Gy twice daily for 30 treatments was used. The primary objective was to evaluate the rate of grade ≥3 treatment-related skin, fibrosis, and/or breast pain adverse events (AEs), occurring ≤1 year from re-treatment completion. A rate of ≥13% for these AEs in a cohort of 55 patients was determined to be unacceptable (86% power, 1-sided α = 0.07). Between 2010 and 2013, 65 patients were accrued, and the first 55 eligible and with 1 year follow-up were analyzed. Median age was 68 years. Twenty-two patients had ductal carcinoma in situ, and 33 had invasive disease: 19 ≤1 cm, 13 >1 to ≤2 cm, and 1 >2 cm. All patients were clinically node negative. Systemic therapy was delivered in 51%. All treatment plans underwent quality review for contouring accuracy and dosimetric compliance. All treatment plans scored acceptable for tumor volume contouring and tumor volume dose-volume analysis. Only 4 (7%) scored unacceptable for organs at risk contouring and organs at risk dose-volume analysis. Treatment-related skin, fibrosis, and/or breast pain AEs were recorded as grade 1 in 64% and grade 2 in 7%, with only 1 (<2%) grade ≥3 and identified as grade 3 fibrosis of deep connective tissue. Partial-breast reirradiation with 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy after second lumpectomy for patients experiencing in-breast failures after whole-breast irradiation is safe and feasible, with acceptable treatment quality achieved. Skin, fibrosis, and breast pain toxicity was acceptable, and grade 3 toxicity was rare. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  4. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  5. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  6. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  7. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  8. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  9. Cellular Changes of Stem Cells in 3-Dimensional Culture.

    PubMed

    Green, Matthew P; Hou, Bo

    2017-06-12

    During various operations and procedures, such as distraction osteogenesis and orthodontics, skeletal tissues use mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is important for maintaining bone health and converting mechanical forces into biochemical signals. We hypothesized that cells put under mechanical stress would adapt and change morphologically and respond with a decrease in cellular proliferation to accommodate the stress differences. These differences will be measured at the molecular and genetic level. We also wanted to test the practicality of an in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system. We implemented a 3-dimensional cell culture model. The sample was composed of isolated mouse mesenchymal prefibroblast bone marrow cells from the femurs and tibias of 6- to 8-week-old wild-type C57BL6 mice. The cells were seeded on fibronectin-coated hydrogels along with fibrin and nodulin growth factors. The variables tested were a no-force model (control) and a force model. The force model required two 0.1-mm suture pins put through one 0.25-cm length of cell-gel matrix. After the experiments were run to completion, the samples were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections were cut at a thickness of 5 μm along the long axis for the force construct and encompassing the entire circular area of the control construct. Descriptive and bivariate statistics were computed, and the P value was set at 5%. There was a statistically significant difference between the 2 models. The force model had longer and straighter primary cilia, less apoptosis, and an increase in cell proliferation. In addition, the shape of the cells was markedly different after the experiment. The results of the study suggest cells put under tensile stress have the ability to mechanically sense the environment to provide improved adaptation. Our work also confirms the usefulness of the in vitro 3-dimensional gel model system to mimic in vivo applications. Published by Elsevier

  10. Infants’ Representations of 3-Dimensional Occluded Objects

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Rebecca J.; Wilcox, Teresa; Armstrong, Jennifer; Alexander, Gerianne

    2012-01-01

    Infants’ ability to represent objects has received significant attention from the developmental research community. With the advent of eye-tracking technology, detailed analysis of infants’ looking patterns during object occlusion have revealed much about the nature of infants’ representations. The current study continues this research by analyzing infants’ looking patterns in a novel manner and by comparing infants’ looking at a simple display in which a single 3-dimensional (3-D) object moves along a continuous trajectory to a more complex display in which two 3-D objects undergo trajectories that are interrupted behind an occluder. Six-month-old infants saw an occlusion sequence in which a ball moved along a linear path, disappeared behind a rectangular screen, and then a ball (ball-ball event) or a box (ball-box event) emerged at the other edge. An eye-tracking system recorded infants’ eye-movements during the event sequence. Results from examination of infants’ attention to the occluder indicate that during the occlusion interval infants looked longer to the side of the occluder behind which the moving occluded object was located, shifting gaze from one side of the occluder to the other as the object(s) moved behind the screen. Furthermore, when events included two objects, infants attended to the spatiotemporal coordinates of the objects longer than when a single object was involved. These results provide clear evidence that infants’ visual tracking is different in response to a one-object display than to a two-object display. Furthermore, this finding suggests that infants may require more focused attention to the hidden position of objects in more complex multiple-object displays and provides additional evidence that infants represent the spatial location of moving occluded objects. PMID:20926138

  11. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  12. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  13. The first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions.

    PubMed

    Piedra-Garza, Luis Fernando; Reinoso, Santiago; Dickman, Michael H; Sanguineti, Michael M; Kortz, Ulrich

    2009-08-21

    Reaction of the (CH(3))(2)Sn(2+) electrophile toward trilacunary [A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)](n-) Keggin polytungstates (X = P(V), As(V), Si(IV)) with guanidinium as templating-cation resulted in the isostructural compounds Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-PW(9)O(34))] x 9 H(2)O (1), Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-AsW(9)O(34))] x 8 H(2)O (2) and Na(2)[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-SiW(9)O(34))] x 10 H(2)O (3). Compounds 1-3 constitute the first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions, as well as the first example of a dimethyltin-containing tungstosilicate in the case of 3, and they show a similar chiral architecture based on tetrahedrally-arranged {(CH(3))(2)Sn}(3)(A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)) monomeric building-blocks connected via intermolecular Sn-O=W bridges regardless of the size and/or charge of the heteroatom.

  14. [3-Dimensional model reconstruction of penis and surrounding tissue].

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Heng; Cao, Chuan; Mei, Wen-Ming; Wang, Wen-Xian; Tan, Li-Wen; Li, Shi-Rong

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of 3-Dimensional (3-D) model reconstruction of penis and surrounding structures based on magnetic resonance images, which may provide the model building method for modeling surgery of individual penoplasty. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of penis with different imaging parameters were evaluated. With the surface rendering construction, the 3D virtual model was established by Amira software. The anatomical details imaging is better in T2-weighted fast spin-echo images with 3.0 mm slice thickness. The established model based on the MR images can show the soft-tissue, suspensory ligament of the penis. The suspensory ligament stretches between the pubic symphysis and the corpora cavernosa. The penile roots attach to inferior ramus of pubis. MR imaging provides enough anatomical information for modeling. It can be used for the development of model surgery system of individual penoplasty.

  15. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  16. Preoperative 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Uterine Myoma and Endometrium Before Myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Sa Ra; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kang, Byung Chul

    2017-02-01

    Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age, and myomectomy is the main surgical option to preserve the uterus and fertility. During myomectomy for women with multiple myomas, it is advisable to identify and remove as many as possible to decrease the risk of future myomectomies. With deficient preoperative imaging, gynecologists are challenged to identify the location and size of myomas and the endometrium, which, in turn, can lead to uterine rupture during future pregnancies. Current conventional 2-dimensional imaging has limitations in identifying precise locations of multiple myomas and the endometrium. In our experience, we preferred to use 3-dimensional imaging to delineate the myomas, endometrium, or blood vessels, which we were able to successfully reconstruct by using the following imaging method. To achieve 3-dimensional imaging, we matched T2 turbo spin echo images to detect uterine myomas and endometria with T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation-post images used to detect blood vessels by using an algorithm based on the 3-dimensional region growing method. Then, we produced images of the uterine myomas, endometria, and blood vessels using a 3-dimensional surface rendering method and successfully reconstructed selective 3-dimensional imaging for uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent blood vessels. A Web-based survey was sent to 66 gynecologists concerning imaging techniques used before myomectomy. Twenty-eight of 36 responding gynecologists answered that the 3-dimensional image produced in the current study is preferred to conventional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in identifying precise locations of uterine myomas and endometria. The proposed 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging method successfully reconstructed uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent vessels. We propose that this will be a helpful adjunct to uterine myomectomy as a preoperative imaging technique in future

  17. Axes of resistance for tooth movement: does the center of resistance exist in 3-dimensional space?

    PubMed

    Viecilli, Rodrigo F; Budiman, Amanda; Burstone, Charles J

    2013-02-01

    The center of resistance is considered the most important reference point for tooth movement. It is often stated that forces through this point will result in tooth translation. The purpose of this article is to report the results of numeric experiments testing the hypothesis that centers of resistance do not exist in space as 3-dimensional points, primarily because of the geometric asymmetry of the periodontal ligament. As an alternative theory, we propose that, for an arbitrary tooth, translation references can be determined by 2-dimensional projection intersections of 3-dimensional axes of resistance. Finite element analyses were conducted on a maxillary first molar model to determine the position of the axes of rotation generated by 3-dimensional couples. Translation tests were performed to compare tooth movement by using different combinations of axes of resistance as references. The couple-generated axes of rotation did not intersect in 3 dimensions; therefore, they do not determine a 3-dimensional center of resistance. Translation was obtained by using projection intersections of the 2 axes of resistance perpendicular to the force direction. Three-dimensional axes of resistance, or their 2-dimensional projection intersections, should be used to plan movement of an arbitrary tooth. Clinical approximations to a small 3-dimensional "center of resistance volume" might be adequate in nearly symmetric periodontal ligament cases. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-Dimensional Portrait of the Female CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemasters, Linda; Roach, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Dobie and Hummel (2001) asserted that the school superintendency is the most male-dominated position within the field of education. According to a 1992 study, 72% of educators were women; however, only 13.2% of superintendents are women (Glass, 1992). The most recent survey by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) found that…

  19. 3-Dimensional Reproducibility of Natural Head Position

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-12

    software in which polygon meshes, accurate freeform, non-uniform rationale B-spline surfaces, and geometrically accurate solid models were created...position for a laser scan using a novel morphometric analysis for orthognathic surgery. Int J Oral Max Surg 2000; 29(2): 86-90. Vig PS, Showfety KJ

  20. In vitro measurement of muscle volume with 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Walker, F; Caress, J; Hunt, C; Tegeler, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of muscle volume measurements with a new 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system, which allows a freehand scanning of the transducer with an improved quality of the ultrasound images and therefore the outlines of the muscles. Five resected cadaveric hand muscles were insonated and the muscle volumes calculated by 3-D reconstructions of the acquired 2-D ultrasound sections. Intra-reader, inter-reader and follow-up variability were calculated, as well as the volume of the muscle tissue measured by water displacement. In the results, 3-D ultrasound and water displacement measurements showed an average deviation of 10.1%; Data of 3-D ultrasound measurements were: intra-reader variability 2.8%; inter-reader variability 2.4% and follow-up variability 2.3%. 3-D measurements of muscle volume are valid and reliable. Serial sonographic measurements of muscle may be able to quantitate changes in muscle volume that occur in disease and recovery.

  1. Lithographically defined 3-dimensional graphene scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Polsky, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    Interferometrically defined 3D photoresist scaffolds are formed through a series of three successive two-beam interference exposures, a post exposure bake and development. Heating the resist scaffold in a reducing atmosphere to > 1000 °C, results in the conversion of the resist structure into a carbon scaffold through pyrolysis, resulting in a 3D sp3- bonded glassy carbon scaffold which maintains the same in-plane morphology as the resist despite significant shrinkage. The carbon scaffolds are readily modified using a variety of deposition methods such as electrochemical, sputtering and CVD/ALD. Remarkably, sputtering metal into scaffolds with ~ 5 unit cells tall results in conformal coating of the scaffold with the metal. When the metal is a transition metal such as nickel, the scaffold can be re-annealed, during which time the carbon diffuses through the nickel, emerging on the exterior of the nickel as sp2-bonded carbon, termed 3D graphene. This paper details the fabrication, characterization and some potential applications for these structures.

  2. [3-dimensional photogrammetry assessment of facial contours].

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, D; Gäbel, H; Schettler, D

    1997-02-01

    In Germany, three-dimensional non-invasive measurement techniques are not in routine use for medical purposes. Completely integrated applications of photogrammetric technology are lacking. The results of clinical examination, X-rays and pre- and postoperative photographs from different angles have been used for medical analysis. In an interdisciplinary research project we tested the general applicability of photogrammetric measurement systems. We examined patients with malformations of the mandible-maxilla complex by taking pictures of the face. In order to assess the surface structure we projected regular patterns onto the surface. We calculated about 500 points on the surface with accuracy better than 0.2 mm. Graphical analyses of measurement results are presented in clinically relevant form. We produce representations of the faces in auto-CAD by means of regular meshes which allow views from any perspective, longitudinal and lateral sections. In addition to calculating angles, distances, surfaces and volumes, visualisation of shape is a useful aid in documentation and quantification of changes of soft tissue of the human face under surgery treatment.

  3. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  4. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  5. 3-Dimensional simulation of the grain formation in investment castings

    SciTech Connect

    Gandin, C.A.; Rappaz, M. ); Tintillier, R. . Dept. Materiaux et Procedes-Direction Technique)

    1994-03-01

    A 3-dimensional (3-D) probabilistic model which has been developed previously for the prediction of grain structure formation during solidification is applied to thin superalloy plates produced using the investment-casting process. This model considers the random nucleation and orientation of nuclei formed at the mold surface and in the bulk of the liquid, the growth kinetics of the dendrite tips, and the preferential growth directions of the dendrite trunks and arms. In the present study, the grains are assumed to nucleate at the surface of the mold only. The computed grain structures, as observed in 2-dimensional (2-D) sections made parallel to the mold surface, are compared with experimental micrographs. The grain densities are then deduced as a function of the distance from the mold surface for both the experiment and the simulation. It is shown that these values are in good agreement, thus, providing validation of the grain formation mechanisms built into the 3-D probabilistic model. Finally, this model is further extended to more complex geometries and the 3-D computed grain structure of an equiaxed turbine-blade airfoil is compared with the experimental transverse section micrograph.

  6. Finger Character Recognition Using 3-Dimensional Template Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashiyama, Kazuhiro; Ono, Satoshi; Wang, Yu; Nakayama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for Japanese finger character recognition, using a 3-dimensional (3D) scanner. A hand is a complex dexterous manipulator, evolved to be more complex than any other animals. The hand, being capable of making many different complex shapes, it is ideal for communicating using gestures. The recognition of a whole language, such as the Japanese finger characters, requires the differentiation of subtle similar positioning of each digit. To know the exact 3D position of the hand's digits and overall shape, data gloves had been developed, but these are inconvenient to use. 2D image recognition systems struggle with recreating the 3D information. To capture the 3D information, the proposed method uses a 3D scanner, and then makes matches with 3D templates representing each unique character. Experimental results show that the proposed method recognizes a greater number of characters than existing 2D-based systems with recognition accuracy, on average of 93% for 9 testees, and a peak of over 98% for 4 of them.

  7. [Reformatting 3-dimensional medical images. Application to MRI and scanners].

    PubMed

    Cuchet, E; Lambert, F; Derosier, C

    1994-04-01

    Several kinds of images, each giving a different information, are now available to radiologists. The MRI images have excellent contrast resolution and enable soft tissues to be differentiated, but they do not distinguish structures with low water content, notably air and bone, whereas these are easily recognized by CT. The aim of this study is to present a simple, entirely radiologist-supervised method to examine the radiological data of any patient, obtained from several kinds of images. MRI is performed using a GEMS Signa, 1.5 Tesla, 4.9 version magnet. Acquisitions are T1- or T2-weighted spin-echo or gradient sequences, with a 256 or 512 matrix, on axial sections, with of without contrast injection. CT is performed using a GEMS Hi Speed scanner. Acquisitions are obtained on a 512 matrix and with a "Soft" or "Bone" filter, without contrast injection. The two series of sections are transmitted, through an Etherne network, to a Sun console where the two corresponding volumes are reconstructed on a GEMS Voxtol by means of a 3-dimensional soft ware for image treatment. At least 3 couples define the rotation and translation required for one of the two volumes to reset it in the guide mark of the other. The soft ware then looks for the best transformation, in terms of least square, between the two 3-dimensional volumes. The calculation demands only a few seconds. One of the two objects is then recalculated in the guide mark of the other. The cursor positioned by the user on any point of the object is linked to a second cursor which will automatically position itself on the corresponding point of the other object. The accuracy obtained (about one millimeter) is specified by the soft ware which indicates how to improve resetting. In addition to its teaching value, this superimposition image can help in the diagnosis and can be used for surgical stimulation because it is possible to mix the images. This mixing gives access to a new type of imaging, since the images spared

  8. Magnetic topologies of coronal mass ejection events: Effects of 3-dimensional reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Gosling, J.T.

    1995-09-01

    New magnetic loops formed in the corona following coronal mass ejection, CME, liftoffs provide strong evidence that magnetic reconnection commonly occurs within the magnetic ``legs`` of the departing CMEs. Such reconnection is inherently 3-dimensional and naturally produces CMEs having magnetic flux rope topologies. Sustained reconnection behind CMEs can produce a mixture of open and disconnected field lines threading the CMES. In contrast to the results of 2-dimensional reconnection. the disconnected field lines are attached to the outer heliosphere at both ends. A variety of solar and solar wind observations are consistent with the concept of sustained 3-dimensional reconnection within the magnetic legs of CMEs close to the Sun.

  9. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  10. Establishment of a Reliable Horizontal Reference Plane for 3-Dimensional Facial Soft Tissue Evaluation Before and After Orthognathic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chortrakarnkij, Peerasak; Lonic, Daniel; Lin, Hsiu-Hsia; Lo, Lun-Jou

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the reliability of our proposed facial reference system in the horizontal axis using 3-dimensional photogrammetry and to find a correlation between this plane and the Frankfurt horizontal (FH) plane. Forty-one patients were enrolled. Three-dimensional facial images were taken before and 6 months after orthognathic surgery. Superimposition was carried out, and differences in landmark position were evaluated. Two constant landmarks were selected to construct a reference system within a standardized reference frame. Cone-beam computed tomography and 3-dimensional facial images were superimposed. Two reference lines were identified, and the angle between these lines was calculated. For landmark reliability, 5 landmarks [gnathion, nasion, exocanthion (Ex), endocanthion, and tragion (T)] were constant. Two landmarks (Ex and T) were selected to construct a reference system within a standardized reference frame. For angular measurement, the mean angle between this reference plane and the skeletal FH plane was 17.6 ± 2.0 degrees. There was no statistical difference between sex, side, and preoperative/postoperative timing of photography. Our proposed reference plane is constructed from reliable facial Ex and T landmarks. This plane is consistent and crosses the FH plane at 17.6 degrees.

  11. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  12. The International Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional Radiation Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, R. F.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    I3RC (International Intercomparison of 3-dimensional Radiation Codes) has as its primary goal to compare a wide variety of three-dimensional (3D) radiative transfer methods applied to Earth's atmosphere, with a few selected cloud fields as input, and a few selected radiative quantities as output. Phases 1 and 2 are now complete, and participants represented institutions in Canada, France, Germany, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the USA, who met for two workshops in Tucson, Arizona USA, and compared results from 5 cloud fields of varying complexity, beginning with simplified atmosphere and surface, and proceeding to more realistic cases. Phase 3 is now underway, focusing on improvement and sharing of 3D radiation code, aided by working groups on "Approximations" and "Open Source". The "Approximations" group has so far focused on diffusive approximate methods in an attempt to gain advantages in execution time, and also to advance the understanding of 3D radiation processes. The "Open Source" subgroup is developing a Monte Carlo radiative transfer toolkit that makes state-of-the-art techniques available to a wide range of users. Activities of both subgroups are further explained at the I3RC website http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa.gov. Participants in 13RC are forming a 3D Working Group under the auspices of the International Radiation Commission, and will meet for this and related activities at a workshop in Tucson in November 2002.

  13. Invasive 3-Dimensional Organotypic Neoplasia from Multiple Normal Human Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ridky, Todd W.; Chow, Jennifer M.; Wong, David J.; Khavari, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Refined cancer models are required to assess the burgeoning number of potential targets for cancer therapeutics within a rapid and clinically relevant context. Here we utilize tumor-associated genetic pathways to transform primary human epithelial cells from epidermis, oropharynx, esophagus, and cervix into genetically defined tumors within a human 3-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment incorporating cell-populated stroma and intact basement membrane. These engineered organotypic tissues recapitulated natural features of tumor progression, including epithelial invasion through basement membrane, a complex process critically required for biologic malignancy in 90% of human cancers. Invasion was rapid, and potentiated by stromal cells. Oncogenic signals in 3-D tissue, but not 2-D culture, resembled gene expression profiles from spontaneous human cancers. Screening well-characterized signaling pathway inhibitors in 3-D organotypic neoplasia helped distil a clinically faithful cancer gene signature. Multi-tissue 3-D human tissue cancer models may provide an efficient and relevant complement to current approaches to characterize cancer progression. PMID:21102459

  14. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  15. Brain tumor surgery with 3-dimensional surface navigation.

    PubMed

    Mert, Ayguel; Buehler, Katja; Sutherland, Garnette R; Tomanek, Boguslaw; Widhalm, Georg; Kasprian, Gregor; Knosp, Engelbert; Wolfsberger, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Precise lesion localization is necessary for neurosurgical procedures not only during the operative approach, but also during the preoperative planning phase. To evaluate the advantages of 3-dimensional (3-D) brain surface visualization over conventional 2-dimensional (2-D) magnetic resonance images for surgical planning and intraoperative guidance in brain tumor surgery. Preoperative 3-D brain surface visualization was performed with neurosurgical planning software in 77 cases (58 gliomas, 7 cavernomas, 6 meningiomas, and 6 metastasis). Direct intraoperative navigation on the 3-D brain surface was additionally performed in the last 20 cases with a neurosurgical navigation system. For brain surface reconstruction, patient-specific anatomy was obtained from MR imaging and brain volume was extracted with skull stripping or watershed algorithms, respectively. Three-dimensional visualization was performed by direct volume rendering in both systems. To assess the value of 3-D brain surface visualization for topographic lesion localization, a multiple-choice test was developed. To assess accuracy and reliability of 3-D brain surface visualization for intraoperative orientation, we topographically correlated superficial vessels and gyral anatomy on 3-D brain models with intraoperative images. The rate of correct lesion localization with 3-D was significantly higher (P = .001, χ), while being significantly less time consuming (P < .001, χ) compared with 2-D images. Intraoperatively, visual correlation was found between the 3-D images, superficial vessels, and gyral anatomy. The proposed method of 3-D brain surface visualization is fast, clinically reliable for preoperative anatomic lesion localization and patient-specific planning, and, together with navigation, improves intraoperative orientation in brain tumor surgery and is relatively independent of brain shift.

  16. Reference values for the length and area of the fetal corpus callosum on 3-dimensional sonography using the transfrontal view.

    PubMed

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Visentainer, Milena; Simioni, Christiane; Ruano, Rodrigo; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine reference values for the length and area of the fetal corpus callosum between 20 and 33 weeks' gestation using 3-dimensional sonography. A cross-sectional study was performed in 293 healthy pregnant women between 20 and 33 weeks' gestation. The length and area of the corpus callosum were obtained via the transfontal view with the metopic suture as an acoustic window using 3-dimensional sonographic aquisitions. Linear and weighted polynomial regression models were used, which were adjusted by residual analysis and the R(2) determination coefficient. Intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities were analyzed by an intraclass correlation coefficient. The mean corpus callosum length ± SD varied from 19.52 ± 2.24 to 40.36 ± 2.87 mm, whereas the mean area varied from 0.44 ± 0.11 to 1.47 ± 0.21 cm(2) at 20 and 33 weeks, respectively. The length and area were highly correlated with gestational age: corpus callosum length = -52.41 + 4.71 × gestational age - 0.06 × gestational age(2) (R(2) = 0.868); and corpus callosum area = -2.47 + 0.16 × gestational age - 0.000037 × gestational age(2) (R(2) = 0.765). The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities were excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.98 and 0.94 for the length and 0.99 and 0.90 for the area, respectively. Reference values for the length and the area of the fetal corpus callosum between 20 and 33 weeks' gestation were determined with high reproducibility.

  17. 2 CFR 200.30 - Cross-cutting audit finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cross-cutting audit finding. 200.30 Section... AUDIT REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.30 Cross-cutting audit finding. Cross-cutting audit finding means an audit finding where the same underlying condition or issue...

  18. Controlled teleportation of a 3-dimensional bipartite quantum state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Song, He-Shan

    2008-07-01

    A controlled teleportation scheme of an unknown 3-dimensional (3D) two-particle quantum state is proposed, where a 3D Bell state and 3D GHZ state function as the quantum channel. This teleportation scheme can be directly generalized to teleport an unknown d-dimensional bipartite quantum state.

  19. 3-dimensional bundle adjustments in industrial metrology: A comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Gaydosh, M.; LeCocq, C.; Ruland, R.; Wand, B.

    1992-07-01

    Several theodolite measurement systems are available for use in the industrial metrology market. Many of them offer a rigorous 3-dimensional bundle adjustment routine. In this paper several systems in use and available for evaluation purposes at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will be tested and their results compared.

  20. Topological entropy and renormalization group flow in 3-dimensional spherical spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asorey, M.; Beneventano, C. G.; Cavero-Peláez, I.; D'Ascanio, D.; Santangelo, E. M.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the renormalization group (RG) flow of the temperature independent term of the entropy in the high temperature limit β/a ≪ 1 of a massive field theory in 3-dimensional spherical spaces, M 3, with constant curvature 6 /a 2. For masses lower than , this term can be identified with the free energy of the same theory on M 3 considered as a 3-dimensional Euclidean space-time. The non-extensive part of this free energy, S hol, is generated by the holonomy of the spatial metric connection. We show that for homogeneous spherical spaces the holonomy entropy S hol decreases monotonically when the RG scale flows to the infrared. At the conformal fixed points the values of the holonomy entropy do coincide with the genuine topological entropies recently introduced. The monotonic behavior of the RG flow leads to an inequality between the topological entropies of the conformal field theories connected by such flow, i.e. S {top/ UV } > S {top/ IR }. From a 3-dimensional viewpoint the same term arises in the 3-dimensional Euclidean effective action and has the same monotonic behavior under the RG group flow. We conjecture that such monotonic behavior is generic, which would give rise to a 3-dimensional generalization of the c-theorem, along the lines of the 2-dimensional c-theorem and the 4-dimensional a-theorem. The conjecture is related to recent formulations of the F -theorem. In particular, the holonomy entropy on lens spaces is directly related to the topological Rényi entanglement entropy on disks of 2-dimensional flat spaces.

  1. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... share information on the whereabouts of persons displaced by disasters, and otherwise cooperate...

  2. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... share information on the whereabouts of persons displaced by disasters, and otherwise cooperate...

  3. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... share information on the whereabouts of persons displaced by disasters, and otherwise cooperate...

  4. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... between the individual and the community during times of disaster. This applies only to natural disasters... Cross officials to the maximum feasible degree during times of natural disasters. (39 U.S.C. 401, 411... share information on the whereabouts of persons displaced by disasters, and otherwise cooperate...

  5. A new preclinical 3-dimensional agarose colony formation assay.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Panchabhai, Sonali; Levin, Victor A

    2008-08-01

    The evaluation of new drug treatments and combination treatments for gliomas and other cancers requires a robust means to interrogate wide dose ranges and varying times of drug exposure without stain-inactivation of the cells (colonies). To this end, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) colony formation assay that makes use of GelCount technology, a new cell colony counter for gels and soft agars. We used U251MG, SNB19, and LNZ308 glioma cell lines and MiaPaCa pancreas adenocarcinoma and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Colonies were grown in a two-tiered agarose that had 0.7% agarose on the bottom and 0.3% agarose on top. We then studied the effects of DFMO, carboplatin, and SAHA over a 3-log dose range and over multiple days of drug exposure. Using GelCount we approximated the area under the curve (AUC) of colony volumes as the sum of colony volumes (microm2xOD) in each plate to calculate IC50 values. Adenocarcinoma colonies were recognized by GelCount scanning at 3-4 days, while it took 6-7 days to detect glioma colonies. The growth rate of MiaPaCa and SW480 cells was rapid, with 100 colonies counted in 5-6 days; glioma cells grew more slowly, with 100 colonies counted in 9-10 days. Reliable log dose versus AUC curves were observed for all drugs studied. In conclusion, the GelCount method that we describe is more quantitative than traditional colony assays and allows precise study of drug effects with respect to both dose and time of exposure using fewer culture plates.

  6. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  7. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes. A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, “Stiff Rim” was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of “Crater Sign” and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US. In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with “Crater Sign” in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  8. Performance characteristics obtained for a new 3-dimensional lutetium oxyorthosilicate-based whole-body PET/CT scanner with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU 2-2001 standard.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Marco; Secco, Chiara; Dominietto, Marco; Matheoud, Roberta; Sacchetti, Gianmauro; Inglese, Eugenio

    2005-12-01

    This article reports the results of performance measurements obtained for the lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO)-based whole-body PET/CT scanner Biograph 16 HI-REZ with the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU 2-2001 standard. The Biograph 16 HI-REZ combines a multislice (16-slice) spiral CT scanner with a PET scanner composed of 24.336 LSO crystals arranged in 39 rings. The crystal dimensions are 4.0x4.0x20 mm3, and the crystals are organized in 13x13 blocks coupled to 4 photomultiplier tubes each. The 39 rings allow the acquisition of 81 images 2.0 mm thick, covering an axial field of view of 162 mm. The low- and high-energy thresholds are set to 425 and 650 keV, respectively, acquiring data within a 4.5-ns-wide coincidence window. Performance measurements for the LSO-based PET/CT scanner were obtained with the NEMA NU 2-2001 standard, taking into account issues deriving from the presence of intrinsic radiation. The results obtained with the NEMA NU 2-2001 standard measurements were as follows: average transverse and axial spatial resolutions (full width at half maximum) at 1 cm and at 10 cm off axis of 4.61 (5.10) mm and 5.34 (5.91) mm, respectively; average sensitivity of 4.92 counts per second per kilobecquerel for the 2 radial positions (0 and 10 cm); 34.1% system scatter fraction; and peak noise equivalent count (NEC) rates of 84.77 kilocounts per second (kcps) at 28.73 kBq/mL (k=1 in the NEC formula; noiseless random correction) and 58.71 kcps at 21.62 kBq/mL (k=2; noisy random correction). The new integrated PET/CT system Biograph 16 HI-REZ has good overall performance, with, in particular, a high resolution, a low scatter fraction, and a very good NEC response.

  9. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra.

  10. Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuya; Miwa, Shinji; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Uehara, Fuminaru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Ming; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo.

  11. 3-dimensional (3D) fabricated polymer based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-11-10

    Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is a rapidly growing area of research. It is essential to achieve structures wherein drug stability is ensured, the drug loading capacity is appropriate and the desired controlled release profile can be attained. Attention must also be paid to the development of appropriate fabrication machinery that allows 3D drug delivery systems (DDS) to be produced in a simple, reliable and reproducible manner. The range of fabrication methods currently being used to form 3D DDSs include electrospinning (solution and melt), wet-spinning and printing (3-dimensional). The use of these techniques enables production of DDSs from the macro-scale down to the nano-scale. This article reviews progress in these fabrication techniques to form DDSs that possess desirable drug delivery kinetics for a wide range of applications.

  12. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  13. Cohomological rigidity of manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Erokhovets, N. Yu.; Masuda, M.; Panov, T. E.; Park, S.

    2017-04-01

    A family of closed manifolds is said to be cohomologically rigid if a cohomology ring isomorphism implies a diffeomorphism for any two manifolds in the family. Cohomological rigidity is established here for large families of 3-dimensional and 6-dimensional manifolds defined by 3-dimensional polytopes. The class \\mathscr{P} of 3-dimensional combinatorial simple polytopes P different from tetrahedra and without facets forming 3- and 4-belts is studied. This class includes mathematical fullerenes, that is, simple 3- polytopes with only 5-gonal and 6-gonal facets. By a theorem of Pogorelov, any polytope in \\mathscr{P} admits in Lobachevsky 3-space a right-angled realisation which is unique up to isometry. Our families of smooth manifolds are associated with polytopes in the class \\mathscr{P}. The first family consists of 3-dimensional small covers of polytopes in \\mathscr{P}, or equivalently, hyperbolic 3-manifolds of Löbell type. The second family consists of 6-dimensional quasitoric manifolds over polytopes in \\mathscr{P}. Our main result is that both families are cohomologically rigid, that is, two manifolds M and M' from either family are diffeomorphic if and only if their cohomology rings are isomorphic. It is also proved that if M and M' are diffeomorphic, then their corresponding polytopes P and P' are combinatorially equivalent. These results are intertwined with classical subjects in geometry and topology such as the combinatorics of 3-polytopes, the Four Colour Theorem, aspherical manifolds, a diffeomorphism classification of 6-manifolds, and invariance of Pontryagin classes. The proofs use techniques of toric topology. Bibliography: 69 titles.

  14. Multimodality 3-Dimensional Image Integration for Congenital Cardiac Catheterization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac catheterization procedures for patients with congenital and structural heart disease are becoming more complex. New imaging strategies involving integration of 3-dimensional images from rotational angiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computerized tomography (CT), and transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are employed to facilitate these procedures. We discuss the current use of these new 3D imaging technologies and their advantages and challenges when used to guide complex diagnostic and interventional catheterization procedures in patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:25114757

  15. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  16. Late toxicity and patient self-assessment of breast appearance/satisfaction on RTOG 0319: a phase 2 trial of 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy-accelerated partial breast irradiation following lumpectomy for stages I and II breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chafe, Susan; Moughan, Jennifer; McCormick, Beryl; Wong, John; Pass, Helen; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Arthur, Douglas W; Petersen, Ivy; White, Julia; Vicini, Frank A

    2013-08-01

    Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Late Toxicity and Patient Self-Assessment of Breast Appearance/Satisfaction on RTOG 0319: A Phase 2 Trial of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy-Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Stages I and II Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chafe, Susan; Moughan, Jennifer; McCormick, Beryl; Wong, John; Pass, Helen; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Arthur, Douglas W.; Petersen, Ivy; White, Julia; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again.

  18. Predictive value of preoperative 3-dimensional computer tomography measurement of semitendinosus tendon harvested for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, Masanori; Deie, Masataka; Sunagawa, Toru; Adachi, Nobuo; Kobayashi, Kenji; Ochi, Mitsuo

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative measurement of the semitendinosus tendon (ST) by 3-dimensional computed tomography (3-D CT), before using ST as the substitute in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Cross-sectional study to compare anatomic findings with clinical findings. The study involved 28 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using autogenous ST graft. Preoperative 3-D CT images of ST were obtained with a multidetector-row CT scanner, and rendered qualitatively by the volume-rendering technique. The length and cross-sectional area of ST measured with 3-D CT were compared with the length of the harvested ST and the cross-sectional area of the grafted quadrupled tendon. The total length of ST measured with 3-D CT ranged from 220.3 to 285.4 mm, with a mean (+/- SD) of 248.0 +/- 17.1 mm, and that measured at surgery ranged from 230.0 to 290.0 mm, with a mean of 257.1 +/- 16.5 mm. These 2 values showed a close positive correlation (gamma = 0.634, P = .002). The cross-sectional area of ST measured with 3-D CT ranged from 4.29 to 18.5 mm2 with a mean of 11.9 +/- 4.6 mm2, and that of the substitute measured at surgery ranged from 28.3 to 56.7 mm2 with a mean of 45.5 +/- 6.9 mm2). There was no significant correlation between the areas of ST measured by CT and the areas of ST measured during surgery. Preoperative 3-D CT imaging predicts the length of ST. These findings support the measurement of ST length by 3-D CT as a useful tool for planning ACL reconstructive surgery and for providing important preoperative information to patients. Level III, diagnostic study.

  19. New Stereoacuity Test Using a 3-Dimensional Display System in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus. PMID:25693034

  20. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus.

  1. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. Application of 3-dimensional ultrasonography in assessing carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pyun, Sung Bum; Kang, Chang Ho; Yoon, Joon Shik; Kwon, Hee Kyu; Kim, Jung Hyuk; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Oh, Yu Whan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the usefulness of 3D ultrasonography (3DUS) in the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome. Fifty patients with carpal tunnel syndrome confirmed by electromyography and 37 healthy control participants underwent 3DUS of the wrists. The mean times per participant for the 3DUS examination and review of the 3D volume set were recorded. The cross-sectional area at the proximal carpal tunnel and the maximum swelling point were measured. Data from patients and controls were compared for determination of statistical significance. The accuracy of the 3DUS diagnostic criteria for carpal tunnel syndrome was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis, and changes in the median nerve shape, including the maximum swelling point, were assessed by review of the 3D volume data. The mean times for examination of a participant and review in each wrist were 56 seconds and 5.7 minutes, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the mean cross-sectional areas of the median nerve between patients and controls. The mean cross-sectional areas ± SD were 16.7 ± 6.7 mm(2) in patients and 8.3 ± 1.9 mm(2) in controls. Using the receiver operating characteristic curve, a cutoff value of greater than 10.5 mm(2) provided diagnostic sensitivity of 84% and specificity of 86%. In 42 of 73 wrists with carpal tunnel syndrome, the median nerve showed fusiform morphologic abnormalities and maximum swelling points. Our results show that 3DUS could markedly decrease scanning time, and measurement of the median nerve cross-sectional area combined with morphologic analysis using 3DUS is a promising supplementary method for the diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome.

  3. Computerized 3-dimensional localization of a video capsule in the abdominal cavity: validation by digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Marya, Neil; Karellas, Andrew; Foley, Anne; Roychowdhury, Abhijit; Cave, David

    2014-04-01

    Wireless video capsule endoscopy allows the noninvasive visualization of the small intestine. Currently, capsules do not provide localization information while traversing the GI tract. To report on the radiological validation of 3-dimensional localization software incorporated in a newly developed capsule. By using radiofrequency transmission, the software measures the strength of the capsule's signal to locate the position of the capsule. This study was performed at the University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester, Mass. Thirty healthy volunteers consented to the experimental procedure. After ingestion of the capsule, subjects had 5 sets of anteroposterior and lateral radiographs taken every 30 minutes while the software calculated the position of the capsule. By using the radiographs, we calculated the location of the capsule in the abdominal cavity and compared the results with those generated by the software. Average error (and standard deviation) among the 3-dimensional coordinates was X, 2.00 cm (1.64); Y, 2.64 cm (2.39); and Z, 2.51 cm (1.83). The average total spatial error among all measurements was 13.26 cm(3) (22.72). There was a correlation between increased subject body mass index and the 3-dimensional software measurement error. This study was performed in healthy volunteers and needs further validation in patients with small intestinal disorders. The new 3-dimensional software provides localization of the capsule consistent with radiological observations. However, further validation of the software's clinical utility is required with a prospective clinical trial. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  5. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Shimazu, T; Yuda, T; Miyamoto, K; Yamashita, M; Ueda, J

    2001-01-01

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells. c 2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional Endorectal Ultrasound for Staging Early Extraperitoneal Rectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rodrigo Ambar; Corrêa Neto, Isaac José Felippe; Nahas, Sérgio Carlos; Rizkalah Nahas, Caio Sérgio; Sparapan Marques, Carlos Frederico; Ribeiro Junior, Ulysses; Kawaguti, Fábio Shiguehissa; Cecconello, Ivan

    2017-05-01

    Adequate oncologic staging of rectal neoplasia is important for treatment and prognostic evaluation of the disease. Diagnostic methods such as endorectal ultrasound can assess rectal wall invasion and lymph node involvement. The purpose of this study was to correlate findings of 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis of extraperitoneal rectal tumors with regard to depth of rectal wall invasion, lymph node involvement, percentage of rectal circumference involvement, and tumor extension. Consecutive patients with extraperitoneal rectal tumors were prospectively assessed by 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound blind to other staging methods and pathologic diagnosis. Patients who underwent endorectal ultrasound followed by surgery were included in the study. The study was conducted at a single academic institution. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, area under curve, and κ coefficient between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis were determined. Intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated for tumor extension and percentage of rectal wall involvement. Forty-four patients (27 women; mean age = 63.5 years) were evaluated between September 2010 and June 2014. Most lesions were malignant (72.7%). For depth of submucosal invasion, 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound showed sensitivity of 77.3%, specificity of 86.4%, positive predictive value of 85.0%, a negative predictive value of 79.2%, and an area under curve of 0.82. The weighted κ coefficient for depth of rectal wall invasion staging was 0.67, and there was no agreement between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis for lymph node involvement (κ = -0.164). Intraclass correlation coefficient for lesion extension and percentage of rectal circumference involvement were 0.45 and 0.66. A better correlation between 3-dimensional endorectal ultrasound and pathologic diagnosis was observed in tumors <5 cm and with <50

  7. Evaluation of pharyngeal airway space changes after bimaxillary orthognathic surgery with a 3-dimensional simulation and modeling program.

    PubMed

    Gokce, Sila Mermut; Gorgulu, Serkan; Gokce, Hasan Suat; Bengi, Ali Osman; Karacayli, Umit; Ors, Fatih

    2014-10-01

    The aims of this study were to use 3-dimensional simulation and modeling programs to evaluate the effects of bimaxillary orthognathic surgical correction of Class III malocclusions on pharyngeal airway space volume, and to compare them with the changes in obstructive sleep apnea measurements from polysomnography. Twenty-five male patients (mean age, 21.6 years) with mandibular prognathism were treated with bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and LeFort I advancement. Polysomnography and computed tomography were performed before surgery and 1.4 ± 0.2 years after surgery. All computed tomography data were transferred to a computer, and the pharyngeal airway space was segmented using SimPlant OMS (Materialise Medical, Leuven, Belgium) programs. The pretreatment and posttreatment pharyngeal airway space determinants in volumetric, linear distance, and cross-sectional measurements, and polysomnography changes were compared with the paired samples t test. Pearson correlation was used to analyze the association between the computed tomography and polysomnography measurements. The results indicated that setback procedures produce anteroposterior narrowing of the pharyngeal airway space at the oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal levels and the middle and inferior pharyngeal volumes (P <0.05). In contrast, advancement of the maxilla causes widening of the airway in the nasopharyngeal and retropalatal dimensions and increases the superior pharyngeal volume (P <0.05). Distinctively, bimaxillary orthognathic surgery induces significant increases in the total airway volume and the transverse dimensions of all airway areas (P <0.05). Significant correlations were found between the measurements on the computed tomography scans and crucial polysomnography parameters. Bimaxillary orthognathic surgery for correction of Class III malocclusion caused an increase of the total airway volume and improvement of polysomnography parameters. A proposed treatment plan can be modified

  8. Intraoperative 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography and Navigation in Foot and Ankle Surgery.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Ashwin; Drittenbass, Lisca; Dubois-Ferrière, Victor; Stern, Richard; Assal, Mathieu

    2016-09-01

    Computer-assisted orthopedic surgery has developed dramatically during the past 2 decades. This article describes the use of intraoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography and navigation in foot and ankle surgery. Traditional imaging based on serial radiography or C-arm-based fluoroscopy does not provide simultaneous real-time 3-dimensional imaging, and thus leads to suboptimal visualization and guidance. Three-dimensional computed tomography allows for accurate intraoperative visualization of the position of bones and/or navigation implants. Such imaging and navigation helps to further reduce intraoperative complications, leads to improved surgical outcomes, and may become the gold standard in foot and ankle surgery. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e1005-e1010.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [Bile duct reconstruction using 3-dimensional collagen tubes].

    PubMed

    Pérez Alonso, Alejandro José; del Olmo Rivas, Carlos; Machado Romero, Ignacio; Pérez Cabrera, Beatriz; Cañizares Garcia, Francisco Javier; Torne Poyatos, Pablo

    2013-11-01

    In recent years, with widespread laparoscopic cholecystectomy and liver transplantation, complications involving the biliary system are increasing. All current techniques have a high risk of recurrence or high-morbidity. A 3-dimensional collagen bile duct modified with agarose hydrogel was developed to substitute the affected extrahepatic bile duct. It was used in 40 guinea pigs and the histology and physiology was studied at 4 weeks, 3 and 6 months after transplantation. The graft shows to have a high potential in applications to treat hepatobiliary diseases which require surgery. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. 3-dimensional electronic structures of CaC6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Wonshik; Kim, Yeongkwan; Han, Garam; Leem, Choonshik; Kim, Junsung; Kim, Yeongwook; Kim, Keunsu; Rotenberg, Eli; Kim, Changyoung; Postech Collaboration; Advanced Light Source Collaboration; Yonsei University Team

    2014-03-01

    There is still remaining issues on origin of superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds, especially CaC6 because of its relatively high transition temperature than other GICs. There are two competing theories on where the superconductivity occurs in this material; intercalant metal or charge doped graphene layer. To elucidate this issue, it is necessary to confirm existence of intercalant driven band. Therefore, we performed 3 dimensional electronic structure studies with ARPES to find out 3d dispersive intercalant band. However, we could not observe it, instead observed 3d dispersive carbon band. This support the aspect of charge doped graphene superconductivity more than intercalant driving aspect.

  11. Association between 3-dimensional mandibular morphology and condylar movement in subjects with mandibular asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Michiyo; Miyamoto, Jun J; Takada, Jun-Ichi; Moriyama, Keiji

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that 3-dimensional mandibular morphology is correlated with condylar movement in patients with mandibular asymmetry. Subjects were classified into 2 groups (n = 25 each): mandibular asymmetry with a menton deviation greater than 4 mm and no mandibular asymmetry with a menton deviation less than 4 mm. Linear and volumetric measurements of 3-dimensional mandibular morphology were recorded using computed tomography. Mandibular functional movement was recorded by computerized axiography (CADIAX; Gamma Dental, Klosterneuburg, Austria), and condylar path length, sagittal condylar inclination, and transverse condylar inclination on protrusion were measured. We calculated side-to-side asymmetry (shifted side vs nonshifted side) in mandibular morphology and assessed condylar movement by using an asymmetry ratio (nonshifted side/shifted side). Significant differences in mandibular morphology and condylar movement were found between the 2 groups. In the group with menton deviation greater than 4 mm, significant correlations were found between the asymmetry ratio of mandibular morphology and condylar movement: ie, condylar path length and transverse condylar inclination. No significant correlations were found between any of these measurements in the group with menton deviation less than 4 mm. In support of our hypothesis, the results suggested that 3-dimensional mandibular morphologic asymmetry is associated with condylar movement in subjects with mandibular asymmetry. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  13. 2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM CARLOTA BOULEVARD. LOOKING 218°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. Odontoid screw placement using Isocentric 3-dimensional C-arm fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Summers, Lori E; Kouri, Joshua G; Yang, Mu; Patrick Jacob, R

    2008-02-01

    We describe the use of isocentric 3-dimensional fluoroscopy to place odontoid screws in 9 patients. We wanted to show the benefits of using isocentric 3-dimensional fluroscopy in odontoid screw placement. Odontoid screw fixation for treatment of type II odontoid fractures has gained popularity since its introduction in the early 1980s. During the last several years, a multitude of new techniques have improved the ease of odontoid screw placement, including biplanar fluoroscopy, cannulated screw systems, and beveled bedside-fixed retractor systems. The use of isocentric C-arm fluoroscopy can improve the ease and facilitate placement of odontoid screws. Nine patients, ranging in ages from 30 to 89 years, presented with type II odontoid fractures. All fractures were either nondisplaced or minimally displaced (<4 mm) and occurred as a result of acute trauma. No patient had evidence of transverse atlantal ligament disruption. Isocentric 3-dimensional fluoroscopy, in conjunction with image-guided navigational software, was used to place 1 or 2 odontoid screws in each patient. Three-dimensional images were acquired intraoperatively, which were then reconstructed and uploaded to the navigational workstation. Screw trajectory was planned and performed with the use of tracked instruments. Successful screw placement, as judged by intraoperative computerized tomography, was attained in all 9 patients. Isocentric 3-dimensional fluoroscopy, in conjunction with an image-guided navigational software system, obviates the need for cumbersome biplanar fluoroscopy, allows for intraoperative image acquisition after surgical exposure, reduces intraoperative registration time, reduces both surgeon and patient radiation exposure, and allows immediate computerized tomographic imaging in the operating room to verify screw position.

  15. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  16. The Preoperative Evaluation of Infective Endocarditis via 3-Dimensional Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yong, Matthew S; Saxena, Pankaj; Killu, Ammar M; Coffey, Sean; Burkhart, Harold M; Wan, Siu-Hin; Malouf, Joseph F

    2015-08-01

    Transesophageal echocardiography continues to have a central role in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis and its sequelae. Recent technological advances offer the option of 3-dimensional imaging in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. We present an illustrative case and review the literature regarding the potential advantages and limitations of 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography in the diagnosis of complicated infective endocarditis. A 51-year-old man, an intravenous drug user who had undergone bioprosthetic aortic valve replacement 5 months earlier, presented with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Preoperative transesophageal echocardiography with 3D rendition revealed a large abscess involving the mitral aortic intervalvular fibrosa, together with a mycotic aneurysm that had ruptured into the left atrium, resulting in a left ventricle-to-left atrium fistula. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography enabled superior preoperative anatomic delineation and surgical planning. We conclude that 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography can be a useful adjunct to traditional 2-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography as a tool in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

  17. 3-Dimensional Resin Casting and Imaging of Mouse Portal Vein or Intrahepatic Bile Duct System

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Teagan J.; Sparks, Erin E.; Huppert, Stacey S.

    2012-01-01

    In organs, the correct architecture of vascular and ductal structures is indispensable for proper physiological function, and the formation and maintenance of these structures is a highly regulated process. The analysis of these complex, 3-dimensional structures has greatly depended on either 2-dimensional examination in section or on dye injection studies. These techniques, however, are not able to provide a complete and quantifiable representation of the ductal or vascular structures they are intended to elucidate. Alternatively, the nature of 3-dimensional plastic resin casts generates a permanent snapshot of the system and is a novel and widely useful technique for visualizing and quantifying 3-dimensional structures and networks. A crucial advantage of the resin casting system is the ability to determine the intact and connected, or communicating, structure of a blood vessel or duct. The structure of vascular and ductal networks are crucial for organ function, and this technique has the potential to aid study of vascular and ductal networks in several ways. Resin casting may be used to analyze normal morphology and functional architecture of a luminal structure, identify developmental morphogenetic changes, and uncover morphological differences in tissue architecture between normal and disease states. Previous work has utilized resin casting to study, for example, architectural and functional defects within the mouse intrahepatic bile duct system that were not reflected in 2-dimensional analysis of the structure1,2, alterations in brain vasculature of a Alzheimer's disease mouse model3, portal vein abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice4, developmental steps in rat lymphatic maturation between immature and adult lungs5, immediate microvascular changes in the rat liver, pancreas, and kidney in response in to chemical injury6. Here we present a method of generating a 3-dimensional resin cast of a mouse vascular or ductal network, focusing

  18. Scientific visualization of 3-dimensional optimized stellarator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The design techniques and physics analysis of modern stellarator configurations for magnetic fusion research rely heavily on high performance computing and simulation. Stellarators, which are fundamentally 3-dimensional in nature, offer significantly more design flexibility than more symmetric devices such as the tokamak. By varying the outer boundary shape of the plasma, a variety of physics features, such as transport, stability, and heating efficiency can be optimized. Scientific visualization techniques are an important adjunct to this effort as they provide a necessary ergonomic link between the numerical results and the intuition of the human researcher. The authors have developed a variety of visualization techniques for stellarators which both facilitate the design optimization process and allow the physics simulations to be more readily understood.

  19. Quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis of olecranon fractures.

    PubMed

    Lubberts, Bart; Janssen, Stein; Mellema, Jos; Ring, David

    2016-05-01

    Olecranon fractures have variable size of the proximal fragment, patterns of fragmentation, and subluxation of the ulnohumeral joint that might be better understood and categorized on the basis of quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography analysis. Mayo type I fractures are undisplaced, Mayo type II are displaced and stable, and Mayo type III are displaced and unstable. The last is categorized into anterior and posterior dislocations. The purpose of this study was to further clarify fracture morphology between Mayo type I, II, and III fractures. Three-dimensional models were created for a consecutive series of 78 patients with olecranon fractures that were evaluated with computed tomography. We determined the total number of fracture fragments, the volume and articular surface area of each fracture fragment, and the degree of displacement of the most proximal olecranon fracture fragment. Displaced olecranon fractures were more comminuted than nondisplaced fractures (P = .02). Displaced fractures without ulnohumeral subluxation were smallest in terms of both volume (P < .001) and articular surface involvement (P < .001) of the most proximal olecranon fracture fragment. There was no difference in average displacement of the proximal fragment between displaced fractures with and without ulnohumeral subluxation (P = .74). Anterior olecranon fracture-dislocations created more displaced (P = .04) and smaller proximal fragments than posterior fracture-dislocations (P = .005), with comparable fragmentation on average (P = .60). The ability to quantify volume, articular surface area, displacement, and fragmentation using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography should be considered when increased knowledge of fracture morphology and fracture patterns might be useful. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 3-dimensional analysis of regenerative endodontic treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    EzEldeen, Mostafa; Van Gorp, Gertrude; Van Dessel, Jeroen; Vandermeulen, Dirk; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2015-03-01

    A growing body of evidence supports the regeneration potential of dental tissues after regenerative endodontic treatment (RET). Nevertheless, a standard method for the evaluation of RET outcome is lacking. The aim of this study was to develop a standardized quantitative method for RET outcome analysis based on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) volumetric measurements. Five human teeth embedded in mandibular bone samples were scanned using both an Accuitomo 170 CBCT machine (Morita, Kyoto, Japan) and a SkyScan 1174 micro-computed tomographic (μCT) system (SkyScan, Antwerp, Belgium). For subsequent clinical application, clinical data and low-dose CBCT scans (preoperatively and follow-up) from 5 immature permanent teeth treated with RET were retrieved. In vitro and clinical 3-dimensional image data sets were imported into a dedicated software tool. Two segmentation steps were applied to extract the teeth of interest from the surrounding tissue (livewire) and to separate tooth hard tissue and root canal space (level set methods). In vitro and clinical volumetric measurements were assessed separately for differences using Wilcoxon matched pairs test. Pearson correlation analysis and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the relation and agreement between the segmented CBCT and μCT volumes. The results showed no statistical differences and strong agreement between CBCT and μCT volumetric measurements. Volumetric comparison of the root hard tissue showed significant hard tissue formation. (The mean volume of newly formed hard tissue was 27.9 [±10.5] mm(3) [P < .05]). Analysis of 3-dimensional data for teeth treated with RET offers valuable insights into the treatment outcome and patterns of hard tissue formation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Review of 3-Dimensional Printing on Cranial Neurosurgery Simulation Training.

    PubMed

    Vakharia, Vejay N; Vakharia, Nilesh N; Hill, Ciaran S

    2016-04-01

    Shorter working times, reduced operative exposure to complex procedures, and increased subspecialization have resulted in training constraints within most surgical fields. Simulation has been suggested as a possible means of acquiring new surgical skills without exposing patients to the surgeon's operative "learning curve." Here we review the potential impact of 3-dimensional printing on simulation and training within cranial neurosurgery and its implications for the future. In accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines, a comprehensive search of PubMed, OVID MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was performed. In total, 31 studies relating to the use of 3-dimensional (3D) printing within neurosurgery, of which 16 were specifically related to simulation and training, were identified. The main impact of 3D printing on neurosurgical simulation training was within vascular surgery, where patient-specific replication of vascular anatomy and pathologies can aid surgeons in operative planning and clip placement for reconstruction of vascular anatomy. Models containing replicas of brain tumors have also been reconstructed and used for training purposes, with some providing realistic representations of skin, subcutaneous tissue, bone, dura, normal brain, and tumor tissue. 3D printing provides a unique means of directly replicating patient-specific pathologies. It can identify anatomic variation and provide a medium in which training models can be generated rapidly, allowing the trainee and experienced neurosurgeon to practice parts of operations preoperatively. Future studies are required to validate this technology in comparison with current simulators and show improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by…

  3. Neutral pion cross section measurement at K2K

    SciTech Connect

    Mariani, C.

    2007-12-21

    In this paper we report the measurement of the rate of the single {pi}{sup o} production in the K2K close detector. Neutral current single {pi}{sup o} production is measured in Oxygen, in the 1 KT detector. The cross section ratio relative to the total charged current cross section is found to be: 0.063{+-}0.001(stat.){+-}0.006(syst.) in good agreement with the Monte Carlo expectation. Inclusive charged current {pi}{sup o} production is measured in C{sub 8}H{sub 8}, in the SciBar detector, the cross section ratio for these processes relative to the charged current quasi elastic neutrino cross section is found to be 0.306{+-}0.023(stat.){+-}0.025(syst.) showing an excess of (39{+-}15)% (statistical and systematic error added in quadrature) with respect to the prediction of our reference Monte Carlo.

  4. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. International "Intercomparison of 3-Dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" (13RC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahalan, Robert F.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An international "Intercomparison of 3-dimensional (3D) Radiation Codes" 13RC) has been initiated. It is endorsed by the GEWEX Radiation Panel, and funded jointly by the United States Department of Energy ARM program, and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Radiation Sciences program. It is a 3-phase effort that has as its goals to: (1) understand the errors and limits of 3D methods; (2) provide 'baseline' cases for future 3D code development; (3) promote sharing of 3D tools; (4) derive guidelines for 3D tool selection; and (5) improve atmospheric science education in 3D radiation.

  6. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  7. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles

    PubMed Central

    SANDERS, IRA; MU, LIANCAI

    2013-01-01

    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  8. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  9. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  10. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  11. 3-Dimensional Facial Analysis—Facing Precision Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Baynam, Gareth; Bauskis, Alicia; Pachter, Nicholas; Schofield, Lyn; Verhoef, Hedwig; Palmer, Richard L.; Kung, Stefanie; Helmholz, Petra; Ridout, Michael; Walker, Caroline E.; Hawkins, Anne; Goldblatt, Jack; Weeramanthri, Tarun S.; Dawkins, Hugh J. S.; Molster, Caron M.

    2017-01-01

    Precision public health is a new field driven by technological advances that enable more precise descriptions and analyses of individuals and population groups, with a view to improving the overall health of populations. This promises to lead to more precise clinical and public health practices, across the continuum of prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. A phenotype is the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of a genotype with the environment. Precision (deep) phenotyping applies innovative technologies to exhaustively and more precisely examine the discrete components of a phenotype and goes beyond the information usually included in medical charts. This form of phenotyping is a critical component of more precise diagnostic capability and 3-dimensional facial analysis (3DFA) is a key technological enabler in this domain. In this paper, we examine the potential of 3DFA as a public health tool, by viewing it against the 10 essential public health services of the “public health wheel,” developed by the US Centers for Disease Control. This provides an illustrative framework to gage current and emergent applications of genomic technologies for implementing precision public health. PMID:28443272

  12. Assessments of Fatty Infiltration and Muscle Atrophy From a Single Magnetic Resonance Image Slice Are Not Predictive of 3-Dimensional Measurements.

    PubMed

    Vidt, Meghan E; Santago, Anthony C; Tuohy, Christopher J; Poehling, Gary G; Freehill, Michael T; Kraft, Robert A; Marsh, Anthony P; Hegedus, Eric J; Miller, Michael E; Saul, Katherine R

    2016-01-01

    To (1) determine whether standard clinical muscle fatty infiltration and atrophy assessment techniques using a single image slice for patients with a rotator cuff tear (RCT) are correlated with 3-dimensional measures in older individuals (60+ years) and (2) to determine whether age-associated changes to muscle morphology and strength are compounded by an RCT. Twenty older individuals were studied: 10 with an RCT of the supraspinatus (5 men and 5 women) and 10 matched controls. Clinical imaging assessments (Goutallier and Fuchs scores and cross-sectional area ratio) were performed for participants with RCTs. Three-dimensional measurements of rotator cuff muscle and fat tissues were obtained for all participants using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Isometric joint moment was measured at the shoulder. There were no significant associations between single-image assessments and 3-dimensional measurements of fatty infiltration for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles. Compared with controls, participants with RCTs had significantly increased percentages of fatty infiltration for each rotator cuff muscle (all P ≤ .023); reduced whole muscle volume for the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles (all P ≤ .038); and reduced fat-free muscle volume for the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and subscapularis muscles (all P ≤ .027). Only the teres minor (P = .017) fatty infiltration volume was significantly greater for participants with RCTs. Adduction, flexion, and external rotation strength (all P ≤ .021) were significantly reduced for participants with RCTs, and muscle volume was a significant predictor of strength for all comparisons. Clinical scores using a single image slice do not represent 3-dimensional muscle measurements. Efficient methods are needed to more effectively capture 3-dimensional information for clinical applications. Participants with RCTs had increased fatty infiltration percentages that were likely driven by muscle

  13. 17. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 2, CONSTRUCTED 19371938, AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 2, CONSTRUCTED 1937-1938, AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU STREAM ON THE BEACH (80' ALTITUDE). VIEW UPSTREAM INTO WAIKOLU VALLEY. NOTE RAIN-PRODUCING CLOUD COVER GATHERED AT THE HEAD OF THE VALLEY. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  14. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 2, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) "Effectiveness and Efficiency": The University System of Maryland's Campaign to Control Costs and Increase Student Aid (Kay Mills); (2) Remote Access: Western…

  15. 2. VIEW OF THE LOCATION WHERE A STREAM CROSSING WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE LOCATION WHERE A STREAM CROSSING WILL BE CONSTRUCTED FOR TRUCK HAULING PURPOSES DURING THE SALE AND WHERE THE AREA WILL BE RETURNED TO ITS NATURAL STATE AFTER HAULING IS COMPLETED. LOCATED IMMEDIATELY SOUTH OF HELIPAD #13. FACING NORTH 5 WEST (355ø). - Genoa Peak Road, Spur, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  16. Dental implant customization using numerical optimization design and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Chang; Lin, Deng-Huei; Jiang, Cho-Pei; Lin, Yuan-Min

    2017-05-01

    This study proposes a new methodology for dental implant customization consisting of numerical geometric optimization and 3-dimensional printing fabrication of zirconia ceramic. In the numerical modeling, exogenous factors for implant shape include the thread pitch, thread depth, maximal diameter of implant neck, and body size. Endogenous factors are bone density, cortical bone thickness, and non-osseointegration. An integration procedure, including uniform design method, Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm, is applied to optimize the geometry of dental implants. The threshold of minimal micromotion for optimization evaluation was 100 μm. The optimized model is imported to the 3-dimensional slurry printer to fabricate the zirconia green body (powder is bonded by polymer weakly) of the implant. The sintered implant is obtained using a 2-stage sintering process. Twelve models are constructed according to uniform design method and simulated the micromotion behavior using finite element modeling. The result of uniform design models yields a set of exogenous factors that can provide the minimal micromotion (30.61 μm), as a suitable model. Kriging interpolation and genetic algorithm modified the exogenous factor of the suitable model, resulting in 27.11 μm as an optimization model. Experimental results show that the 3-dimensional slurry printer successfully fabricated the green body of the optimization model, but the accuracy of sintered part still needs to be improved. In addition, the scanning electron microscopy morphology is a stabilized t-phase microstructure, and the average compressive strength of the sintered part is 632.1 MPa. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Laparoscopic Total Extraperitoneal (TEP) Inguinal Hernia Repair Using 3-dimensional Mesh Without Mesh Fixation.

    PubMed

    Aliyazicioglu, Tolga; Yalti, Tunc; Kabaoglu, Burcak

    2017-08-01

    Approximately one fifth of patients suffer from inguinal pain after laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair. There is existing literature suggesting that the staples used to fix the mesh can cause postoperative inguinal pain. In this study, we describe our experience with laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia surgery using 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation, in our institution. A total of 300 patients who had undergone laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repair with 3-dimensional mesh in VKV American Hospital, Istanbul from November 2006 to November 2015 were studied retrospectively. Using the hospital's electronic archive, we studied patients' selected parameters, which are demographic features (age, sex), body mass index, hernia locations and types, duration of operations, preoperative and postoperative complications, duration of hospital stays, cost of surgery, need for analgesics, time elapsed until returning to daily activities and work. A total of 300 patients underwent laparoscopic TEP hernia repair of 437 inguinal hernias from November 2006 to November 2015. Of the 185 patients, 140 were symptomatic. Mean duration of follow-up was 48 months (range, 6 to 104 mo). The mean duration of surgery was 55 minutes for bilateral hernia repair, and 38 minutes for unilateral hernia repair. The mean duration of hospital stay was 0.9 day. There was no conversion to open surgery. In none of the cases the mesh was fixated with either staples or fibrin glue. Six patients (2%) developed seroma that were treated conservatively. One patient had inguinal hernia recurrence. One patient had preperitoneal hematoma. One patient operated due to indirect right-sided hernia developed right-sided hydrocele. One patient had wound dehiscence at the umbilical port entry site. Chronic pain developed postoperatively in 1 patient. Ileus developed in 1 patient. Laparoscopic TEP inguinal repair with 3-dimensional mesh without mesh fixation can be performed as safe as

  18. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  19. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  20. Quantitative 3-Dimensional Imaging of Murine Neointimal and Atherosclerotic Lesions by Optical Projection Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Kirkby, Nicholas S.; Low, Lucinda; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Walker, Brian R.; Webb, David J.; Hadoke, Patrick W. F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Traditional methods for the analysis of vascular lesion formation are labour intensive to perform - restricting study to ‘snapshots’ within each vessel. This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of optical projection tomographic (OPT) imaging for the 3-dimensional representation and quantification of intimal lesions in mouse arteries. Methods and Results Vascular injury was induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery or administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice. Lesion formation was examined by OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission. Lesions could be clearly identified and distinguished from the underlying vascular wall. Planimetric measurements of lesion area correlated well with those made from histological sections subsequently produced from the same vessels (wire-injury: R2 = 0.92; ligation-injury: R2 = 0.89; atherosclerosis: R2 = 0.85), confirming both the accuracy of this methodology and its non-destructive nature. It was also possible to record volumetric measurements of lesion and lumen and these were highly reproducible between scans (coefficient of variation = 5.36%, 11.39% and 4.79% for wire- and ligation-injury and atherosclerosis, respectively). Conclusions These data demonstrate the eminent suitability of OPT for imaging of atherosclerotic and neointimal lesion formation, providing a much needed means for the routine 3-dimensional analysis of vascular morphology in studies of this type. PMID:21379578

  1. Video Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, R. T.; Book, Michael L.; Bryan, Thomas C.

    2000-01-01

    Video-Based Sensor for Tracking 3-Dimensional Targets The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASAs) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and testing video-based sensors for automated spacecraft guidance for several years, and the next generation of video sensor will have tracking rates up to 100 Hz and will be able to track multiple reflectors and targets. The Video Guidance Sensor (VGS) developed over the past several years has performed well in testing and met the objective of being used as the terminal guidance sensor for an automated rendezvous and capture system. The first VGS was successfully tested in closed-loop 3-degree-of-freedom (3- DOF) tests in 1989 and then in 6-DOF open-loop tests in 1992 and closed-loop tests in 1993-4. Development and testing continued, and in 1995 approval was given to test the VGS in an experiment on the Space Shuttle. The VGS flew in 1997 and in 1998, performing well for both flights. During the development and testing before, during, and after the flight experiments, numerous areas for improvement were found. The VGS was developed with a sensor head and an electronics box, connected by cables. The VGS was used in conjunction with a target that had wavelength-filtered retro-reflectors in a specific pattern, The sensor head contained the laser diodes, video camera, and heaters and coolers. The electronics box contained a frame grabber, image processor, the electronics to control the components in the sensor head, the communications electronics, and the power supply. The system works by sequentially firing two different wavelengths of laser diodes at the target and processing the two images. Since the target only reflects one wavelength, it shows up well in one image and not at all in the other. Because the target's dimensions are known, the relative positions and attitudes of the target and the sensor can be computed from the spots reflected from the target. The system was designed to work from I

  2. Biomechanical Properties of 3-Dimensional Printed Volar Locking Distal Radius Plate: Comparison With Conventional Volar Locking Plate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Jae; Jo, Young-Hoon; Choi, Wan-Sun; Lee, Chang-Hun; Lee, Bong-Gun; Kim, Joo-Hak; Lee, Kwang-Hyun

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the biomechanical properties of a new volar locking plate made by 3-dimensional printing using titanium alloy powder and 2 conventional volar locking plates under static and dynamic loading conditions that were designed to replicate those seen during fracture healing and early postoperative rehabilitation. For all plate designs, 12 fourth-generation synthetic composite radii were fitted with volar locking plates according to the manufacturers' technique after segmental osteotomy. Each specimen was first preloaded 10 N and then was loaded to 100 N, 200 N, and 300 N in phases at a rate of 2 N/s. Each construct was then dynamically loaded for 2,000 cycles of fatigue loading in each phase for a total 10,000 cycles. Finally, the constructs were loaded to a failure at a rate of 5 mm/min. All 3 plates showed increasing stiffness at higher loads. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate showed significantly higher stiffness at all dynamic loading tests compared with the 2 conventional volar locking plates. The 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate had the highest yield strength, which was significantly higher than those of 2 conventional volar locking plates. A 3-dimensional printed volar locking plate has similar stiffness to conventional plates in an experimental model of a severely comminuted distal radius fracture in which the anterior and posterior metaphyseal cortex are involved. These results support the potential clinical utility of 3-dimensional printed volar locking plates in which design can be modified according the fracture configuration and the anatomy of the radius. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of CH and C2H2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. Asgar; Rudd, M. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Electron-impact total ionization cross sections for the CH radical and C2H2 (acetylene) have been calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model. The BEB model combines the Mott cross section and the asymptotic form of the Bethe theory, and has been shown to generate reliable ionization cross sections for a large variety of molecules. The BEB cross sections for CH and C2H2 are in good agreement with the available experimental data from ionization thresholds to hundreds of eV in incident energies. PMID:27805116

  4. The 3-dimensional grid: a novel approach to stereoelectroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Munyon, Charles; Sweet, Jennifer; Luders, Hans; Lhatoo, Samden; Miller, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Successful surgical treatment of epilepsy requires accurate definition of areas of ictal onset and eloquent brain. Although invasive monitoring can help, subdural grids cannot sample sulci or subcortical tissue; traditional stereoelectroencephalography depth electrodes are usually placed too far apart to provide sufficient resolution for mapping. To report a strategy of depth electrode placement in a dense array to allow precise anatomic localization of epileptic and eloquent cortex. Twenty patients with medically intractable epilepsy either poorly localized or found to arise adjacent to eloquent areas underwent placement of arrays of depth electrodes into and around the putative area of seizure onset with the use of framed stereotaxy. Each array consisted of a "grid" of parallel electrodes in a rectangular pattern with 1 cm between entry sites. In a subset of patients, a few electrodes were placed initially, with additional electrodes placed in a second stage. Trajectories were modified to avoid cortical vessels defined on magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were monitored for 4 to 21 days to establish the precise location of seizure onset. Stimulation was performed to map cortical and subcortical eloquent regions. Electrode locations were coregistered for frameless stereotaxy during subsequent resection of seizure focus. Two hundred fifty-four electrodes were implanted. Discrete regions of seizure onset and functional cortex were identified, which were used during resection to remove epileptogenic tissue while preserving eloquent areas. There were no hemorrhagic or infectious complications; no patient suffered permanent neurological deficit. The 3-dimensional intraparenchymal grid is useful for identifying the location and extent of epileptic and eloquent brain.

  5. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  6. Quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography measurements of coronoid fractures.

    PubMed

    Mellema, Jos J; Janssen, Stein J; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David

    2015-03-01

    Using quantitative 3-dimensional computed tomography (Q3DCT) modeling, we tested the null hypothesis that there was no difference in fracture fragment volume, articular surface involvement, and number of fracture fragments between coronoid fracture types and patterns of traumatic elbow instability. We studied 82 patients with a computed tomography scan of a coronoid fracture using Q3DCT modeling. Fracture fragments were identified and fragment volume and articular surface involvement were measured within fracture types and injury patterns. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to evaluate the Q3DCT data of the coronoid fractures. Fractures of the coronoid tip (n = 45) were less fragmented and had the smallest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with anteromedial facet fractures (n = 20) and base fractures (n = 17). Anteromedial facet and base fractures were more fragmented than tip fractures, and base fractures had the largest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with tip and anteromedial facet fractures. We found similar differences between fracture types described by Regan and Morrey. Furthermore, fractures associated with terrible triad fracture dislocation (n = 42) had the smallest fragment volume, and fractures associated with olecranon fracture dislocations (n = 17) had the largest fragment volume and articular surface area involvement compared with the other injury patterns. Analyzing fractures of the coronoid using Q3DCT modeling demonstrated that fracture fragment characteristics differ significantly between fracture types and injury patterns. Detailed knowledge of fracture characteristics and their association with specific patterns of traumatic elbow instability may assist decision making and preoperative planning. Quantitative 3DCT modeling can provide a more detailed understanding of fracture morphology, which might guide decision making and implant development. Copyright © 2015 American Society for

  7. A 3-Dimensional Anatomic Study of the Distal Biceps Tendon

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Christine; Li, Zhi; Pennings, Amanda; Agur, Anne; Elmaraghy, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete rupture of the distal biceps tendon from its osseous attachment is most often treated with operative intervention. Knowledge of the overall tendon morphology as well as the orientation of the collagenous fibers throughout the musculotendinous junction are key to intraoperative decision making and surgical technique in both the acute and chronic setting. Unfortunately, there is little information available in the literature. Purpose To comprehensively describe the morphology of the distal biceps tendon. Study Design Descriptive laboratory study. Methods The distal biceps terminal musculature, musculotendinous junction, and tendon were digitized in 10 cadaveric specimens and data reconstructed using 3-dimensional modeling. Results The average length, width, and thickness of the external distal biceps tendon were found to be 63.0, 6.0, and 3.0 mm, respectively. A unique expansion of the tendon fibers within the distal muscle was characterized, creating a thick collagenous network along the central component between the long and short heads. Conclusion This study documents the morphologic parameters of the native distal biceps tendon. Reconstruction may be necessary, especially in chronic distal biceps tendon ruptures, if the remaining tendon morphology is significantly compromised compared with the native distal biceps tendon. Knowledge of normal anatomical distal biceps tendon parameters may also guide the selection of a substitute graft with similar morphological characteristics. Clinical Relevance A thorough description of distal biceps tendon morphology is important to guide intraoperative decision making between primary repair and reconstruction and to better select the most appropriate graft. The detailed description of the tendinous expansion into the muscle may provide insight into better graft-weaving and suture-grasping techniques to maximize proximal graft incorporation. PMID:26665092

  8. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  9. Cycle 2 Nonlinear Design Optimization Analytical Cross Checks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bencze, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the Cycle 2 Nonlinear Design Optimization Anlaytical Cross Checks are to: 1) Understand the variability in the predicted performance levels of the nonlinear designs arising from the use of different inviscid (full potential/Euler) and viscous (Navier-Stokes) analysis methods; and 2) Provide the information required to allow the performance levels of all three designs to be validated using the data from the NCV (nonlinear Cruise Validation) model test.

  10. Femtosecond laser assisted 3-dimensional freeform fabrication of metal microstructures in fused silica (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Fatmah; Charvet, Raphaël.; Dénéréaz, Cyril; Mortensen, Andreas; Bellouard, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Femtosecond laser exposure of fused silica combined with chemical etching has opened up new opportunities for three-dimensional freeform processing of micro-structures that can form complex micro-devices of silica, integrating optical, mechanical and/or fluidic functionalities. Here, we demontrate an expansion of this process with an additional fabrication step that enables the integration of three-dimensional embedded metallic structures out of useful engineering metals such as silver, gold, copper as well as some of their alloys. This additional step is an adaptation of the pressure infiltration for the insertion of high conductivity, high melting point metals and alloys into topologically complex, femtosecond laser-machined cavities in fused silica. This produces truly 3-dimensional microstructures, including microcoils and needles, within the bulk of glass substrates. Combining this added capability with the existing possibilities of femtosecond laser micromachining (i.e. direct written waveguides, microchannels, resonators, etc.) opens up a host of potential applications for the contactless fabrication of highly integrated monolithic devices that include conductive element of all kind. We present preliminary results from this new fabrication process, including prototype devices that incorporate 3D electrodes with aspect ratios of 1:100 and a feature size resolution down to 2μm. We demonstrate the generation of high electric field gradients (of the order of 1013 Vm-2) in these devices due to the 3-dimensional topology of fabricated microstructures.

  11. Measured Total Cross Sections of Slow Neutrons Scattered by Gaseous and Liquid 2H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, F.; van den Brandt, B.; Bryś, T.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Hautle, P.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Kühne, G.; Konter, J. A.; Pichlmaier, A.; Wokaun, A.; Bodek, K.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuźniak, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Giersch, M.; Zmeskal, J.; Hino, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2005-06-01

    The total scattering cross sections for slow neutrons with energies E in the range 300 neV to 3 meV for gaseous and liquid ortho-2H2 have been measured. The cross sections for 2H2 gas are found to be in excellent agreement with both the Hamermesh and Schwinger and the Young and Koppel models. For liquid 2H2, we confirm the existing experimental data in the cold neutron range and the discrepancy with the gas models. We find a clear 1/√(E') dependence at low energies for both states. A simple explanation for the liquid 2H2 cross section is offered.

  12. 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate hydrogels with gradient of cross-link density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Matusiak, Malgorzata; Adamus, Agnieszka; Olejniczak, Magdalena N.; Kozanecki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate mixtures leads to the formation of cross-linked structures that exhibit a gradient of cross-link density, as demonstrated by gel fraction, swelling and Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis. The reason for observed phase separation is formation of the high molecular weight clusters and its precipitation before gelation dose. This effect can be controlled/influenced by absorbed dose and cross-linker concentration.

  13. Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for prosthetic valve endocarditis: initial experience.

    PubMed

    Kort, Smadar

    2006-02-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography is a relatively new technology with rapidly growing potential applications. Prosthetic valve endocarditis is still a challenging diagnosis despite improvements in image qualities obtained by both transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms. The purpose of this article is to present 4 cases of suggested prosthetic valve endocarditis, in which real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography was performed, and to discuss the potential use of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography for this application.

  14. Endothelial cells assemble into a 3-dimensional prevascular network in a bone tissue engineering construct.

    PubMed

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; de Boer, Jan; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A

    2006-09-01

    To engineer tissues with clinically relevant dimensions, one must overcome the challenge of rapidly creating functional blood vessels to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial cells, cocultured with osteoprogenitor cells, can organize into a prevascular network in vitro. When cultured in a spheroid coculture model with human mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) form a 3-dimensional prevascular network within 10 days of in vitro culture. The formation of the prevascular network was promoted by seeding 2% or fewer HUVECs. Moreover, the addition of endothelial cells resulted in a 4-fold upregulation of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. The addition of mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not result in stabilization of the prevascular network. Upon implantation, the prevascular network developed further and structures including lumen could be seen regularly. However, anastomosis with the host vasculature was limited. We conclude that endothelial cells are able to form a 3-dimensional (3D) prevascular network in vitro in a bone tissue engineering setting. This finding is a strong indication that in vitro prevascularization is a promising strategy to improve implant vascularization in bone tissue engineering.

  15. Can Abdominal Hypopressive Technique Change Levator Hiatus Area?: A 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Torelli, Luiza; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna IIona Katalin; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Araujo Júnior, E; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levator hiatus area (LHA) at rest and during the performance of maximal pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, during the abdominal hypopressive technique (AHT), and during the combination of PFM contractions (PFMCs) and the AHT. The study included 17 healthy nulliparous women who had no history of pelvic floor disorders. The LHA was evaluated with the patients in the lithotomy position. After a physiotherapist instructed the patients on the proper performance of the PFM and AHT exercises, 1 gynecologist performed the 3-dimensional translabial ultrasound examinations. The LHA was measured with the patients at rest. The PFMC alone, the AHT alone or the AHT in combination with a PFMC with 30 seconds of rest between the evaluations were performed. Each measurement was performed 2 times, and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to test the differences between the 2 maneuvers. Similar values were observed when comparing the LHA of the PFM at rest (12.2 ± 2.4) cm and during the AHT (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.227). The AHT+ PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm demonstrated lower values compared with AHT alone (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.002). When comparing the PFMC (10.4 ± 2.1) cm with the AHT + PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm, no significant difference (P = 0.551) was observed. During PFMC, the constriction was 1.8 cm; during the AHT, the constriction was 0.5 cm; and during the AHT + PFMC, it was 2 cm. The LHA assessed by 3-dimensional ultrasound did not significantly change with AHT. These results support the theory that AHT does not strengthen PFM.

  16. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  17. Electron impact cross sections for the 2,2P state excitation of lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.; Register, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the 2p 2P state of Li was studied at 10, 20, 60, 100, 150 and 200 eV. Relative differential cross sections in the angular range 3-120 deg were measured and then normalized to the absolute scale by using the optical f value. Integral and momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by extrapolating the differential cross sections to 0 deg and to 180 deg. The question of normalizing electron-metal-atom collision cross sections in general was examined and the method of normalization to optical f values in particular was investigated in detail. It has been concluded that the extrapolation of the apparent generalized oscillator strength (obtained from the measured differential cross sections) to the zero momentum transfer limit with an expression using even powers of the momentum transfer and normalization of the limit to the optical f value yields reliable absolute cross sections.

  18. Using 3-dimensional printing to create presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Bahcall, James K

    2014-09-01

    Advances in endodontic surgery--from both a technological and procedural perspective-have been significant over the last 18 years. Although these technologies and procedural enhancements have significantly improved endodontic surgical treatment outcomes, there is still an ongoing challenge of overcoming the limitations of interpreting preoperative 2-dimensional (2-D) radiographic representation of a 3-dimensional (3-D) in vivo surgical field. Cone-beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) has helped to address this issue by providing a 3-D enhancement of the 2-D radiograph. The next logical step to further improve a presurgical case 3-D assessment is to create a surgical model from the CBCT scan. The purpose of this article is to introduce 3-D printing of CBCT scans for creating presurgical models for endodontic surgery.

  19. Partial ionisation cross-sections of 2-propanol and ethanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, J. R.; Jorand, F.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Pasquiers, S.

    2006-04-01

    Electron impact ionisation of 2-propanol and ethanal is studied using mass spectrometry. Cross-sections of the formation of molecular ions and ionic fragments are measured between 14 and 86 eV. Free energy changes are evaluated using ab initio calculations. For 2-propanol, two ions, identified as CH 3CHOH + (45 amu) and CH3CHCH3+ (43 amu), contribute more than 75% to the total cross-section over the whole range of electron energies and are produced by simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. Both processes occur spontaneously, leaving the molecular ion as a minority species. For ethanal, two ions, identified as HCO + (29 amu) and CH 3CO + (43 amu), and the molecular ion (44 amu) contribute more than 80% to the total cross-section. The ions of 29 and 43 amu result from a simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. These sprocesses are not spontaneous and the contribution of the molecular ion becomes predominant at 15 eV and is therefore significant over the whole range of ionisation energies.

  20. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cole A.; Miller, Steven F.; da Fontoura, Clarissa S. G.; Wehby, George L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Holton, Nathan E.; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E.; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes, DUSP6, ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Methods Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Results Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1 AJUBA, SNAI3 SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant

  1. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Cole A; Miller, Steven F; da Fontoura, Clarissa S G; Wehby, George L; Amendt, Brad A; Holton, Nathan E; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E; Moreno Uribe, Lina M

    2017-03-01

    Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes DUSP6,ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1AJUBA, SNAI3SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant after the Bonferroni

  2. Cross-correlating 2D and 3D galaxy surveys

    DOE PAGES

    Passaglia, Samuel; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott

    2017-06-08

    Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors ofmore » $${\\sim}1.2$$ to $${\\sim}1.8$$ on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-$z$ parameter constraints by factors of $${\\sim}2$$ to $${\\sim}12$$ over internal photo-$z$ reconstructions.« less

  3. Cross-correlating 2D and 3D galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passaglia, Samuel; Manzotti, Alessandro; Dodelson, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Galaxy surveys probe both structure formation and the expansion rate, making them promising avenues for understanding the dark universe. Photometric surveys accurately map the 2D distribution of galaxy positions and shapes in a given redshift range, while spectroscopic surveys provide sparser 3D maps of the galaxy distribution. We present a way to analyse overlapping 2D and 3D maps jointly and without loss of information. We represent 3D maps using spherical Fourier-Bessel (sFB) modes, which preserve radial coverage while accounting for the spherical sky geometry, and we decompose 2D maps in a spherical harmonic basis. In these bases, a simple expression exists for the cross-correlation of the two fields. One very powerful application is the ability to simultaneously constrain the redshift distribution of the photometric sample, the sample biases, and cosmological parameters. We use our framework to show that combined analysis of DESI and LSST can improve cosmological constraints by factors of ˜1.2 to ˜1.8 on the region where they overlap relative to identically sized disjoint regions. We also show that in the overlap of DES and SDSS-III in Stripe 82, cross-correlating improves photo-z parameter constraints by factors of ˜2 to ˜12 over internal photo-z reconstructions.

  4. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  5. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  6. Method and apparatus for imaging through 3-dimensional tracking of protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James M. (Inventor); Macri, John R. (Inventor); McConnell, Mark L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for creating density images of an object through the 3-dimensional tracking of protons that have passed through the object are provided. More specifically, the 3-dimensional tracking of the protons is accomplished by gathering and analyzing images of the ionization tracks of the protons in a closely packed stack of scintillating fibers.

  7. RCS calculations of 3-dimensional objects, modeled by CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleeneer, I.; Schweicher, E.; Barel, A.

    1991-09-01

    All the steps are detailed that one has to perform to enable efficient Radar Cross Section calculation for objects with a complex and general shape. Only cavities are supposed to be nonexistent at this state of the work. Before the actual RCS calculations, preliminary treatments like systematic modeling, Hidden Faces removal, and automatic recognition of reflection and diffraction centers are realized. After the creation of the object's geometry and its adaptation to the direction of the observator, Physical Optics (PO) was used to determine the backscattered field, and Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) was used to evaluate the diffracted fields. Only monostatic scattering (i.e., backscattering) is considered.

  8. Accuracy of 3-dimensional curvilinear measurements on digital models with intraoral scanners.

    PubMed

    Mack, Spencer; Bonilla, Tammy; English, Jeryl D; Cozad, Benjamin; Akyalcin, Sercan

    2017-09-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate and compare the digital dental models generated from 2 commercial intraoral scanners with manual measurements when performing 3-dimensional surface measurements along a curved line (curvilinear). Dry mandibles (n = 61) with intact dentition were used. The mandibles were digitized using 2 chair-side intraoral scanners: Cadent iTero (Align Technology, San Jose, Calif) and Lythos Digital Impression system (Ormco, Orange, Calif). Digitized 3-dimensional models were converted to individual stereolithography files and used with commercial software to obtain the curvilinear measurements. Manual measurements were carried out directly on the mandibular teeth. Measurements were made on different locations on the dental arch in various directions. One-sample t tests and linear regression analyses were performed. To further graphically examine the accuracy between the different methods, Bland-Altman plots were computed. The level of significance was set at P <0.05. There were no significant differences between any of the paired methods; this indicated a certain level of agreement between the methods tested (P >0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed no fixed bias of 1 approach vs the other, and random errors were detected in all comparisons. Although the mean biases of the digital models obtained by the iTero and Lythos scanners, when compared with direct caliper measurements, were low, the comparison of the 2 intraoral scanners yielded the lowest mean bias. No comparison displayed statistical significance for the t scores; this indicated the absence of proportional bias in these comparisons. The intraoral scanners tested in this study produced digital dental models that were comparatively accurate when performing direct surface measurements along a curved line in 3 dimensions. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  10. The effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics model for medical education.

    PubMed

    Battulga, Bayanmunkh; Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-07-09

    Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures.

  11. Cross-coupling of propargylated arabinogalactan with 2-bromothiophene.

    PubMed

    Parshina, Lidiya N; Grishchenko, Lyudmila A; Larina, Lyudmila I; Novikova, Lyubov N; Trofimov, Boris A

    2016-10-05

    Novel pharmacologically prospective derivatives of arabinogalactan (a polysaccharide from larch wood) containing acetylenic and thiophene moieties have been obtained in up to 90% yield by cross-coupling of propargylic ethers of arabinogalactan with 2-bromothiophene. The reaction proceeds in the presence of the catalytic system Pd(Ph3P)4/CuBr/LiBr and piperidine in DMSO at 80-85°С. An advantageous feature of the synthesis is that it requires 5-25 times lesser catalytic loading than in common Sonogashira protocols thus making the reaction particularly beneficial to synthesize pharmaceutically-oriented polysaccharides.

  12. Total electron scattering and electronic state excitations cross sections for O2, CO, and CH4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanik, I.; Trajmar, S.; Nickel, J. C.

    1993-01-01

    Available electron collision cross section data concerning total and elastic scattering, vibrational excitation, and ionization for O2, CO, and CH4 have been critically reviewed, and a set of cross sections for modeling of planetary atmospheric behavior is recommended. Utilizing these recommended cross sections, we derived total electronic state excitation cross sections and upper limits for dissociation cross sections, which in the case of CH4 should very closely equal the actual dissociation cross section.

  13. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to H2O and D2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Prashant; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Aravind, G.; Rahman, M. A.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2007-12-01

    The dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process to water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) has been studied in the gas phase in a cross beam experiment for electron energies up to 20 eV. The apparatus used eliminates discrimination due to the kinetic energy and angular distribution of the ions. The cross sections are normalized to absolute values using the cross section for production of O- from O2 (Rapp and Briglia 1965 J. Chem. Phys. 43 1480). These are the first exhaustive measurements of absolute cross sections for both the H- and O- from H2O and D- and O- from D2O at all the three resonances. The results are compared with the scarce data available in the literature. Isotope effect is observed at the 12 eV resonance in the H- channel and at all the three resonances in the O- channel.

  14. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  15. Surface compositional heterogeneity of (4) Vesta from Dawn FC using a 3 dimensional spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangjam, G.; Nathues, A.; Mengel, K.; Hoffmann, M.; Schäfer, M.; Mann, P.; Cloutis, E. A.; Behrens, H.; Platz, T.; Schäfer, T.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The historic journey of the Dawn spacecraft in 2011- 2012 was a turning point in understanding asteroid (4) Vesta. The surface composition and lithology were analysed and mapped in earlier studies using Dawn imageries [1], [2]. We introduce here a 3 dimensional spectral approach to analyze and map the surface composition using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. Various laboratory spectra of available HEDs and their mixtures, including new spectra measured in this work, were used. Band parameters were reviewed and modified wherever necessary to make the best use of the data. We particularly focused on carbonaceous-chondrite-bearing and olivine-bearing lithologies. An attempt has been made to distinguish glass/impact-melt lithologies.

  16. Virtual electrophysiological study in a 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance imaging model of porcine myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Ng, Jason; Jacobson, Jason T; Ng, Justin K; Gordon, David; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-31

    This study sought to test the hypothesis that "virtual" electrophysiological studies (EPS) on an anatomic platform generated by 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging reconstruction of the left ventricle can reproduce the reentrant circuits of induced ventricular tachycardia (VT) in a porcine model of myocardial infarction. Delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging has been used to characterize myocardial infarction and "gray zones," which are thought to reflect heterogeneous regions of viable and nonviable myocytes. Myocardial infarction by coronary artery occlusion was induced in 8 pigs. After a recovery period, 3-dimensional cardiac magnetic resonance images were obtained from each pig in vivo. Normal areas, gray zones, and infarct cores were classified based on voxel intensity. In the computer model, gray zones were assigned slower conduction and longer action potential durations than those for normal myocardium. Virtual EPS was performed and compared with results of actual in vivo programmed stimulation and noncontact mapping. The left ventricular volumes ranged from 97.8 to 166.2 cm(3), with 4.9% to 17.5% of voxels classified as infarct zones. Six of the 7 pigs in which VT developed during actual EPS were also inducible with virtual EPS. Four of the 6 pigs that had simulated VT had reentrant circuits that approximated the circuits seen with noncontact mapping, whereas the remaining 2 had similar circuits but propagating in opposite directions. This initial study demonstrates the feasibility of applying a mathematical model to magnetic resonance imaging reconstructions of the left ventricle to predict VT circuits. Virtual EPS may be helpful to plan catheter ablation strategies or to identify patients who are at risk of future episodes of VT. Copyright © 2012 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  18. Accuracy of 3-Dimensional Transoesophageal Echocardiography in Assessment of Prosthetic Mitral Valve Dehiscence with Comparison to Anatomical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Martin R.; Javorsky, George; Platts, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of echocardiography from 2-Dimensional Transthoracic Echo through to real time 3-Dimensional Transoesophageal Echo has enabled more accurate visualisation and quantification of valvular disorders especially prosthetic mitral valve paravalvular regurgitation. However, validation of accuracy is rarely confirmed by surgical or post-mortem specimens. We present a case directly comparing different echocardiographic modality images to post mortem specimens in a patient with prosthetic mitral valve paravalvular regurgitation. PMID:20886015

  19. Calculation of 3-Dimensional Synthetic Seismograms on the Connection Machine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    V;- -C- 12 c c V; -~~~ --N C - eo ~ -C x cc - CS 1; S~ a. :5 :": t --10 X - = V- -- 1 . 00 0 Q, O cc 00~ & ~ 0 1.0 W. C c I *; C@Z 10 .. O I 5-- 1 13...Ctp2v - prsv (2,&tpov)) *xzlamb; *Ccdisp+i0) = (tn2v - vi) * zlamb; *Ccdisp+ii) = (vI - tp2v) * ziwub; *Ccdisp+12) = (tuiw - wi) * yzlanb; *(cdisp...f; amuzz4 - Cnext(O~kcau) + prev(2.ktno))/2.f; amuimS -(prev(O~bcmu) + next(2,ktpO))/2.f; amuz - (prev(O~kcau) + prsv (2.ktpO))/2.f; /* now, the mu for

  20. Age-related changes of the upper airway assessed by 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Zachary; Susarla, Srinivas; Troulis, Maria; Kaban, Leonard

    2009-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to establish normative data for airway size and shape and to evaluate differences associated with age and sex using 3-dimensional (3-D) imaging. Patients being evaluated by computed tomography (CT) for pathologic conditions not related to the airway were included. Using 3-D Slicer (Harvard Surgical Planning Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA), a software program, digital 3-D CT reconstructions were made and parameters of airway size analyzed: volume (VOL), surface area (SA), length (L), mean cross-sectional area (mean CSA), minimum retropalatal (RP), minimum retroglossal (RG), minimum cross-sectional area (min CSA), and lateral (LAT) and anteroposterior (AP) retroglossal airway dimensions. Evaluation of airway shape included LAT/AP and RP/RG ratios, uniformity (U), and sphericity, a measure of compactness (Psi). Children were stratified by stage of dentition: primary, 0 to 5 years; mixed, 6 to 11 years; permanent, 12 to 16 years; and adults, older than 16 years. Differences in airway parameters by age and sex were analyzed. Forty-six CT scans (31 males) were evaluated. Adults had larger (VOL, SA, L, mean CSA, and LAT), more elliptical (increased LAT/AP, P = 0.01), less uniform (U, P = 0.02), and less compact (decreased Psi, P = 0.001) airways than children. Among children, those in the permanent dentition demonstrated greater VOL (P < 0.01), SA (P < 0.01), L (P < 0.01), and mean CSA (P < 0.01) than those in the primary dentition. There were no gender differences in airway parameters. Understanding differences in 3-D airway size and morphology by age may serve as a basis for evaluation of patients with obstructive sleep apnea and may help to predict and to evaluate outcomes of treatment.

  1. Virtual 3-dimensional preoperative planning with the dextroscope for excision of a 4th ventricular ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Anil, S M; Kato, Y; Hayakawa, M; Yoshida, K; Nagahisha, S; Kanno, T

    2007-04-01

    Advances in computer imaging and technology have facilitated enhancement in surgical planning with a 3-dimensional model of the surgical plan of action utilizing advanced visualization tools in order to plan individual interactive operations with the aid of the dextroscope. This provides a proper 3-dimensional imaging insight to the pathological anatomy and sets a new dimension in collaboration for training and education. The case of a seventeen-year-old female, being operated with the aid of a preoperative 3-dimensional virtual reality planning and the practical application of the neurosurgical operation, is presented. This young lady presented with a two-year history of recurrent episodes of severe, global, throbbing headache with episodes of projectile vomiting associated with shoulder pain which progressively worsened. She had no obvious neurological deficits on clinical examination. CT and MRI showed a contrast-enhancing midline posterior fossa space-occupying lesion. Utilizing virtual imaging technology with the aid of a dextroscope which generates stereoscopic images, a 3-dimensional image was produced with the CT and MRI images. A preoperative planning for excision of the lesion was made and a real-time 3-dimensional volume was produced and surgical planning with the dextroscope was made and the lesion excised. Virtual reality has brought new proportions in 3-dimensional planning and management of various complex neuroanatomical problems that are faced during various operations. Integration of 3-dimensional imaging with stereoscopic vision makes understanding the complex anatomy easier and helps improve decision making in patient management.

  2. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy’s miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. Results: The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6. PMID:24653598

  3. Sonographic Parameters for Prediction of Miscarriage: Role of 3-Dimensional Volume Measurement.

    PubMed

    Wie, Jeong Ha; Choe, Suyearn; Kim, Sa Jin; Shin, Jong Chul; Kwon, Ji Young; Park, In Yang

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the value of volume measurement using 3-dimensional sonography for prediction of miscarriage. We prospectively enrolled 188 singleton pregnant women at 5 to 9 weeks' gestation. The 3-dimensional sonographic gestational sac volume and yolk sac volume were measured together with the fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, and yolk sac diameter. For each sonographic parameter, nomograms were created; z scores were calculated for each measurement, and the values were compared between miscarriage and ongoing pregnancy groups. Sonographic parameters for prediction of miscarriage were evaluated by multivariate analysis, and the screening performance was assessed by a receiver operating characteristic curve. Among the 188 pregnancies, 30 (16.0%) had miscarriage. Multivariate analysis showed that fetal heart rate below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 6.43), gestational sac diameter below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 4.87), gestational sac volume below the 5th percentile (odds ratio, 5.25), and yolk sac diameter below the 2.5th or above the 97.5th percentile (odds ratio, 15.86) were significant predictors of miscarriage (P = .018; P = .018; P = .033; and P < .001, respectively). At a false-positive rate of 30%, the detection rate for miscarriage in screening by a combination of fetal heart rate, gestational sac diameter, gestational sac volume, and yolk sac diameter was 77.8%. A small-for-gestational-age gestational sac volume is a significant sonographic predictor of miscarriage, as are fetal bradycardia, a small gestational sac diameter, and a small or large yolk sac diameter. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  4. Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, John, Ed.

    The Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter, an official publication of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, reports on recent publications and research in cross-cultural psychology. Notes on international conferences in the field are followed by annotations of new publications. In addition, recent research projects are…

  5. Using gpfs 2.2 to enable a cross platform accessibility of singlestorage

    SciTech Connect

    Baird, Will

    1994-12-01

    With IBM's aid I have conducted a cross compatibility test of GPFS 2.2 between an IBM F50 Power2 running AIX 5.2 ML/3 and 8 Dual Pentium 4/2.2 GHz running Redhat 9.0. The objective was to demonstrate a single shared instance of the file system and storage between the disparate operating systems and hardware systems. The cross compatibility test was successful. The chronology of events that led to this successful test are documented below.

  6. AFCI-2.0 Library of Neutron Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.; Pigni,M.; Hoblit,S.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Sonzogni,A.; Talou,P.; Chadwick,M.B.; Hale.G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G.

    2011-06-26

    Neutron cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. The covariances refer to central values given in the 2006 release of the U.S. neutron evaluated library ENDF/B-VII. The preliminary version (AFCI-2.0beta) has been completed in October 2010 and made available to the users for comments. In the final 2.0 release, covariances for a few materials were updated, in particular new LANL evaluations for {sup 238,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were adopted. BNL was responsible for covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work, while LANL was in charge of covariances for light nuclei and for actinides.

  7. Cross sections for production of H(2p, 2s, 1s) by electron collisional dissociation of H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation function of H Ly-alpha from the astrophysically important dissociation of electron-excited H2 over the range 10-700 eV has been measured. The analysis predicts the cross section to energies higher than the present experimental limit, and it is found that the predicted shape is in close agreement with measured results. At 6 eV the cross section is dominated by the electric dipole first Born component, while at 100 eV the electric dipole component constitutes 73 percent of the total H(2p) cross section. The cross sections of the H(2s) and H(1s) components are calculated.

  8. Control of Grasp and Manipulation by Soft Fingers with 3-Dimensional Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Akira; Shibata, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu

    In this paper, we consider control of grasp and manipulation of an object in a 3-dimensional space by a 3-fingered hand robot with soft finger tips. We firstly propose a 3-dimensional deformation model of a hemispherical soft finger tip and verify its relevance by experimental data. Second, we consider the contact kinematics and derive the dynamical equations of the fingers and the object where the 3-dimensional deformation is considered. For the system, we thirdly propose a method to regulate the object and the internal force with the information of the hand, the object and the deformation. A simulation result is presented to show the effectiveness of the control method.

  9. Vibrationally resolved cross sections for the photoionization of CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, R. E.; Lucchese, Robert R.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed vibrationally resolved calculations of the excitation of the symmetric stretch in the photoionization of CS2 leading to the X 2Πg, A 2Πu, B 2Σ+u, and C 2Σ+g states of CS+2. Previous theoretical work has determined that the kπg shape resonance in the (5σu)-1 channel consists mainly of a linear combination of low lying virtual d orbitals on sulfur and is thus essentially atomic in nature. This conclusion was primarily based on the shape of the resonant wave function and the insensitivity of the energy of the resonance to bond stretching. Here, we have determined that the energies of the kπ shape resonances located well above threshold and the σ bound states just below threshold are insensitive to bond length. We have also found nearly constant vibrational branching ratios in all channels and polarization components. This is in qualitative agreement with experimental vibrationally resolved cross sections [S. Kakar, H. C. Choi, and E. D. Poliakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 4690 (1992)] which show nearly constant vibrational branching ratios. Our present results indicate that caution must be exercised when using bond length sensitivity as an exclusive means to determine the existence of shape resonances.

  10. Laboratory Measurements And Modeling Of Molecular Photoabsorption Cross Sections In The Ultraviolet: N2, So2, S2, Co2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, P. L.; Lewis, B. R.; Heays, A. N.; Blackie, D.; Pickering, J.

    2010-10-01

    Our research program comprises the measurement and modeling of ultraviolet molecular photoabsorption cross sections with the highest practical resolution. Measurement and modeling efforts on molecular nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, diatomic sulfur, and carbon dioxide are in progress. N2: We measure line f-values and widths within the complex spectrum between 80 and 100 nm. Our measurements are incorporated into a theoretical model of the absorption spectrum of N2 which has established the mechanisms responsible for predissociation and reproduces the observed features in all N2 isotopomers as a function of temperature. SO2: We provide astronomers with high-resolution cross section data for the complex ultraviolet SO2 absorption spectrum. Using the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have completed and published cross sections from 198 to 325 nm (295 K) and from 199 to 220 nm (160 K). We have completed work on further low-temperature measurements from 220 to 325 nm. S2: Interpretations of atmospheric (Io, Jupiter) S2 absorption features are hindered by a complete lack of laboratory cross sections in the ultraviolet. We have begun to quantify the photoabsorption spectrum of S2 from 200 to 300 nm. We have designed an experimental apparatus to produce a stable column of S2 vapor. Measurements of S2 absorption features at high resolution will be complemented by coupled-channel calculations of the relevant transitions. CO2: The photodissociation of CO2 is a fundamental photochemical process in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Our research centers on the measurement of high resolution cross sections from 87 to 120 nm. We have completed measurements at 295 K and 195 K over the 106 to 120 nm region. We have recently completed preliminary room temperature measurements in the 87 to 106 nm region. We acknowledge grant support from NASA (NNX08AE78G), STFC-PPARC, and ARC (DP0558962).

  11. Laboratory Measurements and Modeling of Molecular Photoabsorption Cross Sections in the Ultraviolet: N2, SO2, S2, CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Glenn; Smith, P. L.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackie, D.; Lewis, B. R.; Heays, A. N.

    2009-09-01

    Our research program comprises the measurement and modeling of ultraviolet molecular photoabsorption cross sections with the highest practical resolution. Measurement and modeling efforts on molecular nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, diatomic sulfur, and carbon dioxide are in progress. N2: We measure line f-values and widths within the complex spectrum between 80 and 100 nm. Our measurements are incorporated into a theoretical model of the absorption spectrum of N2 which has established the mechanisms responsible for predissociation and reproduces the observed features in all N2 isotopomers as a function of temperature. SO2: We provide astronomers with high-resolution cross section data for the complex ultraviolet SO2 absorption spectrum. Using the Imperial College VUV Fourier transform spectrometer, we have completed and published cross sections from 198 to 325 nm (295 K) and from 199 to 220 nm (160 K). We have recently completed work on further low-temperature measurements from 220 to 325 nm. S2: Interpretations of atmospheric (Io, Jupiter) S2 absorption features are hindered by a complete lack of laboratory cross sections in the ultraviolet. We have begun to quantify the photoabsorption spectrum of S2 from 200 to 300 nm based on theoretical calculations and laboratory measurements. Coupled-channel calculations will be complemented by measurements of S2 absorption at high resolution. We are currently working on the design of an experimental apparatus to produce a stable column of S2 vapor. CO2: The photodissociation of CO2 is a fundamental photochemical process in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus. Our research centers on the measurement of high resolution cross sections from 87 to 120 nm. We have completed measurements at 295 K and 195 K over the 106 to 120 nm region. We are planning new room temperature measurements in the 87 to 106 nm region. We acknowledge grant support from NASA (NNX08AE78G), STFC-PPARC, and ARC (DP0558962).

  12. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural

  13. Cross sections for positron impact with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Luca; Zecca, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Perkins, Michael V; Buckman, Stephen J; Brunger, Michael J

    2014-08-21

    2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (C8H18), a hydrocarbon produced all over the world on a large scale in the processing of crude oil, has long been known and used in the energy sector. It has also recently attracted the attention of the radiation physics and chemistry community, owing to its applications in medical imaging techniques. Charged-particle interactions with this species unfortunately remain mostly unknown. In this study, we report on measured total cross sections for positron scattering from 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in the energy range from 0.12 to 50 eV. We also present calculations of the total cross sections, elastic integral and differential cross sections, positronium formation cross sections, and inelastic integral cross sections at energies from 1 to 1000 eV using the independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule. A knowledge of those scattering cross sections might, through simulation models, help to improve the accuracy of current radiation detection devices and hence provide better estimates of the extent of any charged-particle-induced damage in biomolecular systems.

  14. Materials and Modulators for True 3-Dimensional Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    two galvanometer mirrors. This screen is about 50 mm on a side. 31 Fig. 2. Photo of our first transparent green UC display. Visible light is...laser scanned with two galvanometer mirrors. This screen is about 50 mm on a side. 32 Fig. 2. Photo of our first transparent green UC display

  15. Accuracy and Early Clinical Outcome of 3-Dimensional Planned and Guided Single-Cut Osteotomies of Malunited Forearm Bones.

    PubMed

    Roner, Simon; Vlachopoulos, Lazaros; Nagy, Ladislav; Schweizer, Andreas; Fürnstahl, Philipp

    2017-09-06

    To investigate the reduction accuracy of 3-dimensional planned single-cut osteotomies (SCOTs) of the forearm that were performed using patient-specific guides. A retrospective analysis of SCOTs performed between 2012 and 2014 was performed. Ten patients (age, 15-59 years) with 6 malunions of the ulna and 6 malunions of the radius were identified. The reduction accuracy was assessed by comparing the 3-dimensional preoperative plan of each osteotomy with the superimposed bone model extracted from postoperative computed tomography data. The difference was assessed by 3-dimensional angle and in all 6 degrees of freedom (3 translations, 3 rotations) with respect to an anatomical coordinate system. Wrist range of motion and grip strength was assessed after a mean of 16.7 months and compared with the preoperative measurements. On average, the 12 SCOTs demonstrated excellent accuracy of the reduction with respect to rotation (ie, pronation/supination, 4.9°; flexion/extension, 1.7°; ulnar/radial angulation, 2.0°) and translation (ie, proximal/distal, 0.8 mm; radial/ulnar, 0.8 mm; dorsal/palmar, 0.8 mm). A mean residual 3-dimensional angle of 5.8° (SD, 3.6°) was measured after surgery. All 6 patients operated on for reasons of a reduced range of motion demonstrated improved symptoms and increased movement (from 20° to 80°). In the patients with unstable/painful distal radioulnar joint, 3 were totally free of complaints and 1 patient showed residual pain during sports. A SCOT combined with patient-specific guides is an accurate and reliable technique to restore normal anatomy in multiplanar deformities of the forearm. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  17. Comparison of experience curves between two 3-dimensional intraoral scanners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisun; Park, Ji-Man; Kim, Minji; Heo, Seong-Joo; Shin, Im Hee; Kim, Miae

    2016-08-01

    Conventional impression-making methods are being replaced by intraoral digital scanning. How long dental professionals take to master the new technologies is unknown. The purpose of this human subject study was to compare the experience curves of 2 intraoral scanners among dental hygienists and determine whether repeated scanning experience could change the scan time (ST). A total of 29 dental hygienists with more than 3 years of working experience were recruited (group 1: 3-5 years; group 2: >6 years of clinical experience) to learn the iTero and Trios systems. All learners scanned the oral cavities of 4 human participants (participants A, B, C, and D) 10 times (T1-T10) throughout the learning sessions and the experimental dentoform model twice at the beginning and end of the 10 sessions. ST was measured, and changes in ST were compared between the 2 devices. The average ST for 10 sessions was greater with iTero than with Trios, but the decrease in the measured ST was greater for iTero than for Trios. Baseline and postexperience STs with iTero showed statistically significant differences, with a decrease in time related to the clinical experience levels of the dental hygienists (group 1: T2 and T4, P<.01; group 2: T2 and T5, P<.01). The experience curve with iTero was not influenced by the human participant's intraoral characteristics, and greater ST was shown for participants B and C than for participants A and D with Trios. Although the learning rate of iTero was rapid, the average ST for iTero was longer than Trios, and clinical experience levels influenced the operator's ability to manipulate the device. In contrast, the learning rate of Trios was slow, and measured ST was shorter than iTero, and was not influenced by clinical experience. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    Woven Composites by Mark Pankow, Ashiq Quabili, Stephen Whittie, and Chian Yen Approved for public release; distribution...2016 US Army Research Laboratory Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites by Mark...Properties of Various 3-Dimensional Woven Composites 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Mark Pankow

  19. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  20. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  1. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  2. Partial (gamma)-Ray Cross Sections for the Reaction 239Pu(n,2n(gamma)i) and the 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Beacker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; McNabb, D.P.; Garrett, P.E.; Archer, D.; McGrath, C.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Chen, H.; Ormand, W.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Chadwick, M.B.; Johns, G.D.; Drake, D.; Young, P.G.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Wilburn, W.S.

    2001-09-14

    Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for production of discrete {gamma} rays in the {sup 239}Pu(n,2n{gamma}i){sup 238}Pu reaction have been measured. The experiments were performed at LANSCE/WNR on the 60R flight line. Reaction {gamma}-rays were measured using the large-scale Compton-suppressed array of Ge detectors, GEANIE. The motivation for this experiment, an overview of the partial {gamma}-ray cross-section measurement, and an introduction to the main experimental issues will be presented. The energy resolution of the Ge detectors allowed identification of reaction {gamma} rays above the background of sample radioactivity and fission {gamma} rays. The use of planar Ge detectors with their reduced sensitivity to neutron interactions and improved line shape was also important to the success of this experiment. Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections are presented for the 6{sub 1}{sup +} {yields} 4{sub 1}{sup +} member of the ground state rotational band in {sup 238}Pu, together with miscellaneous other {gamma}-ray partial cross sections. The n,2n reaction cross section shape and magnitude as a function of neutron energy was extracted from these partial cross sections using nuclear modeling (enhanced Hauser-Feshbach) to relate partial {gamma}-ray cross sections to the n,2n cross section. The critical nuclear modeling issue is the ratio of a partial cross section to the reaction channel cross section, and not the prediction of the absolute magnitude.

  3. National CrossTalk. Volume 17, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  4. National CrossTalk. Volume 18, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  5. Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole A; Sheehan, Frances T

    2009-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to provide the first in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) measures of knee extensor moment arms, measured during dynamic volitional activity. The hypothesis was that the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) have significant off-axis moment arms compared to the central quadriceps components. After obtaining informed consent, three 3D dynamic cine phase contrast (PC) MRI sets (x,y,z velocity and anatomic images) were acquired from 22 subjects during active knee flexion and extension. Using a sagittal-oblique and two coronal-oblique imaging planes, the origins and insertions of each quadriceps muscle were identified and tracked through each time frame by integrating the cine-PC velocity data. The moment arm (MA) and relative moment (RM, defined as the cross product of the tendon line-of-action and a line connecting the line-of-action with the patellar center of mass) were calculated for each quadriceps component. The tendencies of the VM and VL to produce patellar tilt were evenly balanced. Interestingly, the magnitude of RM-P(Spin) for the VM and VL is approximately four times greater than the magnitude of RM-P(Tilt) for the same muscles suggesting that patellar spin may play a more important role in patellofemoral kinematics than previously thought. Thus, a force imbalance that leads to excessive lateral tilt, such as VM weakness in patellofemoral pain syndrome, would produce excessive negative spin (positive spin: superior patellar pole rotates laterally) and to a much greater degree. This would explain the increased negative spin found in recent studies of patellar maltracking. Assessing the contribution of each quadriceps component in three dimensions provides a more complete understanding of muscle functionality.

  6. Parametrization of electron impact ionization cross sections for CO, CO2, NH3 and SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.; Nguyen, Hung P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron impact ionization and dissociative ionization cross section data of CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, and SO2, measured in the laboratory, were parameterized utilizing an empirical formula based on the Born approximation. For this purpose an chi squared minimization technique was employed which provided an excellent fit to the experimental data.

  7. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 6, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "An Experience with CLL" by Earl Stevick; "Accuracy vs. Fluency in the English Language Classroom" by Kenton Sutherland; "Predicate Markers: A New Look at the English Predicate System" by Phillip L. Knowles; "'Let Your TV do the Talking':…

  8. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "The Japanese Concept of Hanashi-Kata and Its Potential Influence on Foreign Language Acquisition" by James R. Bowers; "Linguistic Relativity and Foreign Language Learning" by Ronald Taubitz; "On Being a Sansei English Teacher in Japan" by Ruth…

  9. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 6, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "An Experience with CLL" by Earl Stevick; "Accuracy vs. Fluency in the English Language Classroom" by Kenton Sutherland; "Predicate Markers: A New Look at the English Predicate System" by Phillip L. Knowles; "'Let Your TV do the Talking':…

  10. Polarization-independent efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by using 3-dimensional plasmonic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuanhua; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Ren, Xingang; Xin, Jianzhuo; Lin, Peng; Leung, Dennis C. W.

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic back reflectors have recently become a promising strategy for realizing efficient organic solar cell (OSCs). Since plasmonic effects are strongly sensitive to light polarization, it is highly desirable to simultaneously achieve polarization-independent response and enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) by designing the nanostructured geometry of plasmonic reflector electrode. Here, through a strategic analysis of 2-dimensional grating (2D) and 3-dimensional patterns (3D), with similar periodicity as a plasmonic back reflector, we find that the OSCs with 3D pattern achieve the best PCE enhancement by 24.6%, while the OSCs with 2D pattern can offer 17.5% PCE enhancement compared to the optimized control OSCs. Importantly, compared with the 2D pattern, the 3D pattern shows a polarization independent plasmonic response, which will greatly extend its uses in photovoltaic applications. This work shows the significances of carefully selecting and designing geometry of plasmonic nanostructures in achieving high-efficient, polarization-independent plasmonic OSCs.

  11. Feasibility of 3-dimensional video-assisted thoracic surgery (3D-VATS) for pulmonary resection.

    PubMed

    Dickhoff, Chris; Li, Wilson W; Symersky, Petr; Hartemink, Koen J

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional video-assisted thoracic surgery (2D-VATS) has gained its position in daily practise. Although very useful, its two-dimensional view has its drawbacks when performing pulmonary resections. We report our first experience with 3-dimensional video-assisted surgery (3D-VATS). Advantages and differences with 2D-VATS and robotic surgery (RS) are discussed. To evaluate feasibility, we scheduled patients for surgery by 3D-VATS who would normally be treated with 2D-VATS. The main difference of the equipment in 3D-VATS compared with former VATS equipment, is the flexible camera-tip (100-degrees) and the necessary 3D-glasses. Four patients were successfully operated for anatomic pulmonary resections. On-the-structure dissection was easily performed and with the flexible camera-tip, a perfect view can be obtained, with clear visualisation of important (hilar) structures. These features highly facilitate the surgeon in tissue preparation and recognition of the dissection planes. In our opinion, 3D-VATS is superior to 2D-VATS for performing anatomic pulmonary resection and we expect an improvement in terms of operation time and learning curve. Furthermore, it is a valuable alternative for RS at lower costs.

  12. Differentiating between septate and bicornuate uterus: bi-dimensional and 3-dimensional power Doppler findings.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro, Giovanni; Locci, Mariavittoria; Marilena, Miranda; Salzano, Emilia; Palmieri, Teresa; De Placido, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    To assess if any difference could be found in uterine vascularization between septate and bicornuate uterus. Pilot study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University hospital infertility clinic. One hundred nine women with complete duplication of the uterine cavity. All had already received the final diagnosis of the type of uterine malformation, either septate uterus or bicornuate uterus, via diagnostic hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Another group of 10 patients with uterine anomalies and affected by ovarian mass were also evaluated via intravenous contrast medium-enhanced ultrasound examination. Patients were evaluated using 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional power Doppler imaging of the uterus. Seventy-three patients with septate uterus, with or without cervical and vaginal duplication, and 36 patients with bicornuate uterus were selected for inclusion in the study. Irregular vascular networks were detected between the 2 hemicavities in the patients with septate uterus. All bicornuate uteri showed a peculiar vascular network between the 2 hemicavities: the main recognizable vessels formed a network depicting the Greek letter γ at the level of the uterine midline. Detection of the γ sign can be used to differentiate septate from bicornuate uterus. This finding was also confirmed in patients who underwent intravenous contrast medium-enhanced ultrasound examination. power Doppler provides a new and uninvasive tool for differentiation of septate from bicornuate uterus. Copyright © 2014 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Clinical applications of 3-dimensional printing in radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yizhou; Moran, Kathryn; Yewondwossen, Mammo; Allan, James; Clarke, Scott; Rajaraman, Murali; Wilke, Derek; Joseph, Paul; Robar, James L

    2017-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Photon boluses were 3D-printed to treat a recurrent squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the nasal septum and a basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the posterior pinna. For a patient with a mycosis fungoides involving the upper face, a 3D-printed MERT bolus was used. To treat an SCC of the nose, a 3D-printed applicator for surface brachytherapy was made. The structures' fit to the anatomy and the radiotherapy treatment plans were assessed. Based on the treatment planning computed tomography (CT), the size of the largest air gap at the interface of the 3D-printed structure was 3 mm for the SCC of the nasal septum, 3 mm for the BCC of the pinna, 2 mm for the mycosis fungoides of the face, and 2 mm for the SCC of the nose. Acceptable treatment plans were obtained for the SCC of the nasal septum (95% isodose to 99.8% of planning target volume [PTV]), the BCC of the pinna (95% isodose to 97.7% of PTV), and the mycosis fungoides of the face (90% isodose to 92.5% of PTV). For the latter, compared with a plan with a uniform thickness bolus, the one featuring the MERT bolus achieved relative sparing of all the organs at risk (OARs) distal to the target volume, while maintaining similar target volume coverage. The surface brachytherapy plan for the SCC of the nose had adequate coverage (95% isodose to 95.6% of clinical target volume [CTV]), but a relatively high dose to the left eye, owing to its proximity to the tumor. 3D printing can be implemented effectively in the

  14. Comparison of 3-dimensional spinal reconstruction accuracy: biplanar radiographs with EOS versus computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Diana A; Doan, Josh; Newton, Peter O

    2012-07-15

    Experimental study for systematic evaluation of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions from low-dose digital stereoradiography. To assess the accuracy of EOS (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions compared with 3D computed tomography (CT) and the effect spine positioning within the EOS unit has on reconstruction accuracy. Scoliosis is a 3D deformity, but 3D morphological analyses are still rare. A new low-dose radiation digital stereoradiography system (EOS) was previously evaluated for intra/interobserver variability, but data are limited for 3D reconstruction accuracy. Three synthetic scoliotic phantoms (T1-pelvis) were scanned in upright position at 0°, ±5°, and ±10° of axial rotation within EOS and in supine position using CT. Three-dimensional EOS reconstructions were superimposed on corresponding 3D computed tomographic reconstructions. Shape, position, and orientation accuracy were assessed for each vertebra and the entire spine. Additional routine planer clinical deformity measurements were compared: Cobb angle, kyphosis, lordosis, and pelvic incidence. Mean EOS vertebral body shape accuracy was 1.1 ± 0.2 mm (maximum 4.7 mm), with 95% confidence interval of 1.7 mm. Different anatomical vertebral regions were modeled well with root-mean-square (RMS) values from 1.2 to 1.6 mm. Position and orientation accuracy of each vertebra were high: RMS offset was 1.2 mm (maximum 3.7 mm) and RMS axial rotation was 1.9° (maximum 5.8°). There was no significant difference in each of the analyzed parameters (P > 0.05) associated with varying the rotational position of the phantoms in EOS machine. Planer measurements accuracy was less than 1° mean difference for pelvic incidence, Cobb angle (mean 1.6°/maximum 3.9°), and sagittal kyphosis (mean less than 1°, maximum 4.9°). The EOS image acquisition and reconstruction software provides accurate 3D spinal representations of scoliotic spinal deformities. The results of this study provide spinal

  15. Development and applications of 3-dimensional integration nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Choi, Eunmi; Son, Hyungbin; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Unlike conventional two-dimensional (2D) planar structures, signal or power is supplied through through-silicon via (TSV) in three-dimensional (3D) integration technology to replace wires for binding the chip/wafer. TSVs have becomes an essential technology, as they satisfy Moore's law. This 3D integration technology enables system and sensor functions at a nanoscale via the implementation of a highly integrated nano-semiconductor as well as the fabrication of a single chip with multiple functions. Thus, this technology is considered to be a new area of development for the systemization of the nano-bio area. In this review paper, the basic technology required for such 3D integration is described and methods to measure the bonding strength in order to measure the void occurring during bonding are introduced. Currently, CMOS image sensors and memory chips associated with nanotechnology are being realized on the basis of 3D integration technology. In this paper, we intend to describe the applications of high-performance nano-biosensor technology currently under development and the direction of development of a high performance lab-on-a-chip (LOC).

  16. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  17. Site and Severity of the Increased Humeral Retroversion in Symptomatic Baseball Players: A 3-dimensional Computed Tomographic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Itami, Yasuo; Mihata, Teruhisa; Shibano, Koji; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Neo, Masashi

    2016-07-01

    Humeral retroversion in baseball players is greater in the dominant shoulder than in the nondominant shoulder. However, the site and severity of the humeral rotational deformity remain unclear. To evaluate the site of side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion in baseball players and the severity of these changes through 3-dimensional computed tomographic (3D CT) bone models. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. From 2008 to 2014, we studied 25 baseball players (12 pitchers, 13 fielders) who underwent surgery for throwing-related injuries (shoulder injury, 15 players; elbow injury, 10 players). The mean age (±SD) at the time of surgery was 20.0 ± 5.9 years. A reconstructed 3D CT model of the entire humerus was divided into 15 segments of equal height (overall mean, 21.4 ± 1.0 mm). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion in each segment was calculated by superimposing the model of the dominant side over the mirror-image model of the nondominant side. The overall mean increase in humeral retroversion was 13.0° ± 6.2° on the dominant side. Significant side-to-side differences in retroversion were present throughout the humerus. The largest side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion was seen at the insertions of the internal rotator muscles (2.5° ± 4.3°) and around the proximal physis (2.5° ± 1.4°). At the insertions of shoulder capsule and rotator cuff tendons, the superior half of the humeral head was more retroverted than the inferior half (P < .0001). The side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion was significantly greater in the pitchers (16.2° ± 5.1°) than in the fielders (10.0° ± 5.7°) (P = .009), particularly at the proximal physis. Baseball players exhibited significant side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion at multiple sites throughout the humerus, including the proximal humerus near the epiphyseal plate and at the insertions of the internal rotator muscles, the middle of the humeral shaft, and

  18. 3-dimensional forces and molecular dynamics of live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Sung Sik; Li, Yi-Shuan; Park, Joon Seok; Hu, Ying-Li; Chien, Shu

    2010-08-01

    The forces exerted by an adherent cell on a substrate were studied previously only in the two-dimensions (2D) tangential to the substrate surface. We used a novel technique to measure the three-dimensional (3D) stresses exerted by live bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) on polyacrylamide deformable substrate, with particular emphasis on the 3D forces of focal adhesions. On 3D images acquired by confocal microscopy, displacements were determined with imageprocessing programs, and stresses in tangential (XY) and normal (Z) directions were computed by finite element method (FEM). BAECs generated stress in normal direction (Tz) with an order of magnitude comparable to that in tangential direction (Txy). Tz is upward at the cell edge and downward under the nucleus, changing continuously with a sign reversal between cell edge and nucleus edge. With the use of green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeled paxillin, the dynamics of this intracellular molecule were studied concurrently with the measurement of 3D forces. In the dynamic region, including the new lamellapodium forming region in the front and the retracting region in the rear, the tangential forces (Fxy) are correlated with the size of the focal adhesions (FAs) much more strongly than those in the stable region under the nucleus. In the dynamic region, normal force (Fz) was upward and positively correlated with FA size, while Fz in the stable region was downward and negatively correlated with FA size. These findings show the influence of the size of FAs on the 3D forces they exert on the substrate. This technique can be applied to study any adherent type of live cells to assess their biomechanical dynamics in conjunction with biochemical and functional activities, thus elucidating cellular functions in health and disease.

  19. Hamiltonian Analysis of 3-Dimensional Connection Dynamics in Bondi-like Coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-Guang; Kong, Shi-Bei

    2017-08-01

    The Hamiltonian analysis for a 3-dimensional connection dynamics of {s}{o}(1,2), spanned by {L-+, L-2, L+2 } instead of {L01, L02, L12 }, is first conducted in a Bondi-like coordinate system. The symmetry of the system is clearly presented. A null coframe with 3 independent variables and 9 connection coefficients are treated as basic configuration variables. All constraints and their consistency conditions, the solutions of Lagrange multipliers as well as the equations of motion are presented. There is no physical degree of freedom in the system. The Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) spacetime is discussed as an example to check the analysis. Unlike the ADM formalism, where only non-degenerate geometries on slices are dealt with and the Ashtekar formalism, where non-degenerate geometries on slices are mainly concerned though the degenerate geometries may be studied as well, in the present formalism the geometries on the slices are always degenerate though the geometries for the spacetime are not degenerate. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11275207 and 11690022

  20. Application of 3-dimensional printing in hand surgery for production of a novel bone reduction clamp.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Sam M; Butz, Daniel R; Vevang, Curt B; Makhlouf, Mansour V

    2014-09-01

    Three-dimensional printing is being rapidly incorporated in the medical field to produce external prosthetics for improved cosmesis and fabricated molds to aid in presurgical planning. Biomedically engineered products from 3-dimensional printers are also utilized as implantable devices for knee arthroplasty, airway orthoses, and other surgical procedures. Although at first expensive and conceptually difficult to construct, 3-dimensional printing is now becoming more affordable and widely accessible. In hand surgery, like many other specialties, new or customized instruments would be desirable; however, the overall production cost restricts their development. We are presenting our step-by-step experience in creating a bone reduction clamp for finger fractures using 3-dimensional printing technology. Using free, downloadable software, a 3-dimensional model of a bone reduction clamp for hand fractures was created based on the senior author's (M.V.M.) specific design, previous experience, and preferences for fracture fixation. Once deemed satisfactory, the computer files were sent to a 3-dimensional printing company for the production of the prototypes. Multiple plastic prototypes were made and adjusted, affording a fast, low-cost working model of the proposed clamp. Once a workable design was obtained, a printing company produced the surgical clamp prototype directly from the 3-dimensional model represented in the computer files. This prototype was used in the operating room, meeting the expectations of the surgeon. Three-dimensional printing is affordable and offers the benefits of reducing production time and nurturing innovations in hand surgery. This article presents a step-by-step description of our design process using online software programs and 3-dimensional printing services. As medical technology advances, it is important that hand surgeons remain aware of available resources, are knowledgeable about how the process works, and are able to take advantage of

  1. Numerical study of the directed polymer in a 1 + 3 dimensional random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, C.; Garel, T.

    2006-09-01

    The directed polymer in a 1+3 dimensional random medium is known to present a disorder-induced phase transition. For a polymer of length L, the high temperature phase is characterized by a diffusive behavior for the end-point displacement R2 ˜L and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜O(1). The low-temperature phase is characterized by an anomalous wandering exponent R2/L ˜Lω and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜Lω where ω˜0.18. In this paper, we first study the scaling behavior of various properties to localize the critical temperature Tc. Our results concerning R2/L and ΔF(L) point towards 0.76 < Tc ≤T2=0.79, so our conclusion is that Tc is equal or very close to the upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and coworkers (T2 corresponds to the temperature above which the ratio bar{Z_L^2}/(bar{Z_L})^2 remains finite as L ↦ ∞). We then present histograms for the free-energy, energy and entropy over disorder samples. For T ≫Tc, the free-energy distribution is found to be Gaussian. For T ≪Tc, the free-energy distribution coincides with the ground state energy distribution, in agreement with the zero-temperature fixed point picture. Moreover the entropy fluctuations are of order ΔS ˜L1/2 and follow a Gaussian distribution, in agreement with the droplet predictions, where the free-energy term ΔF ˜Lω is a near cancellation of energy and entropy contributions of order L1/2.

  2. A New Reliable Method for Evaluating Gallbladder Dynamics: The 3-Dimensional Sonographic Examination.

    PubMed

    Serra, Carla; Pallotti, Francesca; Bortolotti, Mauro; Caputo, Carla; Felicani, Cristina; De Giorgio, Roberto; Barbara, Giovanni; Nardi, Elena; Labate, Antonio Maria Morselli

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional 2-dimensional (2D) B-mode sonography with 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for assessing gallbladder volume and contractility. Gallbladder volume and contractility were evaluated in 32 healthy volunteers after fasting and abstinence from smoking for 8 hours and after a standardized balanced liquid meal. The gallbladder was evaluated with 2D sonography (with the use of the ellipsoid method) and with 3D sonography using a volumetric matrix probe. Both measurements were made by an operator who was skilled in sonography and an unskilled operator. The group of volunteers was subdivided into 2 subgroups including 16 participants, which represented the "2 moments" of acquisition by the techniques, particularly for the unskilled operator. The postprandial volumes obtained with 3D sonography were significantly lower in comparison to the volumes obtained with 2D sonography (P= .013), and there was a significant difference between the measurements made by the skilled and unskilled operators only for 2D sonography (P< .001), whereas between the 2 moments of acquisition by the 3D technique, there was no significant difference. The reproducibility of the technique for evaluation of gallbladder volumes was higher for 3D sonography than 2D sonography, particularly for the postprandial evaluation. The new 3D sonographic method using a volumetric matrix probe is a simple, reliable, and more reproducible technique than conventional 2D sonography, even if performed by an unskilled operator, and it allows a reliable stimulation test for a gallbladder dynamic study. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. The Effect of Intensity on 3-Dimensional Kinematics and Coordination in Front-Crawl Swimming.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Kelly; Sanders, Ross; de Jesus, Karla; Ribeiro, João; Figueiredo, Pedro; Vilas-Boas, João P; Fernandes, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    Coaches are often challenged to optimize swimmers' technique at different training and competition intensities, but 3-dimensional (3D) analysis has not been conducted for a wide range of training zones. To analyze front-crawl 3D kinematics and interlimb coordination from low to severe swimming intensities. Ten male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl at 7 incrementally increasing paces until exhaustion (0.05-m/s increments and 30-s intervals), with images from 2 cycles in each step (at the 25- and 175-m laps) being recorded by 2 surface and 4 underwater video cameras. Metabolic anaerobic threshold (AnT) was also assessed using the lactate-concentration-velocity curve-modeling method. Stroke frequency increased, stroke length decreased, hand and foot speed increased, and the index of interlimb coordination increased (within a catch-up mode) from low to severe intensities (P ≤ .05) and within the 200-m steps performed above the AnT (at or closer to the 4th step; P ≤ .05). Concurrently, intracyclic velocity variations and propelling efficiency remained similar between and within swimming intensities (P > .05). Swimming intensity has a significant impact on swimmers' segmental kinematics and interlimb coordination, with modifications being more evident after the point when AnT is reached. As competitive swimming events are conducted at high intensities (in which anaerobic metabolism becomes more prevalent), coaches should implement specific training series that lead swimmers to adapt their technique to the task constraints that exist in nonhomeostatic race conditions.

  4. Ionizing Radiation-Induced Adaptive Response in Fibroblasts under Both Monolayer and 3-Dimensional Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yinlong; Zhong, Rui; Sun, Liguang; Jia, Jie; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    To observe the adaptive response (AR) induced by ionizing radiation in human fibroblasts under monolayer and 3-dimensional (3-D) condition. Three kinds of fibroblasts were cultured under both monolayer and 3-D condition. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the γ-H2AX foci and the morphological texture. Trypan blue staining was used to detect the cell death. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of γ-H2AX, p53 and CDKN1A/p21 (p21). We found that DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner after high doses of radiation. When cells were pretreated with a priming low dose of radiation followed by high dose radiation, DNA damage was attenuated under both monolayer and 3-D condition, and the adaptive response (AR) was induced. Additionally, the morphology of cells under monolayer and 3-D conditions were different, and radiation also induced AR according to morphological texture analysis. Priming low dose radiation induced AR both under monolayer and 3-D condition. Interestingly, 3-D microenvironment made cells more sensitive to radiation. The expression of p53 and p21 was changed and indicated that they might participate in the regulation of AR. PMID:25807079

  5. The distribution of particles in the plane dispersed by a simple 3-dimensional diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, Anders

    2002-11-01

    Populations of particles dispersed in the 2-dimensional plane from a single point-source may be grouped as focus expansion patterns, with an exponentially decreasing density, and more diffuse patterns with thicker tails. Exponentially decreasing distributions are often modelled as the result of 2-dimensional diffusion processes acting to disperse the particles, while thick-tailed distributions tend to be modelled by purely descriptive distributions. Models based on the Cauchy distribution have been suggested, but these have not been related to diffusion modelling. However, the distribution of particles dispersed from a point source by a 3-dimensional Brownian motion that incorporates a constant drift, under the condition that the particle starts at a given height and is stopped when it reaches the xy plane (zero height) may be shown to result in both slim-tailed exponentially decreasing densities, and thick-tailed polynomially decreasing densities with infinite mean travel distance from the source, depending on parameter values. The drift in the third coordinate represents gravitation, while the drift in the first and second represents a (constant) wind. Conditions for the density having exponentially decreasing tails is derived in terms of gravitation and wind, with a special emphasis on applications to light-weighted particles such as fungal spores.

  6. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC.

  7. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O'Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2016-12-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity.

  8. Computer aided-designed, 3-dimensionally printed porous tissue bioscaffolds for craniofacial soft tissue reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zopf, David A; Mitsak, Anna G; Flanagan, Colleen L; Wheeler, Matthew; Green, Glenn E; Hollister, Scott J

    2015-01-01

    To determine the potential of an integrated, image-based computer-aided design (CAD) and 3-dimensional (3D) printing approach to engineer scaffolds for head and neck cartilaginous reconstruction for auricular and nasal reconstruction. Proof of concept revealing novel methods for bioscaffold production with in vitro and in vivo animal data. Multidisciplinary effort encompassing 2 academic institutions. Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) computed tomography scans were segmented and utilized in image-based CAD to create porous, anatomic structures. Bioresorbable polycaprolactone scaffolds with spherical and random porous architecture were produced using a laser-based 3D printing process. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds was performed in a porcine model. Auricular scaffolds were seeded with chondrogenic growth factors in a hyaluronic acid/collagen hydrogel and cultured in vitro over 2 months' duration. Auricular and nasal constructs with several types of microporous architecture were rapidly manufactured with high fidelity to human patient anatomy. Subcutaneous in vivo implantation of auricular and nasal scaffolds resulted in an excellent appearance and complete soft tissue ingrowth. Histological analysis of in vitro scaffolds demonstrated native-appearing cartilaginous growth that respected the boundaries of the scaffold. Integrated, image-based CAD and 3D printing processes generated patient-specific nasal and auricular scaffolds that supported cartilage regeneration. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  9. Ionizing radiation-induced adaptive response in fibroblasts under both monolayer and 3-dimensional conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yinlong; Zhong, Rui; Sun, Liguang; Jia, Jie; Ma, Shumei; Liu, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    To observe the adaptive response (AR) induced by ionizing radiation in human fibroblasts under monolayer and 3-dimensional (3-D) condition. Three kinds of fibroblasts were cultured under both monolayer and 3-D condition. Immunofluorescent staining was used to detect the γ-H2AX foci and the morphological texture. Trypan blue staining was used to detect the cell death. Western blot was used to detect the expressions of γ-H2AX, p53 and CDKN1A/p21 (p21). We found that DNA damage increased in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner after high doses of radiation. When cells were pretreated with a priming low dose of radiation followed by high dose radiation, DNA damage was attenuated under both monolayer and 3-D condition, and the adaptive response (AR) was induced. Additionally, the morphology of cells under monolayer and 3-D conditions were different, and radiation also induced AR according to morphological texture analysis. Priming low dose radiation induced AR both under monolayer and 3-D condition. Interestingly, 3-D microenvironment made cells more sensitive to radiation. The expression of p53 and p21 was changed and indicated that they might participate in the regulation of AR.

  10. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf , Muhammad N.

    2016-01-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity. PMID:28008983

  11. 3-dimensionally integrated photo-detector for neutrino physics and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retiere, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are a promising solution for the detection of scintillation light of liquid Xenon and Argon in applications requiring minimum radioactivity content such as neutrinoless double beta decay. The nEXO experiment in particular is planning to use SiPM planes covering 5 m2 for the detection of the light emitted within 5tons of liquid Xenon. The 3-dimensionally digital integrated SiPMs (3DdSiPMs) is an emerging technology that if successful would challenge the analog SiPM technology. Indeed, by combining separate photo-detector and electronics chips within a single package, 3DdSiPM achieve excellent performances for photon counting and time stamping, while dissipating minimum power. Being mostly based on high purity silicon chips, 3DdSiPMs are also expected to achieve excellent radiopurity.The development of 3DdSiPMs for applications in liquid Xenon is expected to progress rapidly by altering the design of the first successful chip assembly developed for medical imaging, focusing on minimizing power dissipation and large area (> cm2) scaling. In this talk we will describe the 3DdSiPM concept a solution for ``light to bit conversion'' within a single package and show how it may revolutionize light detection in noble-gas liquids and beyond.

  12. [Our experiences with the use of 3-dimensional meshes to prevent and to repair parastomal hernias].

    PubMed

    Jánó, Zoltán; Mohos, Elemér; Réti, György; Kovács, Tamás; Mohay, József; Berki, Csaba; Horváth, Sándor; Bene, Krisztina; Horzov, Myroslav; Bognár, Gábor; Sándor, Gábor; Szenkovits, Péter; Mohos, Petra; Tornai, Gábor; Nagy, Attila

    2016-12-01

    Albeit there is decreasing tendency nowadays for stoma construction, if it still happens, parastomal herniation might occur in up to 50% of cases afterwards. One third of the cases requires surgical correction, not rarely as an emergency. The different methods of repair can be quite demanding and the complication rates are high. From 2003 we have started to use specially designed 3-dimensional meshes for the prevention and repair of parastomal hernias. From 1st of January 2012 to 1st of June 2016 we have used these devices within the framework of a prospective, controlled, randomized study enrolling the patients in preventive and repair arms. Until now mesh was implanted for prevention at the time of the index operation in 38 cases, (control group: 46 cases), and for repair in 14 cases (control group: 18 cases). Recruitment of the patients will end in 2017. The operations were performed by laparoscopic approach in 22 cases and by open approach in 62 cases in the preventive arm, and 6/26 cases in the repair arm respectively. Mean follow up period is 19.2 months in the mesh group and 22.6 months in the non mesh group in the preventive arm, and 25.9/20.4 months in the repair arm respectively. No statistical analysis was used to interpret these interim results in this paper, we intend to analyze our results at the end of the study. At this stage apparently there is no difference between the group of patients in terms of complications in both arms. Parastomal herniation was found in 18 cases (39.1%) in the non mesh group and in 3 cases (7.8%) in the mesh group in the preventive arm. Recurrency was noted in 8 cases (44%) in the non mesh group, and in 1 case (7.1%) in the mesh group in the repair arm. Our results correlate with other studies where mesh insertion was used to prevent and/or repair parastomal hernias. We attribute these results mainly to the special, 3-dimensional design of the meshes used by us. This construction was developed based on understanding the

  13. Accuracy of both virtual and printed 3-dimensional models for volumetric measurement of alveolar clefts before grafting with alveolar bone compared with a validated algorithm: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Kasaven, C P; McIntyre, G T; Mossey, P A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the accuracy of virtual and printed 3-dimensional models derived from cone-beam computed tomographic (CT) scans to measure the volume of alveolar clefts before bone grafting. Fifteen subjects with unilateral cleft lip and palate had i-CAT cone-beam CT scans recorded at 0.2mm voxel and sectioned transversely into slices 0.2mm thick using i-CAT Vision. Volumes of alveolar clefts were calculated using first a validated algorithm; secondly, commercially-available virtual 3-dimensional model software; and finally 3-dimensional printed models, which were scanned with microCT and analysed using 3-dimensional software. For inter-observer reliability, a two-way mixed model intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the reproducibility of identification of the cranial and caudal limits of the clefts among three observers. We used a Friedman test to assess the significance of differences among the methods, and probabilities of less than 0.05 were accepted as significant. Inter-observer reliability was almost perfect (ICC=0.987). There were no significant differences among the three methods. Virtual and printed 3-dimensional models were as precise as the validated computer algorithm in the calculation of volumes of the alveolar cleft before bone grafting, but virtual 3-dimensional models were the most accurate with the smallest 95% CI and, subject to further investigation, could be a useful adjunct in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Total Cross Section Measurements and Velocity Distributions of Hyperthermal Charge Transfer in Xe2+ + N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael; Prince, Benjamin; Bemish, Raymond

    Guided-ion beam measurements of the charge exchange (CEX) cross section for Xe2+ + N2 are reported for collision energies ranging from 0.3 to 100 eV in the center-of-mass frame. Measured total XS decrease from 69.5 +/-0.3 Angstroms2 (Angs.) at the lowest collision energies to 40 Angs.2at 100 eV. The product N2+CEX cross section is similar to the total CEX cross section while those of the dissociative product, N+, are less than 1Angs.2 for collision energies above 9 eV. The product N2+CEXcross section measured here are much larger than the total optical emission-excitation cross sections for the N2+(A) and (B) state products determined previously in the chemiluminescence study of Prince and Chiu suggesting that most of the N2+products are in the X state. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of both the Xe+ and N2+products suggest two different CEX product channels. The first leaves highly-vibrationally excited N2+products with forward scattered Xe+ (LAB frame) and releases between 0.35 to 0.6 eV translational energy for collisions below 17.6 eV. The second component decreases with collisional energy and leaves backscattered Xe+ and low-vibrational states of N2+.At collision energies above 17.6 eV, only charge exchange involving minimal momentum exchange remains in the TOF spectra. AFOSR 13RV07COR.

  15. Sensitivity of 3-Dimensional Sonography in Preoperative Evaluation of Parathyroid Glands in Patients With Primary Hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Frank, Susan J; Goldman-Yassen, Adam E; Koenigsberg, Tova; Libutti, Steven K; Koenigsberg, Mordecai

    2017-09-01

    Preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism facilitates targeted surgery. We assessed the sensitivity of 3-dimensional (3D) sonography for preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. We conducted a retrospective review of patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism at a single site at our institution. We compared preoperative 2-dimensional (2D) sonography, 3D sonography, and sestamibi scans with final gland localization at surgery. Two readers reviewed the sonograms to assess inter-reader variability. From January 2010 through April 2015, 52 patients underwent parathyroidectomy after preoperative 2D sonography, 3D sonography, and sestamibi scans. Three-dimensional sonography had sensitivity of 88-92% compared with 69-71% for 2D sonography for gland localization. In patients in whom sonography and sestamibi scans localized abnormalities to the same side, the sensitivities were 100% (43 of 43) for 3D sonography and 96% (48 of 50) for 2D sonography. Three-dimensional sonography had significantly higher sensitivity for localization of glands smaller than 500 mg compared with 2D sonography (88% versus 58%; P = .012). There was better inter-reader agreement between the radiologists when using 3D sonography (κ = 0.65) compared with 2D sonography (κ = 0.41). We found a significantly higher sensitivity and better inter-reader agreement for 3D sonography compared with 2D sonography for preoperative identification of abnormal parathyroid glands, especially among smaller glands. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  16. Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates for improving the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were fabricated by immobilizing the cross-linked lipase aggregates onto magnetic particles with a high number of -NH2 terminal groups using p-benzoquinone as the cross-linking agent. At the optimal fabrication conditions, 100% of immobilization efficiency and 139% of activity recovery of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were achieved. The magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were able to efficiently resolve (R, S)-2-octanol, and retained 100% activity and 100% enantioselectivity after 10 cycles of reuse, whereas the cross-linked lipase aggregates only retained about 50% activity and 70% enantioselectivity due to insufficient cross-linking. These results provide a great potential for industrial applications of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates.

  17. The effect of stereoscopic anaglyphic 3-dimensional video didactics on learning neuroanatomy.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, Amir; EdM, Sara Monti; Lee, Darrin; Girgis, Fady

    2017-07-29

    The teaching of neuroanatomy in medical education has historically been based on didactic instruction, cadaveric dissections, and intra-operative experience for students. Multiple novel 3-Dimensional (3D) modalities have recently emerged. Among these, stereoscopic anaglyphic video is easily accessible and affordable, however, its effects have not yet formally been investigated. This study aimed to investigate if 3D stereoscopic anaglyphic video instruction in neuroanatomy could improve learning for content-naive students, as compared to 2D video instruction. A single-site controlled prospective case control study was conducted at the School of Education. Content knowledge was assessed at baseline, followed by the presentation of an instructional neuroanatomy video. Participants viewed the video in either 2D or 3D format, then completed a written test of skull base neuroanatomy. Pre-test and post-test performances were analyzed with independent t-tests and ANCOVA. 249 subjects completed the study. At baseline, the 2D (n=124, F=97) and 3D groups (n=125, F=96) were similar, although the 3D group was older by 1.7 years (p=.0355) and the curricula of participating classes differed (p<.0001). Average scores for the 3D group were higher for both pretest (2D, M=19.9%, SD=12.5% vs. 3D, M=23.9%, SD=14.9%, p=.0234) and posttest (2D, M=68.5%, SD=18.6% vs. 3D, M=77.3%, SD=18.8%, p=.003), but the magnitude of improvement across groups did not reach statistical significance (2D, M=48.7%, SD=21.3%, vs. 3D, M=53.5%, SD=22.7%, p=.0855). Incorporation of 3D video instruction into curricula without careful integration is insufficient to promote learning over 2D video. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  19. Pilot study of endoscopic retrograde 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis for the assessment of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hiroki; Ito, Takahiro; Inaba, Yuhei; Ando, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Yoshiki; Ueno, Nobuhiro; Kashima, Shin; Moriichi, Kentaro; Fujiya, Mikihiro; Okumura, Toshikatsu

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde ileography (ERIG) is developed in our institute and applied clinically for the diagnosis and assessment of the Crohn's disease activity. We have further improved the technique using 3-dimensional - computed tomography enteroclysis (3D-CTE) and conducted a retrospective study to determine the feasibility and the diagnostic value of endoscopic retrograde 3D-CTE (ER 3D-CTE) in Crohn's disease patients in a state of remission. Thirteen Crohn's patients were included in this pilot study. CTE was performed after the infusion of air or CO2 through the balloon tube following conventional colonoscopy. The primary endpoint of this study was to assess the safety of this method. Secondarily, the specific findings of Crohn's disease and length of the visualized small intestine were assessed. The procedures were completed without any adverse events. Gas passed through the small intestine and enterographic images were obtained in 10 out of 13 cases, but, in the remaining patients, insertion of the balloon tubes into the terminal ileum failed. Various features specific to Crohn's disease were visualized using ER 3D-CTE. A cobble stone appearance or hammock-like malformation was specific and effective for diagnosing Crohn's disease and the features of anastomosis after the surgical operations were also well described. Therefore, this technique may be useful after surgery. In this study, ER 3D-CTE was performed safely in Crohn's disease patients and may be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease.

  20. Current Status of 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography: A Review from Our Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Ishizu, Tomko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac function analysis is the main focus of echocardiography. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been the clinical standard, however, LVEF is not enough to investigate myocardial function. For the last decade, speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) has been the novel clinical tool for regional and global myocardial function analysis. However, 2-dimensional imaging methods have limitations in assessing 3-dimensional (3D) cardiac motion. In contrast, 3D echocardiography also has been widely used, in particular, to measure LV volume measurements and assess valvular diseases. Joining the technology bandwagon, 3D-STE was introduced in 2008. Experimental studies and clinical investigations revealed the reliability and feasibility of 3D-STE-derived data. In addition, 3D-STE provides a novel deformation parameter, area change ratio, which have the potential for more accurate assessment of overall and regional myocardial function. In this review, we introduced the features of the methodology, validation, and clinical application of 3D-STE based on our experiences for 7 years. PMID:25031794

  1. Craniofacial landmarks in young children: how reliable are measurements based on 3-dimensional imaging?

    PubMed

    Metzler, Philipp; Bruegger, Lea S; Kruse Gujer, Astrid L; Matthews, Felix; Zemann, Wolfgang; Graetz, Klaus W; Luebbers, Heinz-Theo

    2012-11-01

    Different approaches for 3-dimensional (3D) data acquisition of the facial surface are common nowadays. Meticulous evaluation has proven their level of precision and accuracy. However, the question remains as to which level of craniofacial landmarks, especially in young children, are reliable if identified in 3D images. Potential sources of error, aside from the systems technology itself, need to be identified and addressed. Reliable and unreliable landmarks have to be identified. The 3dMDface System was used in a clinical setting to evaluate the intraobserver repeatability of 27 craniofacial landmarks in 7 young children between 6 and 18 months of age with a total of 1134 measurements. The handling of the system was mostly unproblematic. The mean 3D repeatability error was 0.82 mm, with a range of 0.26 mm to 2.40 mm, depending on the landmark. Single landmarks that have been shown to be relatively imprecise in 3D analysis could still provide highly accurate data if only 1 of the 3 spatial planes was relevant. There were no statistical differences from 1 patient to another. Reliability in craniofacial measurements can be achieved by such 3D soft-tissue imaging techniques as the 3dMDface System, but one must always be aware that the degree of precision is strictly dependent on the landmark and axis in question.For further clinical investigations, the degree of reliability for each landmark evaluated must be addressed and taken into account.

  2. The Effect of Asymmetric flow on the 3-Dimensional Symmetric Bogus Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, J.; Cheong, H.; Hwang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of asymmetric flow on the 3-dimensional symmetric bogus vortex called as Structure Adjustable Balanced Vortex (SABV) is investigated for 9 tropical cyclones (TCs) observed in Northwest Pacific. NCEP global reanalysis data were used as initial condition, and the high order spectral filter (HSF) were employed to separate asymmetric flow from disturbance flow as following: The first step is that the global field is decomposed into environment and disturbance field. And secondly, the disturbance field is transformed into cylindrical coordinates, and the Fourier transform is applied to the transformed data along the azimuth. Lastly, the inverse Fourier transform is carried out except for wavenumber (WN) 0 component, and it is added to SABV. To investigate the effect of asymmetric flow on the SABV, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) V3.2.1 was employed, which was set to have a single domain with 12 km resolution and YSU, WSM 6 and Kain-Fritsch schemes are used. With these methods, it was found that the track error at 48 h and 72 h was improved by about 13% and 16%, respectively, implying the asymmetric flow should be added to SABV for better performance.

  3. Vaginal High Pressure Zone Assessed by Dynamic 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Images of the Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, Sung-Ae; PRETORIUS, Dolores H.; PADDA, Bikram S.; WEINSTEIN, Milena M.; NAGER, Charles W.; den BOER, Derkina J.; MITTAL, Ravinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the shape and characteristics of the vaginal high pressure zone (HPZ) by imaging a compliant fluid-filled bag placed in the vaginal HPZ with the 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) system. Study Design Nine nulliparous asymptomatic women underwent 3D US imaging and vaginal pressure measurements. A compliant bag was placed in the vagina and filled with various volumes of water. 3D US volumes of the pelvic floor were obtained at each bag volume while the subjects were at rest and during pelvic floor contraction. Results At low volumes, the bag was collapsed for a longitudinal extent of approximately 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (length of vaginal HPZ). With increasing bag volume, there was opening of the vaginal HPZ in the lateral dimension before the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension. Pelvic floor contraction produced a decrease in the AP dimension but not the lateral dimension of the bag in the region of the vaginal HPZ. Conclusion We propose that the shape and characteristics of the vaginal HPZ are consistent with the hypothesis that the puborectalis muscle is responsible for the genesis of the vaginal HPZ. PMID:17618755

  4. Biphasic response of cell invasion to matrix stiffness in 3-dimensional biopolymer networks

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Nadine R.; Skodzek, Kai; Hurst, Sebastian; Mainka, Astrid; Steinwachs, Julian; Schneider, Julia; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2015-01-01

    When cells come in contact with an adhesive matrix, they begin to spread and migrate with a speed that depends on the stiffness of the extracellular matrix. On a flat surface, migration speed decreases with matrix stiffness mainly due to an increased stability of focal adhesions. In a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, cell migration is thought to be additionally impaired by the steric hindrance imposed by the surrounding matrix. For porous 3D biopolymer networks such as collagen gels, however, the effect of matrix stiffness on cell migration is difficult to separate from effects of matrix pore size and adhesive ligand density, and is therefore unknown. Here we used glutaraldehyde as a crosslinker to increase the stiffness of self-assembled collagen biopolymer networks independently of collagen concentration or pore size. Breast carcinoma cells were seeded onto the surface of 3D collagen gels, and the invasion depth was measured after 3 days of culture. Cell invasion in gels with pore sizes larger than 5 μm increased with higher gel stiffness, whereas invasion in gels with smaller pores decreased with higher gel stiffness. These data show that 3D cell invasion is enhanced by higher matrix stiffness, opposite to cell behavior in 2D, as long as the pore size does not fall below a critical value where it causes excessive steric hindrance. These findings may be important for optimizing the recellularization of soft tissue implants or for the design of 3D invasion models in cancer research. PMID:25462839

  5. A method for obtaining 3-dimensional facial expressions and its standardization for use in neurocognitive studies.

    PubMed

    Gur, Ruben C; Sara, Radim; Hagendoorn, Michiel; Marom, Oren; Hughett, Paul; Macy, Larry; Turner, Travis; Bajcsy, Ruzena; Posner, Aaron; Gur, Raquel E

    2002-04-15

    Facial expressions of emotion are increasingly being used in neuroscience as probes for functional imaging and as stimuli for studying hemispheric specialization for face and emotion processing. Available facial stimuli are 2-dimensional and therefore, their orientation is fixed and poorly suited for examining asymmetries, they are often obtained under poorly specified conditions, usually posed, lack ethnic diversity, and are of restricted age range. We describe a method for accurately acquiring and reconstructing the geometry of the human face and for display of this reconstruction in a 3-dimensional format. We applied the method in a sample of 70 actors and 69 actresses expressing happiness, sadness, anger, fear and disgust, as well as neutral expressions. Each emotion was expressed under three levels of intensity and under both posed and evoked conditions. Resulting images are of high technical quality and are accurately identified by raters. The stimuli can be downloaded in digital form as 'movies' where angle and orientation can be manipulated for inclusion in functional imaging probes or in tests that can be administered as measures of individual differences in facial emotion processing. The database of emotional expressions can also be used as a standard for comparison with clinical populations.

  6. Planning of anatomical liver segmentectomy and subsegmentectomy with 3-dimensional simulation software.

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Takuya; Ogata, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuto; Maruyama, Yoshikazu; Miyazaki, Akiyuki; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3-dimensional (3D) simulation software is applicable to and useful for anatomic liver segmentectomy and subsegmentectomy. A prospective study of 83 consecutive patients who underwent anatomic segmentectomy or subsegmentectomy using the puncture method was performed. All patients underwent 3D simulation analysis (SA) preoperatively for planning operative procedures. The clinical information acquired by 3D SA and the consistency of virtual and real hepatectomy were evaluated. The time needed for completing 3D SA was 18.3 ± .7 minutes. Three-dimensional SA proposed resection of multiple segments or subsegments in 29 patients (35%). It also helped complement the resection line in 26 patients (31%) who lacked a bold staining area on the liver surface. The volume of segment or subsegment calculated by 3D SA was correlated with the actual resected specimen (R(2) = .9942, P < .01). The bordering hepatic veins were clearly exposed in 71 patients (86%), in accordance with completed drawings by 3D SA. Three-dimensional SA showed accurate completed drawings and assisted liver surgeons in planning and executing anatomic segmentectomy and subsegmentectomy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Electron impact excitation of SO2 - Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the electronic states of SO2 was investigated. Differential, integral, and inelastic momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by normalizing the relative measurements to the elastic cross sections. The cross sections are given for seven spectral ranges of the energy-loss spectra extending from the lowest electronic state to near the first ionization limit. Most of the regions represent the overlap of several electronic transitions. No measurements for these cross sections have been reported previously.

  8. Rotational Energy Transfer Cross Sections in N2-N2 Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Green, Sheldon; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotational inelastic transitions of N2 have been studied in the coupled state (CS, also called centrifugal sudden) and infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximations, using the N2-N2 rigid-rotor potential of van der Avoird et al. For benchmarking purposes, close coupling (CC) calculations have also been carried out over a limited energy range and for even j - even j collisions only. Both the CC and CS cross sections have been obtained with and without exchange symmetry, whereas exchange is neglected in the IOS calculations. The CS results track the CC cross sections rather well. At total energies between 113 to 219 cm(exp -1) the average deviation is 14%. The deviation decrease with increasing energy, indicating that the CS approximation can be used as a substitute at higher energies when the CC calculations become impractical. Comparison between the CS and IOS cross sections at the high energy end of the CS calculation, 500 - 680 cm(exp-1), shows significant differences between the two. In addition, the IOS results exhibits sensitivity to the amount of inelasticity and the results for large DELTA J transitions are subjected to bigger errors. At total energy 113 cm(exp -1) and above, the average deviation between state-to-state cross sections calculated with even and odd exchange symmetries is 1.5%.

  9. Rotational Energy Transfer Cross Sections in N2-N2 Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Green, Sheldon; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotational inelastic transitions of N2 have been studied in the coupled state (CS, also called centrifugal sudden) and infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximations, using the N2-N2 rigid-rotor potential of van der Avoird et al. For benchmarking purposes, close coupling (CC) calculations have also been carried out over a limited energy range and for even j - even j collisions only. Both the CC and CS cross sections have been obtained with and without exchange symmetry, whereas exchange is neglected in the IOS calculations. The CS results track the CC cross sections rather well. At total energies between 113 to 219 cm(exp -1) the average deviation is 14%. The deviation decrease with increasing energy, indicating that the CS approximation can be used as a substitute at higher energies when the CC calculations become impractical. Comparison between the CS and IOS cross sections at the high energy end of the CS calculation, 500 - 680 cm(exp-1), shows significant differences between the two. In addition, the IOS results exhibits sensitivity to the amount of inelasticity and the results for large DELTA J transitions are subjected to bigger errors. At total energy 113 cm(exp -1) and above, the average deviation between state-to-state cross sections calculated with even and odd exchange symmetries is 1.5%.

  10. Application of 3-Dimensional Printing Technology to Kirschner Wire Fixation of Adolescent Condyle Fracture.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhiwei; Li, Qihong; Bai, Shizhu; Zhang, Li

    2015-10-01

    Condyle fractures are common in children and are increasingly treated with open reduction. Three-dimensional printing has developed into an important method of assisting surgical treatment. This report describes the case of a 14-year-old patient treated for a right condyle fracture at the authors' hospital. Preoperatively, the authors designed a surgical guide using 3-dimensional printing and virtual surgery. The 3-dimensional surgical guide allowed accurate alignment of the fracture using Kirschner wire without additional dissection and tissue injury. Kirschner wire fixation augmented by 3-dimensional printing technology produced a good outcome in this adolescent condyle fracture. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Utility of novel 3-dimensional stereoscopic vision system for endoscopic sinonasal and skull-base surgery.

    PubMed

    Manes, R Peter; Barnett, Sam; Batra, Pete S

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of novel 3-dimensional (3D) endoscopy during endoscopic sinonasal and skull base surgery. Eight surgeries were performed in 7 patients between August 2009 and March 2010 at a tertiary care academic medical center. A high-definition 2-dimensional (2D) endoscopy system was employed in all cases. The Visionsense stereoscopic system (Orangeburg, NY) was incorporated during key portions of the procedures. Two independent surgeons assessed utility of the technology for the following 2 variables: (1) ability to facilitate orientation and depth perception; and (2) impact on completeness of surgery and potential complications. The mean age was 50.4 years and the male:female ratio was 6:1. Indications included anterior skull base (ASB) tumor resection (5), directed skull base biopsies (2), and ethmoid dissection adjacent to dehiscent skull base/optic nerve in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (1). Endoscopic orientation and depth perception was aided using the 3D endoscope in all cases. Additional interventions were performed in 3 cases (37.5%), including tumor resection (1) and removal of remnant ethmoid partitions (2). Limitations posed included inability to visualize a type III frontal cell (1) and loss of orientation during ASB reconstruction due to overmagnification (1). No complications were observed in this patient series. This preliminary study demonstrated the effectiveness of binocular 3D endoscopy during sinonasal and skull-base surgery. The technology facilitated depth perception and completeness of surgery without increase in complications. Additional experience is warranted to define its role in the endoscopic surgical paradigm. Copyright © 2011 American Rhinologic Society-American Academy of Otolaryngic Allergy, LLC.

  12. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  13. Live animal assessments of rump fat and muscle score in Angus cows and steers using 3-dimensional imaging.

    PubMed

    McPhee, M J; Walmsley, B J; Skinner, B; Littler, B; Siddell, J P; Cafe, L M; Wilkins, J F; Oddy, V H; Alempijevic, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a proof of concept for using off-the-shelf Red Green Blue-Depth (RGB-D) Microsoft Kinect cameras to objectively assess P8 rump fat (P8 fat; mm) and muscle score (MS) traits in Angus cows and steers. Data from low and high muscled cattle (156 cows and 79 steers) were collected at multiple locations and time points. The following steps were required for the 3-dimensional (3D) image data and subsequent machine learning techniques to learn the traits: 1) reduce the high dimensionality of the point cloud data by extracting features from the input signals to produce a compact and representative feature vector, 2) perform global optimization of the signatures using machine learning algorithms and a parallel genetic algorithm, and 3) train a sensor model using regression-supervised learning techniques on the ultrasound P8 fat and the classified learning techniques for the assessed MS for each animal in the data set. The correlation of estimating hip height (cm) between visually measured and assessed 3D data from RGB-D cameras on cows and steers was 0.75 and 0.90, respectively. The supervised machine learning and global optimization approach correctly classified MS (mean [SD]) 80 (4.7) and 83% [6.6%] for cows and steers, respectively. Kappa tests of MS were 0.74 and 0.79 in cows and steers, respectively, indicating substantial agreement between visual assessment and the learning approaches of RGB-D camera images. A stratified 10-fold cross-validation for P8 fat did not find any differences in the mean bias ( = 0.62 and = 0.42 for cows and steers, respectively). The root mean square error of P8 fat was 1.54 and 1.00 mm for cows and steers, respectively. Additional data is required to strengthen the capacity of machine learning to estimate measured P8 fat and assessed MS. Data sets for and continental cattle are also required to broaden the use of 3D cameras to assess cattle. The results demonstrate the importance of capturing

  14. JEF 2.2 Cross Section Library for the MCNP Monte Carlo Code.

    SciTech Connect

    MASSIMO,; PESCARINI,

    2003-11-24

    Version 01 This continuous energy cross-section data library for MCNP is based on the JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data library (ACE format). The present library was satisfactorily tested in thermal and fast criticality benchmarks. For analyses below 20 MeV, MCJEF22NEA.BOLlB was applied also in cell and core calculations dedicated to the study of the subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS).

  15. An Innovative 3-dimensional Model of the Epitympanum for Teaching of Middle Ear Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chew Lip; Liu, Xuandao; Chee, Shuo Chian Jeremy; Ngo, Raymond Yeow Seng

    2015-11-01

    To facilitate teaching of the anatomy of the epitympanum, we developed and evaluated the effectiveness of an interactive 3-dimensional (3D) computer model that can be viewed from all angles. Questionnaire-based prospective randomized controlled trial. Undergraduate medical education program. The model was created using Google Sketchup, a 3D modeling software. We recruited 72 graduating medical students and randomized them into 2 groups. One group was given the 3D model and reading materials on the epitympanic anatomy (3D group), while the other group relied on reading material and pictures (2-dimensional [2D] group). A questionnaire and anatomy quiz assessed the utility of the 3D model in learning the anatomy of the epitympanum. The mean age of the participants was 22 years. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics and previous experience with 3D models. The 3D group was significantly more confident in its ability to identify structures of the epitympanum on pictures and computed tomography scans when compared to the 2D group. Most participants were in favor of the model as a useful learning tool and preferred to use it with an instructor. In the anatomy quiz, the 3D group fared significantly better, achieving a mean score of 65.1% compared to 32.4% in the 2D group (P < .001). The 3D teaching model of the epitympanum is efficacious in short-term recall. By allowing the learner to visualize relations of the epitympanum from all directions, the model aids in appreciation of anatomy and identifications of structures of this region. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  16. Assessment of regional wall motion abnormalities with real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Collins, M; Hsieh, A; Ohazama, C J; Ota, T; Stetten, G; Donovan, C L; Kisslo, J; Ryan, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate characterization of regional wall motion abnormalities requires a thorough evaluation of the entire left ventricle (LV). Although 2-dimensional echocardiography is frequently used for this purpose, the inability of tomographic techniques to record the complete endocardial surface is a limitation. Three-dimensional echocardiography, with real-time volumetric imaging, has the potential to overcome this limitation by capturing the entire volume of the LV and displaying it in a cineloop mode. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using real-time 3-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography to detect regional wall motion abnormalities in patients with abnormal LV function and to develop a scheme for the systematic evaluation of wall motion by using the 3-dimensional data set. Twenty-six patients with high-quality 2-dimensional echo images and at least 1 regional wall motion abnormality were examined with RT3D echocardiography. For 2-dimensional echocardiography, wall motion was analyzed with a 16-segment model and graded on a 4-point scale from normal (1) to dyskinetic (4), from which a wall motion score index was calculated. Individual segments were then grouped into regions (anterior, inferoposterior, lateral, and apical) and the number of regional wall motion abnormalities was determined. The RT3D echocardiogram was recorded as a volumetric, pyramid-shaped data set that contained the entire LV. Digital images, consisting of a single cardiac cycle cineloop, were analyzed off-line with a computerized display of the apical projection. Two intersecting orthogonal apical projections were simultaneously displayed in cineloop mode, each independently tilted to optimize orientation and endocardial definition. The 2 planes were then slowly rotated about the major axis to visualize the entire LV endocardium. Wall motion was then graded in 6 equally spaced views, separated by 30 degrees, yielding 36 segments per patient. A higher percentage of segments

  17. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 2, Spring 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) CUNY [City University of New York] Sheds Reputation as "Tutor U": The Nation's Largest Urban University Raises Standards, and Grapples with Remediation (Jon…

  18. Chapter 2: Manufacturing Cross-laminated timber manufacturing

    Treesearch

    Borjen Yeh; Dave Kretschmann; Brad (Jianhe) Wang

    2013-01-01

    Cross-laminated timber ( CLT) is defined as a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber (SCL) that are laminated by gluing oflongitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof...

  19. The Location and Distribution of Transurethral Bulking Agent: 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Yune, Junchan Joshua; Quiroz, Lieschen; Nihira, Mikio A; Siddighi, Sam; O'Leary, Dena E; Santiago, A; Shobeiri, S Abbas

    2016-01-01

    To use 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasound to describe the location and distribution of bulking agent after an uncomplicated transurethral injection. Endovaginal ultrasound was performed in 24 treatment-naive patients immediately after bulking agent was injected. The distance between the center of the hyperechoic density of bulking agent and the urethrovesical junction (UVJ) was measured in the sagittal and axial views. This was calculated in percentile length of urethra. Also, the pattern of tracking of bulking agent was assessed if it is presented. After the 2 subjects were excluded because of the poor quality of images, 22 patients were included in this study. Eighteen (82%) subjects showed 2 sites of bulking agents, and mostly, they were located around 3- and 9-o'clock positions. The average distance of bulking agent from left UVJ was at 16.9% of the length of the urethra (6.2 mm; range, 0.5-17 mm) and at 25.5% of the length of the urethra (8.9 mm; range, 0-24.8 mm) in the right side. The average length of urethra was 36.7 mm. Eleven of the 22 subjects (50%) had both sides within upper one third of urethra. The difference in distance between the 2 sides was less than 10 mm in 12 of 22 patients (54%). Nine of the 22 patients (41%) had a significant spread of bulking agent mostly either into the bladder neck or toward the distal urethra. Although the bulking agent is most often found at 3- and 9-o'clock positions as intended, the distance from the UVJ is highly variable after an uncomplicated office-based transurethral injection. The bulking material does not form the characteristic spheres in 41% of cases and tracks toward the bladder neck or the distal urethra.

  20. Usefulness of 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection FDG PET images for the diagnosis of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Song, Minchul; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Choi, Kang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP. Diagnostic performance and confidence were compared between the 2 methods. 3D-SSP showed higher sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values to discriminate different types of dementia compared with the visual method alone, except for AD/MCI specificity and FTD sensitivity. Correction of misdiagnosis after adding 3D-SSP images was greatest for AD/MCI (56%), followed by DLB (13%) and FTD (11%). Diagnostic confidence also increased in DLB (visual: 3.2; 3D-SSP: 4.1; P < 0.001), followed by AD/MCI (visual: 3.1; 3D-SSP: 3.8; P = 0.002) and FTD (visual: 3.5; 3D-SSP: 4.2; P = 0.022). Overall, 154/360 (43%) cases had a corrected misdiagnosis or improved diagnostic confidence for the correct diagnosis. The addition of 3D-SSP images to visual analysis helped to discriminate different types of dementia in FDG PET scans, by correcting misdiagnoses and enhancing diagnostic confidence in the correct diagnosis. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy and confidence by 3D-SSP images might help to determine the cause of dementia and appropriate treatment. PMID:27930593

  1. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Vivian M; Wes, Ari M; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua; Percec, Ivona

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time.

  2. Quantified Facial Soft-tissue Strain in Animation Measured by Real-time Dynamic 3-Dimensional Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Vivian M.; Wes, Ari M.; Tahiri, Youssef; Cornman-Homonoff, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate and quantify dynamic soft-tissue strain in the human face using real-time 3-dimensional imaging technology. Methods: Thirteen subjects (8 women, 5 men) between the ages of 18 and 70 were imaged using a dual-camera system and 3-dimensional optical analysis (ARAMIS, Trilion Quality Systems, Pa.). Each subject was imaged at rest and with the following facial expressions: (1) smile, (2) laughter, (3) surprise, (4) anger, (5) grimace, and (6) pursed lips. The facial strains defining stretch and compression were computed for each subject and compared. Results: The areas of greatest strain were localized to the midface and lower face for all expressions. Subjects over the age of 40 had a statistically significant increase in stretch in the perioral region while lip pursing compared with subjects under the age of 40 (58.4% vs 33.8%, P = 0.015). When specific components of lip pursing were analyzed, there was a significantly greater degree of stretch in the nasolabial fold region in subjects over 40 compared with those under 40 (61.6% vs 32.9%, P = 0.007). Furthermore, we observed a greater degree of asymmetry of strain in the nasolabial fold region in the older age group (18.4% vs 5.4%, P = 0.03). Conclusions: This pilot study illustrates that the face can be objectively and quantitatively evaluated using dynamic major strain analysis. The technology of 3-dimensional optical imaging can be used to advance our understanding of facial soft-tissue dynamics and the effects of animation on facial strain over time. PMID:25426394

  3. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  4. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency.

  5. Starvation-induced cross protection against heat or H2O2 challenge in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D E; Schultz, J E; Matin, A

    1988-09-01

    Glucose- or nitrogen-starved cultures of Escherichia coli exhibited enhanced resistance to heat (57 degrees C) or H2O2 (15 mM) challenge, compared with their exponentially growing counterparts. The degree of resistance increased with the time for which the cells were starved prior to the challenge, with 4 h of starvation providing the maximal protection. Protein synthesis during starvation was essential for these cross protections, since chloramphenicol addition at the onset of starvation prevented the development of thermal or oxidative resistance. Starved cultures also demonstrated stronger thermal and oxidative resistance than did growing cultures adapted to heat, H2O2, or ethanol prior to the heat or H2O2 challenge. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 35S-pulse-labeled proteins showed that subsets of the 30 glucose starvation proteins were also synthesized during heat or H2O2 adaptation; three proteins were common to all three stresses. Most of the common proteins were among the previously identified Pex proteins (J.E. Schultz, G. I. Latter, and A. Matin, J. Bacteriol. 170:3903-3909, 1988), which are independent of cyclic AMP positive control for their induction during starvation. Induction of starvation proteins dependent on cyclic AMP was not important in these cross protections, since a delta cya strain of E. coli K-12 exhibited the same degree of resistance to heat or H2O2 as the wild-type parent did during both growth and starvation.

  6. Background and Tryout Report for BM2: Underbody Cross Member

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li; Zhou, Dajun; Wu, Jin; Du, Chang; Shi, Ming F.; Chen, Ming; Huang, Mai; Xia, Cedric; Zhu, Xinhai; Chu, Edmund

    2005-08-01

    An automotive underbody cross member was selected for one of the NUMISHEET'05 industrial benchmark to assess springback prediction capability of engineers around the world using various software. Binder and addendum were generated according to production intent process. Iterative design and draw simulation were performed on the part and addendum geometry to remove wrinkles and splits. Castings were poured and machined. Six different types of materials ranging from A15182-O to DP965 were used in the production of the benchmark panels and three of these materials were included in the official benchmark data release. Draw panels were trimmed on a trimming fixture using laser and scanned with a whitelight optical device. Springback shapes at selected cross sections were recovered on the scanned data and original CAD data. In addition, major/minor and thickness strains were also measured at these sections.

  7. Absolute photoionization cross sections of furanic fuels: 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural.

    PubMed

    Smith, Audrey R; Meloni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections of the molecules 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural, including partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are measured for the first time. These measurements are important because they allow fuel quantification via photoionization mass spectrometry and the development of quantitative kinetic modeling for the complex combustion of potential fuels. The experiments are carried out using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry with an orthogonal time-of-flight spectrometer used for mass analysis at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CBS-QB3 calculations of adiabatic ionization energies and appearance energies agree well with the experimental results. Several bond dissociation energies are also derived and presented.

  8. High-definition and 3-dimensional imaging of macular pathologies with high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Vivek J; Wojtkowski, Maciej; Witkin, Andre J; Duker, Jay S; Ko, Tony H; Carvalho, Mariana; Schuman, Joel S; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Fujimoto, James G

    2006-11-01

    To assess high-speed ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) image resolution, acquisition speed, image quality, and retinal coverage for the visualization of macular pathologies. Retrospective cross-sectional study. Five hundred eighty-eight eyes of 327 patients with various macular pathologies. High-speed ultrahigh-resolution OCT images were obtained in 588 eyes of 327 patients with selected macular diseases. Ultrahigh-resolution OCT using Fourier/spectral domain detection achieves approximately 3-mum axial image resolutions, acquisition speeds of approximately 25 000 axial scans per second, and >3 times finer resolution and >50 times higher speed than standard OCT. Three scan protocols were investigated. The first acquires a small number of high-definition images through the fovea. The second acquires a raster series of high-transverse pixel density images. The third acquires 3-dimensional OCT data using a dense raster pattern. Three-dimensional OCT can generate OCT fundus images that enable precise registration of OCT images with the fundus. Using the OCT fundus images, OCT results were correlated with standard ophthalmoscopic examination techniques. High-definition macular pathologies. Macular holes, age-related macular degeneration, epiretinal membranes, diabetic retinopathy, retinal dystrophies, central serous chorioretinopathy, and other pathologies were imaged and correlated with ophthalmic examination, standard OCT, fundus photography, and fluorescein angiography, where applicable. High-speed ultrahigh-resolution OCT generates images of retinal pathologies with improved quality, more comprehensive retinal coverage, and more precise registration than standard OCT. The speed preserves retinal topography, thus enabling the visualization of subtle changes associated with disease. High-definition high-transverse pixel density OCT images improve visualization of photoreceptor and pigment epithelial morphology, as well as thin intraretinal and

  9. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  10. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although there…

  11. Investigation of Measurement Condition for 3-Dimensional Spectroscopy by Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohigashi, T.; Inagaki, Y.; Ito, A.; Shinohara, K.; Kosugi, N.

    2017-06-01

    A sample cell for performing computed tomography (CT) was developed. The 3-dimensional (3D) structure of polystyrene spheres was observed and the fluctuation of reconstructed linear absorption coefficients (LAC) was 9.3%. To improve the quality of data in 3D spectro-microscopy, required measurement condition is discussed.

  12. 3-dimensional root phenotyping with a novel imaging and software platform

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel imaging and software platform was developed for the high-throughput phenotyping of 3-dimensional root traits during seedling development. To demonstrate the platform’s capacity, plants of two rice (Oryza sativa) genotypes, Azucena and IR64, were grown in a transparent gellan gum system and ...

  13. Application of a parallel 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry HPF code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Gwo, Jin-Ping; Yeh, Gour-Tsyh

    1997-02-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to parallelize a 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code and (2) to apply the parallel code to a proposed waste disposal site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The 2-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code HYDROGEOCHEM, developed at the Pennsylvania State University for coupled subsurface solute transport and chemical equilibrium processes, was first modified to accommodate 3-dimensional problem domains. A bi-conjugate gradient stabilized linear matrix solver was then incorporated to solve the matrix equation. We chose to parallelize the 3-dimensional code on the Intel Paragons at ORNL by using an HPF (high performance FORTRAN) compiler developed at PGI. The data- and task-parallel algorithms available in the HPF compiler proved to be highly efficient for the geochemistry calculation. This calculation can be easily implemented in HPF formats and is perfectly parallel because the chemical speciation on one finite-element node is virtually independent of those on the others. The parallel code was applied to a subwatershed of the Melton Branch at ORNL. Chemical heterogeneity, in addition to physical heterogeneities of the geological formations, has been identified as one of the major factors that affect the fate and transport of contaminants at ORNL. This study demonstrated an application of the 3-dimensional hydrogeochemistry code on the Melton Branch site. A uranium tailing problem that involved in aqueous complexation and precipitation-dissolution was tested. Performance statistics was collected on the Intel Paragons at ORNL. Implications of these results on the further optimization of the code were discussed.

  14. 3-Dimensional Examination of the Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone Reveals Lineage-Specific Microdomains

    PubMed Central

    Azim, Kasum; Fiorelli, Roberto; Zweifel, Stefan; Hurtado-Chong, Anahi; Yoshikawa, Kazuaki; Slomianka, Lutz; Raineteau, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricle is populated by heterogeneous populations of stem and progenitor cells that, depending on their exact location, are biased to acquire specific neuronal fates. This newly described heterogeneity of SVZ stem and progenitor cells underlines the necessity to develop methods for the accurate quantification of SVZ stem and progenitor subpopulations. In this study, we provide 3-dimensional topographical maps of slow cycling “stem” cells and progenitors based on their unique cell cycle properties. These maps revealed that both cell populations are present throughout the lateral ventricle wall as well as in discrete regions of the dorsal wall. Immunodetection of transcription factors expressed in defined progenitor populations further reveals that divergent lineages have clear regional enrichments in the rostro-caudal as well as in the dorso-ventral span of the lateral ventricle. Thus, progenitors expressing Tbr2 and Dlx2 were confined to dorsal and dorso-lateral regions of the lateral ventricle, respectively, while Mash1+ progenitors were more homogeneously distributed. All cell populations were enriched in the rostral-most region of the lateral ventricle. This diversity and uneven distribution greatly impede the accurate quantification of SVZ progenitor populations. This is illustrated by measuring the coefficient of error of estimates obtained by using increasing section sampling interval. Based on our empirical data, we provide such estimates for all progenitor populations investigated in this study. These can be used in future studies as guidelines to judge if the precision obtained with a sampling scheme is sufficient to detect statistically significant differences between experimental groups if a biological effect is present. Altogether, our study underlines the need to consider the SVZ of the lateral ventricle as a complex 3D structure and define methods to accurately assess

  15. A 3-dimensional anthropometric evaluation of facial morphology among Chinese and Greek population.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Kau, Chung How; Pan, Feng; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Zacharopoulos, Georgios Vasileiou

    2013-07-01

    The use of 3-dimensional (3D) facial imaging has taken greater importance as orthodontists use the soft tissue paradigm in the evaluation of skeletal disproportion. Studies have shown that faces defer in populations. To date, no anthropometric evaluations have been made of Chinese and Greek faces. The aim of this study was to compare facial morphologies of Greeks and Chinese using 3D facial anthropometric landmarks. Three-dimensional facial images were acquired via a commercially available stereophotogrammetric camera capture system. The 3dMD face system captured 245 subjects from 2 population groups (Chinese [n = 72] and Greek [n = 173]), and each population was categorized into male and female groups for evaluation. All subjects in the group were between 18 and 30 years old and had no apparent facial anomalies. Twenty-five anthropometric landmarks were identified on the 3D faces of each subject. Soft tissue nasion was set as the "zeroed" reference landmark. Twenty landmark distances were constructed and evaluated within 3 dimensions of space. Six angles, 4 proportions, and 1 construct were also calculated. Student t test was used to analyze each data set obtained within each subgroup. Distinct facial differences were noted between the subgroups evaluated. When comparing differences of sexes in 2 populations (eg, male Greeks and male Chinese), significant differences were noted in more than 80% of the landmark distances calculated. One hundred percent of the angular were significant, and the Chinese were broader in width to height facial proportions. In evaluating the lips to the esthetic line, the Chinese population had more protrusive lips. There are differences in the facial morphologies of subjects obtained from a Chinese population versus that of a Greek population.

  16. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  17. Effect of watching 3-dimensional television on refractive error in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Hyun; Suh, Young-Woo; Choi, Yong-Min; Han, Ji-Yoon; Nam, Gi-Tae; You, Eun-Joo; Cho, Yoonae A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of watching 3-dimensional (3D) television (TV) on refractive error in children. Sixty healthy volunteers, aged 6 to 12 years, without any ocular abnormalities other than refractive error were recruited for this study. They watched 3D TV for 50 minutes at a viewing distance of 2.8 meters. The image disparity of the 3D contents was from -1 to 1 degree. Refractive errors were measured both before and immediately after watching TV and were rechecked after a 10-minute rest period. The refractive errors before and after watching TV were compared. The amount of refractive change was also compared between myopes and controls. The refractive error of the participants who showed a myopic shift immediately after watching TV were compared across each time point to assure that the myopic shift persisted after a 10-minute rest. The mean age of the participants was 9.23 ± 1.75 years. The baseline manifest refractive error was -1.70 ± 1.79 (-5.50 to +1.25) diopters. The refractive errors immediately after watching and after a 10-minute rest were -1.75 ± 1.85 and -1.69 ± 1.80 diopters, respectively, which were not different from the baseline values. Myopic participants (34 participants), whose spherical equivalent was worse than -0.75 diopters, also did not show any significant refractive change after watching 3D TV. A myopic shift was observed in 31 participants with a mean score of 0.29 ± 0.23 diopters, which resolved after a 10-minute rest. Watching properly made 3D content on a 3D TV for 50 minutes with a 10-minute intermission at more than 2.8 meters of viewing distance did not affect the refractive error of children.

  18. Influence of standardization on the precision (reproducibility) of dental cast analysis with virtual 3-dimensional models.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kazuo; Chung, Onejune; Park, Seojung; Lee, Seung-Pyo; Sachdeva, Rohit C L; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2015-03-01

    Virtual 3-dimensional (3D) models obtained by scanning of physical casts have become an alternative to conventional dental cast analysis in orthodontic treatment. If the precision (reproducibility) of virtual 3D model analysis can be further improved, digital orthodontics could be even more widely accepted. The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of "standardization" of the target points for dental cast analysis using virtual 3D models. Physical plaster models were also measured to obtain additional information. Five sets of dental casts were used. The dental casts were scanned with R700 (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark) and REXCAN DS2 3D (Solutionix, Seoul, Korea) scanners. In this study, 3 system and software packages were used: SureSmile (OraMetrix, Richardson, Tex), Rapidform (Inus, Seoul, Korea), and I-DEAS (SDRC, Milford, Conn). Without standardization, the maximum differences were observed between the SureSmile software and the Rapidform software (0.39 mm ± 0.07). With standardization, the maximum differences were observed between the SureSmile software and measurements with a digital caliper (0.099 mm ± 0.01), and this difference was significantly greater (P <0.05) than the 2 other mean difference values. Furthermore, the results of this study showed that the mean differences "WITH" standardization were significantly lower than those "WITHOUT" standardization for all systems, software packages, or methods. The results showed that elimination of the influence of usability or habituation is important for improving the reproducibility of dental cast analysis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Predicting diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Michael G; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L S

    2014-10-28

    Nanotechnology is widely used in cancer research. Models that predict nanoparticle transport and delivery in tumors (including subcellular compartments) would be useful tools. This study tested the hypothesis that diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional (3D) systems can be predicted based on liposome-cell biointerface parameters (binding, uptake, retention) and liposome diffusivity. Liposomes comprising different amounts of cationic and fusogenic lipids (10-30mol% DOTAP or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-20mol% DOPE or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, +25 to +44mV zeta potential) were studied. We (a) measured liposome-cell biointerface parameters in monolayer cultures, and (b) calculated effective diffusivity based on liposome size and spheroid composition. The resulting parameters were used to simulate the liposome concentration-depth profiles in 3D spheroids. The simulated results agreed with the experimental results for liposomes comprising 10-30mol% DOTAP and ≤10mol% DOPE, but not for liposomes with higher DOPE content. For the latter, model modifications to account for time-dependent extracellular concentration decrease and liposome size increase did not improve the predictions. The difference among low- and high-DOPE liposomes suggests concentration-dependent DOPE properties in 3D systems that were not captured in monolayers. Taken together, our earlier and present studies indicate the diffusive transport of neutral, anionic and cationic nanoparticles (polystyrene beads and liposomes, 20-135nm diameter, -49 to +44mV) in 3D spheroids, with the exception of liposomes comprising >10mol% DOPE, can be predicted based on the nanoparticle-cell biointerface and nanoparticle diffusivity. Applying the model to low-DOPE liposomes showed that changes in surface charge affected the liposome localization in intratumoral subcompartments within spheroids.

  20. Quantitative 3-dimensional corneal imaging in vivo using a modified HRT-RCM confocal microscope.

    PubMed

    Petroll, W Matthew; Weaver, Matthew; Vaidya, Saurabh; McCulley, James P; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test hardware and software modifications to allow quantitative full-thickness corneal imaging using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) Rostock Corneal Module. A personal computer-controlled motor drive with positional feedback was integrated into the system to allow automated focusing through the entire cornea. The left eyes of 10 New Zealand white rabbits were scanned from endothelium to epithelium. Image sequences were read into a custom-developed program for depth calculation and measurement of sublayer thicknesses. Three-dimensional visualizations were also generated using Imaris. In 6 rabbits, stack images were registered, and depth-dependent counts of keratocyte nuclei were made using Metamorph. The mean epithelial and corneal thickness measured in the rabbit were 47 ± 5 μm and 373 ± 25 μm, respectively (n = 10 corneas); coefficients of variation for repeated scans were 8.2% and 2.1%. Corneal thickness measured using ultrasonic pachymetry was 374 + 17 μm. The mean overall keratocyte density measured in the rabbit was 43,246 ± 5603 cells per cubic millimeter in vivo (n = 6 corneas). There was a gradual decrease in keratocyte density from the anterior to posterior cornea (R = 0.99), consistent with previous data generated in vitro. This modified system allows high-resolution 3-dimensional image stacks to be collected from the full-thickness rabbit cornea in vivo. These data sets can be used for interactive visualization of corneal cell layers, measurement of sublayer thickness, and depth-dependent keratocyte density measurements. Overall, the modifications significantly expand the potential quantitative research applications of the HRT Rostock Cornea Module microscope.

  1. A new platform for serological analysis based on porous 3-dimensional polyethylene sinter bodies.

    PubMed

    Alasel, Mohammed; Keusgen, Michael

    2017-10-25

    A new sensitive and selective platform, three-dimensional immunosensor, has been developed for a rapid serological diagnosis; detection of a Borrelia infection was considered as a model assay. The immunosensor is based on a 3-dimensional (3D) porous solid surface (sinter body) with dimensions of 2×2.5mm where a recombinant variable lipoprotein surface-exposed protein (VlsE; Borrelia-antigen) is immobilized by different techniques. The sinter body served as a robust and inexpensive carrier, which facilitated a successful hydrophobic adsorption as well as covalent immobilization of the antigen with sufficient amounts of on the surface. Because of sinter body's porosity, the detection could be performed in an immune affinity flow system based on a little disposable plastic column. The flow of reagents through the column is advantageous in terms of reducing the non-specific interaction and shortening the test time. Furthermore, three labels were tested for a colorimetric detection: i) a horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled secondary antibody, ii) nanoparticles based on Sudan IV, and iii) gold nanoparticles modified with protein A. HRP secondary labeled antibody provides the most sensitive test, 1000 fold dilution of serum sample can be clearly detected in only 20min. Gold nanoparticles modified with protein A were used as a direct label or as a catalyst for reduction of silver ions. Direct detection with gold nanoparticles provides short time of analysis (5min) while detection of metallic silver required longer time (12min) but with improved sensitivity. Nanoparticles based on Sudan IV showed high background and were less favorable. The assay is distinctive because of the rapid analysis time with all used labels, longest 20min. Compared to classical serological methods for Borrelia diagnosis, the developed method offers a simple, rapid and reliable tool of analysis with minimal cost and can be easily transferred to other infectious diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  2. The effect of material composition of 3-dimensional graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanocomposites on DNA analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Yang, Ruirui; Wang, Xinxing; Nan, Fuxin; Jiao, Kui

    2015-09-01

    Until now, morphology effects of 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional graphene nanocomposites and the effect of material composition on the biosensors have been rarely reported. In this paper, the various nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanofibres for studying the effect of morphology and material composition on DNA sensitivity were directly reported. The isolation and dispersion of graphene oxide were realized via intercalated self-doped polyaniline and ultrasonication, where the ultrasonication prompts the aggregates of graphite oxide to break up and self-doped polyaniline to diffuse into the stacked graphene oxide. Significant electrochemical enhancement has been observed due to the existence of self-doped polyaniline, which bridges the defects for electron transfer and, in the mean time, increases the basal spacing between graphene oxide sheets. Different morphologies can result in different ssDNA surface density, which can further influence the hybridization efficiency. Compared with 2-dimensional graphene oxide, self-doped polyaniline and other morphologies of nanocomposites, 3-dimensional graphene oxide-self-doped polyaniline nanowalls exhibited the highest surface density and hybridization efficiency. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensors presented the broad detection range with the low detection limit due to the specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space supported by nanowalls. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Normal fetal urine production rate estimated with 3-dimensional ultrasonography using the rotational technique (virtual organ computer-aided analysis).

    PubMed

    Touboul, Cyril; Boulvain, Michel; Picone, Olivier; Levaillant, Jean-Marc; Frydman, René; Senat, Marie-Victoire

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess hourly fetal urine production rates (HFUPRs) and establish a nomogram by measuring bladder volumes with 3-dimensional ultrasound. Fetal urine bladder volume was estimated in 167 normal singleton pregnancies with neither oligohydramnios nor polyhydramnios, at a gestational age of 20-41 weeks. HFUPR was estimated in a regression analysis that included at least 3 volumes calculated during the filling phase with the Virtual Organ Computed-aided AnaLysis (VOCAL) technique. We estimated interoperator variability for HFUPR less than 10 mL/h and HFUPR greater than 10 mL/h. Fetal urine production rates at 25, 30, 35, and 40 weeks were 7.5, 22.2, 56.1, and 125.1 mL/h, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficients for interoperator variability were 99.2% for HFUPR less than 10 mL/hour and 97.1% for HFUPR greater than 10 mL/h. Prenatal measurement of HFUPR with 3-dimensional VOCAL ultrasound is reproducible and may help to determine the cause and prognosis of amniotic fluid volume abnormalities.

  4. Does 3-Dimensional In Vivo Component Rotation Affect Clinical Outcomes in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Tsai, Tsung-Yuan; Dimitriou, Dimitris; Li, Guoan; Kwon, Young-Min

    2016-10-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is an effective treatment for single-compartment osteoarthritis. Limited studies have examined the relationship between component rotation and functional outcomes, with no existing consensus to guide "optimal" UKA component rotation. Our study aims to study the effect of 3-dimensional (3D) in vivo UKA component axial rotation on functional outcomes by determining (1) how much component axial rotation variability exists in UKA? and (2) does 3D in vivo UKA component axial rotation affect functional outcomes? Sixty-six UKAs from 58 consecutive patients (36 male [62.1%], age 63.7 ± 9.2 years, body mass index 28.2 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), and mean follow-up time 49.2 months) were imaged in weight-bearing standing position using biplanar radiography. We performed multiple comparisons to analyze the relationship between 3D UKA component alignment and European Quality of Life - 5 Dimensions (EQ-5D), UCLA activity score, and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores. Significant improvements in EQ-5D, EQ-5D (United States adjusted), and Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Scores (Sport/Rec) scores were noted postoperatively. However, high variability in 3D UKA femoral (6.2° ± 6.5°) and tibial (4.6° ± 6.4°) component positioning was observed. A trend toward better outcome scores in lower angles of femoral (<2.7° external rotation [ER]) and tibial (2.7° ER to 2.4° internal rotation [IR]) component rotation was noted, with better functional scores observed at mean femoral and tibial rotation angles of 3° ER to 3° IR. Patients with UKA femoral and/or tibial component rotation angles within 3° ER to 3° IR of neutral component alignment reported better functional outcomes. Surgeons should be cognizant of the high variability noted in UKA component axial rotation and its potential correlation with functional scores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of 3-Dimensional Sonography in the Assessment of Submucous Fibroids: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Keizer, Alieke L; Nieuwenhuis, Lotte L; Twisk, Jos W R; Huirne, Judith A F; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K; Brölmann, Hans A M

    2017-08-04

    To investigate the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) transvaginal sonography in classifying submucous fibroids using the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics PALM-COEIN (polyp, adenomyosis, leiomyoma, malignancy and hyperplasia, coagulopathy, ovulatory dysfunction, endometrial, iatrogenic, and not yet classified) classification and protrusion (percent) compared to 2-dimensional (2D) transvaginal sonography, 2D saline infusion sonography, and 3D saline infusion sonography, using hysteroscopy as a reference test. A prospective cohort pilot study was performed among 14 consecutive patients undergoing hysteroscopic surgery, preceded by routine sonography (2D transvaginal sonography, 2D saline infusion sonography, 3D transvaginal sonography, and 3D saline infusion sonography). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for 2D transvaginal sonography versus hysteroscopy was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06, 0.90) compared to 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83, 0.98) for 2D saline infusion sonography. The ICCs for 3D transvaginal sonography versus hysteroscopy were 0.69 (95% CI, 0.03, 0.90 [investigator A]) and 0.55 (95% CI, -0.48, 0.86 [investigator B]). The ICCs for 3D saline infusion sonography versus hysteroscopy were 0.94 (95% CI, 0.81, 0.98 [investigator A]) and 0.87 (95% CI, 0.60, 0.96 [investigator B]). Interobserver agreement of 3D transvaginal sonography was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.43, 0.94) compared to 0.86 (95% CI, 0.56, 0.96) for 3D saline infusion sonography. In these preliminary data, 3D transvaginal sonography was not as accurate as 2D or 3D saline infusion sonography and was not more accurate than 2D transvaginal sonography. There was moderate interobserver agreement for 3D transvaginal sonography. There might be room for improvement, as 3D transvaginal sonography is more accurate when endometrial thickness increases. Further study is warranted to evaluate in which patients saline infusion sonography eventually can be obviated. © 2017 by

  6. Quantitative high-resolution renal perfusion imaging using 3-dimensional through-time radial generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition.

    PubMed

    Wright, Katherine L; Chen, Yong; Saybasili, Haris; Griswold, Mark A; Seiberlich, Nicole; Gulani, Vikas

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations of the kidneys provide quantitative information on renal perfusion and filtration. However, these examinations are often difficult to implement because of respiratory motion and their need for a high spatiotemporal resolution and 3-dimensional coverage. Here, we present a free-breathing quantitative renal DCE-MRI examination acquired with a highly accelerated stack-of-stars trajectory and reconstructed with 3-dimensional (3D) through-time radial generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisition (GRAPPA), using half and quarter doses of gadolinium contrast. Data were acquired in 10 asymptomatic volunteers using a stack-of-stars trajectory that was undersampled in-plane by a factor of 12.6 with respect to Nyquist sampling criterion and using partial Fourier of 6/8 in the partition direction. Data had a high temporal (2.1-2.9 seconds per frame) and spatial (approximately 2.2 mm) resolution with full 3D coverage of both kidneys (350-370 mm × 79-92 mm). Images were successfully reconstructed with 3D through-time radial GRAPPA, and interframe respiratory motion was compensated by using an algorithm developed to automatically use images from multiple points of enhancement as references for registration. Quantitative pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a separable dual-compartment model. Region-of-interest (ROI) pharmacokinetic analysis provided estimates (mean (SD)) of quantitative renal parameters after a half dose: 218.1 (57.1) mL/min per 100 mL; plasma mean transit time, 4.8 (2.2) seconds; renal filtration, 28.7 (10.0) mL/min per 100 mL; and tubular mean transit time, 131.1 (60.2) seconds in 10 kidneys. The ROI pharmacokinetic analysis provided estimates (mean (SD)) of quantitative renal parameters after a quarter dose: 218.1 (57.1) mL/min per 100 mL; plasma mean transit time, 4.8 (2.2) seconds; renal filtration, 28.7 (10.0) mL/min per 100 mL; and tubular mean transit time

  7. Evaluation of Facial Volume Changes after Rejuvenation Surgery Using a 3-Dimensional Camera.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Brian; Baker, Jennifer L; Hosseini, Ava; Collins, Jessica; Suliman, Ahmed; Wallace, Anne M; Cohen, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Surgical rejuvenation alters facial volume distribution to achieve more youthful aesthetic contours. These changes are routinely compared subjectively. The introduction of 3-dimensional (3D) stereophotogrammetry provides a novel method for measuring and comparing surgical results. We sought to quantify how specific facial areas are changed after rejuvenation surgery using the 3D camera. Patients undergoing facial rejuvenation were imaged preoperatively and postoperatively with 3D stereophotogrammetry. Images were registered using facial surface landmarks unaltered by surgery. Colorimetric 3D analysis depicting postoperative volume changes was performed utilizing the 3D imaging software and quantitative volume measurements were constructed. Nine patients who underwent combined facelift procedures and fat grafting were evaluated. Median time for postoperative imaging was 4.8 months. Positive changes in facial volume occurred in the forehead, temples, and cheeks (median changes, 0.9 mL ± 4.3 SD; 0.8 mL ± 0.47 SD; and 1.4 mL ± 1.6 SD, respectively). Negative changes in volume occurred in the nasolabial folds, marionette basins, and neck/submental regions (median changes, -1.0 mL ± 0.37 SD; -0.4 mL ± 0.9 SD; and -2.0 mL ± 4.3 SD, respectively). The technique of 3D stereophotogrammetry provides a tool for quantifying facial volume distribution after rejuvenation procedures. Areas of consistent volume increase include the forehead, temples, and cheeks; areas of negative volume change occur in the nasolabial folds, marionette basins, and submental/chin regions. This technology may be utilized to better understand the dynamic changes that occur with facial rejuvenation and quantify longevity of various rejuvenation techniques. 4 Diagnostic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery.

  9. 3-Dimensional Modeling of Capacitively and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauf, Shahid

    2008-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas are widely used for thin film etching during micro and nano-electronic device fabrication. Fluid and hybrid plasma models were developed 15-20 years ago to understand the fundamentals of these plasmas and plasma etching. These models have significantly evolved since then, and are now a major tool used for new plasma hardware design and problem resolution. Plasma etching is a complex physical phenomenon, where inter-coupled plasma, electromagnetic, fluid dynamics, and thermal effects all have a major influence. The next frontier in the evolution of fluid-based plasma models is where these models are able to self-consistently treat the inter-coupling of plasma physics with fluid dynamics, electromagnetics, heat transfer and magnetostatics. We describe one such model in this paper and illustrate its use in solving engineering problems of interest for next generation plasma etcher design. Our 3-dimensional plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell equations, transport equations for all charged and neutral species in the plasma, the Navier-Stokes equation for fluid flow, and Kirchhoff's equations for the lumped external circuit. This model also includes Monte Carlo based kinetic models for secondary electrons and stochastic heating, and can take account of plasma chemistry. This modeling formalism allows us to self-consistently treat the dynamics in commercial inductively and capacitively coupled plasma etching reactors with realistic plasma chemistries, magnetic fields, and reactor geometries. We are also able to investigate the influence of the distributed electromagnetic circuit at very high frequencies (VHF) on the plasma dynamics. The model is used to assess the impact of azimuthal asymmetries in plasma reactor design (e.g., off-center pump, 3D magnetic field, slit valve, flow restrictor) on plasma characteristics at frequencies from 2 -- 180 MHz. With Jason Kenney, Ankur Agarwal, Ajit Balakrishna, Kallol Bera, and Ken Collins.

  10. Validation of a Novel 3-Dimensional Sonographic Method for Assessing Gastric Accommodation in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Buisman, Wijnand J; van Herwaarden-Lindeboom, Maud Y A; Mauritz, Femke A; El Ouamari, Mourad; Hausken, Trygve; Olafsdottir, Edda J; van der Zee, David C; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-07-01

    A novel automated 3-dimensional (3D) sonographic method has been developed for measuring gastric volumes. This study aimed to validate and assess the reliability of this novel 3D sonographic method compared to the reference standard in 3D gastric sonography: freehand magneto-based 3D sonography. A prospective study with 8 balloons (in vitro) and 16 stomachs of healthy volunteers (in vivo) was performed. After a 500-mL liquid meal, 1 preprandial and 3 postprandial volume scans of the stomachs were performed by the novel 3D sonographic method and the current reference-standard 3D sonographic method. The in vitro study showed a mean volume difference between the novel method and the true balloon volume of -1.3 mL; limits of agreement (LoA) were small (-39.3 to12.3 mL), with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.998. The in vivo study showed a mean gastric volume of 321 mL between the novel method and the freehand magneto-based method, with a mean volume difference of -4.4 mL; LoA were -40.1 to 31.2 mL, and the ICC was 0.991. The intraobserver and interobserver variability rates were low, at 0.8 mL (LoA, -24.0 to 25.6 mL), with an ICC of 0.995, and 0.5 mL (LoA, of -26.8 to 27.8 mL), with an ICC of 0.999, respectively. The novel 3D sonographic method with automated acquisition showed good agreement with the current reference-standard gastric 3D sonographic method, with low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This novel 3D sonographic method is a valid and reliable technique for determining gastric accommodation.

  11. The Reliability of a Novel Mobile 3-dimensional Wound Measurement Device.

    PubMed

    Anghel, Ersilia L; Kumar, Anagha; Bigham, Thomas E; Maselli, Kathryn M; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E

    2016-11-01

    Objective assessment of wound dimensions is essential for tracking progression and determining treatment effectiveness. A reliability study was designed to establish intrarater and interrater reliability of a novel mobile 3-dimensional wound measurement (3DWM) device. Forty-five wounds were assessed by 2 raters using a 3DWM device to obtain length, width, area, depth, and volume measurements. Wounds were also measured manually, using a disposable ruler and digital planimetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to establish intrarater and interrater reliability. High levels of intrarater and interrater agreement were observed for area, length, and width; ICC = 0.998, 0.977, 0.955 and 0.999, 0.997, 0.995, respectively. Moderate levels of intrarater (ICC = 0.888) and interrater (ICC = 0.696) agreement were observed for volume. Lastly, depth yielded an intrarater ICC of 0.360 and an interrater ICC of 0.649. Measures from the 3DWM device were highly correlated with those obtained from scaled photography for length, width, and area (ρ = 0.997, 0.988, 0.997, P < 0.001). The 3DWM device yielded correlations of ρ = 0.990, 0.987, 0.996 with P < 0.001 for length, width, and area when compared to manual measurements. The 3DWM device was found to be highly reliable for measuring wound areas for a range of wound sizes and types as compared to manual measurement and digital planimetry. The depth and therefore volume measurement using the 3DWM device was found to have a lower ICC, but volume ICC alone was moderate. Overall, this device offers a mobile option for objective wound measurement in the clinical setting.

  12. LADCP Observations of the 3-Dimensional Velocity Field Associated with Internal Waves and Boundary-Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurnherr, A.; St Laurent, L.; Jacobs, S. S.; Kanzow, T.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Ledwell, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    While low-frequency processes in the ocean are primarily associated with (quasi-)horizontal, i.e. 2-dimensional, flows energetic high-frequency finescale processes, such as internal waves, hydraulic and other boundary-layer currents, are much more 3-dimensional. Due to recent advances in LADCP processing, it is now possible to derive full-depth snapshots of the 3-dimensional velocity field from standard CTD/LADCP casts. Applying the new method to data obtained in energetic regions of the ocean reveals velocity fields associated with vertical speeds ranging from a few cm/s to more than 20cm/s. Outside boundary layers, the vertical velocities are dominated by high-frequency (near-N) internal waves associated with small horizontal scales and the shapes of the corresponding vertical-velocity spectra in the finescale band are consistent with the Garrett-Munk model. In individual data sets the vertical-velocity spectral levels are correlated with coincident dissipation measurements derived from velocity microstructure, suggesting that a new finescale parameterization method for oceanic turbulence and diapycnal mixing based on LADCP-derived vertical velocities is possible. Near boundaries, there is evidence for large vertical velocities associated not just with waves, but also with seawater upwelling from beneath a fast-melting Antarctic ice shelf, with hydraulic overflow processes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and even with very large "overturns" over the flank of a ridge in Luzon strait.;

  13. Stress distribution in the temporomandibular joint after mandibular protraction: a 3-dimensional finite element method study. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anurag; Kohli, Virender S; Hazarey, Pushpa V; Kharbanda, Om P; Gunjal, Amit

    2009-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate patterns of stress generation in the temporomandibular joint after mandibular protraction, by using a 3-dimensional finite element method. The results of the initial investigation are reported here in Part 1. The effects of varying the construction bite are reported in Part 2. A 3-dimensional computer-aided design model was developed from the magnetic resonance images of a growing boy (age, 12 years), by using I-DEAS NX (version 11.0, Siemens PLM Software, Plano, Tex). The model simulated mandibular protraction, with 5 mm of sagittal advancement and 4 mm of vertical opening. Stress distributions on the condylar neck, the glenoid fossa, and the articular disc in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions were assessed. Tensile stresses were located on the posterosuperior aspects and compressive stresses on the anterior and anterosuperior aspects of the condylar head. Tensile stresses were found in the posterior region of the glenoid fossa near the attachment of the posterior connective tissues. These results suggest that, on mandibular protraction, the mandibular condyle experiences tensile stresses in the posterosuperior aspect that might help explain condylar growth in this direction. Similarly, on the glenoid fossa, tensile stresses are created in the region of posterior connective tissues; this might be correlated with the increased cellular activity in this region. Further study with variable vertical heights of the construction bites is needed.

  14. A Systematic Review to Uncover a Universal Protocol for Accuracy Assessment of 3-Dimensional Virtually Planned Orthognathic Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gaber, Ramy M; Shaheen, Eman; Falter, Bart; Araya, Sebastian; Politis, Constantinus; Swennen, Gwen R J; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review methods used for assessing the accuracy of 3-dimensional virtually planned orthognathic surgery in an attempt to reach an objective assessment protocol that could be universally used. A systematic review of the currently available literature, published until September 12, 2016, was conducted using PubMed as the primary search engine. We performed secondary searches using the Cochrane Database, clinical trial registries, Google Scholar, and Embase, as well as a bibliography search. Included articles were required to have stated clearly that 3-dimensional virtual planning was used and accuracy assessment performed, along with validation of the planning and/or assessment method. Descriptive statistics and quality assessment of included articles were performed. The initial search yielded 1,461 studies. Only 7 studies were included in our review. An important variability was found regarding methods used for 1) accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery or 2) validation of the tools used. Included studies were of moderate quality; reviewers' agreement regarding quality was calculated to be 0.5 using the Cohen κ test. On the basis of the findings of this review, it is evident that the literature lacks consensus regarding accuracy assessment. Hence, a protocol is suggested for accuracy assessment of virtually planned orthognathic surgery with the lowest margin of error. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Common 3-dimensional coordinate system for assessment of directional changes.

    PubMed

    Ruellas, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Tonello, Cristiano; Gomes, Liliane Rosas; Yatabe, Marilia Sayako; Macron, Lucie; Lopinto, Julia; Goncalves, Joao Roberto; Garib Carreira, Daniela Gamba; Alonso, Nivaldo; Souki, Bernardo Quiroga; Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Cevidanes, Lucia Helena Soares

    2016-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate how head orientation interferes with the amounts of directional change in 3-dimensional (3D) space and to propose a method to obtain a common coordinate system using 3D surface models. Three-dimensional volumetric label maps were built for pretreatment (T1) and posttreatment (T2) from cone-beam computed tomography images of 30 growing subjects. Seven landmarks were labeled in all T1 and T2 volumetric label maps. Registrations of T1 and T2 images relative to the cranial base were performed, and 3D surface models were generated. All T1 surface models were moved by orienting the Frankfort horizontal, midsagittal, and transporionic planes to match the axial, sagittal, and coronal planes, respectively, at a common coordinate system in the Slicer software (open-source, version 4.3.1; http://www.slicer.org). The matrix generated for each T1 model was applied to each corresponding registered T2 surface model, obtaining a common head orientation. The 3D differences between the T1 and registered T2 models, and the amounts of directional change in each plane of the 3D space, were quantified for before and after head orientation. Two assessments were performed: (1) at 1 time point (mandibular width and length), and (2) for longitudinal changes (maxillary and mandibular differences). The differences between measurements before and after head orientation were quantified. Statistical analysis was performed by evaluating the means and standard deviations with paired t tests (mandibular width and length) and Wilcoxon tests (longitudinal changes). For 16 subjects, 2 observers working independently performed the head orientations twice with a 1-week interval between them. Intraclass correlation coefficients and the Bland-Altman method tested intraobserver and interobserver agreements of the x, y, and z coordinates for 7 landmarks. The 3D differences were not affected by the head orientation. The amounts of directional change in each plane of 3

  16. Multilevel extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) and osteotomies for 3-dimensional severe deformity: 25 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Paul C; Shucosky, Erin; Chotikul, Liana; Salari, Ben; Chen, Lun; Jerrems, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This is a retrospective review of 25 patients with severe lumbar nerve root compression undergoing multilevel anterior retroperitoneal lumbar interbody fusion and posterior instrumentation for deformity. The objective is to analyze the outcomes and clinical results from anterior interbody fusions performed through a lateral approach and compare these with traditional surgical procedures. A consecutive series of 25 patients (78 extreme lateral interbody fusion [XLIF] levels) was identified to illustrate the primary advantages of XLIF in correcting the most extreme of the 3-dimensional deformities that fulfilled the following criteria: (1) a minimum of 40° of scoliosis; (2) 2 or more levels of translation, anterior spondylolisthesis, and lateral subluxation (subluxation in 2 planes), causing symptomatic neurogenic claudication and severe spinal stenosis; and (3) lumbar hypokyphosis or flat-back syndrome. In addition, the majority had trunks that were out of balance (central sacral vertical line ≥2 cm from vertical plumb line) or had sagittal imbalance, defined by a distance between the sagittal vertical line and S1 of greater than 3 cm. There were 25 patients who had severe enough deformities fulfilling these criteria that required supplementation of the lateral XLIF with posterior osteotomies and pedicle screw instrumentation. In our database, with a mean follow-up of 24 months, 85% of patients showed evidence of solid arthrodesis and no subsidence on computed tomography and flexion/extension radiographs. The complication rate remained low, with a perioperative rate of 2.4% and postoperative rate of 12.2%. The lateral listhesis and anterior spondylolisthetic subluxation were anatomically reduced with minimally invasive XLIF. The main finding in these 25 cases was our isolation of the major indication for supplemental posterior surgery: truncal decompensation in patients who are out of balance by 2 cm or more, in whom posterior spinal osteotomies and segmental

  17. Human embryonic growth and development of the cerebellum using 3-dimensional ultrasound and virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Rousian, M; Groenenberg, I A L; Hop, W C; Koning, A H J; van der Spek, P J; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the first trimester cerebellar growth and development using 2 different measuring techniques: 3-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) ultrasound visualization. The cerebellum measurements were related to gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL). Finally, the reproducibility of both the methods was tested. In a prospective cohort study, we collected 630 first trimester, serially obtained, 3D ultrasound scans of 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 7 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of GA. Only scans with high-quality images of the fossa posterior were selected for the analysis. Measurements were performed offline in the coronal plane using 3D (4D view) and VR (V-Scope) software. The VR enables the observer to use all available dimensions in a data set by visualizing the volume as a "hologram." Total cerebellar diameter, left, and right hemispheric diameter, and thickness were measured using both the techniques. All measurements were performed 3 times and means were used in repeated measurements analysis. After exclusion criteria were applied 177 (28%) 3D data sets were available for further analysis. The median GA was 10 + 0 weeks and the median CRL was 31.4 mm (range: 5.2-79.0 mm). The cerebellar parameters could be measured from 7 gestational weeks onward. The total cerebellar diameter increased from 2.2 mm at 7 weeks of GA to 13.9 mm at 12 weeks of GA using VR and from 2.2 to 13.8 mm using 3D ultrasound. The reproducibility, established in a subset of 35 data sets, resulted in intraclass correlation coefficient values ≥0.98. It can be concluded that cerebellar measurements performed by the 2 methods proved to be reproducible and comparable with each other. However, VR-using all three dimensions-provides a superior method for the visualization of the cerebellum. The constructed reference values can be used to study normal and abnormal cerebellar growth and development.

  18. Repeatability of Junctional Zone Measurements Using 3-Dimensional Transvaginal Sonography in Healthy Fertile Women.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Christina Kjaergaard; Glavind, Julie; Madsen, Lene Duch; Uldbjerg, Niels; Dueholm, Margit

    2016-07-01

    To describe the junctional zone and determine the intraobserver and interobserver repeatability of junctional zone measurements using 3-dimensional (3D) transvaginal sonography in healthy fertile women. We examined 82 consecutive women with 3D transvaginal sonography. The maximum and minimum junctional zone thickness was measured in all uterine walls. The difference between maximum and minimum thickness and average measurements (maximum thickness + minimum thickness/2) of the anterior, posterior, fundal, and lateral walls were calculated. Among the first 40 consecutive women, intraobserver and interobserver repeatability was evaluated according to the Bland-Altman method and expressed as a coefficient of repeatability. Using 3D transvaginal sonography, we visualized a thin and regular junctional zone in most women. The posterior uterine wall had the largest median maximum junctional zone thickness value of 5.2 (interquartile range, 3.8-6.5) mm. Ten women (12%) had maximum thickness values of 8.0 to 12.0 mm. The maximum thickness in each uterine wall had intraobserver and interobserver coefficients of repeatability of ±2.1 to ±3.4 and ±2.6 to ±3.9 mm, respectively, which were reduced by average measurements: ±1.9 and ±2.0 mm (anterior and posterior walls) and ±1.5 mm (fundal and lateral walls) for intraobserver and interobserver values. Correlations between measurements were poor in the narrow range of junctional zone thickness. The junctional zone has an indistinct outline on 3D transvaginal sonography, resulting in measurement errors within a broad range of ±2 to ±4 mm, which were only reduced to some extent by average measurements. The thickness of the junctional zone varied within a narrow range in this healthy fertile population, and reliability measurements of junctional zone thickness have to be evaluated in women with a wider range of thickness. The observer repeatability and reliability of junctional zone measurements need to be further evaluated

  19. 3-dimensional versus conventional laparoscopy for benign hysterectomy: protocol for a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Elise; Bennich, Gitte; Larsen, Christian Rifbjerg; Lindschou, Jannie; Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Lassen, Pernille Danneskiold

    2017-09-07

    Hysterectomy is one of the most common surgical procedures for women of reproductive age. Laparoscopy was introduced in the 1990es and is today one of the recommended routes of surgery. A recent observational study showed that operative time for hysterectomy was significantly lower for 3-dimensional compared to conventional laparoscopy. Complication rates were similar for the two groups. No other observational studies or randomized clinical trials have compared 3-dimensional to conventional laparoscopy in patients undergoing total hysterectomy for benign disease. The objective of the study is to determine if 3D laparoscopy gives better quality of life, less postoperative pain, less per- and postoperative complications, shorter operative time, or a shorter stay in hospital and a faster return to work or normal life, compared to conventional laparoscopy for benign hysterectomy. The design is a randomised multicentre clinical trial. Participants will be 400 women referred for laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign indications. Patients will be randomized to 3-dimensional or conventional laparoscopic hysterectomy. Operative procedures will follow the same principles and the same standard whether the surgeon's vision is 3-dimensional or conventional laparoscopy. Primary outcomes will be the impact of surgery on quality of life, assessed by the SF 36 questionnaire, and postoperative pain, assessed by a Visual Analogue scale for pain measurement. With a standard deviation of 12 points on SF 36 questionnaire, a risk of type I error of 3.3% and a risk of type II error of 10% a sample size of 190 patients in each arm of the trial is needed. Secondarily, we will investigate operative time, time to return to work, length of hospital stay, and - and postoperative complications. This trial will be the first randomized clinical trial investigating the potential clinical benefits and harms of 3-dimensional compared to conventional laparoscopy. The results may provide more evidence

  20. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  1. Ara h 2 cross-linking catalyzed by MTGase decreases its allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhihua; Lian, Jun; Zhao, Ruifang; Li, Kun; Li, Xin; Yang, Anshu; Tong, Ping; Chen, Hongbing

    2017-03-22

    Peanuts, whose major allergen is Ara h 2, are included among the eight major food allergens. After reduction using dithiothreitol (DTT), cross-linking of Ara h 2 could be catalyzed by microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), a widely used enzyme in the food industry. In this study, Ara h 2 cross-linking was catalyzed by MTGase after it was reduced by DTT. Using mass spectrometry and PLINK software, five cross-linkers were identified, and five linear allergen epitopes were found to be involved in the reactions. The IgE binding capacity of cross-linked Ara h 2 was found to be significantly lower compared to that of native and reduced Ara h 2. After simulated gastric fluid (SGF) digestion, the digested products of the cross-linked Ara h 2, again, had a significantly lower IgE binding capacity compared to untreated and reduced Ara h 2. Furthermore, reduced and cross-linked Ara h 2 (RC-Ara h 2) induced lower sensitization in mice, indicating its lower allergenicity. Reduction and MTGase-catalyzed cross-linking are effective methods to decrease the allergenicity of Ara h 2. The reactions involved linear allergen epitopes destroying the material basis of the allergenicity, and this might develop a new direction for protein desensitization processes.

  2. Reconstruction of Hyaline Cartilage Deep Layer Properties in 3-Dimensional Cultures of Human Articular Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Nanduri, Vibudha; Tattikota, Surendra Mohan; T, Avinash Raj; Sriramagiri, Vijaya Rama Rao; Kantipudi, Suma; Pande, Gopal

    2014-06-01

    Articular cartilage (AC) injuries and malformations are commonly noticed because of trauma or age-related degeneration. Many methods have been adopted for replacing or repairing the damaged tissue. Currently available AC repair methods, in several cases, fail to yield good-quality long-lasting results, perhaps because the reconstructed tissue lacks the cellular and matrix properties seen in hyaline cartilage (HC). To reconstruct HC tissue from 2-dimensional (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) cultures of AC-derived human chondrocytes that would specifically exhibit the cellular and biochemical properties of the deep layer of HC. Descriptive laboratory study. Two-dimensional cultures of human AC-derived chondrocytes were established in classical medium (CM) and newly defined medium (NDM) and maintained for a period of 6 weeks. These cells were suspended in 2 mm-thick collagen I gels, placed in 24-well culture inserts, and further cultured up to 30 days. Properties of chondrocytes, grown in 2D cultures and the reconstructed 3D cartilage tissue, were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopic techniques, immunohistochemistry, and cartilage-specific gene expression profiling by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and were compared with those of the deep layer of native human AC. Two-dimensional chondrocyte cultures grown in NDM, in comparison with those grown in CM, showed more chondrocyte-specific gene activity and matrix properties. The NDM-grown chondrocytes in 3D cultures also showed better reproduction of deep layer properties of HC, as confirmed by microscopic and gene expression analysis. The method used in this study can yield cartilage tissue up to approximately 1.6 cm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness that satisfies the very low cell density and matrix composition properties present in the deep layer of normal HC. This study presents a novel and reproducible method for long-term culture of AC-derived chondrocytes and reconstruction of cartilage

  3. Water-soluble [2.2]paracyclophane chromophores with large two-photon action cross sections.

    PubMed

    Woo, Han Young; Hong, Janice W; Liu, Bin; Mikhailovsky, Alexander; Korystov, Dmitry; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2005-01-26

    A series of alpha,omega-donor-substituted distyrylbenzene dimers held together by the [2.2]paracyclophane core were designed, synthesized, and characterized. Different substituents were chosen to modulate the strength of the donor nitrogen groups and to allow the molecules to be either neutral and soluble in nonpolar organic solvents or charged and water-soluble. The specific neutral structures are (in order of decreasing donor strength) 4,7,12,15-tetra[N,N-bis(6' '-chlorohexyl)-4'-aminostyryl]-[2.2]paracyclophane (1N), 4,7,12,15-tetra[(N-(6' '-chlorohexyl)carbazol-3'-yl)vinyl]-[2.2]paracyclophane (2N), and 4,7,12,15-tetra[N,N-bis(4' '-(6' ''-chlorohexyl)phenyl)-4'-aminostyryl]-[2.2]paracyclophane (3N). The charged species are 4,7,12,15-tetra[N,N-bis(6' '-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)-4'-aminostyryl]-[2.2]paracyclophane octaiodide (1C), 4,7,12,15-tetra[(N-(6' '-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)carbazol-3'-yl)vinyl]-[2.2]paracyclophane octaiodide (2C), and 4,7,12,15-tetra[N,N-bis(4' '-(6' ''-(N,N,N-trimethylammonium)hexyl)phenyl)-4'-aminostyryl]-[2.2]paracyclophane octaiodide (3C). Two-photon excitation spectra, measured using the two-photon induced fluorescence technique, show in toluene the following trend for the two-photon cross sections (delta): 3N > 2N > 1N. In water the delta values follow the same order, 3C approximately 2C > 1C, but are smaller (approximately one-third). Significantly, the fluorescence quantum yield (eta) in water decreases much more for 1, relative to 2 and 3. The two-photon action cross sections (deltaeta) of 2C and 3C are 294 GM and 359 GM, respectively. These values are among the highest reported thus far. These results show that, to maximize the deltaeta in this class of chromophores, one needs to fine-tune the magnitude of the charge transfer character of the excited state, to minimize fluorescence quenching in polar media.

  4. Measurements of the $ZZ$ production cross sections in the $$2\\ell2\

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton–proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. We found that candidate events for the leptonic decay mode ZZ → 2l2ν, where l denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)fb-1 at 7 (8) TeV collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, σ(pp → ZZ)=5.1+1.5-1.4(stat)+1.4-1.1(syst)±0.1(lumi)pb at 7 TeV, and 7.2+0.8-0.8(stat)+1.9-1.5(syst)±0.2(lumi)pb at 8 TeV, are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. Furthermore, the selected data are analyzed to search formore » anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the ZZ final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. As a result, these limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for ZZ in 4l final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.« less

  5. Measurement of the buccolingual inclination of teeth: manual technique vs 3-dimensional software.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahtab; Abdi, Amir Hossein; Farzan, Arash; Mokhtarpour, Faraneh; Baghban, AliReza Akbarzadeh

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to measure the inclination of teeth on dental casts by a manual technique with the tooth inclination protractor (TIP; MBI, Newport, United Kingdom) and a newly designed 3-dimensional (3D) software program. The correlation of the 2 techniques was evaluated, and the reliability of each technique was assessed separately. This study was conducted on 36 dental casts of normal, well-aligned Class I occlusions; we assessed 432 teeth. All casts had a normal Class I occlusion. After determining the facial axis of the clinical crown and the facial axis points on the dental casts, we measured the inclinations of the incisors and posterior teeth up to the first molars in each dental arch relative to Andrews' occlusal plane and the posterior occlusal plane using the TIP. Moreover, the casts were scanned by a structured-light 3D scanner. The inclination of teeth relative to the occlusal plane was determined using the new software. To assess the reliability, measurements of all teeth from 15 casts were repeated twice by the 2 methods. Intraclass correlation coefficient and Dahlberg's formula were used for calculation of correlation and reliability. Overall, the 2 techniques were not significantly different in the measurements of the inclinations of the teeth in both jaws. The ranges of Dahlberg's formula were 3.1° to 5.8° for the maxilla and 3.3° to 5.9° for the mandible. The overall correlation of the 2 techniques according to the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.91. For calculation of reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficients for the TIP and the 3D method were 0.73 and 0.82, respectively. The TIP and the 3D software showed a high correlation for measurement of the inclinations of maxillary and mandibular teeth relative to the occlusal plane. Also, the reproducibility of the measurements in each method was high. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Construction of 3-Dimensional Printed Ultrasound Phantoms With Wall-less Vessels.

    PubMed

    Nikitichev, Daniil I; Barburas, Anamaria; McPherson, Kirstie; Mari, Jean-Martial; West, Simeon J; Desjardins, Adrien E

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound phantoms are invaluable as training tools for vascular access procedures. We developed ultrasound phantoms with wall-less vessels using 3-dimensional printed chambers. Agar was used as a soft tissue-mimicking material, and the wall-less vessels were created with rods that were retracted after the agar was set. The chambers had integrated luer connectors to allow for fluid injections with clinical syringes. Several variations on this design are presented, which include branched and stenotic vessels. The results show that 3-dimensional printing can be well suited to the construction of wall-less ultrasound phantoms, with designs that can be readily customized and shared electronically. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yang, W.; Ichii, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer modelHideki Kobayashi, Wei Yang, and Kazuhito IchiiDepartment of Environmental Geochemical Cycle Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology3173-25, Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.Plant canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be observed from satellites, such as Greenhouse gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), using Fraunhofer lines in the near infrared spectral domain [1]. SIF is used to infer photosynthetic capacity of plant canopy [2]. However, it is not well understoond how the leaf-level SIF emission contributes to the top of canopy directional SIF because SIFs observed by the satellites use the near infrared spectral domain where the multiple scatterings among leaves are not negligible. It is necessary to quantify the fraction of emission for each satellite observation angle. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of sunlit leaves are 100 times higher than that of shaded leaves. Thus, contribution of sunlit and shaded leaves to canopy scale directional SIF emission should also be quantified. Here, we show the results of global simulation of SIF using a 3 dimensional radiative transfer simulation with MODIS atmospheric (aerosol optical thickness) and land (land cover and leaf area index) products and a forest landscape data sets prepared for each land cover category. The results are compared with satellite-based SIF (e.g. GOME-2) and the gross primary production empirically estimated by FLUXNET and remote sensing data.

  8. Correlation Between Echodefecography and 3-Dimensional Vaginal Ultrasonography in the Detection of Perineal Descent in Women With Constipation Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Murad-Regadas, Sthela M; Pinheiro Regadas, Francisco Sergio; Rodrigues, Lusmar V; da Silva Vilarinho, Adjra; Buchen, Guilherme; Borges, Livia Olinda; Veras, Lara B; da Cruz, Mariana Murad

    2016-12-01

    Defecography is an established method of evaluating dynamic anorectal dysfunction, but conventional defecography does not allow for visualization of anatomic structures. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of dynamic 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography for evaluating perineal descent in comparison with echodefecography (3-dimensional anorectal ultrasonography) and to study the relationship between perineal descent and symptoms and anatomic/functional abnormalities of the pelvic floor. This was a prospective study. The study was conducted at a large university tertiary care hospital. Consecutive female patients were eligible if they had pelvic floor dysfunction, obstructed defecation symptoms, and a score >6 on the Cleveland Clinic Florida Constipation Scale. Each patient underwent both echodefecography and dynamic 3-dimensional endovaginal ultrasonography to evaluate posterior pelvic floor dysfunction. Normal perineal descent was defined on echodefecography as puborectalis muscle displacement ≤2.5 cm; excessive perineal descent was defined as displacement >2.5 cm. Of 61 women, 29 (48%) had normal perineal descent; 32 (52%) had excessive perineal descent. Endovaginal ultrasonography identified 27 of the 29 patients in the normal group as having anorectal junction displacement ≤1 cm (mean = 0.6 cm; range, 0.1-1.0 cm) and a mean anorectal junction position of 0.6 cm (range, 0-2.3 cm) above the symphysis pubis during the Valsalva maneuver and correctly identified 30 of the 32 patients in the excessive perineal descent group. The κ statistic showed almost perfect agreement (κ = 0.86) between the 2 methods for categorization into the normal and excessive perineal descent groups. Perineal descent was not related to fecal or urinary incontinence or anatomic and functional factors (sphincter defects, pubovisceral muscle defects, levator hiatus area, grade II or III rectocele, intussusception, or anismus). The study did not include a

  9. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; He, Kang-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Yi-Fang; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lü, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as K0S, Λ, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  10. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  11. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  12. Experimental and theoretical differential cross sections for the N(2D) + H2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Balucani, Nadia; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Bañares, Luis; Aoiz, F Javier; Gonzalez-Lezana, Tomás; Honvault, Pascal; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-19

    In this paper, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the dynamics of the N(2D) + H2 insertion reaction at a collision energy of 15.9 kJ mol(-1). Product angular and velocity distributions have been obtained in crossed beam experiments and simulated by using the results of quantum mechanical (QM) scattering calculations on the accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of Pederson et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 110, 9091). Since the QM calculations indicate that there is a significant coupling between the product angular and translational energy distributions, such a coupling has been explicitly included in the simulation of the experimental results. The very good agreement between experiment and QM calculations sustains the accuracy of the NH2 ab initio ground state PES. We also take the opportunity to compare the accurate QM differential cross sections with those obtained by two approximate methods, namely, the widely used quasiclassical trajectory calculations and a rigorous statistical method based on the coupled-channel theory.

  13. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  14. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition and tandem cross-metathesis of triynes and enediynes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2013-04-01

    [2+2+2] Cycloadditions can be applied to specifically build up derivatives of benzene and cyclohexadiene and, therefore, have attracted much attention. Herein, we present an intramolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition of triynes catalyzed by the first-generation Grubbs ruthenium complex (Ru gen-1), which can efficiently afford benzene derivatives in good yields under mild conditions. Moreover, we also report on a novel tandem cross-metathesis transformation of intramolecular enediynes also catalyzed by Ru gen-1, which has not been observed previously in related reports. On the basis of deuterium labeling experiments, a possible reaction mechanism is presented.

  15. Fast Apriori-based Graph Mining Algorithm and application to 3-dimensional Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yoshio; Washio, Takashi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Motoda, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi

    Apriori-based Graph Mining (AGM) algorithm efficiently extracts all the subgraph patterns which frequently appear in graph structured data. The algorithm can deal with general graph structured data with multiple labels of vartices and edges, and is capable of analyzing the topological structure of graphs. In this paper, we propose a new method to analyze graph structured data for a 3-dimensional coordinate by AGM. In this method the distance between each vertex of a graph is calculated and added to the edge label so that AGM can handle 3-dimensional graph structured data. One problem in our approach is that the number of edge labels increases, which results in the increase of computational time to extract subgraph patterns. To alleviate this problem, we also propose a faster algorithm of AGM by adding an extra constraint to reduce the number of generated candidates for seeking frequent subgraphs. Chemical compounds with dopamine antagonist in MDDR database were analyzed by AGM to characterize their 3-dimensional chemical structure and correlation with physiological activity.

  16. Novel 3-dimensional analysis to evaluate temporomandibular joint space and shape.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Renie; Oberoi, Snehlata; Wiley, David F; Woodhouse, Christian; Tallman, Melissa; Tun, Wint Wint; McNeill, Charles; Miller, Arthur J; Hatcher, David

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to present and validate a novel semiautomated method for 3-dimensional evaluation of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) space and condylar and articular shapes using cone-beam computed tomographic data. The protocol for 3-dimensional analysis with the Checkpoint software (Stratovan, Davis, Calif) was established by analyzing cone-beam computed tomographic images of 14 TMJs representing a range of TMJ shape variations. Upon establishment of the novel method, analysis of 5 TMJs was further repeated by several investigators to assess the reliability of the analysis. Principal components analysis identified 3 key components that characterized how the condylar head shape varied among the 14 TMJs. Principal component analysis allowed determination of the minimum number of landmarks or patch density to define the shape variability in this sample. Average errors of landmark placement ranged from 1.15% to 3.65%, and none of the 121 landmarks showed significant average errors equal to or greater than 5%. Thus, the mean intraobserver difference was small and within the clinically accepted margin of error. Interobserver error was not significantly greater than intraobserver error, indicating that this is a reliable methodology. This novel semiautomatic method is a reliable tool for the 3-dimensional analysis of the TMJ including both the form and the space between the articular eminence and the condylar head. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Neural Representation of 3-Dimensional Objects in Rodent Memory Circuits

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Sara N.; Barnes, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional objects are common stimuli that rodents and other animals encounter in the natural world that contribute to the associations that are the hallmark of explicit memory. Thus, the use of 3-dimensional objects for investigating the circuits that support associative and episodic memories has a long history. In rodents, the neural representation of these types of stimuli is a polymodal process and lesion data suggest that the perirhinal cortex, an area of the medial temporal lobe that receives afferent input from all sensory modalities, is particularly important for integrating sensory information across modalities to support object recognition. Not surprisingly, recent data from in vivo electrophysiological recordings have shown that principal cells within the perirhinal cortex are activated at locations of an environment that contain 3-dimensional objects. Interestingly, it appears that neural activity patterns related to object stimuli are ubiquitous across memory circuits and have now been observed in many medial temporal lobe structures as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex. This review summarizes behavioral and neurophysiological data that examine the representation of 3-dimensional objects across brain regions that are involved in memory. PMID:25205370

  18. Impact of dental and zygomatic implants on stress distribution in maxillary defects: a 3-dimensional finite element analysis study.

    PubMed

    Korkmaz, Fatih Mehmet; Korkmaz, Yavuz Tolga; Yaluğ, Suat; Korkmaz, Turan

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution in the bone around dental and zygomatic implants for 4 different implant-supported obturator prostheses designs in a unilaterally maxillary defect using a 3-dimensional finite element stress analysis. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the human unilateral maxillary defect was constructed. Four different implant-supported obturator prostheses were modeled; model 1 with 2 zygomatic implants and 1 dental implant, model 2 with 2 zygomatic implants and 2 dental implants, model 3 with 2 zygomatic implants and 3 dental implants, and model 4 with 1 zygomatic implant and 3 dental implants. Bar attachments were used as superstructure. A 150-N vertical load was applied in 3 different ways, and von Mises stresses in the cortical bone around implants were evaluated. When the models (model 1-3) were compared in terms of number of implants, all of the models showed similar highest stress values under the first loading condition, and these values were less than under model 4 conditions. The highest stress values of models 1-4 under the first loading condition were 8.56, 8.59, 8.32, and 11.55 Mpa, respectively. The same trend was also observed under the other loading conditions. It may be concluded that the use of a zygomatic implant on the nondefective side decreased the highest stress values, and increasing the number of dental implants between the most distal and most mesial implants on the nondefective side did not decrease the highest stress values.

  19. Relationship between proximal femoral and acetabular alignment in normal hip joints using 3-dimensional computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Buller, Leonard T; Rosneck, James; Monaco, Feno M; Butler, Robert; Smith, Travis; Barsoum, Wael K

    2012-02-01

    The bony architecture of the hip depends upon functional adaptation to mechanical usage via the dynamic interaction between the acetabulum and femoral head. Acetabular retroversion is thought to be a contributing factor of pincer-type femoroacetabular impingement. Studies of pathological hip joints suggest proximal femoral anatomy compensates for acetabular retroversion. HYPOTHESIS/ PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a predictable relationship exists between proximal femoral and acetabular angles, age, and gender in normal hip joints. We hypothesized that, through functional adaptation to mechanical loading, a complementary developmental relationship exists between the acetabulum and proximal femur. Descriptive laboratory study. The femoral neck version, femoral neck shaft angle, acetabular version, acetabular inclination, and center edge angle were measured in 230 normal hip joints in 115 adults using 3-dimensional reconstruction software. Correlations between the angles, age, and gender were examined using the methods of stepwise regression and backward elimination. Regarding side-to-side comparison and variability, there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right sides in the average value of each angle measurement. The correlations specifically between angles, age, and gender were similar on the left and right sides for all pairs except femoral version and acetabular inclination. Regarding significant findings of the study, a positive correlation (P < .05) was found between femoral version and acetabular version (0.38° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and acetabular version (0.21° to 1°). A negative correlation was found between femoral neck shaft angle and age (-0.17° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between acetabular version and female gender (2.6° to 1°). A positive correlation was found between center edge angle and female gender (2.8° to 1°). A

  20. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  1. Visualization of the Supraglottis in Laryngomalacia With 3-Dimensional Pediatric Endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Philip; Fordham, M Taylor; Dong, Tiffany; Liu, Xinyang; Kang, Sukryool; Preciado, Diego; Reilly, Brian K

    2016-03-01

    The use of 3-dimensional (3D) endoscopy has been described in the pediatric airway and has been shown to improve visualization of complex airway anatomy. Laryngomalacia is one of the most common airway disorders evaluated in pediatric otolaryngology offices. Whether 3D visualization is superior to standard endoscopy as a means for assessment and surgical management of complex airway anatomy is unclear. To describe a pilot case series using 3D endoscopy to facilitate supraglottoplasty and to assess surgical outcomes. A prospective case series was conducted of 11 children undergoing supraglottoplasty from July 1, 2010, to June 31, 2014, at a tertiary care pediatric hospital. Infants and children with symptomatic laryngomalacia were eligible for the study. Follow-up was completed on December 31, 2014, and data were assessed from February 1 to 15, 2015. Supraglottoplasty performed using 3D endoscopy. The outcome data collected included length of hospital stay and frequency of complications (ie, aspiration, granuloma formation, supraglottic narrowing, revision surgery, tracheostomy, and gastrostomy). Eleven children were treated for laryngomalacia with supraglottoplasty (6 boys and 5 girls; mean [SD] age, 29 [85] months). Four of these children (36%) also had grade I subglottic stenosis. The 3D endoscope was judged by all participating senior surgeons to improve visualization of the supraglottic anatomy and to permit more precise tissue removal. No complications occurred after the surgery. Hospital stay was found to be an unreliable indicator owing to multiple comorbidities in many children. Worsening of aspiration occurred in 1 child (9%) who subsequently required gastrostomy tube placement. This child demonstrated progressive neurologic impairment and had severe hypotonia and developmental delay. Another child with subglottic stenosis and subglottic cysts required a tracheostomy owing to severe rhinovirus tracheitis. The remaining 9 children (82%) had good outcomes

  2. 3-Dimensional numerical simulations of the dynamics of the Venusian mesosphere and thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tingle, S.; Mueller-Wodarg, I. C.

    2009-12-01

    We present the first results from a new 3-dimensional numerical simulation of the steady state dynamics of the Venusian mesosphere and thermosphere (60-300 km). We have adapted the dynamical core of the Titan thermosphere global circulation model (GCM) [1] to a steady state background atmosphere. Our background atmosphere is derived from a hydrostatic combination of the VTS3 [2] and Venus International Reference Atmosphere (VIRA) [3] empirical models, which are otherwise discontinuous at their 100 km interface. We use 4th order polynomials to link the VTS3 and VIRA thermal profiles and employ hydrostatic balance to derive a consistent density profile. We also present comparisons of our background atmosphere to data from the ESA Venus Express Mission. The thermal structure of the Venusian mesosphere is relatively well documented; however, direct measurements of wind speeds are limited. Venus’ slow rotation results in a negligible Coriolis force. This suggests that the zonal circulation should arise from cyclostrophic balance; where the equatorward component of the centrifugal force balances poleward meridional pressure gradients [4]. The sparseness of direct and in-situ measurements has resulted in the application of cyclostrophic balance to measured thermal profiles to derive wind speeds [5] [6] [7] [8]. However, cyclostrophic balance is only strictly valid at mid latitudes (˜ ± 30-75°) and its applicability to the Venusian mesosphere has not been conclusively demonstrated. Our simulations, by solving the full Navier-Stokes momentum equation, will enable us assess the validity of cyclostrophic balance as a description of mesospheric dynamics. This work is part of an ongoing project to develop the first GCM to encompass the atmosphere from the cloud tops into the thermosphere. When complete, this model will enable self-consistent calculations of the dynamics, energy and composition of the atmosphere. It will thus provide a framework to address many of the

  3. Pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative computed tomography and 3-dimensional image-guided navigation.

    PubMed

    Larson, A Noelle; Santos, Edward R G; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles G T; Sembrano, Jonathan N; Mielke, Cary H; Guidera, Kenneth J

    2012-02-01

    A retrospective cohort study reporting the use of intraoperative computed tomography (CT) and image-guided navigation system for the placement of pedicle screws in pediatric compared with adult patients. To evaluate the accuracy of open pedicle screw placement in pediatric patients using intraoperative CT and 3-dimensional (3D) image-guided navigation. Pedicle screws are widely used in children for the correction of spinal deformity. Navigation systems and intraoperative CT are now available as an adjunct to fluoroscopy and anatomic techniques for placing pedicle screws and verifying screw position. From 2007 to 2010, 984 pedicle screws were placed in a consecutive series cohort of 50 pediatric patients for spinal deformity correction with the use of intraoperative CT (O-arm, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO) and a computerized navigation system (Stealth, Medtronic, Inc, Louisville, CO). The primary outcome measure for this study is redirection or removal of screw on the basis of the intraoperative CT imaging. During the study period, 1511 screws were placed in adult patients using the same image guidance system. A total of 984 pedicle screws were implanted using real-time navigation, with a mean of 20 screws per patient (range: 2-34). On the basis of intraoperative CT, 35 screws (3.6%) were revised (27 redirected and 8 removed), representing a 96.4% accuracy rate. No patients returned to the operating room because of screw malposition.Of the 1511 screws placed in adult patients, 28 (1.8%) were revised intraoperatively for malposition on CT imaging, for an overall 98.2% accuracy rate. Screw revision thus was more common in the pediatric population (P = 0.008). However, the pediatric screw accuracy rate is significantly higher than the findings from a recent meta-analysis of predominantly nonnavigated screws in children, reporting a 94.9% accuracy rate (P = 0.03). We report 96.4% accuracy in pediatric pedicle screw placement using intraoperative CT and a 3D navigation

  4. Evaluation of Nitinol Stents Using a 3-Dimensional Printed Superficial Femoral Artery Model: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Girsowicz, Elie; Georg, Yannick; Seiller, Hélène; Lejay, Anne; Thaveau, Fabien; Heim, Frédéric; Chakfe, Nabil

    2016-05-01

    Mechanical tests assessing Nitinol stents used for the superficial femoral artery (SFA) are designed without taking into account their deployment environments. The objectives of this study were (1) to create normal and pathologic femoral artery models, (2) to run mechanical tests reproducing the stresses of the SFA, and (3) to study and compare Nitinol stents in those conditions. Femoral artery models with identical mechanical properties to the SFA were created using the 3-dimensional printing technology. Those models were designed with and without an asymmetric focal 50% stenosis. Three mechanical tests (bending-compression, bending-compression-torsion, and multiple bending tests) were created and 1 flexible stent was tested, of 6 and 7-mm diameter. Three samples of the stent, LifeStent (Bard(®)), were deployed and tested in the models. Stents alone were evaluated in the same conditions. The analysis focused on the comparison of rheologic curves, level of kink, and the energy deployed for each stent to kink. In the 3 tests, all stents deployed in the models presented a kink during their evaluation. When tested alone, during the compression-bending and bending-compression-torsion tests, no plicature was observed. During the multiple bending test, the energy deployed to plicature for the stent tested alone was of 1.4 ± 0.10 and 2.84 ± 0.1 J compared with 9.7 ± 0.6 and 8.25 ± 0.6 J when deployed in the model for the Lifestent 6 × 80 and 7 × 80 mm, respectively. For all of these 3 tests, 6-mm diameter stents exhibited a level of kink and energy of kink higher than 7 mm stents. The behavior of the stents changed in the stenosed model whatever diameter is taken into account. Analysis of the rheologic curves showed a decrease in the inflection of the curve related to the plication. In the bending-compression test, the presence of a stenosis lead to an early plication of the model, with less deployed kinking energy whereas in the bending

  5. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  6. Absolute Charge Exchange Cross Sections for ^3He^2+ Collisions with ^4He and H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Greenwood, J.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2002-05-01

    The JPL charge exchange beam-line(J.B. Greenwood, et al., Phys. Rev A 63), 062707 (2001) was modified to increase the forward acceptance angle and enable the measurement of total charge-exchange cross sections for slow, light, highly-charged ion collisions with neutral targets(R. E. Olson and M. Kimura, J. Phys. B 15), 4231 (1982). Data are presented for single charge exchange cross sections for ^3He^2+ nuclei scattered by ^4He and H2 in the energy range 0.33-4.67 keV/amu. For both targets there is good agreement with Kusakabe, et al.(T. Kusakabe, et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 59), 1218 (1990). Angular collection is studied by a comparison with differential measurements(D. Bordenave-Montesquieu and R. Dagnac, J. Phys. B 27), 543 (1994), as well as with earlier JPL results(J.B. Greenwood, et al., Ap. J. 533), L175 (2000), ibid. 529, 605 (2000) using heavier projectiles and targets. This work was carried out at JPL/Caltech, and was supported through contract with NASA. RJM thanks the NRC for a Senior Associateship at JPL.

  7. Cross sections for the production of energetic cations by electron impact on N2 and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iga, I.; Srivastava, S. K.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Katayama, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dissociative ionization cross sections for the production of singly charged energetic ions by electron impact on N2 and CO2 have been measured. The ions were divided into two groups: one with energies less than 1 eV and the other with energies greater than 1 eV. The ions detected were N+ from N2 and C+, O+, and CO+ from CO2. The electron impact energy range, and cross section data on ions is given.

  8. Cross sections for the production of energetic cations by electron impact on N2 and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iga, I.; Srivastava, S. K.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Katayama, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dissociative ionization cross sections for the production of singly charged energetic ions by electron impact on N2 and CO2 have been measured. The ions were divided into two groups: one with energies less than 1 eV and the other with energies greater than 1 eV. The ions detected were N+ from N2 and C+, O+, and CO+ from CO2. The electron impact energy range, and cross section data on ions is given.

  9. Feasibility of 3-dimensional sampling perfection with application optimized contrast sequence in the evaluation of patients with hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Merve Gulbiz; Ocakoglu, Gokhan; Algin, Oktay

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and additive value of T2W 3-dimensional sampling perfection with application optimized contrast (3D-SPACE) with variant flip-angle mode in imaging of all types of hydrocephalus. Our secondary objective was to assess the reliability of 3D-SPACE sequence and correspondence of the results with phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI)-based data. Forty-one patients with hydrocephalus have undergone 3-T MRI. T2W 3D-SPACE sequence has been obtained in addition to routine hydrocephalus protocol. Cerebrospinal fluid circulation, presence/type/etiology of hydrocephalus, obstruction level scores, and diagnostic levels of confidence were evaluated separately by 2 radiologists. In the first session, routine sequences with PC-MRI were evaluated, and in another session, only 3D-SPACE and 3-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequences were evaluated. Results obtained in these sessions were compared with each other and those obtained in consensus session. Agreement values were very good for both 3D-SPACE and PC-MRI sequences (P < 0.001 for all). Also, the correlation of more experienced reader's 3D-SPACE-based scores and consensus-based scores was perfect (κ = 1, P < 0.001).The mean value of PC-MRI-based confidence scores were lower than those obtained in 3D-SPACE and consensus sessions. T2W 3D-SPACE sequence provides morphologic cerebrospinal fluid flow data. It is a noninvasive technique providing extensive multiplanar reformatted images with a lower specific absorption rate. These advantages over PC-MRI make 3D-SPACE sequence a promising tool in management of patients with hydrocephalus.

  10. Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Cross Section at High Q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; E12-07-108 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of proton electromagnetic form factors (FF) is a powerful way to understand the internal structure of proton and gain insight into the nature of the strong interaction. Current data of FF at high Q2 have large statistical and systematic uncertainties, which translate into large uncertainties in the extracted cross section in this kinematic range. The GMp experiment in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, starting from 2014, performed precision measurements of elastic ep scattering cross section in the Q2 range from 7 to 14 (GeV / c) 2. These measurements will improve the precision on the cross section in the covered Q2 range to about 2 % . They represent a great complement to the world's cross section data set and will be key inputs for future electromagnetic form factor experiments at similar kinematics. In this talk, the instrumentation and techniques used in the experiment will be described, and the current status of the analysis will be presented.

  11. Modeling plasma-based CO2 conversion: crucial role of the dissociation cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    Plasma-based CO2 conversion is gaining increasing interest worldwide. A large research effort is devoted to improving the energy efficiency. For this purpose, it is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the CO2 conversion. The latter can be obtained by computer modeling, describing in detail the behavior of the various plasma species and all relevant chemical processes. However, the accuracy of the modeling results critically depends on the accuracy of the assumed input data, like cross sections. This is especially true for the cross section of electron impact dissociation, as the latter process is believed to proceed through electron impact excitation, but it is not clear from the literature which excitation channels effectively lead to dissociation. Therefore, the present paper discusses the effect of different electron impact dissociation cross sections reported in the literature on the calculated CO2 conversion, for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a microwave (MW) plasma. Comparison is made to experimental data for the DBD case, to elucidate which cross section might be the most realistic. This comparison reveals that the cross sections proposed by Itikawa and by Polak and Slovetsky both seem to underestimate the CO2 conversion. The cross sections recommended by Phelps with thresholds of 7 eV and 10.5 eV yield a CO2 conversion only slightly lower than the experimental data, but the sum of both cross sections overestimates the values, indicating that these cross sections represent dissociation, but most probably also include other (pure excitation) channels. Our calculations indicate that the choice of the electron impact dissociation cross section is crucial for the DBD, where this process is the dominant mechanism for CO2 conversion. In the MW plasma, it is only significant at pressures up to 100 mbar, while it is of minor importance for higher pressures, when dissociation proceeds mainly through collisions of CO2 with heavy

  12. Relationship Between the Lateral Center-Edge Angle and 3-Dimensional Acetabular Coverage.

    PubMed

    Wylie, James D; Kapron, Ashley L; Peters, Christopher L; Aoki, Stephen K; Maak, Travis G

    2017-04-01

    The lateral center-edge angle (LCEA) is an important measurement in understanding acetabular morphology and has had multiple interpretations. Misunderstanding of the LCEA and its relationship with acetabular 3-dimensional (3D) morphology may result in misdiagnosis and poor outcomes. To determine the discrepancy between bone-edge and sourcil-edge LCEA measurements on anteroposterior (AP) radiographs and to determine the 3D anatomic location of the sourcil-edge and bone-edge LCEA measurements. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. The LCEA was measured on radiographs to both the sourcil-edge and bone-edge on AP images of 60 symptomatic hips. On computed tomography (CT), coronal slices producing an LCEA matching the magnitude of each AP LCEA were identified. These coronal slices were mapped to a sagittal image of the acetabulum, which was divided into a standard clockface (3 = anterior, 12 = superior). We identified clockface locations corresponding to the AP sourcil-edge and bone-edge LCEA measurements. Paired t tests identified differences in magnitude and location of the bone and sourcil LCEAs. Limits of agreement were calculated for the differences between measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed inter- and intraobserver repeatability. On the AP radiographs, the bone-edge LCEA was a mean 4.7° (95% CI, -4.0° to 13.3°) greater than the sourcil-edge LCEA (P < .001). On CT, the sagittal clockface location of the sourcil-edge LCEA was more anterior compared with the sagittal clockface location of the maximum bone-edge LCEA (1:03 ± 0:42 vs 12:06 ± 0:30, respectively; P < .001). In hips with a difference >5° between sourcil-edge and bone-edge measurements, the coronal CT slice corresponding to the sourcil-edge LCEA was significantly more anterior (1:26 ± 0:35) than the CT slice corresponding to the bone-edge LCEA (11:46 ± 0:29; P < .001). This significant difference was similar in location but less pronounced in hips with a

  13. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  14. Compressed-Sensing Accelerated 3-Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography: Application in Suspected Pancreatic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liang; Wu, Xi; Sun, Zhaoyong; Jin, Zhengyu; Weiland, Elisabeth; Raithel, Esther; Qian, Tianyi; Xue, Huadan

    2017-09-26

    The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate image quality, duct visibility, and diagnostic performance in duct-related pathologies of compressed-sensing (CS) accelerated 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prototype protocols and compare these with those of conventional 3D MRCP protocol in patients with suspected pancreatic diseases. The institutional review board approved this prospective study and all patients provided written informed consent. A total of 80 patients (47 men and 33 women; median age, 57 years; age range, 24-87 years) underwent 3D MRCP at 3.0 T. Three protocols were performed in each patient in random order: CS breath-hold (BH) protocol, CS navigator-triggered (NT) protocol, and conventional NT protocol. The acquisition time of each protocol was recorded. Image quality and duct visibility were independently rated in random order on a 5-point scale by 2 radiologists, who were blinded to the protocols. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated, and area under the curve (Az value) was used to compare the diagnostic performance of each protocol in duct-related pathologies. Acquisition time was 17 seconds for the CS-BH and 134.1 ± 33.5 seconds for the CS-NT protocol, both being significantly shorter than the conventional NT protocol (364.7 ± 78.4 seconds; both P < 0.01). The CS-BH MRCP protocol showed significantly less artifacts compared with the CS-NT and conventional NT protocols (both P < 0.01). Visualization of bile ducts was comparable in all 3 protocols, whereas CS-NT and conventional NT MRCP depicted pancreatic duct better than CS-BH MRCP did (for proximal, middle, and distal segment; all P < 0.05). Compressed-sensing-NT MRCP had the highest diagnostic performance for detecting ductal anomalies, long-segment duct stenosis, abnormal branch ducts, and communication between cystic lesion and pancreatic duct (mean Az value, 0.943-0.983). Compressed-sensing MRCP is feasible in patients with

  15. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  16. Measurements of the $ZZ$ production cross sections in the $2\\ell2\

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton–proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. We found that candidate events for the leptonic decay mode ZZ → 2l2ν, where l denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)fb-1 at 7 (8) TeV collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, σ(pp → ZZ)=5.1+1.5-1.4(stat)+1.4-1.1(syst)±0.1(lumi)pb at 7 TeV, and 7.2+0.8-0.8(stat)+1.9-1.5(syst)±0.2(lumi)pb at 8 TeV, are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. Furthermore, the selected data are analyzed to search for anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the ZZ final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. As a result, these limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for ZZ in 4l final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.

  17. About the Complexity of Timetables and 3-Dimensional Discrete Tomography: A Short Proof of NP-Hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Yan

    We consider the problem of 3-dimensional Discrete Tomography according to three linearly independent directions. Consistency of this problem has been proved to be NP-compete by M. Irving and R.W. Jerrum in 1993 [9] but there exists since 1976 a very close result of NP-hardness in the framework of Timetables which is due to S. Even, A. Itai, and A. Shamir [2]. The purpose of this paper is to provide a new result of NP-hardness for a very restricted class of 3D Discrete Tomography which is common with Timetables. Hence NP-hardness of 3D Discrete Tomography and of Timetables both follow from this new stronger result that we obtain with a short proof based on a generic principle.

  18. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  19. 2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE Bald Eagle CrossCut Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  20. 12. WORK CREW REMOVING CROSS BRACE AT U2, PART OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. WORK CREW REMOVING CROSS BRACE AT U2, PART OF CONRAIL'S PROGRAM TO INCREASE CLEARANCE ON ITS BRIDGES AND OVERPASSES FOR DOUBLE-STACK TRAINS. - Conrail Port Perry Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, Elizabeth, Allegheny County, PA

  1. Diagnosis of mitral valve cleft using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiyun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC. Methods From October 2012 to June 2016, 19 consecutive patients with MVC diagnosed by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in our hospital were selected for this study. Full-volume RT-3DE was performed on all patients. The 3D-imaging data were cropped and rotated in 3 views (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) with 6 directions to observe the position and shape of the MVC and the spatial position between the cleft and its surrounding structures. The maximum longitudinal diameter and the maximum width of the cleft were measured. The origin of the mitral regurgitant jet and the severity of MR were evaluated, and these RT-3DE data were compared with the intraoperative findings. Results Of the 19 patients studied, 4 patients had isolated cleft mitral valve, and cleft mitral valves combined with other congenital heart lesions were detected in 15 patients. The clefts of 6 patients were located in the A2 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A1 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A3 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A2–A3 segment, and the cleft of 1 patient was located in the P2 segment. Regarding the shape of the cleft, 13 patients had V-shaped clefts, and the others had C- or S-shaped clefts. The severity of the MR at presentation was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 9 and severe in 8. Two of the patients with mild MR did not undergo surgery

  2. Diagnosis of mitral valve cleft using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xinchun; Zhou, Aiyun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC. From October 2012 to June 2016, 19 consecutive patients with MVC diagnosed by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in our hospital were selected for this study. Full-volume RT-3DE was performed on all patients. The 3D-imaging data were cropped and rotated in 3 views (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) with 6 directions to observe the position and shape of the MVC and the spatial position between the cleft and its surrounding structures. The maximum longitudinal diameter and the maximum width of the cleft were measured. The origin of the mitral regurgitant jet and the severity of MR were evaluated, and these RT-3DE data were compared with the intraoperative findings. Of the 19 patients studied, 4 patients had isolated cleft mitral valve, and cleft mitral valves combined with other congenital heart lesions were detected in 15 patients. The clefts of 6 patients were located in the A2 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A1 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A3 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A2-A3 segment, and the cleft of 1 patient was located in the P2 segment. Regarding the shape of the cleft, 13 patients had V-shaped clefts, and the others had C- or S-shaped clefts. The severity of the MR at presentation was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 9 and severe in 8. Two of the patients with mild MR did not undergo surgery, while the remaining 17

  3. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Yang, Yanan; Sun, Li; Ahn, Young-Ho; Pankova, Daniela; Puperi, Daniel S.; Watanabe, Takeshi; Kim, Min P.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Rodriguez, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minelli, Rosalba; Scott, Kenneth L.; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid; Pati, Debananda; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Burns, Alan R.; Creighton, Chad J.; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Zal, Tomasz; Grande-Allen, K. Jane; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde–derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma. PMID:25664850

  4. Digital assessment of preliminary impression accuracy for edentulous jaws: Comparisons of 3-dimensional surfaces between study and working casts.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Takashi; Goto, Takaharu; Kurahashi, Kosuke; Kashiwabara, Toshiya; Watanabe, Megumi; Tomotake, Yoritoki; Nagao, Kan; Ichikawa, Tetsuo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare 3-dimensional surfaces of study and working casts for edentulous jaws and to evaluate the accuracy of preliminary impressions with a view to the future application of digital dentistry for edentulous jaws. Forty edentulous volunteers were serially recruited. Nine dentists took preliminary and final impressions in a routine clinical work-up. The study and working casts were digitized using a dental 3-dimensional scanner. The two surface images were superimposed through a least-square algorithm using imaging software and compared qualitatively. Furthermore, the surface of each jaw was divided into 6 sections, and the difference between the 2 images was quantitatively evaluated. Overall inspection showed that the difference around residual ridges was small and that around borders were large. The mean differences in the upper and lower jaws were 0.26mm and 0.45mm, respectively. The maximum values of the differences showed that the upward change mainly occurred in the anterior residual ridge, and the downward change mainly in the posterior border seal, and the labial and buccal vestibules, whereas every border of final impression was shortened in the lower jaw. The accuracy in all areas except the border, which forms the foundation, was estimated to be less than 0.25mm. Using digital technology, we here showed the overall and sectional accuracy of the preliminary impression for edentulous jaws. In our clinic, preliminary impressions have been made using an alginate material while ensuring that the requisite impression area was covered. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Airway Wall Area Derived from 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis Differs among Lung Lobes in Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tho, Nguyen Van; Trang, Le Thi Huyen; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Emiko; Ryujin, Yasushi; Kanda, Rie; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Goto, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Kentaro; Higami, Yuichi; Seto, Ruriko; Nagao, Taishi; Oguma, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lan, Le Thi Tuyet; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Background It is time-consuming to obtain the square root of airway wall area of the hypothetical airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (√Aaw at Pi10), a comparable index of airway dimensions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), from all airways of the whole lungs using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis. We hypothesized that √Aaw at Pi10 differs among the five lung lobes and √Aaw at Pi10 derived from one certain lung lobe has a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs in smokers. Methods Pulmonary function tests and chest volumetric CTs were performed in 157 male smokers (102 COPD, 55 non-COPD). All visible bronchial segments from the 3rd to 5th generations were segmented and measured using commercially available 3-dimensional CT analysis software. √Aaw at Pi10 of each lung lobe was estimated from all measurable bronchial segments of that lobe. Results Using a mixed-effects model, √Aaw at Pi10 differed significantly among the five lung lobes (R2 = 0.78, P<0.0001). The Bland-Altman plots show that √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left upper lobe had a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs, while √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left lower lobe did not. Conclusion In male smokers, CT-derived airway wall area differs among the five lung lobes, and airway wall area derived from the right or left upper lobe is representative of the whole lungs. PMID:24865661

  6. Embedding compact surfaces into the 3-dimensional Euclidean space with maximum symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Wang, ShiCheng; Zhang, YiMu; Zimmermann, Bruno

    2017-09-01

    The symmetries of surfaces which can be embedded into the symmetries of the 3-dimensional Euclidean space $\\mathbb{R}^3$ are easier to feel by human's intuition. We give the maximum order of finite group actions on $(\\mathbb{R}^3, \\Sigma)$ among all possible embedded closed/bordered surfaces with given geometric/algebraic genus $>1$ in $\\mathbb{R}^3$. We also identify the topological types of the bordered surfaces realizing the maximum order, and find simple representative embeddings for such surfaces.

  7. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-05-01

    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  9. Introducing a well-ordered volume porosity in 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayela, Cédric; Lalo, Hélène; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present work is the introduction of a combined bottom-up and top-down approach to generate 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers, where the porosity in the volume of the free-standing microstructure is well-controlled. By combining the elaboration of a colloidal crystal, followed by electrodeposition, with a sacrificial layer process, free-standing macroporous gold cantilevers are fabricated collectively. In order to validate the proposed concept, a simple application to humidity sensing is evaluated using the devices as mass sensors. A large sensitivity of -529 ppm/%RH and low discrepancy are obtained experimentally, confirming the promising application potential of this original architecture.

  10. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  11. Design of 3-dimensional complex airplane configurations with specified pressure distribution via optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubrynski, Krzysztof

    1991-01-01

    A subcritical panel method applied to flow analysis and aerodynamic design of complex aircraft configurations is presented. The analysis method is based on linearized, compressible, subsonic flow equations and indirect Dirichlet boundary conditions. Quadratic dipol and linear source distribution on flat panels are applied. In the case of aerodynamic design, the geometry which minimizes differences between design and actual pressure distribution is found iteratively, using numerical optimization technique. Geometry modifications are modeled by surface transpiration concept. Constraints in respect to resulting geometry can be specified. A number of complex 3-dimensional design examples are presented. The software is adopted to personal computers, and as result an unexpected low cost of computations is obtained.

  12. Sex Differences in Patients With CAM Deformities With Femoroacetabular Impingement: 3-Dimensional Computed Tomographic Quantification.

    PubMed

    Yanke, Adam B; Khair, M Michael; Stanley, Robert; Walton, David; Lee, Simon; Bush-Joseph, Charles A; Espinoza Orías, Alejandro; Espinosa Orias, Alejandro A; Inoue, Nozomu; Nho, Shane J

    2015-12-01

    To determine if significant differences exist between male and female CAM deformities using quantitative 3-dimensional (3D) volume and location analysis. Retrospective analysis of preoperative computed tomographic (CT) scans for 138 femurs (69 from male patients and 69 from female patients) diagnosed with impingement from November 2009 to November 2011 was completed. Those patients who presented with hip complaints and had a history, physical examination (limited range of motion, positive impingement signs), plain radiographs (anteroposterior pelvis, 90° Dunn view, false profile view), and magnetic resonance images consistent with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and in whom a minimum of 6 months of conservative therapy (oral anti-inflammatory agents, physical therapy, and activity modification) had failed were indicated for arthroscopic surgery and had a preoperative CT scan. Scans were segmented, converted to point cloud data, and analyzed with a custom-written computer program. Analysis included mean CAM height and volume, head radius, and femoral version. Differences were analyzed using an unpaired t test with significance set at P < .05. Female patients had greater femoral anteversion compared with male patients (female patients, 15.5° ± 8.3°; male patients, 11.3° ± 9.0°; P = .06). Male femoral head radii were significantly larger than female femoral heads (female patients, 22.0 ± 1.3 mm; male patients, 25.4 ± 1.3 mm; P < .001). Male CAM height was significantly larger than that in female patients (female patients, 0.66 ± 0.61 mm; male patients, 1.51 ± 0.75 mm; P < .001). Male CAM volume was significantly larger as well (male patients, 433 ± 471 mm(3); female patients, 89 ± 124 mm(3); P < .001). These differences persisted after normalizing height (P < .001) and volume (P < .001) to femoral head radius. Average clock face distribution was from the 1:09 o'clock position ± the 2:51 o'clock position to the 3:28 o'clock position ± the 1:59 o

  13. Myocardial protection in operations requiring more than 2 h of aortic cross-clamping.

    PubMed

    Bar-El, Y; Adler, Z; Kophit, A; Kertzman, V; Sawaed, S; Ross, A; Cohen, O; Milo, S

    1999-03-01

    Long periods of aortic cross-clamping time during cardiac surgery are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality because of damage to the myocardium. Recently, we have used a method of myocardial protection based on the principles of hyperkalemic cardioplegic arrest. We use antegrade administration of warm, undiluted blood followed by continuous retrograde infusion of tepid, undiluted blood supplemented with potassium and magnesium. In this study, we have retrospectively reviewed our experience with this method of cardioprotection in operations requiring more than 2 h of cross-clamp time. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 1280 patients who underwent myocardial revascularization, valve repair or replacement, or a combination of both operations between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1997. Patients were divided into two groups: the short cross-clamp group (SXC) (n = 1144) had cross-clamp times < 120 min (mean, 78 +/- 20 min; range, 35-119 min) and the long cross-clamp group (LXC) (n = 136) had cross-clamp times > 120 min (mean, 154 +/- 31 min; range, 120-277 min). We compared preoperative, operative, and postoperative variables between the two groups. Significantly more patients in the long cross-clamp group (43.4%) underwent the combined operation than in the short cross-clamp group (2.3%), and the rate of reoperation was significantly higher in the long cross-clamp group (12%) than in the short cross-clamp group (5%). Despite these differences in operative complexity, we found no difference in hospital mortality rates between the two groups. The only significant postoperative differences were that the long cross-clamp group had a greater need for inotropic agents (43 vs. 29%), higher serum levels of creatine kinase (880 +/- 583 vs. 613 +/- 418) and CK-MB (10.9 +/- 6.4 vs. 5.9 +/- 5.2), and a longer hospital stay (9.6 vs. 6.1 days). Long, complex operations requiring more than 2 h of cross-clamping can be performed safely with our method

  14. Measured Total Cross Sections of Slow Neutrons Scattered by Gaseous and Liquid {sup 2}H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, F.; Brandt, B. van den; Brys, T.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Hautle, P.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Kuehne, G.; Konter, J.A.; Pichlmaier, A.; Wokaun, A.; Bodek, K.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuzniak, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Giersch, M.; Zmeskal, J.; Hino, M.

    2005-06-03

    The total scattering cross sections for slow neutrons with energies E in the range 300 neV to 3 meV for gaseous and liquid ortho-{sup 2}H{sub 2} have been measured. The cross sections for {sup 2}H{sub 2} gas are found to be in excellent agreement with both the Hamermesh and Schwinger and the Young and Koppel models. For liquid {sup 2}H{sub 2}, we confirm the existing experimental data in the cold neutron range and the discrepancy with the gas models. We find a clear 1/{radical}(E{sup '}) dependence at low energies for both states. A simple explanation for the liquid {sup 2}H{sub 2} cross section is offered.

  15. Evaluating image reconstruction methods for tumor detection in 3-dimensional whole-body PET oncology imaging.

    PubMed

    Lartizien, Carole; Kinahan, Paul E; Swensson, Richard; Comtat, Claude; Lin, Michael; Villemagne, Victor; Trébossen, Régine

    2003-02-01

    We compare 3 image reconstruction algorithms for use in 3-dimensional (3D) whole-body PET oncology imaging. We have previously shown that combining Fourier rebinning (FORE) with 2-dimensional (2D) statistical image reconstruction via the ordered-subsets expectation-maximization (OSEM) and attenuation-weighted OSEM (AWOSEM) algorithms demonstrates improvements in image signal-to-noise ratios compared with the commonly used analytic 3D reprojection (3DRP) or FORE+FBP (2D filtered backprojection) reconstruction methods. To assess the impact of these reconstruction methods on detecting and localizing small lesions, we performed a human observer study comparing the different reconstruction methods. The observer study used the same volumetric visualization software tool that is used in clinical practice, instead of a planar viewing mode as is generally used with the standard receiver operating characteristic (ROC) methodology. This change in the human evaluation strategy disallowed the use of a ROC analysis, so instead we compared the fraction of actual targets found and reported (fraction-found) and also investigated the use of an alternative free-response operating characteristic (AFROC) analysis. We used a non-Monte Carlo technique to generate 50 statistically accurate realizations of 3D whole-body PET data based on an extended mathematic cardiac torso (MCAT) phantom and with noise levels typical of clinical scans performed on a PET scanner. To each realization, we added 7 randomly located 1-cm-diameter lesions (targets) whose contrasts were varied to sample the range of detectability. These targets were inserted in 3 organs of interest: lungs, liver, and soft tissues. The images were reconstructed with 3 reconstruction strategies (FORE+OSEM, FORE+AWOSEM, and FORE+FBP). Five human observers reported (localized and rated) 7 targets within each volume image. An observer's performance accuracy with each algorithm was measured, as a function of the lesion contrast and

  16. Surrogate Measurements of Actinide (n,2n) Cross Sections with NeutronSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Casperson, R. J.; Burke, J. T.; Hughes, R. O.; Akindele, O. A.; Koglin, J. D.; Wang, B.; Tamashiro, A.

    2016-09-27

    Directly measuring (n,2n) cross sections on short-lived actinides presents a number of experimental challenges. The surrogate reaction technique is an experimental method for measuring cross sections on short-­lived isotopes, and it provides a unique solution for measuring (n,2n) cross sections. This technique involves measuring a charged-­particle reaction cross section, where the reaction populates the same compound nucleus as the reaction of interest. To perform these surrogate (n,2n) cross section measurements, a silicon telescope array has been placed along a beam line at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute, which is surrounded by a large tank of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator, which acts as a neutron detector. The combination of the charge-particle and neutron-detector arrays is referred to as NeutronSTARS. In the analysis procedure for calculating the (n,2n) cross section, the neutron detection efficiency and time structure plays an important role. Due to the lack of availability of isotropic, mono-energetic neutron sources, modeling is an important component in establishing this efficiency and time structure. This report describes the NeutronSTARS array, which was designed and commissioned during this project. It also describes the surrogate reaction technique, specifically referencing a 235U(n,2n) commissioning measurement that was fielded during the past year. Advanced multiplicity analysis techniques have been developed for this work, which should allow for efficient analysis of 241Pu(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) cross section measurements

  17. Cross-Linguistic Variation and the Acquisition of Pronominal Reference in L2 Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jegerski, Jill; VanPatten, Bill; Keating, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The current investigation tested two predictions regarding second language (L2) processing at the syntax-discourse interface: (1) that L2 performance on measures of interface phenomena can differ from that of native speakers; and (2) that cross-linguistic influence can be a source of such divergence. Specifically, we examined the offline…

  18. 41 CFR 101-28.202-2 - Cancellation of cross-servicing arrangements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cancellation of cross-servicing arrangements. 101-28.202-2 Section 101-28.202-2 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 28...

  19. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  20. Virtual temporal bone: an interactive 3-dimensional learning aid for cranial base surgery.

    PubMed

    Kockro, Ralf A; Hwang, Peter Y K

    2009-05-01

    We have developed an interactive virtual model of the temporal bone for the training and teaching of cranial base surgery. The virtual model was based on the tomographic data of the Visible Human Project. The male Visible Human's computed tomographic data were volumetrically reconstructed as virtual bone tissue, and the individual photographic slices provided the basis for segmentation of the middle and inner ear structures, cranial nerves, vessels, and brainstem. These structures were created by using outlining and tube editing tools, allowing structural modeling either directly on the basis of the photographic data or according to information from textbooks and cadaver dissections. For training and teaching, the virtual model was accessed in the previously described 3-dimensional workspaces of the Dextroscope or Dextrobeam (Volume Interactions Pte, Ltd., Singapore), whose interfaces enable volumetric exploration from any perspective and provide virtual tools for drilling and measuring. We have simulated several cranial base procedures including approaches via the floor of the middle fossa and the lateral petrous bone. The virtual model suitably illustrated the core facts of anatomic spatial relationships while simulating different stages of bone drilling along a variety of surgical corridors. The system was used for teaching during training courses to plan and discuss operative anatomy and strategies. The Virtual Temporal Bone and its surrounding 3-dimensional workspace provide an effective way to study the essential surgical anatomy of this complex region and to teach and train operative strategies, especially when used as an adjunct to cadaver dissections.

  1. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XμCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-μCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XμCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  2. Grain boundary segregation in boron added interstitial free steels studied by 3-dimensional atom probe

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, K.; Larson, D.J.; Warren, P.J.; Smith, G.D.W.

    1999-04-09

    The development of deep-drawable sheet steels is of particular significance for the automotive industry. Titanium and/or niobium added extra-low carbon interstitial free (IF) steels are key materials. The virtually complete removal of carbon and nitrogen should lead to superior forming properties. However, the lack of solute carbon at grain boundaries significantly decreases the bonding force at the interfaces, which often causes intergranular brittle fracture when deeply drawn steel sheets are subjected to impact deformation at low temperature. This phenomenon is called secondary working embrittlement (SWE), and is a major problem when solute atoms such as phosphorus, manganese or silicon are added to increase the tensile strength of the steels. Small amounts of boron, which does not affect the formability of the steels significantly, are usually added as a remedial measure in such cases. The 3-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) combined with field ion microscopy (FIM) has the ability to produce 3-dimensional images from regions approximately 20nm*20nm*100nm in size, and identify each atomic species and the relative location of each atom with nearly lattice resolution. In this study, a combination of these methods was applied to produce FIM tips of IF steel containing grain boundaries. The authors report here the first observations of the segregation of boron in IF steels using 3DAP.

  3. An electro-dynamic 3-dimensional vibration test bed for engineering testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadatzi, Mohammadsadegh; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Ahmed, Riaz; Banerjee, Sourav

    2017-04-01

    Primary objective of the work is to design, fabrication and testing of a 3-dimensional Mechanical vibration test bed. Vibration testing of engineering prototype devices in mechanical and industrial laboratories is essential to understand the response of the envisioned model under physical excitation conditions. Typically, two sorts of vibration sources are available in physical environment, acoustical and mechanical. Traditionally, test bed to simulate unidirectional acoustic or mechanical vibration is used in engineering laboratories. However, a device may encounter multiple uncoupled and/or coupled loading conditions. Hence, a comprehensive test bed in essential that can simulate all possible sorts of vibration conditions. In this article, an electrodynamic vibration exciter is presented which is capable of simulating 3-dimensional uncoupled (unidirectional) and coupled excitation, in mechanical environments. The proposed model consists of three electromagnetic shakers (for mechanical excitation). A robust electrical control circuit is designed to regulate the components of the test bed through a self-developed Graphical User Interface. Finally, performance of the test bed is tested and validated using commercially available piezoelectric sensors.

  4. A 3-dimensional model for teaching local flaps using porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zahid; Hogg, Fiona; Graham, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The European Working Time Directive and streamlined training has led to reduced training time. Surgery, as an experience-dependent craft specialty is affected more than other medical specialties. Trainees want to maximize all training opportunities in the clinical setting, and having predeveloped basic skills acquired on a simulated model can facilitate this.Here we describe the use of a novel model to design and raise local flaps in the face and scalp regions. The model consists of mannequin heads draped with porcine skin which is skewered with pins at strategic points to give a 3-dimensional model which closely resembles a cadaveric head.The advantages of this model are that it is life size and incorporates all the relevant anatomical features, which can be drawn on if required.This model was used on a recent course, Intermediate Skills in Plastic Surgery: Flaps Around the Face, at the Royal College of Surgeons England. The trainees found that practicing on the porcine skin gave them an opportunity to master the basics of flap design and implementation.In summary, this innovative 3-dimensional training model has received high levels of satisfaction and is currently as close as we can get to cadaveric dissection without the constraints and cost of using human tissue.

  5. Simple parameter estimation for complex models — Testing evolutionary techniques on 3-dimensional biogeochemical ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattern, Jann Paul; Edwards, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimation is an important part of numerical modeling and often required when a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model is first deployed. However, 3-dimensional ocean model simulations are computationally expensive and models typically contain upwards of 10 parameters suitable for estimation. Hence, manual parameter tuning can be lengthy and cumbersome. Here, we present four easy to implement and flexible parameter estimation techniques and apply them to two 3-dimensional biogeochemical models of different complexities. Based on a Monte Carlo experiment, we first develop a cost function measuring the model-observation misfit based on multiple data types. The parameter estimation techniques are then applied and yield a substantial cost reduction over ∼ 100 simulations. Based on the outcome of multiple replicate experiments, they perform on average better than random, uninformed parameter search but performance declines when more than 40 parameters are estimated together. Our results emphasize the complex cost function structure for biogeochemical parameters and highlight dependencies between different parameters as well as different cost function formulations.

  6. Automated 3-Dimensional Brain Atlas Fitting to Microelectrode Recordings from Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Luján, J. Luis; Noecker, Angela M.; Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries commonly rely on brain atlases and microelectrode recordings (MER) to help identify the target location for electrode implantation. We present an automated method for optimally fitting a 3-dimensional brain atlas to intraoperative MER and predicting a target DBS electrode location in stereotactic coordinates for the patient. Methods We retrospectively fit a 3-dimensional brain atlas to MER points from 10 DBS surgeries targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We used a constrained optimization algorithm to maximize the MER points correctly fitted (i.e., contained) within the appropriate atlas nuclei. We compared our optimization approach to conventional anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC/PC) scaling, and to manual fits performed by four experts. A theoretical DBS electrode target location in the dorsal STN was customized to each patient as part of the fitting process and compared to the location of the clinically defined therapeutic stimulation contact. Results The human expert and computer optimization fits achieved significantly better fits than the AC/PC scaling (80, 81, and 41% of correctly fitted MER, respectively). However, the optimization fits were performed in less time than the expert fits and converged to a single solution for each patient, eliminating interexpert variance. Conclusions and Significance DBS therapeutic outcomes are directly related to electrode implantation accuracy. Our automated fitting techniques may aid in the surgical decision-making process by optimally integrating brain atlas and intraoperative neurophysiological data to provide a visual guide for target identification. PMID:19556832

  7. High resolution 3-Dimensional imaging of the human cardiac conduction system from microanatomy to mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Robert S; Atkinson, Andrew; Kottas, Petros; Perde, Filip; Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh; Bateman, Mike; Iaizzo, Paul A; Zhao, Jichao; Zhang, Henggui; Anderson, Robert H; Jarvis, Jonathan C; Dobrzynski, Halina

    2017-08-03

    Cardiac arrhythmias and conduction disturbances are accompanied by structural remodelling of the specialised cardiomyocytes known collectively as the cardiac conduction system. Here, using contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography, we present, in attitudinally appropriate fashion, the first 3-dimensional representations of the cardiac conduction system within the intact human heart. We show that cardiomyocyte orientation can be extracted from these datasets at spatial resolutions approaching the single cell. These data show that commonly accepted anatomical representations are oversimplified. We have incorporated the high-resolution anatomical data into mathematical simulations of cardiac electrical depolarisation. The data presented should have multidisciplinary impact. Since the rate of depolarisation is dictated by cardiac microstructure, and the precise orientation of the cardiomyocytes, our data should improve the fidelity of mathematical models. By showing the precise 3-dimensional relationships between the cardiac conduction system and surrounding structures, we provide new insights relevant to valvar replacement surgery and ablation therapies. We also offer a practical method for investigation of remodelling in disease, and thus, virtual pathology and archiving. Such data presented as 3D images or 3D printed models, will inform discussions between medical teams and their patients, and aid the education of medical and surgical trainees.

  8. A new 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system of facial motion: an establishment and reliability test.

    PubMed

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs.

  9. Influence of different setups of the Frankfort horizontal plane on 3-dimensional cephalometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Santos, Rodrigo Mologni Gonçalves Dos; De Martino, José Mario; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Passeri, Luis Augusto

    2017-08-01

    The Frankfort horizontal (FH) is a plane that intersects both porions and the left orbitale. However, other combinations of points have also been used to define this plane in 3-dimensional cephalometry. These variations are based on the hypothesis that they do not affect the cephalometric analysis. We investigated the validity of this hypothesis. The material included cone-beam computed tomography data sets of 82 adult subjects with Class I molar relationship. A third-party method of cone-beam computed tomography-based 3-dimensional cephalometry was performed using 7 setups of the FH plane. Six lateral cephalometric hard tissue measurements relative to the FH plane were carried out for each setup. Measurement differences were calculated for each pair of setups of the FH plane. The number of occurrences of differences greater than the limits of agreement was counted for each of the 6 measurements. Only 3 of 21 pairs of setups had no occurrences for the 6 measurements. No measurement had no occurrences for the 21 pairs of setups. Setups based on left or right porion and both orbitales had the greatest number of occurrences for the 6 measurements. This investigation showed that significant and undesirable measurement differences can be produced by varying the definition of the FH plane. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A New 3-Dimensional Dynamic Quantitative Analysis System of Facial Motion: An Establishment and Reliability Test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Guodong; Zhao, Yang; Tian, Xu; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish a 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative facial motion analysis system, and then determine its accuracy and test-retest reliability. The system could automatically reconstruct the motion of the observational points. Standardized T-shaped rod and L-shaped rods were used to evaluate the static and dynamic accuracy of the system. Nineteen healthy volunteers were recruited to test the reliability of the system. The average static distance error measurement was 0.19 mm, and the average angular error was 0.29°. The measuring results decreased with the increase of distance between the cameras and objects, 80 cm of which was considered to be optimal. It took only 58 seconds to perform the full facial measurement process. The average intra-class correlation coefficient for distance measurement and angular measurement was 0.973 and 0.794 respectively. The results demonstrated that we successfully established a practical 3-dimensional dynamic quantitative analysis system that is accurate and reliable enough to meet both clinical and research needs. PMID:25390881

  11. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  12. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  13. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  14. Benchmark measurements and calculations of a 3-dimensional neutron streaming experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, D. A., Jr.

    1991-02-01

    An experimental assembly known as the Dog-Legged Void assembly was constructed to measure the effect of neutron streaming in iron and void regions. The primary purpose of the measurements was to provide benchmark data against which various neutron transport calculation tools could be compared. The measurements included neutron flux spectra at four places and integral measurements at two places in the iron streaming path as well as integral measurements along several axial traverses. These data have been used in the verification of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's three-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. For a base case calculation using one-half inch mesh spacing, finite difference spatial differencing, an S(sub 16) quadrature and P(sub 1) cross sections in the MUFT multigroup structure, the calculated solution agreed to within 18 percent with the spectral measurements and to within 24 percent of the integral measurements. Variations on the base case using a fewgroup energy structure and P(sub 1) and P(sub 3) cross sections showed similar agreement. Calculations using a linear nodal spatial differencing scheme and fewgroup cross sections also showed similar agreement. For the same mesh size, the nodal method was seen to require 2.2 times as much CPU time as the finite difference method. A nodal calculation using a typical mesh spacing of 2 inches, which had approximately 32 times fewer mesh cells than the base case, agreed with the measurements to within 34 percent and yet required on 8 percent of the CPU time.

  15. Absolute state-selected total cross sections for the ion-molecule reactions O + (4S,2D,2P)+H2(D2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Huang, Y.-L.; Flesch, G. D.; Ng, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for the state-selected reactions of O+(4S,2D,2P)+H2 (D2) have been measured in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ec.m.) range of 0.02-12 eV. The cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are slightly higher than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2), whereas the OH+ (OD+) cross sections from O+ (2P)+H2 (D2) are ≈40% lower than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) and O+ (2D)+H2 (D2). At Ec.m.<0.5 eV, the total cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+ (4S)+H2 (D2) and O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are in accord with those predicted by the Langevin-Gioumousis-Stevenson model. Significantly higher cross sections are observed for H+ (D+) and H2+ (D2+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2), as compared to those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2). The exothermic nature of the O+(2D,2P)+H2 (D2) charge transfer collisions accounts for the high cross sections observed for H2+ (D2+). While the H+ (D+) ions observed in the O+(4S)+H2 (D2) reaction are identified with the H+ (D+)+O+H channel, the H+ (D+) ions from the reactions involving O+(2D) and O+(2P) are associated mostly with the H+ (D+)+OH (OD) channel, the formation of which obeys the spin-conservation rule. The comparison of the sum (σT) of cross sections for OH+ (OD+), H2+ (D2+), and H+ (D+) from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) to those from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) shows that the σTs for O+(4S)+H2 (D2), O+(2D)+H2 (D2), and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) at Ec.m.<0.5 eV are comparable. At Ec.m.>0.5 eV, the σTs for O+(2P)+H2 (D2) are greater than those for O+(2D)+H2 (D2), which in turn are greater than those for O+(4S)+H2 (D2). This observation is attributed to the increase in the number of accessible product channels for reactions involving the excited O+(2D) and O+(2P) reactant ions.

  16. Benefits and Limitations of Entry-Level 3-Dimensional Printing of Maxillofacial Skeletal Models.

    PubMed

    Legocki, Alex T; Duffy-Peter, Andrew; Scott, Andrew R

    2017-04-01

    A protocol for creating exceptionally low-cost 3-dimensional (3-D) maxillofacial skeletal models does not require proficiency with computer software or intensive labor. Small and less affluent centers can produce models with little loss in accuracy and clinical utility. To highlight the feasibility and methods of introducing in-house, entry-level additive manufacturing (3-D printing) technology to otolaryngologic craniofacial reconstruction and to describe its clinical applications and limitations, including a comparison with available vendor models. This case series of 6 models (3 pairs) compared cost, side-by-side anatomical model fidelity, and clinical versatility using entry-level, in-house 3-D pediatric mandible model production vs high-end, third-party vendor modeling, including a review of the literature. Comparisons were made at an urban pediatric otolaryngology practice among patients who had previously undergone pediatric craniofacial reconstruction with use of a commercially produced medical model for surgical planning. Each vendor model had been produced using computed tomographic imaging data. With the use of this same data source, in-house models were printed in polylactic acid using a commercially available printer. Data were collected from November 1 to December 30, 2015. Models created from these 2 methods of production were assessed for fidelity of surface anatomy, resilience to manipulation and plate bending, cost of production, speed of production, sterilizability, virtual surgical planning options, and alveolar nerve canal and tooth root visibility in mandibles. For the quantitative comparisons between in-house models (1 neonatal, 1 pediatric, and 1 adult model) and their commercial counterparts, the mean value of 7 independent measurements was analyzed from each of 3 model pairs. Caliper measurements from models produced through entry-level, in-house manufacturing were comparable to those taken from commercially produced counterparts

  17. Cultivation of human neural progenitor cells in a 3-dimensional self-assembling peptide hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Liedmann, Andrea; Rolfs, Arndt; Frech, Moritz J

    2012-01-11

    The influence of 3-dimensional (3D) scaffolds on growth, proliferation and finally neuronal differentiation is of great interest in order to find new methods for cell-based and standardised therapies in neurological disorders or neurodegenerative diseases. 3D structures are expected to provide an environment much closer to the in vivo situation than 2D cultures. In the context of regenerative medicine, the combination of biomaterial scaffolds with neural stem and progenitor cells holds great promise as a therapeutic tool. Culture systems emulating a three dimensional environment have been shown to influence proliferation and differentiation in different types of stem and progenitor cells. Herein, the formation and functionalisation of the 3D-microenviroment is important to determine the survival and fate of the embedded cells. Here we used PuraMatrix (RADA16, PM), a peptide based hydrogel scaffold, which is well described and used to study the influence of a 3D-environment on different cell types. PuraMatrix can be customised easily and the synthetic fabrication of the nano-fibers provides a 3D-culture system of high reliability, which is in addition xeno-free. Recently we have studied the influence of the PM-concentration on the formation of the scaffold. In this study the used concentrations of PM had a direct impact on the formation of the 3D-structure, which was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy. A subsequent analysis of the survival and differentiation of the hNPCs revealed an influence of the used concentrations of PM on the fate of the embedded cells. However, the analysis of survival or neuronal differentiation by means of immunofluorescence techniques posses some hurdles. To gain reliable data, one has to determine the total number of cells within a matrix to obtain the relative number of e.g. neuronal cells marked by βIII-tubulin. This prerequisites a technique to analyse the scaffolds in all 3-dimensions by a confocal microscope or a comparable

  18. Preliminary 3-Dimensional Geologic Map of the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, C. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Valin, Z. C.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Langenheim, V. E.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have constructed a preliminary 3-dimensional geologic map of the Santa Rosa Plain as a tool to address earthquake hazard and groundwater issues. The map allows integration of diverse datasets to produce a stratigraphic and structural architecture for the region. This framework can then be used to predict pathways of ground water flow and potential areas of enhanced or focused seismic shaking beneath the Santa Rosa Plain. The 3D map also allows us to identify relations which will require further refinement to develop a coherent 3D image of the crust. The 3D map, built using EarthVision 3D geologic mapping software, consists of three bounding components: fault surfaces, stratigraphic surfaces, and a basement upper surface. Fault surfaces are derived from geologic mapping, subsurface projection of fault dips from the surface geology and earthquake hypocenters. Stratigraphic surfaces are derived from the mapped geology, a digital elevation model and stratigraphic information from wells. A basement surface, predominantly composed of Mesozoic rocks of the Franciscan Complex, the mafic Coast Range Ophiolite and strata of the Great Valley Sequence, is derived from inversion of regional gravity measurements and constrained by well data. The preliminary 3D map of the Santa Rosa Plain area highlights two large basins (>2 km deep): the Windsor and Cotati basins. These basins are divided by a structural high associated with the W-NW-trending, NE-dipping Trenton thrust fault. The Cotati basin is further subdivided by a deeper basement ridge subparallel to the Trenton fault, which separates the basin beneath Cotati from the basin of Petaluma Valley to the southeast. Neither of the basement ridges breaks the surface, yet faults associated with the ridges could displace or truncate aquifers, provide channelways for groundwater flow between aquifers, or create zones of impermeability that disrupt the vertical and lateral continuity of groundwater flow. The complex configuration

  19. Crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 multiwire architecture: a local structure study with nanometer resolution.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Criado, Gema; Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Chu, Manh-Hung; Tucoulou, Remi; López, Iñaki; Nogales, Emilio; Mendez, Bianchi; Piqueras, Javier

    2014-10-08

    Crossed nanowire structures are the basis for high-density integration of a variety of nanodevices. Owing to the critical role of nanowires intersections in creating hybrid architectures, it has become a challenge to investigate the local structure in crossing points in metal oxide nanowires. Thus, if intentionally grown crossed nanowires are well-patterned, an ideal model to study the junction is formed. By combining electron and synchrotron beam nanoprobes, we show here experimental evidence of the role of impurities in the coupling formation, structural modifications, and atomic site configuration based on crossed Ga2O3/SnO2 nanowires. Our experiment opens new avenues for further local structure studies with both nanometer resolution and elemental sensitivity.

  20. Elastic positron scattering by C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Differential cross sections and virtual state formation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Claudia R.C. de; Varella, Marcio T. do N; Lima, Marco A.P.; Silva, Euclimar P. da

    2003-12-01

    We present calculated elastic differential cross sections for positron-acetylene scattering, obtained by using the Schwinger multichannel method. Our results are in very good agreement with quasielastic experimental data of Kauppila et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 192, 162 (2002)]. We also discuss the existence of a virtual state (zero-energy resonance) in e{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} collisions, based on the behavior of the integral cross section and of the s-wave phase shift. As expected the fixed-nuclei cross section and annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff}) present the same energy dependence at very low impact energies. As the virtual state energy approaches zero, the magnitude of both cross section and Z{sub eff} are extremely enhanced (at zero impact energy). The possibility of shifting from a low-lying virtual state to a shallow bound state is not expected to significantly affect room-temperature annihilation rates.

  1. CO2/light gas separation performance of cross-linked poly(vinylimidazolium) gel membranes as a function of ionic liquid loading and cross-linker content

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, TK; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2012-04-15

    A series of cross-linked poly(vinylimidazolium)-RTIL gel membranes was synthesized and evaluated for room-temperature, ideal CO2/N-2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H-2 separation performance. The membranes were formed by photo-polymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized cross-linking (i.e., di-functional) and non-cross-linking (i.e., mono-functional) vinylimidazolium RTIL monomers with nonpolymerizable, "free RTIL." The effect of free RTIL ([emim][Tf2N]) loading on CO2 separation performance was evaluated by varying RTIL loading at three levels (45, 65, and 75 wt.%). The effect of cross-linker content on CO2 separation performance was also evaluated by varying the copolymer composition of cross-linked membranes from 5 to 100 mol% di-functional monomer. The substituent on the monofunctional RTIL monomer was also varied to investigate the effect of substituent structure and chemistry on CO2 separation performance. CO2 permeability was dramatically increased with higher loading of free RTIL. Increased RTIL loading had no effect on CO2/N-2 or CO2/CH4 permeability selectivity, but significantly improved CO2/H-2 permeability selectivity. Reducing the cross-linking monomer concentration generally improved CO2 permeability. However, anomalous permeability and selectivity behavior was observed below critical concentrations of cross-linker. The effect of the substituent on the monofunctional monomer on CO2 separation performance was minimal compared to the effects of RTIL loading and copolymer composition. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of the 3-Dimensional Morphology of the Upper Lip Configuration at the Completion of Facial Expressions in Healthy Japanese Young Adults and Patients With Cleft Lip.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kouzou; Nozoe, Etsuro; Okawachi, Takako; Ishihata, Kiyohide; Nishinara, Kazuhide; Nakamura, Norifumi

    2016-09-01

    To develop criteria for the analysis of upper lip configuration of patients with cleft lip while they produce various facial expressions by comparing the 3-dimensional (3D) facial morphology of healthy Japanese adults and patients with cleft lip. Twenty healthy adult Japanese volunteers (10 men, 10 women, controls) without any observed facial abnormalities and 8 patients (4 men, 4 women) with unilateral cleft lip and palate who had undergone secondary lip and nose repair were recruited for this study. Facial expressions (resting, smiling, and blowing out a candle) were recorded with 2 Artec MHT 3D scanners, and images were superimposed by aligning the T-zone of the faces. The positions of 14 specific points were set on each face, and the positional changes of specific points and symmetry of the upper lip cross-section were analyzed. Furthermore, the configuration observed in healthy controls was compared with that in patients with cleft lip before and after surgery. The mean absolute values for T-zone overlap ranged from 0.04 to 0.15 mm. Positional changes of specific points in the controls showed that the nose and lip moved backward and laterally upward when smiling and the lips moved forward and downward medially when blowing out a candle; these movements were bilaterally symmetrical in men and women. In patients with cleft lip, the positional changes of the specific points were minor compared with those of the controls while smiling and blowing out a candle. The left-versus-right symmetry of the upper lip cross-section exceeded 1.0 mm in patients with cleft lip, which was markedly higher than that in the controls (0.17 to 0.91 mm). These left-versus-right differences during facial expressions were decreased after surgery. By comparing healthy individuals with patients with cleft lip, this study has laid the basis for determining control values for facial expressions. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by

  3. Low-energy electron impact cross-sections and rate constants of NH_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bharadvaja, Anand; Kaur, Savinder; Baluja, K. L.

    2017-08-01

    This systematic study reports various electron impact cross-sections, rate constants and transport properties of NH_2 radical in the low-energy limit. The collision study is based on R-matrix formalism and involves the use of various scattering models employing different active spaces. Both electron excited inelastic cross-sections and resonances are found influenced by correlation and polarization effects. The non-relativistic molecular bremsstrahlung radiation cross-section for soft photons, binary encounter Bethe model-based ionization cross-sections and a few molecular properties of the target radical are also reported. The present calculations are found to be in agreement with the available results. This theoretical study provides a pathway to understand collision dynamics and generates data required in various fields of applied physics.

  4. Laser-induced crossed-beam charge transfer: energy threshold of the Na (3 2P 3/2) + I 2 → Na + + I -2 channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bañares, L.; González Ureña, A.

    1991-01-01

    A crossed-beam charge-transfer study was carried out for the Na(3 2P 3/2) + I 2 → Na + + I -2 system using laser excitation of the Na atom. The energy threshold and post-threshold laws were measured for the title reaction and the I 2 molecule electron affinity was determined. The value EA (I 2) = 2.69 ± 0.05 eV obtained in the present work is in accordance with previous determinations.

  5. A protective and broadly cross-neutralizing epitope of human papillomavirus L2.

    PubMed

    Gambhira, Ratish; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Jagu, Subhashini; Roberts, Jeffrey N; Buck, Christopher B; Bossis, Ioannis; Alphs, Hannah; Culp, Timothy; Christensen, Neil D; Roden, Richard B S

    2007-12-01

    We generated a monoclonal antibody, RG-1, that binds to highly conserved L2 residues 17 to 36 and neutralizes human papillomavirus 16 (HPV16) and HPV18. Passive immunotherapy with RG-1 was protective in mice. Antiserum to the HPV16 L2 peptide comprising residues 17 to 36 (peptide 17-36) neutralized pseudoviruses HPV5, HPV6, HPV16, HPV 18, HPV31, HPV 45, HPV 52, HPV 58, bovine papillomavirus 1, and HPV11 native virions. Depletion of HPV16 L2 peptide 17-36-reactive antibodies from cross-neutralizing rabbit and human L2-specific sera abolished cross-neutralization and drastically reduced neutralization of the cognate type. This cross-neutralization of diverse HPVs associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and epidermodysplasia verruciformis suggests the possibility of a broadly protective, peptide-based vaccine.

  6. Do All Patients of Breast Carcinoma Need 3-Dimensional CT-Based Planning? A Dosimetric Study Comparing Different Breast Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Anusheel Pai, Rajeshri H.; Phurailatpam, Reena; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Jalali, Rakesh; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, D.D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of dose distribution in a single plane (i.e., 2-dimensional [2D] planning) is simple and less resource-intensive than CT-based 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) planning or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of the study was to determine if 2D planning could be an appropriate treatment in a subgroup of breast cancer patients based on their breast size. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent breast conservation were planned for radiotherapy. The patients were grouped in 3 different categories based on their respective chest wall separation (CWS) and the thickness of breast, as 'small,' 'medium,' and 'large.' Two more contours were taken at locations 5 cm superior and 5 cm inferior to the isocenter plane. Maximum dose recorded at specified points was compared in superior/inferior slices as compared to the central slice. The mean difference for small breast size was 1.93 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.08). For medium breas size, the mean difference was 2.98 (SD = 2.40). For the large breasts, the mean difference was 4.28 (SD = 2.69). Based on our dosimetric study, breast planning only on the single isocentric contour is an appropriate technique for patients with small breasts. However, for large- and medium-size breasts, CT-based planning and 3D planning have a definite role. These results can be especially useful for rationalizing treatment in busy oncology centers.

  7. Application of the Green's function method for 2- and 3-dimensional steady transonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, K.

    1984-01-01

    A Time-Domain Green's function method for the nonlinear time-dependent three-dimensional aerodynamic potential equation is presented. The Green's theorem is being used to transform the partial differential equation into an integro-differential-delay equation. Finite-element and finite-difference methods are employed for the spatial and time discretizations to approximate the integral equation by a system of differential-delay equations. Solution may be obtained by solving for this nonlinear simultaneous system of equations in time. This paper discusses the application of the method to the Transonic Small Disturbance Equation and numerical results for lifting and nonlifting airfoils and wings in steady flows are presented.

  8. INPUTB: A thermal/structural data interface program for 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional interpolation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vos, R. G.; Straayer, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program (INPUTB) for interpolation in both space and time, and based on a linear interpolation scheme using simplex spatial regions is described. The program was developed to provide data interfacing between the output from thermal analyzers and the input to the BOPACE 3-D program. The INPUTB interpolator is of a general nature and could be used for other tasks. The INPUTB program utilizes temperature values which are given at some sequence of time for a list of strategically located thermal nodes. It operates on these values by performing a double interpolation to provide temperature values at another desired sequence of times for a list of structural nodes.

  9. Thermal transport in 2- and 3-dimensional periodic “holey” nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Sadhu, J. S.; Ganta, D.; Tian, H.; Sinha, S.

    2014-12-15

    Understanding thermal transport in two- and three-dimensional periodic “holey” nanostructures is important for realizing applications of these structures in thermoelectrics, photonics and batteries. In terms of continuum heat diffusion physics, the effective medium theory provides the framework for obtaining the effective thermal conductivity of such structures. However, recently measured nanostructures possess thermal conductivities well below these continuum predictions. In some cases, their thermal conductivities are even lower than predictions that account for sub-continuum phonon transport. We analyze current understanding of thermal transport in such structures, discussing the various theories, the measurements and the insights gained from comparing the two.

  10. Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.

  11. Helium Atom Scattering from C2H6, F2HCCH3, F3CCH2F and C2F6 in Crossed Molecular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Markus; Seidel, Wolfhart

    1997-10-01

    Rotationally unresolved differential cross sections were measured in crossed molecular beam experiments by scattering Helium atoms from Ethane, 1,1-Difluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane and Hexafluoroethane. The damping of observed diffraction oscillations was used to extract anisotropic interaction potentials for these scattering systems applying the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA). Binary macroscopic parameters such as second heterogeneous virial coefficients and the coefficients of diffusion and viscosity were computed from these potentials and compared to results from macroscopic experiments.

  12. Crossing the North Sea seems to make DCD disappear: cross-validation of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 norms.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Waelvelde, Hilde; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2015-02-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children has been revised as the Movement ABC-2 (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). In Europe, the 15th percentile score on this test is recommended for one of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). A representative sample of Dutch and Flemish children was tested to cross-validate the UK standard scores, including the 15th percentile score. First, the mean, SD and percentile scores of Dutch children were compared to those of UK normative samples. Item standard scores of Dutch speaking children deviated from the UK reference values suggesting necessary adjustments. Except for very young children, the Dutch-speaking samples performed better. Second, based on the mean and SD and clinical relevant cut-off scores (5th and 15th percentile), norms were adjusted for the Dutch population. For diagnostic use, researchers and clinicians should use the reference norms that are valid for the group of children they are testing. The results indicate that there possibly is an effect of testing procedure in other countries that validated the UK norms and/or cultural influence on the age norms of the Movement ABC-2. It is suggested to formulate criterion-based norms for age groups in addition to statistical norms.

  13. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  14. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  15. An investigation of nonadiabatic interactions in Cl(2Pj) + D2 via crossed-molecular-beam scattering.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bradley F; Chandler, David W

    2005-05-01

    We have determined limits on the cross section for both electronically nonadiabatic excitation and quenching in the Cl((2)P(j)) + D(2) system. Our experiment incorporates crossed-molecular-beam scattering with state-selective Cl((2)P(12,32)) detection and velocity-mapped ion imaging. By colliding atomic chlorine with D(2), we address the propensity for collisions that result in a change of the spin-orbit level of atomic chlorine either through electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit excitation Cl((2)P(32)) + D(2)-->Cl(*)((2)P(12)) + D(2) or through electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit quenching Cl(*)((2)P(12)) + D(2)-->Cl((2)P(32)) + D(2). In the first part of this report, we estimate an upper limit for the electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit excitation cross section at a collision energy of 5.3 kcal/mol, which lies above the energy of the reaction barrier (4.9 kcal/mol). Our analysis and simulation of the experimental data determine an upper limit for the excitation cross section as sigma(NA)< or =0.012 A(2). In the second part of this paper we investigate the propensity for electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit quenching of Cl(*) following a collision with D(2) or He. We perform these experiments at collision energies above and below the energy of the reaction barrier. By comparing the amount of scattered Cl(*) in our images to the amount of Cl(*) lost from the atomic beam we obtain the maximum cross section for electronically nonadiabatic quenching as sigma(NA)< or =15(-15) (+44) A(2) for a collision energy of 7.6 kcal/mol. Our experiments show the probability for electronically nonadiabatic quenching in Cl(*) + D(2) to be indistinguishable to that for the kinematically identical system of Cl(*) + He.

  16. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  17. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a "Low-Cost" 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer.

    PubMed

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-03-22

    The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field.

  18. Rocket Radiation Handbook, Volume 2. Model Equations for Photon Emission Rates and Absorption Cross-Sections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-12-01

    cm2) (Refs. 7 and 9) (9Cross-Section, a(10- 16 cm 2) First Second At ~ Atom or Fuchtbauer., Molecule Joos and Zemansky Kunze Din kelac ke r Hg He 15.0...G. and M. W. Zemansky , Resonance Radiation and ExcitedI4 Atoms, Cambridge, 1934. 10. Herzberg, G., Infrared and Raman Spectra, Van Nostrand, 1945. 11

  19. BOXER: Fine-flux Cross Section Condensation, 2D Few Group Diffusion and Transport Burnup Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    Neutron transport, calculation of multiplication factor and neutron fluxes in 2-D configurations: cell calculations, 2-D diffusion and transport, and burnup. Preparation of a cross section library for the code BOXER from a basic library in ENDF/B format (ETOBOX).

  20. Utility of 3-dimensional image reconstruction in the diagnosis of small-bowel masses in capsule endoscopy (with video).

    PubMed

    Rondonotti, Emanuele; Koulaouzidis, Anastasios; Karargyris, Alexandros; Giannakou, Andry; Fini, Lucia; Soncini, Marco; Pennazio, Marco; Douglas, Sarah; Shams, Aman; Lachlan, Neil; Zahid, Ali; Mandelli, Giovanna; Girelli, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    In small-bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE), differentiating masses (ie, lesions of higher probability for neoplasia) requiring more aggressive intervention from bulges (essentially, false-positive findings) is a challenging task; recently, software that enables 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction has become available. To evaluate whether "coupling" 3D reconstructed video clips with the standard 2-dimensional (s2D) counterparts helps in distinguishing masses from bulges. Three expert and 3 novice SBCE readers, blind to others and in a random order, reviewed the s2D video clips and subsequently the s2D clips coupled with their 3D reconstruction (2D+3D). Multicenter study in 3 community hospitals in Italy and a university hospital in Scotland. Thirty-two deidentified 5-minute video clips, containing mucosal bulging (19) or masses (13). 3D reconstruction of s2D SBCE video clips. Differentiation of masses from bulges with s2D and 2D+3D video clips, estimated by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC); interobserver agreement. AUC for experts and novices for s2D video clips was .74 and .5, respectively (P = .0053). AUC for experts and novices with 2D+3D was .70 (compared with s2D: P = .245) and .57 (compared s2D: P = .049), respectively. AUC for experts and novices with 2D+3D was similar (P = .1846). The interobserver agreement was good for both experts and novices with the s2D (k = .71 and .54, respectively) and the 2D+3D video clips (k = .58 in both groups). Few, short video clips; fixed angle of 3D reconstruction. The adjunction of a 3D reconstruction to the s2D video reading platform does not improve the performance of expert SBCE readers, although it significantly increases the performance of novices in distinguishing masses from bulging. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tabulation of hybrid theory calculated e-N2 vibrational and rotational cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.; Temkin, A.

    1976-01-01

    Vibrational excitation cross sections of N2 by electron impact are tabulated. Integrated cross sections are given for transitions v yields v prime where o=or v=or 8 in the energy range 0.1 eV=or E=or 10 eV. The energy grid is chosen to be most dense in the resonance region (2 to 4 eV) so that the substructure is present in the numerical results. Coefficients in the angular distribution formula (differential scattering cross section) for transitions v=0 yields v prime = or 8 are also numerically given over the same grid of energies. Simultaneous rotation-vibration coefficients are also given for transitions v=o,j=o; 1 yields v prime=o, j=o,2,4; 1,3,5. All results are obtained from the hybrid theory.

  2. Epicardial-endocardial breakthrough during stable atrial macroreentry: Evidence from ultra-high-resolution 3-dimensional mapping.

    PubMed

    Pathik, Bhupesh; Lee, Geoffrey; Sacher, Frédéric; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre; Massoullié, Grégoire; Derval, Nicolas; Sanders, Prashanthan; Kistler, Peter; Kalman, Jonathan M

    2017-08-01

    Evidence for epicardial-endocardial breakthrough (EEB) is derived from mapping inferences in patients with atrial fibrillation who may also have focal activations. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether EEB could be discerned during stable right atrial (RA) macroreentry using high-density high-spatial resolution 3-dimensional mapping. Macroreentry was diagnosed using 3-dimensional mapping and entrainment. Bipolar maps were reviewed for EEB defined as (1) presence of focal endocardial activation with radial spread unaccounted for by an endocardial wavefront and (2) present with the same timing on every tachycardia cycle. The EEB site was always in proximity to a line of endocardial conduction slowing or block. Distance and conduction velocity from the line of block to the EEB site was calculated. Electrograms at EEB sites were individually analyzed for morphology and to confirm direction of activation. Entrainment was performed at EEB sites. Twenty-six patients were studied. Fourteen examples of EEB were seen: 11 at the posterior RA (4 at the superior portion of the posterior wall and 7 at the inferior section) and 1 each at the cavotricuspid isthmus postablation, RA septum, and inferolateral RA. The mean area of the EEB site was 0.6 ± 0.2 cm(2). A mean of 79.5% ± 18.6%