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Sample records for 2 3-dimensional cross

  1. Differential Cross Section Kinematics for 3-dimensional Transport Codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank

    2008-01-01

    In support of the development of 3-dimensional transport codes, this paper derives the relevant relativistic particle kinematic theory. Formulas are given for invariant, spectral and angular distributions in both the lab (spacecraft) and center of momentum frames, for collisions involving 2, 3 and n - body final states.

  2. Influence of White-Coat Hypertension on Left Ventricular Deformation 2- and 3-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Study.

    PubMed

    Tadic, Marijana; Cuspidi, Cesare; Ivanovic, Branislava; Ilic, Irena; Celic, Vera; Kocijancic, Vesna

    2016-03-01

    We sought to compare left ventricular deformation in subjects with white-coat hypertension to normotensive and sustained hypertensive patients. This cross-sectional study included 139 untreated subjects who underwent 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and completed 2- and 3-dimensional examination. Two-dimensional left ventricular multilayer strain analysis was also performed. White-coat hypertension was diagnosed if clinical blood pressure was elevated and 24-hour blood pressure was normal. Our results showed that left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains gradually decreased from normotensive controls across subjects with white-coat hypertension to sustained hypertensive group. Two- and 3-dimensional left ventricular radial strain, as well as 3-dimensional area strain, was not different between groups. Two-dimensional left ventricular longitudinal and circumferential strains of subendocardial and mid-myocardial layers gradually decreased from normotensive control to sustained hypertensive group. Longitudinal and circumferential strains of subepicardial layer did not differ between the observed groups. We concluded that white-coat hypertension significantly affects left ventricular deformation assessed by 2-dimensional traditional strain, multilayer strain, and 3-dimensional strain.

  3. Reliability of 3-Dimensional Measures of Single-Leg Cross Drop Landing Across 3 Different Institutions

    PubMed Central

    DiCesare, Christopher A.; Bates, Nathaniel A.; Barber Foss, Kim D.; Thomas, Staci M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Sugimoto, Dai; Roewer, Benjamin D.; Medina McKeon, Jennifer M.; Di Stasi, Stephanie; Noehren, Brian W.; Ford, Kevin R.; Kiefer, Adam W.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are physically and financially devastating but affect a relatively small percentage of the population. Prospective identification of risk factors for ACL injury necessitates a large sample size; therefore, study of this injury would benefit from a multicenter approach. Purpose: To determine the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures of a single-leg cross drop task across 3 institutions. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five female high school volleyball players participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion data of each participant performing the single-leg cross drop were collected at 3 institutions over a period of 4 weeks. Coefficients of multiple correlation were calculated to assess the reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures during the landing phase of the movement. Results: Between-centers reliability for kinematic waveforms in the frontal and sagittal planes was good, but moderate in the transverse plane. Between-centers reliability for kinetic waveforms was good in the sagittal, frontal, and transverse planes. Conclusion: Based on these findings, the single-leg cross drop task has moderate to good reliability of kinematic and kinetic measures across institutions after implementation of a standardized testing protocol. Clinical Relevance: Multicenter collaborations can increase study numbers and generalize results, which is beneficial for studies of relatively rare phenomena, such as ACL injury. An important step is to determine the reliability of risk assessments across institutions before a multicenter collaboration can be initiated. PMID:26779550

  4. Retrodeformable cross sections for 3-dimensional structural analysis, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. E.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental tectonic problem is how deformation proceeds from hinterland to foreland in a fold and thrust belt (FTB). Wedge models explain many of the first-order observations found in most FTBs such as the internal deformation of material, thickening of hinterland, presence of a basal décollement, and an overall wedge shape that tapers to the foreland. These models currently have not been tested at the scale of the individual folds and faults. Moreover, most of the data available on, for instance, the sequence of events is best dated in the syntectonic sediments. Timing of uplift and motion of interior structures are not clear when using dates from these syntectonic sediments to some extent because an absolute connection between them is lacking. The purpose of this project is to develop a model for the evolution of the Ouachita orogen through the construction of a series of retrodeformable cross sections. A novel aspect of these cross sections is the combination of new and published thermal (i.e., illite ‘crystallinity’) and thermochronologic (i.e., zircon fission track) data collected at a variety of stratigraphic depths along the lines of section. These data will help to determine the cessation of thrust motion as well as the initial depth from which the thrust sheet emerged. An Ordovician Mazarn sample in the eastern exposed orogenic core has zircon grains with 55% reset fission track ages, whereas an overlying Ordovician Blakely sample about ~30 km to the southwest along strike has 15% being reset. Illite ‘crystallinity’ (IC) values indicate maximum burial metamorphism temperatures of anchizone (~250-350°C) coinciding with the location of the Ordovician Mazarn sample. Regionally, IC decreases from the culmination of the Benton Uplift and to the southwest along regional strike for samples that have similar stratigraphic age. These new timing and thermal constraints on an improved kinematic model are the necessary first steps in testing wedge models

  5. Crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters on square lattice substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yi; Zhu, Yu-Hong; Pan, Qi-Fa; Yang, Bo; Tao, Xiang-Ming; Ye, Gao-Xiang

    2015-11-01

    A Monte Carlo study on the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations of clusters is presented. Based on the traditional cluster-cluster aggregation (CCA) simulation, a modified growth model is proposed. The clusters (including single particles and their aggregates) diffuse with diffusion step length l (1 ≤ l ≤ 7) and aggregate on a square lattice substrate. If the number of particles contained in a cluster is larger than a critical size sc, the particles at the edge of the cluster have a possibility to jump onto the upper layer, which results in the crossover from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional aggregations. Our simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374082 and 11074215), the Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province Department of Education, China (Grant No. Y201018280), the Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012QNA3010), and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20100101110005).

  6. Inter-surface interactions in a 3-dimensional topological insulator : Bi2Se3 thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hosub; Song, Jung-Hwan; Freeman, Arthur

    2010-03-01

    Recently much attention has focused on 3-dimensional strong topological insulators as a new quantum state of matter, such as Bi2Se3 and Bi2Te3. One of their intriguing features is a topologically protected surface state whose quasiparticle dispersion shows a Dirac cone. Due to lack of backscattering and robustness against disorder and interaction, surface states have the potential to be perfect conducting channels which carry not only charge but also spin currents. Here, we present a theoretical study of electronic structures and surfaces of thin film Bi2Se3 using the highly precise FLAPW methodfootnotetext Wimmer, Krakauer, Weinert, Freeman, Phys. Rev. B, 24, 864 (1981). Our calculated results focus on the interaction between surface states on opposing sides of the slab. The gap opening from the inter-surface interaction can be easily explained by simple symmetry arguments considering both time-reversal and spatial inversion. For a 6 quintuple layer slab (˜6 nm), a 1.06 meV gap at the γ point survives due to the inter-surface interactions, and we discuss how to preserve the massless excitations despite this inter-surface interaction.

  7. Using Interior Point Method Optimization Techniques to Improve 2- and 3-Dimensional Models of Earth Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamora, A.; Gutierrez, A. E.; Velasco, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    2- and 3-Dimensional models obtained from the inversion of geophysical data are widely used to represent the structural composition of the Earth and to constrain independent models obtained from other geological data (e.g. core samples, seismic surveys, etc.). However, inverse modeling of gravity data presents a very unstable and ill-posed mathematical problem, given that solutions are non-unique and small changes in parameters (position and density contrast of an anomalous body) can highly impact the resulting model. Through the implementation of an interior-point method constrained optimization technique, we improve the 2-D and 3-D models of Earth structures representing known density contrasts mapping anomalous bodies in uniform regions and boundaries between layers in layered environments. The proposed techniques are applied to synthetic data and gravitational data obtained from the Rio Grande Rift and the Cooper Flat Mine region located in Sierra County, New Mexico. Specifically, we improve the 2- and 3-D Earth models by getting rid of unacceptable solutions (those that do not satisfy the required constraints or are geologically unfeasible) given the reduction of the solution space.

  8. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  9. MAPAG: a computer program to construct 2- and 3-dimensional antigenic maps.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, R C; Retegui, L A; Roguin, L P

    1994-01-01

    The contact area between an antibody (Ab) and the antigen (Ag) is called antigenic determinant or epitope. The first step in the characterization of an Ag by using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) is to map the relative distribution of the corresponding epitopes on the Ag surface. The computer program MAPAG has been devised to automatically construct antigenic maps. MAPAG is fed with a binary matrix of experimental data indicating the ability of paired MAb to bind or not simultaneously to the Ag. The program is interactive menu-driven and allows the user an easy data handling. MAPAG utilizes iterative processes to construct and to adjust the final map, which is graphically shown as a 2- or a 3-dimensional model. Additionally, the antigenic map obtained can be optionally modified by the user or readjusted by the program. The suitability of MAPAG was illustrated by running experimental data from literature and comparing antigenic maps constructed by the program with those elaborated by the investigators without the assistance of a computer. Furthermore, since some MAb could present negative allosteric effects leading to misinterpretation of data, MAPAG has been provided with an approximate reasoning module to solve such anomalous situations. Results indicated that the program can be successfully employed as a simple, fast and reliable antigenic model-builder.

  10. Evaluation of Temperature and Stress Distribution on 2 Different Post Systems Using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Özer, Senem Yiğit; Kaya, Sadullah; Polat, Zelal Seyfioğlu; Bozyel, Bejna

    2015-01-01

    Background The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. Material/Methods The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. Results The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. Conclusions Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures. PMID:26615495

  11. Prenatal visualization of the pituitary gland using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography: comparison to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Katorza, Eldad; Bault, Jean-Philippe; Gilboa, Yinon; Yinon, Yoav; Hoffmann, Chen; Achiron, Reuven

    2012-10-01

    The pituitary gland is crucially important in the function of the endocrine axis. So far, antenatal depiction of the pituitary gland was possible only using magnetic resonance imaging. We describe antenatal visualization of the pituitary gland using 2- and 3-dimensional sonography. The appearance of the gland on sonography seems to be superior compares to prenatal magnetic resonance imaging. In cases with midline anomalies of the brain, face, or cranium, depiction of the pituitary gland is feasible and recommended.

  12. A (3 + 3)-dimensional "hypercubic" oxide-ionic conductor: type II Bi2O3-Nb2O5.

    PubMed

    Ling, Chris D; Schmid, Siegbert; Blanchard, Peter E R; Petříček, Vaclav; McIntyre, Garry J; Sharma, Neeraj; Maljuk, Andrey; Yaremchenko, Aleksey A; Kharton, Vladislav V; Gutmann, Matthias; Withers, Ray L

    2013-05-01

    The high-temperature cubic form of bismuth oxide, δ-Bi2O3, is the best intermediate-temperature oxide-ionic conductor known. The most elegant way of stabilizing δ-Bi2O3 to room temperature, while preserving a large part of its conductivity, is by doping with higher valent transition metals to create wide solid-solutions fields with exceedingly rare and complex (3 + 3)-dimensional incommensurately modulated "hypercubic" structures. These materials remain poorly understood because no such structure has ever been quantitatively solved and refined, due to both the complexity of the problem and a lack of adequate experimental data. We have addressed this by growing a large (centimeter scale) crystal using a novel refluxing floating-zone method, collecting high-quality single-crystal neutron diffraction data, and treating its structure together with X-ray diffraction data within the superspace symmetry formalism. The structure can be understood as an "inflated" pyrochlore, in which corner-connected NbO6 octahedral chains move smoothly apart to accommodate the solid solution. While some oxide vacancies are ordered into these chains, the rest are distributed throughout a continuous three-dimensional network of wide δ-Bi2O3-like channels, explaining the high oxide-ionic conductivity compared to commensurately modulated phases in the same pseudobinary system.

  13. Fine designing 3-dimensional ZnO nanowalls with TiO2 nanoparticles for DSSC application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkoo, Sajad Saghaye; Saievar-Iranizad, Esmaiel; Bayatloo, Elham

    2015-06-01

    In this research, we report a low-cost low-temperature hydrothermal technique for covering 3-dimensional (3-D) electrodeposited ZnO nanowall with thin layer of aggregated TiO2 nanoparticles on FTO substrate for dye-sensitized solar cell application, in a way that morphology and crystal structure of ZnO nanowalls were preserved. Comparing photovoltaic characteristics of devices with and without TiO2-coating layer, it was revealed that the 3-D ZnO/TiO2-nanostructured photoanode resulted in a 35 % cell performance improved mostly because of enhancement of short-circuit current density ( J sc) and open-circuit voltage ( V oc). The XRD pattern showed that 3-D ZnO nanowalls and TiO2 compose of wurtzite and anatase phases, respectively.

  14. Prenatal 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional ultrasonography diagnosis and autoptic findings of isolated ectopia cordis.

    PubMed

    Bianca, S; Bartoloni, G; Auditore, S; Reale, A; Tetto, C; Ingegnosi, C; Pirruccello, B; Ettore, G

    2006-01-01

    Ectopia cordis is a very rare congenital malformation, commonly associated with intracardiac anomalies. It is due to a defect in fusion of the anterior chest wall resulting in an extrathoracic location of the heart. We report prenatal 2-dimensional (2D) and 3D ultrasonography diagnosis and postnatal autoptic findings of an isolated ectopia cordis with tricuspid atresia. Ectopia cordis prenatal diagnosis is easily made with ultrasound by visualizing the heart outside the thoracic cavity. 3D ultrasonography may add more detailed visualization of the heart anomaly even if the 2D ultrasonography alone permits the prenatal diagnosis. Obstetrical management should include a careful search for associated anomalies, especially cardiac, and the assessment of fetal karyotype. As this is considered a sporadic anomaly, the recurrence risk is low and no genetic origin is known.

  15. The Arp2/3 complex mediates multigeneration dendritic protrusions for efficient 3-dimensional cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Giri, Anjil; Bajpai, Saumendra; Trenton, Nicholaus; Jayatilaka, Hasini; Longmore, Gregory D; Wirtz, Denis

    2013-10-01

    Arp2/3 is a protein complex that nucleates actin filament assembly in the lamellipodium in adherent cells crawling on planar 2-dimensional (2D) substrates. However, in physiopathological situations, cell migration typically occurs within a 3-dimensional (3D) environment, and little is known about the role of Arp2/3 and associated proteins in 3D cell migration. Using time resolved live-cell imaging and HT1080, a fibrosarcoma cell line commonly used to study cell migration, we find that the Arp2/3 complex and associated proteins N-WASP, WAVE1, cortactin, and Cdc42 regulate 3D cell migration. We report that this regulation is caused by formation of multigeneration dendritic protrusions, which mediate traction forces on the surrounding matrix and effective cell migration. The primary protrusions emanating directly from the cell body and prolonging the nucleus forms independent of Arp2/3 and dependent on focal adhesion proteins FAK, talin, and p130Cas. The Arp2/3 complex, N-WASP, WAVE1, cortactin, and Cdc42 regulate the secondary protrusions branching off from the primary protrusions. In 3D matrices, fibrosarcoma cells as well as migrating breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer cells do not display lamellipodial structures. This study characterizes the unique topology of protrusions made by cells in a 3D matrix and show that these dendritic protrusions play a critical role in 3D cell motility and matrix deformation. The relative contribution of these proteins to 3D migration is significantly different from their role in 2D migration.

  16. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Jin; Kwon, Sojung; Nam, Seo Hee; Jung, Jae Woo; Kang, Minkyung; Ryu, Jihye; Kim, Ji Eon; Cheong, Jin-Gyu; Cho, Chang Yun; Kim, Somi; Song, Dae-Geun; Kim, Yong-Nyun; Kim, Tai Young; Jung, Min-Kyo; Lee, Kyung-Min; Pack, Chan-Gi; Lee, Jung Weon

    2017-04-01

    Membrane proteins sense extracellular cues and transduce intracellular signaling to coordinate directionality and speed during cellular migration. They are often localized to specific regions, as with lipid rafts or tetraspanin-enriched microdomains; however, the dynamic interactions of tetraspanins with diverse receptors within tetraspanin-enriched microdomains on cellular surfaces remain largely unexplored. Here, we investigated effects of tetraspan(in) TM4SF5 (transmembrane 4 L6 family member 5)-enriched microdomains (T5ERMs) on the directionality of cell migration. Physical association of TM4SF5 with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and integrin α5 was visualized by live fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy and higher-resolution microscopy at the leading edge of migratory cells, presumably forming TM4SF5-enriched microdomains. Whereas TM4SF5 and EGFR colocalized at the migrating leading region more than at the rear, TM4SF5 and integrin α5 colocalized evenly throughout cells. Cholesterol depletion and disruption in TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, including N-glycosylation and palmitoylation, altered TM4SF5 interactions and cellular localization, which led to less cellular migration speed and directionality in 2- or 3-dimensional conditions. TM4SF5 controlled directional cell migration and invasion, and importantly, these TM4SF5 functions were dependent on cholesterol, TM4SF5 post-translational modifications, and EGFR and integrin α5 activity. Altogether, we showed that TM4SF5 dynamically interacted with EGFR and integrin α5 in migratory cells to control directionality and invasion.-Kim, H.-J., Kwon, S., Nam, S. H., Jung, J. W., Kang, M., Ryu, J., Kim, J. E., Cheong, J.-G., Cho, C. Y., Kim, S., Song, D.-G., Kim, Y.-N., Kim, T. Y., Jung, M.-K., Lee, K.-M., Pack, C.-G., Lee, J. W. Dynamic and coordinated single-molecular interactions at TM4SF5-enriched microdomains guide invasive behaviors in 2- and 3-dimensional environments.

  17. Automated Patient Identification and Localization Error Detection Using 2-Dimensional to 3-Dimensional Registration of Kilovoltage X-Ray Setup Images

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, James M. Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To determine whether kilovoltage x-ray projection radiation therapy setup images could be used to perform patient identification and detect gross errors in patient setup using a computer algorithm. Methods and Materials: Three patient cohorts treated using a commercially available image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) system that uses 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional (2D-3D) image registration were retrospectively analyzed: a group of 100 cranial radiation therapy patients, a group of 100 prostate cancer patients, and a group of 83 patients treated for spinal lesions. The setup images were acquired using fixed in-room kilovoltage imaging systems. In the prostate and cranial patient groups, localizations using image registration were performed between computed tomography (CT) simulation images from radiation therapy planning and setup x-ray images corresponding both to the same patient and to different patients. For the spinal patients, localizations were performed to the correct vertebral body, and to an adjacent vertebral body, using planning CTs and setup x-ray images from the same patient. An image similarity measure used by the IGRT system image registration algorithm was extracted from the IGRT system log files and evaluated as a discriminant for error detection. Results: A threshold value of the similarity measure could be chosen to separate correct and incorrect patient matches and correct and incorrect vertebral body localizations with excellent accuracy for these patient cohorts. A 10-fold cross-validation using linear discriminant analysis yielded misclassification probabilities of 0.000, 0.0045, and 0.014 for the cranial, prostate, and spinal cases, respectively. Conclusions: An automated measure of the image similarity between x-ray setup images and corresponding planning CT images could be used to perform automated patient identification and detection of localization errors in radiation therapy treatments.

  18. Is a 3-Dimensional Stress Balance Ice-Stream Model Really Better Than a 2-Dimensional "Reduced Order" Ice-Stream Model?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergienko, O.; Macayeal, D. R.

    2007-12-01

    With growing observational awareness of numerous ice-stream processes occurring on short time and spatial scales, e.g., sub-ice-stream lake volume changes and grounding-line sediment wedge build-up, the question of how well models based on "reduced-order" dynamics can simulate ice-stream behavior becomes paramount. Reduced-order models of ice-streams are typically 2-dimensional, and capture only the largest-magnitude terms in the stress tensor (with other terms being constrained by various assumptions). In predicting the overall magnitude and large-scale pattern of ice-stream flow, the reduced-order models appear to be adequate. Efforts underway in the Glaciological Community to create 3-dimensional models of the "full" ice-stream stress balance, which relax the assumptions associated with reduced-order models, suggest that a cost/benefit analysis should be done to determine how likely these efforts will be fruitful. To assess the overall benefits of full 3-dimensional models in relation to the simpler 2-dimensional counterparts, we present model solutions of the full Stokes equations for ice-stream flow over a variety of basal perturbations (e.g., a sticky spot, a subglacial lake, a grounding line). We also present the solutions derived from reduced 2-dimensional models, and compare the two solutions to estimate effects of simplifications and neglected terms, as well as to advise on what circumstances 3-dimensional models are preferable to 2-dimensional models.

  19. Reconstruction 3-dimensional image from 2-dimensional image of status optical coherence tomography (OCT) for analysis of changes in retinal thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Arinilhaq,; Widita, Rena

    2014-09-30

    Optical Coherence Tomography is often used in medical image acquisition to diagnose that change due easy to use and low price. Unfortunately, this type of examination produces a two-dimensional retinal image of the point of acquisition. Therefore, this study developed a method that combines and reconstruct 2-dimensional retinal images into three-dimensional images to display volumetric macular accurately. The system is built with three main stages: data acquisition, data extraction and 3-dimensional reconstruction. At data acquisition step, Optical Coherence Tomography produced six *.jpg images of each patient were further extracted with MATLAB 2010a software into six one-dimensional arrays. The six arrays are combined into a 3-dimensional matrix using a kriging interpolation method with SURFER9 resulting 3-dimensional graphics of macula. Finally, system provides three-dimensional color graphs based on the data distribution normal macula. The reconstruction system which has been designed produces three-dimensional images with size of 481 × 481 × h (retinal thickness) pixels.

  20. New 3-dimensional CFD modeling of CO2 and H2S simultaneous stripping from water within PVDF hollow fiber membrane contactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlake, Ahmad; Farivar, Foad; Dabir, Bahram

    2016-07-01

    In this paper a 3-dimensional modeling of simultaneous stripping of carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from water using hollow fiber membrane made of polyvinylidene fluoride is developed. The water, containing CO2 and H2S enters to the membrane as feed. At the same time, pure nitrogen flow in the shell side of a shell and tube hollow fiber as the solvent. In the previous methods of modeling hollow fiber membranes just one of the membranes was modeled and the results expand to whole shell and tube system. In this research the whole hollow fiber shell and tube module is modeled to reduce the errors. Simulation results showed that increasing the velocity of solvent flow and decreasing the velocity of the feed are leads to increase in the system yield. However the effect of the feed velocity on the process is likely more than the influence of changing the velocity of the gaseous solvent. In addition H2S stripping has higher yield in comparison with CO2 stripping. This model is compared to the previous modeling methods and shows that the new model is more accurate. Finally, the effect of feed temperature is studied using response surface method and the operating conditions of feed temperature, feed velocity, and solvent velocity is optimized according to synergistic effects. Simulation results show that, in the optimum operating conditions the removal percentage of H2S and CO2 are 27 and 21 % respectively.

  1. 3 dimensional distributions of NO2, CHOCHO, and HCHO measured by the University of Colorado 2D-MAX-DOAS during MAD-CAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Ivan; Sinreich, Roman; Volkamer, Rainer

    2014-05-01

    We present results of 2 dimensional Multi Axis-DOAS (2D-MAX-DOAS) measurements to infer 3-dimensional measurements of trace gases by characterizing boundary layer vertical profiles and near surface azimuth horizontal distribution of NO2 (14 angles covering 360°). We combine the established optimal estimation inversion with a new parameterization approach; the first method to derive NO2 tropospheric vertical profiles and boundary layer height and the second one to retrieve the azimuth horizontal distribution of near surface NO2 mixing ratios, both at multiple wavelengths (350 nm, 450 nm, and 560 nm). This was conducted for three cloud-free days in the framework of the intensive Multi Axis DOAS Comparison campaign for Aerosols and Trace gases (MAD-CAT) in Mainz, Germany 2013. By retrieving NO2 at multiple wavelengths range-resolved distributions of NO2 are derived using an 'Onion-peeling' approach, i.e., exploiting the fact that the optical path lengths at different wavelengths probe different horizontal air masses. We also measure glyoxal (CHOCHO) and formaldehyde (HCHO) distributions, and present to our knowledge the first 3-dimesional trace-gas distribution measurements of CHOCHO by a ground-based instrument. We expand the 2D-MAX-DOAS capabilities to calculate azimuth ratios of HCHO-to-NO2 (RFN) and CHOCHO-to-NO2 (RGN) to pinpoint volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation chemistry and CHOCHO-to-HCHO (RGF) ratios as an indicator of biogenic and/or anthropogenic VOC emissions. The results of RFN correlate well with RGN and we identify azimuth variations that indicate gradients in the VOC/NOx chemistry that leads to O3 and secondary aerosol production. While there is a clear diurnal pattern in the RFN and RGN, no such variations are observed in the RGF, which shows rather constant values below 0.04 throughout the day, consistent with previous measurements, and indicative of urban air masses.

  2. Protein Expression Differences of 2-Dimensional and Progressive 3-Dimensional Cell Cultures of Non-Small-Cell-Lung-Cancer Cell Line H460.

    PubMed

    Ravi, Maddaly; Mohan, Divya K; Sahu, Bellona

    2016-11-18

    Non-small-cell-lung-cancer (NSCLC) constitutes about 75-80% of lung cancers. The challenge to tackle cancers is in early diagnosis and arriving at safer therapeutic options. In vitro studies using cancer cell lines continue to contribute significantly in understanding cancers. Cell culture methods have evolved and the recent developments in 3 dimensional (3D) cell cultures are inducing greater resemblance of the in vitro cultured cells with in vivo conditions. In this study, we established 3D aggregates of H460 cell line on agarose hydrogels and studied the protein expression differences among cells grown as monolayers (2D) and the progressively developing 3D aggregates from days 2 to 10. Analysis included matching of those proteins expressed by the developing aggregates and the available literature on progressing tumors in vivo. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-5, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 2- and 3-dimensional synthetic large-scale de novo patterning by mammalian cells through phase separation

    PubMed Central

    Cachat, Elise; Liu, Weijia; Martin, Kim C.; Yuan, Xiaofei; Yin, Huabing; Hohenstein, Peter; Davies, Jamie A.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic biology provides an opportunity for the construction and exploration of alternative solutions to biological problems - solutions different from those chosen by natural life. To this end, synthetic biologists have built new sensory systems, cellular memories, and alternative genetic codes. There is a growing interest in applying synthetic approaches to multicellular systems, especially in relation to multicellular self-organization. Here we describe a synthetic biological system that confers large-scale de novo patterning activity on 2-D and 3-D populations of mammalian cells. Instead of using the reaction-diffusion mechanisms common in real embryos, our system uses cadherin-mediated phase separation, inspired by the known phenomenon of cadherin-based sorting. An engineered self-organizing, large-scale patterning system requiring no prior spatial cue may be a significant step towards the construction of self-assembling synthetic tissues. PMID:26857385

  4. ABSTRACTION OF INFORMATION FROM 2- AND 3-DIMENSIONAL PORFLOW MODELS INTO A 1-D GOLDSIM MODEL - 11404

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.; Hiergesell, R.

    2010-11-16

    The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a 'hybrid' approach to Performance Assessment modeling which has been used for a number of Performance Assessments. This hybrid approach uses a multi-dimensional modeling platform (PorFlow) to develop deterministic flow fields and perform contaminant transport. The GoldSim modeling platform is used to develop the Sensitivity and Uncertainty analyses. Because these codes are performing complementary tasks, it is incumbent upon them that for the deterministic cases they produce very similar results. This paper discusses two very different waste forms, one with no engineered barriers and one with engineered barriers, each of which present different challenges to the abstraction of data. The hybrid approach to Performance Assessment modeling used at the SRNL uses a 2-D unsaturated zone (UZ) and a 3-D saturated zone (SZ) model in the PorFlow modeling platform. The UZ model consists of the waste zone and the unsaturated zoned between the waste zone and the water table. The SZ model consists of source cells beneath the waste form to the points of interest. Both models contain 'buffer' cells so that modeling domain boundaries do not adversely affect the calculation. The information pipeline between the two models is the contaminant flux. The domain contaminant flux, typically in units of moles (or Curies) per year from the UZ model is used as a boundary condition for the source cells in the SZ. The GoldSim modeling component of the hybrid approach is an integrated UZ-SZ model. The model is a 1-D representation of the SZ, typically 1-D in the UZ, but as discussed below, depending on the waste form being analyzed may contain pseudo-2-D elements. A waste form at the Savannah River Site (SRS) which has no engineered barriers is commonly referred to as a slit trench. A slit trench, as its name implies, is an unlined trench, typically 6 m deep, 6 m wide, and 200 m long. Low level waste consisting of soil, debris, rubble, wood

  5. Application of Curved MPR Algorithm to High Resolution 3 Dimensional T2 Weighted CISS Images for Virtual Uncoiling of Membranous Cochlea as an Aid for Cochlear Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Y

    2017-01-01

    Introduction With the use of various surgical techniques, types of implants, the preoperative assessment of cochlear dimensions is becoming increasingly relevant prior to cochlear implantation. High resolution CISS protocol MRI gives a better assessment of membranous cochlea, cochlear nerve, and membranous labyrinth. Curved Multiplanar Reconstruction (MPR) algorithm provides better images that can be used for measuring dimensions of membranous cochlea. Aim To ascertain the value of curved multiplanar reconstruction algorithm in high resolution 3-Dimensional T2 Weighted Gradient Echo Constructive Interference Steady State (3D T2W GRE CISS) imaging for accurate morphometry of membranous cochlea. Materials and Methods Fourteen children underwent MRI for inner ear assessment. High resolution 3D T2W GRE CISS sequence was used to obtain images of cochlea. Curved MPR reconstruction algorithm was used to virtually uncoil the membranous cochlea on the volume images and cochlear measurements were done. Results Virtually uncoiled images of membranous cochlea of appropriate resolution were obtained from the volume data obtained from the high resolution 3D T2W GRE CISS images, after using curved MPR reconstruction algorithm mean membranous cochlear length in the children was 27.52 mm. Maximum apical turn diameter of membranous cochlea was 1.13 mm, mid turn diameter was 1.38 mm, basal turn diameter was 1.81 mm. Conclusion Curved MPR reconstruction algorithm applied to CISS protocol images facilitates in getting appropriate quality images of membranous cochlea for accurate measurements. PMID:28384958

  6. Correlation between the 2-Dimensional Extent of Orbital Defects and the 3-Dimensional Volume of Herniated Orbital Content in Patients with Isolated Orbital Wall Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Moon, Myeong Ho; Lee, Yong Hae; Koh, In Chang; Kim, Kyu Nam; Kim, Chang Gyun

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between the 2-dimensional (2D) extent of orbital defects and the 3-dimensional (3D) volume of herniated orbital content in patients with an orbital wall fracture. Methods This retrospective study was based on the medical records and radiologic data of 60 patients from January 2014 to June 2016 for a unilateral isolated orbital wall fracture. They were classified into 2 groups depending on whether the fracture involved the inferior wall (group I, n=30) or the medial wall (group M, n=30). The 2D area of the orbital defect was calculated using the conventional formula. The 2D extent of the orbital defect and the 3D volume of herniated orbital content were measured with 3D image processing software. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the correlations between the 2D and 3D parameters. Results Varying degrees of positive correlation were found between the 2D extent of the orbital defects and the 3D herniated orbital volume in both groups (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.568−0.788; R2=32.2%−62.1%). Conclusions Both the calculated and measured 2D extent of the orbital defects showed a positive correlation with the 3D herniated orbital volume in orbital wall fractures. However, a relatively large volume of herniation (>0.9 cm3) occurred not infrequently despite the presence of a small orbital defect (<1.9 cm2). Therefore, estimating the 3D volume of the herniated content in addition to the 2D orbital defect would be helpful for determining whether surgery is indicated and ensuring adequate surgical outcomes. PMID:28194344

  7. Going beyond 2D: following membrane diffusion and topography in the IgE-Fc[epsilon]RI system using 3-dimensional tracking microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Nathan P; Lessard, Guillaume A; Phipps, Marry E; Goodwin, Peter M; Werner, James H; Lidke, Diane S; Wilson, Bridget S

    2008-01-01

    The ability to follow and observe single molecules as they function in live cells would represent a major milestone for molecular-cellular biology. Here we present a tracking microscope that is able to track quantum dots in 3 dimensions and simultaneously record time-resolved emission statistics from a single dot. This innovative microscopy approach is based on four spatial filters and closed loop feedback to constantly keep a single quantum dot in the focal spot. Using this microscope, we demonstrate the ability to follow quantum dot-labeled IgE antibodies bound to Fc{epsilon}Rl membrane receptors in live RBL-2H3 cells. The results are consistent with prior studies of 2 dimensional membrane diffusion (Andrews et al., Nat. Cell Biol., 10, 955, 2008). In addition, the microscope captures motion in the axial (Z) direction, which permits tracking of diffusing receptors relative the 'hills and valley' of the dynamically changing membrane landscape. Our novel approach is uniquely capable of following single-molecule dynamics on live cells with 3 dimensional spatial resolution.

  8. Quantitative analysis of aortic regurgitation: real-time 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional color Doppler echocardiographic method--a clinical and a chronic animal study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiota, Takahiro; Jones, Michael; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Qin, Jian Xin; Zetts, Arthur D.; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Panza, Julio A.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: For evaluating patients with aortic regurgitation (AR), regurgitant volumes, left ventricular (LV) stroke volumes (SV), and absolute LV volumes are valuable indices. AIM: The aim of this study was to validate the combination of real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (3DE) and semiautomated digital color Doppler cardiac flow measurement (ACM) for quantifying absolute LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes using an animal model of chronic AR and to investigate its clinical applicability. METHODS: In 8 sheep, a total of 26 hemodynamic states were obtained pharmacologically 20 weeks after the aortic valve noncoronary (n = 4) or right coronary (n = 4) leaflet was incised to produce AR. Reference standard LVSV and AR volume were determined using the electromagnetic flow method (EM). Simultaneous epicardial real-time 3DE studies were performed to obtain LV end-diastolic volumes (LVEDV), end-systolic volumes (LVESV), and LVSV by subtracting LVESV from LVEDV. Simultaneous ACM was performed to obtain LVSV and transmitral flows; AR volume was calculated by subtracting transmitral flow volume from LVSV. In a total of 19 patients with AR, real-time 3DE and ACM were used to obtain LVSVs and these were compared with each other. RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between LVSV derived from EM and those from the real-time 3DE (r = 0.93, P <.001, mean difference (3D - EM) = -1.0 +/- 9.8 mL). A good relationship between LVSV and AR volumes derived from EM and those by ACM was found (r = 0.88, P <.001). A good relationship between LVSV derived from real-time 3DE and that from ACM was observed (r = 0.73, P <.01, mean difference = 2.5 +/- 7.9 mL). In patients, a good relationship between LVSV obtained by real-time 3DE and ACM was found (r = 0.90, P <.001, mean difference = 0.6 +/- 9.8 mL). CONCLUSION: The combination of ACM and real-time 3DE for quantifying LV volumes, LVSV, and AR volumes was validated by the chronic animal study and was shown to be clinically applicable.

  9. Chaotic Advection in a Bounded 3-Dimensional Potential Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, Guy; Smith, Lachlan; Lester, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    3-dimensional potential, or Darcy flows, are central to understanding and designing laminar transport in porous media; however, chaotic advection in 3-dimensional, volume-preserving flows is still not well understood. We show results of advecting passive scalars in a transient 3-dimensional potential flow that consists of a steady dipole flow and periodic reorientation. Even for the most symmetric reorientation protocol, neither of the two invarients of the motion are conserved; however, one invarient is closely shadowed by a surface of revolution constructed from particle paths of the steady flow, creating in practice an adiabatic surface. A consequence is that chaotic regions cover 3-dimensional space, though tubular regular regions are still transport barriers. This appears to be a new mechanism generating 3-dimensional chaotic orbits. These results contast with the experimental and theoretical results for chaotic scalar transport in 2-dimensional Darcy flows. Wiggins, J. Fluid Mech. 654 (2010).

  10. Comet whole-core solution to a stylized 3-dimensional pressurized water reactor benchmark problem with UO{sub 2}and MOX fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A stylized pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with UO{sub 2} and MOX fuel was used to test the accuracy and efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport (COMET) code. The benchmark problem contains 125 fuel assemblies and 44,000 fuel pins. The COMET code was used to compute the core eigenvalue and assembly and pin power distributions for three core configurations. In these calculations, a set of tensor products of orthogonal polynomials were used to expand the neutron angular phase space distribution on the interfaces between coarse meshes. The COMET calculations were compared with the Monte Carlo code MCNP reference solutions using a recently published an 8-group material cross section library. The comparison showed both the core eigenvalues and assembly and pin power distributions predicated by COMET agree very well with the MCNP reference solution if the orders of the angular flux expansion in the two spatial variables and the polar and azimuth angles on the mesh boundaries are 4, 4, 2 and 2. The mean and maximum differences in the pin fission density distribution ranged from 0.28%-0.44% and 3.0%-5.5%, all within 3-sigma uncertainty of the MCNP solution. These comparisons indicate that COMET can achieve accuracy comparable to Monte Carlo. It was also found that COMET's computational speed is 450 times faster than MCNP. (authors)

  11. 3-Dimensional Response of Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Composites 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) S. R. Soni, S. Chandrashekara, G. P . Tandon, U. Santhosh, T. Isiao 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPRT...any layer, these are U, V, W, 11, V , X, *, P , ,p2, s, , s 2 , t, , t2 where the first six refer to the weighted displacement functions and the three...0, U, V, H, al, , P , ,S and t1 . Additionally there were three extra variables p2N, s2N and t2 N in layer N (at the free surface of the laminate

  12. 3-Dimensional wireless sensor network localization: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najib, Yasmeen Nadhirah Ahmad; Daud, Hanita; Aziz, Azrina Abd; Razali, Radzuan

    2016-11-01

    The proliferation of wireless sensor network (WSN) has shifted the focus to 3-Dimensional geometry rather than 2-Dimensional geometry. Since exact location of sensors has been the fundamental issue in wireless sensor network, node localization is essential for any wireless sensor network applications. Most algorithms mainly focus on 2-Dimensional geometry, where the application of this algorithm will decrease the accuracy on 3-Dimensional geometry. The low rank attribute in WSN's node estimation makes the application of nuclear norm minimization as a viable solution for dimensionality reduction problems. This research proposes a novel localization algorithm for 3-Dimensional WSN which is nuclear norm minimization. The node localization is formulated via Euclidean Distance Matrix (EDM) and is then optimized using Nuclear-Norm Minimization (NNM).

  13. Transparent, 3-dimensional light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cells based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jia; Zhang, Gengmin; Yin, Jianbo; Yang, Yingchao

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of hierarchical anatase TiO2 structures are synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method in this report. A new transparent, 3D light-collected, and flexible fiber-type dye-sensitized solar cell (FF-DSSC) with such hierarchical TiO2 structures is developed. The conversion efficiency of the FF-DSSC based on a TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array (hierarchical structure I) exhibits about 4 times higher than that based on a HCl-treated TiO2 nanorod array, and further rises to 4.4% when the TiCl4-treated TiO2 nanorod array is treated in a mixed solution of (NH4)2TiF6 and H3BO3 three times (hierarchical structure II). The obvious enhancement in conversion efficiency can be ascribed to the dye adsorption promotion benefiting from their hierarchical structures. Beyond the attractive conversion efficiency, the new designed FF-DSSC possesses several advantages including good flexibility, excellent stability, and 3D light-collection. The conversion efficiencies of the FF-DSSCs can still keep 85%-90% even the FF-DSSCs are bent for 1000 times. The maximum power outputs of the FF-DSSCs characterized by Diffuse Illumination Mode using home-made Al reflector exhibit about 3 times higher than that done by Standard Illumination Mode due to 3D light-collections. The FF-DSSCs based on highly ordered hierarchical anatase TiO2 nanorod arrays hold great promise in future energy harvest.

  14. Wind-tunnel tests on a 3-dimensional fixed-geometry scramjet inlet at M = 2.30 to 4.60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, J. N.; Trexler, C. A.; Souders, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a baseline scramjet inlet model having fixed geometry and swept leading edges at M = 2.30, 2.96, 3.95, and 4.60 in the Langley unitary plan wind tunnel. The unit Reynolds number of the tests was held constant at 6.56 million per meter (2 million per foot). The objectives of the tests were to establish inlet performance and starting characteristics in the lower Mach number range of operation (less than M = 5). Surface pressures obtained on the inlet components are presented, along with the results of the internal flow surveys made at the throat and capture stations of the inlet. Contour plots of the inlet-flow-field parameters such as Mach numbers, pressure recovery, flow capture, local static and total pressure ratios at the survey stations are shown for the test Mach numbers.

  15. 3-Dimensional Topographic Models for the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. W.; Roark, J. H.; Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Stockman, S.; Frey, H. V.

    2003-01-01

    We have recently undertaken a program to develop educational tools using 3-dimensional solid models of digital elevation data acquired by the Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) for Mars as well as a variety of sources for elevation data of the Earth. This work is made possible by the use of rapid prototyping technology to construct solid 3-Dimensional models of science data. We recently acquired rapid prototyping machine that builds 3-dimensional models in extruded plastic. While the machine was acquired to assist in the design and development of scientific instruments and hardware, it is also fully capable of producing models of spacecraft remote sensing data. We have demonstrated this by using Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topographic data and Earth based topographic data to produce extruded plastic topographic models which are visually appealing and instantly engage those who handle them.

  16. Comparison between muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on the 3-dimensional magnetic ordering of La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4-y/

    SciTech Connect

    Uemura, Y.J.; Kossler, W.J.; Kempton, J.R.; Yu, X.H.; Schone, H.E.; Opie, D.; Stronach, C.E.; Brewer, J.H.; Kiefl, R.F.; Kreitzman, S.R.; Luke, G.M.; Riseman, T.; Williams, D.L.; Ansaldo, E.J.; Endoh, Y.; Kudo, E.; Yamada, K.; Johnston, D.C.; Alvarez, M.; Goshorn, D.P.; Hidaka, Y.; Oda, M; Enomoto, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Murakami, T.

    1988-01-01

    Muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on powder and single-crystal specimens of La/sub 2/CuO/sub 4-v/ are compared. The apparent difference between the muon and neutron results for the ordered moment in the antiferromagnetic state is interpreted as the signature of increasingly short-ranged spatial spin correlations with increasing oxygen content.

  17. Comparison between muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on the 3-dimensional magnetic ordering of La2CuO(4-y)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uemura, Y. J.; Kossler, W. J.; Kempton, J. R.; Yu, X. H.; Schone, H. E.; Opie, D.; Stronach, C. E.; Brewer, J. H.; Kiefl, R. F.; Kreitzman, S. R.

    1988-01-01

    Muon spin rotation and neutron scattering studies on powder and single-crystal specimens of La2CuO(4-y) are compared. The apparent difference between the muon and neutron results for the ordered moment in the antiferromagnetic state is interpreted as the signature of increasingly short-ranged spatial spin correlations with increasing oxygen content.

  18. Multimodality imaging of intrauterine devices with an emphasis on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Jeffrey S; Brindle, Kathleen A; Khati, Nadia Juliet

    2012-12-01

    The intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) is one of the most widely used reversible contraception methods throughout the world. With advancing technology, it has rapidly gained acceptance through its increased effectiveness and practicality compared with more invasive means such as laparoscopic tubal ligation. This pictorial essay will present the IUDs most commonly used today. It will illustrate both normal and abnormal positions of IUDs across all cross-sectional imaging modalities including 2-dimensional ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging, with a focus on the emerging role of 3-dimensional ultrasound as the modality of choice.

  19. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  20. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  1. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  2. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  3. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  4. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  5. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  6. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  7. 47 CFR 2.1031 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1031 Section 2.1031 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Certification § 2.1031 Cross reference....

  8. 47 CFR 2.951 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.951 Section 2.951 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.951 Cross reference....

  9. 1-Dimensional AgVO3 nanowires hybrid with 2-dimensional graphene nanosheets to create 3-dimensional composite aerogels and their improved electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liying; Xu, Yimeng; Lei, Yong; Liu, Haimei

    2014-04-07

    Three-dimensional (3D) porous composite aerogels have been synthesized via an innovative in situ hydrothermal method assisted by a freeze-drying process. In this hybrid structure, one-dimensional (1D) AgVO3 nanowires are uniformly dispersed on two-dimensional (2D) graphene nanosheet surfaces and/or are penetrated through the graphene sheets, forming 3D porous composite aerogels. As cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the composite aerogels exhibit high discharge capacity, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability.

  10. Solving the 1-, 2-, and 3-Dimensional Schröodinger Equation for Multiminima Potentials Using the Numerov-Cooley Method. An Extrapolation Formula for Energy Eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckert, Michael

    1989-05-01

    As demonstrated with examples the Numerov-Cooley algorithm can be applied to more complicated potentials (especially multiminima potentials). There are no stability problems in the classically forbidden regions. An extrapolation formula for energy eigenvalues is deduced, which gets an additional accuracy of 2 ⋯ 4 digits for energy eigenvalues. This formula is checked as follows: For one state of a double minimum potential (which is used to approximate hydrogen bond potentials) an analytical solution is given. This solution is compared with numerical results. Also the accuracy of the eigenfunctions is checked. Computer-dependent rounding errors (CDC Cyber 995) are estimated. The eigenfunctions corresponding to 1-dimensional potentials Vx( x) and Vy( y) are used as basis functions for a perturbed 2-dimensional multiminima potential Vx( x)+ Vy( y)+ δV( x, y). For a 63-minima potential as an example, the accuracy of the eigenvalues is 4 ⋯ 6 digits depending on the perturbation ΔV( x, y). The computer time, depending on the accuracy, is tabulated for different potentials.

  11. Inter-observer agreement between 2-dimensional CT versus 3-dimensional I-Space model in the Diagnosis of Occult Scaphoid Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Drijkoningen, Tessa; Knoter, Robert; Coerkamp, Emile G.; Koning, Anton H.J.; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Beeres, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The I-Space is a radiological imaging system in which Computed Tomography (CT)-scans can be evaluated as a three dimensional hologram. The aim of this study is to analyze the value of virtual reality (I-Space) in diagnosing acute occult scaphoid fractures. Methods: A convenient cohort of 24 patients with a CT-scan from prior studies, without a scaphoid fracture on radiograph, yet high clinical suspicion of a fracture, were included in this study. CT-scans were evaluated in the I-Space by 7 observers of which 3 observers assessed the scans in the I-Space twice. The observers in this study assessed in the I-Space whether the patient had a scaphoid fracture. The kappa value was calculated for inter- and intra-observer agreement. Results: The Kappa value varied from 0.11 to 0.33 for the first assessment. For the three observers who assessed the CT-scans twice; observer 1 improved from a kappa of 0.33 to 0.50 (95% CI 0.26-0.74, P=0.01), observer 2 from 0.17 to 0.78 (95% CI 0.36-1.0, P<0.001), and observer 3 from 0.11 to 0.24 (95% CI 0.0-0.77, P=0.24). Conclusion: Following our findings the I-Space has a fast learning curve and has a potential place in the diagnostic modalities for suspected scaphoid fractures. PMID:27847847

  12. 3-dimensional imaging at nanometer resolutions

    DOEpatents

    Werner, James H.; Goodwin, Peter M.; Shreve, Andrew P.

    2010-03-09

    An apparatus and method for enabling precise, 3-dimensional, photoactivation localization microscopy (PALM) using selective, two-photon activation of fluorophores in a single z-slice of a sample in cooperation with time-gated imaging for reducing the background radiation from other image planes to levels suitable for single-molecule detection and spatial location, are described.

  13. Optimization of 3-dimensional imaging of the breast region with 3-dimensional laser scanners.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, Laszlo; Yassouridis, Alexander; Zimmermann, Alexander; Brockmann, Gernot; Wöhnl, Antonia; Blaschke, Matthias; Eder, Maximilian; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, Katja; Rosenberg, Robert; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Biemer, Edgar

    2006-03-01

    The anatomic conditions of the female breast require imaging the breast region 3-dimensionally in a normal standing position for quality assurance and for surgery planning or surgery simulation. The goal of this work was to optimize the imaging technology for the mammary region with a 3-dimensional (3D) laser scanner, to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method, and to allow optimum data reproducibility. Avoiding the influence of biotic factors, such as mobility, we tested the most favorable imaging technology on dummy models for scanner-related factors such as the scanner position in comparison with the torso and the number of scanners and single shots. The influence of different factors of the breast region, such as different breast shapes or premarking of anatomic landmarks, was also first investigated on dummies. The findings from the dummy models were then compared with investigations on test persons, and the accuracy of measurements on the virtual models was compared with a coincidence analysis of the manually measured values. The best precision and accuracy of breast region measurements were achieved when landmarks were marked before taking the shots and when shots at 30 degrees left and 30 degrees right, relative to the sagittal line, were taken with 2 connected scanners mounted with a +10-degree upward angle. However, the precision of the measurements on test persons was significantly lower than those measured on dummies. Our findings show that the correct settings for 3D imaging of the breast region with a laser scanner can achieve an acceptable degree of accuracy and reproducibility.

  14. 3-dimensional fabrication of soft energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, Thomas; Walters, Peter; Rossiter, Jonathan; O'Brien, Benjamin; Anderson, Iain

    2013-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer generators (DEG) provide an opportunity to harvest energy from low frequency and aperiodic sources. Because DEG are soft, deformable, high energy density generators, they can be coupled to complex structures such as the human body to harvest excess mechanical energy. However, DEG are typically constrained by a rigid frame and manufactured in a simple planar structure. This planar arrangement is unlikely to be optimal for harvesting from compliant and/or complex structures. In this paper we present a soft generator which is fabricated into a 3 Dimensional geometry. This capability will enable the 3-dimensional structure of a dielectric elastomer to be customised to the energy source, allowing efficient and/or non-invasive coupling. This paper demonstrates our first 3 dimensional generator which includes a diaphragm with a soft elastomer frame. When the generator was connected to a self-priming circuit and cyclically inflated, energy was accumulated in the system, demonstrated by an increased voltage. Our 3D generator promises a bright future for dielectric elastomers that will be customised for integration with complex and soft structures. In addition to customisable geometries, the 3D printing process may lend itself to fabricating large arrays of small generator units and for fabricating truly soft generators with excellent impedance matching to biological tissue. Thus comfortable, wearable energy harvesters are one step closer to reality.

  15. Incorporating 3-dimensional models in online articles

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Ruellasa, Antonio C. O.; Jomier, Julien; Nguyen, Tung; Pieper, Steve; Budin, Francois; Styner, Martin; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this article were to introduce the capability to view and interact with 3-dimensional (3D) surface models in online publications, and to describe how to prepare surface models for such online 3D visualizations. Methods Three-dimensional image analysis methods include image acquisition, construction of surface models, registration in a common coordinate system, visualization of overlays, and quantification of changes. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were acquired as volumetric images that can be visualized as 3D projected images or used to construct polygonal meshes or surfaces of specific anatomic structures of interest. The anatomic structures of interest in the scans can be labeled with color (3D volumetric label maps), and then the scans are registered in a common coordinate system using a target region as the reference. The registered 3D volumetric label maps can be saved in .obj, .ply, .stl, or .vtk file formats and used for overlays, quantification of differences in each of the 3 planes of space, or color-coded graphic displays of 3D surface distances. Results All registered 3D surface models in this study were saved in .vtk file format and loaded in the Elsevier 3D viewer. In this study, we describe possible ways to visualize the surface models constructed from cone-beam computed tomography images using 2D and 3D figures. The 3D surface models are available in the article’s online version for viewing and downloading using the reader’s software of choice. These 3D graphic displays are represented in the print version as 2D snapshots. Overlays and color-coded distance maps can be displayed using the reader’s software of choice, allowing graphic assessment of the location and direction of changes or morphologic differences relative to the structure of reference. The interpretation of 3D overlays and quantitative color-coded maps requires basic knowledge of 3D image analysis. Conclusions When submitting manuscripts, authors can

  16. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  17. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  18. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  19. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  20. 47 CFR 2.1071 - Cross reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cross reference. 2.1071 Section 2.1071 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1071...

  1. Hydroelectric structures studies using 3-dimensional methods

    SciTech Connect

    Harrell, T.R.; Jones, G.V.; Toner, C.K. )

    1989-01-01

    Deterioration and degradation of aged, hydroelectric project structures can significantly affect the operation and safety of a project. In many cases, hydroelectric headworks (in particular) have complicated geometrical configurations, loading patterns and hence, stress conditions. An accurate study of such structures can be performed using 3-dimensional computer models. 3-D computer models can be used for both stability evaluation and for finite element stress analysis. Computer aided engineering processes facilitate the use of 3-D methods in both pre-processing and post-processing of data. Two actual project examples are used to emphasize the authors' points.

  2. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red Cross. 259.2 Section 259.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION SERVICES PERFORMED FOR OTHER AGENCIES § 259... meet and exchange information at the national headquarters level concerning the effectiveness of...

  3. The 3-dimensional cellular automata for HIV infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Youbin; Ren, Bin; Yang, Wencao; Shuai, Jianwei

    2014-04-01

    The HIV infection dynamics is discussed in detail with a 3-dimensional cellular automata model in this paper. The model can reproduce the three-phase development, i.e., the acute period, the asymptotic period and the AIDS period, observed in the HIV-infected patients in a clinic. We show that the 3D HIV model performs a better robustness on the model parameters than the 2D cellular automata. Furthermore, we reveal that the occurrence of a perpetual source to successively generate infectious waves to spread to the whole system drives the model from the asymptotic state to the AIDS state.

  4. 3-Dimensional Geologic Modeling Applied to the Structural Characterization of Geothermal Systems: Astor Pass, Nevada, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Siler, Drew L; Faulds, James E; Mayhew, Brett

    2013-04-16

    Geothermal systems in the Great Basin, USA, are controlled by a variety of fault intersection and fault interaction areas. Understanding the specific geometry of the structures most conducive to broad-scale geothermal circulation is crucial to both the mitigation of the costs of geothermal exploration (especially drilling) and to the identification of geothermal systems that have no surface expression (blind systems). 3-dimensional geologic modeling is a tool that can elucidate the specific stratigraphic intervals and structural geometries that host geothermal reservoirs. Astor Pass, NV USA lies just beyond the northern extent of the dextral Pyramid Lake fault zone near the boundary between two distinct structural domains, the Walker Lane and the Basin and Range, and exhibits characteristics of each setting. Both northwest-striking, left-stepping dextral faults of the Walker Lane and kinematically linked northerly striking normal faults associated with the Basin and Range are present. Previous studies at Astor Pass identified a blind geothermal system controlled by the intersection of west-northwest and north-northwest striking dextral-normal faults. Wells drilled into the southwestern quadrant of the fault intersection yielded 94°C fluids, with geothermometers suggesting a maximum reservoir temperature of 130°C. A 3-dimensional model was constructed based on detailed geologic maps and cross-sections, 2-dimensional seismic data, and petrologic analysis of the cuttings from three wells in order to further constrain the structural setting. The model reveals the specific geometry of the fault interaction area at a level of detail beyond what geologic maps and cross-sections can provide.

  5. Cardiothoracic Applications of 3-dimensional Printing.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Andreas A; Steigner, Michael L; George, Elizabeth; Barile, Maria; Hunsaker, Andetta R; Rybicki, Frank J; Mitsouras, Dimitris

    2016-09-01

    Medical 3-dimensional (3D) printing is emerging as a clinically relevant imaging tool in directing preoperative and intraoperative planning in many surgical specialties and will therefore likely lead to interdisciplinary collaboration between engineers, radiologists, and surgeons. Data from standard imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and rotational angiography can be used to fabricate life-sized models of human anatomy and pathology, as well as patient-specific implants and surgical guides. Cardiovascular 3D-printed models can improve diagnosis and allow for advanced preoperative planning. The majority of applications reported involve congenital heart diseases and valvular and great vessels pathologies. Printed models are suitable for planning both surgical and minimally invasive procedures. Added value has been reported toward improving outcomes, minimizing perioperative risk, and developing new procedures such as transcatheter mitral valve replacements. Similarly, thoracic surgeons are using 3D printing to assess invasion of vital structures by tumors and to assist in diagnosis and treatment of upper and lower airway diseases. Anatomic models enable surgeons to assimilate information more quickly than image review, choose the optimal surgical approach, and achieve surgery in a shorter time. Patient-specific 3D-printed implants are beginning to appear and may have significant impact on cosmetic and life-saving procedures in the future. In summary, cardiothoracic 3D printing is rapidly evolving and may be a potential game-changer for surgeons. The imager who is equipped with the tools to apply this new imaging science to cardiothoracic care is thus ideally positioned to innovate in this new emerging imaging modality.

  6. The first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions.

    PubMed

    Piedra-Garza, Luis Fernando; Reinoso, Santiago; Dickman, Michael H; Sanguineti, Michael M; Kortz, Ulrich

    2009-08-21

    Reaction of the (CH(3))(2)Sn(2+) electrophile toward trilacunary [A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)](n-) Keggin polytungstates (X = P(V), As(V), Si(IV)) with guanidinium as templating-cation resulted in the isostructural compounds Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-PW(9)O(34))] x 9 H(2)O (1), Na[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-AsW(9)O(34))] x 8 H(2)O (2) and Na(2)[C(NH(2))(3)](2)[{(CH(3))(2)Sn(H(2)O)}(3)(A-alpha-SiW(9)O(34))] x 10 H(2)O (3). Compounds 1-3 constitute the first 3-dimensional assemblies of organotin-functionalized polyanions, as well as the first example of a dimethyltin-containing tungstosilicate in the case of 3, and they show a similar chiral architecture based on tetrahedrally-arranged {(CH(3))(2)Sn}(3)(A-alpha-XW(9)O(34)) monomeric building-blocks connected via intermolecular Sn-O=W bridges regardless of the size and/or charge of the heteroatom.

  7. Realisation of 3-dimensional data sets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D.; Galsgaard, K.; Ireland, J.; Verwichte, E.; Walsh, R.

    The visualisation of three-dimensional objects on two dimensions is a very common problem, but is a tricky one to solve. Every discipline has its way of solving it. The artist uses light-shade interaction, perspective, special colour coding. The architect produces projections of the object. The cartographer uses both colour-coding and shading to represent height elevations. There have been many attempts in the last century by the entertainment industry to produce a three-dimensional illusion, in the fifties it was fashionable to have 3d movies which utilize the anaglyph method. Nowadays one can buy "Magic Eye" postcards which show a hidden three dimensional picture if you stare at it half cross-eyed. This poster attempts to demonstrate how some of these techniques can be applied to three-dimensional data sets that can occur in solar physics.

  8. Preoperative 3-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Uterine Myoma and Endometrium Before Myomectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Kwang Gi; Lee, Sa Ra; Lee, Seung Hyun; Kang, Byung Chul

    2017-02-01

    Uterine myomas are the most common gynecologic benign tumor affecting women of childbearing age, and myomectomy is the main surgical option to preserve the uterus and fertility. During myomectomy for women with multiple myomas, it is advisable to identify and remove as many as possible to decrease the risk of future myomectomies. With deficient preoperative imaging, gynecologists are challenged to identify the location and size of myomas and the endometrium, which, in turn, can lead to uterine rupture during future pregnancies. Current conventional 2-dimensional imaging has limitations in identifying precise locations of multiple myomas and the endometrium. In our experience, we preferred to use 3-dimensional imaging to delineate the myomas, endometrium, or blood vessels, which we were able to successfully reconstruct by using the following imaging method. To achieve 3-dimensional imaging, we matched T2 turbo spin echo images to detect uterine myomas and endometria with T1 high-resolution isotropic volume excitation-post images used to detect blood vessels by using an algorithm based on the 3-dimensional region growing method. Then, we produced images of the uterine myomas, endometria, and blood vessels using a 3-dimensional surface rendering method and successfully reconstructed selective 3-dimensional imaging for uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent blood vessels. A Web-based survey was sent to 66 gynecologists concerning imaging techniques used before myomectomy. Twenty-eight of 36 responding gynecologists answered that the 3-dimensional image produced in the current study is preferred to conventional 2-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging in identifying precise locations of uterine myomas and endometria. The proposed 3-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging method successfully reconstructed uterine myomas, endometria, and adjacent vessels. We propose that this will be a helpful adjunct to uterine myomectomy as a preoperative imaging technique in future

  9. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  10. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  11. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  12. 3-Dimensional Portrait of the Female CEO

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemasters, Linda; Roach, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    Dobie and Hummel (2001) asserted that the school superintendency is the most male-dominated position within the field of education. According to a 1992 study, 72% of educators were women; however, only 13.2% of superintendents are women (Glass, 1992). The most recent survey by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) found that…

  13. Normal growth and development of the lips: a 3-dimensional study from 6 years to adulthood using a geometric model

    PubMed Central

    FERRARIO, VIRGILIO F.; SFORZA, CHIARELLA; SCHMITZ, JOHANNES H.; CIUSA, VERONICA; COLOMBO, ANNA

    2000-01-01

    A 3-dimensional computerised system with landmark representation of the soft-tissue facial surface allows noninvasive and fast quantitative study of facial growth. The aims of the present investigation were (1) to provide reference data for selected dimensions of lips (linear distances and ratios, vermilion area, volume); (2) to quantify the relevant growth changes; and (3) to evaluate sex differences in growth patterns. The 3-dimensional coordinates of 6 soft-tissue landmarks on the lips were obtained by an optoelectronic instrument in a mixed longitudinal and cross-sectional study (2023 examinations in 1348 healthy subjects between 6 y of age and young adulthood). From the landmarks, several linear distances (mouth width, total vermilion height, total lip height, upper lip height), the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio, some areas (vermilion of the upper lip, vermilion of the lower lip, total vermilion) and volumes (upper lip volume, lower lip volume, total lip volume) were calculated and averaged for age and sex. Male values were compared with female values by means of Student's t test. Within each age group all lip dimensions (distances, areas, volumes) were significantly larger in boys than in girls (P < 0.05), with some exceptions in the first age groups and coinciding with the earlier female growth spurt, whereas the vermilion height-to-mouth width ratio did not show a corresponding sexual dimorphism. Linear distances in girls had almost reached adult dimensions in the 13–14 y age group, while in boys a large increase was still to occur. The attainment of adult dimensions was faster in the upper than in the lower lip, especially in girls. The method used in the present investigation allowed the noninvasive evaluation of a large sample of nonpatient subjects, leading to the definition of 3-dimensional normative data. Data collected in the present study could represent a data base for the quantitative description of human lip morphology from childhood to

  14. In vitro measurement of muscle volume with 3-dimensional ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Delcker, A; Walker, F; Caress, J; Hunt, C; Tegeler, C

    1999-05-01

    The aim was to test the accuracy of muscle volume measurements with a new 3-dimensional (3-D) ultrasound system, which allows a freehand scanning of the transducer with an improved quality of the ultrasound images and therefore the outlines of the muscles. Five resected cadaveric hand muscles were insonated and the muscle volumes calculated by 3-D reconstructions of the acquired 2-D ultrasound sections. Intra-reader, inter-reader and follow-up variability were calculated, as well as the volume of the muscle tissue measured by water displacement. In the results, 3-D ultrasound and water displacement measurements showed an average deviation of 10.1%; Data of 3-D ultrasound measurements were: intra-reader variability 2.8%; inter-reader variability 2.4% and follow-up variability 2.3%. 3-D measurements of muscle volume are valid and reliable. Serial sonographic measurements of muscle may be able to quantitate changes in muscle volume that occur in disease and recovery.

  15. Dosimetric Comparison Between 3-Dimensional Conformal and Robotic SBRT Treatment Plans for Accelerated Partial Breast Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Goggin, L M; Descovich, M; McGuinness, C; Shiao, S; Pouliot, J; Park, C

    2016-06-01

    Accelerated partial breast irradiation is an attractive alternative to conventional whole breast radiotherapy for selected patients. Recently, CyberKnife has emerged as a possible alternative to conventional techniques for accelerated partial breast irradiation. In this retrospective study, we present a dosimetric comparison between 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans and CyberKnife plans using circular (Iris) and multi-leaf collimators. Nine patients who had undergone breast-conserving surgery followed by whole breast radiation were included in this retrospective study. The CyberKnife planning target volume (PTV) was defined as the lumpectomy cavity + 10 mm + 2 mm with prescription dose of 30 Gy in 5 fractions. Two sets of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans were created, one used the same definitions as described for CyberKnife and the second used the RTOG-0413 definition of the PTV: lumpectomy cavity + 15 mm + 10 mm with prescription dose of 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions. Using both PTV definitions allowed us to compare the dose delivery capabilities of each technology and to evaluate the advantage of CyberKnife tracking. For the dosimetric comparison using the same PTV margins, CyberKnife and 3-dimensional plans resulted in similar tumor coverage and dose to critical structures, with the exception of the lung V5%, which was significantly smaller for 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy, 6.2% when compared to 39.4% for CyberKnife-Iris and 17.9% for CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator. When the inability of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy to track motion is considered, the result increased to 25.6%. Both CyberKnife-Iris and CyberKnife-multi-leaf collimator plans demonstrated significantly lower average ipsilateral breast V50% (25.5% and 24.2%, respectively) than 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (56.2%). The CyberKnife plans were more conformal but less homogeneous than the 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy plans. Approximately 50% shorter

  16. [3-dimensional photogrammetry assessment of facial contours].

    PubMed

    Kakoschke, D; Gäbel, H; Schettler, D

    1997-02-01

    In Germany, three-dimensional non-invasive measurement techniques are not in routine use for medical purposes. Completely integrated applications of photogrammetric technology are lacking. The results of clinical examination, X-rays and pre- and postoperative photographs from different angles have been used for medical analysis. In an interdisciplinary research project we tested the general applicability of photogrammetric measurement systems. We examined patients with malformations of the mandible-maxilla complex by taking pictures of the face. In order to assess the surface structure we projected regular patterns onto the surface. We calculated about 500 points on the surface with accuracy better than 0.2 mm. Graphical analyses of measurement results are presented in clinically relevant form. We produce representations of the faces in auto-CAD by means of regular meshes which allow views from any perspective, longitudinal and lateral sections. In addition to calculating angles, distances, surfaces and volumes, visualisation of shape is a useful aid in documentation and quantification of changes of soft tissue of the human face under surgery treatment.

  17. Lithographically defined 3-dimensional graphene scaffolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burckel, D. Bruce; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Polsky, Ronen

    2015-09-01

    Interferometrically defined 3D photoresist scaffolds are formed through a series of three successive two-beam interference exposures, a post exposure bake and development. Heating the resist scaffold in a reducing atmosphere to > 1000 °C, results in the conversion of the resist structure into a carbon scaffold through pyrolysis, resulting in a 3D sp3- bonded glassy carbon scaffold which maintains the same in-plane morphology as the resist despite significant shrinkage. The carbon scaffolds are readily modified using a variety of deposition methods such as electrochemical, sputtering and CVD/ALD. Remarkably, sputtering metal into scaffolds with ~ 5 unit cells tall results in conformal coating of the scaffold with the metal. When the metal is a transition metal such as nickel, the scaffold can be re-annealed, during which time the carbon diffuses through the nickel, emerging on the exterior of the nickel as sp2-bonded carbon, termed 3D graphene. This paper details the fabrication, characterization and some potential applications for these structures.

  18. 3-dimensional (orthogonal) structural complexity of time-series data using low-order moment analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Victor J.; O'Neill, Feidhlim T.; Dowling, Denis P.

    2012-09-01

    The recording of atmospheric pressure plasmas (APP) electro-acoustic emission data has been developed as a plasma metrology tool in the last couple of years. The industrial applications include automotive and aerospace industry for surface activation of polymers prior to bonding [1, 2, and 3]. It has been shown that as the APP jets proceeds over a treatment surface, at a various fixed heights, two contrasting acoustic signatures are produced which correspond to two very different plasma-surface entropy states (blow arc ˜ 1700 ± 100 K; and; afterglow ˜ 300-400 K) [4]. The metrology challenge is now to capture deterministic data points within data clusters. For this to be achieved new real-time data cluster measurement techniques needs to be developed [5]. The cluster information must be extracted within the allotted process time period if real-time process control is to be achieved. This abstract describes a theoretical structural complexity analysis (in terms crossing points) of 2 and 3-dimentional line-graphs that contain time-series data. In addition LabVIEW implementation of the 3-dimensional data analysis is performed. It is also shown the cluster analysis technique can be transfer to other (non-acoustic) datasets.

  19. Mandibular reconstruction using stereolithographic 3-dimensional printing modeling technology.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Adir; Laviv, Amir; Berman, Phillip; Nashef, Rizan; Abu-Tair, Jawad

    2009-11-01

    Mandibular reconstruction can be challenging for the surgeon wishing to restore its unique geometry. Reconstruction can be achieved with titanium bone plates followed by autogenous bone grafting. Incorporation of the bone graft into the mandible provides continuity and strength required for proper esthetics and function and permitting dental implant rehabilitation at a later stage. Precious time in the operating room is invested in plate contouring to reconstruct the mandible. Rapid prototyping technologies can construct physical models from computer-aided design via 3-dimensional (3D) printers. A prefabricated 3D model is achieved, which assists in accurate contouring of plates and/or planning of bone graft harvest geometry before surgery. The 2 most commonly used rapid prototyping technologies are stereolithography and 3D printing (3DP). Three-dimensional printing is advantageous to stereolithography for better accuracy, quicker printing time, and lower cost. We present 3 clinical cases based on 3DP modeling technology. Models were fabricated before the resection of mandibular ameloblastoma and were used to prepare bridging plates before the first stage of reconstruction. In 1 case, another model was fabricated and used as a template for iliac crest bone graft in the second stage of reconstruction. The 3DP technology provided a precise, fast, and cheap mandibular reconstruction, which aids in shortened operation time (and therefore decreased exposure time to general anesthesia, decreased blood loss, and shorter wound exposure time) and easier surgical procedure.

  20. Invasive 3-Dimensional Organotypic Neoplasia from Multiple Normal Human Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Ridky, Todd W.; Chow, Jennifer M.; Wong, David J.; Khavari, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Refined cancer models are required to assess the burgeoning number of potential targets for cancer therapeutics within a rapid and clinically relevant context. Here we utilize tumor-associated genetic pathways to transform primary human epithelial cells from epidermis, oropharynx, esophagus, and cervix into genetically defined tumors within a human 3-dimensional (3-D) tissue environment incorporating cell-populated stroma and intact basement membrane. These engineered organotypic tissues recapitulated natural features of tumor progression, including epithelial invasion through basement membrane, a complex process critically required for biologic malignancy in 90% of human cancers. Invasion was rapid, and potentiated by stromal cells. Oncogenic signals in 3-D tissue, but not 2-D culture, resembled gene expression profiles from spontaneous human cancers. Screening well-characterized signaling pathway inhibitors in 3-D organotypic neoplasia helped distil a clinically faithful cancer gene signature. Multi-tissue 3-D human tissue cancer models may provide an efficient and relevant complement to current approaches to characterize cancer progression. PMID:21102459

  1. VUV photoionization cross sections of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Leah G; Shen, Linhan; Savee, John D; Eddingsaas, Nathan C; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A; Osborn, David L; Sander, Stanley P; Okumura, Mitchio

    2015-02-26

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and formaldehyde (H2CO) have been measured from their first ionization thresholds to 12.008 eV. HO2, H2O2, and H2CO were generated from the oxidation of methanol initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl2 in a low-pressure slow flow reactor. Reactants, intermediates, and products were detected by time-resolved multiplexed synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Absolute concentrations were obtained from the time-dependent photoion signals by modeling the kinetics of the methanol oxidation chemistry. Photoionization cross sections were determined at several photon energies relative to the cross section of methanol, which was in turn determined relative to that of propene. These measurements were used to place relative photoionization spectra of HO2, H2O2, and H2CO on an absolute scale, resulting in absolute photoionization spectra.

  2. Crab Crossing Consideration for MEIC 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Ahmed, Y.S. Derbenev, G.A. Krafft, Y. Zhang, A. Castilla, J.R. Delayen, S.D. Silva

    2011-03-01

    Crab crossing of colliding electron and ion beams is essential for accommodating the ultra high bunch repetition frequency in the conceptual design of MEIC – a high luminosity polarized electron-ion collider at Jefferson Lab. The scheme eliminates parasitic beam-beam interactions and avoids luminosity reduction by restoring head-on collisions at interaction points. In this paper, we report simulation studies of beam dynamics with crab cavities for MEIC design. The detailed study involves full 3-D simulations of particle tracking through the various configurations of crab cavities for evaluating the performance. To gain insight, beam and RF dominated fields with other parametric studies will be presented in the paper.

  3. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  4. 3-Dimensional shear wave elastography of breast lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-ling; Chang, Cai; Zeng, Wei; Wang, Fen; Chen, Jia-jian; Qu, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Color patterns of 3-dimensional (3D) shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising method in differentiating tumoral nodules recently. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of color patterns of 3D SWE in breast lesions, with special emphasis on coronal planes. A total of 198 consecutive women with 198 breast lesions (125 malignant and 73 benign) were included, who underwent conventional ultrasound (US), 3D B-mode, and 3D SWE before surgical excision. SWE color patterns of Views A (transverse), T (sagittal), and C (coronal) were determined. Sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were calculated. Distribution of SWE color patterns was significantly different between malignant and benign lesions (P = 0.001). In malignant lesions, “Stiff Rim” was significantly more frequent in View C (crater sign, 60.8%) than in View A (51.2%, P = 0.013) and View T (54.1%, P = 0.035). AUC for combination of “Crater Sign” and conventional US was significantly higher than View A (0.929 vs 0.902, P = 0.004) and View T (0.929 vs 0.907, P = 0.009), and specificity significantly increased (90.4% vs 78.1%, P = 0.013) without significant change in sensitivity (85.6% vs 88.0%, P = 0.664) as compared with conventional US. In conclusion, combination of conventional US with 3D SWE color patterns significantly increased diagnostic accuracy, with “Crater Sign” in coronal plane of the highest value. PMID:27684820

  5. The 3-dimensional construction of the Rae craton, central Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, David B.; Craven, James A.; Pilkington, Mark; Hillier, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the 3-dimensional tectonic assembly of early continents, first as Archean cratons and then Proterozoic shields, remains poorly understood. In this paper, all readily available geophysical and geochemical data are assembled in a 3-D model with the most accurate bedrock geology in order to understand better the geometry of major structures within the Rae craton of central Canada. Analysis of geophysical observations of gravity and seismic wave speed variations revealed several lithospheric-scale discontinuities in physical properties. Where these discontinuities project upward to correlate with mapped upper crustal geological structures, the discontinuities can be interpreted as shear zones. Radiometric dating of xenoliths provides estimates of rock types and ages at depth beneath sparse kimberlite occurrences. These ages can also be correlated to surface rocks. The 3.6-2.6 Ga Rae craton comprises at least three smaller continental terranes, which "cratonized" during a granitic bloom. Cratonization probably represents final differentiation of early crust into a relatively homogeneous, uniformly thin (35-42 km), tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite crust with pyroxenite layers near the Moho. The peak thermotectonic event at 1.86-1.7 Ga was associated with the Hudsonian orogeny that assembled several cratons and lesser continental blocks into the Canadian Shield using a number of southeast-dipping megathrusts. This orogeny metasomatized, mineralized, and recrystallized mantle and lower crustal rocks, apparently making them more conductive by introducing or concentrating sulfides or graphite. Little evidence exists of thin slabs similar to modern oceanic lithosphere in this Precambrian construction history whereas underthrusting and wedging of continental lithosphere is inferred from multiple dipping discontinuities.

  6. A new preclinical 3-dimensional agarose colony formation assay.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Yoshinori; Panchabhai, Sonali; Levin, Victor A

    2008-08-01

    The evaluation of new drug treatments and combination treatments for gliomas and other cancers requires a robust means to interrogate wide dose ranges and varying times of drug exposure without stain-inactivation of the cells (colonies). To this end, we developed a 3-dimensional (3D) colony formation assay that makes use of GelCount technology, a new cell colony counter for gels and soft agars. We used U251MG, SNB19, and LNZ308 glioma cell lines and MiaPaCa pancreas adenocarcinoma and SW480 colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. Colonies were grown in a two-tiered agarose that had 0.7% agarose on the bottom and 0.3% agarose on top. We then studied the effects of DFMO, carboplatin, and SAHA over a 3-log dose range and over multiple days of drug exposure. Using GelCount we approximated the area under the curve (AUC) of colony volumes as the sum of colony volumes (microm2xOD) in each plate to calculate IC50 values. Adenocarcinoma colonies were recognized by GelCount scanning at 3-4 days, while it took 6-7 days to detect glioma colonies. The growth rate of MiaPaCa and SW480 cells was rapid, with 100 colonies counted in 5-6 days; glioma cells grew more slowly, with 100 colonies counted in 9-10 days. Reliable log dose versus AUC curves were observed for all drugs studied. In conclusion, the GelCount method that we describe is more quantitative than traditional colony assays and allows precise study of drug effects with respect to both dose and time of exposure using fewer culture plates.

  7. 2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PASADENA AVENUE BRIDGE CROSSING ARROYO SECO PARKWAY. SEEN FROM CARLOTA BOULEVARD. LOOKING 218°SW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Pasadena Avenue Bridge, Milepost 26.48, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  8. Cancer cells mimic in vivo spatial-temporal cell-cycle phase distribution and chemosensitivity in 3-dimensional Gelfoam® histoculture but not 2-dimensional culture as visualized with real-time FUCCI imaging.

    PubMed

    Yano, Shuya; Miwa, Shinji; Mii, Sumiyuki; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Uehara, Fuminaru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Zhao, Ming; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    The phase of the cell cycle can determine whether a cancer cell can respond to a given drug. We previously reported monitoring of real-time cell cycle dynamics of cancer cells throughout a live tumor, intravitally in live mice, using a fluorescence ubiquitination-based cell-cycle indicator (FUCCI). Approximately 90% of cancer cells in the center and 80% of total cells of an established tumor are in G0/G1 phase. Longitudinal real-time imaging demonstrated that cytotoxic agents killed only proliferating cancer cells at the surface and, in contrast, had little effect on quiescent cancer cells, which are the vast majority of an established tumor. Moreover, resistant quiescent cancer cells restarted cycling after cessation of chemotherapy. These results suggested why most drugs currently in clinical use, which target cancer cells in S/G2/M, are mostly ineffective on solid tumors. In the present report, we used FUCCI imaging and Gelfoam® collagen-sponge-gel histoculture, to demonstrate in real time, that the cell-cycle phase distribution of cancer cells in Gelfoam® and in vivo tumors is highly similar, whereby only the surface cells proliferate and interior cells are quiescent in G0/G1. This is in contrast to 2D culture where most cancer cells cycle. Similarly, the cancer cells responded similarly to toxic chemotherapy in Gelfoam® culture as in vivo, and very differently than cancer cells in 2D culture which were much more chemosensitive. Gelfoam® culture of FUCCI-expressing cancer cells offers the opportunity to image the cell cycle of cancer cells continuously and to screen for novel effective therapies to target quiescent cells, which are the majority in a tumor and which would have a strong probability to be effective in vivo.

  9. Wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ethan; Liu, Ying; Jiang, Lijia; Lu, Yongfeng; Ndao, Sidy

    2017-01-01

    This article reports the fabrication and wetting characteristics of 3-dimensional nanostructured fractal surfaces (3DNFS). Three distinct 3DNFS surfaces, namely cubic, Romanesco broccoli, and sphereflake were fabricated using two-photon direct laser writing. Contact angle measurements were performed on the multiscale fractal surfaces to characterize their wetting properties. Average contact angles ranged from 66.8° for the smooth control surface to 0° for one of the fractal surfaces. The change in wetting behavior was attributed to modification of the interfacial surface properties due to the inclusion of 3-dimensional hierarchical fractal nanostructures. However, this behavior does not exactly obey existing surface wetting models in the literature. Potential applications for these types of surfaces in physical and biological sciences are also discussed.

  10. 3-dimensional (3D) fabricated polymer based drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Simon E; Wallace, Gordon G

    2014-11-10

    Drug delivery from 3-dimensional (3D) structures is a rapidly growing area of research. It is essential to achieve structures wherein drug stability is ensured, the drug loading capacity is appropriate and the desired controlled release profile can be attained. Attention must also be paid to the development of appropriate fabrication machinery that allows 3D drug delivery systems (DDS) to be produced in a simple, reliable and reproducible manner. The range of fabrication methods currently being used to form 3D DDSs include electrospinning (solution and melt), wet-spinning and printing (3-dimensional). The use of these techniques enables production of DDSs from the macro-scale down to the nano-scale. This article reviews progress in these fabrication techniques to form DDSs that possess desirable drug delivery kinetics for a wide range of applications.

  11. New Stereoacuity Test Using a 3-Dimensional Display System in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus. PMID:25693034

  12. New stereoacuity test using a 3-dimensional display system in children.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Beom; Yang, Hee Kyung; Kim, Jonghyun; Hong, Keehoon; Lee, Byoungho; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2015-01-01

    The previously developed 3-dimensional (3D) display stereoacuity tests were validated only at distance. We developed a new stereoacuity test using a 3D display that works both at near and distance and evaluated its validity in children with and without strabismus. Sixty children (age range, 6 to 18 years) with variable ranges of stereoacuity were included. Side-by-side randot images of 4 different simple objects (star, circle, rectangle, and triangle) with a wide range of crossed horizontal disparities (3000 to 20 arcsec) were randomly displayed on a 3D monitor with MATLAB (Matworks, Inc., Natick, MA, USA) and were presented to subjects wearing shutter glasses at 0.5 m and 3 m. The 3D image was located in front of (conventional) or behind (proposed) the background image on the 3D monitor. The results with the new 3D stereotest (conventional and proposed) were compared with those of the near and distance Randot stereotests. At near, the Bland-Altman plots of the conventional and proposed 3D stereotest did not show significant difference, both of which were poorer than the Randot test. At distance, the results of the proposed 3D stereotest were similar to the Randot test, but the conventional 3D stereotest results were better than those of the other two tests. The results of the proposed 3D stereotest and Randot stereotest were identical in 83.3% at near and 88.3% at distance. More than 95% of subjects showed concordance within 2 grades between the 2 tests at both near and distance. In conclusion, the newly proposed 3D stereotest shows good concordance with the Randot stereotests in children with and without strabismus.

  13. Late Toxicity and Patient Self-Assessment of Breast Appearance/Satisfaction on RTOG 0319: A Phase 2 Trial of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy-Accelerated Partial Breast Irradiation Following Lumpectomy for Stages I and II Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chafe, Susan; Moughan, Jennifer; McCormick, Beryl; Wong, John; Pass, Helen; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Arthur, Douglas W.; Petersen, Ivy; White, Julia; Vicini, Frank A.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: Late toxicities and cosmetic analyses of patients treated with accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI) on RTOG 0319 are presented. Methods and Materials: Patients with stages I to II breast cancer ≤3 cm, negative margins, and ≤3 positive nodes were eligible. Patients received three-dimensional conformal external beam radiation therapy (3D-CRT; 38.5 Gy in 10 fractions twice daily over 5 days). Toxicity and cosmesis were assessed by the patient (P), the radiation oncologist (RO), and the surgical oncologist (SO) at 3, 6, and 12 months from the completion of treatment and then annually. National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, was used to grade toxicity. Results: Fifty-two patients were evaluable. Median follow-up was 5.3 years (range, 1.7-6.4 years). Eighty-two percent of patients rated their cosmesis as good/excellent at 1 year, with rates of 64% at 3 years. At 3 years, 31 patients were satisfied with the treatment, 5 were not satisfied but would choose 3D-CRT again, and none would choose standard radiation therapy. The worst adverse event (AE) per patient reported as definitely, probably, or possibly related to radiation therapy was 36.5% grade 1, 50% grade 2, and 5.8% grade 3 events. Grade 3 AEs were all skin or musculoskeletal-related. Treatment-related factors were evaluated to potentially establish an association with observed toxicity. Surgical bed volume, target volume, the number of beams used, and the use of bolus were not associated with late cosmesis. Conclusions: Most patients enrolled in RTOG 0319 were satisfied with their treatment, and all would choose to have the 3D-CRT APBI again.

  14. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by…

  15. Growth and development in higher plants under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazu, T.; Yuda, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    Growth and development of etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) and maize (Zea mays L. cv. Golden Cross Bantam) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions were intensively studied using a 3-dimensional clinostat as a simulator of weightlessness. Epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were the most oriented toward the direction far from cotyledons. Mesocotyls of etiolated maize seedlings grew at random and coleoptiles curved slightly during clinostat rotation. Clinostat rotation promoted the emergence of the 3rd internodes in etiolated pea seedlings, while it significantly inhibited the growth of the 1st internodes. In maize seedlings, the growth of coleoptiles was little affected by clinostat rotation, but that of mesocotyls was suppressed, and therefore, the emergence of the leaf out of coleoptile was promoted. Clinostat rotation reduced the osmotic concentration in the 1st internodes of pea seedlings, although it has little effect on the 2nd and the 3rd internodes. Clinostat rotation also reduced the osmotic concentrations in both coleoptiles and mesocotyls of maize seedlings. Cell-wall extensibilities of the 1st and the 3rd internodes of pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were significantly lower and higher as compared with those on 1 g conditions, respectively. Cell-wall extensibility of mesocotyls in seedlings grown on the clinostat also decreased. Changes in cell wall properties seem to be well correlated to the growth of each organ in pea and maize seedlings. These results suggest that the growth and development of plants is controlled under gravity on earth, and that the growth responses of higher plants to microgravity conditions are regulated by both cell-wall mechanical properties and osmotic properties of stem cells.

  16. 3-dimensional electronic structures of CaC6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyung, Wonshik; Kim, Yeongkwan; Han, Garam; Leem, Choonshik; Kim, Junsung; Kim, Yeongwook; Kim, Keunsu; Rotenberg, Eli; Kim, Changyoung; Postech Collaboration; Advanced Light Source Collaboration; Yonsei University Team

    2014-03-01

    There is still remaining issues on origin of superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds, especially CaC6 because of its relatively high transition temperature than other GICs. There are two competing theories on where the superconductivity occurs in this material; intercalant metal or charge doped graphene layer. To elucidate this issue, it is necessary to confirm existence of intercalant driven band. Therefore, we performed 3 dimensional electronic structure studies with ARPES to find out 3d dispersive intercalant band. However, we could not observe it, instead observed 3d dispersive carbon band. This support the aspect of charge doped graphene superconductivity more than intercalant driving aspect.

  17. Automated feature extraction for 3-dimensional point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magruder, Lori A.; Leigh, Holly W.; Soderlund, Alexander; Clymer, Bradley; Baer, Jessica; Neuenschwander, Amy L.

    2016-05-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) technology offers the capability to rapidly capture high-resolution, 3-dimensional surface data with centimeter-level accuracy for a large variety of applications. Due to the foliage-penetrating properties of LIDAR systems, these geospatial data sets can detect ground surfaces beneath trees, enabling the production of highfidelity bare earth elevation models. Precise characterization of the ground surface allows for identification of terrain and non-terrain points within the point cloud, and facilitates further discernment between natural and man-made objects based solely on structural aspects and relative neighboring parameterizations. A framework is presented here for automated extraction of natural and man-made features that does not rely on coincident ortho-imagery or point RGB attributes. The TEXAS (Terrain EXtraction And Segmentation) algorithm is used first to generate a bare earth surface from a lidar survey, which is then used to classify points as terrain or non-terrain. Further classifications are assigned at the point level by leveraging local spatial information. Similarly classed points are then clustered together into regions to identify individual features. Descriptions of the spatial attributes of each region are generated, resulting in the identification of individual tree locations, forest extents, building footprints, and 3-dimensional building shapes, among others. Results of the fully-automated feature extraction algorithm are then compared to ground truth to assess completeness and accuracy of the methodology.

  18. Reconstructing a 3-dimensional image of the results of antinuclear antibody testing by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed

    Murai, Ryosei; Yamada, Koji; Tanaka, Maki; Kuribayashi, Kageaki; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Tsuji, Naoki; Watanabe, Naoki

    2013-01-31

    Indirect immunofluorescence anti-nuclear antibody testing (IIF-ANAT) is an essential screening tool in the diagnosis of various autoimmune disorders. ANA titer quantification and interpretation of immunofluorescence patterns are determined subjectively, which is problematic. First, we determined the examination conditions under which IIF-ANAT fluorescence intensities are quantified. Next, IIF-ANAT was performed using homogeneous, discrete speckled, and mixed serum samples. Images were obtained using Bio Zero BZ-8000, and 3-dimensional images were reconstructed using the BZ analyzer software. In the 2-dimensional analysis, homogeneous ANAs hid the discrete speckled pattern, resulting in a diagnosis of homogeneous immunofluorescence. However, 3-dimensional analysis of the same sample showed discrete speckled-type ANA in the homogeneous background. This study strengthened the current IIF-ANAT method by providing a new approach to quantify the fluorescence intensity and enhance the resolution of IIF-ANAT fluorescence patterns. Reconstructed 3-dimensional imaging of IIF-ANAT can be a powerful tool for routine laboratory examination.

  19. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 2, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) "Effectiveness and Efficiency": The University System of Maryland's Campaign to Control Costs and Increase Student Aid (Kay Mills); (2) Remote Access: Western…

  20. 2. VIEW OF THE LOCATION WHERE A STREAM CROSSING WILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE LOCATION WHERE A STREAM CROSSING WILL BE CONSTRUCTED FOR TRUCK HAULING PURPOSES DURING THE SALE AND WHERE THE AREA WILL BE RETURNED TO ITS NATURAL STATE AFTER HAULING IS COMPLETED. LOCATED IMMEDIATELY SOUTH OF HELIPAD #13. FACING NORTH 5 WEST (355ø). - Genoa Peak Road, Spur, Glenbrook, Douglas County, NV

  1. 17. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 2, CONSTRUCTED 19371938, AT THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. WAIKOLU STREAM CROSSING NO. 2, CONSTRUCTED 1937-1938, AT THE MOUTH OF WAIKOLU STREAM ON THE BEACH (80' ALTITUDE). VIEW UPSTREAM INTO WAIKOLU VALLEY. NOTE RAIN-PRODUCING CLOUD COVER GATHERED AT THE HEAD OF THE VALLEY. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  2. Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Side Elevation, End Elevation, Cross Section, 1/2 Roof Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan, 1/2 Floor Plan, 1/2 Reflected Plan - Jack's Mill Covered Bridge, Spanning Henderson Creek, Oquawka, Henderson County, IL

  3. Electron-Impact Total Ionization Cross Sections of CH and C2H2

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Ki; Ali, M. Asgar; Rudd, M. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    Electron-impact total ionization cross sections for the CH radical and C2H2 (acetylene) have been calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model. The BEB model combines the Mott cross section and the asymptotic form of the Bethe theory, and has been shown to generate reliable ionization cross sections for a large variety of molecules. The BEB cross sections for CH and C2H2 are in good agreement with the available experimental data from ionization thresholds to hundreds of eV in incident energies. PMID:27805116

  4. Scientific visualization of 3-dimensional optimized stellarator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The design techniques and physics analysis of modern stellarator configurations for magnetic fusion research rely heavily on high performance computing and simulation. Stellarators, which are fundamentally 3-dimensional in nature, offer significantly more design flexibility than more symmetric devices such as the tokamak. By varying the outer boundary shape of the plasma, a variety of physics features, such as transport, stability, and heating efficiency can be optimized. Scientific visualization techniques are an important adjunct to this effort as they provide a necessary ergonomic link between the numerical results and the intuition of the human researcher. The authors have developed a variety of visualization techniques for stellarators which both facilitate the design optimization process and allow the physics simulations to be more readily understood.

  5. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  6. Measured Total Cross Sections of Slow Neutrons Scattered by Gaseous and Liquid 2H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atchison, F.; van den Brandt, B.; Bryś, T.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Hautle, P.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Kühne, G.; Konter, J. A.; Pichlmaier, A.; Wokaun, A.; Bodek, K.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuźniak, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Giersch, M.; Zmeskal, J.; Hino, M.; Utsuro, M.

    2005-06-01

    The total scattering cross sections for slow neutrons with energies E in the range 300 neV to 3 meV for gaseous and liquid ortho-2H2 have been measured. The cross sections for 2H2 gas are found to be in excellent agreement with both the Hamermesh and Schwinger and the Young and Koppel models. For liquid 2H2, we confirm the existing experimental data in the cold neutron range and the discrepancy with the gas models. We find a clear 1/√(E') dependence at low energies for both states. A simple explanation for the liquid 2H2 cross section is offered.

  7. 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate hydrogels with gradient of cross-link density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadlubowski, Slawomir; Matusiak, Malgorzata; Adamus, Agnieszka; Olejniczak, Magdalena N.; Kozanecki, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Electron beam irradiation of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate mixtures leads to the formation of cross-linked structures that exhibit a gradient of cross-link density, as demonstrated by gel fraction, swelling and Differential Scanning Calorimetry analysis. The reason for observed phase separation is formation of the high molecular weight clusters and its precipitation before gelation dose. This effect can be controlled/influenced by absorbed dose and cross-linker concentration.

  8. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use.

  9. Hadronic Production of Ψ(2S) Cross section and Polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Kwangzoo

    2008-05-01

    The hadronic production cross section and the polarization of Ψ(2S) meson are measured by using the data from p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV collected by the Collider Detector at Fermilab. The datasets used correspond to integrated luminosity of 1.1 fb-1 and 800 pb-1, respectively. The decay Ψ(2S) → μ+μ- is used to reconstruct Ψ(2S) mesons in the rapidity range |y(Ψ(2S))| < 0.6. The coverage of the pT range is 2.0 GeV/c ≤ pT (Ψ(2S)) < 30 GeV/c for the cross section analysis and pT ≥ 5 GeV/c for the polarization analysis. For events with pT (Ψ(2S)) > 2 GeV/c the integrated inclusive cross section multiplied by the branching ratio for dimuon decay is 3.17 ± 0.04 ± 0.28 nb . This result agrees with the CDF Run I measurement considering the increased center-of-mass energy from 1.8 TeV to 1.96 TeV. The polarization of the promptly produced Ψ(2S) mesons is found to be increasingly longitudinal as pT increases from 5 GeV/c to 30 GeV/c. The result is compared to contemporary theory models.

  10. Acromiohumeral Distance and 3-Dimensional Scapular Position Change After Overhead Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Maenhout, Annelies; Dhooge, Famke; Van Herzeele, Maarten; Palmans, Tanneke; Cools, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Context: Muscle fatigue due to repetitive and prolonged overhead sports activity is considered an important factor contributing to impingement-related rotator cuff pathologic conditions in overhead athletes. The evidence on scapular and glenohumeral kinematic changes after fatigue is contradicting and prohibits conclusions about how shoulder muscle fatigue affects acromiohumeral distance. Objective: To investigate the effect of a fatigue protocol resembling overhead sports activity on acromiohumeral distance and 3-dimensional scapular position in overhead athletes. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Institutional laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 29 healthy recreational overhead athletes (14 men, 15 women; age = 22.23 ± 2.82 years, height = 178.3 ± 7.8 cm, mass = 71.6 ± 9.5 kg). Intervention(s) The athletes were tested before and after a shoulder muscle-fatiguing protocol. Main Outcome Measure(s) Acromiohumeral distance was measured using ultrasound, and scapular position was determined with an electromagnetic motion-tracking system. Both measurements were performed at 3 elevation positions (0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction). We used a 3-factor mixed model for data analysis. Results: After fatigue, the acromiohumeral distance increased when the upper extremity was actively positioned at 45° (Δ = 0.78 ± 0.24 mm, P = .002) or 60° (Δ = 0.58 ± 0.23 mm, P = .02) of abduction. Scapular position changed after fatigue to a more externally rotated position at 45° (Δ = 4.97° ± 1.13°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 4.61° ± 1.90°, P = .001) of abduction, a more upwardly rotated position at 45° (Δ = 6.10° ± 1.30°, P < .001) and 60° (Δ = 7.20° ± 1.65°, P < .001) of abduction, and a more posteriorly tilted position at 0°, 45°, and 60° of abduction (Δ = 1.98° ± 0.41°, P < .001). Conclusions: After a fatiguing protocol, we found changes in acromiohumeral distance and scapular position that corresponded with an impingement

  11. Electron impact cross sections for the 2,2P state excitation of lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vuskovic, L.; Trajmar, S.; Register, D. F.

    1982-01-01

    Electron impact excitation of the 2p 2P state of Li was studied at 10, 20, 60, 100, 150 and 200 eV. Relative differential cross sections in the angular range 3-120 deg were measured and then normalized to the absolute scale by using the optical f value. Integral and momentum transfer cross sections were obtained by extrapolating the differential cross sections to 0 deg and to 180 deg. The question of normalizing electron-metal-atom collision cross sections in general was examined and the method of normalization to optical f values in particular was investigated in detail. It has been concluded that the extrapolation of the apparent generalized oscillator strength (obtained from the measured differential cross sections) to the zero momentum transfer limit with an expression using even powers of the momentum transfer and normalization of the limit to the optical f value yields reliable absolute cross sections.

  12. Partial ionisation cross-sections of 2-propanol and ethanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacher, J. R.; Jorand, F.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Pasquiers, S.

    2006-04-01

    Electron impact ionisation of 2-propanol and ethanal is studied using mass spectrometry. Cross-sections of the formation of molecular ions and ionic fragments are measured between 14 and 86 eV. Free energy changes are evaluated using ab initio calculations. For 2-propanol, two ions, identified as CH 3CHOH + (45 amu) and CH3CHCH3+ (43 amu), contribute more than 75% to the total cross-section over the whole range of electron energies and are produced by simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. Both processes occur spontaneously, leaving the molecular ion as a minority species. For ethanal, two ions, identified as HCO + (29 amu) and CH 3CO + (43 amu), and the molecular ion (44 amu) contribute more than 80% to the total cross-section. The ions of 29 and 43 amu result from a simple bond cleavage in the molecular ion. These sprocesses are not spontaneous and the contribution of the molecular ion becomes predominant at 15 eV and is therefore significant over the whole range of ionisation energies.

  13. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  14. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation. PMID:26310537

  15. Thermal crosstalk in 3-dimensional RRAM crossbar array.

    PubMed

    Sun, Pengxiao; Lu, Nianduan; Li, Ling; Li, Yingtao; Wang, Hong; Lv, Hangbing; Liu, Qi; Long, Shibing; Liu, Su; Liu, Ming

    2015-08-27

    High density 3-dimensional (3D) crossbar resistive random access memory (RRAM) is one of the major focus of the new age technologies. To compete with the ultra-high density NAND and NOR memories, understanding of reliability mechanisms and scaling potential of 3D RRAM crossbar array is needed. Thermal crosstalk is one of the most critical effects that should be considered in 3D crossbar array application. The Joule heat generated inside the RRAM device will determine the switching behavior itself, and for dense memory arrays, the temperature surrounding may lead to a consequent resistance degradation of neighboring devices. In this work, thermal crosstalk effect and scaling potential under thermal effect in 3D RRAM crossbar array are systematically investigated. It is revealed that the reset process is dominated by transient thermal effect in 3D RRAM array. More importantly, thermal crosstalk phenomena could deteriorate device retention performance and even lead to data storage state failure from LRS (low resistance state) to HRS (high resistance state) of the disturbed RRAM cell. In addition, the resistance state degradation will be more serious with continuously scaling down the feature size. Possible methods for alleviating thermal crosstalk effect while further advancing the scaling potential are also provided and verified by numerical simulation.

  16. Intercultural Sourcebook: Cross-Cultural Training Methods. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Sandra M., Ed.; Mumford, Monica G., Ed.

    This comprehensive collection of training methods and exercises used by top trainers in the cross-cultural field contains resources essential for cross-cultural learning. This second volume of the collection includes articles by 34 leading cross-cultural trainers and covers new or divergent training methods for cross-cultural skill development and…

  17. Comparison of nonnavigated and 3-dimensional image-based computer navigated balloon kyphoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sembrano, Jonathan N; Yson, Sharon C; Polly, David W; Ledonio, Charles Gerald T; Nuckley, David J; Santos, Edward R G

    2015-01-01

    Balloon kyphoplasty is a common treatment for osteoporotic and pathologic compression fractures. Advantages include minimal tissue disruption, quick recovery, pain relief, and in some cases prevention of progressive sagittal deformity. The benefit of image-based navigation in kyphoplasty has not been established. The goal of this study was to determine whether there is a difference between fluoroscopy-guided balloon kyphoplasty and 3-dimensional image-based navigation in terms of needle malposition rate, cement leakage rate, and radiation exposure time. The authors compared navigated and nonnavigated needle placement in 30 balloon kyphoplasty procedures (47 levels). Intraoperative 3-dimensional image-based navigation was used for needle placement in 21 cases (36 levels); conventional 2-dimensional fluoroscopy was used in the other 9 cases (11 levels). The 2 groups were compared for rates of needle malposition and cement leakage as well as radiation exposure time. Three of 11 (27%) nonnavigated cases were complicated by a malpositioned needle, and 2 of these had to be repositioned. The navigated group had a significantly lower malposition rate (1 of 36; 3%; P=.04). The overall rate of cement leakage was also similar in both groups (P=.29). Radiation exposure time was similar in both groups (navigated, 98 s/level; nonnavigated, 125 s/level; P=.10). Navigated kyphoplasty procedures did not differ significantly from nonnavigated procedures except in terms of needle malposition rate, where navigation may have decreased the need for needle repositioning.

  18. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  19. Cross-coupling of propargylated arabinogalactan with 2-bromothiophene.

    PubMed

    Parshina, Lidiya N; Grishchenko, Lyudmila A; Larina, Lyudmila I; Novikova, Lyubov N; Trofimov, Boris A

    2016-10-05

    Novel pharmacologically prospective derivatives of arabinogalactan (a polysaccharide from larch wood) containing acetylenic and thiophene moieties have been obtained in up to 90% yield by cross-coupling of propargylic ethers of arabinogalactan with 2-bromothiophene. The reaction proceeds in the presence of the catalytic system Pd(Ph3P)4/CuBr/LiBr and piperidine in DMSO at 80-85°С. An advantageous feature of the synthesis is that it requires 5-25 times lesser catalytic loading than in common Sonogashira protocols thus making the reaction particularly beneficial to synthesize pharmaceutically-oriented polysaccharides.

  20. Absolute cross sections for dissociative electron attachment to H2O and D2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Prashant; Prabhudesai, Vaibhav S.; Aravind, G.; Rahman, M. A.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2007-12-01

    The dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process to water (H2O) and heavy water (D2O) has been studied in the gas phase in a cross beam experiment for electron energies up to 20 eV. The apparatus used eliminates discrimination due to the kinetic energy and angular distribution of the ions. The cross sections are normalized to absolute values using the cross section for production of O- from O2 (Rapp and Briglia 1965 J. Chem. Phys. 43 1480). These are the first exhaustive measurements of absolute cross sections for both the H- and O- from H2O and D- and O- from D2O at all the three resonances. The results are compared with the scarce data available in the literature. Isotope effect is observed at the 12 eV resonance in the H- channel and at all the three resonances in the O- channel.

  1. Endothelial cells assemble into a 3-dimensional prevascular network in a bone tissue engineering construct.

    PubMed

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; de Boer, Jan; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A

    2006-09-01

    To engineer tissues with clinically relevant dimensions, one must overcome the challenge of rapidly creating functional blood vessels to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial cells, cocultured with osteoprogenitor cells, can organize into a prevascular network in vitro. When cultured in a spheroid coculture model with human mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) form a 3-dimensional prevascular network within 10 days of in vitro culture. The formation of the prevascular network was promoted by seeding 2% or fewer HUVECs. Moreover, the addition of endothelial cells resulted in a 4-fold upregulation of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. The addition of mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not result in stabilization of the prevascular network. Upon implantation, the prevascular network developed further and structures including lumen could be seen regularly. However, anastomosis with the host vasculature was limited. We conclude that endothelial cells are able to form a 3-dimensional (3D) prevascular network in vitro in a bone tissue engineering setting. This finding is a strong indication that in vitro prevascularization is a promising strategy to improve implant vascularization in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Can Abdominal Hypopressive Technique Change Levator Hiatus Area?: A 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Study.

    PubMed

    Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Torelli, Luiza; Zanetti, Miriam Raquel Diniz; Petricelli, Carla Dellabarba; Jármy-Di Bella, Zsuzsanna IIona Katalin; Nakamura, Mary Uchiyama; Araujo Júnior, E; Moron, Antonio Fernandes; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the levator hiatus area (LHA) at rest and during the performance of maximal pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions, during the abdominal hypopressive technique (AHT), and during the combination of PFM contractions (PFMCs) and the AHT. The study included 17 healthy nulliparous women who had no history of pelvic floor disorders. The LHA was evaluated with the patients in the lithotomy position. After a physiotherapist instructed the patients on the proper performance of the PFM and AHT exercises, 1 gynecologist performed the 3-dimensional translabial ultrasound examinations. The LHA was measured with the patients at rest. The PFMC alone, the AHT alone or the AHT in combination with a PFMC with 30 seconds of rest between the evaluations were performed. Each measurement was performed 2 times, and the mean value was used for statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon test was used to test the differences between the 2 maneuvers. Similar values were observed when comparing the LHA of the PFM at rest (12.2 ± 2.4) cm and during the AHT (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.227). The AHT+ PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm demonstrated lower values compared with AHT alone (11.7 ± 2.6) cm (P = 0.002). When comparing the PFMC (10.4 ± 2.1) cm with the AHT + PFMC (10.2 ± 1.9) cm, no significant difference (P = 0.551) was observed. During PFMC, the constriction was 1.8 cm; during the AHT, the constriction was 0.5 cm; and during the AHT + PFMC, it was 2 cm. The LHA assessed by 3-dimensional ultrasound did not significantly change with AHT. These results support the theory that AHT does not strengthen PFM.

  3. Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter. Volume 7, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, John, Ed.

    The Cross-Cultural Psychology Newsletter, an official publication of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, reports on recent publications and research in cross-cultural psychology. Notes on international conferences in the field are followed by annotations of new publications. In addition, recent research projects are…

  4. AFCI-2.0 Library of Neutron Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman,M.; Oblozinsky,P.; Mattoon,C.; Pigni,M.; Hoblit,S.; Mughabghab,S.F.; Sonzogni,A.; Talou,P.; Chadwick,M.B.; Hale.G.M.; Kahler,A.C.; Kawano,T.; Little,R.C.; Young,P.G.

    2011-06-26

    Neutron cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. The covariances refer to central values given in the 2006 release of the U.S. neutron evaluated library ENDF/B-VII. The preliminary version (AFCI-2.0beta) has been completed in October 2010 and made available to the users for comments. In the final 2.0 release, covariances for a few materials were updated, in particular new LANL evaluations for {sup 238,240}Pu and {sup 241}Am were adopted. BNL was responsible for covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work, while LANL was in charge of covariances for light nuclei and for actinides.

  5. Cross sections for production of H(2p, 2s, 1s) by electron collisional dissociation of H2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajello, J. M.; James, G. K.; Shemansky, D. E.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation function of H Ly-alpha from the astrophysically important dissociation of electron-excited H2 over the range 10-700 eV has been measured. The analysis predicts the cross section to energies higher than the present experimental limit, and it is found that the predicted shape is in close agreement with measured results. At 6 eV the cross section is dominated by the electric dipole first Born component, while at 100 eV the electric dipole component constitutes 73 percent of the total H(2p) cross section. The cross sections of the H(2s) and H(1s) components are calculated.

  6. Vibrationally resolved cross sections for the photoionization of CS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratmann, R. E.; Lucchese, Robert R.

    1994-12-01

    We have performed vibrationally resolved calculations of the excitation of the symmetric stretch in the photoionization of CS2 leading to the X 2Πg, A 2Πu, B 2Σ+u, and C 2Σ+g states of CS+2. Previous theoretical work has determined that the kπg shape resonance in the (5σu)-1 channel consists mainly of a linear combination of low lying virtual d orbitals on sulfur and is thus essentially atomic in nature. This conclusion was primarily based on the shape of the resonant wave function and the insensitivity of the energy of the resonance to bond stretching. Here, we have determined that the energies of the kπ shape resonances located well above threshold and the σ bound states just below threshold are insensitive to bond length. We have also found nearly constant vibrational branching ratios in all channels and polarization components. This is in qualitative agreement with experimental vibrationally resolved cross sections [S. Kakar, H. C. Choi, and E. D. Poliakoff, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 4690 (1992)] which show nearly constant vibrational branching ratios. Our present results indicate that caution must be exercised when using bond length sensitivity as an exclusive means to determine the existence of shape resonances.

  7. AFCI-2.0 Neutron Cross Section Covariance Library

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, M.; Herman, M; Oblozinsky, P.; Mattoon, C.M.; Pigni, M.; Hoblit, S.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Sonzogni, A.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M.B.; Hale, G.M.; Kahler, A.C.; Kawano, T.; Little, R.C.; Yount, P.G.

    2011-03-01

    The cross section covariance library has been under development by BNL-LANL collaborative effort over the last three years. The project builds on two covariance libraries developed earlier, with considerable input from BNL and LANL. In 2006, international effort under WPEC Subgroup 26 produced BOLNA covariance library by putting together data, often preliminary, from various sources for most important materials for nuclear reactor technology. This was followed in 2007 by collaborative effort of four US national laboratories to produce covariances, often of modest quality - hence the name low-fidelity, for virtually complete set of materials included in ENDF/B-VII.0. The present project is focusing on covariances of 4-5 major reaction channels for 110 materials of importance for power reactors. The work started under Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) in 2008, which changed to Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) in 2009. With the 2011 release the name has changed to the Covariance Multigroup Matrix for Advanced Reactor Applications (COMMARA) version 2.0. The primary purpose of the library is to provide covariances for AFCI data adjustment project, which is focusing on the needs of fast advanced burner reactors. Responsibility of BNL was defined as developing covariances for structural materials and fission products, management of the library and coordination of the work; LANL responsibility was defined as covariances for light nuclei and actinides. The COMMARA-2.0 covariance library has been developed by BNL-LANL collaboration for Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative applications over the period of three years, 2008-2010. It contains covariances for 110 materials relevant to fast reactor R&D. The library is to be used together with the ENDF/B-VII.0 central values of the latest official release of US files of evaluated neutron cross sections. COMMARA-2.0 library contains neutron cross section covariances for 12 light nuclei (coolants and moderators), 78 structural

  8. Candidate gene analyses of 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in subjects with malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Cole A.; Miller, Steven F.; da Fontoura, Clarissa S. G.; Wehby, George L.; Amendt, Brad A.; Holton, Nathan E.; Allareddy, Veeratrishul; Southard, Thomas E.; Moreno Uribe, Lina M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Genetic studies of malocclusion etiology have identified 4 deleterious mutations in genes, DUSP6, ARHGAP21, FGF23, and ADAMTS1 in familial Class III cases. Although these variants may have large impacts on Class III phenotypic expression, their low frequency (<1%) makes them unlikely to explain most malocclusions. Thus, much of the genetic variation underlying the dentofacial phenotypic variation associated with malocclusion remains unknown. In this study, we evaluated associations between common genetic variations in craniofacial candidate genes and 3-dimensional dentoalveolar phenotypes in patients with malocclusion. Methods Pretreatment dental casts or cone-beam computed tomographic images from 300 healthy subjects were digitized with 48 landmarks. The 3-dimensional coordinate data were submitted to a geometric morphometric approach along with principal component analysis to generate continuous phenotypes including symmetric and asymmetric components of dentoalveolar shape variation, fluctuating asymmetry, and size. The subjects were genotyped for 222 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 82 genes/loci, and phenotpye-genotype associations were tested via multivariate linear regression. Results Principal component analysis of symmetric variation identified 4 components that explained 68% of the total variance and depicted anteroposterior, vertical, and transverse dentoalveolar discrepancies. Suggestive associations (P < 0.05) were identified with PITX2, SNAI3, 11q22.2-q22.3, 4p16.1, ISL1, and FGF8. Principal component analysis for asymmetric variations identified 4 components that explained 51% of the total variations and captured left-to-right discrepancies resulting in midline deviations, unilateral crossbites, and ectopic eruptions. Suggestive associations were found with TBX1 AJUBA, SNAI3 SATB2, TP63, and 1p22.1. Fluctuating asymmetry was associated with BMP3 and LATS1. Associations for SATB2 and BMP3 with asymmetric variations remained significant

  9. Cross sections for positron impact with 2,2,4-trimethylpentane.

    PubMed

    Chiari, Luca; Zecca, Antonio; Blanco, Francisco; García, Gustavo; Perkins, Michael V; Buckman, Stephen J; Brunger, Michael J

    2014-08-21

    2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (C8H18), a hydrocarbon produced all over the world on a large scale in the processing of crude oil, has long been known and used in the energy sector. It has also recently attracted the attention of the radiation physics and chemistry community, owing to its applications in medical imaging techniques. Charged-particle interactions with this species unfortunately remain mostly unknown. In this study, we report on measured total cross sections for positron scattering from 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in the energy range from 0.12 to 50 eV. We also present calculations of the total cross sections, elastic integral and differential cross sections, positronium formation cross sections, and inelastic integral cross sections at energies from 1 to 1000 eV using the independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule. A knowledge of those scattering cross sections might, through simulation models, help to improve the accuracy of current radiation detection devices and hence provide better estimates of the extent of any charged-particle-induced damage in biomolecular systems.

  10. Partial (gamma)-Ray Cross Sections for the Reaction 239Pu(n,2n(gamma)i) and the 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Beacker, J.A.; Bernstein, L.A.; Younes, W.; McNabb, D.P.; Garrett, P.E.; Archer, D.; McGrath, C.A.; Stoyer, M.A.; Chen, H.; Ormand, W.E.; Nelson, R.O.; Chadwick, M.B.; Johns, G.D.; Drake, D.; Young, P.G.; Devlin, M.; Fotiades, N.; Wilburn, W.S.

    2001-09-14

    Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for production of discrete {gamma} rays in the {sup 239}Pu(n,2n{gamma}i){sup 238}Pu reaction have been measured. The experiments were performed at LANSCE/WNR on the 60R flight line. Reaction {gamma}-rays were measured using the large-scale Compton-suppressed array of Ge detectors, GEANIE. The motivation for this experiment, an overview of the partial {gamma}-ray cross-section measurement, and an introduction to the main experimental issues will be presented. The energy resolution of the Ge detectors allowed identification of reaction {gamma} rays above the background of sample radioactivity and fission {gamma} rays. The use of planar Ge detectors with their reduced sensitivity to neutron interactions and improved line shape was also important to the success of this experiment. Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections are presented for the 6{sub 1}{sup +} {yields} 4{sub 1}{sup +} member of the ground state rotational band in {sup 238}Pu, together with miscellaneous other {gamma}-ray partial cross sections. The n,2n reaction cross section shape and magnitude as a function of neutron energy was extracted from these partial cross sections using nuclear modeling (enhanced Hauser-Feshbach) to relate partial {gamma}-ray cross sections to the n,2n cross section. The critical nuclear modeling issue is the ratio of a partial cross section to the reaction channel cross section, and not the prediction of the absolute magnitude.

  11. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  12. The Effectiveness of an Interactive 3-Dimensional Computer Graphics Model for Medical Education

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Takeshi; Tamura, Yoko; Moriguchi, Hiroki

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical students often have difficulty achieving a conceptual understanding of 3-dimensional (3D) anatomy, such as bone alignment, muscles, and complex movements, from 2-dimensional (2D) images. To this end, animated and interactive 3-dimensional computer graphics (3DCG) can provide better visual information to users. In medical fields, research on the advantages of 3DCG in medical education is relatively new. Objective To determine the educational effectiveness of interactive 3DCG. Methods We divided 100 participants (27 men, mean (SD) age 17.9 (0.6) years, and 73 women, mean (SD) age 18.1 (1.1) years) from the Health Sciences University of Mongolia (HSUM) into 3DCG (n = 50) and textbook-only (control) (n = 50) groups. The control group used a textbook and 2D images, while the 3DCG group was trained to use the interactive 3DCG shoulder model in addition to a textbook. We conducted a questionnaire survey via an encrypted satellite network between HSUM and Tokushima University. The questionnaire was scored on a 5-point Likert scale from strongly disagree (score 1) to strongly agree (score 5). Results Interactive 3DCG was effective in undergraduate medical education. Specifically, there was a significant difference in mean (SD) scores between the 3DCG and control groups in their response to questionnaire items regarding content (4.26 (0.69) vs 3.85 (0.68), P = .001) and teaching methods (4.33 (0.65) vs 3.74 (0.79), P < .001), but no significant difference in the Web category. Participants also provided meaningful comments on the advantages of interactive 3DCG. Conclusions Interactive 3DCG materials have positive effects on medical education when properly integrated into conventional education. In particular, our results suggest that interactive 3DCG is more efficient than textbooks alone in medical education and can motivate students to understand complex anatomical structures. PMID:23611759

  13. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 5, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "The Japanese Concept of Hanashi-Kata and Its Potential Influence on Foreign Language Acquisition" by James R. Bowers; "Linguistic Relativity and Foreign Language Learning" by Ronald Taubitz; "On Being a Sansei English Teacher in Japan" by Ruth…

  14. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume 6, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This issue of "Cross Currents" includes the following articles: "An Experience with CLL" by Earl Stevick; "Accuracy vs. Fluency in the English Language Classroom" by Kenton Sutherland; "Predicate Markers: A New Look at the English Predicate System" by Phillip L. Knowles; "'Let Your TV do the Talking':…

  15. National CrossTalk. Volume 17, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  16. National CrossTalk. Volume 18, Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    "National CrossTalk" is a publication of the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education. The National Center promotes public policies that enhance opportunities for quality education and training beyond high school. The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher…

  17. Surface compositional heterogeneity of (4) Vesta from Dawn FC using a 3 dimensional spectral approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thangjam, G.; Nathues, A.; Mengel, K.; Hoffmann, M.; Schäfer, M.; Mann, P.; Cloutis, E. A.; Behrens, H.; Platz, T.; Schäfer, T.; Sierks, H.; Christensen, U.; Russell, C. T.

    2015-10-01

    The historic journey of the Dawn spacecraft in 2011- 2012 was a turning point in understanding asteroid (4) Vesta. The surface composition and lithology were analysed and mapped in earlier studies using Dawn imageries [1], [2]. We introduce here a 3 dimensional spectral approach to analyze and map the surface composition using Dawn Framing Camera (FC) color data. Various laboratory spectra of available HEDs and their mixtures, including new spectra measured in this work, were used. Band parameters were reviewed and modified wherever necessary to make the best use of the data. We particularly focused on carbonaceous-chondrite-bearing and olivine-bearing lithologies. An attempt has been made to distinguish glass/impact-melt lithologies.

  18. Use of 3-Dimensional Printing for Preoperative Planning in the Treatment of Recurrent Anterior Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Ujash; Theodoropoulos, John; Abouali, Jihad

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent anterior shoulder instability often results from large bony Bankart or Hill-Sachs lesions. Preoperative imaging is essential in guiding our surgical management of patients with these conditions. However, we are often limited to making an attempt to interpret a 3-dimensional (3D) structure using conventional 2-dimensional imaging. In cases in which complex anatomy or bony defects are encountered, this type of imaging is often inadequate. We used 3D printing to produce a solid 3D model of a glenohumeral joint from a young patient with recurrent anterior shoulder instability and complex Bankart and Hill-Sachs lesions. The 3D model from our patient was used in the preoperative planning stages of an arthroscopic Bankart repair and remplissage to determine the depth of the Hill-Sachs lesion and the degree of abduction and external rotation at which the Hill-Sachs lesion engaged. PMID:26759768

  19. Estimating Reaction Cross Sections from Measured (Gamma)-Ray Yields: The 238U(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, W

    2002-11-18

    A procedure is presented to deduce the reaction-channel cross section from measured partial {gamma}-ray cross sections. In its simplest form, the procedure consists in adding complementary measured and calculated contributions to produce the channel cross section. A matrix formalism is introduced to provide a rigorous framework for this approach. The formalism is illustrated using a fictitious product nucleus with a simple level scheme, and a general algorithm is presented to process any level scheme. In order to circumvent the cumbersome algebra that can arise in the matrix formalism, a more intuitive graphical procedure is introduced to obtain the same reaction cross-section estimate. The features and limitations of the method are discussed, and the technique is applied to extract the {sup 235}U (n,2n) and {sup 239}Pu(n,2n) cross sections from experimental partial {gamma}-ray cross sections, coupled with (enhanced) Hauser-Feshbach calculations.

  20. Effect of mandibular advancement on the natural position of the head: a preliminary study of 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaozhen; Liu, Yanpu; Edwards, Sean P

    2013-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the potential effect of advancement by bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO) on the natural position of the head by using 3-dimensional cephalomentric analysis. Seven consecutive patients who had had only BSSO advancement, and had had preoperative and 6-week postoperative cone beam computed tomography (CT) scans, were recruited to this retrospective study. Two variables, SNB and SNC2, were used to indicate the craniomandibular alignment and craniocervical inclination, respectively, in the midsagittal plane. Using 3-dimensional cephalometric analysis software, the SNB and the SNC2 were recorded in volume and measured in the midsagittal plane at 3 independent time-points. The reliability was measured and a paired t test used to assess the significance of differences between the means of SNB and SNC2 before and after operation. The 3-dimensional cephalometric measurement showed good reliability. The SNB was increased as planned in all the mandibles that were advanced, the cervical vertebrae were brought forward after BSSO, and the SNC2 was significantly increased in 6 of the 7 patients. Three-dimensional cephalometric analysis may provide an alternative way of assessing cephalometrics. After BSSO advancement, the natural position of the head changed by increasing the craniocervical inclination in an anteroposterior direction.

  1. Parametrization of electron impact ionization cross sections for CO, CO2, NH3 and SO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, Santosh K.; Nguyen, Hung P.

    1987-01-01

    The electron impact ionization and dissociative ionization cross section data of CO, CO2, CH4, NH3, and SO2, measured in the laboratory, were parameterized utilizing an empirical formula based on the Born approximation. For this purpose an chi squared minimization technique was employed which provided an excellent fit to the experimental data.

  2. Selection of massive bone allografts using shape-matching 3-dimensional registration

    PubMed Central

    Docquier, Pierre-Louis; Cartiaux, Olivier; Cornu, Olivier; Delloye, Christian; Banse, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Massive bone allografts are used when surgery causes large segmental defects. Shape-matching is the primary criterion for selection of an allograft. The current selection method, based on 2-dimensional template comparison, is inefficient for 3-dimensional complex bones. We have analyzed a 3-dimensional (3-D) registration method to match the anatomy of the allograft with that of the recipient. Methods 3-D CT-based registration was performed to match the shapes of both bones. We used the registration to align the allograft volume onto the recipient's bone. Hemipelvic allograft selection was tested in 10 virtual recipients with a panel of 10 potential allografts, including one from the recipient himself (trap graft). 4 observers were asked to visually inspect the superposition of allograft over the recipient, to classify the allografts into 4 categories according to the matching of anatomic zones, and to select the 3 best matching allografts. The results obtained using the registration method were compared with those from a previous study on the template method. Results Using the registration method, the observers systematically detected the trap graft. Selections of the 3 best matching allografts performed using registration and template methods were different. Selection of the 3 best matching allografts was improved by the registration method. Finally, reproducibility of the selection was improved when using the registration method. Interpretation 3-D CT registration provides more useful information than the template method but the final decision lies with the surgeon, who should select the optimal allograft according to his or her own preferences and the needs of the recipient. PMID:20175643

  3. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures

    PubMed Central

    Barde, Dhananjay H; Mudhol, Anupama; Ali, Fareedi Mukram; Madan, R S; Kar, Sanjay; Ustaad, Farheen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mandibular fractures are treated surgically by either rigid or semi-rigid fixation, two techniques that reflect almost opposite concept of craniomaxillofacial osteosynthesis. The shortcomings of these fixations led to the development of 3 dimensional (3D) miniplates. This study was designed with the aim of evaluating the efficiency of 3D miniplate over Champys miniplate in anterior mandibular fractures. Materials & Methods: This study was done in 40 patients with anterior mandibular fractures. Group I consisting of 20 patients in whom 3D plates were used for fixation while in Group II consisting of other 20 patients, 4 holes straight plates were used. The efficacy of 3D miniplate over Champy’s miniplate was evaluated in terms of operating time, average pain, post operative infection, occlusion, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility and neurological deficit. Results: The mean operation time for Group II was more compared to Group I (statistically significant).There was significantly greater pain on day of surgery and at 2nd week for Group II patients but there was no significant difference between the two groups at 4th week. The post operative infection, occlusal disturbance, wound dehiscence, post operative mobility at facture site, neurological deficit was statistically insignificant (chi square test). Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that fixation of anterior mandibular fractures with 3D plates provides three dimensional stability and carries low morbidity and infection rates. The only probable limitation of these 3D plates may be excessive implant material, but they seem to be easy alternative to champys miniplate. How to cite the article: Barde DH, Mudhol A, Ali FM, Madan RS, Kar S, Ustaad F. Efficacy of 3-Dimensional plates over Champys miniplates in mandibular anterior fractures. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):20-6. PMID:24653598

  4. Control of Grasp and Manipulation by Soft Fingers with 3-Dimensional Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Akira; Shibata, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Yoshikazu

    In this paper, we consider control of grasp and manipulation of an object in a 3-dimensional space by a 3-fingered hand robot with soft finger tips. We firstly propose a 3-dimensional deformation model of a hemispherical soft finger tip and verify its relevance by experimental data. Second, we consider the contact kinematics and derive the dynamical equations of the fingers and the object where the 3-dimensional deformation is considered. For the system, we thirdly propose a method to regulate the object and the internal force with the information of the hand, the object and the deformation. A simulation result is presented to show the effectiveness of the control method.

  5. Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates for improving the resolution of (R, S)-2-octanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Guo, Chen; Liu, Chun-Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Novel magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were fabricated by immobilizing the cross-linked lipase aggregates onto magnetic particles with a high number of -NH2 terminal groups using p-benzoquinone as the cross-linking agent. At the optimal fabrication conditions, 100% of immobilization efficiency and 139% of activity recovery of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were achieved. The magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates were able to efficiently resolve (R, S)-2-octanol, and retained 100% activity and 100% enantioselectivity after 10 cycles of reuse, whereas the cross-linked lipase aggregates only retained about 50% activity and 70% enantioselectivity due to insufficient cross-linking. These results provide a great potential for industrial applications of the magnetic cross-linked lipase aggregates.

  6. Total Cross Section Measurements and Velocity Distributions of Hyperthermal Charge Transfer in Xe2+ + N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hause, Michael; Prince, Benjamin; Bemish, Raymond

    Guided-ion beam measurements of the charge exchange (CEX) cross section for Xe2+ + N2 are reported for collision energies ranging from 0.3 to 100 eV in the center-of-mass frame. Measured total XS decrease from 69.5 +/-0.3 Angstroms2 (Angs.) at the lowest collision energies to 40 Angs.2at 100 eV. The product N2+CEX cross section is similar to the total CEX cross section while those of the dissociative product, N+, are less than 1Angs.2 for collision energies above 9 eV. The product N2+CEXcross section measured here are much larger than the total optical emission-excitation cross sections for the N2+(A) and (B) state products determined previously in the chemiluminescence study of Prince and Chiu suggesting that most of the N2+products are in the X state. Time-of-flight (TOF) spectra of both the Xe+ and N2+products suggest two different CEX product channels. The first leaves highly-vibrationally excited N2+products with forward scattered Xe+ (LAB frame) and releases between 0.35 to 0.6 eV translational energy for collisions below 17.6 eV. The second component decreases with collisional energy and leaves backscattered Xe+ and low-vibrational states of N2+.At collision energies above 17.6 eV, only charge exchange involving minimal momentum exchange remains in the TOF spectra. AFOSR 13RV07COR.

  7. Materials and Modulators for True 3-Dimensional Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    two galvanometer mirrors. This screen is about 50 mm on a side. 31 Fig. 2. Photo of our first transparent green UC display. Visible light is...laser scanned with two galvanometer mirrors. This screen is about 50 mm on a side. 32 Fig. 2. Photo of our first transparent green UC display

  8. 3-Dimensional analysis for class III malocclusion patients with facial asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Eun-Jung; Cheon, Hae-Myung; Choi, Eun-Joo; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric measurement and 3-dimensional (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurement, and to evaluate the availability of 3D analysis for asymmetry patients. Materials and Methods A total of Twenty-seven patients were evaluated for facial asymmetry by photograph and cephalometric radiograph, and CBCT. The 14 measurements values were evaluated and those for 2D and 3D were compared. The patients were classified into two groups. Patients in group 1 were evaluated for symmetry in the middle 1/3 of the face and asymmetry in the lower 1/3 of the face, and those in group 2 for asymmetry of both the middle and lower 1/3 of the face. Results In group 1, significant differences were observed in nine values out of 14 values. Values included three from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (cant and both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). In group 2, comparison between 2D and 3D showed significant difference in 10 factors. Values included four from anteroposterior cephalometric radiograph measurement values (both maxillary height, both body height) and six from lateral cephalometric radiographs (both ramus length, both lateral ramal inclination, and both gonial angles). Conclusion Information from 2D analysis was inaccurate in several measurements. Therefore, in asymmetry patients, 3D analysis is useful in diagnosis of asymmetry. PMID:24471038

  9. Rotational Energy Transfer Cross Sections in N2-N2 Collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Green, Sheldon; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Rotational inelastic transitions of N2 have been studied in the coupled state (CS, also called centrifugal sudden) and infinite-order-sudden (IOS) approximations, using the N2-N2 rigid-rotor potential of van der Avoird et al. For benchmarking purposes, close coupling (CC) calculations have also been carried out over a limited energy range and for even j - even j collisions only. Both the CC and CS cross sections have been obtained with and without exchange symmetry, whereas exchange is neglected in the IOS calculations. The CS results track the CC cross sections rather well. At total energies between 113 to 219 cm(exp -1) the average deviation is 14%. The deviation decrease with increasing energy, indicating that the CS approximation can be used as a substitute at higher energies when the CC calculations become impractical. Comparison between the CS and IOS cross sections at the high energy end of the CS calculation, 500 - 680 cm(exp-1), shows significant differences between the two. In addition, the IOS results exhibits sensitivity to the amount of inelasticity and the results for large DELTA J transitions are subjected to bigger errors. At total energy 113 cm(exp -1) and above, the average deviation between state-to-state cross sections calculated with even and odd exchange symmetries is 1.5%.

  10. Embedding and publishing interactive, 3-dimensional, scientific figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) files.

    PubMed

    Barnes, David G; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J; Quayle, Michelle R; McHenry, Colin R

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2).

  11. Embedding and Publishing Interactive, 3-Dimensional, Scientific Figures in Portable Document Format (PDF) Files

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David G.; Vidiassov, Michail; Ruthensteiner, Bernhard; Fluke, Christopher J.; Quayle, Michelle R.; McHenry, Colin R.

    2013-01-01

    With the latest release of the S2PLOT graphics library, embedding interactive, 3-dimensional (3-d) scientific figures in Adobe Portable Document Format (PDF) files is simple, and can be accomplished without commercial software. In this paper, we motivate the need for embedding 3-d figures in scholarly articles. We explain how 3-d figures can be created using the S2PLOT graphics library, exported to Product Representation Compact (PRC) format, and included as fully interactive, 3-d figures in PDF files using the movie15 LaTeX package. We present new examples of 3-d PDF figures, explain how they have been made, validate them, and comment on their advantages over traditional, static 2-dimensional (2-d) figures. With the judicious use of 3-d rather than 2-d figures, scientists can now publish, share and archive more useful, flexible and faithful representations of their study outcomes. The article you are reading does not have embedded 3-d figures. The full paper, with embedded 3-d figures, is recommended and is available as a supplementary download from PLoS ONE (File S2). PMID:24086243

  12. JEF 2.2 Cross Section Library for the MCNP Monte Carlo Code.

    SciTech Connect

    MASSIMO,; PESCARINI,

    2003-11-24

    Version 01 This continuous energy cross-section data library for MCNP is based on the JEF-2.2 evaluated nuclear data library (ACE format). The present library was satisfactorily tested in thermal and fast criticality benchmarks. For analyses below 20 MeV, MCJEF22NEA.BOLlB was applied also in cell and core calculations dedicated to the study of the subcritical accelerator driven systems (ADS).

  13. National CrossTalk. Volume 13, Number 2, Spring 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National CrossTalk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This issue contains the following articles: (1) CUNY [City University of New York] Sheds Reputation as "Tutor U": The Nation's Largest Urban University Raises Standards, and Grapples with Remediation (Jon…

  14. Agent-Based Target Detection in 3-Dimensional Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    thesis along this line is discussed in Chapter 11. 2 D. THESIS ORGANIZATION The remainder of this thesis is organized into 4 chapters as follows : 1...Vertex and fragment shader programs are used to make comparisons of the stored images. All the renders and calculations are performed on the Graphics...not implemented in the demonstration program. Once the two images are generated they are further processed as follows : 1. The Line of Sight Check At

  15. Dynamic in vivo 3-dimensional moment arms of the individual quadriceps components.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Nicole A; Sheehan, Frances T

    2009-08-25

    The purpose of this study was to provide the first in vivo 3-dimensional (3D) measures of knee extensor moment arms, measured during dynamic volitional activity. The hypothesis was that the vastus lateralis (VL) and vastus medialis (VM) have significant off-axis moment arms compared to the central quadriceps components. After obtaining informed consent, three 3D dynamic cine phase contrast (PC) MRI sets (x,y,z velocity and anatomic images) were acquired from 22 subjects during active knee flexion and extension. Using a sagittal-oblique and two coronal-oblique imaging planes, the origins and insertions of each quadriceps muscle were identified and tracked through each time frame by integrating the cine-PC velocity data. The moment arm (MA) and relative moment (RM, defined as the cross product of the tendon line-of-action and a line connecting the line-of-action with the patellar center of mass) were calculated for each quadriceps component. The tendencies of the VM and VL to produce patellar tilt were evenly balanced. Interestingly, the magnitude of RM-P(Spin) for the VM and VL is approximately four times greater than the magnitude of RM-P(Tilt) for the same muscles suggesting that patellar spin may play a more important role in patellofemoral kinematics than previously thought. Thus, a force imbalance that leads to excessive lateral tilt, such as VM weakness in patellofemoral pain syndrome, would produce excessive negative spin (positive spin: superior patellar pole rotates laterally) and to a much greater degree. This would explain the increased negative spin found in recent studies of patellar maltracking. Assessing the contribution of each quadriceps component in three dimensions provides a more complete understanding of muscle functionality.

  16. Polarization-independent efficiency enhancement of organic solar cells by using 3-dimensional plasmonic electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuanhua; Choy, Wallace C. H.; Ren, Xingang; Xin, Jianzhuo; Lin, Peng; Leung, Dennis C. W.

    2013-04-01

    Plasmonic back reflectors have recently become a promising strategy for realizing efficient organic solar cell (OSCs). Since plasmonic effects are strongly sensitive to light polarization, it is highly desirable to simultaneously achieve polarization-independent response and enhanced power conversion efficiency (PCE) by designing the nanostructured geometry of plasmonic reflector electrode. Here, through a strategic analysis of 2-dimensional grating (2D) and 3-dimensional patterns (3D), with similar periodicity as a plasmonic back reflector, we find that the OSCs with 3D pattern achieve the best PCE enhancement by 24.6%, while the OSCs with 2D pattern can offer 17.5% PCE enhancement compared to the optimized control OSCs. Importantly, compared with the 2D pattern, the 3D pattern shows a polarization independent plasmonic response, which will greatly extend its uses in photovoltaic applications. This work shows the significances of carefully selecting and designing geometry of plasmonic nanostructures in achieving high-efficient, polarization-independent plasmonic OSCs.

  17. Development and applications of 3-dimensional integration nanotechnologies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Areum; Choi, Eunmi; Son, Hyungbin; Pyo, Sung Gyu

    2014-02-01

    Unlike conventional two-dimensional (2D) planar structures, signal or power is supplied through through-silicon via (TSV) in three-dimensional (3D) integration technology to replace wires for binding the chip/wafer. TSVs have becomes an essential technology, as they satisfy Moore's law. This 3D integration technology enables system and sensor functions at a nanoscale via the implementation of a highly integrated nano-semiconductor as well as the fabrication of a single chip with multiple functions. Thus, this technology is considered to be a new area of development for the systemization of the nano-bio area. In this review paper, the basic technology required for such 3D integration is described and methods to measure the bonding strength in order to measure the void occurring during bonding are introduced. Currently, CMOS image sensors and memory chips associated with nanotechnology are being realized on the basis of 3D integration technology. In this paper, we intend to describe the applications of high-performance nano-biosensor technology currently under development and the direction of development of a high performance lab-on-a-chip (LOC).

  18. Starvation-induced cross protection against heat or H2O2 challenge in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, D E; Schultz, J E; Matin, A

    1988-09-01

    Glucose- or nitrogen-starved cultures of Escherichia coli exhibited enhanced resistance to heat (57 degrees C) or H2O2 (15 mM) challenge, compared with their exponentially growing counterparts. The degree of resistance increased with the time for which the cells were starved prior to the challenge, with 4 h of starvation providing the maximal protection. Protein synthesis during starvation was essential for these cross protections, since chloramphenicol addition at the onset of starvation prevented the development of thermal or oxidative resistance. Starved cultures also demonstrated stronger thermal and oxidative resistance than did growing cultures adapted to heat, H2O2, or ethanol prior to the heat or H2O2 challenge. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of 35S-pulse-labeled proteins showed that subsets of the 30 glucose starvation proteins were also synthesized during heat or H2O2 adaptation; three proteins were common to all three stresses. Most of the common proteins were among the previously identified Pex proteins (J.E. Schultz, G. I. Latter, and A. Matin, J. Bacteriol. 170:3903-3909, 1988), which are independent of cyclic AMP positive control for their induction during starvation. Induction of starvation proteins dependent on cyclic AMP was not important in these cross protections, since a delta cya strain of E. coli K-12 exhibited the same degree of resistance to heat or H2O2 as the wild-type parent did during both growth and starvation.

  19. Absolute photoionization cross sections of furanic fuels: 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural.

    PubMed

    Smith, Audrey R; Meloni, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Absolute photoionization cross sections of the molecules 2-ethylfuran, 2-acetylfuran and furfural, including partial ionization cross sections for the dissociative ionized fragments, are measured for the first time. These measurements are important because they allow fuel quantification via photoionization mass spectrometry and the development of quantitative kinetic modeling for the complex combustion of potential fuels. The experiments are carried out using synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry with an orthogonal time-of-flight spectrometer used for mass analysis at the Advanced Light Source of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The CBS-QB3 calculations of adiabatic ionization energies and appearance energies agree well with the experimental results. Several bond dissociation energies are also derived and presented.

  20. Numerical study of the directed polymer in a 1 + 3 dimensional random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monthus, C.; Garel, T.

    2006-09-01

    The directed polymer in a 1+3 dimensional random medium is known to present a disorder-induced phase transition. For a polymer of length L, the high temperature phase is characterized by a diffusive behavior for the end-point displacement R2 ˜L and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜O(1). The low-temperature phase is characterized by an anomalous wandering exponent R2/L ˜Lω and by free-energy fluctuations of order ΔF(L) ˜Lω where ω˜0.18. In this paper, we first study the scaling behavior of various properties to localize the critical temperature Tc. Our results concerning R2/L and ΔF(L) point towards 0.76 < Tc ≤T2=0.79, so our conclusion is that Tc is equal or very close to the upper bound T2 derived by Derrida and coworkers (T2 corresponds to the temperature above which the ratio bar{Z_L^2}/(bar{Z_L})^2 remains finite as L ↦ ∞). We then present histograms for the free-energy, energy and entropy over disorder samples. For T ≫Tc, the free-energy distribution is found to be Gaussian. For T ≪Tc, the free-energy distribution coincides with the ground state energy distribution, in agreement with the zero-temperature fixed point picture. Moreover the entropy fluctuations are of order ΔS ˜L1/2 and follow a Gaussian distribution, in agreement with the droplet predictions, where the free-energy term ΔF ˜Lω is a near cancellation of energy and entropy contributions of order L1/2.

  1. 3-dimensionally integrated photo-detector for neutrino physics and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retiere, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Silicon photo-multipliers (SiPMs) are a promising solution for the detection of scintillation light of liquid Xenon and Argon in applications requiring minimum radioactivity content such as neutrinoless double beta decay. The nEXO experiment in particular is planning to use SiPM planes covering 5 m2 for the detection of the light emitted within 5tons of liquid Xenon. The 3-dimensionally digital integrated SiPMs (3DdSiPMs) is an emerging technology that if successful would challenge the analog SiPM technology. Indeed, by combining separate photo-detector and electronics chips within a single package, 3DdSiPM achieve excellent performances for photon counting and time stamping, while dissipating minimum power. Being mostly based on high purity silicon chips, 3DdSiPMs are also expected to achieve excellent radiopurity.The development of 3DdSiPMs for applications in liquid Xenon is expected to progress rapidly by altering the design of the first successful chip assembly developed for medical imaging, focusing on minimizing power dissipation and large area (> cm2) scaling. In this talk we will describe the 3DdSiPM concept a solution for ``light to bit conversion'' within a single package and show how it may revolutionize light detection in noble-gas liquids and beyond.

  2. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf , Muhammad N.

    2016-01-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity. PMID:28008983

  3. In vitro 3-dimensional tumor model for radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Rose, Barbara; Lee, C Soon; Hong, Angela M

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is increasing due to the rising prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC is associated with better outcomes than HPV negative OSCC. Our aim was to explore the possibility that this favorable prognosis is due to the enhanced radiosensitivity of HPV positive OSCC. HPV positive OSCC cell lines were generated from the primary OSCCs of 2 patients, and corresponding HPV positive cell lines generated from nodal metastases following xenografting in nude mice. Monolayer and 3 dimensional (3D) culture techniques were used to compare the radiosensitivity of HPV positive lines with that of 2 HPV negative OSCC lines. Clonogenic and protein assays were used to measure survival post radiation. Radiation induced cell cycle changes were studied using flow cytometry. In both monolayer and 3D culture, HPV positive cells exhibited a heterogeneous appearance whereas HPV negative cells tended to be homogeneous. After irradiation, HPV positive cells had a lower survival in clonogenic assays and lower total protein levels in 3D cultures than HPV negative cells. Irradiated HPV positive cells showed a high proportion of cells in G1/S phase, increased apoptosis, an increased proliferation rate, and an inability to form 3D tumor clumps. In conclusion, HPV positive OSCC cells are more radiosensitive than HPV negative OSCC cells in vitro, supporting a more radiosensitive nature of HPV positive OSCC.

  4. The distribution of particles in the plane dispersed by a simple 3-dimensional diffusion process.

    PubMed

    Stockmarr, Anders

    2002-11-01

    Populations of particles dispersed in the 2-dimensional plane from a single point-source may be grouped as focus expansion patterns, with an exponentially decreasing density, and more diffuse patterns with thicker tails. Exponentially decreasing distributions are often modelled as the result of 2-dimensional diffusion processes acting to disperse the particles, while thick-tailed distributions tend to be modelled by purely descriptive distributions. Models based on the Cauchy distribution have been suggested, but these have not been related to diffusion modelling. However, the distribution of particles dispersed from a point source by a 3-dimensional Brownian motion that incorporates a constant drift, under the condition that the particle starts at a given height and is stopped when it reaches the xy plane (zero height) may be shown to result in both slim-tailed exponentially decreasing densities, and thick-tailed polynomially decreasing densities with infinite mean travel distance from the source, depending on parameter values. The drift in the third coordinate represents gravitation, while the drift in the first and second represents a (constant) wind. Conditions for the density having exponentially decreasing tails is derived in terms of gravitation and wind, with a special emphasis on applications to light-weighted particles such as fungal spores.

  5. Scaffold Free Bio-orthogonal Assembly of 3-Dimensional Cardiac Tissue via Cell Surface Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhnikov, Dmitry; O’Brien, Paul J.; Elahipanah, Sina; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2016-12-01

    There has been tremendous interest in constructing in vitro cardiac tissue for a range of fundamental studies of cardiac development and disease and as a commercial system to evaluate therapeutic drug discovery prioritization and toxicity. Although there has been progress towards studying 2-dimensional cardiac function in vitro, there remain challenging obstacles to generate rapid and efficient scaffold-free 3-dimensional multiple cell type co-culture cardiac tissue models. Herein, we develop a programmed rapid self-assembly strategy to induce specific and stable cell-cell contacts among multiple cell types found in heart tissue to generate 3D tissues through cell-surface engineering based on liposome delivery and fusion to display bio-orthogonal functional groups from cell membranes. We generate, for the first time, a scaffold free and stable self assembled 3 cell line co-culture 3D cardiac tissue model by assembling cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and cardiac fibroblast cells via a rapid inter-cell click ligation process. We compare and analyze the function of the 3D cardiac tissue chips with 2D co-culture monolayers by assessing cardiac specific markers, electromechanical cell coupling, beating rates and evaluating drug toxicity.

  6. Overtone dissociation of peroxynitric acid (HO2NO2): absorption cross sections and photolysis products.

    PubMed

    Stark, Harald; Brown, Steven S; Burkholder, James B; Aldener, Mattias; Riffault, Veronique; Gierczak, Tomasz; Ravishankara, A R

    2008-10-02

    Band strengths for the second (3nuOH) and third (4nuOH) overtones of the OH stretch vibration of peroxynitric acid, HO2NO2 (PNA) in the gas-phase were measured using Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS). Both OH overtone transitions show diffuse smoothly varying symmetrical absorption profiles without observable rotational structure. Integrated band strengths (base e) at 296 K were determined to be S(3nuOH) = (5.7 +/- 1.1) x 10(-20) and S(4nuOH) = (4.9 +/- 0.9) x 10(-21) cm(2) molecule(-1) cm(-1) with peak cross sections of (8.8 +/- 1.7) x 10(-22) and (7.0 +/- 1.3) x 10(-23) cm(2) molecule(-1) at 10086.0 +/- 0.2 cm(-1) and 13095.8 +/- 0.4 cm(-1), respectively, using PNA concentrations measured on line by Fourier-transform infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. The quoted uncertainties are 2sigma (95% confidence level) and include estimated systematic errors in the measurements. OH overtone spectra measured at lower temperature, 231 K, showed a narrowing of the 3nuOH band along with an increase in its peak absorption cross section, but no change in S(3nuOH) to within the precision of the measurement (+/-9%). Measurement of a PNA action spectrum showed that HO2 is produced from second overtone photodissociation. The action spectrum agreed with the CRDS absorption spectra. The PNA cross sections determined in this work for 3nuOH and 4nuOH will increase calculated atmospheric photolysis rates of PNA slightly.

  7. Development of a 3-dimensional dosimetry system for Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, KyoungJun; Kwak, JungWon; Lee, DoHeui; Cho, ByungChul; Lee, SangWook; Ahn, SeungDo

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of our study is to develop a new, 3-dimensional dosimetry system to verify the accuracy of dose deliveries in Leksell Gamma Knife Perfexion (LGKP) (Elekta, Norcross, GA, USA). The instrument consists of a moving head phantom, an embedded thin active layer and a CCD camera system and was designed to be mounted to LGKP. As an active material concentrically located in the hemispheric head phantom, we choose Gafchromic EBT3 films and Gd2O2S:Tb phosphor sheets for dosimetric measurements. Also, to compensate for the lack of backscatter, we located a 1-cm-thick poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) plate downstream of the active layer. The PMMA plate was transparent to scintillation light to reach the CCD with 1200 × 1200 pixels and a 5.2 µm pitch. With this system, 300 images with a 0.2-mm slice gap were acquired under each of three collimator setups, i.e. 4-mm, 8-mm, and 16-mm, respectively. The 2D projected images taken by the CCD camera were compared with the dose distributions measured by the EBT3 films under the same conditions. All 2D distributions were normalized to the maximum values derived by fitting peaks for each collimator setup. The differences in the full widths at half maximum (FWHM) of 2D profiles between CCD images and film doses were measured to be less than 0.3-mm. The scanning task for all peak regions took less than three minutes with the new instrument. So it can be utilized as a QA tool for the Gamma knife radiosurgery system instead of film dosimetry, the use of which requires much more time and many more resources.

  8. The Effect of Asymmetric flow on the 3-Dimensional Symmetric Bogus Vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEE, J.; Cheong, H.; Hwang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of asymmetric flow on the 3-dimensional symmetric bogus vortex called as Structure Adjustable Balanced Vortex (SABV) is investigated for 9 tropical cyclones (TCs) observed in Northwest Pacific. NCEP global reanalysis data were used as initial condition, and the high order spectral filter (HSF) were employed to separate asymmetric flow from disturbance flow as following: The first step is that the global field is decomposed into environment and disturbance field. And secondly, the disturbance field is transformed into cylindrical coordinates, and the Fourier transform is applied to the transformed data along the azimuth. Lastly, the inverse Fourier transform is carried out except for wavenumber (WN) 0 component, and it is added to SABV. To investigate the effect of asymmetric flow on the SABV, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) V3.2.1 was employed, which was set to have a single domain with 12 km resolution and YSU, WSM 6 and Kain-Fritsch schemes are used. With these methods, it was found that the track error at 48 h and 72 h was improved by about 13% and 16%, respectively, implying the asymmetric flow should be added to SABV for better performance.

  9. Vaginal High Pressure Zone Assessed by Dynamic 3-Dimensional Ultrasound Images of the Pelvic Floor

    PubMed Central

    JUNG, Sung-Ae; PRETORIUS, Dolores H.; PADDA, Bikram S.; WEINSTEIN, Milena M.; NAGER, Charles W.; den BOER, Derkina J.; MITTAL, Ravinder K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the shape and characteristics of the vaginal high pressure zone (HPZ) by imaging a compliant fluid-filled bag placed in the vaginal HPZ with the 3-dimensional ultrasound (3D US) system. Study Design Nine nulliparous asymptomatic women underwent 3D US imaging and vaginal pressure measurements. A compliant bag was placed in the vagina and filled with various volumes of water. 3D US volumes of the pelvic floor were obtained at each bag volume while the subjects were at rest and during pelvic floor contraction. Results At low volumes, the bag was collapsed for a longitudinal extent of approximately 3.3 ± 0.2 cm (length of vaginal HPZ). With increasing bag volume, there was opening of the vaginal HPZ in the lateral dimension before the anterior-posterior (AP) dimension. Pelvic floor contraction produced a decrease in the AP dimension but not the lateral dimension of the bag in the region of the vaginal HPZ. Conclusion We propose that the shape and characteristics of the vaginal HPZ are consistent with the hypothesis that the puborectalis muscle is responsible for the genesis of the vaginal HPZ. PMID:17618755

  10. Absolute UV absorption cross sections of dimethyl substituted Criegee intermediate (CH3)2COO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yuan-Pin; Chang, Chun-Hung; Takahashi, Kaito; Lin, Jim-Min, Jr.

    2016-06-01

    The absolute absorption cross sections of (CH3)2COO under a jet-cooled condition were measured via laser depletion to be (1.32 ± 0.10) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 308 nm and (9.6 ± 0.8) × 10-18 cm2 molecule-1 at 352 nm. The peak UV cross section is estimated to be (1.75 ± 0.14) × 10-17 cm2 molecule-1 at 330 nm, according to the UV spectrum of (CH3)2COO (Huang et al., 2015) scaled to the absolute cross section at 308 nm.

  11. SU-E-T-104: Development of 3 Dimensional Dosimetry System for Gamma Knife

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, K; Kwak, J; Cho, B; Lee, D; Ahn, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a new 3 dimensional dosimetry system to verify the dosimetric accuracy of Leksell Gamma Knife-Perfexion™ (LGK) (Elekta, Norcross, GA). Methods: We designed and manufactured a lightweight dosimetry instrument to be equipped with the head frame to LGK. It consists of a head phantom, a scintillator, a CCD camera and a step motor. The 10×10 cm2 sheet of Gd2O3;Tb phosphor or Gafchromic EBT3 film was located at the center of the 16 cm diameter hemispherical PMMA, the head phantom. The additional backscatter compensating material of 1 cm thick PMMA plate was placed downstream of the phosphor sheet. The backscatter plate was transparent for scintillation lights to reach the CCD camera with 1200×1200 pixels by 5.2 um pitch. With This equipment, 300 images with 0.2 mm of slice gap were acquired under three collimator setups (4mm, 8mm and 16mm), respectively. The 2D projected doses from 3D distributions were compared with the exposured film dose. Results: As all doses normalized by the maximum dose value in 16 mm setup, the relative differences between the equipment dose and film dose were 0.2% for 4mm collimator and 0.5% for 8mm. The acquisition of 300 images by the equipment took less than 3 minutes. Conclusion: The new equipment was verified to be a good substitute to radiochromic film, with which required more time and resources. Especially, the new methods was considered to provide much convenient and faster solution in the 3D dose acquisition for LGK.

  12. Photon scattering cross sections of H2 and He measured with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ice, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    Total (elastic + inelastic) differential photon scattering cross sections have been measured for H2 gas and He, using an X-ray beam. Absolute measured cross sections agree with theory within the probable errors. Relative cross sections (normalized to theory at large S) agree to better than one percent with theoretical values calculated from wave functions that include the effect of electron-electron Coulomb correlation, but the data deviate significantly from theoretical independent-particle (e.g., Hartree-Fock) results. The ratios of measured absolute He cross sections to those of H2, at any given S, also agree to better than one percent with theoretical He-to-H2 cross-section ratios computed from correlated wave functions. It appears that photon scattering constitutes a very promising tool for probing electron correlation in light atoms and molecules.

  13. Measurements of the $ZZ$ production cross sections in the $$2\\ell2\

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton–proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. We found that candidate events for the leptonic decay mode ZZ → 2l2ν, where l denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)fb-1 at 7 (8) TeV collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, σ(pp → ZZ)=5.1+1.5-1.4(stat)+1.4-1.1(syst)±0.1(lumi)pb at 7 TeV, and 7.2+0.8-0.8(stat)+1.9-1.5(syst)±0.2(lumi)pb at 8 TeV, are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. Furthermore, the selected data are analyzed to search formore » anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the ZZ final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. As a result, these limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for ZZ in 4l final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.« less

  14. Usefulness of 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection FDG PET images for the diagnosis of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jahae; Cho, Sang-Geon; Song, Minchul; Kang, Sae-Ryung; Kwon, Seong Young; Choi, Kang-Ho; Choi, Seong-Min; Kim, Byeong-Chae; Song, Ho-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To compare diagnostic performance and confidence of a standard visual reading and combined 3-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) results to discriminate between Alzheimer disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET brain images were obtained from 120 patients (64 AD/MCI, 38 DLB, and 18 FTD) who were clinically confirmed over 2 years follow-up. Three nuclear medicine physicians performed the diagnosis and rated diagnostic confidence twice; once by standard visual methods, and once by adding of 3D-SSP. Diagnostic performance and confidence were compared between the 2 methods. 3D-SSP showed higher sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values to discriminate different types of dementia compared with the visual method alone, except for AD/MCI specificity and FTD sensitivity. Correction of misdiagnosis after adding 3D-SSP images was greatest for AD/MCI (56%), followed by DLB (13%) and FTD (11%). Diagnostic confidence also increased in DLB (visual: 3.2; 3D-SSP: 4.1; P < 0.001), followed by AD/MCI (visual: 3.1; 3D-SSP: 3.8; P = 0.002) and FTD (visual: 3.5; 3D-SSP: 4.2; P = 0.022). Overall, 154/360 (43%) cases had a corrected misdiagnosis or improved diagnostic confidence for the correct diagnosis. The addition of 3D-SSP images to visual analysis helped to discriminate different types of dementia in FDG PET scans, by correcting misdiagnoses and enhancing diagnostic confidence in the correct diagnosis. Improvement of diagnostic accuracy and confidence by 3D-SSP images might help to determine the cause of dementia and appropriate treatment. PMID:27930593

  15. Calculation of Collisional Cross Sections for the 2P3/2 - 2P1/2 Transition in Alkali-Noble Gas Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    collisional cross sections given input potentials of a system may provide a partial answer to this question in systems where collisions play a major...CALCULATION OF COLLISIONAL CROSS SECTIONS FOR THE 2P3/22P1/2 TRANSITION IN ALKALI-NOBLE GAS SYSTEMS THESIS Sam Butler, Captain, USAF AFIT/GAP/ENP...States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GAP/ENP/10-M04 CALCULATION OF COLLISIONAL CROSS SECTIONS FOR THE 2P3/2

  16. Oxidation behavior of ammonium in a 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jinjing; Guo, Jinsong; Fang, Fang; Chen, Youpeng; Lei, Lijing; Yang, Lin

    2013-12-01

    Excess nitrogenous compounds are detrimental to natural water systems and to human health. To completely realize autohydrogenotrophic nitrogen removal, a novel 3-dimensional biofilm-electrode reactor was designed. Titanium was electroplated with ruthenium and used as the anode. Activated carbon fiber felt was used as the cathode. The reactor was separated into two chambers by a permeable membrane. The cathode chamber was filled with granular graphite and glass beads. The cathode and cathode chamber were inhabited with domesticated biofilm. In the absence of organic substances, a nitrogen removal efficiency of up to 91% was achieved at DO levels of 3.42 +/- 0.37 mg/L when the applied current density was only 0.02 mA/cm2. The oxidation of ammonium in biofilm-electrode reactors was also investigated. It was found that ammonium could be oxidized not only on the anode but also on particle electrodes in the cathode chamber of the biofilm-electrode reactor. Oxidation rates of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency were found to be affected by the electric current loading on the biofilm-electrode reactor. The kinetic model of ammonium at different electric currents was analyzed by a first-order reaction kinetics equation. The regression analysis implied that when the current density was less than 0.02 mA/cm2, ammonium removal was positively correlated to the current density. However, when the current density was more than 0.02 mA/cm2, the electric current became a limiting factor for the oxidation rate of ammonium and nitrogen removal efficiency.

  17. Surgical Classification of the Mandibular Deformity in Craniofacial Microsomia Using 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Jordan W.; Mitchell, Brianne T.; Wink, Jason A.; Taylor, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Grading systems of the mandibular deformity in craniofacial microsomia (CFM) based on conventional radiographs have shown low interrater reproducibility among craniofacial surgeons. We sought to design and validate a classification based on 3-dimensional CT (3dCT) that correlates features of the deformity with surgical treatment. Methods: CFM mandibular deformities were classified as normal (T0), mild (hypoplastic, likely treated with orthodontics or orthognathic surgery; T1), moderate (vertically deficient ramus, likely treated with distraction osteogenesis; T2), or severe (ramus rudimentary or absent, with either adequate or inadequate mandibular body bone stock; T3 and T4, likely treated with costochondral graft or free fibular flap, respectively). The 3dCT face scans of CFM patients were randomized and then classified by craniofacial surgeons. Pairwise agreement and Fleiss' κ were used to assess interrater reliability. Results: The 3dCT images of 43 patients with CFM (aged 0.1–15.8 years) were reviewed by 15 craniofacial surgeons, representing an average 15.2 years of experience. Reviewers demonstrated fair interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 50.4 ± 9.9% (Fleiss' κ = 0.34). This represents significant improvement over the Pruzansky–Kaban classification (pairwise agreement, 39.2%; P = 0.0033.) Reviewers demonstrated substantial interrater reliability with average pairwise agreement of 83.0 ± 7.6% (κ = 0.64) distinguishing deformities requiring graft or flap reconstruction (T3 and T4) from others. Conclusion: The proposed classification, designed for the era of 3dCT, shows improved consensus with respect to stratifying the severity of mandibular deformity and type of operative management. PMID:27104097

  18. Experimental and theoretical differential cross sections for the N(2D) + H2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Balucani, Nadia; Casavecchia, Piergiorgio; Bañares, Luis; Aoiz, F Javier; Gonzalez-Lezana, Tomás; Honvault, Pascal; Launay, Jean-Michel

    2006-01-19

    In this paper, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on the dynamics of the N(2D) + H2 insertion reaction at a collision energy of 15.9 kJ mol(-1). Product angular and velocity distributions have been obtained in crossed beam experiments and simulated by using the results of quantum mechanical (QM) scattering calculations on the accurate ab initio potential energy surface (PES) of Pederson et al. (J. Chem. Phys. 1999, 110, 9091). Since the QM calculations indicate that there is a significant coupling between the product angular and translational energy distributions, such a coupling has been explicitly included in the simulation of the experimental results. The very good agreement between experiment and QM calculations sustains the accuracy of the NH2 ab initio ground state PES. We also take the opportunity to compare the accurate QM differential cross sections with those obtained by two approximate methods, namely, the widely used quasiclassical trajectory calculations and a rigorous statistical method based on the coupled-channel theory.

  19. Ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition and tandem cross-metathesis of triynes and enediynes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Wei; Wei, Yin; Shi, Min

    2013-04-01

    [2+2+2] Cycloadditions can be applied to specifically build up derivatives of benzene and cyclohexadiene and, therefore, have attracted much attention. Herein, we present an intramolecular [2+2+2] cycloaddition of triynes catalyzed by the first-generation Grubbs ruthenium complex (Ru gen-1), which can efficiently afford benzene derivatives in good yields under mild conditions. Moreover, we also report on a novel tandem cross-metathesis transformation of intramolecular enediynes also catalyzed by Ru gen-1, which has not been observed previously in related reports. On the basis of deuterium labeling experiments, a possible reaction mechanism is presented.

  20. Cross sections for the production of energetic cations by electron impact on N2 and CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iga, I.; Srivastava, S. K.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Katayama, D. H.

    1995-01-01

    Dissociative ionization cross sections for the production of singly charged energetic ions by electron impact on N2 and CO2 have been measured. The ions were divided into two groups: one with energies less than 1 eV and the other with energies greater than 1 eV. The ions detected were N+ from N2 and C+, O+, and CO+ from CO2. The electron impact energy range, and cross section data on ions is given.

  1. Modeling plasma-based CO2 conversion: crucial role of the dissociation cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Wang, Weizong; Berthelot, Antonin; Guerra, Vasco

    2016-10-01

    Plasma-based CO2 conversion is gaining increasing interest worldwide. A large research effort is devoted to improving the energy efficiency. For this purpose, it is very important to understand the underlying mechanisms of the CO2 conversion. The latter can be obtained by computer modeling, describing in detail the behavior of the various plasma species and all relevant chemical processes. However, the accuracy of the modeling results critically depends on the accuracy of the assumed input data, like cross sections. This is especially true for the cross section of electron impact dissociation, as the latter process is believed to proceed through electron impact excitation, but it is not clear from the literature which excitation channels effectively lead to dissociation. Therefore, the present paper discusses the effect of different electron impact dissociation cross sections reported in the literature on the calculated CO2 conversion, for a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and a microwave (MW) plasma. Comparison is made to experimental data for the DBD case, to elucidate which cross section might be the most realistic. This comparison reveals that the cross sections proposed by Itikawa and by Polak and Slovetsky both seem to underestimate the CO2 conversion. The cross sections recommended by Phelps with thresholds of 7 eV and 10.5 eV yield a CO2 conversion only slightly lower than the experimental data, but the sum of both cross sections overestimates the values, indicating that these cross sections represent dissociation, but most probably also include other (pure excitation) channels. Our calculations indicate that the choice of the electron impact dissociation cross section is crucial for the DBD, where this process is the dominant mechanism for CO2 conversion. In the MW plasma, it is only significant at pressures up to 100 mbar, while it is of minor importance for higher pressures, when dissociation proceeds mainly through collisions of CO2 with heavy

  2. Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Cross Section at High Q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Longwu; E12-07-108 Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The measurement of proton electromagnetic form factors (FF) is a powerful way to understand the internal structure of proton and gain insight into the nature of the strong interaction. Current data of FF at high Q2 have large statistical and systematic uncertainties, which translate into large uncertainties in the extracted cross section in this kinematic range. The GMp experiment in Hall A at Jefferson Lab, starting from 2014, performed precision measurements of elastic ep scattering cross section in the Q2 range from 7 to 14 (GeV / c) 2. These measurements will improve the precision on the cross section in the covered Q2 range to about 2 % . They represent a great complement to the world's cross section data set and will be key inputs for future electromagnetic form factor experiments at similar kinematics. In this talk, the instrumentation and techniques used in the experiment will be described, and the current status of the analysis will be presented.

  3. 3-Dimensional and Interactive Istanbul University Virtual Laboratory Based on Active Learning Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Elif; Kirbaslar, Fatma Gulay; Yolcu, Ergun; Aslan, Ayse Esra; Kayacan, Zeynep Cigdem; Alkan Olsson, Johanna; Akbasli, Ayse Ceylan; Aytekin, Mesut; Bauer, Thomas; Charalambis, Dimitris; Gunes, Zeliha Ozsoy; Kandemir, Ceyhan; Sari, Umit; Turkoglu, Suleyman; Yaman, Yavuz; Yolcu, Ozgu

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a 3-dimensional interactive multi-user and multi-admin IUVIRLAB featuring active learning methods and techniques for university students and to introduce the Virtual Laboratory of Istanbul University and to show effects of IUVIRLAB on students' attitudes on communication skills and IUVIRLAB. Although there…

  4. 3-dimensional orthodontics visualization system with dental study models and orthopantomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hua; Ong, S. H.; Foong, K. W. C.; Dhar, T.

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a system that provides 3-dimensional visualization of orthodontic treatments. Dental plaster models and corresponding orthopantomogram (dental panoramic tomogram) are first digitized and fed into the system. A semi-auto segmentation technique is applied to the plaster models to detect the dental arches, tooth interstices and gum margins, which are used to extract individual crown models. 3-dimensional representation of roots, generated by deforming generic tooth models with orthopantomogram using radial basis functions, is attached to corresponding crowns to enable visualization of complete teeth. An optional algorithm to close the gaps between deformed roots and actual crowns by using multi-quadratic radial basis functions is also presented, which is capable of generating smooth mesh representation of complete 3-dimensional teeth. User interface is carefully designed to achieve a flexible system with as much user friendliness as possible. Manual calibration and correction is possible throughout the data processing steps to compensate occasional misbehaviors of automatic procedures. By allowing the users to move and re-arrange individual teeth (with their roots) on a full dentition, this orthodontic visualization system provides an easy and accurate way of simulation and planning of orthodontic treatment. Its capability of presenting 3-dimensional root information with only study models and orthopantomogram is especially useful for patients who do not undergo CT scanning, which is not a routine procedure in most orthodontic cases.

  5. Predicting diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional tumor spheroids.

    PubMed

    Wientjes, Michael G; Yeung, Bertrand Z; Lu, Ze; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L S

    2014-10-28

    Nanotechnology is widely used in cancer research. Models that predict nanoparticle transport and delivery in tumors (including subcellular compartments) would be useful tools. This study tested the hypothesis that diffusive transport of cationic liposomes in 3-dimensional (3D) systems can be predicted based on liposome-cell biointerface parameters (binding, uptake, retention) and liposome diffusivity. Liposomes comprising different amounts of cationic and fusogenic lipids (10-30mol% DOTAP or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine, 1-20mol% DOPE or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane, +25 to +44mV zeta potential) were studied. We (a) measured liposome-cell biointerface parameters in monolayer cultures, and (b) calculated effective diffusivity based on liposome size and spheroid composition. The resulting parameters were used to simulate the liposome concentration-depth profiles in 3D spheroids. The simulated results agreed with the experimental results for liposomes comprising 10-30mol% DOTAP and ≤10mol% DOPE, but not for liposomes with higher DOPE content. For the latter, model modifications to account for time-dependent extracellular concentration decrease and liposome size increase did not improve the predictions. The difference among low- and high-DOPE liposomes suggests concentration-dependent DOPE properties in 3D systems that were not captured in monolayers. Taken together, our earlier and present studies indicate the diffusive transport of neutral, anionic and cationic nanoparticles (polystyrene beads and liposomes, 20-135nm diameter, -49 to +44mV) in 3D spheroids, with the exception of liposomes comprising >10mol% DOPE, can be predicted based on the nanoparticle-cell biointerface and nanoparticle diffusivity. Applying the model to low-DOPE liposomes showed that changes in surface charge affected the liposome localization in intratumoral subcompartments within spheroids.

  6. Novel Radiobiological Gamma Index for Evaluation of 3-Dimensional Predicted Dose Distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Sumida, Iori; Yamaguchi, Hajime; Kizaki, Hisao; Aboshi, Keiko; Tsujii, Mari; Yoshikawa, Nobuhiko; Yamada, Yuji; Suzuki, Osamu; Seo, Yuji; Isohashi, Fumiaki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: To propose a gamma index-based dose evaluation index that integrates the radiobiological parameters of tumor control (TCP) and normal tissue complication probabilities (NTCP). Methods and Materials: Fifteen prostate and head and neck (H&N) cancer patients received intensity modulated radiation therapy. Before treatment, patient-specific quality assurance was conducted via beam-by-beam analysis, and beam-specific dose error distributions were generated. The predicted 3-dimensional (3D) dose distribution was calculated by back-projection of relative dose error distribution per beam. A 3D gamma analysis of different organs (prostate: clinical [CTV] and planned target volumes [PTV], rectum, bladder, femoral heads; H&N: gross tumor volume [GTV], CTV, spinal cord, brain stem, both parotids) was performed using predicted and planned dose distributions under 2%/2 mm tolerance and physical gamma passing rate was calculated. TCP and NTCP values were calculated for voxels with physical gamma indices (PGI) >1. We propose a new radiobiological gamma index (RGI) to quantify the radiobiological effects of TCP and NTCP and calculate radiobiological gamma passing rates. Results: The mean RGI gamma passing rates for prostate cases were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.03–.001). The mean RGI gamma passing rates for H&N cases (except for GTV) were significantly different compared with those of PGI (P<.001). Differences in gamma passing rates between PGI and RGI were due to dose differences between the planned and predicted dose distributions. Radiobiological gamma distribution was visualized to identify areas where the dose was radiobiologically important. Conclusions: RGI was proposed to integrate radiobiological effects into PGI. This index would assist physicians and medical physicists not only in physical evaluations of treatment delivery accuracy, but also in clinical evaluations of predicted dose distribution.

  7. Absolute Charge Exchange Cross Sections for ^3He^2+ Collisions with ^4He and H_2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhorter, R. J.; Greenwood, J.; Smith, S. J.; Chutjian, A.

    2002-05-01

    The JPL charge exchange beam-line(J.B. Greenwood, et al., Phys. Rev A 63), 062707 (2001) was modified to increase the forward acceptance angle and enable the measurement of total charge-exchange cross sections for slow, light, highly-charged ion collisions with neutral targets(R. E. Olson and M. Kimura, J. Phys. B 15), 4231 (1982). Data are presented for single charge exchange cross sections for ^3He^2+ nuclei scattered by ^4He and H2 in the energy range 0.33-4.67 keV/amu. For both targets there is good agreement with Kusakabe, et al.(T. Kusakabe, et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan 59), 1218 (1990). Angular collection is studied by a comparison with differential measurements(D. Bordenave-Montesquieu and R. Dagnac, J. Phys. B 27), 543 (1994), as well as with earlier JPL results(J.B. Greenwood, et al., Ap. J. 533), L175 (2000), ibid. 529, 605 (2000) using heavier projectiles and targets. This work was carried out at JPL/Caltech, and was supported through contract with NASA. RJM thanks the NRC for a Senior Associateship at JPL.

  8. The effect of material composition of 3-dimensional graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanocomposites on DNA analytical sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Chen, Huaiyin; Yang, Ruirui; Wang, Xinxing; Nan, Fuxin; Jiao, Kui

    2015-09-01

    Until now, morphology effects of 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional graphene nanocomposites and the effect of material composition on the biosensors have been rarely reported. In this paper, the various nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and self-doped polyaniline nanofibres for studying the effect of morphology and material composition on DNA sensitivity were directly reported. The isolation and dispersion of graphene oxide were realized via intercalated self-doped polyaniline and ultrasonication, where the ultrasonication prompts the aggregates of graphite oxide to break up and self-doped polyaniline to diffuse into the stacked graphene oxide. Significant electrochemical enhancement has been observed due to the existence of self-doped polyaniline, which bridges the defects for electron transfer and, in the mean time, increases the basal spacing between graphene oxide sheets. Different morphologies can result in different ssDNA surface density, which can further influence the hybridization efficiency. Compared with 2-dimensional graphene oxide, self-doped polyaniline and other morphologies of nanocomposites, 3-dimensional graphene oxide-self-doped polyaniline nanowalls exhibited the highest surface density and hybridization efficiency. Furthermore, the fabricated biosensors presented the broad detection range with the low detection limit due to the specific surface area, a large number of electroactive species, and open accessible space supported by nanowalls.

  9. 2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE Bald Eagle CrossCut Canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTH, LOCK ENTRANCE - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  10. Future directions in 3-dimensional imaging and neurosurgery: stereoscopy and autostereoscopy.

    PubMed

    Christopher, Lauren A; William, Albert; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in 3-dimensional (3-D) stereoscopic imaging have enabled 3-D display technologies in the operating room. We find 2 beneficial applications for the inclusion of 3-D imaging in clinical practice. The first is the real-time 3-D display in the surgical theater, which is useful for the neurosurgeon and observers. In surgery, a 3-D display can include a cutting-edge mixed-mode graphic overlay for image-guided surgery. The second application is to improve the training of residents and observers in neurosurgical techniques. This article documents the requirements of both applications for a 3-D system in the operating room and for clinical neurosurgical training, followed by a discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the current and emerging 3-D display technologies. An important comparison between a new autostereoscopic display without glasses and current stereo display with glasses improves our understanding of the best applications for 3-D in neurosurgery. Today's multiview autostereoscopic display has 3 major benefits: It does not require glasses for viewing; it allows multiple views; and it improves the workflow for image-guided surgery registration and overlay tasks because of its depth-rendering format and tools. Two current limitations of the autostereoscopic display are that resolution is reduced and depth can be perceived as too shallow in some cases. Higher-resolution displays will be available soon, and the algorithms for depth inference from stereo can be improved. The stereoscopic and autostereoscopic systems from microscope cameras to displays were compared by the use of recorded and live content from surgery. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of application of autostereoscopy in neurosurgery.

  11. Measurements of the $ZZ$ production cross sections in the $2\\ell2\

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-29

    Measurements of the ZZ production cross sections in proton–proton collisions at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV are presented. We found that candidate events for the leptonic decay mode ZZ → 2l2ν, where l denotes an electron or a muon, are reconstructed and selected from data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.1 (19.6)fb-1 at 7 (8) TeV collected with the CMS experiment. The measured cross sections, σ(pp → ZZ)=5.1+1.5-1.4(stat)+1.4-1.1(syst)±0.1(lumi)pb at 7 TeV, and 7.2+0.8-0.8(stat)+1.9-1.5(syst)±0.2(lumi)pb at 8 TeV, are in good agreement with the standard model predictions with next-to-leading-order accuracy. Furthermore, the selected data are analyzed to search for anomalous triple gauge couplings involving the ZZ final state. In the absence of any deviation from the standard model predictions, limits are set on the relevant parameters. As a result, these limits are then combined with the previously published CMS results for ZZ in 4l final states, yielding the most stringent constraints on the anomalous couplings.

  12. Lysyl hydroxylase 2 induces a collagen cross-link switch in tumor stroma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Yang, Yanan; Sun, Li; Ahn, Young-Ho; Pankova, Daniela; Puperi, Daniel S.; Watanabe, Takeshi; Kim, Min P.; Blackmon, Shanda H.; Rodriguez, Jaime; Liu, Hui; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Minelli, Rosalba; Scott, Kenneth L.; Sanchez-Adams, Johannah; Guilak, Farshid; Pati, Debananda; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Burns, Alan R.; Creighton, Chad J.; Martinez, Elisabeth D.; Zal, Tomasz; Grande-Allen, K. Jane; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial tumor metastasis is preceded by an accumulation of collagen cross-links that heighten stromal stiffness and stimulate the invasive properties of tumor cells. However, the biochemical nature of collagen cross-links in cancer is still unclear. Here, we postulated that epithelial tumorigenesis is accompanied by changes in the biochemical type of collagen cross-links. Utilizing resected human lung cancer tissues and a p21CIP1/WAF1-deficient, K-rasG12D-expressing murine metastatic lung cancer model, we showed that, relative to normal lung tissues, tumor stroma contains higher levels of hydroxylysine aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (HLCCs) and lower levels of lysine aldehyde–derived cross-links (LCCs), which are the predominant types of collagen cross-links in skeletal tissues and soft tissues, respectively. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in tumor cells showed that lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2), which hydroxylates telopeptidyl lysine residues on collagen, shifted the tumor stroma toward a high-HLCC, low-LCC state, increased tumor stiffness, and enhanced tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Together, our data indicate that LH2 enhances the metastatic properties of tumor cells and functions as a regulatory switch that controls the relative abundance of biochemically distinct types of collagen cross-links in the tumor stroma. PMID:25664850

  13. LADCP Observations of the 3-Dimensional Velocity Field Associated with Internal Waves and Boundary-Layer Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurnherr, A.; St Laurent, L.; Jacobs, S. S.; Kanzow, T.; Naveira Garabato, A. C.; Ledwell, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    While low-frequency processes in the ocean are primarily associated with (quasi-)horizontal, i.e. 2-dimensional, flows energetic high-frequency finescale processes, such as internal waves, hydraulic and other boundary-layer currents, are much more 3-dimensional. Due to recent advances in LADCP processing, it is now possible to derive full-depth snapshots of the 3-dimensional velocity field from standard CTD/LADCP casts. Applying the new method to data obtained in energetic regions of the ocean reveals velocity fields associated with vertical speeds ranging from a few cm/s to more than 20cm/s. Outside boundary layers, the vertical velocities are dominated by high-frequency (near-N) internal waves associated with small horizontal scales and the shapes of the corresponding vertical-velocity spectra in the finescale band are consistent with the Garrett-Munk model. In individual data sets the vertical-velocity spectral levels are correlated with coincident dissipation measurements derived from velocity microstructure, suggesting that a new finescale parameterization method for oceanic turbulence and diapycnal mixing based on LADCP-derived vertical velocities is possible. Near boundaries, there is evidence for large vertical velocities associated not just with waves, but also with seawater upwelling from beneath a fast-melting Antarctic ice shelf, with hydraulic overflow processes of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, and even with very large "overturns" over the flank of a ridge in Luzon strait.;

  14. Human embryonic growth and development of the cerebellum using 3-dimensional ultrasound and virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Rousian, M; Groenenberg, I A L; Hop, W C; Koning, A H J; van der Spek, P J; Exalto, N; Steegers, E A P

    2013-08-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the first trimester cerebellar growth and development using 2 different measuring techniques: 3-dimensional (3D) and virtual reality (VR) ultrasound visualization. The cerebellum measurements were related to gestational age (GA) and crown-rump length (CRL). Finally, the reproducibility of both the methods was tested. In a prospective cohort study, we collected 630 first trimester, serially obtained, 3D ultrasound scans of 112 uncomplicated pregnancies between 7 + 0 and 12 + 6 weeks of GA. Only scans with high-quality images of the fossa posterior were selected for the analysis. Measurements were performed offline in the coronal plane using 3D (4D view) and VR (V-Scope) software. The VR enables the observer to use all available dimensions in a data set by visualizing the volume as a "hologram." Total cerebellar diameter, left, and right hemispheric diameter, and thickness were measured using both the techniques. All measurements were performed 3 times and means were used in repeated measurements analysis. After exclusion criteria were applied 177 (28%) 3D data sets were available for further analysis. The median GA was 10 + 0 weeks and the median CRL was 31.4 mm (range: 5.2-79.0 mm). The cerebellar parameters could be measured from 7 gestational weeks onward. The total cerebellar diameter increased from 2.2 mm at 7 weeks of GA to 13.9 mm at 12 weeks of GA using VR and from 2.2 to 13.8 mm using 3D ultrasound. The reproducibility, established in a subset of 35 data sets, resulted in intraclass correlation coefficient values ≥0.98. It can be concluded that cerebellar measurements performed by the 2 methods proved to be reproducible and comparable with each other. However, VR-using all three dimensions-provides a superior method for the visualization of the cerebellum. The constructed reference values can be used to study normal and abnormal cerebellar growth and development.

  15. Measured Total Cross Sections of Slow Neutrons Scattered by Gaseous and Liquid {sup 2}H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Atchison, F.; Brandt, B. van den; Brys, T.; Daum, M.; Fierlinger, P.; Hautle, P.; Henneck, R.; Kirch, K.; Kohlbrecher, J.; Kuehne, G.; Konter, J.A.; Pichlmaier, A.; Wokaun, A.; Bodek, K.; Kasprzak, M.; Kuzniak, M.; Geltenbort, P.; Giersch, M.; Zmeskal, J.; Hino, M.

    2005-06-03

    The total scattering cross sections for slow neutrons with energies E in the range 300 neV to 3 meV for gaseous and liquid ortho-{sup 2}H{sub 2} have been measured. The cross sections for {sup 2}H{sub 2} gas are found to be in excellent agreement with both the Hamermesh and Schwinger and the Young and Koppel models. For liquid {sup 2}H{sub 2}, we confirm the existing experimental data in the cold neutron range and the discrepancy with the gas models. We find a clear 1/{radical}(E{sup '}) dependence at low energies for both states. A simple explanation for the liquid {sup 2}H{sub 2} cross section is offered.

  16. Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Yang, W.; Ichii, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global simulation of canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence with a 3 dimensional radiative transfer modelHideki Kobayashi, Wei Yang, and Kazuhito IchiiDepartment of Environmental Geochemical Cycle Research, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology3173-25, Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan.Plant canopy scale sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) can be observed from satellites, such as Greenhouse gases Observation Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2), using Fraunhofer lines in the near infrared spectral domain [1]. SIF is used to infer photosynthetic capacity of plant canopy [2]. However, it is not well understoond how the leaf-level SIF emission contributes to the top of canopy directional SIF because SIFs observed by the satellites use the near infrared spectral domain where the multiple scatterings among leaves are not negligible. It is necessary to quantify the fraction of emission for each satellite observation angle. Absorbed photosynthetically active radiation of sunlit leaves are 100 times higher than that of shaded leaves. Thus, contribution of sunlit and shaded leaves to canopy scale directional SIF emission should also be quantified. Here, we show the results of global simulation of SIF using a 3 dimensional radiative transfer simulation with MODIS atmospheric (aerosol optical thickness) and land (land cover and leaf area index) products and a forest landscape data sets prepared for each land cover category. The results are compared with satellite-based SIF (e.g. GOME-2) and the gross primary production empirically estimated by FLUXNET and remote sensing data.

  17. Surrogate Measurements of Actinide (n,2n) Cross Sections with NeutronSTARS

    SciTech Connect

    Casperson, R. J.; Burke, J. T.; Hughes, R. O.; Akindele, O. A.; Koglin, J. D.; Wang, B.; Tamashiro, A.

    2016-09-27

    Directly measuring (n,2n) cross sections on short-lived actinides presents a number of experimental challenges. The surrogate reaction technique is an experimental method for measuring cross sections on short-­lived isotopes, and it provides a unique solution for measuring (n,2n) cross sections. This technique involves measuring a charged-­particle reaction cross section, where the reaction populates the same compound nucleus as the reaction of interest. To perform these surrogate (n,2n) cross section measurements, a silicon telescope array has been placed along a beam line at the Texas A&M University Cyclotron Institute, which is surrounded by a large tank of gadolinium-doped liquid scintillator, which acts as a neutron detector. The combination of the charge-particle and neutron-detector arrays is referred to as NeutronSTARS. In the analysis procedure for calculating the (n,2n) cross section, the neutron detection efficiency and time structure plays an important role. Due to the lack of availability of isotropic, mono-energetic neutron sources, modeling is an important component in establishing this efficiency and time structure. This report describes the NeutronSTARS array, which was designed and commissioned during this project. It also describes the surrogate reaction technique, specifically referencing a 235U(n,2n) commissioning measurement that was fielded during the past year. Advanced multiplicity analysis techniques have been developed for this work, which should allow for efficient analysis of 241Pu(n,2n) and 239Pu(n,2n) cross section measurements

  18. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-10-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  19. O2 absorption cross sections /187-225 nm/ from stratospheric solar flux measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, J. R.; Mentall, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The absorption cross sections of molecular oxygen are calculated in the wavelength range from 187 to 230 nm from solar flux measurements obtained within the stratosphere. Within the Herzberg continuum wavelength region the molecular oxygen cross sections are found to be about 30% smaller than the laboratory results of Shardanand and Rao (1977) from 200 to 210 nm and about 50% smaller than those of Hasson and Nicholls (1971). At wavelengths longer than 210 nm the cross sections agree with those of Shardanand and Rao. The effective absorption cross sections of O2 in the Schumann-Runge band region from 187 to 200 nm are calculated and compared to the empirical fit given by Allen and Frederick (1982). The calculated cross sections indicate that the transmissivity of the atmosphere may be underestimated by the use of the Allen and Frederic cross sections between 195 and 200 nm. The ozone column content between 30 and 40 km and the relative ozone cross sections are determined from the same solar flux data set.

  20. Energy Sources of the Dominant Frequency Dependent 3-dimensional Atmospheric Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, S.

    1985-01-01

    The energy sources and sinks associated with the zonally asymmetric winter mean flow are investigated as part of an on-going study of atmospheric variability. Distinctly different horizontal structures for the long, intermediate and short time scale atmospheric variations were noted. In previous observations, the 3-dimensional structure of the fluctuations is investigated and the relative roles of barotropic and baroclinic terms are assessed.

  1. DETECTORS AND EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Decay vertex reconstruction and 3-dimensional lifetime determination at BESIII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Min; He, Kang-Lin; Zhang, Zi-Ping; Wang, Yi-Fang; Bian, Jian-Ming; Cao, Guo-Fu; Cao, Xue-Xiang; Chen, Shen-Jian; Deng, Zi-Yan; Fu, Cheng-Dong; Gao, Yuan-Ning; Han, Lei; Han, Shao-Qing; He, Miao; Hu, Ji-Feng; Hu, Xiao-Wei; Huang, Bin; Huang, Xing-Tao; Jia, Lu-Kui; Ji, Xiao-Bin; Li, Hai-Bo; Li, Wei-Dong; Liang, Yu-Tie; Liu, Chun-Xiu; Liu, Huai-Min; Liu, Ying; Liu, Yong; Luo, Tao; Lü, Qi-Wen; Ma, Qiu-Mei; Ma, Xiang; Mao, Ya-Jun; Mao, Ze-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Hu; Ning, Fei-Peng; Ping, Rong-Gang; Qiu, Jin-Fa; Song, Wen-Bo; Sun, Sheng-Sen; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Yong-Zhao; Tian, Hao-Lai; Wang, Ji-Ke; Wang, Liang-Liang; Wen, Shuo-Pin; Wu, Ling-Hui; Wu, Zhi; Xie, Yu-Guang; Yan, Jie; Yan, Liang; Yao, Jian; Yuan, Chang-Zheng; Yuan, Ye; Zhang, Chang-Chun; Zhang, Jian-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Yao; Zhang, Yao; Zheng, Yang-Heng; Zhu, Yong-Sheng; Zou, Jia-Heng

    2009-06-01

    This paper focuses mainly on the vertex reconstruction of resonance particles with a relatively long lifetime such as K0S, Λ, as well as on lifetime measurements using a 3-dimensional fit. The kinematic constraints between the production and decay vertices and the decay vertex fitting algorithm based on the least squares method are both presented. Reconstruction efficiencies including experimental resolutions are discussed. The results and systematic errors are calculated based on a Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Fast Apriori-based Graph Mining Algorithm and application to 3-dimensional Structure Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Yoshio; Washio, Takashi; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Motoda, Hiroshi; Inokuchi, Akihiro; Okada, Takashi

    Apriori-based Graph Mining (AGM) algorithm efficiently extracts all the subgraph patterns which frequently appear in graph structured data. The algorithm can deal with general graph structured data with multiple labels of vartices and edges, and is capable of analyzing the topological structure of graphs. In this paper, we propose a new method to analyze graph structured data for a 3-dimensional coordinate by AGM. In this method the distance between each vertex of a graph is calculated and added to the edge label so that AGM can handle 3-dimensional graph structured data. One problem in our approach is that the number of edge labels increases, which results in the increase of computational time to extract subgraph patterns. To alleviate this problem, we also propose a faster algorithm of AGM by adding an extra constraint to reduce the number of generated candidates for seeking frequent subgraphs. Chemical compounds with dopamine antagonist in MDDR database were analyzed by AGM to characterize their 3-dimensional chemical structure and correlation with physiological activity.

  3. CO2/light gas separation performance of cross-linked poly(vinylimidazolium) gel membranes as a function of ionic liquid loading and cross-linker content

    SciTech Connect

    Carlisle, TK; Nicodemus, GD; Gin, DL; Noble, RD

    2012-04-15

    A series of cross-linked poly(vinylimidazolium)-RTIL gel membranes was synthesized and evaluated for room-temperature, ideal CO2/N-2, CO2/CH4, and CO2/H-2 separation performance. The membranes were formed by photo-polymerization of oligo(ethylene glycol)-functionalized cross-linking (i.e., di-functional) and non-cross-linking (i.e., mono-functional) vinylimidazolium RTIL monomers with nonpolymerizable, "free RTIL." The effect of free RTIL ([emim][Tf2N]) loading on CO2 separation performance was evaluated by varying RTIL loading at three levels (45, 65, and 75 wt.%). The effect of cross-linker content on CO2 separation performance was also evaluated by varying the copolymer composition of cross-linked membranes from 5 to 100 mol% di-functional monomer. The substituent on the monofunctional RTIL monomer was also varied to investigate the effect of substituent structure and chemistry on CO2 separation performance. CO2 permeability was dramatically increased with higher loading of free RTIL. Increased RTIL loading had no effect on CO2/N-2 or CO2/CH4 permeability selectivity, but significantly improved CO2/H-2 permeability selectivity. Reducing the cross-linking monomer concentration generally improved CO2 permeability. However, anomalous permeability and selectivity behavior was observed below critical concentrations of cross-linker. The effect of the substituent on the monofunctional monomer on CO2 separation performance was minimal compared to the effects of RTIL loading and copolymer composition. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  5. New Technique for Developing a Proton Range Compensator With Use of a 3-Dimensional Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Ju, Sang Gyu; Kim, Min Kyu; Hong, Chae-Seon; Kim, Jin Sung; Han, Youngyih; Choi, Doo Ho; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: A new system for manufacturing a proton range compensator (RC) was developed by using a 3-dimensional printer (3DP). The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of the new RC manufactured by 3DP (RC{sub 3}DP) were compared with those of a conventional RC (RC{sub C}MM) manufactured by a computerized milling machine (CMM). Methods and Materials: An RC for brain tumor treatment with a scattered proton beam was calculated with a treatment planning system, and the resulting data were converted into a new format for 3DP using in-house software. The RC{sub 3}DP was printed with ultraviolet curable acrylic plastic, and an RC{sub C}MM was milled into polymethylmethacrylate using a CMM. The inner shape of both RCs was scanned by using a 3D scanner and compared with TPS data by applying composite analysis (CA; with 1-mm depth difference and 1 mm distance-to-agreement criteria) to verify their geometric accuracy. The position and distal penumbra of distal dose falloff at the central axis and field width of the dose profile at the midline depth of spread-out Bragg peak were measured for the 2 RCs to evaluate their dosimetric characteristics. Both RCs were imaged on a computed tomography scanner to evaluate uniformity of internal density. The manufacturing times for both RCs were compared to evaluate the production efficiency. Results: The pass rates for the CA test were 99.5% and 92.5% for RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM, respectively. There was no significant difference in dosimetric characteristics and uniformity of internal density between the 2 RCs. The net fabrication times of RC{sub 3}DP and RC{sub C}MM were about 18 and 3 hours, respectively. Conclusions: The physical accuracy and dosimetric characteristics of RC{sub 3}DP were comparable with those of the conventional RC{sub C}MM, and significant system minimization was provided.

  6. Elastic positron scattering by C{sub 2}H{sub 2}: Differential cross sections and virtual state formation

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, Claudia R.C. de; Varella, Marcio T. do N; Lima, Marco A.P.; Silva, Euclimar P. da

    2003-12-01

    We present calculated elastic differential cross sections for positron-acetylene scattering, obtained by using the Schwinger multichannel method. Our results are in very good agreement with quasielastic experimental data of Kauppila et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. B 192, 162 (2002)]. We also discuss the existence of a virtual state (zero-energy resonance) in e{sup +}-C{sub 2}H{sub 2} collisions, based on the behavior of the integral cross section and of the s-wave phase shift. As expected the fixed-nuclei cross section and annihilation parameter (Z{sub eff}) present the same energy dependence at very low impact energies. As the virtual state energy approaches zero, the magnitude of both cross section and Z{sub eff} are extremely enhanced (at zero impact energy). The possibility of shifting from a low-lying virtual state to a shallow bound state is not expected to significantly affect room-temperature annihilation rates.

  7. Absolute state-selected total cross sections for the ion-molecule reactions O + (4S,2D,2P)+H2(D2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Huang, Y.-L.; Flesch, G. D.; Ng, C. Y.

    1997-01-01

    Absolute total cross sections for the state-selected reactions of O+(4S,2D,2P)+H2 (D2) have been measured in the center-of-mass collision energy (Ec.m.) range of 0.02-12 eV. The cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are slightly higher than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2), whereas the OH+ (OD+) cross sections from O+ (2P)+H2 (D2) are ≈40% lower than those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) and O+ (2D)+H2 (D2). At Ec.m.<0.5 eV, the total cross sections for OH+ (OD+) from O+ (4S)+H2 (D2) and O+(2D)+H2 (D2) are in accord with those predicted by the Langevin-Gioumousis-Stevenson model. Significantly higher cross sections are observed for H+ (D+) and H2+ (D2+) from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2), as compared to those from O+(4S)+H2 (D2). The exothermic nature of the O+(2D,2P)+H2 (D2) charge transfer collisions accounts for the high cross sections observed for H2+ (D2+). While the H+ (D+) ions observed in the O+(4S)+H2 (D2) reaction are identified with the H+ (D+)+O+H channel, the H+ (D+) ions from the reactions involving O+(2D) and O+(2P) are associated mostly with the H+ (D+)+OH (OD) channel, the formation of which obeys the spin-conservation rule. The comparison of the sum (σT) of cross sections for OH+ (OD+), H2+ (D2+), and H+ (D+) from O+(4S)+H2 (D2) to those from O+(2D)+H2 (D2) and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) shows that the σTs for O+(4S)+H2 (D2), O+(2D)+H2 (D2), and O+(2P)+H2 (D2) at Ec.m.<0.5 eV are comparable. At Ec.m.>0.5 eV, the σTs for O+(2P)+H2 (D2) are greater than those for O+(2D)+H2 (D2), which in turn are greater than those for O+(4S)+H2 (D2). This observation is attributed to the increase in the number of accessible product channels for reactions involving the excited O+(2D) and O+(2P) reactant ions.

  8. Crossing the North Sea seems to make DCD disappear: cross-validation of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 norms.

    PubMed

    Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Waelvelde, Hilde; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2015-02-01

    The Movement Assessment Battery for Children has been revised as the Movement ABC-2 (Henderson, Sugden, & Barnett, 2007). In Europe, the 15th percentile score on this test is recommended for one of the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). A representative sample of Dutch and Flemish children was tested to cross-validate the UK standard scores, including the 15th percentile score. First, the mean, SD and percentile scores of Dutch children were compared to those of UK normative samples. Item standard scores of Dutch speaking children deviated from the UK reference values suggesting necessary adjustments. Except for very young children, the Dutch-speaking samples performed better. Second, based on the mean and SD and clinical relevant cut-off scores (5th and 15th percentile), norms were adjusted for the Dutch population. For diagnostic use, researchers and clinicians should use the reference norms that are valid for the group of children they are testing. The results indicate that there possibly is an effect of testing procedure in other countries that validated the UK norms and/or cultural influence on the age norms of the Movement ABC-2. It is suggested to formulate criterion-based norms for age groups in addition to statistical norms.

  9. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera.

    PubMed

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  10. First Results from a Forward, 3-Dimensional Regional Model of a Transpressional San Andreas Fault System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzenz, D. D.; Miller, S. A.

    2001-12-01

    We present preliminary results from a 3-dimensional fault interaction model, with the fault system specified by the geometry and tectonics of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system. We use the forward model for earthquake generation on interacting faults of Fitzenz and Miller [2001] that incorporates the analytical solutions of Okada [85,92], GPS-constrained tectonic loading, creep compaction and frictional dilatancy [Sleep and Blanpied, 1994, Sleep, 1995], and undrained poro-elasticity. The model fault system is centered at the Big Bend, and includes three large strike-slip faults (each discretized into multiple subfaults); 1) a 300km, right-lateral segment of the SAF to the North, 2) a 200km-long left-lateral segment of the Garlock fault to the East, and 3) a 100km-long right-lateral segment of the SAF to the South. In the initial configuration, three shallow-dipping faults are also included that correspond to the thrust belt sub-parallel to the SAF. Tectonic loading is decomposed into basal shear drag parallel to the plate boundary with a 35mm yr-1 plate velocity, and East-West compression approximated by a vertical dislocation surface applied at the far-field boundary resulting in fault-normal compression rates in the model space about 4mm yr-1. Our aim is to study the long-term seismicity characteristics, tectonic evolution, and fault interaction of this system. We find that overpressured faults through creep compaction are a necessary consequence of the tectonic loading, specifically where high normal stress acts on long straight fault segments. The optimal orientation of thrust faults is a function of the strike-slip behavior, and therefore results in a complex stress state in the elastic body. This stress state is then used to generate new fault surfaces, and preliminary results of dynamically generated faults will also be presented. Our long-term aim is to target measurable properties in or around fault zones, (e.g. pore pressures, hydrofractures, seismicity

  11. A 3-dimensional human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived model to detect developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hoelting, Lisa; Scheinhardt, Benjamin; Bondarenko, Olesja; Schildknecht, Stefan; Kapitza, Marion; Tanavde, Vivek; Tan, Betty; Lee, Qian Yi; Mecking, Stefan; Leist, Marcel; Kadereit, Suzanne

    2013-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to accumulate in organs, cross the blood-brain barrier and placenta, and have the potential to elicit developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). Here, we developed a human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived 3-dimensional (3-D) in vitro model that allows for testing of potential developmental neurotoxicants. Early central nervous system PAX6(+) precursor cells were generated from hESCs and differentiated further within 3-D structures. The 3-D model was characterized for neural marker expression revealing robust differentiation toward neuronal precursor cells, and gene expression profiling suggested a predominantly forebrain-like development. Altered neural gene expression due to exposure to non-cytotoxic concentrations of the known developmental neurotoxicant, methylmercury, indicated that the 3-D model could detect DNT. To test for specific toxicity of NPs, chemically inert polyethylene NPs (PE-NPs) were chosen. They penetrated deep into the 3-D structures and impacted gene expression at non-cytotoxic concentrations. NOTCH pathway genes such as HES5 and NOTCH1 were reduced in expression, as well as downstream neuronal precursor genes such as NEUROD1 and ASCL1. FOXG1, a patterning marker, was also reduced. As loss of function of these genes results in severe nervous system impairments in mice, our data suggest that the 3-D hESC-derived model could be used to test for Nano-DNT.

  12. An investigation of nonadiabatic interactions in Cl(2Pj) + D2 via crossed-molecular-beam scattering.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Bradley F; Chandler, David W

    2005-05-01

    We have determined limits on the cross section for both electronically nonadiabatic excitation and quenching in the Cl((2)P(j)) + D(2) system. Our experiment incorporates crossed-molecular-beam scattering with state-selective Cl((2)P(12,32)) detection and velocity-mapped ion imaging. By colliding atomic chlorine with D(2), we address the propensity for collisions that result in a change of the spin-orbit level of atomic chlorine either through electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit excitation Cl((2)P(32)) + D(2)-->Cl(*)((2)P(12)) + D(2) or through electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit quenching Cl(*)((2)P(12)) + D(2)-->Cl((2)P(32)) + D(2). In the first part of this report, we estimate an upper limit for the electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit excitation cross section at a collision energy of 5.3 kcal/mol, which lies above the energy of the reaction barrier (4.9 kcal/mol). Our analysis and simulation of the experimental data determine an upper limit for the excitation cross section as sigma(NA)< or =0.012 A(2). In the second part of this paper we investigate the propensity for electronically nonadiabatic spin-orbit quenching of Cl(*) following a collision with D(2) or He. We perform these experiments at collision energies above and below the energy of the reaction barrier. By comparing the amount of scattered Cl(*) in our images to the amount of Cl(*) lost from the atomic beam we obtain the maximum cross section for electronically nonadiabatic quenching as sigma(NA)< or =15(-15) (+44) A(2) for a collision energy of 7.6 kcal/mol. Our experiments show the probability for electronically nonadiabatic quenching in Cl(*) + D(2) to be indistinguishable to that for the kinematically identical system of Cl(*) + He.

  13. Helium Atom Scattering from C2H6, F2HCCH3, F3CCH2F and C2F6 in Crossed Molecular Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Markus; Seidel, Wolfhart

    1997-10-01

    Rotationally unresolved differential cross sections were measured in crossed molecular beam experiments by scattering Helium atoms from Ethane, 1,1-Difluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane and Hexafluoroethane. The damping of observed diffraction oscillations was used to extract anisotropic interaction potentials for these scattering systems applying the infinite order sudden approximation (IOSA). Binary macroscopic parameters such as second heterogeneous virial coefficients and the coefficients of diffusion and viscosity were computed from these potentials and compared to results from macroscopic experiments.

  14. Diagnosis of mitral valve cleft using real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Aiyun; Chen, Li; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Pan

    2017-01-01

    Background Mitral valve cleft (MVC) is the most common cause of congenital mitral insufficiency, and MVC may occur alone or in association with other congenital heart lesions. Direct suture and valvuloplasty are the major and effective treatments for mitral regurgitation (MR) caused by MVC. Therefore, it is important to determine the location and magnitude of the pathological damage due to MVC when selecting a surgical procedure for treatment. This study explored the application value of transthoracic real-time 3-dimensional (3D) echocardiography (RT-3DE) in the diagnosis of MVC. Methods From October 2012 to June 2016, 19 consecutive patients with MVC diagnosed by 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiography in our hospital were selected for this study. Full-volume RT-3DE was performed on all patients. The 3D-imaging data were cropped and rotated in 3 views (horizontal, sagittal, and coronal) with 6 directions to observe the position and shape of the MVC and the spatial position between the cleft and its surrounding structures. The maximum longitudinal diameter and the maximum width of the cleft were measured. The origin of the mitral regurgitant jet and the severity of MR were evaluated, and these RT-3DE data were compared with the intraoperative findings. Results Of the 19 patients studied, 4 patients had isolated cleft mitral valve, and cleft mitral valves combined with other congenital heart lesions were detected in 15 patients. The clefts of 6 patients were located in the A2 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A1 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A3 segment, the clefts of 4 patients were located in the A2–A3 segment, and the cleft of 1 patient was located in the P2 segment. Regarding the shape of the cleft, 13 patients had V-shaped clefts, and the others had C- or S-shaped clefts. The severity of the MR at presentation was mild in 2 patients, moderate in 9 and severe in 8. Two of the patients with mild MR did not undergo surgery

  15. Observation of Ni54: Cross-Conjugate Symmetry in f7/2 Mirror Energy Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadea, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Lunardi, S.; Mărginean, N.; Zuker, A. P.; de Angelis, G.; Axiotis, M.; Martínez, T.; Napoli, D. R.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Pavan, P.; Ur, C. A.; Bazzacco, D.; Venturelli, R.; Kleinheinz, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Nyberg, J.; Grawe, H.; Górska, M.; Palacz, M.; Lagergren, K.; Milechina, L.; Ekman, J.; Rudolph, D.; Andreoiu, C.; Bentley, M. A.; Gelletly, W.; Rubio, B.; Algora, A.; Nacher, E.; Caballero, L.; Trotta, M.; Moszyński, M.

    2006-10-01

    Gamma decays from excited states up to Jπ=6+ in the N=Z-2 nucleus Ni54 have been identified for the first time. Level energies are compared with those of the isobars Co54 and Fe54 and of the cross-conjugate nuclei of mass A=42. The good but puzzling f7/2 cross-conjugate symmetry in mirror and triplet energy differences is analyzed. Shell model calculations reproduce the new data but the necessary nuclear charge-dependent phenomenology is not fully explained by modern nucleon-nucleon potentials.

  16. Temperature dependent absorption cross-sections of HNO3 and N2O5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattigan, Oliver V.; Harwood, Matthew H.; Jones, Rod L.; Cox, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections for HNO3 and N2O5 have been measured in the wavelength region 220-450 nm, using a dual beam diode array spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.3 nm. The results for both compounds are in good agreement with recommended values at room temperature. However, the cross-sections of both HNO3 and N2O5 show a marked reduction with decreasing temperature in the range 295-233 K. The calculated photolysis rate of HNO3 at the low temperatures and high solar zenith angles characteristic of the polar winter and spring is significantly lower than previously estimated.

  17. Crossed-beams and theoretical studies of the O((3)P) + H(2)O --> HO(2) + H reaction excitation function.

    PubMed

    Brunsvold, Amy L; Zhang, Jianming; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Minton, Timothy K; Camden, Jon P; Paci, Jeffrey T; Schatz, George C

    2007-11-01

    Hyperthermal collisions of ground-state atomic oxygen with H2O have been investigated, with special attention paid to the H-atom elimination reaction, O((3)P) + H(2)O(X (1)A(1)) --> HO(2)((2)A') + H((2)S). This reaction was observed in a crossed-beams experiment, and the relative excitation function in the region around its energy threshold (50-80 kcal mol(-1)) was measured. Direct dynamics calculations were also performed at two levels of theory, B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and MP2/6-31G(d,p). The shape of the B3LYP excitation function closely matches that of the experiment. The calculations provided a detailed description of the dynamics and revealed a striking dependence of the reaction mechanism on collision energy, where the cross section rises from a threshold near 60 kcal mol(-1) to a peak at approximately 115 kcal mol(-1) and then decreases at higher energies as secondary dissociation of the internally excited HO(2) product becomes dominant. The calculations show that the cross section for H-atom elimination (O + H(2)O --> HO(2) + H) is about 10-25% that of the H-atom abstraction (O + H(2)O --> OH + OH) cross section for collision energies in the 70-160 kcal mol(-1) range.

  18. Development of a submaximal test to predict elliptical cross-trainer VO2max.

    PubMed

    Dalleck, Lance C; Kravitz, Len; Robergs, Robert A

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an equation to predict VO2max from a submaximal elliptical cross-trainer test. Fifty-four apparently healthy subjects (25 men and 29 women, mean +/- SD age: 29.5 +/- 7.1 years, height: 173.3 +/- 12.6 cm, weight: 72.3 +/- 7.9 kg, percent body fat: 17.3 +/- 5.0%, and elliptical cross-trainer VO2max: 43.9 +/- 7.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to an original sample group (n = 40) and a cross-validation group (n = 14). Each subject completed an elliptical cross-trainer submaximal (3 5-minute submaximal stages) and a VO2max test on the same day, with a 15-minute rest period in between. Stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to develop an equation for estimating elliptical cross-trainer VO2max from the data of the original sample group. The accuracy of the equation was tested by using data from the cross-validation group. Because there was no shrinkage in R2 between the original sample group and the cross-validation group, data were combined in the final prediction equation (R2 = 0.732, standard error of the estimate = 3.91 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), p < 0.05): VO2max = 73.676 + 7.383(gender) - 0.317(weight) + 0.003957(age x cadence) - 0.006452(age x heart rate at stage 2). The correlation coefficient between the predicted and measured VO2max values was r = 0.86. Dependent t-tests resulted in no significant differences (p > 0.05) between predicted (43.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and measured (43.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) VO2max measurements. Results indicate that the protocol and equation developed in the current study can be used by exercise professionals to provide acceptably accurate estimates of VO2max in non-laboratory-based settings.

  19. Cross sections for elastic scattering of electrons by CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, M; Horie, M; Kato, H; Blanco, F; García, G; Limão-Vieira, P; Sullivan, J P; Brunger, M J; Tanaka, H

    2013-06-07

    Differential, integral, and momentum transfer cross sections have been determined for the elastic scattering of electrons from the molecules CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3.With the help of a crossed electron beam-molecular beam apparatus using the relative flow technique, the ratios of the elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) of CF3Cl, CF2Cl2, and CFCl3 to those of He were measured in the energy region from 1.5 to 100 eV and at scattering angles in the range 15° to 130°. From those ratios, the absolute DCSs were determined by utilizing the known DCS of He. For CF3Cl and CF2Cl2, at the common energies of measurement, we find generally good agreement with the results from the independent experiments of Mann and Linder [J. Phys. B 25, 1621 (1992); and ibid. 25, 1633 (1992)]. In addition, as a result of progressively substituting a Cl-atom, undulations in the angular distributions have been found to vary in a largely systematic manner in going from CF4 to CF3Cl to CF2Cl2 to CFCl3 and to CCl4. These observed features suggest that the elastic scattering process is, in an independently additive manner, dominated by the atomic-Cl atoms of the molecules. The present independent atom method calculation typically supports the experimental evidence, within the screened additivity rule formulation, for each species and for energies greater than about 10-20 eV. Integral elastic and momentum transfer cross sections were also derived from the measured DCSs, and are compared to the other available theoretical and experimental results. The elastic integral cross sections are also evaluated as a part of their contribution to the total cross section.

  20. S-193 scatterometer backscattering cross section precision/accuracy for Skylab 2 and 3 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, K.; Pounds, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Procedures for measuring the precision and accuracy with which the S-193 scatterometer measured the background cross section of ground scenes are described. Homogeneous ground sites were selected, and data from Skylab missions were analyzed. The precision was expressed as the standard deviation of the scatterometer-acquired backscattering cross section. In special cases, inference of the precision of measurement was made by considering the total range from the maximum to minimum of the backscatter measurements within a data segment, rather than the standard deviation. For Skylab 2 and 3 missions a precision better than 1.5 dB is indicated. This procedure indicates an accuracy of better than 3 dB for the Skylab 2 and 3 missions. The estimates of precision and accuracy given in this report are for backscattering cross sections from -28 to 18 dB. Outside this range the precision and accuracy decrease significantly.

  1. A pseudo-R2 measure for selecting genomic markers with crossing hazards functions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In genomic medical studies, one of the major objectives is to identify genomic factors with a prognostic impact on time-to-event outcomes so as to provide new insights into the disease process. Selection usually relies on statistical univariate indices based on the Cox model. Such model assumes proportional hazards (PH) which is unlikely to hold for each genomic marker. Methods In this paper, we introduce a novel pseudo-R2 measure derived from a crossing hazards model and designed for the selection of markers with crossing effects. The proposed index is related to the score statistic and quantifies the extent of a genomic factor to separate patients according to their survival times and marker measurements. We also show the importance of considering genomic markers with crossing effects as they potentially reflect the complex interplay between markers belonging to the same pathway. Results Simulations show that our index is not affected by the censoring and the sample size of the study. It also performs better than classical indices under the crossing hazards assumption. The practical use of our index is illustrated in a lung cancer study. The use of the proposed pseudo-R2 allows the identification of cell-cycle dependent genes not identified when relying on the PH assumption. Conclusions The proposed index is a novel and promising tool for selecting markers with crossing hazards effects. PMID:21401964

  2. Airway Wall Area Derived from 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography Analysis Differs among Lung Lobes in Male Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Tho, Nguyen Van; Trang, Le Thi Huyen; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Ogawa, Emiko; Ryujin, Yasushi; Kanda, Rie; Nakagawa, Hiroaki; Goto, Kenichi; Fukunaga, Kentaro; Higami, Yuichi; Seto, Ruriko; Nagao, Taishi; Oguma, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Masafumi; Lan, Le Thi Tuyet; Nakano, Yasutaka

    2014-01-01

    Background It is time-consuming to obtain the square root of airway wall area of the hypothetical airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (√Aaw at Pi10), a comparable index of airway dimensions in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), from all airways of the whole lungs using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis. We hypothesized that √Aaw at Pi10 differs among the five lung lobes and √Aaw at Pi10 derived from one certain lung lobe has a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs in smokers. Methods Pulmonary function tests and chest volumetric CTs were performed in 157 male smokers (102 COPD, 55 non-COPD). All visible bronchial segments from the 3rd to 5th generations were segmented and measured using commercially available 3-dimensional CT analysis software. √Aaw at Pi10 of each lung lobe was estimated from all measurable bronchial segments of that lobe. Results Using a mixed-effects model, √Aaw at Pi10 differed significantly among the five lung lobes (R2 = 0.78, P<0.0001). The Bland-Altman plots show that √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left upper lobe had a high level of agreement with that derived from the whole lungs, while √Aaw at Pi10 derived from the right or left lower lobe did not. Conclusion In male smokers, CT-derived airway wall area differs among the five lung lobes, and airway wall area derived from the right or left upper lobe is representative of the whole lungs. PMID:24865661

  3. Seasonal variations in VO2max, O2-cost, O2-deficit, and performance in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Losnegard, Thomas; Myklebust, Håvard; Spencer, Matt; Hallén, Jostein

    2013-07-01

    Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2 years; height, 182 ± 6 cm; body mass, 76 ± 8 kg; V2 roller ski skating VO2max, 79.3 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min or 6.0 ± 0.5 L·min) were tested during the early, middle, and late preparation phase: June (T1), August (T2), and October (T3); during the competition phase: January/February (T4); and after early precompetition phase: June (T5). O2-cost during submaximal efforts, V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO2-deficit), and performance during a 1,000-m test were determined in the V2 ski skating technique on a roller ski treadmill. Subjects performed their training on an individual basis, and detailed training logs were categorized into different intensity zones and exercise modes. Total training volume was highest during the summer months (early preseason) and decreased toward and through the winter season, whereas the volume of high-intensity training increased (all p < 0.05). There was a significant main effect among testing sessions for 1,000 m time, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit (Cohen's d effect size; ES = 0.63-1.37, moderate to large, all p < 0.05). In general, the changes occurred between T1 and T3 with minor changes in the competitive season (T3 to T4). No significant changes were found in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak across the year (ES = 0.17, trivial). In conclusion, the training performed by elite cross-country skiers induced no significant changes in V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak but improved performance, O2-cost, and ΣO2-deficit.

  4. A 3-dimensional finite-difference method for calculating the dynamic coefficients of seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietzen, F. J.; Nordmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    A method to calculate the dynamic coefficients of seals with arbitrary geometry is presented. The Navier-Stokes equations are used in conjunction with the k-e turbulence model to describe the turbulent flow. These equations are solved by a full 3-dimensional finite-difference procedure instead of the normally used perturbation analysis. The time dependence of the equations is introduced by working with a coordinate system rotating with the precession frequency of the shaft. The results of this theory are compared with coefficients calculated by a perturbation analysis and with experimental results.

  5. Incorporating a 3-dimensional printer into the management of early-stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Baek, Min-Hyun; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Kim, Namkug; Rhim, Chae Chun; Kim, Jong-Hyeok; Nam, Joo-Hyun

    2016-08-01

    We used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer to create anatomical replicas of real lesions and tested its application in cervical cancer. Our study patient decided to undergo radical hysterectomy after seeing her 3D model which was then used to plan and simulate this surgery. Using 3D printers to create patient-specific 3D tumor models may aid cervical cancer patients make treatment decisions. This technology will lead to better surgical and oncological outcomes for cervical cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;114:150-152. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Introducing a well-ordered volume porosity in 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayela, Cédric; Lalo, Hélène; Kuhn, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of the present work is the introduction of a combined bottom-up and top-down approach to generate 3-dimensional gold microcantilevers, where the porosity in the volume of the free-standing microstructure is well-controlled. By combining the elaboration of a colloidal crystal, followed by electrodeposition, with a sacrificial layer process, free-standing macroporous gold cantilevers are fabricated collectively. In order to validate the proposed concept, a simple application to humidity sensing is evaluated using the devices as mass sensors. A large sensitivity of -529 ppm/%RH and low discrepancy are obtained experimentally, confirming the promising application potential of this original architecture.

  7. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-05-01

    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  8. Electron impact ionization and attachment cross sections for H2S. [in comet and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Srivastava, S. K.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were performed to measure, by electron impact, appearance potentials and the cross sections for ionization, dissociative ionization, and electron attachment for H2S. Results are presented, and discussed individually, for both positive and negative ions. A schematic diagram of the experimental setup is included.

  9. High-Resolution Measurements of e++H2O Total Cross Section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreti, A.; Kadokura, R.; Fayer, S. E.; Kövér, Á.; Laricchia, G.

    2016-12-01

    Using a purely electrostatic positron beam, the total cross section of positrons scattering from H2O has been measured for the first time with a high angular discrimination (≃1 ° ) against forward scattered projectiles. Results are presented in the energy range (10-300) eV. Significant deviations from previous measurements are found which are, if ascribed entirely to the angular acceptances of various experimental systems, in quantitative accord with ab initio theoretical predictions of the differential elastic scattering cross section.

  10. Observation of 54Ni: cross-conjugate symmetry in f7/2 mirror energy differences.

    PubMed

    Gadea, A; Lenzi, S M; Lunardi, S; Mărginean, N; Zuker, A P; de Angelis, G; Axiotis, M; Martínez, T; Napoli, D R; Farnea, E; Menegazzo, R; Pavan, P; Ur, C A; Bazzacco, D; Venturelli, R; Kleinheinz, P; Bednarczyk, P; Curien, D; Dorvaux, O; Nyberg, J; Grawe, H; Górska, M; Palacz, M; Lagergren, K; Milechina, L; Ekman, J; Rudolph, D; Andreoiu, C; Bentley, M A; Gelletly, W; Rubio, B; Algora, A; Nacher, E; Caballero, L; Trotta, M; Moszyński, M

    2006-10-13

    Gamma decays from excited states up to Jpi=6+ in the N=Z-2 nucleus 54Ni have been identified for the first time. Level energies are compared with those of the isobars 54Co and 54Fe and of the cross-conjugate nuclei of mass A=42. The good but puzzling f7/ cross-conjugate symmetry in mirror and triplet energy differences is analyzed. Shell model calculations reproduce the new data but the necessary nuclear charge-dependent phenomenology is not fully explained by modern nucleon-nucleon potentials.

  11. Intersystem Crossing Pathways in the Noncanonical Nucleobase 2-Thiouracil: A Time-Dependent Picture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The deactivation mechanism after ultraviolet irradiation of 2-thiouracil has been investigated using nonadiabatic dynamics simulations at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. It is found that after excitation the S2 quickly relaxes to S1, and from there intersystem crossing takes place to both T2 and T1 with a time constant of 400 fs and a triplet yield above 80%, in very good agreement with recent femtosecond experiments in solution. Both indirect S1 → T2 → T1 and direct S1 → T1 pathways contribute to intersystem crossing, with the former being predominant. The results contribute to the understanding of how some noncanonical nucleobases respond to harmful ultraviolet light, which could be relevant for prospective photochemotherapeutic applications. PMID:27167106

  12. Intersystem Crossing Pathways in the Noncanonical Nucleobase 2-Thiouracil: A Time-Dependent Picture.

    PubMed

    Mai, Sebastian; Marquetand, Philipp; González, Leticia

    2016-06-02

    The deactivation mechanism after ultraviolet irradiation of 2-thiouracil has been investigated using nonadiabatic dynamics simulations at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory. It is found that after excitation the S2 quickly relaxes to S1, and from there intersystem crossing takes place to both T2 and T1 with a time constant of 400 fs and a triplet yield above 80%, in very good agreement with recent femtosecond experiments in solution. Both indirect S1 → T2 → T1 and direct S1 → T1 pathways contribute to intersystem crossing, with the former being predominant. The results contribute to the understanding of how some noncanonical nucleobases respond to harmful ultraviolet light, which could be relevant for prospective photochemotherapeutic applications.

  13. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  14. Grain boundary segregation in boron added interstitial free steels studied by 3-dimensional atom probe

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, K.; Larson, D.J.; Warren, P.J.; Smith, G.D.W.

    1999-04-09

    The development of deep-drawable sheet steels is of particular significance for the automotive industry. Titanium and/or niobium added extra-low carbon interstitial free (IF) steels are key materials. The virtually complete removal of carbon and nitrogen should lead to superior forming properties. However, the lack of solute carbon at grain boundaries significantly decreases the bonding force at the interfaces, which often causes intergranular brittle fracture when deeply drawn steel sheets are subjected to impact deformation at low temperature. This phenomenon is called secondary working embrittlement (SWE), and is a major problem when solute atoms such as phosphorus, manganese or silicon are added to increase the tensile strength of the steels. Small amounts of boron, which does not affect the formability of the steels significantly, are usually added as a remedial measure in such cases. The 3-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) combined with field ion microscopy (FIM) has the ability to produce 3-dimensional images from regions approximately 20nm*20nm*100nm in size, and identify each atomic species and the relative location of each atom with nearly lattice resolution. In this study, a combination of these methods was applied to produce FIM tips of IF steel containing grain boundaries. The authors report here the first observations of the segregation of boron in IF steels using 3DAP.

  15. A 3-dimensional model for teaching local flaps using porcine skin.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Zahid; Hogg, Fiona; Graham, Ken

    2014-10-01

    The European Working Time Directive and streamlined training has led to reduced training time. Surgery, as an experience-dependent craft specialty is affected more than other medical specialties. Trainees want to maximize all training opportunities in the clinical setting, and having predeveloped basic skills acquired on a simulated model can facilitate this.Here we describe the use of a novel model to design and raise local flaps in the face and scalp regions. The model consists of mannequin heads draped with porcine skin which is skewered with pins at strategic points to give a 3-dimensional model which closely resembles a cadaveric head.The advantages of this model are that it is life size and incorporates all the relevant anatomical features, which can be drawn on if required.This model was used on a recent course, Intermediate Skills in Plastic Surgery: Flaps Around the Face, at the Royal College of Surgeons England. The trainees found that practicing on the porcine skin gave them an opportunity to master the basics of flap design and implementation.In summary, this innovative 3-dimensional training model has received high levels of satisfaction and is currently as close as we can get to cadaveric dissection without the constraints and cost of using human tissue.

  16. Simple parameter estimation for complex models — Testing evolutionary techniques on 3-dimensional biogeochemical ocean models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattern, Jann Paul; Edwards, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Parameter estimation is an important part of numerical modeling and often required when a coupled physical-biogeochemical ocean model is first deployed. However, 3-dimensional ocean model simulations are computationally expensive and models typically contain upwards of 10 parameters suitable for estimation. Hence, manual parameter tuning can be lengthy and cumbersome. Here, we present four easy to implement and flexible parameter estimation techniques and apply them to two 3-dimensional biogeochemical models of different complexities. Based on a Monte Carlo experiment, we first develop a cost function measuring the model-observation misfit based on multiple data types. The parameter estimation techniques are then applied and yield a substantial cost reduction over ∼ 100 simulations. Based on the outcome of multiple replicate experiments, they perform on average better than random, uninformed parameter search but performance declines when more than 40 parameters are estimated together. Our results emphasize the complex cost function structure for biogeochemical parameters and highlight dependencies between different parameters as well as different cost function formulations.

  17. Automated 3-Dimensional Brain Atlas Fitting to Microelectrode Recordings from Deep Brain Stimulation Surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Luján, J. Luis; Noecker, Angela M.; Butson, Christopher R.; Cooper, Scott E.; Walter, Benjamin L.; Vitek, Jerrold L.; McIntyre, Cameron C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgeries commonly rely on brain atlases and microelectrode recordings (MER) to help identify the target location for electrode implantation. We present an automated method for optimally fitting a 3-dimensional brain atlas to intraoperative MER and predicting a target DBS electrode location in stereotactic coordinates for the patient. Methods We retrospectively fit a 3-dimensional brain atlas to MER points from 10 DBS surgeries targeting the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We used a constrained optimization algorithm to maximize the MER points correctly fitted (i.e., contained) within the appropriate atlas nuclei. We compared our optimization approach to conventional anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC/PC) scaling, and to manual fits performed by four experts. A theoretical DBS electrode target location in the dorsal STN was customized to each patient as part of the fitting process and compared to the location of the clinically defined therapeutic stimulation contact. Results The human expert and computer optimization fits achieved significantly better fits than the AC/PC scaling (80, 81, and 41% of correctly fitted MER, respectively). However, the optimization fits were performed in less time than the expert fits and converged to a single solution for each patient, eliminating interexpert variance. Conclusions and Significance DBS therapeutic outcomes are directly related to electrode implantation accuracy. Our automated fitting techniques may aid in the surgical decision-making process by optimally integrating brain atlas and intraoperative neurophysiological data to provide a visual guide for target identification. PMID:19556832

  18. 3-Dimensional quantitative detection of nanoparticle content in biological tissue samples after local cancer treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, Helene; Alexiou, Christoph; Trahms, Lutz; Odenbach, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    X-ray computed tomography is nowadays used for a wide range of applications in medicine, science and technology. X-ray microcomputed tomography (XμCT) follows the same principles used for conventional medical CT scanners, but improves the spatial resolution to a few micrometers. We present an example of an application of X-ray microtomography, a study of 3-dimensional biodistribution, as along with the quantification of nanoparticle content in tumoral tissue after minimally invasive cancer therapy. One of these minimal invasive cancer treatments is magnetic drug targeting, where the magnetic nanoparticles are used as controllable drug carriers. The quantification is based on a calibration of the XμCT-equipment. The developed calibration procedure of the X-ray-μCT-equipment is based on a phantom system which allows the discrimination between the various gray values of the data set. These phantoms consist of a biological tissue substitute and magnetic nanoparticles. The phantoms have been studied with XμCT and have been examined magnetically. The obtained gray values and nanoparticle concentration lead to a calibration curve. This curve can be applied to tomographic data sets. Accordingly, this calibration enables a voxel-wise assignment of gray values in the digital tomographic data set to nanoparticle content. Thus, the calibration procedure enables a 3-dimensional study of nanoparticle distribution as well as concentration.

  19. Particle trajectory computation on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. Final Report Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    A 3-dimensional particle trajectory computer code was developed to compute the distribution of water droplet impingement efficiency on a 3-dimensional engine inlet. The computed results provide the essential droplet impingement data required for the engine inlet anti-icing system design and analysis. The droplet trajectories are obtained by solving the trajectory equation using the fourth order Runge-Kutta and Adams predictor-corrector schemes. A compressible 3-D full potential flow code is employed to obtain a cylindrical grid definition of the flowfield on and about the engine inlet. The inlet surface is defined mathematically through a system of bi-cubic parametric patches in order to compute the droplet impingement points accurately. Analysis results of the 3-D trajectory code obtained for an axisymmetric droplet impingement problem are in good agreement with NACA experimental data. Experimental data are not yet available for the engine inlet impingement problem analyzed. Applicability of the method to solid particle impingement problems, such as engine sand ingestion, is also demonstrated.

  20. High Resolution Photoabsorption Cross-Sections of Isotopologues of SO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackie, D.; Stark, G.; Lyons, J. R.; Pickering, J. C.; Smith, P. L.; Thorne, A.

    2009-12-01

    The timing of the oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere is a central issue in understanding the Earth’s paleoclimate. The discovery of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of sulphur isotopes deposited within Archean and Paleoproterozoic rock samples has given rise to a possible marker, through the transition between MIF within older rock samples ( > 2.4 Gyrs) to mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) within younger samples, for the rise in oxygen concentrations within the Earth’s atmosphere (Farquhar et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 213:1-13 (2003).). Laboratory experiments (Farquhar et al., J. Geophys. Res., 106:32829-32839, (2001).) suggest isotopic self shielding during gas phase photolysis as the dominant mechanism for MIF. Self shielding is present for SO2 at wavelengths shorter than 220 nm where it undergoes partial predissocation. The UV absorption of SO2is dominated by the C1B2-X1A1 electronic system comprising of strong vibrational bands between 170 - 230 nm. Within an atmosphere consisting of low O2 and O3 concentrations, UV radiation would penetrate deep into the ancient Earth’s atmosphere within the 180 - 220 nm range driving the photolysis of SO2. We have conducted the first ever high resolution measurements of the photoabsorption cross sections of several isotopologues of SO2, namely 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2 and 36SO2. The cross sections are being measured at Imperial College at initial resolutions of 1.0 cm-1 which will be increased to resolutions < 0.5 cm-1 for inclusion in photochemical models of the early Earth’s atmosphere. The models will be used to more reliably interpret the sulphur isotope ratios found within ancient rock samples (Lyons, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34:L22811 (2007).). For a detailed discussion of the use of high resolution cross sections within photochemical models and interpretation of the findings see the abstract by Lyons et al.(this meeting). Initial 1.0 cm-1 resolution measurements of several isotopologues of SO2 will be

  1. A new TLR2 agonist promotes cross-presentation by mouse and human antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Santone, Melissa; Aprea, Susanna; Wu, Tom Y H; Cooke, Michael P; Mbow, M Lamine; Valiante, Nicholas M; Rush, James S; Dougan, Stephanie; Avalos, Ana; Ploegh, Hidde; De Gregorio, Ennio; Buonsanti, Cecilia; D'Oro, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    Cross-presentation is the process by which professional APCs load peptides from an extracellularly derived protein onto class I MHC molecules to trigger a CD8(+) T cell response. The ability to enhance this process is therefore relevant for the development of antitumor and antiviral vaccines. We investigated a new TLR2-based adjuvant, Small Molecule Immune Potentiator (SMIP) 2.1, for its ability to stimulate cross-presentation. Using OVA as model antigen, we demonstrated that a SMIP2.1-adjuvanted vaccine formulation induced a greater CD8(+) T cell response, in terms of proliferation, cytokine production and cytolytic activity, than a non-adjuvanted vaccine. Moreover, using an OVA-expressing tumor model, we showed that the CTLs induced by the SMIP2.1 formulated vaccine inhibits tumor growth in vivo. Using a BCR transgenic mouse model we found that B cells could cross-present the OVA antigen when stimulated with SMIP2.1. We also used a flow cytometry assay to detect activation of human CD8(+) T cells isolated from human PBMCs of cytomegalovirus-seropositive donors. Stimulation with SMIP2.1 increased the capacity of human APCs, pulsed in vitro with the pp65 CMV protein, to activate CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, vaccination with an exogenous antigen formulated with SMIP2.1 is a successful strategy for the induction of a cytotoxic T cell response along with antibody production.

  2. Electron-impact dissociation cross sections of vibrationally excited He_{2}^{+} molecular ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celiberto, R.; Baluja, K. L.; Janev, R. K.; Laporta, V.

    2016-01-01

    Electron-impact cross sections for the dissociation process of vibrationally excited He2+ molecular ion, as a function of the incident electron energy are calculated for the dissociative transition \\text{X}{{ }2}Σu+\\to \\text{A}{{ }2}Σg+ by using the R-matrix method in the adiabatic-nuclei approximation. The potential energy curves for the involved electronic states and transition dipole moment, also calculated with the R-matrix method, were found to be in good agreement with the results reported in literature. The vibrationally resolved dissociation cross sections of He2+(v) exhibit a resonant structure around 7 eV. The observed strong variation of the magnitude of this structure with the vibrational level is explained in terms of the overlap of initial and final (continuum) state wave functions in the Franck-Condon region.

  3. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication. Volume XI, Number 2, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas within the areas of communication, language skills acquisition and instruction, and cross-cultural training and learning includes these articles: "Oral Interactive Testing at a Japanese University" (Eloise Pearson); "Classroom Organisation and the Teacher" (Armand…

  4. Preliminary 3-Dimensional Geologic Map of the Santa Rosa Plain, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, C. A.; McPhee, D. K.; Valin, Z. C.; McLaughlin, R. J.; Jachens, R. C.; Langenheim, V. E.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have constructed a preliminary 3-dimensional geologic map of the Santa Rosa Plain as a tool to address earthquake hazard and groundwater issues. The map allows integration of diverse datasets to produce a stratigraphic and structural architecture for the region. This framework can then be used to predict pathways of ground water flow and potential areas of enhanced or focused seismic shaking beneath the Santa Rosa Plain. The 3D map also allows us to identify relations which will require further refinement to develop a coherent 3D image of the crust. The 3D map, built using EarthVision 3D geologic mapping software, consists of three bounding components: fault surfaces, stratigraphic surfaces, and a basement upper surface. Fault surfaces are derived from geologic mapping, subsurface projection of fault dips from the surface geology and earthquake hypocenters. Stratigraphic surfaces are derived from the mapped geology, a digital elevation model and stratigraphic information from wells. A basement surface, predominantly composed of Mesozoic rocks of the Franciscan Complex, the mafic Coast Range Ophiolite and strata of the Great Valley Sequence, is derived from inversion of regional gravity measurements and constrained by well data. The preliminary 3D map of the Santa Rosa Plain area highlights two large basins (>2 km deep): the Windsor and Cotati basins. These basins are divided by a structural high associated with the W-NW-trending, NE-dipping Trenton thrust fault. The Cotati basin is further subdivided by a deeper basement ridge subparallel to the Trenton fault, which separates the basin beneath Cotati from the basin of Petaluma Valley to the southeast. Neither of the basement ridges breaks the surface, yet faults associated with the ridges could displace or truncate aquifers, provide channelways for groundwater flow between aquifers, or create zones of impermeability that disrupt the vertical and lateral continuity of groundwater flow. The complex configuration

  5. Nickel-catalyzed cross-electrophile coupling of 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides.

    PubMed

    Everson, Daniel A; Buonomo, Joseph A; Weix, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of 2-alkylated pyridines by the nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, 2-chloropyridines with alkyl bromides, is described. Compared to our previously published conditions for aryl halides, this method uses the different, more rigid bathophenanthroline ligand and is conducted at high concentration in DMF solvent. The method displays promising functional group compatibility and the conditions are orthogonal to the Stille coupling.

  6. Do All Patients of Breast Carcinoma Need 3-Dimensional CT-Based Planning? A Dosimetric Study Comparing Different Breast Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Munshi, Anusheel Pai, Rajeshri H.; Phurailatpam, Reena; Budrukkar, Ashwini; Jalali, Rakesh; Sarin, Rajiv; Deshpande, D.D.; Shrivastava, Shyam K.; Dinshaw, Ketayun A.

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of dose distribution in a single plane (i.e., 2-dimensional [2D] planning) is simple and less resource-intensive than CT-based 3-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) planning or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of the study was to determine if 2D planning could be an appropriate treatment in a subgroup of breast cancer patients based on their breast size. Twenty consecutive patients who underwent breast conservation were planned for radiotherapy. The patients were grouped in 3 different categories based on their respective chest wall separation (CWS) and the thickness of breast, as 'small,' 'medium,' and 'large.' Two more contours were taken at locations 5 cm superior and 5 cm inferior to the isocenter plane. Maximum dose recorded at specified points was compared in superior/inferior slices as compared to the central slice. The mean difference for small breast size was 1.93 (standard deviation [SD] = 1.08). For medium breas size, the mean difference was 2.98 (SD = 2.40). For the large breasts, the mean difference was 4.28 (SD = 2.69). Based on our dosimetric study, breast planning only on the single isocentric contour is an appropriate technique for patients with small breasts. However, for large- and medium-size breasts, CT-based planning and 3D planning have a definite role. These results can be especially useful for rationalizing treatment in busy oncology centers.

  7. Measurement of Charged and Neutral Current e-p Deep Inelastic Scattering Cross Sections at High Q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrick, M.; Krakauer, D.; Magill, S.; Mikunas, D.; Musgrave, B.; Repond, J.; Stanek, R.; Talaga, R. L.; Zhang, H.; Ayad, R.; Bari, G.; Basile, M.; Bellagamba, L.; Boscherini, D.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruni, P.; Cara Romeo, G.; Castellini, G.; Chiarini, M.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Contin, A.; Corradi, M.; Gialas, I.; Giusti, P.; Iacobucci, G.; Laurenti, G.; Levi, G.; Margotti, A.; Massam, T.; Nania, R.; Nemoz, C.; Palmonari, F.; Polini, A.; Sartorelli, G.; Timellini, R.; Zamora Garcia, Y.; Zichichi, A.; Bargende, A.; Crittenden, J.; Desch, K.; Diekmann, B.; Doeker, T.; Eckert, M.; Feld, L.; Frey, A.; Geerts, M.; Geitz, G.; Grothe, M.; Haas, T.; Hartmann, H.; Haun, D.; Heinloth, K.; Hilger, E.; Jakob, H.-P.; Katz, U. F.; Mari, S. M.; Mass, A.; Mengel, S.; Mollen, J.; Paul, E.; Rembser, Ch.; Schattevoy, R.; Schramm, D.; Stamm, J.; Wedemeyer, R.; Campbell-Robson, S.; Cassidy, A.; Dyce, N.; Foster, B.; George, S.; Gilmore, R.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Llewellyn, T. J.; Morgado, C. J.; Norman, D. J.; O'Mara, J. A.; Tapper, R. J.; Wilson, S. S.; Yoshida, R.; Rau, R. R.; Arneodo, M.; Iannotti, L.; Schioppa, M.; Susinno, G.; Bernstein, A.; Caldwell, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Parsons, J. A.; Ritz, S.; Sciulli, F.; Straub, P. B.; Wai, L.; Yang, S.; Zhu, Q.; Borzemski, P.; Chwastowski, J.; Eskreys, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Zachara, M.; Zawiejski, L.; Adamczyk, L.; Bednarek, B.; Jeleń, K.; Kisielewska, D.; Kowalski, T.; Rulikowska-Zarȩbska, E.; Suszycki, L.; ZajaÇ, J.; Kotański, A.; Przybycień, M.; Bauerdick, L. A.; Behrens, U.; Beier, H.; Bienlein, J. K.; Coldewey, C.; Deppe, O.; Desler, K.; Drews, G.; Flasiński, M.; Gilkinson, D. J.; Glasman, C.; Göttlicher, P.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Gutjahr, B.; Hain, W.; Hasell, D.; Hessling, H.; Hultschig, H.; Iga, Y.; Joos, P.; Kasemann, M.; Klanner, R.; Koch, W.; Köpke, L.; Kötz, U.; Kowalski, H.; Labs, J.; Ladage, A.; Löhr, B.; Löwe, M.; Lüke, D.; Mańczak, O.; Ng, J. S.; Nickel, S.; Notz, D.; Ohrenberg, K.; Roco, M.; Rohde, M.; Roldán, J.; Schneekloth, U.; Schulz, W.; Selonke, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Surrow, B.; Voss, T.; Westphal, D.; Wolf, G.; Youngman, C.; Zhou, J. F.; Grabosch, H. J.; Kharchilava, A.; Leich, A.; Mattingly, M.; Meyer, A.; Schlenstedt, S.; Wulff, N.; Barbagli, G.; Pelfer, P.; Anzivino, G.; Maccarrone, G.; de Pasquale, S.; Votano, L.; Bamberger, A.; Eisenhardt, S.; Freidhof, A.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Schroeder, J.; Trefzger, T.; Brook, N. H.; Bussey, P. J.; Doyle, A. T.; Fleck, J. I.; Saxon, D. H.; Utley, M. L.; Wilson, A. S.; Dannemann, A.; Holm, U.; Horstmann, D.; Neumann, T.; Sinkus, R.; Wick, K.; Badura, E.; Burow, B. D.; Hagge, L.; Lohrmann, E.; Mainusch, J.; Milewski, J.; Nakahata, M.; Pavel, N.; Poelz, G.; Schott, W.; Zetsche, F.; Bacon, T. C.; Butterworth, I.; Gallo, E.; Harris, V. L.; Hung, B. Y.; Long, K. R.; Miller, D. B.; Morawitz, P. P.; Prinias, A.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Whitfield, A. F.; Mallik, U.; McCliment, E.; Wang, M. Z.; Wang, S. M.; Wu, J. T.; Zhang, Y.; Cloth, P.; Filges, D.; An, S. H.; Hong, S. M.; Nam, S. W.; Park, S. K.; Suh, M. H.; Yon, S. H.; Imlay, R.; Kartik, S.; Kim, H.-J.; McNeil, R. R.; Metcalf, W.; Nadendla, V. K.; Barreiro, F.; Cases, G.; Graciani, R.; Hernández, J. M.; Hervás, L.; Labarga, L.; del Peso, J.; Puga, J.; Terron, J.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Smith, G. R.; Corriveau, F.; Hanna, D. S.; Hartmann, J.; Hung, L. W.; Lim, J. N.; Matthews, C. G.; Patel, P. M.; Sinclair, L. E.; Stairs, D. G.; St. Laurent, M.; Ullmann, R.; Zacek, G.; Bashkirov, V.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Stifutkin, A.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Ermolov, P. F.; Gladilin, L. K.; Golubkov, Y. A.; Kobrin, V. D.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Proskuryakov, A. S.; Savin, A. A.; Shcheglova, L. M.; Solomin, A. N.; Zotov, N. P.; Botje, M.; Chlebana, F.; Dake, A.; Engelen, J.; de Kamps, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kruse, A.; Tiecke, H.; Verkerke, W.; Vreeswijk, M.; Wiggers, L.; de Wolf, E.; van Woudenberg, R.; Acosta, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Honscheid, K.; Li, C.; Ling, T. Y.; McLean, K. W.; Murray, W. N.; Park, I. H.; Romanowski, T. A.; Seidlein, R.; Bailey, D. S.; Blair, G. A.; Byrne, A.; Cashmore, R. J.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Daniels, D.; Devenish, R. C.; Harnew, N.; Lancaster, M.; Luffman, P. E.; Lindemann, L.; McFall, J. D.; Nath, C.; Noyes, V. A.; Quadt, A.; Uijterwaal, H.; Walczak, R.; Wilson, F. F.; Yip, T.; Abbiendi, G.; Bertolin, A.; Brugnera, R.; Carlin, R.; dal Corso, F.; de Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Limentani, S.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Stanco, L.; Stroili, R.; Voci, C.; Bulmahn, J.; Butterworth, J. M.; Feild, R. G.; Oh, B. Y.; Whitmore, J. J.; D'Agostini, G.; Marini, G.; Nigro, A.; Tassi, E.; Hart, J. C.; McCubbin, N. A.; Prytz, K.; Shah, T. P.; Short, T. L.; Barberis, E.; Dubbs, T.; Heusch, C.; van Hook, M.; Hubbard, B.; Lockman, W.; Rahn, J. T.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Seiden, A.; Biltzinger, J.; Schwarzer, O.; Seifert, R. J.; Walenta, A. H.; Zech, G.; Abramowicz, H.; Briskin, G.; Dagan, S.; Levy, A.; Hasegawa, T.; Hazumi, M.; Ishii, T.; Kuze, M.; Mine, S.; Nagasawa, Y.; Nakao, M.; Suzuki, I.; Tokushuku, K.; Yamada, S.; Yamazaki, Y.; Chiba, M.; Hamatsu, R.; Hirose, T.; Homma, K.; Kitamura, S.; Nakamitsu, Y.; Yamauchi, K.; Cirio, R.; Costa, M.; Ferrero, M. I.; Lamberti, L.; Maselli, S.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Dardo, M.; Bailey, D. C.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Benard, F.; Brkic, M.; Crombie, M. B.; Gingrich, D. M.; Hartner, G. F.; Joo, K. K.; Levman, G. M.; Martin, J. F.; Orr, R. S.; Sampson, C. R.; Teuscher, R. J.; Catterall, C. D.; Jones, T. W.; Kaziewicz, P. B.; Lane, J. B.; Saunders, R. L.; Shulman, J.; Blankenship, K.; Kochocki, J.; Lu, B.; Mo, L. W.; Bogusz, W.; Charchuła, K.; Ciborowski, J.; Gajewski, J.; Grzelak, G.; Kasprzak, M.; Krzyżanowski, M.; Muchorowski, K.; Nowak, R. J.; Pawlak, J. M.; Tymieniecka, T.; Wróblewski, A. K.; Zakrzewski, J. A.; Żarnecki, A. F.; Adamus, M.; Eisenberg, Y.; Karshon, U.; Revel, D.; Zer-Zion, D.; Ali, I.; Badgett, W. F.; Behrens, B.; Dasu, S.; Fordham, C.; Foudas, C.; Goussiou, A.; Loveless, R. J.; Reeder, D. D.; Silverstein, S.; Smith, W. H.; Vaiciulis, A.; Wodarczyk, M.; Tsurugai, T.; Bhadra, S.; Cardy, M. L.; Fagerstroem, C.-P.; Frisken, W. R.; Furutani, K. M.; Khakzad, M.; Schmidke, W. B.

    1995-08-01

    Deep inelastic e-p scattering has been studied in both the charged current (CC) and neutral current (NC) reactions at momentum transfers squared Q2 above 400 GeV2 using the ZEUS detector at the HERA ep collider. The CC and NC total cross sections, the NC to CC cross section ratio, and the differential cross sections dσ/dQ2 are presented. From the Q2 dependence of the CC cross section, the mass term in the CC propagator is determined to be MW = 76+/-16+/-13 GeV.

  8. Analysis of shape and motion of the mitral annulus in subjects with and without cardiomyopathy by echocardiographic 3-dimensional reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flachskampf, F. A.; Chandra, S.; Gaddipatti, A.; Levine, R. A.; Weyman, A. E.; Ameling, W.; Hanrath, P.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    The shape and dynamics of the mitral annulus of 10 patients without heart disease (controls), 3 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 5 patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and normal systolic function were analyzed by transesophageal echocardiography and 3-dimensional reconstruction. Mitral annular orifice area, apico-basal motion of the annulus, and nonplanarity were calculated over time. Annular area was largest in end diastole and smallest in end systole. Mean areas were 11.8 +/- 2.5 cm(2) (controls), 15.2 +/- 4.2 cm(2) (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 10.2 +/- 2.4 cm(2) (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P = not significant). After correction for body surface, annuli from patients with normal left ventricular function were smaller than annuli from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (5.9 +/- 1.2 cm(2)/m(2) vs 7.7 +/- 1.0 cm(2)/m(2); P <.02). The change in area during the cardiac cycle showed significant differences: 23.8% +/- 5.1% (controls), 13.2% +/- 2.3% (dilated cardiomyopathy), and 32.4% +/- 7.6% (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) (P <.001). Apico-basal motion was highest in controls, followed by those with hypertrophic obstructive and dilated cardiomyopathy (1.0 +/- 0.3 cm, 0.8 +/- 0.2 cm, 0.3 +/- 0.2 cm, respectively; P <.01). Visual inspection and Fourier analysis showed a consistent pattern of anteroseptal and posterolateral elevations of the annulus toward the left atrium. In conclusion, although area changes and apico-basal motion of the mitral annulus strongly depend on left ventricular systolic function, nonplanarity is a structural feature preserved throughout the cardiac cycle in all three groups.

  9. Photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 in the VUV region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xia, T. J.; Chien, T. S.; Wu, C. Y. Robert; Judge, D. L.

    1991-01-01

    Using synchrotron radiation as a continuum light source, the photoabsorption and photoionization cross sections of NH3, PH3, H2S, C2H2, and C2H4 have been measured from their respective ionization thresholds to 1060 A. The vibrational constants associated with the nu(2) totally symmetric, out-of-plane bending vibration of the ground electronic state of PH3(+) have been obtained. The cross sections and quantum yields for producing neutral products through photoexcitation of these molecules in the given spectral regions have also been determined. In the present work, autoionization processes were found to be less important than dissociation and predissociation processes in NH3, PH3, and C2H4. Several experimental techniques have been employed in order to examine the various possible systematic errors critically.

  10. High resolution absorption cross sections for the A2Pi-X2Pi system of ClO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wine, P. H.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Philen, D. L.; Davis, D. D.; Watson, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    High-resolution ultraviolet absorption cross-sections for the ClO molecule are obtained, with the aim of facilitating studies of ozone depletion resulting from the injection of chlorofluorocarbons into the atmosphere. The spectroscopic analysis, which involves a frequency-doubled tunable dye laser with a bandwidth of 0.015 A, is described. Studies of the rotational lines of the ClO A 2Pi 3/2-X2Pi 3/2 9-10 band were conducted. Peak cross-sections for the P and R lines of the 9-0 band are found to be 10.0, 9.6, 8.6, 10.6, 10.3, and 9.2 times ten to the negative seventeenth power cm squared, with estimated accuracy of plus or minus 25%. Problems in distinguishing between Cl-35 and Cl-37 absorption are also considered.

  11. Experimental Validation of Plastic Mandible Models Produced by a “Low-Cost” 3-Dimensional Fused Deposition Modeling Printer

    PubMed Central

    Maschio, Federico; Pandya, Mirali; Olszewski, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of 3-dimensional (3D) plastic (ABS) models generated using a low-cost 3D fused deposition modelling printer. Material/Methods Two human dry mandibles were scanned with a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) Accuitomo device. Preprocessing consisted of 3D reconstruction with Maxilim software and STL file repair with Netfabb software. Then, the data were used to print 2 plastic replicas with a low-cost 3D fused deposition modeling printer (Up plus 2®). Two independent observers performed the identification of 26 anatomic landmarks on the 4 mandibles (2 dry and 2 replicas) with a 3D measuring arm. Each observer repeated the identifications 20 times. The comparison between the dry and plastic mandibles was based on 13 distances: 8 distances less than 12 mm and 5 distances greater than 12 mm. Results The mean absolute difference (MAD) was 0.37 mm, and the mean dimensional error (MDE) was 3.76%. The MDE decreased to 0.93% for distances greater than 12 mm. Conclusions Plastic models generated using the low-cost 3D printer UPplus2® provide dimensional accuracies comparable to other well-established rapid prototyping technologies. Validated low-cost 3D printers could represent a step toward the better accessibility of rapid prototyping technologies in the medical field. PMID:27003456

  12. Scattered light and accuracy of the cross-section measurements of weak absorptions: Gas and liquid phase UV absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, A.; Braun, W.; Kurylo, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of CH3CFCl2(HCFC-141b) were determined in the gas phase (190-260 nm) and liquid phase (230-260 mm) at 298 K. The liquid phase absorption cross sections were then converted into accurate gas phase values using a previously described procedure. It has been demonstrated that scattered light from the shorter-wavelength region (as little as several parts per thousand) can seriously compromise the absorption cross-section measurement, particularly at longer wavelengths where cross sections are low, and can be a source of discrepancies in the cross sections of weakly absorbing halocarbons reported in the literature. A modeling procedure was developed to assess the effect of scattered light on the measured absorption cross section in our experiments, thereby permitting appropriate corrections to be made on the experimental values. Modeled and experimental results were found to be in good agreement. Experimental results from this study were compared with other available determinations and provide accurate input for calculating the atmospheric lifetime of HCFC-141b.

  13. Solution of 3-dimensional time-dependent viscous flows. Part 2: Development of the computer code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.

    1980-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing a numerical scheme for solving the time dependent viscous compressible three dimensional flow equations to aid in the design of helicopter rotors. The development of a computer code to solve a three dimensional unsteady approximate form of the Navier-Stokes equations employing a linearized block emplicit technique in conjunction with a QR operator scheme is described. Results of calculations of several Cartesian test cases are presented. The computer code can be applied to more complex flow fields such as these encountered on rotating airfoils.

  14. Thermal transport in 2- and 3-dimensional periodic “holey” nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, J.; Sadhu, J. S.; Ganta, D.; Tian, H.; Sinha, S.

    2014-12-15

    Understanding thermal transport in two- and three-dimensional periodic “holey” nanostructures is important for realizing applications of these structures in thermoelectrics, photonics and batteries. In terms of continuum heat diffusion physics, the effective medium theory provides the framework for obtaining the effective thermal conductivity of such structures. However, recently measured nanostructures possess thermal conductivities well below these continuum predictions. In some cases, their thermal conductivities are even lower than predictions that account for sub-continuum phonon transport. We analyze current understanding of thermal transport in such structures, discussing the various theories, the measurements and the insights gained from comparing the two.

  15. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside.

  16. Metal organic framework derived magnetically separable 3-dimensional hierarchical Ni@C nanocomposites: Synthesis and adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yixuan; Qiang, Tingting; Ye, Ming; Ma, Qiuyang; Fang, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Design an effective absorbent that has high surface area, and perfect recyclable is imperative for pollution elimination. Herein, we report a facile two-step strategy to fabricate magnetically separable 3-dimensional (3D) hierarchical carbon-coated nickel (Ni@C) nanocomposites by calcinating nickel based metal organic framework (Ni3(OH)2(C8H4O4)2(H2O)4). SEM and TEM images illuminate that the nanocomposites were constructed by 8 nm nickel nanoparticle encapsulated in 3D flake like carbon. The specific surface area of the obtained nanocomposites is up to 120.38 m2 g-1. Room temperature magnetic measurement indicates the nanocomposites show soft magnetism property, which endows the nanocomposites with an ideal fast magnetic separable property. The maximum adsorption capacity of the nanocomposites for rhodamine B is 84.5 mg g-1. Furthermore, the nanocomposites also exhibit a high adsorption capacity for heavy metal ions. The adsorbent can be very easily separated from the solution by using a common magnet without exterior energy. The as-prepared Ni@C nanocomposites can apply in waste water treatment on a large-scale as a new adsorbent with high efficiency and excellent recyclability.

  17. Effector-sensitive cross-linking of phosphorylase b kinase by the novel cross-linker 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione.

    PubMed

    Ayers, N A; Nadeau, O W; Read, M W; Ray, P; Carlson, G M

    1998-04-01

    The dienophile 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTD) was identified as a novel protein cross-linker, and utilized as a conformational probe of phosphorylase b kinase (PhK), a hexadecameric enzyme with the subunit composition (alphabetagammadelta)4. In its reaction with this enzyme, PTD produced five major cross-linked conjugates as resolved by denaturing gel electrophoresis: alphabeta, betagammagamma, alphagamma and a doublet of differently migrating homodimers, betabeta1 and betabeta2. Cross-linking in the presence of six different activators of the kinase targeted to its various subunits caused substantial changes in the amounts of three of the conjugates. The formation of alphagamma was increased by all of the activators but the largest enhancement was caused by exogenous Ca2+/calmodulin. All except one of the activators decreased the amount of betagammagamma formed, with Mg2+ having the greatest effect, and all except two increased the amount of betabeta1, with Mg2+ again having the largest influence. From the overall similarity of the changes in cross-linking by PTD induced by the various activators, we conclude that, even though they are targeted to different sites and subunits, they induce activated conformations of PhK that have certain structural features in common. Regarding the mechanism of cross-linking by PTD, its reaction with a model nucleophile suggests that its initial reaction with a side chain nucleophile of PhK involves a 1,4-conjugate addition to form a urazole adduct, with the secondary cross-linking reaction occurring through an as yet unknown pathway.

  18. Cross section for inelastic neutron ''acceleration'' by {sup 178}Hf{sup m2}

    SciTech Connect

    Karamian, S. A.; Carroll, J. J.

    2011-02-15

    The scattering of thermal neutrons from isomeric nuclei may include events in which the outgoing neutrons have increased kinetic energy. This process has been called inelastic neutron acceleration, or INNA, and occurs when the final nucleus, after emission of the neutron, is left in a state with lower energy than that of the isomer. The result, therefore, is an induced depletion of the isomer to the ground state. A cascade of several {gamma}'s must accompany the neutron emission to release the high angular momentum of the initial isomeric state. INNA was previously observed in a few cases, and the measured cross sections were only in modest agreement with theoretical estimates. The most recent measurement of an INNA cross section was {sigma}{sub INNA}=258{+-}58 b for neutron scattering by {sup 177}Lu{sup m}. In the present work, an INNA cross section of {sigma}{sub INNA}=168 {+-} 33 b was deduced from measurements of the total burnup of the high-spin, four-quasiparticle isomer {sup 178}Hf{sup m2} during irradiation by thermal neutrons. Statistical estimates for the probability of different reaction channels past neutron absorption were used in the analysis, and the deduced {sigma}{sub INNA} was compared to the theoretically predicted cross section.

  19. Absolute single-photoionization cross sections of Se2 +: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, D. A.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Red, E. C.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Sterling, N. C.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    Absolute single-photoionization cross-section measurements for Se2 + ions were performed at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory using the merged-beams photo-ion technique. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 24 ±3 meV in the photon energy range 23.5-42.5 eV, spanning the ground state and low-lying metastable state ionization thresholds. To clearly resolve the resonant structure near the ground-state threshold, high-resolution measurements were made from 30.0 to 31.9 eV at a photon energy resolution of 6.7 ±0.7 meV. Numerous resonance features observed in the experimental spectra are assigned and their energies and quantum defects tabulated. The high-resolution cross-section measurements are compared with large-scale, state-of-the-art theoretical cross-section calculations obtained from the Dirac Coulomb R -matrix method. Suitable agreement is obtained over the entire photon energy range investigated. These results are an experimental determination of the absolute photoionization cross section of doubly ionized selenium and include a detailed analysis of the photoionization resonance spectrum of this ion.

  20. 3-Dimensional Analysis of Dynamic Behavior of Bearing of Nielsen Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimura, Shinji; Heya, Hiroyuki; Umeda, Tsutomu; Mimura, Koji; Yoshikawa, Osamu

    In 1995, the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake caused a large amount of destruction and structural failures. One example, whose mechanism is not fully clear, is the fracture of a bridge bearing of a Nielsen type bridge that does not occur under the ordinary static or dynamic loading conditions. The fracture probably resulted from very high stress due to an unexpected dynamic mechanism. In this paper, the 3-dimensional dynamic behavior of a Nielsen type bridge was analyzed by assuming a collision between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing, which might have occurred in the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake. The numerical results show that an impact due to a relative velocity of 5˜6m/s between the upper and the lower parts of the bearing generates a stress sufficient to cause a fracture in the upper bearing. The observed features of the actual fracture surface was also simulated fairly closely.

  1. Investigation of 3-dimensional structural morphology for enhancing light trapping with control of surface haze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyeongsik; Shin, Myunghun; Kim, Hyeongseok; Kim, Sunbo; Le, Anh Huy Tuan; Kang, Junyoung; Kim, Yongjun; Pham, Duy Phong; Jung, Junhee; Yi, Junsin

    2017-04-01

    A comparative study of 3-dimensional textured glass morphologies with variable haze value and chemical texturing of the glass substrates was conducted to enhance light trapping in silicon (Si) thin film solar cells (TFSCs). The light trapping characteristics of periodic honeycomb structures show enhanced transmittance and haze ratio in numerical and experimental approaches. The periodic honeycomb structure of notched textures is better than a random or periodic carved structure. It has high transmittance of ∼95%, and haze ratio of ∼52.8%, and the haze property of the angular distribution function of transmittance shows wide scattering angles in the long wavelength region because of the wide spacing and aspect ratio of the texture. The numerical and experimental approaches of the 3-D texture structures in this work will be useful in developing high-performance Si TFSCs with light trapping.

  2. The program FANS-3D (finite analytic numerical simulation 3-dimensional) and its applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravo, Ramiro H.; Chen, Ching-Jen

    1992-01-01

    In this study, the program named FANS-3D (Finite Analytic Numerical Simulation-3 Dimensional) is presented. FANS-3D was designed to solve problems of incompressible fluid flow and combined modes of heat transfer. It solves problems with conduction and convection modes of heat transfer in laminar flow, with provisions for radiation and turbulent flows. It can solve singular or conjugate modes of heat transfer. It also solves problems in natural convection, using the Boussinesq approximation. FANS-3D was designed to solve heat transfer problems inside one, two and three dimensional geometries that can be represented by orthogonal planes in a Cartesian coordinate system. It can solve internal and external flows using appropriate boundary conditions such as symmetric, periodic and user specified.

  3. Experimental determination of thermal profiles during laser spike annealing with quantitative comparison to 3-dimensional simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Iyengar, Krishna; Jung, Byungki; Willemann, Michael; Thompson, Michael O.; Clancy, Paulette

    2012-05-21

    Thin film platinum resistors were used to directly measure temperature profiles during laser spike annealing (LSA) with high spatial and temporal resolution. Observed resistance changes were calibrated to absolute temperatures using the melting points of the substrate silicon and thin gold films. Both the time-dependent temperature experienced by the sample during passage of the focussed laser beam and profiles across the spatially dependent laser intensity were obtained with sub-millisecond time resolution and 50 {mu}m spatial resolution. Full 3-dimensional simulations incorporating both optical and thermal variations of material parameters were compared with these results. Accounting properly for the specific material parameters, good agreement between experiments and simulations was achieved. Future temperature measurements in complex environments will permit critical evaluation of LSA simulations methodologies.

  4. Carbohydrate Cluster Microarrays Fabricated on 3-Dimensional Dendrimeric Platforms for Functional Glycomics Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xichun; Turchi, Craig; Wang, Denong

    2009-01-01

    We reported here a novel, ready-to-use bioarray platform and methodology for construction of sensitive carbohydrate cluster microarrays. This technology utilizes a 3-dimensional (3-D) poly(amidoamine) starburst dendrimer monolayer assembled on glass surface, which is functionalized with terminal aminooxy and hydrazide groups for site-specific coupling of carbohydrates. A wide range of saccharides, including monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides of diverse structures, are applicable for the 3-D bioarray platform without prior chemical derivatization. The process of carbohydrate coupling is effectively accelerated by microwave radiation energy. The carbohydrate concentration required for microarray fabrication is substantially reduced using this technology. Importantly, this bioarray platform presents sugar chains in defined orientation and cluster configurations. It is, thus, uniquely useful for exploration of the structural and conformational diversities of glyco-epitope and their functional properties. PMID:19791771

  5. A 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display with Traffic and Terrain Information for the Small Aircraft Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    UijtdeHaag, Maarten; Thomas, Robert; Rankin, James R.

    2004-01-01

    The report discusses the architecture and the flight test results of a 3-Dimensional Cockpit Display of Traffic and terrain Information (3D-CDTI). The presented 3D-CDTI is a perspective display format that combines existing Synthetic Vision System (SVS) research and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) technology to improve the pilot's situational awareness. The goal of the 3D-CDTI is to contribute to the development of new display concepts for NASA's Small Aircraft Transportation System research program. Papers were presented at the PLANS 2002 meeting and the ION-GPS 2002 meeting. The contents of this report are derived from the results discussed in those papers.

  6. Photoprotection by pistachio bioactives in a 3-dimensional human skin equivalent tissue model.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-Y Oliver; Smith, Avi; Liu, Yuntao; Du, Peng; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Garlick, Jonathan

    2017-01-25

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ultraviolet (UV) light exposure can induce skin damage and aging. Antioxidants can provide protection against oxidative injury to skin via "quenching" ROS. Using a validated 3-dimensional (3D) human skin equivalent (HSE) tissue model that closely mimics human skin, we examined whether pistachio antioxidants could protect HSE against UVA-induced damage. Lutein and γ-tocopherol are the predominant lipophilic antioxidants in pistachios; treatment with these compounds prior to UVA exposure protected against morphological changes to the epithelial and connective tissue compartments of HSE. Pistachio antioxidants preserved overall skin thickness and organization, as well as fibroblast morphology, in HSE exposed to UVA irradiation. However, this protection was not substantiated by the analysis of the proliferation of keratinocytes and apoptosis of fibroblasts. Additional studies are warranted to elucidate the basis of these discordant results and extend research into the potential role of pistachio bioactives promoting skin health.

  7. Epigenetic and 3-dimensional regulation of V(D)J rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Degner-Leisso, Stephanie C; Feeney, Ann J

    2010-12-01

    V(D)J recombination is a crucial component of the adaptive immune response, allowing for the production of a diverse antigen receptor repertoire (Ig and TCR). This review will focus on how epigenetic regulation and 3-dimensional (3D) interactions may control V(D)J recombination at Ig loci. The interplay between transcription factors and post-translational modifications at the Igh, Igκ, and Igλ loci will be highlighted. Furthermore, we propose that the spatial organization and epigenetic boundaries of each Ig loci before and during V(D)J recombination may be influenced in part by the CTCF/cohesin complex. Taken together, the many epigenetic and 3D layers of control ensure that Ig loci are only rearranged at appropriate stages of B cell development.

  8. Investigation of the 241Am(n ,2 n )240Am cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamara, A.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Diakaki, M.; Tsinganis, A.; Patronis, N.; Axiotis, M.; Lagoyannis, A.

    2016-01-01

    The 241Am(n ,2 n )240Am reaction cross section has been measured at four energies, 10.0, 10.4, 10.8, and 17.1 MeV, by means of the activation technique, relative to the 27Al(n ,α )24Na reaction reference cross section. Quasi-monoenergetic neutron beams were produced via the 2H(d ,n )3He and the 3H(d ,n )4He reactions at the 5.5 MV Tandem T11/25 accelerator laboratory of NCSR "Demokritos". The high purity 241Am targets were provided by JRC-IRMM, Geel, Belgium. The induced γ -ray activity of 240Am was measured with high-resolution high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. Auxiliary Monte Carlo simulations were performed with the mcnp code. The present results are in agreement with data obtained earlier and predictions obtained with the empire code.

  9. The 2mrad horizontal crossing angle IR layout for a TeV ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Appleby, R.; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Bambade, P.; Mouton, B.; Napoly, O.; Payet, J.; Seryi, A.; Nosochkov, Y.; /SLAC

    2005-07-27

    The current status of the 2mrad crossing angle layout for the ILC is reviewed. The scheme developed in the UK and France is described and the performance discussed for a TeV machine. Secondly, the scheme developed at SLAC and BNL is then studied and modified for a TeV machine. We find that both schemes can handle the higher energy beam with modifications, and share many common features.

  10. Communication: State-to-state differential cross sections for H2O(tilde B) photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Bin; Xie, Daiqian; Guo, Hua

    2011-06-01

    Quantum state-to-state differential cross sections, along with the absorption spectrum and product internal state distributions, have been calculated for the photodissociation of H2O in its B band on a new set of ab initio potential energy surfaces in a diabatic representation. The theoretical attributes are in good agreement with the recent experimental data, shedding light on the non-adiabatic dissociation dynamics.

  11. On the use of the cross section concept as applied to pulsed CO2 laser dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The 'cross sections' which are commonly used in combination with the molecular vibrational level densities to describe induced transition rates are time dependent in a pulsed discharge. This greatly affects the relative rates of buildup of radiation at the various lines of a molecular gain medium in a nondispersive cavity, and the consequences for line selection by injection in a TEA-CO2 laser are discussed.

  12. 2D crossed electric field for electrokinetic remediation of chromium contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Jin, Chunji; Zhao, Zhenhuan; Tian, Guobin

    2010-05-15

    Chromium contaminated soil can be remediated by electrokinetic techniques. However, in practical application, Cr(VI) may migrate with water deep into the soil, contaminating previously unpolluted layers. Both horizontal and vertical electric fields were applied simultaneously to improve traditional electrokinetic remediation. Contrasting experiments using four operation modes (none, solely horizontal, solely vertical and 2D crossed electric field) were designed and tested at the bench-scale with the practical sample of chromium contaminated soil (1.3 x 10(5)mg/kg) from a chemical plant to investigate Cr(VI) migration downward in each test and the effectiveness and feasible of the new design. During the tests, Cr(VI) could migrate deep into the soil in the solely horizontal mode. Cr(VI) migration downward could be prevented by vertical barrier in the solely vertical mode. However, using the 2D crossed mode, Cr(VI) was significantly prevented from migrating downward and the chromium contaminated soil was treated effectively. Thus, the 2D crossed electric field is a promising and practical method for the remediation of contaminated soils.

  13. The μSCAPE System: 3-Dimensional Profiling of Microfluidic Architectural Features Using a Flatbed Scanner

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kerui; Liu, Qian; Jackson, Kimberly R.; Landers, James P.

    2016-01-01

    We developed a microfluidic scanner-based profile exploration system, μSCAPE, capable of generating high resolution 3D profiles of microstructure architecture in a variety of transparent substrates. The profile is obtained by scanning the dye-filled microstructure followed by absorbance calculation and the reconstruction of the optical length at each point. The power of the method was demonstrated in (1) the inspection of the variation of the cross-section of laser-ablated PDMS channel; (2) the volume of PeT chamber; and (3) the population distribution of the volumes of the micro wells in HF-etched glass and laser-ablated PDMS. The reported methods features low equipment-cost, convenient operation and large field of view (FOV), and has revealed unreported quality parameters of the tested microstructures. PMID:26924294

  14. The μSCAPE System: 3-Dimensional Profiling of Microfluidic Architectural Features Using a Flatbed Scanner.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kerui; Liu, Qian; Jackson, Kimberly R; Landers, James P

    2016-02-29

    We developed a microfluidic scanner-based profile exploration system, μSCAPE, capable of generating high resolution 3D profiles of microstructure architecture in a variety of transparent substrates. The profile is obtained by scanning the dye-filled microstructure followed by absorbance calculation and the reconstruction of the optical length at each point. The power of the method was demonstrated in (1) the inspection of the variation of the cross-section of laser-ablated PDMS channel; (2) the volume of PeT chamber; and (3) the population distribution of the volumes of the micro wells in HF-etched glass and laser-ablated PDMS. The reported methods features low equipment-cost, convenient operation and large field of view (FOV), and has revealed unreported quality parameters of the tested microstructures.

  15. Activation Cross-Sections for 14.2 MeV Neutrons on Molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasa Rao, C. V.; Lakshmana Das, N.; Thirumala Rao, B. V.; Rama Rao, J.

    1981-12-01

    Using the activation method, the cross-section for the following reactions on molybdenum were measured employing the mixed powder technique and Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectroscopy: 94Mo(n, 2n)93mMo, 3.5 ± 0.5 mbarn; 92Mo(n, 2n)91mMo, 19 ± 3 mbarn; 92Mo(n, 2n)91m+gMo, 226 ± 11 mbarn; 100Mo(n, p)100m2Nb, 9 ± 1 mbarn; 98Mo(n, p)98Nb, 10 ± 1 mbarn; 97Mo(n, p)97mNb, 5 ± 1 mbarn; 96Mo(n, p)96Nb, 12 ± 2 mbarn; 92Mo(n, α)89mZr, 2.1 ± 0.5 mbarn; and 92Mo(n, α)89m+gZr 24 ± 6 mbarn; the neutron energy was 14.2 ± 0.2 MeV. The experimental cross-sections were compared with the predictions of evaporation model and of different versions of pre-equilibrium model. The master equation approach appears to give satisfactory results.

  16. Cross-reactivity of EGFR mutation-specific immunohistochemistry assay in HER2-positive tumors.

    PubMed

    Verdu, Montse; Trias, Isabel; Roman, Ruth; Rodon, Natalia; Pubill, Carme; Arraiza, Nuria; Martinez, Begonya; Garcia-Pelaez, Beatriz; Serrano, Teresa; Puig, Xavier

    2015-09-01

    The coexpression of HER2 and EGFR L858R in a solitary nodule removed from the lung, whose mutation was not confirmed by molecular techniques, made us think about the possible existence of a cross-reaction between HER2 and the EGFR L858R-specific antibody. Our study was designed to further analyze the existence of this cross-reaction and stress the need to exclude a metastatic breast cancer when dealing with EGFR L858R-positive cases. The series consists of 42 primary breast carcinomas, 22 HER2 positive for overexpression and amplification, and 20 negative for both. EGFR mutations were studied by immunohistochemistry and confirmed using real-time PCR when positive. Immunohistochemistry assay with EGFR L858R was positive in 19 (86%) of the HER2-positive breast carcinomas and negative in all HER2-negative carcinomas. The EGFR L858R antibody gives false-positive results in most of the breast carcinomas with HER2 overexpression/amplification. As a consequence, it is essential to confirm any EGFR L858R-positive cases by molecular methods or at least discard the presence of HER2 overexpression/amplification before rendering a diagnosis. It is also important to consider that HER2 has been described in other carcinomas such as urothelial, gastric or ovarian, as well as lung, although infrequently.

  17. New yttrium evaluated cross sections and impact on 88-Y(n,2n)87-Y radchem

    SciTech Connect

    White, M; Kawano, T; Fotiadis, N; Devlin, M; Nelson, R; Garrett, P; Chadwick, M B; Becker, J A

    2004-03-04

    We evaluate new n+{sup 89}Y radchem cross sections using recent LANSCE/GEANIE measurements and GNASH nuclear model calculations, together with previous measurements at Livermore by Dietrich et al. A quantification of margins and uncertainties (QMU) analysis leads to evaluated cross sections for the (n,2n) population of the {sup 88}Y ground state and m1, m2 isomers, together with uncertainties. Our new results agree with historic radchem database cross sections within a few percent below 15 MeV (with larger differences above 15 MeV) and they therefore provide a validation of the historic Arthur work that is used in LANL simulation codes. Since the (n,2n) cross sections to the {sup 88}Y g.s. and m1, m2 isomers impact the average {sup 88}Y(n,2n){sup 87}Y cross section at leading-order, we determine the new 14.1 MeV average {sup 88}Y(n,2n){sup 87}Y cross section (crucially important for radchem). Our new 14 MeV average {sup 88}Y(n,2n){sup 87}Y cross section is 1107 mb ({+-} 4%) which agrees with the value obtained from the historic Arthur cross section data to 0.7%.

  18. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alter PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1−/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1−/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1−/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. PMID:24709675

  19. A Novel 3 Dimensional Stromal-based Model for In Vitro Chemotherapy Sensitivity Testing of Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aljitawi, Omar S.; Li, Dandan; Xiao, Yinghua; Zhang, Da; Ramachandran, Karthik; Stehno-Bittel, Lisa; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Lin, Tara L.; Kambhampati, Suman; Garimella, Rama

    2014-01-01

    The disparate responses of leukemia cells to chemotherapy in vivo, compared to in vitro, is partly related to the interactions of leukemic cells and the 3 dimensional (3D) bone marrow stromal microenvironment. We investigated the effects of chemotherapy agents on leukemic cell lines co-cultured with human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (hu-BM-MSC) in 3D. Comparison was made to leukemic cells treated in suspension, or grown on a hu-BM-MSC monolayer (2D conditions). We demonstrated that leukemic cells cultured in 3D were more resistant to drug-induced apoptosis compared to cells cultured in 2D or in suspension. We also demonstrated significant differences in leukemic cell response to chemotherapy using different leukemic cell lines cultured in 3D. We suggest that the differential responses to chemotherapy in 3D may be related to the expression of N-cadherin in the co-culture system. This unique model provides an opportunity to study leukemic cell responses to chemotherapy in 3D. PMID:23566162

  20. PCB 126 toxicity is modulated by cross-talk between caveolae and Nrf2 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Petriello, Michael C.; Han, Sung Gu; Newsome, Bradley J.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2014-06-01

    Environmental toxicants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been implicated in the promotion of multiple inflammatory disorders including cardiovascular disease, but information regarding mechanisms of toxicity and cross-talk between relevant cell signaling pathways is lacking. To examine the hypothesis that cross-talk between membrane domains called caveolae and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) pathways alters PCB-induced inflammation, caveolin-1 was silenced in vascular endothelial cells, resulting in a decreased PCB-induced inflammatory response. Cav-1 silencing (siRNA treatment) also increased levels of Nrf2-ARE transcriptional binding, resulting in higher mRNA levels of the antioxidant genes glutathione s-transferase and NADPH dehydrogenase quinone-1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated systems. Along with this upregulated antioxidant response, Cav-1 siRNA treated cells exhibited decreased mRNA levels of the Nrf2 inhibitory protein Keap1 in both vehicle and PCB-treated samples. Silencing Cav-1 also decreased protein levels of Nrf2 inhibitory proteins Keap1 and Fyn kinase, especially in PCB-treated cells. Further, endothelial cells from wildtype and Cav-1 −/− mice were isolated and treated with PCB to better elucidate the role of functional caveolae in PCB-induced endothelial inflammation. Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells were protected from PCB-induced cellular dysfunction as evidenced by decreased vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) protein induction. Compared to wildtype cells, Cav-1 −/− endothelial cells also allowed for a more effective antioxidant response, as observed by higher levels of the antioxidant genes. These data demonstrate novel cross-talk mechanisms between Cav-1 and Nrf2 and implicate the reduction of Cav-1 as a protective mechanism for PCB-induced cellular dysfunction and inflammation. - Highlights: • Reduction of caveolin-1 protein protects against polychlorinated biphenyl toxicity. • Decreasing

  1. A Static Picture of the Relaxation and Intersystem Crossing Mechanisms of Photoexcited 2-Thiouracil

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accurate excited-state quantum chemical calculations on 2-thiouracil, employing large active spaces and up to quadruple-ζ quality basis sets in multistate complete active space perturbation theory calculations, are reported. The results suggest that the main relaxation path for 2-thiouracil after photoexcitation should be S2 → S1 → T2 → T1, and that this relaxation occurs on a subpicosecond time scale. There are two deactivation pathways from the initially excited bright S2 state to S1, one of which is nearly barrierless and should promote ultrafast internal conversion. After relaxation to the S1 minimum, small singlet–triplet energy gaps and spin–orbit couplings of about 130 cm–1 are expected to facilitate intersystem crossing to T2, from where very fast internal conversion to T1 occurs. An important finding is that 2-thiouracil shows strong pyramidalization at the carbon atom of the thiocarbonyl group in several excited states. PMID:26284285

  2. Extraction of cross-sea bridges from GF-2 PMS satellite images using mathematical morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Sui, Xinxin; Zhen, Guangwei; Guo, Biyun; Chen, Xiaowei

    2016-11-01

    Cross-sea bridges are typical target of natural sceneries. Extracting cross-sea bridges from remote sensing images appears significant. In this study, for the complexity of ground objects in GF-2 PMS satellite images, we have selected direction-augmented linear structuring elements to be used for extraction of cross-sea bridges. Firstly, pre-processing of original image has been carried out; secondly, calculate NDVI and extract water bodies; thirdly, according to the direction of water bodies, select appropriate direction-augmented linear structuring elements, proceed mathematical morphology operations on the water bodies, and assisted by prior knowledge of the bridge, extract the bridge object; finally, select an experimental area to verify the effectiveness and applicability of the method. Our work shows that the direction-augmented linear structuring elements are effective and efficient for extraction of bridges with different directions in GF-2 PMS satellite images, and the approach in this study is important to expand the application areas of domestic high-resolution remote sensing images.

  3. CCC calculated differential cross sections of electron-H2 scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursa, Dmitry; Zammit, Mark; Savage, Jeremy; Bray, Igor

    2016-09-01

    Recently we applied the molecular convergent close-coupling (CCC) method to electron scattering from molecular hydrogen H2. Convergence of the major differential cross sections has been explicitly demonstrated in the fixed-nuclei approximation. A large close-coupling expansion that coupled highly excited states and ionization channels proved to be important to obtain convergent results. Here we present benchmark elastic and electronic excitation differential cross sections for b3Σu+ , a3Σg+ , c3Πu , B1Σu+ , EF1Σg+ , C1Πu , and e3Σu+ states and compare with available experiment and previous calculations. Work supported by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Curtin University.

  4. FAN1 acts with FANCI-FANCD2 to promote DNA interstrand cross-link repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ting; Ghosal, Gargi; Yuan, Jingsong; Chen, Junjie; Huang, Jun

    2010-08-06

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is caused by mutations in 13 Fanc genes and renders cells hypersensitive to DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents. A central event in the FA pathway is mono-ubiquitylation of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID) protein complex. Here, we characterize a previously unrecognized nuclease, Fanconi anemia-associated nuclease 1 (FAN1), that promotes ICL repair in a manner strictly dependent on its ability to accumulate at or near sites of DNA damage and that relies on mono-ubiquitylation of the ID complex. Thus, the mono-ubiquitylated ID complex recruits the downstream repair protein FAN1 and facilitates the repair of DNA interstrand cross-links.

  5. The O2 Schumann-Runge system - New calculations of photodissociation cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, D. P.

    1988-08-01

    The atomic oxygen production rates by photodissociation in the Schumann-Runge bands are recalculated using new spectroscopic information and the downward revision of the absorption cross-sections in the Herzberg continuum region. The results do not show large changes from the recommendations of the World Meteorological Organization (Frederick, 1986). However, results indicate a higher transmission in the 194-200 nm region. It is shown that standard parameterization of the dissociation rates with O2 column density as the independent variable would introduce errors on the order of 20 percent at high latitudes because of the seasonal variation in mesospheric and stratospheric temperatures and the associated variation in the effective cross-sections.

  6. F2DPR: a fast and robust cross-correlation technique for volumetric PIV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, Thomas; Jeon, Young Jin; Lecordier, Bertrand; David, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    The current state-of-the-art in cross-correlation based time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques are the fluid trajectory correlation, FTC (Lynch and Scarano 2013) and the fluid trajectory evaluation based on an ensemble-averaged cross-correlation, FTEE (Jeon et al 2014a). These techniques compute the velocity vector as a polynomial trajectory Γ in space and time, enabling the extraction of beneficial quantities such as material acceleration whilst significantly increasing the accuracy of the particle displacement prediction achieved by standard two-frame PIV. In the context of time-resolved volumetric PIV, the drawback of trajectory computation is the computational expense of the three-dimensional (3D) cross-correlation, exacerbated by the requirement to perform N  -  1 cross-correlations, where N (for typically 5≤slant N≤slant 9 ) is the number of sequential particle volumes, for each velocity field. Therefore, the acceleration of this calculation is highly desirable. This paper re-examines the application of two-dimensional (2D) cross-correlation methods to three-dimensional (3D) datasets by Bilsky et al (2011) and the binning techniques of Discetti and Astarita (2012). A new and robust version of the 2D methods is proposed and described, called fast 2D projection—re-projection (f2dpr). Performance tests based on computational time and accuracy for both two-frame and multi-frame PIV are carried out on synthetically generated data. The cases presented herein include uniaxial uniform linear displacements and shear, and simulated turbulence data. The proposed algorithm is shown to be in the order of 10 times faster than a standard 3D FFT without loss of precision for a wide range of synthetic test cases, while combining with the binning technique can yield 50 times faster computation. The algorithm is also applied to reconstructed synthetic turbulent particle fields to investigate reconstruction noise on its performance and no

  7. Whole-core comet solutions to a 3-dimensional PWR benchmark problem with gadolinium

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, D.; Rahnema, F.

    2012-07-01

    A pressurized water reactor (PWR) benchmark problem with gadolinium was used to determine the accuracy and computational efficiency of the coarse mesh radiation transport method COMET. The benchmark problem contains 193 square fuel assemblies. The COMET solution (eigenvalue, assembly averaged and fuel pin averaged fission density distributions) was compared with those obtained from the corresponding Monte Carlo reference solution using the same 2-group material cross section library. The comparison showed that both the core eigenvalue and fission density distribution averaged over each assembly and fuel pin predicated by COMET agree very well with the corresponding MCNP reference solution if the incident flux response expansion used in COMET is truncated at 2nd order in the two spatial and the two angular variables. The benchmark calculations indicate that COMET has Monte Carlo accuracy. In, particular, the eigenvalue difference between the codes ranged from 17 pcm to 35 pcm, being within 2 standard deviations of the calculational uncertainty. The mean flux weighted relative differences in the assembly and fuel pin fission densities were 0.47% and 0.65%, respectively. It was also found that COMET's full (whole) core computational speed is 30,000 times faster than MCNP in which only 1/8 of the core is modeled. It is estimated that COMET would have been about over 6 orders of magnitude faster than MCNP if the full core were also modeled in MCNP. (authors)

  8. Calculated low-energy electron-impact vibrational excitation cross sections for CO2 molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laporta, V.; Tennyson, J.; Celiberto, R.

    2016-12-01

    Vibrational-excitation cross sections of ground electronic states of a carbon dioxide molecule by electron-impact through CO2-≤ft({{}2}{{\\Pi}u}\\right) shape resonance is considered in the separation of the normal modes approximation. Resonance curves and widths are computed for each vibrational mode. The calculations assume a decoupling between normal modes and employ the local complex potential model for the treatment of nuclear dynamics, usually adopted for electron-scattering involving diatomic molecules. Results are presented for excitation up to 10 vibrational levels in each mode and a comparison with data present in the literature is discussed.

  9. 2p2h effects on the weak pion production cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Mariano, A.; Barbero, C.

    2015-05-15

    The ν{sub l}n → l{sup −}p QE reaction on the A-target is used as a signal event or/and to reconstruct the neutrino energy, using two-body kinematics. Competition of another processes could lead to misidentification of the arriving neutrinos, being important the fake events coming from the CC1π background. A precise knowledge of cross sections is a prerequisite in order to make simulations in event generators to substract the fake ones from the QE countings, and in this contribution we analyze the different nuclear effects on the CC1π channel. Our calculations also can be extended for the NC case.

  10. Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements of Rb2+ ions: experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macaluso, D. A.; Bogolub, K.; Johnson, A.; Aguilar, A.; Kilcoyne, A. L. D.; Bilodeau, R. C.; Bautista, M.; Kerlin, A. B.; Sterling, N. C.

    2016-12-01

    Absolute single photoionization cross-section measurements of Rb2+ ions were performed using synchrotron radiation and the photo-ion, merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Measurements were made at a photon energy resolution of 13.5 ± 2.5 meV from 37.31 to 44.08 eV spanning the 2P{}3/2o ground state and 2P{}1/2o metastable state ionization thresholds. Multiple autoionizing resonance series arising from each initial state are identified using quantum defect theory. The measurements are compared to Breit-Pauli R-matrix calculations with excellent agreement between theory and experiment.

  11. Methods and Mechanisms for Cross-Electrophile Coupling of Csp2 Halides with Alkyl Electrophiles

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Cross-electrophile coupling, the cross-coupling of two different electrophiles, avoids the need for preformed carbon nucleophiles, but development of general methods has lagged behind cross-coupling and C–H functionalization. A central reason for this slow development is the challenge of selectively coupling two substrates that are alike in reactivity. This Account describes the discovery of generally cross-selective reactions of aryl halides and acyl halides with alkyl halides, the mechanistic studies that illuminated the underlying principles of these reactions, and the use of these fundamental principles in the rational design of new cross-electrophile coupling reactions. Although the coupling of two different electrophiles under reducing conditions often leads primarily to symmetric dimers, the subtle differences in reactivity of aryl halides and alkyl halides with nickel catalysts allowed for generally cross-selective coupling reactions. These conditions could also be extended to the coupling of acyl halides with alkyl halides. These reactions are exceptionally functional group tolerant and can be assembled on the benchtop. A combination of stoichiometric and catalytic studies on the mechanism of these reactions revealed an unusual radical-chain mechanism and suggests that selectivity arises from (1) the preference of nickel(0) for oxidative addition to aryl halides and acyl halides over alkyl halides and (2) the greater propensity of alkyl halides to form free radicals. Bipyridine-ligated arylnickel intermediates react with alkyl radicals to efficiently form, after reductive elimination, new C–C bonds. Finally, the resulting nickel(I) species is proposed to regenerate an alkyl radical to carry the chain. Examples of new reactions designed using these principles include carbonylative coupling of aryl halides with alkyl halides to form ketones, arylation of epoxides to form β-aryl alcohols, and coupling of benzyl sulfonate esters with aryl

  12. Theoretical studies of intersystem crossing effects in the O+H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Mark R.; Schatz, George C.

    2000-12-01

    We present a general procedure for studying intersystem crossing effects in bimolecular chemical reactions, along with an application of this to the O+H2 reaction. In this procedure, we use previously derived singlet and triplet potential energy surfaces that were based on high quality multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) nonrelativistic electronic structure calculations, and the coupling surface is obtained from lower level complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) calculations using the effective nuclear charge one-electron Breit-Pauli expression for the spin-orbit interaction. We find that the resulting spin-orbit splittings match the known values for O(3P), O(1D), and OH(2Π) sufficiently accurately to be useful for dynamics calculations. Also, the electronic basis can be truncated to seven states (1 3A', 1 3A″, and 1 1A') without seriously distorting these asymptotic splittings. We show that the seven states may be exactly decoupled into a set of four, which contains the singlet, and a set of three states from the triplets. We find that the spin-orbit matrix elements vary smoothly with geometry, so that a relatively simple function can be used to interpolate matrix elements for all geometries. The cross sections for reaction are calculated using a trajectory surface-hopping (TSH) approach in conjunction with a "diabatic" representation based on the nonrelativistic potentials and the CASSCF spin-orbit coupling matrix. An application of this approach is presented to the O+H2 reaction, using the 1 1A' state of Dobbyn and Knowles, and 1 3A' and 1 3A″ states of Walch and Kuppermann [slightly modified so that they are asymptotically degenerate in the product (H+OH) region]. The states show a singlet-triplet (S-T) crossing that is generally on the product side of the barrier on the triplet surfaces. The TSH results indicate that only a few percent of the trajectories undergo intersystem crossing (either from singlet to triplet, or vise versa

  13. Image-driven cardiac left ventricle segmentation for the evaluation of multiview fused real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography images.

    PubMed

    Rajpoot, Kashif; Noble, J Alison; Grau, Vicente; Szmigielski, Cezary; Becher, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE) permits the acquisition and visualization of the beating heart in 3D. Despite a number of efforts to automate the left ventricle (LV) delineation from RT3DE images, this remains a challenging problem due to the poor nature of the acquired images usually containing missing anatomical information and high speckle noise. Recently, there have been efforts to improve image quality and anatomical definition by acquiring multiple single-view RT3DE images with small probe movements and fusing them together after alignment. In this work, we evaluate the quality of the multiview fused images using an image-driven semiautomatic LV segmentation method. The segmentation method is based on an edge-driven level set framework, where the edges are extracted using a local-phase inspired feature detector for low-contrast echocardiography boundaries. This totally image-driven segmentation method is applied for the evaluation of end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) single-view and multiview fused images. Experiments were conducted on 17 cases and the results show that multiview fused images have better image segmentation quality, but large failures were observed on ED (88.2%) and ES (58.8%) single-view images.

  14. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  15. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Solares, Santiago D.

    2015-11-26

    This study introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretationmore » of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tappingmode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Lastly, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.« less

  16. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels).

  17. A simple and efficient quasi 3-dimensional viscoelastic model and software for simulation of tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Solares, Santiago D

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a quasi-3-dimensional (Q3D) viscoelastic model and software tool for use in atomic force microscopy (AFM) simulations. The model is based on a 2-dimensional array of standard linear solid (SLS) model elements. The well-known 1-dimensional SLS model is a textbook example in viscoelastic theory but is relatively new in AFM simulation. It is the simplest model that offers a qualitatively correct description of the most fundamental viscoelastic behaviors, namely stress relaxation and creep. However, this simple model does not reflect the correct curvature in the repulsive portion of the force curve, so its application in the quantitative interpretation of AFM experiments is relatively limited. In the proposed Q3D model the use of an array of SLS elements leads to force curves that have the typical upward curvature in the repulsive region, while still offering a very low computational cost. Furthermore, the use of a multidimensional model allows for the study of AFM tips having non-ideal geometries, which can be extremely useful in practice. Examples of typical force curves are provided for single- and multifrequency tapping-mode imaging, for both of which the force curves exhibit the expected features. Finally, a software tool to simulate amplitude and phase spectroscopy curves is provided, which can be easily modified to implement other controls schemes in order to aid in the interpretation of AFM experiments.

  18. Heating-Rate-Triggered Carbon-Nanotube-based 3-Dimensional Conducting Networks for a Highly Sensitive Noncontact Sensing Device

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Yanlong; Lubineau, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, flexible and transparent conductive films (TCFs) are drawing more attention for their central role in future applications of flexible electronics. Here, we report the controllable fabrication of TCFs for moisture-sensing applications based on heating-rate-triggered, 3-dimensional porous conducting networks through drop casting lithography of single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) ink. How ink formula and baking conditions influence the self-assembled microstructure of the TCFs is discussed. The sensor presents high-performance properties, including a reasonable sheet resistance (2.1 kohm/sq), a high visible-range transmittance (>69%, PET = 90%), and good stability when subjected to cyclic loading (>1000 cycles, better than indium tin oxide film) during processing, when formulation parameters are well optimized (weight ratio of SWCNT to PEDOT:PSS: 1:0.5, SWCNT concentration: 0.3 mg/ml, and heating rate: 36 °C/minute). Moreover, the benefits of these kinds of TCFs were verified through a fully transparent, highly sensitive, rapid response, noncontact moisture-sensing device (5 × 5 sensing pixels). PMID:26818091

  19. Stress analysis in platform-switching implants: a 3-dimensional finite element study.

    PubMed

    Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Falcón-Antenucci, Rosse Mary; Júnior, Joel Ferreira Santiago; de Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri; de Moraes, Sandra Lúcia Dantas; Noritomi, Pedro Yoshito

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the platform-switching technique on stress distribution in implant, abutment, and peri-implant tissues, through a 3-dimensional finite element study. Three 3-dimensional mandibular models were fabricated using the SolidWorks 2006 and InVesalius software. Each model was composed of a bone block with one implant 10 mm long and of different diameters (3.75 and 5.00 mm). The UCLA abutments also ranged in diameter from 5.00 mm to 4.1 mm. After obtaining the geometries, the models were transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 for pre- and postprocessing of finite elements to generate the mesh, loading, and boundary conditions. A total load of 200 N was applied in axial (0°), oblique (45°), and lateral (90°) directions. The models were solved by the software NeiNastran 9.0 and transferred to the software FEMAP 10.0 to obtain the results that were visualized through von Mises and maximum principal stress maps. Model A (implants with 3.75 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) exhibited the highest area of stress concentration with all loadings (axial, oblique, and lateral) for the implant and the abutment. All models presented the stress areas at the abutment level and at the implant/abutment interface. Models B (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 5.0 mm) and C (implant with 5.0 mm/abutment with 4.1 mm) presented minor areas of stress concentration and similar distribution pattern. For the cortical bone, low stress concentration was observed in the peri-implant region for models B and C in comparison to model A. The trabecular bone exhibited low stress that was well distributed in models B and C. Model A presented the highest stress concentration. Model B exhibited better stress distribution. There was no significant difference between the large-diameter implants (models B and C).

  20. Maize Aflatoxin Accumulation Segregates with Early Maturing Selections from an S2 Breeding Cross Population

    PubMed Central

    Henry, W. Brien

    2013-01-01

    Maize breeders continue to seek new sources of aflatoxin resistance, but most lines identified as resistance sources are late maturing. The vast difference in flowering time makes it hard to cross these lines with proprietary commercial lines that mature much earlier and often subjects the reproductive phase of these resistant lines to the hottest and driest portion of the summer, making silking, pollination and grain fill challenging. Two hundred crosses from the GEM Project were screened for aflatoxin accumulation at Mississippi State in 2008, and a subset of these lines were screened again in 2009. The breeding cross UR13085:S99g99u was identified as a potential source of aflatoxin resistance, and maturity-based selections were made from an S2 breeding population from this same germplasm source: UR13085:S99g99u-B-B. The earliest maturing selections performed poorly for aflatoxin accumulation, but later maturing selections were identified with favorable levels of aflatoxin accumulation. These selections, while designated as “late” within this study, matured earlier than most aflatoxin resistant lines presently available to breeders. Two selections from this study, designated S5_L7 and S5_L8, are potential sources of aflatoxin resistance and will be advanced for line development and additional aflatoxin screening over more site years and environments. PMID:23322131

  1. Benchmarking electronic-state excitation cross sections for electron-N{sub 2} collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Ohkawa, Mizuha; Hoshino, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Campbell, Laurence; Brunger, Michael J.

    2010-04-15

    We report differential cross sections for electron impact excitation of the a {sup 1{Pi}}{sub g}, C {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}, E {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +}, a{sup ''} {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +}, b {sup 1{Pi}}{sub u}, c{sub 3} {sup 1{Pi}}{sub u}, o{sub 3} {sup 1{Pi}}{sub u}, b{sup '} {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}, c{sub 4}{sup '} {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub u}{sup +}, G {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}, and F {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} electronic states in N{sub 2}. The incident electron energies are 20, 30, and 40 eV, while the scattered electron angles are 10 deg. and 20 deg. These kinematic conditions were specifically targeted in order to try and shed new light on the worrying discrepancies that exist in the literature for the a {sup 1{Pi}}{sub g}, C {sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}, E {sup 3{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +}, and a{sup ''} {sup 1{Sigma}}{sub g}{sup +} cross sections, and in general the present measurements confirm that those from the more recent results of the University of California, Fullerton, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory [M. A. Khakoo, P. V. Johnson, I. Ozkay, P. Yan, S. Trajmar, and I. Kanik, Phys. Rev. A 71, 062703 (2005); C. P. Malone, P. V. Johnson, I. Kanik, B. Ajdari, and M. A. Khakoo, Phys. Rev. A 79, 032704 (2009)] are reliable. In addition, we provide a rigorous cross-check for the remaining seven electronic states, where the only recent comprehensive study is from Khakoo and colleagues [Phys. Rev. A 77, 012704 (2008)]. Here, however, some of those cross sections are confirmed and others are not, suggesting that further work is still needed.

  2. Polynomial coefficients for calculating O2 Schumann-Runge cross sections at 0.5/cm resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minschwaner, K.; Anderson, G. P.; Hall, L. A.; Yoshino, K.

    1992-01-01

    O2 cross sections from 49,000 to 57,000/cm have been fitted with temperature dependent polynomial expressions, providing an accurate and efficient means of determining Schumann-Runge band cross sections for temperatures between 130 and 500 K. The least squares fits were carried out on a 0.5/cm spectral grid, using cross sections obtained from a Schumann-Runge line-by-line model that incorporates the most recent spectroscopic data. The O2 cross sections do not include the underlying Herzberg continuum, but they do contain contributions from the temperature dependent Schumann-Runge continuum. The cross sections are suitable for use in UV transmission calculations at high spectral resolution. They should also prove useful for updating existing parameterizations of ultraviolet transmission and O2 photolysis.

  3. Development and Testing of Neutron Cross Section Covariance Data for SCALE 6.2

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, William BJ J; Williams, Mark L; Wiarda, Dorothea; Rearden, Bradley T; Dunn, Michael E; Mueller, Don; Clarity, Justin B; Jones, Elizabeth L

    2015-01-01

    Neutron cross-section covariance data are essential for many sensitivity/uncertainty and uncertainty quantification assessments performed both within the TSUNAMI suite and more broadly throughout the SCALE code system. The release of ENDF/B-VII.1 included a more complete set of neutron cross-section covariance data: these data form the basis for a new cross-section covariance library to be released in SCALE 6.2. A range of testing is conducted to investigate the properties of these covariance data and ensure that the data are reasonable. These tests include examination of the uncertainty in critical experiment benchmark model keff values due to nuclear data uncertainties, as well as similarity assessments of irradiated pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel with suites of critical experiments. The contents of the new covariance library, the testing performed, and the behavior of the new covariance data are described in this paper. The neutron cross-section covariances can be combined with a sensitivity data file generated using the TSUNAMI suite of codes within SCALE to determine the uncertainty in system keff caused by nuclear data uncertainties. The Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) maintained at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains over 400 critical experiment benchmark models, and sensitivity data are generated for each of these models. The nuclear data uncertainty in keff is generated for each experiment, and the resulting uncertainties are tabulated and compared to the differences in measured and calculated results. The magnitude of the uncertainty for categories of nuclides (such as actinides, fission products, and structural materials) is calculated for irradiated PWR and BWR fuel to quantify the effect of covariance library changes between the SCALE 6.1 and 6.2 libraries. One of the primary applications of sensitivity/uncertainty methods within SCALE is the

  4. Visualizing 3D Objects from 2D Cross Sectional Images Displayed "In-Situ" versus "Ex-Situ"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George

    2010-01-01

    The present research investigates how mental visualization of a 3D object from 2D cross sectional images is influenced by displacing the images from the source object, as is customary in medical imaging. Three experiments were conducted to assess people's ability to integrate spatial information over a series of cross sectional images in order to…

  5. Theoretical studies of intersystem crossing effects in the O(3P, 1D)+H2 reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Biswajit; Schatz, George C.

    2003-12-01

    We have studied the influence of intersystem crossing on the reaction dynamics of the O+H2 reaction by performing trajectory surface hopping (TSH) calculations with accurate potential-energy surfaces and global spin-orbit coupling surfaces that we have generated using a four state model proposed by Hoffmann and Schatz. In the TSH calculations, we develop a new mixed representation that treats the reactant and product asymptotes in the adiabatic representation, and the singlet-triplet crossing region in the diabatic representation. This representation thus correctly describes O and OH fine structure-resolved cross sections, and it also treats intersystem crossing effects arising from the singlet-triplet crossing. Our calculations are based on the 1 3A' and 1 3A″ states of Walch and Kuppermann, and the 1 1A' state of Dobbyn and Knowles. The globally determined spin-orbit coupling matrix is derived from complete active space self-consistent field calculations using the two-electron Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. Our dynamics calculations show that the triplet O+H2 cross section is modestly increased (up to 20% at collision energies >10 kcal/mol above the reactive threshold) by intersystem crossing, and product rotational excitation is also increased. In addition, we find that the OH spin-orbit distributions favor the 2Π3/2 state by a 2:1 ratio over 2Π1/2. This result is consistent with observations for O atom reactions with alkanes.

  6. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays.

    PubMed

    Galati, Domenico F; Abuin, David S; Tauber, Gabriel A; Pham, Andrew T; Pearson, Chad G

    2015-12-23

    Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs.

  7. Superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models of growing patients

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. C.; Heymann, Gavin; Cornelis, Marie A.; DeClerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J. F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to evaluate a new method for superimposition of 3-dimensional (3D) models of growing subjects. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography scans were taken before and after Class III malocclusion orthopedic treatment with miniplates. Three observers independently constructed 18 3D virtual surface models from cone-beam computed tomography scans of 3 patients. Separate 3D models were constructed for soft-tissue, cranial base, maxillary, and mandibular surfaces. The anterior cranial fossa was used to register the 3D models of before and after treatment (about 1 year of follow-up). Results Three-dimensional overlays of superimposed models and 3D color-coded displacement maps allowed visual and quantitative assessment of growth and treatment changes. The range of interobserver errors for each anatomic region was 0.4 mm for the zygomatic process of maxilla, chin, condyles, posterior border of the rami, and lower border of the mandible, and 0.5 mm for the anterior maxilla soft-tissue upper lip. Conclusions Our results suggest that this method is a valid and reproducible assessment of treatment outcomes for growing subjects. This technique can be used to identify maxillary and mandibular positional changes and bone remodeling relative to the anterior cranial fossa. PMID:19577154

  8. Dissection of the host-pathogen interaction in human tuberculosis using a bioengineered 3-dimensional model

    PubMed Central

    Tezera, Liku B; Bielecka, Magdalena K; Chancellor, Andrew; Reichmann, Michaela T; Shammari, Basim Al; Brace, Patience; Batty, Alex; Tocheva, Annie; Jogai, Sanjay; Marshall, Ben G; Tebruegge, Marc; Jayasinghe, Suwan N; Mansour, Salah; Elkington, Paul T

    2017-01-01

    Cell biology differs between traditional cell culture and 3-dimensional (3-D) systems, and is modulated by the extracellular matrix. Experimentation in 3-D presents challenges, especially with virulent pathogens. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) kills more humans than any other infection and is characterised by a spatially organised immune response and extracellular matrix remodelling. We developed a 3-D system incorporating virulent mycobacteria, primary human blood mononuclear cells and collagen–alginate matrix to dissect the host-pathogen interaction. Infection in 3-D led to greater cellular survival and permitted longitudinal analysis over 21 days. Key features of human tuberculosis develop, and extracellular matrix integrity favours the host over the pathogen. We optimised multiparameter readouts to study emerging therapeutic interventions: cytokine supplementation, host-directed therapy and immunoaugmentation. Each intervention modulates the host-pathogen interaction, but has both beneficial and harmful effects. This methodology has wide applicability to investigate infectious, inflammatory and neoplastic diseases and develop novel drug regimes and vaccination approaches. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21283.001 PMID:28063256

  9. Assessment and Planning for a Pediatric Bilateral Hand Transplant Using 3-Dimensional Modeling: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Jorge A; Gralewski, Kevin; McAndrew, Christine; Rehman, Mohamed A; Chang, Benjamin; Levin, L Scott

    2016-03-01

    Children are not typically considered for hand transplantation for various reasons, including the difficulty of finding an appropriate donor. Matching donor-recipient hands and forearms based on size is critically important. If the donor's hands are too large, the recipient may not be able to move the fingers effectively. Conversely, if the donor's hands are too small, the appearance may not be appropriate. We present an 8-year-old child evaluated for a bilateral hand transplant following bilateral amputation. The recipient forearms and model hands were modeled from computed tomography imaging studies and replicated as anatomic models with a 3-dimensional printer. We modified the scale of the printed hand to produce 3 proportions, 80%, 100% and 120%. The transplant team used the anatomical models during evaluation of a donor for appropriate match based on size. The donor's hand size matched the 100%-scale anatomical model hand and the transplant team was activated. In addition to assisting in appropriate donor selection by the transplant team, the 100%-scale anatomical model hand was used to create molds for prosthetic hands for the donor.

  10. Automated image analysis reveals the dynamic 3-dimensional organization of multi-ciliary arrays

    PubMed Central

    Galati, Domenico F.; Abuin, David S.; Tauber, Gabriel A.; Pham, Andrew T.; Pearson, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multi-ciliated cells (MCCs) use polarized fields of undulating cilia (ciliary array) to produce fluid flow that is essential for many biological processes. Cilia are positioned by microtubule scaffolds called basal bodies (BBs) that are arranged within a spatially complex 3-dimensional geometry (3D). Here, we develop a robust and automated computational image analysis routine to quantify 3D BB organization in the ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Using this routine, we generate the first morphologically constrained 3D reconstructions of Tetrahymena cells and elucidate rules that govern the kinetics of MCC organization. We demonstrate the interplay between BB duplication and cell size expansion through the cell cycle. In mutant cells, we identify a potential BB surveillance mechanism that balances large gaps in BB spacing by increasing the frequency of closely spaced BBs in other regions of the cell. Finally, by taking advantage of a mutant predisposed to BB disorganization, we locate the spatial domains that are most prone to disorganization by environmental stimuli. Collectively, our analyses reveal the importance of quantitative image analysis to understand the principles that guide the 3D organization of MCCs. PMID:26700722

  11. Fusion of radar data to extract 3-dimensional objects LDRD final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fellerhoff, R.; Hensley, B.; Carande, R.; Burkhart, G.; Ledner, R.

    1997-03-01

    Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) is a very promising technology for remote mapping of 3-Dimensional objects. In particular, 3-D maps of urban areas are extremely important to a wide variety of users, both civilian and military. However, 3-D maps produced by traditional optical stereo (stereogrammetry) techniques can be quite expensive to obtain, and accurate urban maps can only be obtained with a large amount of human-intensive interpretation work. IFSAR has evolved over the last decade as a mapping technology that promises to eliminate much of the human-intensive work in producing elevation maps. However, IFSAR systems have only been robustly demonstrated in non-urban areas, and have not traditionally been able to produce data with enough detail to be of general use in urban areas. Sandia Laboratories Twin Otter IFSAR was the first mapping radar system with the proper parameter set to provide sufficiently detailed information in a large number of urban areas. The goal of this LDRD was to fuse previously unused information derived from IFSAR data in urban areas that can be used to extract accurate digital elevation models (DEMs) over wide areas without intensive human interaction.

  12. Cerebral Degeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Revealed by 3-Dimensional Texture Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Maani, Rouzbeh; Yang, Yee-Hong; Emery, Derek; Kalra, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Routine MR images do not consistently reveal pathological changes in the brain in ALS. Texture analysis, a method to quantitate voxel intensities and their patterns and interrelationships, can detect changes in images not apparent to the naked eye. Our objective was to evaluate cerebral degeneration in ALS using 3-dimensional texture analysis of MR images of the brain. Methods: In a case-control design, voxel-based texture analysis was performed on T1-weighted MR images of 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with ALS. Four texture features, namely, autocorrelation, sum of squares variance, sum average, and sum variance were computed. Texture features were compared between the groups by statistical parametric mapping and correlated with clinical measures of disability and upper motor neuron dysfunction. Results: Texture features were different in ALS in motor regions including the precentral gyrus and corticospinal tracts. To a lesser extent, changes were also found in the thalamus, cingulate gyrus, and temporal lobe. Texture features in the precentral gyrus correlated with disease duration, and in the corticospinal tract they correlated with finger tapping speed. Conclusions: Changes in MR image textures are present in motor and non-motor regions in ALS and correlate with clinical features. Whole brain texture analysis has potential in providing biomarkers of cerebral degeneration in ALS. PMID:27064416

  13. A Novel Method of Orbital Floor Reconstruction Using Virtual Planning, 3-Dimensional Printing, and Autologous Bone.

    PubMed

    Vehmeijer, Maarten; van Eijnatten, Maureen; Liberton, Niels; Wolff, Jan

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the orbital floor are often a result of traffic accidents or interpersonal violence. To date, numerous materials and methods have been used to reconstruct the orbital floor. However, simple and cost-effective 3-dimensional (3D) printing technologies for the treatment of orbital floor fractures are still sought. This study describes a simple, precise, cost-effective method of treating orbital fractures using 3D printing technologies in combination with autologous bone. Enophthalmos and diplopia developed in a 64-year-old female patient with an orbital floor fracture. A virtual 3D model of the fracture site was generated from computed tomography images of the patient. The fracture was virtually closed using spline interpolation. Furthermore, a virtual individualized mold of the defect site was created, which was manufactured using an inkjet printer. The tangible mold was subsequently used during surgery to sculpture an individualized autologous orbital floor implant. Virtual reconstruction of the orbital floor and the resulting mold enhanced the overall accuracy and efficiency of the surgical procedure. The sculptured autologous orbital floor implant showed an excellent fit in vivo. The combination of virtual planning and 3D printing offers an accurate and cost-effective treatment method for orbital floor fractures.

  14. Casting of 3-dimensional footwear prints in snow with foam blocks.

    PubMed

    Petraco, Nicholas; Sherman, Hal; Dumitra, Aurora; Roberts, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Commercially available foam blocks are presented as an alternative material for the casting and preservation of 3-dimensional footwear impressions located in snow. The method generates highly detailed foam casts of questioned footwear impressions. These casts can be compared to the known outsole standards made from the suspects' footwear. Modification of the commercially available foam casting blocks is simple and fast. The foam block is removed and a piece of cardboard is secured to one side of the block with painter's masking tape. The prepared foam block is then placed back into its original box, marked appropriately, closed and stored until needed. When required the foam block is carefully removed from its storage box and gently placed, foam side down, over the questioned footwear impression. Next, the crime scene technician's hands are placed on top of the cardboard and pressure is gently applied by firmly pressing down onto the impression. The foam cast is removed, dried and placed back into its original container and sealed. The resulting 3D impressions can be directly compared to the outsole of known suspected item(s) of footwear.

  15. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering for fabricating 3-dimensional heart tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In addition to stem cell biology, tissue engineering is an essential research field for regenerative medicine. In contrast to cell injection, bioengineered tissue transplantation minimizes cell loss and has the potential to repair tissue defects. A popular approach is scaffold-based tissue engineering, which utilizes a biodegradable polymer scaffold for seeding cells; however, new techniques of cell sheet-based tissue engineering have been developed. Cell sheets are harvested from temperature-responsive culture dishes by simply lowering the temperature. Monolayer or stacked cell sheets are transplantable directly onto damaged tissues and cell sheet transplantation has already been clinically applied. Cardiac cell sheet stacking produces pulsatile heart tissue; however, lack of vasculature limits the viable tissue thickness to 3 layers. Multistep transplantation of triple-layer cardiac cell sheets cocultured with endothelial cells has been used to form thick vascularized cardiac tissue in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro functional blood vessel formation within 3-dimensional (3D) tissues has been realized by successfully imitating in vivo conditions. Triple-layer cardiac cell sheets containing endothelial cells were layered on vascular beds and the constructs were media-perfused using novel bioreactor systems. Interestingly, cocultured endothelial cells migrate into the vascular beds and form perfusable blood vessels. An in vitro multistep procedure has also enabled the fabrication of thick, vascularized heart tissues. Cell sheet-based tissue engineering has revealed great potential to fabricate 3D cardiac tissues and should contribute to future treatment of severe heart diseases and human tissue model production.

  16. Cellulose acetate based 3-dimensional electrospun scaffolds for skin tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Atila, Deniz; Keskin, Dilek; Tezcaner, Ayşen

    2015-11-20

    Skin defects that are not able to regenerate by themselves are among the major problems faced. Tissue engineering approach holds promise for treating such defects. Development of tissue-mimicking-scaffolds that can promote healing process receives an increasing interest in recent years. In this study, 3-dimensional electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) pullulan (PULL) scaffolds were developed for the first time. PULL was intentionally used to obtain 3D structures with adjustable height. It was removed from the electrospun mesh to increase the porosity and biostability. Different ratios of the polymers were electrospun and analyzed with respect to degradation, porosity, and mechanical properties. It has been observed that fiber diameter, thickness and porosity of scaffolds increased with increased PULL content, on the other hand this resulted with higher degradation of scaffolds. Mechanical strength of scaffolds was improved after PULL removal suggesting their suitability as cell carriers. Cell culture studies were performed with the selected scaffold group (CA/PULL: 50/50) using mouse fibroblastic cell line (L929). In vitro cell culture tests showed that cells adhered, proliferated and populated CA/PULL (50/50) scaffolds showing that they are cytocompatible. Results suggest that uncrosslinked CA/PULL (50/50) electrospun scaffolds hold potential for skin tissue engineering applications.

  17. Scene-of-crime analysis by a 3-dimensional optical digitizer: a useful perspective for forensic science.

    PubMed

    Sansoni, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Cristina; Trebeschi, Marco; Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Porta, Davide; Maldarella, Monica; Picozzi, Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Analysis and detailed registration of the crime scene are of the utmost importance during investigations. However, this phase of activity is often affected by the risk of loss of evidence due to the limits of traditional scene of crime registration methods (ie, photos and videos). This technical note shows the utility of the application of a 3-dimensional optical digitizer on different crime scenes. This study aims in fact at verifying the importance and feasibility of contactless 3-dimensional reconstruction and modeling by optical digitization to achieve an optimal registration of the crime scene.

  18. Electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, H.; Huo, Winifred M.; Ali, M. A.; Kim, Yong-Ki

    1999-02-01

    Both theoretical and experimental electron-impact total ionization cross sections of CF4, C2F6, and C3F8 are presented. The experimental cross sections have been measured as a function of incident electron energy T from threshold to 3 keV. A parallel plate condenser type apparatus was used. The molecular polarizability for C3F8 was empirically estimated to be α=10.6 Å3±0.8 Å3. Theoretical cross sections calculated from the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) method, which combines a modified form of the Mott cross section and the Bethe cross section, are compared with the experimental cross sections. The BEB cross sections calculated from correlated molecular wave functions with theoretical estimates for multiple ionization are about 10% higher than the experimental data at the peak for CF4, while they are in excellent agreement with the experimental data for C2F6 and C3F8. Our analysis shows that the BEB theory implicitly includes part of neutral dissociation, such as CF4→CF3+F, and hence tends to be an upper limit to the total ionization cross section. We found that the difference between our best theory for CF4 and the present experimental cross section exhibits a remarkable similarity to the shape of the recently measured cross section for neutral dissociation, though there is no a priori reason for the similarity. Owing to the large number of bound electrons, the correlation included in our wave functions for C2F6 and C3F8 is more limited than for CF4. Hence, we believe that for these two molecules the calculated cross sections are lower than the true BEB values, in spite of the apparent excellent agreement between the theory and the experiment.

  19. Racial differences in urinary F2-isoprostane levels and the cross-sectional association with BMI.

    PubMed

    Il'yasova, Dora; Wang, Frances; Spasojevic, Ivan; Base, Karel; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Wagenknecht, Lynne E

    2012-10-01

    Levels of four urinary F(2)-isoprostanes (F(2)-IsoPs) were examined in a large sample of the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study (IRAS) multiethnic cohort: 237 African Americans (AAs), 342 non-Hispanic whites (NHWs), and 275 Hispanic whites (HWs). F(2)-IsoP isomers - iPF2a-III, 2,3-dinor-iPF2a-III, iPF2a-VI, and 8,12-iso-iPF2a-VI - were measured in 854 urine samples using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection. In AAs, levels of all four F(2)-IsoPs were lower compared with NHWs and HWs (P values <0.05). When stratified by BMI, this gap was not observed among participants with normal BMI but appeared among overweight participants and increased among obese participants. Examining the slopes of the associations between BMI and F(2)-IsoPs showed no association between these variables among AAs (P values >0.2), and positive associations among whites (P values <0.05). Taking into account that positive cross-sectional associations between systemic F(2)-IsoP levels and BMI have been consistently demonstrated in many study populations, the lack of such an association among AAs reveals a new facet of racial/ethnic differences in obesity-related risk profiles.

  20. UV photoabsorption cross sections of CO, N2, and SO2 for studies of the ISM and planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Rufus, J.; Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Stark, Glenn; Pickering, Juliet C.; Thorne, A. P.

    2002-01-01

    We report high-resolution laboratory measurements of photoabsorption cross sections of CO, N2, and SO2 in the wavelength range 80 to 320 nm. The motivation is to provide the quantitative data that are needed to analyze observations of absorption by, and to model photochemical processes in, the interstellar medium and a number of planetary atmospheres. Because of the high resolution of the spectrometers used, we can minimize distortion of the spectrum that occurs when instrument widths are greater than the widths of spectral features being measured. In many cases, we can determine oscillator strengths of individual rotational lines - a unique feature of our work.

  1. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 21, Number 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-01

    FEB 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering...The Journal of Defense Software Engineering February 2008 4 9 14 19 22 27 3 8 18 28 29 30 31 D ep ar t m e n t s From the Publisher Coming Events Call...for both. Good Things Come in Small Packages Elizabeth Starrett Publisher 4 CROSSTALK The Journal of Defense Software Engineering February 2008 DRILS

  2. Stopping cross sections of TiO2 for H and He ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limandri, Silvina P.; Fadanelli, Raul C.; Behar, Moni; Nagamine, Luiz C. C. M.; Fernández-Varea, José M.; Abril, Isabel; Garcia-Molina, Rafael; Montanari, Claudia C.; Aguiar, Julio C.; Mitnik, Darío; Miraglia, Jorge E.; Arista, Néstor R.

    2014-07-01

    Stopping cross sections of TiO2 films were measured for H and He ions in the energy intervals 200-1500 keV and 250-3000 keV, respectively, using the Rutherford backscattering technique. Theoretical calculations were performed by means of two versions of the dielectric formalism and a non-linear model. Good agreement is found between the present experimental data and the theoretical results at intermediate and high energies, and also with the very limited experimental information available in the literature.

  3. Rectal planning risk volume correlation with acute and late toxicity in 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Dias, R S; Giordani, A J; Souhami, L; Segreto, R A; Segreto, H R C

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rectum motion during 3-Dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) in prostate cancer patients, to derive a planning volume at risk (PRV) and to correlate the PRV dose-volume histograms (DVH) with treatment complications.This study was conducted in two phases. Initially, the PRV was defined prospectively in 50 consecutive prostate cancer patients (Group 1) who received a radical course of 3-D CRT. Then, the obtained PRV was used in the radiotherapy planning of these same 50 patients plus another 59 prostate cancer patients (Group 2) previously treated between 2004 and 2008. All these patients' data, including the rectum and PRV DVHs, were correlated to acute and late complications, according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC) v4.0.The largest displacement occurred in the anterior axis. Long-term gastrointestinal (GI) complications grade ≥ 2 were seen in 9.2% of the cases. Factors that influenced acute GI reactions were: doses at 25% (p 5 0.011) and 40% (p 5 0.005) of the rectum volume and at 40% of the PRV (p 5 0.012). The dose at 25% of the rectum volume (p 5 0.033) and acute complications ≥ grade 2 (p 5 0.018) were prognostic factors for long-term complications. The PRV DVH did not correlate with late toxicity. The rectum showed a significant inter-fraction motion during 3D-CRT for prostate cancer. PRV dose correlated with acute gastrointestinal complications and may be a useful tool to predict and reduce their occurrence.

  4. Cross Talk between H2O2 and Interacting Signal Molecules under Plant Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ina; Srikanth, Sandhya; Chen, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that oxidative stress is an important cause of cellular damage. During stress conditions, plants have evolved regulatory mechanisms to adapt to various environmental stresses. One of the consequences of stress is an increase in the cellular concentration of reactive oxygen species, which is subsequently converted to H2O2. H2O2 is continuously produced as the byproduct of oxidative plant aerobic metabolism. Organelles with a high oxidizing metabolic activity or with an intense rate of electron flow, such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, or peroxisomes are major sources of H2O2 production. H2O2 acts as a versatile molecule because of its dual role in cells. Under normal conditions, H2O2 immerges as an important factor during many biological processes. It has been established that it acts as a secondary messenger in signal transduction networks. In this review, we discuss potential roles of H2O2 and other signaling molecules during various stress responses. PMID:27200043

  5. Measurement of (23)Na(n,2n) cross section in well-defined reactor spectra.

    PubMed

    Košťál, Michal; Švadlenková, Marie; Baroň, Petr; Milčák, Ján; Mareček, Martin; Uhlíř, Jan

    2016-05-01

    The present paper aims to compare the calculated and experimental reaction rates of (23)Na(n,2n)(22)Na in a well-defined reactor spectra of a special core assembled in the LR-0 reactor. The experimentally determined reaction rate, derived using gamma spectroscopy of irradiated NaF sample, is used for average cross section determination. The resulting value averaged in spectra is 0.91±0.02µb. This cross-section is important as it is included in International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File and is also relevant to the correct estimation of long-term activity of Na coolant in Sodium Fast Reactors. The calculations were performed with the MCNP6 code using ENDF/B-VII.0, JEFF-3.1, JEFF-3.2, JENDL-3.3, JENDL-4, ROSFOND-2010 and CENDL-3.1 nuclear data libraries. Generally the best C/E agreement, within 2%, was found using the ROSFOND-2010 data set, whereas the worst, as high as 40%, was found using the ENDF/B-VII.0.

  6. New Results on CaH2 Thermal Neutron Scattering Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Serot, O.

    2005-05-24

    Calcium hydride (CaH2) is a compound of interest in the frame of a current research program on the transmutation of long-lived nuclear wastes. Since CaH2 is relatively stable in liquid sodium, it is one possible material that can be used for local moderation of the neutron spectrum in fast neutron reactors such as PHENIX. In order to describe the moderated region from Monte Carlo and/or deterministic calculations, thermal neutron scattering data are needed. In particular, an adequate treatment of the thermal inelastic scattering cross sections for bound hydrogen is requested. The present work aims at the determination of these data. The first step was the measurement of the phonon frequency spectrum, which was carried out on the three axis spectrometer of the Institut Laue Langevin in Grenoble (France). This phonon frequency spectrum has already been published and so only a brief description of this measurement will be given here. Then, from physical grounds, the acoustic mode has been weighted relative to the optical modes in order to treat Hydrogen atoms bound in CaH2. The S({alpha},{beta}) scattering laws have been generated for various temperatures using the NJOY code working in the incoherent approximation and the Gaussian approximation. The deduced incoherent elastic and incoherent inelastic cross sections are shown and discussed. These new thermal neutron scattering data will be proposed in the JEFF3.1 European library.

  7. MICROX-2 cross section library based on ENDF/B-VII

    SciTech Connect

    Hou, J.; Ivanov, K.; Choi, H.

    2012-07-01

    New cross section libraries of a neutron transport code MICROX-2 have been generated for advanced reactor design and fuel cycle analyses. A total of 386 nuclides were processed, including 10 thermal scattering nuclides, which are available in ENDF/B-VII release 0 nuclear data. The NJOY system and MICROR code were used to process nuclear data and convert them into MICROX-2 format. The energy group structure of the new library was optimized for both the thermal and fast neutron spectrum reactors based on Contributon and Point-wise Cross Section Driven (CPXSD) method, resulting in a total of 1173 energy groups. A series of lattice cell level benchmark calculations have been performed against both experimental measurements and Monte Carlo calculations for the effective/infinite multiplication factor and reaction rate ratios. The results of MICROX-2 calculation with the new library were consistent with those of 15 reference cases. The average errors of the infinite multiplication factor and reaction rate ratio were 0.31% {delta}k and 1.9%, respectively. The maximum error of reaction rate ratio was 8% for {sup 238}U-to-{sup 235}U fission of ZEBRA lattice against the reference calculation done by MCNP5. (authors)

  8. Beyond the Maltese Cross: Geometry of Turbulence Between 0.2 and 1 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdini, Andrea; Grappin, Roland

    2016-11-01

    The spectral anisotropy of turbulent structures has been measured in the solar wind since 1990, relying on the assumption of axisymmetry about the mean magnetic field, B 0. However, several works indicate that this hypothesis might be partially wrong, thus raising two questions: (i) is it correct to interpret measurements at 1 au (the so-called Maltese cross) in term of a sum of slab and two-dimensional (2D) turbulence; and (ii) what information is really contained in the Maltese cross? We solve direct numerical simulations of the magnetohydrodynamic equations including the transverse stretching exerted by the solar wind flow and study the genuine 3D anisotropy of turbulence as well as that one resulting from the assumption of axisymmetry about B 0. We show that the evolution of the turbulent spectrum from 0.2 to 1 au depends strongly on its initial anisotropy. An axisymmetric spectrum with respect to B 0 keeps its axisymmetry, i.e., resists stretching perpendicular to radial, while an isotropic spectrum becomes essentially axisymmetric with respect to the radial direction. We conclude that close to the Sun, slow-wind turbulence has a spectrum that is axisymmetric around B 0 and the measured 2D component at 1 au describes the real shape of turbulent structures. In contrast, fast-wind turbulence has a more isotropic spectrum at the source and becomes radially symmetric at 1 au. Such structure is hidden by the symmetrization applied to the data that instead returns a slab geometry.

  9. Pacific Northwest residential energy survey. Volume 10. Climate Zone 2 cross-tabulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-01

    Responses for Climate Zone 2 to fifty questions asked during the survey (plus four variables computed from responses to several other questions) are presented. Climate Zone 2, defined according to the sum of heating and cooling degree days, amounts to 6000 to 6999. The fifty questions were cross-tabulated against responses to nine questions which represent key explanatory characteristics of residential energy use. The nine key questions are: means of payment for housing; type of dwelling; year dwelling built; total square-footage of living space; type of fuel for main heating system; combined 1978 income; unit cost of electricity; annual electricity consumption; and annual natural gas consumption. The fifty questions and four computed variables which were cross-tabulated against the above fall into six categories: dwelling characteristics; heating and air-conditioning systems; water heating; appliances; demographic and dwelling characteristics; and insulation. The survey was conducted throughout the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana, with a total of 4030 households sampled; 685 households were sampled in Climate Zone 2. Informational data are presented in 54 tables. (MCW)

  10. Cross sections for 14-eV e-H{sub 2} resonant collisions: Dissociative electron attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Wadehra, J. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2009-07-15

    The dissociative electron attachment (DEA) process in electron-H{sub 2} molecule collisions, involving the {sup 2}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +} excited electronic Rydberg state of molecular hydrogen ion H{sub 2}{sup -}, is investigated theoretically. The DEA cross section has been calculated within the local complex potential approximation. The convoluted cross section, which presents a peak located at the incident energy of about 14 eV, compares favorably with available experimental data.

  11. A Measurement of Inclusive Quasielastic Electron Cross Sections at X > 1 and High Q2

    SciTech Connect

    Petitjean, Thomas

    2002-07-04

    Experiment E89-008 measured inclusive electron scattering cross sections from different nuclei in Hall C at Jefferson Laboratory. Cross sections on the low energy loss side of the quasi-elastic peak (xBj > 1) are extracted for carbon, aluminum, iron and gold. The data cover four-momentum transfers squared of 0.97 to 5.73 GeV 2 =c 2 . The measured cross sections are compared to cross sections calculated using a microscopic spectral function. The cross section results are also analyzed in terms of the two scaling functions F (y) and f(Ψ'). For both the data is found to be independent of the momentum transfer (scaling of the first kind). For f(Ψ') the data is in addition independent of the mass number A (scaling of the second kind) and thus exhibits superscaling properties.

  12. Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe17+ to Fe23+

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Gu, M F; Beiersdorfer, P; Boyce, K R; Brown, G V; Kahn, S M; Kelley, R L; Kilbourne, C A; Porter, F S; Scofield, J H

    2006-02-08

    The authors report the measurement of electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of Fe XVIII through Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and a 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation cross section for 48 lines at multiple electron energies. They also studied the electron density dependent nature of the emission lines, which is demonstrated by the effective excitation cross section of the 3d {yields} 2p transition in Fe XXI.

  13. 1H-2H cross-polarization NMR in fast spinning solids by adiabatic sweeps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Sungsool; Schurko, Robert; Frydman, Lucio

    2017-03-01

    Cross-polarization (CP) experiments employing frequency-swept radiofrequency (rf) pulses have been successfully used in static spin systems for obtaining broadband signal enhancements. These experiments have been recently extended to heteronuclear I, S = spin-1/2 nuclides under magic-angle spinning (MAS), by applying adiabatic inversion pulses along the S (low-γ) channel while simultaneously applying a conventional spin-locking pulse on the I-channel (1H). This study explores an extension of this adiabatic frequency sweep concept to quadrupolar nuclei, focusing on CP from 1H (I = 1/2) to 2H spins (S = 1) undergoing fast MAS (νr = 60 kHz). A number of new features emerge, including zero- and double-quantum polarization transfer phenomena that depend on the frequency offsets of the swept pulses, the rf pulse powers, and the MAS spinning rate. An additional mechanism found operational in the 1H-2H CP case that was absent in the spin-1/2 counterpart, concerns the onset of a pseudo-static zero-quantum CP mode, driven by a quadrupole-modulated rf/dipolar recoupling term arising under the action of MAS. The best CP conditions found at these fast spinning rates correspond to double-quantum transfers, involving weak 2H rf field strengths. At these easily attainable (ca. 10 kHz) rf field conditions, adiabatic level-crossings among the {|1 ⟩ ,|0 ⟩ ,|-1 ⟩ } mS energy levels, which are known to complicate the CP MAS of quadrupolar nuclei, are avoided. Moreover, the CP line shapes generated in this manner are very close to the ideal 2H MAS spectral line shapes, facilitating the extraction of quadrupolar coupling parameters. All these features were corroborated with experiments on model compounds and justified using numerical simulations and average Hamiltonian theory models. Potential applications of these new phenomena, as well as extensions to higher spins S, are briefly discussed.

  14. E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is cytotoxic and cross-links cytoskeletal proteins in P19 neuroglial cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Montine, T. J.; Amarnath, V.; Martin, M. E.; Strittmatter, W. J.; Graham, D. G.

    1996-01-01

    Lipid peroxidation increases with age in brain and is elevated further in Alzheimer's disease. E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal and malondialdehyde are products of lipid peroxidation that can adduct and cross-link protein. Neurofibrillary tangles, a feature of Alzheimer's disease composed mostly of tau protein, contain cross-linked and ubiquitin-conjugated protein. In P19 neuroglial cultures, E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was a potent cytotoxin that cross-linked cytoskeletal proteins, including tau into high molecular weight species that were conjugated with ubiquitin. Malondialdehyde formed monoadducts with cell protein but did not cross-link and was not cytotoxic. A non-crosslinking analogue of E-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal was not cytotoxic. E-4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal may contribute to neurodegeneration and neurofibrillary tangle formation in Alzheimer's disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8546230

  15. Potential energy curves crossing and low-energy charge transfer dynamics in (BeH2O)2+ complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, QiXiang; Yan, Bing

    2012-07-01

    The singlet rigid Be—O dissociation potential energy curves correlating to the first four molecular limits of (BeH2O)2+ complex were calculated using the multi-reference single and double excitation configuration interaction theory. The radial couplings of three low-lying 1A1 states were calculated and combined with adiabatic potential energy curves to investigate and charge-transfer collision dynamics by using quantum-mechanical molecular orbital close-coupling methods. It is found that the total charge-transfer cross sections are dominated by the Be+(2S)+H2O+(Ã2A1) channel. The rate coefficients in the range of 10-17-10-12 cm3/s are very sensitive to temperature below 1000 K. The complexation energy without charge-transfer was determined to be 143.6 kcal/mol, including zero-point vibration energy corrections. This is in good agreement with the previous results.

  16. Glycoproteins E2 of the Venezuelan and eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses contain multiple cross-reactive epitopes.

    PubMed

    Pereboev, A V; Razumov, I A; Svyatchenko, V A; Loktev, V B

    1996-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with sixty types of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to study cross-reactive epitopes on the attenuated and virulent strains of the Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) and Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses. All three structural proteins of the EEE and VEE viruses were demonstrated to have both cross-reactive and specific antigenic determinants. The glycoprotein E1 of EEE and VEE viruses possesses three cross-reactive epitopes for binding to MAbs. The glycoprotein E2 has a cluster of epitopes for 20 cross-reacting MAbs produced to EEE and VEE viruses. Cross-reactive epitopes were localised within five different sites of glycoprotein E2 of VEE virus and within four sites of that of the EEE virus. There are no cross-neutralising MAbs to the VEE and EEE viruses. Only one type of the protective Mabs was able to cross-protect mice against lethal infection by the virulent strains of the VEE and EEE viruses. Eight MAbs blocked the hemagglutination activity (HA) of both viruses. Antigenic alterations of neutralising and protective sites were revealed for all attenuated strains of the VEE and EEE viruses. Comparative studies of the E2 proteins amino acid sequences show that the antigenic modifications observed with the attenuated strains of the VEE virus may be caused by multiple amino acid changes in positions 7, 62, 120, 192 and 209-213. The escape-variants of the VEE virus obtained with cross-reactive MAbs 7D1, 2D4 and 7A6 have mutations of the E2 protein at positions 59, 212-213 and 232, respectively. Amino acid sequences in these regions of the VEE and EEE viruses are not homologous. These observations indicate that cross-reactive MAbs are capable of recognising discontinuous epitopes on the E2 glycoprotein.

  17. Geometric isomerism in the OCS-CS2 complex: observation of a cross-shaped isomer.

    PubMed

    Norooz Oliaee, J; Mivehvar, F; Dehghany, M; Moazzen-Ahmadi, N

    2010-07-15

    Infrared spectra of the OCS-CS(2) van der Waals complex were studied in a pulsed supersonic slit-jet using a tunable diode laser probe. Spectra were recorded in the region of nu(1) fundamental of OCS. Two bands were observed and analyzed, one band corresponding to a previously observed planar isomer and another due to a new isomer which has a nonplanar cross-shaped structure. The intermolecular (center of mass) separation of the planar isomer is 3.87017(2) A. The structure of this isomer has been determined previously from its rotational spectrum. The cross-shaped isomer was observed here for the first time, and its structure was determined with the help of isotopic substitution. Two structural parameters, the intermolecular distance (R) and an angle (phi), are necessary to completely define the structure. These were determined to be R 3.5553(8) A and phi = 104.82(22) degrees which are in fair agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  18. R-matrix calculations of the photoionization cross-sections of Ti2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J. W.; Han, X. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Li, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    The photoionization cross-sections of Ti2+ in the ground state ([Ne]3s23p63d2 3Fe) are calculated using both non-relativistic (LS-coupling) and relativistic (Breit-Pauli) R-matrix methods for the photon energy from 27.49 eV (I.P.) to 48.00 eV. The results show that, in this energy range, the photoionization cross-sections are dominated by resonances 3p53d3, 3p53d24d and 3p53d24s, which are labelled by LS-terms by combining with the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations. Moreover, from the fractional parentage coefficients and the percentages (the square of the configuration interaction expansion coefficients) of the LS-terms involved in the final resonance states, the relative strength of the resonances have been explained qualitatively in a general way. The present results should be of great help in the modelling and diagnostic of astrophysical plasmas as well as laboratory plasmas.

  19. Immediate 3-dimensional ridge augmentation after extraction of periodontally hopeless tooth using chinblock graft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ankit; Thomas, Raison; A. Baron, Tarunkumar; Shah, Rucha; Mehta, Dhoom-Singh

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of immediate ridge augmentation to reconstruct the vertical and horizontal dimensions at extraction sites of periodontally hopeless tooth using an autogenous chin block graft. Material and Methods A total of 11 patients (7 male & 4 female) with localized advanced bone loss around single rooted teeth having hopeless prognosis and indicated for extraction were selected for the study. The teeth were atraumatically extracted and deficient sites were augmented using autogenous chin block graft. Parameters like clinically soft tissue height - width and also radiographic ridge height -width were measured before and 6 months after augmentation. Obtained results were tabulated and analysed statistically. Results After 6 months of immediate ridge augmentation, the mean gain in radiographic vertical height and horizontal width was 7.64 + 1.47 mm (P = 0.005) and 5.28 + 0.46 mm (P = 0.007) respectively which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Mean change of width gain of 0.40mm and height loss of 0.40mm of soft tissue parameters, from the baseline till completion of the study at 6 months was observed. Conclusions The present study showed predictable immediate ridge augmentation with autogenous chin block graft at periodontally compromised extraction site. It can provide adequate hard and soft tissue foundation for perfect 3-Dimensional prosthetic positioning of implant in severely deficient ridges. Key words:Immediate ridge augmentation, periondontally hopeless tooth, autogenous chin graft, dental implant. PMID:26644832

  20. Technique for comprehensive head and neck irradiation using 3-dimensional conformal proton therapy

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, Mark W.; Walter, Alexander S.; Hoene, Ted A.

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the technical and logistical complexities of matching photon and proton treatment modalities, we developed and implemented a technique of comprehensive head and neck radiation using 3-dimensional (3D) conformal proton therapy. A monoisocentric technique was used with a 30-cm snout. Cervical lymphatics were treated with 3 fields: a posterior-anterior field with a midline block and a right and a left posterior oblique field. The matchline of the 3 cervical nodal fields with the primary tumor site fields was staggered by 0.5 cm. Comparative intensity-modulated photon plans were later developed for 12 previously treated patients to provide equivalent target coverage, while matching or improving on the proton plans' sparing of organs at risk (OARs). Dosimetry to OARs was evaluated and compared by treatment modality. Comprehensive head and neck irradiation using proton therapy yielded treatment plans with significant dose avoidance of the oral cavity and midline neck structures. When compared with the generated intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans, the proton treatment plans yielded statistically significant reductions in the mean and integral radiation dose to the oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, and the maximally spared parotid gland. There was no significant difference in mean dose to the lesser-spared parotid gland by treatment modality or in mean or integral dose to the spared submandibular glands. A technique for cervical nodal irradiation using 3D conformal proton therapy with uniform scanning was developed and clinically implemented. Use of proton therapy for cervical nodal irradiation resulted in large volume of dose avoidance to the oral cavity and low dose exposure to midline structures of the larynx and the esophagus, with lower mean and integral dose to assessed OARs when compared with competing IMRT plans.

  1. An integrated 3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine for data-driven simulation of spatial genome organization.

    PubMed

    Szałaj, Przemysław; Tang, Zhonghui; Michalski, Paul; Pietal, Michal J; Luo, Oscar J; Sadowski, Michał; Li, Xingwang; Radew, Kamen; Ruan, Yijun; Plewczynski, Dariusz

    2016-12-01

    ChIA-PET is a high-throughput mapping technology that reveals long-range chromatin interactions and provides insights into the basic principles of spatial genome organization and gene regulation mediated by specific protein factors. Recently, we showed that a single ChIA-PET experiment provides information at all genomic scales of interest, from the high-resolution locations of binding sites and enriched chromatin interactions mediated by specific protein factors, to the low resolution of nonenriched interactions that reflect topological neighborhoods of higher-order chromosome folding. This multilevel nature of ChIA-PET data offers an opportunity to use multiscale 3D models to study structural-functional relationships at multiple length scales, but doing so requires a structural modeling platform. Here, we report the development of 3D-GNOME (3-Dimensional Genome Modeling Engine), a complete computational pipeline for 3D simulation using ChIA-PET data. 3D-GNOME consists of three integrated components: a graph-distance-based heat map normalization tool, a 3D modeling platform, and an interactive 3D visualization tool. Using ChIA-PET and Hi-C data derived from human B-lymphocytes, we demonstrate the effectiveness of 3D-GNOME in building 3D genome models at multiple levels, including the entire genome, individual chromosomes, and specific segments at megabase (Mb) and kilobase (kb) resolutions of single average and ensemble structures. Further incorporation of CTCF-motif orientation and high-resolution looping patterns in 3D simulation provided additional reliability of potential biologically plausible topological structures.

  2. Design of biphasic polymeric 3-dimensional fiber deposited scaffolds for cartilage tissue engineering applications.

    PubMed

    Moroni, L; Hendriks, J A A; Schotel, R; de Wijn, J R; van Blitterswijk, C A

    2007-02-01

    This report describes a novel system to create rapid prototyped 3-dimensional (3D) fibrous scaffolds with a shell-core fiber architecture in which the core polymer supplies the mechanical properties and the shell polymer acts as a coating providing the desired physicochemical surface properties. Poly[(ethylene oxide) terephthalate-co-poly(butylene) terephthalate] (PEOT/PBT) 3D fiber deposited (3DF) scaffolds were fabricated and examined for articular cartilage tissue regeneration. The shell polymer contained a higher molecular weight of the initial poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) segments used in the copolymerization and a higher weight percentage of the PEOT domains compared with the core polymer. The 3DF scaffolds entirely produced with the shell or with the core polymers were also considered. After 3 weeks of culture, scaffolds were homogeneously filled with cartilage tissue, as assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Although comparable amounts of entrapped chondrocytes and of extracellular matrix formation were found for all analyzed scaffolds, chondrocytes maintained their rounded shape and aggregated during the culture period on shell-core 3DF scaffolds, suggesting a proper cell differentiation into articular cartilage. This finding was also observed in the 3DF scaffolds fabricated with the shell composition only. In contrast, cells spread and attached on scaffolds made simply with the core polymer, implying a lower degree of differentiation into articular cartilaginous tissue. Furthermore, the shell-core scaffolds displayed an improved dynamic stiffness as a result of a "prestress" action of the shell polymer on the core one. In addition, the dynamic stiffness of the constructs increased compared with the stiffness of the bare scaffolds before culture. These findings suggest that shell-core 3DF PEOT/PBT scaffolds with desired mechanical and surface properties are a promising solution for improved cartilage tissue engineering.

  3. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics. PMID:28105122

  4. Analysis of 3-dimensional finite element after reconstruction of impaired ankle deltoid ligament.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yunhan; Tang, Xianzhong; Li, Yifan; Xu, Wei; Qiu, Wenjun

    2016-12-01

    We compared four repair techniques for impaired ankle ligament deltoideum, namely Wiltberger, Deland, Kitaoka and Hintermann using a 3-dimensional finite element. We built an ankle ligament deltoideum model, including six pieces of bone structures, gristles and main ligaments around the ankle. After testing the model, we built an impaired ligament deltoideum model plus four reconstruction models. Subsequently, different levels of force on ankles with different flexion were imposed and ankle biomechanics were compared. In the course of bending, from plantar flexion 20° to back flexion 20°, the extortion of talus decreased while the eversion increased. Four reconstruction models failed to bring back the impaired ankle to normal, with an obvious increase of extortion and eversion. The Kitaoka technique was useful to reduce the extortion angle in a consequential manner. Compared with the other three techniques, the Kitaoka technique produced better results for extortion angle and the difference was statistically significant. However, in case of eversion, there was no significant difference among the four techniques (P>0.05). Lateral ligament's stress in all the four models was different from the normal one. When the ankle was imposed with extortion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with the Kitaoka reconstruction method was close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. When ankle was imposed with eversion moment of force, stress of anterior talofibular ligament with Kitaoka and Deland reconstruction methods were close to that of the complete deltoid ligament. We concluded that Kitaoka and Deland tendon reconstruction technique could recover impaired ankle deltoid ligament and re-established its normal biomechanics characteristics.

  5. Realization of masticatory movement by 3-dimensional simulation of the temporomandibular joint and the masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong-Tae; Lee, Jae-Gi; Won, Sung-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Hee; Cha, Jung-Yul; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2013-07-01

    Masticatory muscles are closely involved in mastication, pronunciation, and swallowing, and it is therefore important to study the specific functions and dynamics of the mandibular and masticatory muscles. However, the shortness of muscle fibers and the diversity of movement directions make it difficult to study and simplify the dynamics of mastication. The purpose of this study was to use 3-dimensional (3D) simulation to observe the functions and movements of each of the masticatory muscles and the mandible while chewing. To simulate the masticatory movement, computed tomographic images were taken from a single Korean volunteer (30-year-old man), and skull image data were reconstructed in 3D (Mimics; Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). The 3D-reconstructed masticatory muscles were then attached to the 3D skull model. The masticatory movements were animated using Maya (Autodesk, San Rafael, CA) based on the mandibular motion path. During unilateral chewing, the mandible was found to move laterally toward the functional side by contracting the contralateral lateral pterygoid and ipsilateral temporalis muscles. During the initial mouth opening, only hinge movement was observed at the temporomandibular joint. During this period, the entire mandible rotated approximately 13 degrees toward the bicondylar horizontal plane. Continued movement of the mandible to full mouth opening occurred simultaneously with sliding and hinge movements, and the mandible rotated approximately 17 degrees toward the center of the mandibular ramus. The described approach can yield data for use in face animation and other simulation systems and for elucidating the functional components related to contraction and relaxation of muscles during mastication.

  6. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Benedek, K. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M. )

    1991-08-01

    This report describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  7. The Effect of N2 Photoabsorption Cross Section Resolution on C2H6 Production in Titan’s Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luspay-Kuti, Adrienn; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Plessis, Sylvain; Greathouse, Thomas K.

    2014-11-01

    Titan’s rich organic chemistry begins with the photochemistry of only two molecules: N2 and CH4. The details on how higher-order hydrocarbons and nitriles are formed from these molecules have key implications for both the structure and evolution of Titan’s atmosphere, and for its surface-atmosphere interactions. Of high importance is the production of C2H6, which is a sink for CH4, and a main component in the polar lakes. Results of photochemical models, though, may be sensitive to the choice of input parameters, such as the N2 photoabsorption cross section resolution, as previously shown for nitrogen (Liang et al. (2007) ApJL 664, 115-118), and CH4 (Lavvas et al. (2011) Icarus 213, 233-251). Here we investigate the possibility of the same effect on the production rates of C2H6. We modeled production and loss rates, as well as mixing ratio and density profiles between an altitude of 600 and 1600 km for low and high resolution N2 cross sections via a coupled ion-neutral-thermal model (De La Haye et al. (2008) Icarus 197, 110-136; Mandt et al. (2012) JGR 117, E10006). Our results show a clear impact of photoabsorption cross section resolution used on all neutral and ion species contributing to C2H6 production. The magnitude of the influence varies amongst species. Ethane production profiles exhibit a significant increase with better resolution; a factor of 1.2 between 750 and 950 km, and a factor of 1.1 in the total column-integrated production rate. These values are lower limits, as additional reactions involving C2H5 not included in the model may also contribute to the production rates. The clear effect on C2H6 (which is not a parent molecule, nor does it bear nitrogen) may have important implications for other molecules in Titan’s atmosphere as well. The possible non-negligible impact of an isotope of nitrogen may argue for the inclusion of isotopes in photochemical models. For future analysis, development of a more efficient and streamlined model called

  8. H-2, H-3, He-3 production in solar flares. [using updated cross sections and kinematics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.

    1974-01-01

    The production of deuterium, tritium, and helium-3 from nuclear reactions of accelerated charged particles is evaluated with the ambient solar atmosphere. Updated cross sections and kinematics are used, calculations are extended to very low energies (approximates 0.1 MeV/nucleon), and the angular distribution of the secondary particles is calculated. The calculations are compared with data on accelerated isotopes from solar flares. In particular, the August 1972 events are considered for which both He-3 and nuclear gamma rays were observed. An explanation for He-3-rich events is provided in terms of the angular distributions of secondary isotopes, and the flux of 2.2 MeV gamma rays from such flares are also predicted.

  9. Universality of the crossing probability for the Potts model for q=1, 2, 3, 4.

    PubMed

    Vasilyev, Oleg A

    2003-08-01

    The universality of the crossing probability pi(hs) of a system to percolate only in the horizontal direction was investigated numerically by a cluster Monte Carlo algorithm for the q-state Potts model for q=2, 3, 4 and for percolation q=1. We check the percolation through Fortuin-Kasteleyn clusters near the critical point on the square lattice by using representation of the Potts model as the correlated site-bond percolation model. It was shown that probability of a system to percolate only in the horizontal direction pi(hs) has the universal form pi(hs)=A(q)Q(z) for q=1,2,3,4 as a function of the scaling variable z=[b(q)L(1/nu(q))[p-p(c)(q,L)

  10. Backscattering from a statistically rough 2-D surface: Diffraction corrections to geometrical optics cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Iosif M.

    2007-12-01

    Diffraction corrections (up to terms ˜1/k2) to the geometric optics backscattering cross sections from a statistically rough 2-D perfectly conducting surface were derived for TE- and TM-polarized electromagnetic waves based on the high-frequency asymptotic expansions of electric and magnetic fields at the surface obtained by Fuks (2004). It was shown that at steep incident angles, where the specular reflections play the main part in scattering, diffraction results can be interpreted as scattering by a fictitious surface, the roughness of which is gentler that the real surface at HH polarization and steeper at VV polarization. The HH/VV polarization ratio (dB), being positive at steep incident angles, gradually decreases as the incident angle increases, and it becomes negative for moderate incident angles.

  11. Schottky diode based on WS2 crossed with PEDOT/PSSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Deliris; Pinto, Nicholas; Naylor, Carl; Johnson, A. T. Charlie

    An easy technique to fabricate a Schottky diode with WS2 and PEDOT-PSSA under ambient conditions is presented. WS2 is an air stable transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor. When connected as a field effect transistor, WS2 exhibited n-type behavior with a charge mobility of ~7cm2/V-s on SiO2. PEDOT/PSSA is a conducting polymer that can be electro-spun to form fibers with a conductivity of ~1 S/cm. In this work we fabricated a Schottky diode by crossing a CVD grown monolayer WS2 crystal with a single electro-spun PEDOT/PSSA fiber. The resulting diode characteristics were analyzed assuming the standard thermionic emission model of a Schottky junction. Analysis of the results includes the ideality parameter of 4.75, diode rectification ratio ~10, and a turn on voltage of 1.4V. Efforts to investigate if these parameters are tunable with a back gate will also be presented. This work was supported by NSF-DMR-1523463 and NSF DMR RUI-1360772. ATJ acknowledges support from EFRI 2DARE EFMA-1542879.

  12. Vibrational state-resolved differential cross sections for the D + H sub 2 yields DH + H reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Continetti, R.E.

    1989-11-01

    In this thesis, crossed-molecular-beams studies of the reaction D + H{sub 2} {yields} DH + H at collision energies of 0.53 and 1.01 eV are reported. Chapter 1 provides a survey of important experimental and theoretical studies on the dynamics of the hydrogen exchange reaction. Chapter 2 discusses the development of the excimer-laser photolysis D atom beam source that was used in these studies and preliminary experiments on the D + H{sub 2} reaction. In Chapter 3, the differential cross section measurements are presented and compared to recent theoretical predictions. The measured differential cross sections for rotationally excited DH products showed significant deviations from recent quantum scattering calculations, in the first detailed comparison of experimental and theoretical differential cross sections. These results indicate that further work on the H{sub 3} potential energy surface, particularly the bending potential, is in order.

  13. Measurement of 150-Sm(n,2ngammai) 149-Sm cross sections between threshold and 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J; Becker, J; Dashdorj, D; Dietrich, F S; Garrett, P; Hoffman, R; Younes, W; Nelson, R; Devlin, M; Fotiades, N

    2004-08-02

    Absolute partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for the production of discrete {gamma}-rays from the reaction {sup 150}Sm(n,2n{gamma}{sub i}){sup 149}Sm were measured using the GEANIE {gamma}-ray spectrometer coupled with the intense white neutron source at WNR/LANSCE. The measurements were made for incident neutron energies between threshold (8.04 MeV) and 20 MeV. The partial cross sections for 21 {gamma}-rays were extracted from the data. Of these, 17 were compared to calculations performed using the enhanced Hauser-Feshbach code STAPRE. The partial {gamma}-ray cross sections of the observed parallel decay paths to the ground state were summed, forming a lower bound for the (n,2n) reaction channel. A combination of theory and experiment was then used to deduce the (n,2n) reaction channel cross section.

  14. Photo-fragmentation cross-section of gaseous 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene at different ultraviolet wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh C; Miller, Tracy S; Usachev, Alexander D; Singh, Jagdish P; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Monts, David L

    2009-04-01

    The photo-fragmentation cross-section of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) vapor at room temperature was determined at different ultraviolet wavelengths (254, 300, 340, and 400 nm) by measuring the concentration of NO molecule with cavity ring down spectroscopy and correcting for the photo-fragmentation cross-section of NO(2). Nitric oxide (NO) molecules are produced by the TNT photo-fragmentation processes via an intermediate production of NO(2). Our results reveal that the photo-fragmentation cross-section of TNT changes appreciably with change in wavelength with xenon arc lamp illumination, increasing with decreasing excitation wavelength. The maximum value of cross-section was observed at the shortest photo-fragmentation wavelength studied (254 nm), which is closest to the wavelength of an absorption peak of TNT near 220 nm.

  15. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  16. Patient-Reported Outcomes After 3-Dimensional Conformal, Intensity-Modulated, or Proton Beam Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Phillip J.; Paly, Jonathan J.; Yeap, Beow Y.; Sanda, Martin G.; Sandler, Howard. M.; Michalski, Jeff M.; Talcott, James A.; Coen, John J.; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Shipley, William U.; Hahn, Stephen M.; Zietman, Anthony L.; Bekelman, Justin E.; Efstathiou, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent studies have suggested differing toxicity patterns for patients with prostate cancer who receive treatment with 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), or proton beam therapy (PBT). METHODS The authors reviewed patient-reported outcomes data collected prospectively using validated instruments that assessed bowel and urinary quality of life (QOL) for patients with localized prostate cancer who received 3DCRT (n = 123), IMRT (n = 153) or PBT (n = 95). Clinically meaningful differences in mean QOL scores were defined as those exceeding half the standard deviation of the baseline mean value. Changes from baseline were compared within groups at the first post-treatment follow-up (2–3 months from the start of treatment) and at 12 months and 24 months. RESULTS At the first post-treatment follow-up, patients who received 3DCRT and IMRT, but not those who received PBT, reported a clinically meaningful decrement in bowel QOL. At 12 months and 24 months, all 3 cohorts reported clinically meaningful decrements in bowel QOL. Patients who received IMRT reported clinically meaningful decrements in the domains of urinary irritation/obstruction and incontinence at the first post-treatment follow-up. At 12 months, patients who received PBT, but not those who received IMRT or 3DCRT, reported a clinically meaningful decrement in the urinary irritation/ obstruction domain. At 24 months, none of the 3 cohorts reported clinically meaningful changes in urinary QOL. CONCLUSIONS Patients who received 3DCRT, IMRT, or PBT reported distinct patterns of treatment-related QOL. Although the timing of toxicity varied between the cohorts, patients reported similar modest QOL decrements in the bowel domain and minimal QOL decrements in the urinary domains at 24 months. Prospective randomized trials are needed to further examine these differences. PMID:23436283

  17. Accuracy Evaluation of a 3-Dimensional Surface Imaging System for Guidance in Deep-Inspiration Breath-Hold Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Alderliesten, Tanja; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Betgen, Anja; Honnef, Joeri; Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van; Remeijer, Peter

    2013-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the applicability of 3-dimensional (3D) surface imaging for image guidance in deep-inspiration breath-hold radiation therapy (DIBH-RT) for patients with left-sided breast cancer. For this purpose, setup data based on captured 3D surfaces was compared with setup data based on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Twenty patients treated with DIBH-RT after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) were included. Before the start of treatment, each patient underwent a breath-hold CT scan for planning purposes. During treatment, dose delivery was preceded by setup verification using CBCT of the left breast. 3D surfaces were captured by a surface imaging system concurrently with the CBCT scan. Retrospectively, surface registrations were performed for CBCT to CT and for a captured 3D surface to CT. The resulting setup errors were compared with linear regression analysis. For the differences between setup errors, group mean, systematic error, random error, and 95% limits of agreement were calculated. Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed. Results: Good correlation between setup errors was found: R{sup 2}=0.70, 0.90, 0.82 in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. Systematic errors were {<=}0.17 cm in all directions. Random errors were {<=}0.15 cm. The limits of agreement were -0.34-0.48, -0.42-0.39, and -0.52-0.23 cm in left-right, craniocaudal, and anterior-posterior directions, respectively. ROC analysis showed that a threshold between 0.4 and 0.8 cm corresponds to promising true positive rates (0.78-0.95) and false positive rates (0.12-0.28). Conclusions: The results support the application of 3D surface imaging for image guidance in DIBH-RT after BCS.

  18. Automorphosis of higher plants in space is simulated by using a 3-dimensional clinostat or by application of chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, K.; Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Yamashita, M.; Ueda, J.

    In STS-95 space experiments, etiolated pea seedlings grown under microgravity conditions in space have shown to be automorphosis. Epicotyls were almost straight but the most oriented toward the direction far from their cotyledons with ca. 45 degrees from the vertical line as compared with that on earth. In order to know the mechanism of microgravity conditions in space to induce automorphosis, we introduced simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat, resulting in the successful induction of automorphosis-like growth and development. Kinetic studies revealed that epicotyls bent at their basal region or near cotyledonary node toward the direction far from the cotyledons with about 45 degrees in both seedlings grown on 1 g and under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat within 48 hrs after watering. Thereafter epicotyls grew keeping this orientation under simulated microgravity conditions on the clinostat, whereas those grown on 1 g changed the growth direction to vertical direction by negative gravitropic response. Automorphosis-like growth and development was induced by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors (2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid, 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid), but not an anti-auxin, p-chlorophenoxyisobutyric acid. Automorphosis-like epicotyl bending was also phenocopied by the application of inhibitors of stretch-activated channel, LaCl3 and GdCl3, and by the application of an inhibitor of protein kinase, cantharidin. These results suggest that automorphosis-like growth in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings is due to suppression of negative gravitropic responses on 1 g, and the growth and development of etiolated pea seedlings under 1 g conditions requires for normal activities of auxin polar transport and the gravisensing system relating to calcium channels. Possible mechanisms of perception and transduction of gravity signals to induce automorphosis are discussed.

  19. Minimal cross-sensitivity to humidity during ethanol detection by SnO2-TiO2 solid solutions.

    PubMed

    Tricoli, Antonio; Righettoni, Marco; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2009-08-05

    A nanocomposite material is presented that optimally combines the excellent gas sensitivity of SnO2 and the selectivity of TiO2. Nanostructured, rutile titanium-tin oxide solid solutions up to 81.5% Ti, as determined by x-ray diffraction, are made by scalable spray combustion (flame spray pyrolysis) of organometallic precursor solutions, directly deposited and in situ annealed onto sensing electrodes in one step. Above that content, segregation of anatase TiO2 takes place. It was discovered that at low titanium contents (less than 5 Ti%), these materials exhibit higher sensitivity to ethanol vapor than pure SnO2 and, in particular, limited cross-sensitivity to relative humidity, a long standing challenge for metal oxide gas sensors. These solid solutions are aggregated nanoparticles with an enhanced presence of Ti on their surface as indicated by Raman and IR-spectroscopy. The presence of such low Ti-content in the SnO2 lattice drastically reduces the band gap of these solid solutions, as determined by UV-vis absorption, almost to that of pure TiO2. Furthermore, titania reduces the number of rooted and terminal OH species (that are correlated to the cross-sensitivity of tin oxide to water) on the particle surface as determined by IR-spectroscopy. The present material represents a new class of sensors where detection of gases and organic vapors can be accomplished without pre-treatment of the gas mixture, avoiding other semiconducting components that require more heating power and that add bulkiness to a sensing device. This is attractive in developing miniaturized sensors especially for microelectronics and medical diagnostics.

  20. Cross-Linking Amine-Rich Compounds into High Performing Selective CO2 Absorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreoli, Enrico; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Cullum, Laurie; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2014-12-01

    Amine-based absorbents play a central role in CO2 sequestration and utilization. Amines react selectively with CO2, but a drawback is the unproductive weight of solvent or support in the absorbent. Efforts have focused on metal organic frameworks (MOFs) reaching extremely high CO2 capacity, but limited selectivity to N2 and CH4, and decreased uptake at higher temperatures. A desirable system would have selectivity (cf. amine) and high capacity (cf. MOF), but also increased adsorption at higher temperatures. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept where polyethyleneimine (PEI) is converted to a high capacity and highly selective CO2 absorbent using buckminsterfullerene (C60) as a cross-linker. PEI-C60 (CO2 absorption of 0.14 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C) is compared to one of the best MOFs, Mg-MOF-74 (0.06 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C), and does not absorb any measurable amount of CH4 at 50 bar. Thus, PEI-C60 can perform better than MOFs in the sweetening of natural gas.

  1. Superamphiphobic surfaces constructed by cross-linked hollow SiO2 spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Weihao; Wang, Tao; Yan, Aili; Wang, Sheng

    2017-04-01

    By using stringed carbon spheres as template material, a series of hierarchical 3D cross-linked SiO2 coated carbon spheres and hollow SiO2 spheres were fabricated, and spray-coated on glass slides, followed by the fluorination treatment with per-fluorotrichlorosilane. The surface characterization and surface wettability data indicated that hollow SiO2 spheres spray-coated surfaces showed better superhydrophobicity and superoleophobcity properties than the corresponding solid C@SiO2 coated surface. This study further demonstrated that superamphiphobicity depends on two critical factors, namely a cavity- and spot-rich hierarchical structure and the size and shape of overhangs. Moreover, the optimal conditions for the preparation of hollow SiO2 coated glass slide were identified after a systematic investigation of various concentrations of the carbon precursor and tetraethylorthosilicate. It was found that when 0.10 g carbon spheres prepared from 1.0 M carbon precursor were used as the template and 20 mg/mL tetraethylorthosilicate was used as silica precursor, the hollow SiO2 coated glass slide exhibited the best superamphiphobic performance, with the highest contact angles and lowest sliding angles for various liquids, such as water, olive oil, n-hexadecane and n-dodecane.

  2. Cross-Linking Amine-Rich Compounds into High Performing Selective CO2 Absorbents

    PubMed Central

    Andreoli, Enrico; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Cullum, Laurie; Alemany, Lawrence B.; Barron, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    Amine-based absorbents play a central role in CO2 sequestration and utilization. Amines react selectively with CO2, but a drawback is the unproductive weight of solvent or support in the absorbent. Efforts have focused on metal organic frameworks (MOFs) reaching extremely high CO2 capacity, but limited selectivity to N2 and CH4, and decreased uptake at higher temperatures. A desirable system would have selectivity (cf. amine) and high capacity (cf. MOF), but also increased adsorption at higher temperatures. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept where polyethyleneimine (PEI) is converted to a high capacity and highly selective CO2 absorbent using buckminsterfullerene (C60) as a cross-linker. PEI-C60 (CO2 absorption of 0.14 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C) is compared to one of the best MOFs, Mg-MOF-74 (0.06 g/g at 0.1 bar/90°C), and does not absorb any measurable amount of CH4 at 50 bar. Thus, PEI-C60 can perform better than MOFs in the sweetening of natural gas. PMID:25467054

  3. Role of preoperative 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction in depressed skull fractures treated with craniectomy: a case report of forensic interest.

    PubMed

    Viel, Guido; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Manara, Renzo; Cecchetto, Attilio; Montisci, Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Patients affected by cranial trauma with depressed skull fractures and increased intracranial pressure generally undergo neurosurgical intervention. Because craniotomy and craniectomy remove skull fragments and generate new fracture lines, they complicate forensic examination and sometimes prevent a clear identification of skull fracture etiology. A 3-dimensional reconstruction based on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans, giving a picture of the injuries before surgical intervention, can help the forensic examiner in identifying skull fracture origin and the means of production.We report the case of a 41-year-old-man presenting at the emergency department with a depressed skull fracture at the vertex and bilateral subdural hemorrhage. The patient underwent 2 neurosurgical interventions (craniotomy and craniectomy) but died after 40 days of hospitalization in an intensive care unit. At autopsy, the absence of various bone fragments did not allow us to establish if the skull had been stricken by a blunt object or had hit the ground with high kinetic energy. To analyze bone injuries before craniectomy, a 3-dimensional CT reconstruction based on preoperative scans was performed. A comparative analysis between autoptic and radiological data allowed us to differentiate surgical from traumatic injuries. Moreover, based on the shape and size of the depressed skull fracture (measured from the CT reformations), we inferred that the man had been stricken by a cylindric blunt object with a diameter of about 3 cm.

  4. Cross sections and Rosenbluth separations in 1H(e, e'K+)Lambda up to Q2=2.35 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Coman, M; Aniol, K A; Baker, K; Boeglin, W U; Breuer, H; Bydzovsky, P; Camsonne, A; Cha, J; Chang, C; Chang, C C; Chant, N; Chen, J -P; Chudakov, E A; Cisbani, E; Cole, L; Cusanno, F; de Jager, C W; De Leo, R; Deur, A P; Dieterich, S; Dohrmann, F; Dutta, D; Ent, R; Filoti, O; Fissum, K; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Gayou, O; Gilman, F; Gomez, J; Gueye, P; Hansen, J O; Higinbotham, D W; Hinton, W; Horn, T; Hu, B; Huber, G M; Iodice, M; Jackson, C; Jiang, X; Jones, M; Kanda, K; Keppel, C; King, P; Klein, F; Kozlov, K; Kramer, K; Kramer, L; Lagamba, L; LeRose, J J; Liyanage, N; Margaziotis, D J; Marrone, S; McCormick, K; Michaels, R W; Mitchell, J; Miyoshi, T; Nanda, S; Palomba, M; Pattichio, V; Perdrisat, C F; Piasetzky, E; Punjabi, V A; Raue, B; Reinhold, J; Reitz, B; Roche, R E; Roos, P; Saha, A; Sarty, A J; Sato, Y; Sirca, S; Sotona, Miloslav; Tang, L; Ueno, H; Ulmer, P E; Urciuoli, G M; Uzzle, A; Vacheret, A; Wang, K; Wijessoriya, K; Wojtsekhowski, B; Wood, S; Yaron, I; Zheng, X; Zhu, L

    2010-05-01

    The kaon electroproduction reaction 1H(e,e'K+)Lambda was studied as a function of the virtual-photon four-momentum, Q2, total energy, W, and momentum transfer, t, for different values of the virtual- photon polarization parameter. Data were taken at electron beam energies ranging from 3.40 to 5.75 GeV. The center of mass cross section was determined for 21 kinematics corresponding to Q2 of 1.90 and 2.35 GeV2 and the longitudinal, sigmaL, and transverse, sigmaT , cross sections were separated using the Rosenbluth technique at fixed W and t. The separated cross sections reveal a flat energy dependence at forward kaon angles not satisfactorily described by existing electroproduction models. Influence of the kaon pole on the cross sections was investigated by adopting an off-shell form factor in the Regge model which better describes the observed energy dependence of sigmaT and sigmaL.

  5. 3-Dimensional Marine CSEM Modeling by Employing TDFEM with Parallel Solvers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, parallel fulfillment is developed for forward modeling of the 3-Dimensional controlled source electromagnetic (CSEM) by using time-domain finite element method (TDFEM). Recently, a greater attention rises on research of hydrocarbon (HC) reservoir detection mechanism in the seabed. Since China has vast ocean resources, seeking hydrocarbon reservoirs become significant in the national economy. However, traditional methods of seismic exploration shown a crucial obstacle to detect hydrocarbon reservoirs in the seabed with a complex structure, due to relatively high acquisition costs and high-risking exploration. In addition, the development of EM simulations typically requires both a deep knowledge of the computational electromagnetics (CEM) and a proper use of sophisticated techniques and tools from computer science. However, the complexity of large-scale EM simulations often requires large memory because of a large amount of data, or solution time to address problems concerning matrix solvers, function transforms, optimization, etc. The objective of this paper is to present parallelized implementation of the time-domain finite element method for analysis of three-dimensional (3D) marine controlled source electromagnetic problems. Firstly, we established a three-dimensional basic background model according to the seismic data, then electromagnetic simulation of marine CSEM was carried out by using time-domain finite element method, which works on a MPI (Message Passing Interface) platform with exact orientation to allow fast detecting of hydrocarbons targets in ocean environment. To speed up the calculation process, SuperLU of an MPI (Message Passing Interface) version called SuperLU_DIST is employed in this approach. Regarding the representation of three-dimension seabed terrain with sense of reality, the region is discretized into an unstructured mesh rather than a uniform one in order to reduce the number of unknowns. Moreover, high-order Whitney

  6. Novel Multicompartment 3-Dimensional Radiochromic Radiation Dosimeters for Nanoparticle-Enhanced Radiation Therapy Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Alqathami, Mamdooh; Blencowe, Anton; Yeo, Un Jin; Doran, Simon J.; Qiao, Greg; Geso, Moshi

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (AuNps), because of their high atomic number (Z), have been demonstrated to absorb low-energy X-rays preferentially, compared with tissue, and may be used to achieve localized radiation dose enhancement in tumors. The purpose of this study is to introduce the first example of a novel multicompartment radiochromic radiation dosimeter and to demonstrate its applicability for 3-dimensional (3D) dosimetry of nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A novel multicompartment phantom radiochromic dosimeter was developed. It was designed and formulated to mimic a tumor loaded with AuNps (50 nm in diameter) at a concentration of 0.5 mM, surrounded by normal tissues. The novel dosimeter is referred to as the Sensitivity Modulated Advanced Radiation Therapy (SMART) dosimeter. The dosimeters were irradiated with 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies. Dose enhancement produced from the interaction of X-rays with AuNps was calculated using spectrophotometric and cone-beam optical computed tomography scanning by quantitatively comparing the change in optical density and 3D datasets of the dosimetric measurements between the tissue-equivalent (TE) and TE/AuNps compartments. The interbatch and intrabatch variability and the postresponse stability of the dosimeters with AuNps were also assessed. Results: Radiation dose enhancement factors of 1.77 and 1.11 were obtained using 100-kV and 6-MV X-ray energies, respectively. The results of this study are in good agreement with previous observations; however, for the first time we provide direct experimental confirmation and 3D visualization of the radiosensitization effect of AuNps. The dosimeters with AuNps showed small (<3.5%) interbatch variability and negligible (<0.5%) intrabatch variability. Conclusions: The SMART dosimeter yields experimental insights concerning the spatial distributions and elevated dose in nanoparticle-enhanced radiation therapy, which cannot be performed using any of

  7. Hypothalamic serotonin-insulin signaling cross-talk and alterations in a type 2 diabetic model.

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Ioannis; Berthou, Flavien; Vicaire, Nicolas; Rouch, Claude; Markaki, Eirini M; Bailbe, Danielle; Portha, Bernard; Taouis, Mohammed; Gerozissis, Kyriaki

    2012-03-05

    Serotonin and insulin are key regulators of homeostatic mechanisms in the hypothalamus. However, in type 2 diabetes, the hypothalamic responsiveness to serotonin is not clearly established. We used a diabetic model, the Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats, to explore insulin receptor expression, insulin and serotonin efficiency in the hypothalamus and liver by means of Akt phosphorylation. Insulin or dexfenfluramine (stimulator of serotonin) treatment induced Akt phosphorylation in Wistar rats but not in GK rats that exhibit down-regulated insulin receptor. Studies in a neuroblastoma cell line showed that serotonin-induced Akt phosphorylation is PI3-kinase dependent. Finally, in response to food intake, hypothalamic serotonin release was reduced in GK rats, indicating impaired responsiveness of this neurotransmitter. In conclusion, hypothalamic serotonin as insulin efficiency is impaired in diabetic GK rats. The insulin-serotonin cross-talk and impairment observed is one potential key modification in the brain during the onset of diabetes.

  8. ARTICLE Crossed Beams Study on the Dynamics of F Atom Reaction with 1,2-Butadiene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Chong-fa; Shen, Guan-lin; Wang, Xiu-yan; Yang, Xue-ming

    2010-12-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of the F+C4H6 reaction using the universal crossed molecular beam method. The C4H5F+H reaction channel was observed in this experiment. Angular resolved time-of-flight spectra have been measured for the C4H5F product. Product angular distributions as well as kinetic energy distributions were determined for this product channel. Experimental results show that the C4H5F product is largely backward scattered with considerable forward scattering signal, relative to the F atom beam direction. This suggests that the reaction channel mainly proceeds via a long-lived complex formation mechanism, with possible contribution from a direct SN2 type mechanism.

  9. The W boson production cross section at the LHC through O(alpha**2(s)

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, Kirill; Petriello, Frank; /Wisconsin U., Madison /Fermilab

    2006-01-01

    We compute the {Omicron}({alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}) QCD corrections to the fully differential cross-section pp {yields} WX {yields} {ell}{nu}X, retaining all effects from spin correlations. The knowledge of these corrections makes it possible to calculate with high precision the W boson production rate and acceptance at the LHC, subject to realistic cuts on the lepton and missing energy distributions. For certain choices of cuts we find large corrections when going from next-to-leading order (NLO) to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO) in perturbation theory. These corrections are significantly larger than those obtained by parton-shower event generators merged with NLO calculations. Our calculation may be used to assess and significantly reduce the QCD uncertainties in the many studies of W boson production planned at the LHC.

  10. Low-energy Be4+/B5+ - H2 cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Bidhan

    2000-06-01

    Single electron capture cross sections from molecular hydrogen by Be4+/B5+ have been calculated using the Molecular Orbital formalism in the semiclassical close-coupling scheme. The important interactions leading to state selective charge transfer are confined at large internuclear seperation. We have found that freezing the molecular details of the target turns out to be a convenient strategy [1]. In our investigation we treat H2 as a pseudo-atom with ionization potential 16.1 eV. The results will be presented in the conference. This work is supported by Research Corporation, NSF CREST and Army High Performance Computing Research. [1] A. Kumar and B C Saha, Phys Rev A 59,1273 (1999).

  11. Antigenic cross-reactions among herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus, and cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Balachandran, N; Oba, D E; Hutt-Fletcher, L M

    1987-01-01

    Polyvalent rabbit antisera against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), monospecific antisera against affinity-purified HSV-2 glycoproteins gB and gG, and a panel of monoclonal antibodies against HSV and EBV proteins were used to analyze cross-reactive molecules in cells infected with the four herpesviruses. A combination of immunoprecipitation and Western blotting with these reagents was used to determine that all four viruses coded for a glycoprotein that cross-reacted with HSV-1 gB. CMV coded for proteins that cross-reacted with HSV-2 gC, gD, and gE. Both CMV and EBV coded for proteins that cross-reacted with HSV-2 gG. Antigenic counterparts to the p45 nucleocapsid protein of HSV-2 were present in HSV-1 and CMV, and counterparts of the major DNA-binding protein and the ribonucleotide reductase of HSV-1 were present in all the viruses. The EBV virion glycoprotein gp85 was immunoprecipitated by antisera to HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV. Antisera to CMV and EBV neutralized the infectivity of both HSV-1 and HSV-2 at high concentrations. This suggests that cross-reactivity between these four human herpesviruses may have pathogenic as well as evolutionary significance. Images PMID:3029407

  12. Asymmetrical cross-resistance between Bacillus thuringiensis toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in pink bollworm.

    PubMed

    Tabashnik, Bruce E; Unnithan, Gopalan C; Masson, Luke; Crowder, David W; Li, Xianchun; Carrière, Yves

    2009-07-21

    Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins kill some key insect pests and can reduce reliance on insecticide sprays. Sustainable use of such crops requires methods for delaying evolution of resistance by pests. To thwart pest resistance, some transgenic crops produce 2 different Bt toxins targeting the same pest. This "pyramid" strategy is expected to work best when selection for resistance to 1 toxin does not cause cross-resistance to the other toxin. The most widely used pyramid is transgenic cotton producing Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab. Cross-resistance between these toxins was presumed unlikely because they bind to different larval midgut target sites. Previous results showed that laboratory selection with Cry1Ac caused little or no cross-resistance to Cry2A toxins in pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), a major cotton pest. We show here, however, that laboratory selection of pink bollworm with Cry2Ab caused up to 420-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac as well as 240-fold resistance to Cry2Ab. Inheritance of resistance to high concentrations of Cry2Ab was recessive. Larvae from a laboratory strain resistant to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in diet bioassays survived on cotton bolls producing only Cry1Ac, but not on cotton bolls producing both toxins. Thus, the asymmetrical cross-resistance seen here does not threaten the efficacy of pyramided Bt cotton against pink bollworm. Nonetheless, the results here and previous evidence indicate that cross-resistance occurs between Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in some key cotton pests. Incorporating the potential effects of such cross-resistance in resistance management plans may help to sustain the efficacy of pyramided Bt crops.

  13. Measurements of electron-proton elastic cross sections for 0.4 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Christy; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Christopher Armstrong; John Arrington; Razmik Asaturyan; Steven Avery; O. Baker; Douglas Beck; Henk Blok; C.W.Bochna; Werner Boeglin; Peter Bosted; Maurice Bouwhuis; Herbert Breuer; D.S.Brown; Antje Bruell; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cochran; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; James Dunne; Dipangkar Dutta; Rolf Ent; Howard Fenker; B.Fox; Liping Gan; Haiyan Gao; Kenneth Garrow; David Gaskell; Ashot Gasparian; Don Geesaman; Paul Gueye; Mark Harvey; Roy Holt; Xiaodong Jiang; Cynthia Keppel; Edward Kinney; Yongguang Liang; Wolfgang Lorenzon; Allison Lung; Pete Markowitz; J.W.Martin; Kevin McIlhany; Daniella Mckee; David Meekins; M.A.Miller; Richard Milner; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Robert Mueller; Alan Nathan; Gabriel Niculescu; Maria-Ioana Niculescu; Thomas O'neill; Vassilios Papavassiliou; Stephen Pate; Buz Piercey; David Potterveld; Ronald Ransome; Joerg Reinhold; E.Rollinde; Philip Roos; Adam Sarty; Reyad Sawafta; Elaine Schulte; Edwin Segbefia; C.Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; Steffen Strauch; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Raphael Tieulent; Alicia Uzzle; William Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Feng Xiong; Lulin Yuan; Markus Zeier; Benedikt Zihlmann; Vitaliy Ziskin

    2004-01-01

    We report on precision measurements of the elastic cross section for electron-proton scattering performed in Hall C at Jefferson Lab. The measurements were made at 28 unique kinematic settings covering a range in momentum transfer of 0.4 < Q{sup 2} < 5.5 (/rm GeV/c){sup 2}. These measurements represent a significant contribution to the world's cross section data set in the Q{sup 2} range where a large discrepancy currently exists between the ratio of electric to magnetic proton form factors extracted from previous cross section measurements and that recently measured via polarization transfer in Hall A at Jefferson Lab.

  14. Measurement of the e+e-→ω η cross section below √{s }=2 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achasov, M. N.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K. I.; Berdyugin, A. V.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Botov, A. A.; Dimova, T. V.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kardapoltsev, L. V.; Kasaev, A. S.; Kharlamov, A. G.; Kirpotin, A. N.; Kovrizhin, D. P.; Koop, I. A.; Korol, A. A.; Koshuba, S. V.; Kupich, A. S.; Martin, K. A.; Melnikova, N. A.; Obrazovsky, A. E.; Pakhtusova, E. V.; Senchenko, A. I.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Silagadze, Z. K.; Shatunov, Yu. M.; Shtol, D. A.; Shwartz, D. B.; Skrinsky, A. N.; Surin, I. K.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Vasiljev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The cross section of the process e+e-→ω η is measured in the center-of-mass energy range 1.34-2.00 GeV. The analysis is based on data collected with the SND detector at the VEPP-2000 e+e- collider. The measured e+e-→ω η cross section is the most accurate to date. A significant discrepancy is observed between our data and previous BABAR measurements.

  15. Use of 3-Dimensional Volumetric Modeling of Adrenal Gland Size in Patients with Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease.

    PubMed

    Chrysostomou, P P; Lodish, M B; Turkbey, E B; Papadakis, G Z; Stratakis, C A

    2016-04-01

    Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a rare type of bilateral adrenal hyperplasia leading to hypercortisolemia. Adrenal nodularity is often appreciable with computed tomography (CT); however, accurate radiologic characterization of adrenal size in PPNAD has not been studied well. We used 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric analysis to characterize and compare adrenal size in PPNAD patients, with and without Cushing's syndrome (CS). Patients diagnosed with PPNAD and their family members with known mutations in PRKAR1A were screened. CT scans were used to create 3D models of each adrenal. Criteria for biochemical diagnosis of CS included loss of diurnal variation and/or elevated midnight cortisol levels, and paradoxical increase in urinary free cortisol and/or urinary 17-hydroxysteroids after dexamethasone administration. Forty-five patients with PPNAD (24 females, 27.8±17.6 years) and 8 controls (19±3 years) were evaluated. 3D volumetric modeling of adrenal glands was performed in all. Thirty-eight patients out of 45 (84.4%) had CS. Their mean adrenal volume was 8.1 cc±4.1, 7.2 cc±4.5 (p=0.643) for non-CS, and 8.0cc±1.6 for controls. Mean values were corrected for body surface area; 4.7 cc/kg/m(22.2 for CS, and 3.9 cc/kg/m(2)±1.3 for non-CS (p=0.189). Adrenal volume and midnight cortisol in both groups was positively correlated, r=0.35, p=0.03. We conclude that adrenal volume measured by 3D CT in patients with PPNAD and CS was similar to those without CS, confirming empirical CT imaging-based observations. However, the association between adrenal volume and midnight cortisol levels may be used as a marker of who among patients with PPNAD may develop CS, something that routine CT cannot do.

  16. The effectiveness and user perception of 3-dimensional digital human anatomy in an online undergraduate anatomy laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilbelink, Amy Joanne

    2007-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of implementing desktop 3-dimensional (3D) stereo images of human anatomy into an undergraduate human anatomy distance laboratory. User perceptions of 2D and 3D images were gathered via questionnaire in order to determine ease of use and level of satisfaction associated with the 3D software in the online learning environment. Mayer's (2001, p. 184) principles of design were used to develop the study materials that consisted of PowerPoint presentations and AVI files accessed via Blackboard. The research design employed a mixed-methods approach. Volunteers each were administered a demographic survey and were then stratified into groups based upon pre-test scores. A total sample size of 62 pairs was available for combined data analysis. Quantitative research questions regarding the effectiveness of 2D versus the 3D treatment were analyzed using a doubly-multivariate repeated measures (Doubly-MANOVA) design. Paired test scores achieved by undergraduates on a laboratory practical of identification and spatial relationships of the bones and features of a human skull were used in the analysis. The questionnaire designed to gather user perceptions consisted of quantitative and qualitative questions. Response frequencies were analyzed for the two groups and common themes were noted. Results revealed a statistically significant difference in group means for the main effect of the treatment groups 2D and 3D and for the variables of identification and relationship with the 3D group outperforming the 2D group on both dependent variables. Effect sizes were determined to be small, 0.215 for the identification variable and 0.359 for the relationship variable. Overall, all students liked the convenience of using PowerPoint and AVI files online. The 3D group felt their PowerPoint was more realistic than did the 2D group and both groups appreciated the detailed labeling of the online images. One third of the

  17. Structural Analysis of Guanylyl Cyclase-Activating Protein-2 (GCAP-2) Homodimer by Stable Isotope-Labeling, Chemical Cross-Linking, and Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettelkau, Jens; Thondorf, Iris; Theisgen, Stephan; Lilie, Hauke; Schröder, Thomas; Arlt, Christian; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    The topology of the GCAP-2 homodimer was investigated by chemical cross-linking and high resolution mass spectrometry. Complementary conducted size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation studies indicated that GCAP-2 forms a homodimer both in the absence and in the presence of Ca2+. In-depth MS and MS/MS analysis of the cross-linked products was aided by 15 N-labeled GCAP-2. The use of isotope-labeled protein delivered reliable structural information on the GCAP-2 homodimer, enabling an unambiguous discrimination between cross-links within one monomer (intramolecular) or between two subunits (intermolecular). The limited number of cross-links obtained in the Ca2+-bound state allowed us to deduce a defined homodimeric GCAP-2 structure by a docking and molecular dynamics approach. In the Ca2+-free state, GCAP-2 is more flexible as indicated by the higher number of cross-links. We consider stable isotope-labeling to be indispensable for deriving reliable structural information from chemical cross-linking data of multi-subunit protein assemblies.

  18. Lidar Observations of the Optical Properties and 3-Dimensional Structure of Cirrus Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eloranta, E. W.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific research conducted under this grant have been reported in a series of journal articles, dissertations, and conference proceedings. This report consists of a compilation of these publications in the following areas: development and operation of a High Spectral Resolution Lidar, cloud physics and cloud formation, mesoscale observations of cloud phenomena, ground-based and satellite cloud cover observations, impact of volcanic aerosols on cloud formation, visible and infrared radiative relationships as measured by satellites and lidar, and scattering cross sections.

  19. Cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes in OR Tambo district, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives South Africa has pledged to the sustainable development goal of promoting good health and well-being to all residents. While this is laudable, paucity of reliable epidemiological data for different regions on diabetes and treatment outcomes may further widen the inequalities of access and quality of healthcare services across the country. This study examines the sociodemographic and clinical determinants of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals attending primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Design A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Primary healthcare setting in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Participants Patients treated for T2DM for 1 or more years (n=327). Primary outcome measure Prevalence of uncontrolled T2DM. Secondary outcome measure Determinants of uncontrolled T2DM (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results Out of the 327 participants, 274 had HbA1c≥7% (83.8%). Female sex (95% CI 1.3 to 4.2), overweight/obesity (95% CI 1.9 to 261.2), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI 4.4 to 23.8), sedentary habits (95% CI 7.2 to 61.3), lower monthly income (95% CI 1.3 to 6.5), longer duration of T2DM (95% CI 4.4 to 294.2) and diabetes information from non-health workers (95% CI 1.4 to 7.0) were the significant determinants of uncontrolled T2DM. There was a significant positive correlation of uncontrolled T2DM with increasing duration of T2DM, estimated glomerular filtration rate and body mass index. However, a significant negative correlation exists between monthly income and increasing HbA1c. Conclusions We found a significantly high prevalence (83.8%) of uncontrolled T2DM among the patients, possibly attributable to overweight/obesity, sedentary living, lower income and lack of information on diabetes. Addressing these determinants will require re-engineering of primary healthcare in the district. PMID:27473948

  20. 239Pu(n,2n) 238Pu cross section inferred from IDA calculations and GEANIE measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Ormand, W E; Dietrich, F S

    2000-09-01

    This report presents the latest {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections inferred from calculations performed with the nuclear reaction-modeling code system, IDA, coupled with experimental measurements of partial {gamma}-ray cross sections for incident neutron energies ranging from 5.68 to 17.18 MeV. It is found that the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section peaks at E{sub inc} {approx} 11.4 MeV with a peak value of approximately 326 mb. At E{sub inc} {approx} 14 MeV, the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section is found to be in good agreement with previous radio-chemical measurements by Lockheed. However, the shape of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section differs significantly from previous evaluations of ENDL, ENDF/B-V and ENDF/B-VI. In our calculations, direct, preequilibrium, and compound reactions are included. Also considered in the modeling are fission and {gamma}-cascade processes in addition to particle emission. The main components of physics adopted and the parameters used in our calculations are discussed. Good agreement of the inferred {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross sections derived separately from IDA and GNASH calculations is shown. The two inferences provide an estimate of variations in the deduced {sup 239}Pu(n,2n){sup 238}Pu cross section originating from modeling.

  1. Effect of O6-methylguanine on DNA interstrand cross-link formation by chloroethylnitrosoureas and 2-chloroethyl(methylsulfonyl)methanesulfonate.

    PubMed

    Dolan, M E; Pegg, A E; Hora, N K; Erickson, L C

    1988-07-01

    Exposure of HT29 cells in culture to O6-methylguanine is known to result in a reduction in O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) activity and an enhancement of sensitivity to the cytotoxic effects of chloroethylating agents. Since cytotoxicity of these agents may be mediated by the formation of interstrand cross-links, alkaline elution analysis was performed on HT29 cells treated with 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea, and Clomesone [2-chloroethyl(methylsulfonyl)methanesulfonate] in the presence or absence of O6-methylguanine pretreatment to determine if the enhanced toxicity was due to an increase in the number of cross-links formed. Interstrand cross-linking by 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea or 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea was increased by pretreatment with 0.4 mM O6-methylguanine for 24 h. Cross-linking by Clomesone was observed only in cells exposed to 0.4 mM O6-methylguanine for 24 h prior to administration of the drug and for 12 h after administration, suggesting that the resynthesis of the AGT may prevent the cross-linking by Clomesone. Complete recovery of AGT activity after reduction to 20 to 30% of the basal level upon treatment with 0.4 mM O6-methylguanine required between 8 h and 15 h in both HT29 cells and in Raji cells which were also sensitized to 1-(2-chloro-ethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea by exposure to O6-methylguanine. These data suggest that the enhancement of chloroethylnitrosourea toxicity after treatment with O6-methylguanine may be related to an increase in the number of DNA cross-links and that the relatively rapid rate of AGT recovery plays a role in prevention of cross-links resulting from Clomesone.

  2. Cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the cotton bollworm.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jizhen; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Jie; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-14

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between two toxins in pyramided Bt cotton (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab). Selection with Cry1Ac for 125 generations produced 1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 6.8-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry2Ab for 29 generations caused 5.6-fold resistance to Cry2Ab and 61-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Without exposure to Bt toxins, resistance to both toxins decreased. For each of the four resistant strains examined, 67 to 100% of the combinations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab tested yielded higher than expected mortality, reflecting synergism between these two toxins. Results showing minor cross-resistance to Cry2Ab caused by selection with Cry1Ac and synergism between these two toxins against resistant insects suggest that plants producing both toxins could prolong the efficacy of Bt cotton against this pest in China. Including toxins against which no cross-resistance occurs and integrating Bt cotton with other control tactics could also increase the sustainability of management strategies.

  3. Cross-resistance and interactions between Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab against the cotton bollworm

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jizhen; Guo, Yuyuan; Liang, Gemei; Wu, Kongming; Zhang, Jie; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Li, Xianchun

    2015-01-01

    To delay evolution of pest resistance to transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), the "pyramid" strategy uses plants that produce two or more toxins that kill the same pest. We conducted laboratory diet experiments with the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, to evaluate cross-resistance and interactions between two toxins in pyramided Bt cotton (Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab). Selection with Cry1Ac for 125 generations produced 1000-fold resistance to Cry1Ac and 6.8-fold cross-resistance to Cry2Ab. Selection with Cry2Ab for 29 generations caused 5.6-fold resistance to Cry2Ab and 61-fold cross-resistance to Cry1Ac. Without exposure to Bt toxins, resistance to both toxins decreased. For each of the four resistant strains examined, 67 to 100% of the combinations of Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab tested yielded higher than expected mortality, reflecting synergism between these two toxins. Results showing minor cross-resistance to Cry2Ab caused by selection with Cry1Ac and synergism between these two toxins against resistant insects suggest that plants producing both toxins could prolong the efficacy of Bt cotton against this pest in China. Including toxins against which no cross-resistance occurs and integrating Bt cotton with other control tactics could also increase the sustainability of management strategies. PMID:25586723

  4. Differential cross sections, measured with guided ion beams: applications to N + + N 2 and C 2H 2+ + C 2D 4 collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mark, S.; Gerlich, D.

    1996-09-01

    In gas phase ion chemistry, the guided-ion-beam (GIB) technique is well established for measuring reliable absolute integral cross sections over a wide range of collision energies. It is less known that the method is also well suited for recoil velocity distributions of product ions (the axial component is determined by using the time-off-flight method (GIB-TOF), the transverse component by guiding field variation (GIB-VAR)). This additional information can be used as a diagnostic tool and helps to unravel the energetics of competing reaction pathways. In general, it allows determination of absolute doubly differential cross sections with very high sensitivity and in an energy and scattering angular range inaccessible to standard ion-beam methods. The experimental part of this paper describes the technique in detail, its difficulties and advantages and the required experimental test procedures. Numerical simulations aid the understanding of the kinematics and the shortfalls of the technique, mainly caused by the random motion of the gas in the scattering cell. The results section briefly summarizes already published product velocity distributions obtained for simple systems. New measurements will be presented for two collision systems, N + + N 2 and C 2H 2+C 2D 4. For the first one, product velocity distributions provide information on the role of excited states of both reactants and products. In combination with new ab initio calculations of the N 3+ potential surface [F.R. Bennett et al., Chem. Phys., this issue] the role of barriers and nonadiabatic interactions is elucidated. In the case of the more complicated hydrocarbon system, the method allows us to distinguish between products of same mass but different isotopic compositions. In addition, different reaction pathways are identified and hints to barrier heights are extracted from the product velocity distributions.

  5. FKBP65-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase activity potentiates the lysyl hydroxylase 2-driven collagen cross-link switch

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Terajima, Masahiko; Banerjee, Priyam; Guo, Houfu; Liu, Xin; Yu, Jiang; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Bruck Syndrome is a connective tissue disease associated with inactivating mutations in lysyl hydroxylase 2 (LH2/PLOD2) or FK506 binding protein 65 (FKBP65/FKBP10). However, the functional relationship between LH2 and FKBP65 remains unclear. Here, we postulated that peptidyl prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity of FKBP65 positively modulates LH2 enzymatic activity and is critical for the formation of hydroxylysine-aldehyde derived intermolecular collagen cross-links (HLCCs). To test this hypothesis, we analyzed collagen cross-links in Fkbp10-null and –wild-type murine embryonic fibroblasts. Although LH2 protein levels did not change, FKBP65 deficiency significantly diminished HLCCs and increased the non-hydroxylated lysine-aldehyde–derived collagen cross-links (LCCs), a pattern consistent with loss of LH2 enzymatic activity. The HLCC-to-LCC ratio was rescued in FKBP65-deficient murine embryonic fibroblasts by reconstitution with wild-type but not mutant FKBP65 that lacks intact PPIase domains. Findings from co-immunoprecipitation, protein-fragment complementation, and co-immunofluorescence assays showed that LH2 and FKBP65 are part of a common protein complex. We conclude that FKBP65 regulates LH2-mediated collagen cross-linking. Because LH2 promotes fibrosis and cancer metastasis, our findings suggest that pharmacologic strategies to target FKBP65 and LH2 may have complementary therapeutic activities. PMID:28378777

  6. A quantum time-dependent wave-packet study of intersystem crossing effects in the O(3P0, 1, 2) + D2(v = 0, j = 0) reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Juan

    2013-04-01

    We investigated spin-orbit-induced intersystem crossing effects in the title reaction by the time-dependent wave-packet method combined with an extended split operator scheme. We performed non-adiabatic calculations of the fine-structure-resolved cross section and adiabatic calculations of integral cross section. The calculations are based on the potential energy surfaces of 3A' and the two degenerate 3A'' states [S. Rogers, D. Wang, A. Kuppermann, and S. Walch, J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 2308 (2000)], 10.1021/jp992985g, together with the spin-orbit coupling matrix [B. Maiti and G. C. Schatz, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 12360 (2003)], 10.1063/1.1623481 and singlet 1A' potential energy surface [J. Dobbyn and P. J. Knowles, Faraday Discuss. 110, 247 (1998)]. The results of the O(3P) + D2 are similar to those of the O(3P) + H2 reaction. The product spin state-resolved reaction cross section and the total reaction cross section both show that the adiabatic channel is dominant in all cases, and the non-adiabatic channels have cross sections of several orders of magnitude smaller than the adiabatic channels at high collision energy. Although the cross sections caused by the intersystem crossing effects in the O(3P) + D2 reaction are larger than those in the O(3P) + H2 reaction, the differences in non-adiabaticity between these two reaction systems are quite modest. Based on the results of the O(3P) + H2 reaction, we can predict that the influence of spin-orbit on the total reaction cross sections of the O(3P) + D2 reaction is also insignificant. However, these non-adiabatic effects can be reflected in the presence of some forward-scattering in the angular distribution for the OD product.

  7. Antimicrobial Properties of Microparticles Based on Carmellose Cross-Linked by Cu2+ Ions

    PubMed Central

    Kejdušová, Martina; Vysloužil, Jakub; Kubová, Kateřina; Celer, Vladimír; Krásna, Magdaléna; Pechová, Alena; Vyskočilová, Věra; Košťál, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Carmellose (CMC) is frequently used due to its high biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low immunogenicity for development of site-specific or controlled release drug delivery systems. In this experimental work, CMC dispersions in two different concentrations (1% and 2%) cross-linked by copper (II) ions (0.5, 1, 1.5, or 2.0 M CuCl2) were used to prepare microspheres with antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans, both frequently occurring pathogens which cause vaginal infections. The microparticles were prepared by an ionotropic gelation technique which offers the unique possibility to entrap divalent copper ions in a CMC structure and thus ensure their antibacterial activity. Prepared CMC microspheres exhibited sufficient sphericity. Both equivalent diameter and copper content were influenced by CMC concentration, and the molarity of copper (II) solution affected only the copper content results. Selected samples exhibited stable but pH-responsive behaviour in environments which corresponded with natural (pH 4.5) and inflamed (pH 6.0) vaginal conditions. All the tested samples exhibited proven substantial antimicrobial activity against both Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and yeast Candida albicans. Unexpectedly, a crucial parameter for microsphere antimicrobial activity was not found in the copper content but in the swelling capacity of the microparticles and in the degree of CMC surface shrinking. PMID:26090444

  8. A Glutathione-Nrf2-Thioredoxin Cross-Talk Ensures Keratinocyte Survival and Efficient Wound Repair

    PubMed Central

    Telorack, Michèle; Meyer, Michael; Ingold, Irina; Conrad, Marcus; Bloch, Wilhelm; Werner, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The tripeptide glutathione is the most abundant cellular antioxidant with high medical relevance, and it is also required as a co-factor for various enzymes involved in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and toxic compounds. However, its cell-type specific functions and its interaction with other cytoprotective molecules are largely unknown. Using a combination of mouse genetics, functional cell biology and pharmacology, we unraveled the function of glutathione in keratinocytes and its cross-talk with other antioxidant defense systems. Mice with keratinocyte-specific deficiency in glutamate cysteine ligase, which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in glutathione biosynthesis, showed a strong reduction in keratinocyte viability in vitro and in the skin in vivo. The cells died predominantly by apoptosis, but also showed features of ferroptosis and necroptosis. The increased cell death was associated with increased levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which caused DNA and mitochondrial damage. However, epidermal architecture, and even healing of excisional skin wounds were only mildly affected in the mutant mice. The cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 was strongly activated in glutathione-deficient keratinocytes, but additional loss of Nrf2 did not aggravate the phenotype, demonstrating that the cytoprotective effect of Nrf2 is glutathione dependent. However, we show that deficiency in glutathione biosynthesis is efficiently compensated in keratinocytes by the cysteine/cystine and thioredoxin systems. Therefore, our study highlights a remarkable antioxidant capacity of the epidermis that ensures skin integrity and efficient wound healing. PMID:26808544

  9. 2D array of cold-electron nanobolometers with double polarised cross-dipole antennas

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel concept of the two-dimensional (2D) array of cold-electron nanobolometers (CEB) with double polarised cross-dipole antennas is proposed for ultrasensitive multimode measurements. This concept provides a unique opportunity to simultaneously measure both components of an RF signal and to avoid complicated combinations of two schemes for each polarisation. The optimal concept of the CEB includes a superconductor-insulator-normal tunnel junction and an SN Andreev contact, which provides better performance. This concept allows for better matching with the junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET) readout, suppresses charging noise related to the Coulomb blockade due to the small area of tunnel junctions and decreases the volume of a normal absorber for further improvement of the noise performance. The reliability of a 2D array is considerably increased due to the parallel and series connections of many CEBs. Estimations of the CEB noise with JFET readout give an opportunity to realise a noise equivalent power (NEP) that is less than photon noise, specifically, NEP = 4 10−19 W/Hz1/2 at 7 THz for an optical power load of 0.02 fW. PMID:22512950

  10. MERIT40 cooperates with BRCA2 to resolve DNA interstrand cross-links

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qinqin; Paramasivam, Manikandan; Aressy, Bernadette; Wu, Junmin; Bellani, Marina; Tong, Wei; Seidman, Michael M.; Greenberg, Roger A.

    2015-01-01

    MERIT40 is an essential component of the RAP80 ubiquitin recognition complex that targets BRCA1 to DNA damage sites. Although this complex is required for BRCA1 foci formation, its physiologic role in DNA repair has remained enigmatic, as has its relationship to canonical DNA repair mechanisms. Surprisingly, we found that Merit40−/− mice displayed marked hypersensitivity to DNA interstrand cross-links (ICLs) but not whole-body irradiation. MERIT40 was rapidly recruited to ICL lesions prior to FANCD2, and Merit40-null cells exhibited delayed ICL unhooking coupled with reduced end resection and homologous recombination at ICL damage. Interestingly, Merit40 mutation exacerbated ICL-induced chromosome instability in the context of concomitant Brca2 deficiency but not in conjunction with Fancd2 mutation. These findings implicate MERIT40 in the earliest stages of ICL repair and define specific functional interactions between RAP80 complex-dependent ubiquitin recognition and the Fanconi anemia (FA)–BRCA ICL repair network. PMID:26338419

  11. [Performance of cross flow trickling filter for H2S gas treatment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Jing; Li, Jian; Liu, Jia; Peng, Shu-Jing; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; He, Hong

    2012-09-01

    A grading cross bio-trickling filter was designed for H2S removal. Mixed microorganisms domesticated from the former experiment were immobilized to start up the trickling filter. Removal performances during starting up period and different loadings were investigated. Results showed that the immobilization of the trickling filter was completed within 3 d. The removal efficiency was higher than 99% when the inlet concentration was in the range of 110 mg x m(-3) to 230 mg x m(-3) (EBRT 30 s). At low inlet loadings, the front part of the trickling filter played a major role in H2S degradation, accounting for about 85%. Microbial diversity and population of the front part were superior to the tail one. At higher loadings, microbial diversity and population of the tail part increased significantly, from 4.5 x 10(7) cells x g (-1) to 5.17 x 10(8) cells x g(-1), and the elimination capacity was also improved,from 0.04 g x h(-1) to 0.67 g x h(-1). Rod-shaped bacteria were the dominant microorganisms on the surface of ceramics in the steady state as observed by SEM. The surfaces of ceramics were covered by a lot of microbial metabolites at high loadings. Analysis of the metabolites indicated that the majority of H2S was oxidized to sulfur and only a small portion was converted to sulfate.

  12. CO2 exposure as translational cross-species experimental model for panic

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, N K; van den Hove, D L A; Viechtbauer, W; Buchanan, G F; Goossens, L; Lange, I; Knuts, I; Lesch, K P; Steinbusch, H W M; Schruers, K R J

    2016-01-01

    The current diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders are being challenged by the heterogeneity and the symptom overlap of psychiatric disorders. Therefore, a framework toward a more etiology-based classification has been initiated by the US National Institute of Mental Health, the research domain criteria project. The basic neurobiology of human psychiatric disorders is often studied in rodent models. However, the differences in outcome measurements hamper the translation of knowledge. Here, we aimed to present a translational panic model by using the same stimulus and by quantitatively comparing the same outcome measurements in rodents, healthy human subjects and panic disorder patients within one large project. We measured the behavioral–emotional and bodily response to CO2 exposure in all three samples, allowing for a reliable cross-species comparison. We show that CO2 exposure causes a robust fear response in terms of behavior in mice and panic symptom ratings in healthy volunteers and panic disorder patients. To improve comparability, we next assessed the respiratory and cardiovascular response to CO2, demonstrating corresponding respiratory and cardiovascular effects across both species. This project bridges the gap between basic and human research to improve the translation of knowledge between these disciplines. This will allow significant progress in unraveling the etiological basis of panic disorder and will be highly beneficial for refining the diagnostic categories as well as treatment strategies. PMID:27598969

  13. Use of 3-dimensional computed tomography to detect a barium-masked fish bone causing esophageal perforation.

    PubMed

    Tsukiyama, Atsushi; Tagami, Takashi; Kim, Shiei; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating esophageal foreign bodies and detecting perforation. However, when evaluation is difficult owing to the previous use of barium as a contrast medium, 3-dimensional CT may facilitate accurate diagnosis. A 49-year-old man was transferred to our hospital with the diagnosis of esophageal perforation. Because barium had been used as a contrast medium for an esophagram performed at a previous hospital, horizontal CT and esophageal endoscopy could not be able to identify the foreign body or characterize the lesion. However, 3-dimensional CT clearly revealed an L-shaped foreign body and its anatomical relationships in the mediastinum. Accordingly, we removed the foreign body using an upper gastrointestinal endoscope. The foreign body was the premaxillary bone of a sea bream. The patient was discharged without complications.

  14. Gate-modulated transport properties and mechanism for nanowire cross junction based on SnO2 semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Tong, Yanhong; Wang, Guorui; Tang, Qingxin; Liu, Yichun

    2015-12-01

    The transport properties and mechanism of the three-terminal field-effect nanowire cross junction have been systematically investigated. An interesting phenomenon, such as applied voltage bias on nanowire cross junction makes the ON/OFF current ratio of the transistor improved by over 2 orders of magnitude, has been observed. Different from the two-terminal nanowire cross junctions, the cross junction induced potential barrier in three-terminal counterparts is found to be capable to prevent the current of the top semiconductor nanowire from injecting into the bottom nanowire at off state, while to make the current of the top semiconductor nanowire contribute to the current of the bottom nanowire at on state, resulting in the current switch between on state and off state by the gate voltage modulation.

  15. Electron Impact Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe17+ to Fe23+

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Scofield, J; Gu, M F; Kahn, S M; Boyce, K; Kelley, R; Kilbourne, C; Porter, F S

    2006-04-20

    We have measured the electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 {yields} 2 lines of Fe XVIII to Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Centers 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation cross section for the strong Fe L-shell lines at multiple electron energies. This measurement is part of a laboratory X-ray astrophysics program utilizing the Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II.

  16. Electron Impact Excitation Cross Section Measurement for n=3 to n=2 Line Emission in Fe(17+) to Fe(23+)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, H.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Scofield, J. H.; Gu, M. F.; Kahn, S. M.; Boyce, K. R.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.

    2006-01-01

    We have measured the electron impact excitation cross sections for the strong iron L-shell 3 --> 2 lines of Fe XVIII to Fe XXIV at the EBIT-I electron beam ion trap using a crystal spectrometer and NASA-Goddard Space Flight Centers 6 x 6 pixel array microcalorimeter. The cross sections were determined by direct normalization to the well established cross section of radiative electron capture through a sophisticated model analysis which results in the excitation cross section for the strong Fe L-shell lines at multiple electron energies. This measurement is part of a laboratory X-ray astrophysics program utilizing the Livermore electron beam ion traps EBIT-I and EBIT-II.

  17. A Simple 3-Dimensional Printed Aid for a Corrective Palmar Opening Wedge Osteotomy of the Distal Radius.

    PubMed

    Honigmann, Philipp; Thieringer, Florian; Steiger, Regula; Haefeli, Mathias; Schumacher, Ralf; Henning, Julia

    2016-03-01

    The reconstruction of malunited distal radius fractures is often challenging. Virtual planning techniques and guides for drilling and resection have been used for several years to achieve anatomic reconstruction. These guides have the advantage of leading to better operative results and faster surgery. Here, we describe a technique using a simple implant independent 3-dimensional printed drill guide and template to simplify the surgical reconstruction of a malunited distal radius fracture.

  18. 1,2,3,4-Diepoxybutane-Induced DNA-Protein Cross-Linking in Human Fibrosarcoma (HT1080) Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gherezghiher, Teshome B.; Ming, Xun; Villalta, Peter; Campbell, Colin; Tretyakova, Natalia Y.

    2013-01-01

    1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane (DEB) is the key carcinogenic metabolite of 1,3-butadiene (BD), an important industrial and environmental chemical present in urban air and in cigarette smoke. DEB is a genotoxic bis-electrophile capable of cross-linking cellular biomolecules to form DNA-DNA and DNA-protein cross-links (DPCs). In the present work, mass spectrometry-based proteomics was employed to characterize DEB-mediated DNA-protein cross-linking in human fibrosarcoma (HT1080) cells. Over 150 proteins including histones, high mobility group proteins, transcription factors, splicing factors, and tubulins were found among those covalently cross-linked to chromosomal DNA in the presence of DEB. A large portion of the cross-linked proteins are known factors involved in DNA binding, transcriptional regulation, cell signaling, DNA repair, and DNA damage response. HPLC-ESI+-MS/MS analysis of total proteolytic digests revealed the presence of 1-(S-cysteinyl)-4-(guan-7-yl)-2,3-butanediol conjugates, confirming that DEB forms DPCs between cysteine thiols within proteins and the N-7 guanine positions within DNA. However, relatively high concentrations of DEB were required to achieve significant DPC formation, indicating that it is a poor cross-linking agent as compared to antitumor nitrogen mustards and platinum compounds. PMID:23506368

  19. Measurement of relative cross sections for simultaneous ionization and excitation of the helium 4 2s and 4 2p states

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relative cross sections for simultaneous ionization and excitation of helium by 200-eV electrons into the 4 2s and 4 2p states were measured via a fast delayed coincidence technique. Results show good agreement with the relative cross sections for single electron excitation of helium and hydrogen. An application of the results of the measurement to the development of ultraviolet intensity standard is suggested. This technique involves the use of known branching ratios, a visible light flux reference, and the measured relative cross sections.

  20. The Enigma of Cross-Cultural Attitudes in Language Teaching: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David; O'Neill, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    The second part of an article that discussed official policies that foster favorable cross-cultural attitudes though language teaching and described a pilot project undertaken to see whether involvement in foreign language learning was an influential factor in cross-cultural attitudes presents results of the study. (Author/VWL)

  1. Cross-type orbital ordering in the layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound (C6H5CH2CH2NH3 )2CuCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugroho, A. A.; Hu, Z.; Kuo, C. Y.; Haverkort, M. W.; Pi, T. W.; Onggo, D.; Valldor, M.; Tjeng, L. H.

    2016-11-01

    We have studied the magnetic properties and the underlying type of orbital ordering in the layered hybrid organic-inorganic compound (C6H5CH2CH2NH3 )2CuCl4 by using ac-magnetic susceptibility and polarization-dependent soft-x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Cu-L2 and Cu-L3 edges. We have established that the compound has a long-range ferromagnetic ordering both in plane and out of plane and we found from the analysis of the absorption spectra that the orbital ordering of the Cu2 + holes involves the cross-type dx2-z2/dy2-z2 arrangement which is different from the dx2-y2 arrangement found in the parent compounds of the high-Tc cuprate superconductors.

  2. Photoionization research on atomic beams. 2: The photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comes, F. J.; Speier, F.; Elzer, A.

    1982-01-01

    An experiment to determine the absolute value of the photo-ionization cross section of atomic oxygen is described. The atoms are produced in an electrical discharge in oxygen gas with 1% hydrogen added. In order to prevent recombination a crossed beam technique is employed. The ions formed are detected by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The concentration of oxygen atoms in the beam is 57%. The measured photoionization cross section of atomic oxygen is compared with theoretical data. The results show the participation of autoionization processes in ionization. The cross section at the autoionizing levels detected is considerably higher than the absorption due to the unperturbed continuum. Except for wavelengths where autoionization occurs, the measured ionization cross section is in fair agreement with theory. This holds up to 550 A whereas for shorter wavelengths the theoretical values are much higher.

  3. Measurements of the total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures in the energy range from 2. 2 eV to 2. 2 meV

    SciTech Connect

    Adib, M.; Abdel-Kawy, A.; Maayouf, R.M.A.; Eid, Y.; Shuriet, G.; Hamouda, I.

    1980-09-01

    The total neutron cross-sections of Be, Ni, and Cu are measured using two time-of-flight spectrometers installed in front of two of the horizontal channels of the ET-RR-1 reactor. The measurements were carried out in the energy range from 2.2 eV to 2.2 meV at room temperature and at liquid nitrogen temperature for neutron energies below 5 meV. The coherent scattering cross-sections of these elements were determined from the Bragg cut-offs observed in the behavior of the total cross-sections at cold neutron energies. The incoherent cross-sections of Be, Ni and Cu were obtained from the analysis of the total neutron cross-section data beyond the Bragg cut-off. The one phonon annihilation process was estimated at long neutron wavelengths and was found to be in reasonable agreement with the results of calculations.

  4. Block-Regularized m × 2 Cross-Validated Estimator of the Generalization Error.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ruibo; Wang, Yu; Li, Jihong; Yang, Xingli; Yang, Jing

    2017-02-01

    A cross-validation method based on [Formula: see text] replications of two-fold cross validation is called an [Formula: see text] cross validation. An [Formula: see text] cross validation is used in estimating the generalization error and comparing of algorithms' performance in machine learning. However, the variance of the estimator of the generalization error in [Formula: see text] cross validation is easily affected by random partitions. Poor data partitioning may cause a large fluctuation in the number of overlapping samples between any two training (test) sets in [Formula: see text] cross validation. This fluctuation results in a large variance in the [Formula: see text] cross-validated estimator. The influence of the random partitions on variance becomes serious as [Formula: see text] increases. Thus, in this study, the partitions with a restricted number of overlapping samples between any two training (test) sets are defined as a block-regularized partition set. The corresponding cross validation is called block-regularized [Formula: see text] cross validation ([Formula: see text] BCV). It can effectively reduce the influence of random partitions. We prove that the variance of the [Formula: see text] BCV estimator of the generalization error is smaller than the variance of [Formula: see text] cross-validated estimator and reaches the minimum in a special situation. An analytical expression of the variance can also be derived in this special situation. This conclusion is validated through simulation experiments. Furthermore, a practical construction method of [Formula: see text] BCV by a two-level orthogonal array is provided. Finally, a conservative estimator is proposed for the variance of estimator of the generalization error.

  5. The T2K CCQE selection and prospects for CCQE, NCE cross-section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ruterbories, Daniel

    2015-05-15

    A better understanding of the charge current quasi-elastic (CCQE) interaction channel will lead to a more precise ν{sub e} appearance and ν{sub μ} disappearance measurement at T2K. Measurements looking at the CCQE interaction using the near detector complex (ND280) help constrain cross-section uncertainties as well as the flux prediction at the far detector, Super-Kamiokande. The presented CCQE analysis is derived from a CC-inclusive selection using the tracking portion of ND280. The inclusive sample is broken into a CCQE-enhanced and CC non-QE like sample and each sample is used to constrain various parameters used for the far detector prediction. Future CCQE analyses using the tracker will either use the current selection or investigate newer selections for 2 track topologies. The neutral current equivalent to CCQE, neutral current elastic scattering (NCE), is being investigated using the pi-zero detector (POD). The NCE analysis selects a contained single track sample using muon/proton particle identification.

  6. Laser-assisted coplanar symmetric (e, 2e) triple differential cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, D.; Tlidi, M.; Makhoute, A.; Ajana, I.

    2017-04-01

    The modification due to an external linearly polarized monochromatic laser field on the dynamics of the ionization process of an atomic hydrogen by electron-impact is studied theoretically for a coplanar symmetric geometry. The interaction of the laser field with the unbound electrons is treated in a non-perturbative way. The wave functions of the ingoing and outgoing electrons in the laser field are treated as non-relativistic Volkov waves, while the interaction of the bound electron with the laser field is treated by using first-order perturbation theory, assuming that the electric field strength associated with the external laser field is much less than the atomic unit e/{a}2=5× {10}9 {{V}} {{{cm}}}-1. The influence of the laser parameters on the angular distribution is analyzed and several illustrative examples are discussed. Significant changes are noted both in the shape and magnitude of the triple differential cross sections (TDCS) by the application of the laser field. Numerical results show that the TDCS are strongly dependent on the dressing of the projectile by the laser field at low frequency in (e, 2e) spectroscopy region.

  7. Top quark production cross-section at the Tevatron Run 2

    SciTech Connect

    S. Cabrera

    2003-06-04

    The top quark pair production cross-section {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} has been measured in p{bar p} collisions at center of mass energies of 1.96 TeV using Tevatron Run 2 data. In the beginning of Run 2 both CDF and D0 {sigma}{sub t{bar t}} measurements in the dilepton channel t{bar t} {yields} WbW{bar b} {yields} {bar {ell}}{nu}{sub {ell}}b{ell}{prime} {bar {nu}}{sub {ell}{prime}}{bar b} and in the lepton plus jets channel t{bar t} {yields} WbW{bar b} {yields} q{bar q}{prime} b{ell}{bar {nu}}{sub {ell}}{bar b} + {bar {ell}}{nu}{sub {ell}}bq{bar q}{prime} {bar b} agree with the NLO (Next-to-Leading-Order) theoretical predictions. The presence of a top signal in Tevatron data has been reestablished.

  8. Novel Spray Dried Glycerol 2-Phosphate Cross-Linked Chitosan Microparticulate Vaginal Delivery System—Development, Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Emilia; Szekalska, Marta; Czarnomysy, Robert; Lavrič, Zoran; Srčič, Stane; Miltyk, Wojciech; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan microparticulate delivery systems containing clotrimazole were prepared by a spray drying technique using glycerol 2-phosphate as an ion cross-linker. The impact of a cross-linking ratio on microparticle characteristics was evaluated. Drug-free and drug-loaded unmodified or ion cross-linked chitosan microparticles were examined for the in vitro cytotoxicity in VK2/E6E7 human vaginal epithelial cells. The presence of glycerol 2-phosphate influenced drug loading and encapsulation efficacy in chitosan microparticles. By increasing the cross-linking ratio, the microparticles with lower diameter, moisture content and smoother surface were observed. Mucoadhesive studies displayed that all formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties. The in vitro release profile of clotrimazole was found to alter considerably by changing the glycerol 2-phosphate/chitosan ratio. Results from cytotoxicity studies showed occurrence of apoptotic cells in the presence of chitosan and ion cross-linked chitosan microparticles, followed by a loss of membrane potential suggesting that cell death might go through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. PMID:27690062

  9. Reducing cross-sensitivity of TiO2-(B) nanowires to humidity using ultraviolet illumination for trace explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danling; Chen, Antao; Jen, Alex K-Y

    2013-04-14

    Environmental humidity is an important factor that can influence the sensing performance of a metal oxide. TiO2-(B) in the form of nanowires has been demonstrated to be a promising material for the detection of explosive gases such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). However, the elimination of cross-sensitivity of the explosive detectors based on TiO2-(B) toward environmental humidity is still a major challenge. It was found that the cross-sensitivity could be effectively modulated when the thin film of TiO2-(B) nanowires was exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light during the detection of explosives under operating conditions. Such a modulation of sensing responses of TiO2-(B) nanowires to explosives by UV light was attributed to a photocatalytic effect, with which the water adsorbed on the TiO2-(B) nanowire surface was split and therefore the sensor response performance was less affected. It was revealed that the cross-sensitivity could be suppressed up to 51% when exposed to UV light of 365 nm wavelength with an intensity of 40 mW cm(-2). This finding proves that the reduction of cross-sensitivity to humidity through UV irradiation is an effective approach that can improve the performance of a sensor based on TiO2-(B) nanowires for the detection of explosive gas.

  10. 15 CFR 0.735-2 - Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. 0.735-2 Section 0.735-2 Commerce and Foreign Trade... Cross-references to ethical conduct, financial disclosure, and other applicable regulations. Employees... at 5 CFR part 2635 and the executive branch-wide financial disclosure regulations at 5 CFR part 2634....

  11. The Development of Requests by L2 Learners of Modern Standard Arabic: A Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Gahtani, Saad; Roever, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development of requests made by second language (L2) learners of Modern Standard Arabic at four levels of L2 ability. The study used longitudinal and cross-sectional data collection to investigate how learners' performance of requests developed over a five-month period and differed as a function of ability level. The…

  12. Effects of maturase binding and Mg2+ concentration on group II intron RNA folding investigated by UV cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Noah, James W; Lambowitz, Alan M

    2003-11-04

    The Lactococcus lactis Ll.LtrB group II intron encodes a reverse transcriptase/maturase (LtrA protein) that promotes RNA splicing by stabilizing the catalytically active RNA structure. Here, we mapped 17 UV cross-links induced in both wild-type Ll.LtrB RNA and Ll.LtrB-Delta2486 RNA, which has a branch-point deletion that prevents splicing, and we used these cross-links to follow tertiary structure formation under different conditions in the presence or absence of the LtrA protein. Twelve of the cross-links are long-range, with six near known tertiary interaction sites in the active RNA structure. In a reaction medium containing 0.5 M NH(4)Cl, eight of the 17 cross-links were detected in the absence of Mg(2+) or the presence of EDTA, and all were detected at 5 mM Mg(2+), where efficient splicing requires the LtrA protein. The frequencies of all but four cross-links increased with increasing Mg(2+) concentrations, becoming maximal between 4 and 50 mM Mg(2+), where the intron is self-splicing. These findings suggest that a high Mg(2+) concentration induces self-splicing by globally stabilizing tertiary structure, including key tertiary interactions that are required for catalytic activity. Significantly, the binding of the maturase under protein-dependent splicing conditions (0.5 M NH(4)Cl and 5 mM Mg(2+)) increased the frequency of only nine cross-links, seven of which are long-range, suggesting that, in contrast to a high Mg(2+) concentration, LtrA promotes splicing by stabilizing critical tertiary structure interactions, while leaving other regions of the intron relatively flexible. This difference may contribute to the high rate of protein-dependent splicing, relative to the rate of self-splicing. The propensity of the intron RNA to form tertiary structure even at relatively low Mg(2+) concentrations raises the possibility that the maturase functions at least in part by tertiary structure capture. Finally, an abundant central wheel cross-link, present in >50% of

  13. A program for 2D modeling (cross) correlogram tables using fast Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xianlin; Yao, Tingting

    2001-08-01

    An alternative to the traditional fitting of analytical correlogram models or of a linear model of coregionalization has been recently proposed, whereby the conditions for permissibility of a set of (cross) correlogram tables are imposed on their Fourier transforms, that is on the corresponding set of (cross) spectrum tables. The resulting model is entirely non-parametric and consists of a set of permissible (cross) correlogram tables from which gridded correlogram values can be read directly. This paper gives the suite of GSLIB-type programs to implement this correlogram modeling approach. Presentation of the program is backed by a case study using actual petroleum reservoir data (porosity and seismic reflection energy).

  14. Structural characterization of Y1 and Y2 receptors for neuropeptide Y and peptide YY by affinity cross-linking

    SciTech Connect

    Sheikh, S.P.; Williams, J.A. )

    1990-05-15

    Pharmacological studies indicate that peptide YY (PYY) and neuropeptide Y interact with multiple binding sites, categorized as Y1 and Y2 subtypes. In order to identify and structurally characterize the Y1 and Y2 receptors we covalently cross-linked (125I-Tyr36)PYY to its receptors. The Y2 receptor in rat hippocampus and rabbit kidney membranes was affinity labeled using different homo- and heterobifunctional cross-linking reagents. Analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography resulted in a major labeled protein band of Mr = 50,000 in both hippocampal and kidney membranes, which was unaffected by reducing agents. The Y1 receptor was analyzed in membranes from the MC-IXC human neuroblastoma cell line. Autoradiography revealed two labeled bands at Mr = 70,000 and 45,000. As the intensity of the Mr = 45,000 band was reduced by protease inhibitors, it is likely that this band is a degradation product of the larger band. Labeling of these proteins was obtained only when N-5-azido-2-nitrobenzoyloxysuccinimide was employed for cross-linking followed by exposure to UV light. Labeling of the two cross-linked bands was unaffected by reducing agents. The binding of radiolabeled PYY and the intensity of the cross-linked bands, for both the Y1 and Y2 receptors, were inhibited similarly in a dose-dependent manner by increasing concentrations of unlabeled PYY. When exposed to agarose-coupled lectins, the detergent-solubilized Y1 receptor-hormone complex was completely adsorbed by wheat germ agglutinin and partially by ricin communis II. The cross-linked Y2 receptor was almost totally adsorbed by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose and partially adsorbed by concanavalin A. The adsorptions were in all cases blocked by the appropriate hapten sugar.

  15. Development and Application of a 3-Dimensional Finite Element Model for Remediation Wellfield Management at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoor, K.; Maley, M. P.; Demir, Z.; Noyes, C.

    2001-12-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), which is on the Superfund National Priorities List, is implementing an extensive ground water remediation program. The environmental investigation covers an area of about 2 square miles, and is underlain by a thick sequence of heterogeneous alluvial sediments. These sediments have been subdivided into hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) bounded by thin confining layers that were identified using a deterministic approach. LLNL currently operates a large ground water extraction system that includes 80 ground water extraction wells connected to 25 separate treatment facilities. These combined facilities treated about 308 million gallons of ground water at an average combined flow rate of 600 gpm, and removed about 270 kg of volatile organic compounds (VOC's). To better manage this large complex remediation system, a 3-dimensional, finite-element numerical model was developed using FEFLOW. The model simulated a 7 square-mile portion of the large Livermore Valley ground water basin. The quality of the input data varied from highly detailed, in the environmental investigation areas, to sparse, near some of the model domain boundaries. These different data sets had to be integrated to obtain the necessary boundary conditions and input parameters for the model. Hydraulic conductivities were averaged from measured lithologic descriptions and hydraulic test data. Boundary conditions were based on a local and regional assessment of groundwater elevation data representative of observed inflow/outflow boundaries. The model was initially calibrated to a set of 8 distinct hydrologic stress periods over 12 years. Initial flow calibration for the model was achieved using the parameter estimation tool PEST. Through successive data analysis and calibration, optimal parameters were established for each HSU and expanded to 35 hydrologic stress periods covering the entire recorded hydrologic history. VOC transport was calibrated to 9 years of

  16. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example.

    PubMed

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C F; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2015-12-14

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5-2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates.

  17. Construction of Ultradense Linkage Maps with Lep-MAP2: Stickleback F2 Recombinant Crosses as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Rastas, Pasi; Calboli, Federico C. F.; Guo, Baocheng; Shikano, Takahito; Merilä, Juha

    2016-01-01

    High-density linkage maps are important tools for genome biology and evolutionary genetics by quantifying the extent of recombination, linkage disequilibrium, and chromosomal rearrangements across chromosomes, sexes, and populations. They provide one of the best ways to validate and refine de novo genome assemblies, with the power to identify errors in assemblies increasing with marker density. However, assembly of high-density linkage maps is still challenging due to software limitations. We describe Lep-MAP2, a software for ultradense genome-wide linkage map construction. Lep-MAP2 can handle various family structures and can account for achiasmatic meiosis to gain linkage map accuracy. Simulations show that Lep-MAP2 outperforms other available mapping software both in computational efficiency and accuracy. When applied to two large F2-generation recombinant crosses between two nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) populations, it produced two high-density (∼6 markers/cM) linkage maps containing 18,691 and 20,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms. The two maps showed a high degree of synteny, but female maps were 1.5–2 times longer than male maps in all linkage groups, suggesting genome-wide recombination suppression in males. Comparison with the genome sequence of the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) revealed a high degree of interspecific synteny with a low frequency (<5%) of interchromosomal rearrangements. However, a fairly large (ca. 10 Mb) translocation from autosome to sex chromosome was detected in both maps. These results illustrate the utility and novel features of Lep-MAP2 in assembling high-density linkage maps, and their usefulness in revealing evolutionarily interesting properties of genomes, such as strong genome-wide sex bias in recombination rates. PMID:26668116

  18. ARP: Automatic rapid processing for the generation of problem dependent SAS2H/ORIGEN-s cross section libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, L.C.; Hermann, O.W.; Bowman, S.M.; Parks, C.V.

    1998-04-01

    In this report, a methodology is described which serves as an alternative to the SAS2H path of the SCALE system to generate cross sections for point-depletion calculations with the ORIGEN-S code. ARP, Automatic Rapid Processing, is an algorithm that allows the generation of cross-section libraries suitable to the ORIGEN-S code by interpolation over pregenerated SAS2H libraries. The interpolations are carried out on the following variables: burnup, enrichment, and water density. The adequacy of the methodology is evaluated by comparing measured and computed spent fuel isotopic compositions for PWR and BWR systems.

  19. The heptide repeat 2 and upstream region of TGEV induces potent cross-neutralizing antibodies against group I coronaviruses.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huiling; Wu, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoming; Wang, Tianhou

    2012-10-01

    The coronavirus heptide repeat (HR) region in the spike protein induces neutralizing antibodies that block the postfusion core formation and inhibit virus entry into target cells. The HR2 regions for coronaviruses of the same serogroup share high homology. We found that polyclonal antibodies derived from transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus HR2 and upstream region were cross-reactive with the S proteins of the same serogroup in western blotting. The polyclonal antibodies also potently cross-neutralized viruses from the same serogroup. This study provides new insight for designing vaccine and therapeutic reagents against coronavirus infections.

  20. Observation of {sup 54}Ni: Cross-Conjugate Symmetry in f{sub 7/2} Mirror Energy Differences

    SciTech Connect

    Gadea, A.; De Angelis, G.; Axiotis, M.; Martinez, T.; Napoli, D. R.; Lenzi, S. M.; Lunardi, S.; Farnea, E.; Menegazzo, R.; Pavan, P.; Bazzacco, D.; Venturelli, R.; Marginean, N.; Zuker, A. P.; Curien, D.; Dorvaux, O.; Ur, C. A.; Kleinheinz, P.; Bednarczyk, P.; Nyberg, J.

    2006-10-13

    Gamma decays from excited states up to J{sup {pi}}=6{sup +} in the N=Z-2 nucleus {sup 54}Ni have been identified for the first time. Level energies are compared with those of the isobars {sup 54}Co and {sup 54}Fe and of the cross-conjugate nuclei of mass A=42. The good but puzzling f{sub 7/2} cross-conjugate symmetry in mirror and triplet energy differences is analyzed. Shell model calculations reproduce the new data but the necessary nuclear charge-dependent phenomenology is not fully explained by modern nucleon-nucleon potentials.

  1. Rising risk of type 2 diabetes among inhabitants of Jamnagar, Gujarat: A cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rohit; Prajapati, Pradeep Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Undoubtedly, diabetes is an incremental threat for the world health and substantial evidence now suggest that diabetes is strongly associated with patients’ unhealthy lifestyle, behavioral patterns, and socioeconomic changes. Treatment modalities, in particular to this disease differs from patient to patient. In Ayurveda, this individuality is decided on the basis of Prakriti, Vaya, Bala, Desha etc., and hence it is essential to know these factors for successful management of diseases. Aim: To assess the role of demographic profile, changes in life style habits, dietary patterns, occupational and social background in increasing prevalence of type 2 diabete mellitus (DM) at Jamnagar region. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey study was conducted on randomly selected 350 diabetic patients of Jamnagar region. A survey proforma was prepared and detailed history of each patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria was taken along with demographic profile. Observations and Conclusion: The obtained data reveals that, certain faulty dietary and life style regimes of this region are responsible in manifestation of DM. Its magnitude and low awareness warrants appropriate public health interventions for its effective control. PMID:26730132

  2. Cross-sectional study of glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Amarasekara Appuhamillage Thamara Dilhani; Fongkaew, Warunee; Wimalasekera, Savithri Wasundara; Turale, Sue; Chanprasit, Chawapornpan

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a chronic condition, a global concern, and a serious issue in Sri Lanka, where there is little data regarding the influence of dietary control, exercise, and adherence to medication behaviors among adults diabetes. In this cross-sectional, descriptive study, we identified current factors influencing glycemic control and glycemic control behavior among adults with diabetes. A total of 230 people attending diabetes clinics in a tertiary hospital and a primary care institute were administered the self-report Diabetes Information Form, assessing their socioeconomic and medical information and glycemic control behaviors. Data were analyzed by frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores, and standard deviation. The results indicated that most participants had not achieved the recommended fasting blood glucose level (< 126 mg/dL). Although dietary control was practised by 72%, regular exercise was not practised by 85%, and while 77% reported adhering to regular medication, they still had poor glycemic control. The findings highlight the need for health professionals to adopt new strategies for diabetes education to overcome issues related to misconceptions and barriers in providing diabetes care in Sri Lanka.

  3. Cross-sectional studies of plumes from a partially SO 2-scrubbed power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meagher, J. F.; Stockburger, L.; Bonanno, R. J.; Luria, M.

    An instrumented helicopter was used at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Widows Creek Steam Plant to collect a series of samples at several elevations within the plume at fixed distances downwind. During one segment of this study, much higher oxidation rates were observed in the lower part of the plume than in the upper part. These rates occurred on a day when the plume could be clearly separated into two parts. The upper part could be traced to the 305-m stack, which emits flue gases from combustion of low-sulfur coal. The lower part could be traced to two remaining sources, one of which is equipped with a wet limestone scrubber for flue gas desulfurization. A detailed analysis of the plume structure ruled out the possibility that the higher oxidation rate was associated with the scrubbed plume. The authors believe that the higher rate was a result of greater dispersion of the lower plume caused by a cross-wind shear and a mechanically-induced turbulence resulting from the special topography of the area and by a developing thermal boundary layer. Two edge-of-plume effects—maximum NO 2 concentration at the border of the plume and a high concentration of condensation nuclei in the vicinity of the plume-are also discussed.

  4. Hydroxy-functionalized hyper-cross-linked ultra-microporous organic polymers for selective CO2 capture at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Partha; Chandra, Priyanshu; Ghosh, Sujit K

    2016-01-01

    Two hydroxy-functionalized hyper-cross-linked ultra-microporous compounds have been synthesized by Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and characterised with different spectroscopic techniques. Both compounds exhibit an efficient carbon dioxide uptake over other gases like N2, H2 and O2 at room temperature. A high isosteric heat of adsorption (Qst) has been obtained for both materials because of strong interactions between polar -OH groups and CO2 molecules.

  5. Hydroxy-functionalized hyper-cross-linked ultra-microporous organic polymers for selective CO2 capture at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Partha; Chandra, Priyanshu

    2016-01-01

    Summary Two hydroxy-functionalized hyper-cross-linked ultra-microporous compounds have been synthesized by Friedel–Crafts alkylation reaction and characterised with different spectroscopic techniques. Both compounds exhibit an efficient carbon dioxide uptake over other gases like N2, H2 and O2 at room temperature. A high isosteric heat of adsorption (Q st) has been obtained for both materials because of strong interactions between polar –OH groups and CO2 molecules. PMID:27829902

  6. Wavelength dependence for the photoreactions of DNA-psoralen monoadducts. 2. Photo-cross-linking of monoadducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.; Hearst, J.E.

    1987-06-30

    The photoreactions of HMT (4'-(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen) monoadducts in double-stranded DNA have been studied with complementary oligonucleotides. The HMT was first attached to the thymidine residue in the oligonucleotide 5'-GAAGCTACGAGC-3' as either a furan-side monoadduct or a pyrone-side monoadduct. The HMT-monoadducted oligonucleotide was then hybridized to the complementary oligonucleotide 5'-GCTCGTAGCTTC-3' and irradiated with monochromatic light. In the case of the pyrone-side monoadducted oligonucleotide, photoreversal was the predominant reaction, and very little cross-link was formed at all wavelengths. The course of the photoreaction of the double-stranded furan-side monoadducted oligonucleotide was dependent on the irradiation wavelength. At wavelengths below 313 nm, both photoreversal and photo-cross-linking occurred. At wavelengths above 313 nm, photoreversal of the monoadduct could not be detected, and photo-cross-linking occurred efficiently with a quantum yield of 2,4 x 10/sup -2/.

  7. Long-term Cosmetic Outcomes and Toxicities of Proton Beam Therapy Compared With Photon-Based 3-Dimensional Conformal Accelerated Partial-Breast Irradiation: A Phase 1 Trial

    SciTech Connect

    Galland-Girodet, Sigolène; Pashtan, Itai; MacDonald, Shannon M.; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Hirsch, Ariel E.; Kachnic, Lisa A.; Specht, Michelle; Gadd, Michele; Smith, Barbara L.; Powell, Simon N.; Recht, Abram; Taghian, Alphonse G.

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To present long-term outcomes of a prospective feasibility trial using either protons or 3-dimensional conformal photon-based (accelerated partial-breast irradiation [APBI]) techniques. Methods and Materials: From October 2003 to April 2006, 98 evaluable patients with stage I breast cancer were treated with APBI (32 Gy in 8 fractions given twice daily) on a prospective clinical trial: 19 with proton beam therapy (PBT) and 79 with photons or mixed photons/electrons. Median follow-up was 82.5 months (range, 2-104 months). Toxicity and patient satisfaction evaluations were performed at each visit. Results: At 7 years, the physician rating of overall cosmesis was good or excellent for 62% of PBT patients, compared with 94% for photon patients (P=.03). Skin toxicities were more common for the PBT group: telangiectasia, 69% and 16% (P=.0013); pigmentation changes, 54% and 22% (P=.02); and other late skin toxicities, 62% and 18% (P=.029) for PBT and photons, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups in the incidences of breast pain, edema, fibrosis, fat necrosis, skin desquamation, and rib pain or fracture. Patient-reported cosmetic outcomes at 7 years were good or excellent for 92% and 96% of PBT and photon patients, respectively (P=.95). Overall patient satisfaction was 93% for the entire cohort. The 7-year local failure rate for all patients was 6%, with 3 local recurrences in the PBT group (7-year rate, 11%) and 2 in photon-treated patients (4%) (P=.22). Conclusions: Local failure rates of 3-dimensional APBI and PBT were similar in this study. However, PBT, as delivered in this study, led to higher rates of long-term telangiectasia, skin color changes, and skin toxicities. We recommend the use of multiple fields and treatment of all fields per treatment session or the use of scanning techniques to minimize skin toxicity.

  8. Ab initio Potential-Energy Surfaces and Electron-Spin-Exchange Cross Sections for H-O2 Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, James R.; Partridge, Harry; Levin, Eugene

    1996-01-01

    Accurate quartet- and doublet-state potential-energy surfaces for the interaction of a hydrogen atom and an oxygen molecule in their ground states have been determined from an ab initio calculation using large-basis sets and the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method. These potential surfaces have been used to calculate the H-O2 electron-spin-exchange cross section; the square root of the cross section (in a(sub 0)), not taking into account inelastic effects, can be obtained approximately from the expressions 2.390E(sup -1/6) and 5.266-0.708 log10(E) at low and high collision energies E (in E(sub h)), respectively. These functional forms, as well as the oscillatory structure of the cross section found at high energies, are expected from the nature of the interaction energy. The mean cross section (the cross section averaged over a Maxwellian velocity distribution) agrees reasonably well with the results of measurements.

  9. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 2 (RYEGTH00020002) on Town Highway 2, crossing the Wells River, Ryegate, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivanoff, Michael A.

    1997-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure RYEGTH00020002 on Town Highway 2 crossing the Wells River, Ryegate, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). Results of a Level I scour investigation also are included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I investigation provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, gleaned from Vermont Agency of Transportation (VTAOT) files, was compiled prior to conducting Level I and Level II analyses and is found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland section of the New England physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 75.7-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the surface cover consists of cut grass, trees, and brush on the flood plains while the immediate banks have dense woody vegetation. In the study area, the Wells River has an incised, sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.006 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 110 ft and an average bank height of 12 ft. The channel bed material ranges from sand to boulder with a median grain size (D50) of 82.3 mm (0.270 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I and Level II site visit on August 24, 1995, indicated that the reach was laterally unstable with moderate fluvial erosion and meandering downstream of the bridge. The Town Highway 2 crossing of the Wells River is a 79-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 75-foot steel-beam span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written communication, March 27, 1995). The opening length of the structure parallel to the bridge face is 75.1 ft. The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments, the left has a spill-through embankment, with wingwalls. The channel is not skewed

  10. Separated exclusive kaon production cross sections up to Q2=2.1 GeV2 and the kaon form factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmignotto, Marco; Horn, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are a key observable in probing hadronic structure, providing us with important information about underlying physical quantities related to nonperturbative QCD. Light mesons composed of a valence quark-antiquark pair can be described by a single electric form factor and have been shown to be a great laboratory for these studies. Using electroproduction experiments, a successful program was developed at Jefferson Laboratory for probing the charged pion form factor in the regime of Q2 up to 2.45 GeV2. This provided a first glimpse at a possible transition from the nonperturbative to the perturbative regime, and also information on the structure of the pion. The kaon is the next lightest existing hadron, providing an interesting channel for assessing the strangeness degree of freedom with mesons. Although the kaon is relatively unexploited to date, there are promising results from experiments of the 6 GeV era of Jefferson Laboratory with potential for kaon form factor extractions. In this talk we will present the recent analysis of the t-channel kaon cross section and discuss the relative contribution of longitudinal and transverse photons to the cross section up to Q2 values of 2.1 GeV2 and prospects for form factor extractions. Supported in part by NSF grants PHY-1306227 and PHY-1306418 and by the JSA Graduate Fellowship.

  11. Crossover from crossing to tilted vortex phase in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals near ab-plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkovic, Jovan; Buzdin, Alexandre; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kadowaki, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    In extremely anisotropic layered superconductors of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ the stacks of vortex pancakes (PV) and the Josephson vortex (JV) interpenetrate, and due to PV-JV mutual pinning energy, weakly interact and form various tilted and crossing lattice structures including vortex chains, stripes, mixed chain + lattice phases, etc. In order to study these phenomena, it is decisive to have excellent quality of samples and the ideal experimental techniques. The vortex phases in high-quality Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ single crystals were studied by in-plane resistivity measurement and local ac magnetic permeability. The sharp crossover was shown by both techniques, deep in the vortex solid state separating the Abrikosov dominant ‘strong pinning’ phase from the Josephson dominant ‘weak pinning’ phase. Those two vortex states were recognized as the mixed chain + lattice vortex phase and chains (tilted) vortex phase, respectively.

  12. Oligonucleotides with "clickable" sugar residues: synthesis, duplex stability, and terminal versus central interstrand cross-linking of 2'-O-propargylated 2-aminoadenosine with a bifunctional azide.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Suresh S; Leonard, Peter; Seela, Frank

    2014-05-16

    Duplex DNA with terminal and internal sugar cross-links were synthesized by the CuAAC reaction from oligonucleotides containing 2'-O-propargyl-2-aminoadenosine as a clickable site and a bifunctional azide (4). Stepwise click chemistry was employed to introduce cross-links at internal and terminal positions. Copper turnings were used as catalyst, reducing the copper load of the reaction mixture and avoiding complexing agents. For oligonucleotide building block synthesis, a protecting group strategy was developed for 2'-O-propargyl-2-aminoadenosine owing to the rather different reactivities of the two amino groups. Phosphoramidites were synthesized bearing clickable 2'-O-propargyl residues (14 and 18) as well as a 2'-deoxyribofuranosyl residue (10). Hybridization experiments of non-cross-linked oligonucleotides with 2,6-diaminopurine as nucleobase showed no significant thermal stability changes over those containing adenine. Surprisingly, an isobutyryl group protecting the 2-amino function has no negative impact on the stability of DNA-DNA and DNA-RNA duplexes. Oligonucleotide duplexes with cross-linked 2'-O-propargylated 2-aminoadenosine (1) and 2'-O-propargylated adenosine (3) at terminal positions are significantly stabilized (ΔT(m) = +29 °C). The stability results from a molecularity change from duplex to hairpin melting and is influenced by the ligation position. Terminal ligation led to higher melting duplexes than corresponding hairpins, while duplexes with central ligation sites were less stable.

  13. Cross-flow, filter-sorbent catalyst for particulate, SO sub 2 and NO sub x control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    This synopsis describes a new concept for integrated pollutant control: a cross-flow filter comprised of layered, gas permeable membranes that act as a particulate filter, an SO{sub 2} sorbent, and a NO{sub x} reduction catalyst.

  14. Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, TiO2 and Si using medium energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklebank, Mitchell; Dedyulin, Sergey N.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-11-01

    Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, Si, and TiO2 films in the energy range 50-170 keV were determined from medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectra by an iterative procedure. The energy loss of protons was investigated for pure Ti and Si films, deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) onto n-Si(100) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) substrates respectively. Consecutive annealing of Ti at 200 °C in O2 resulted in stoichiometric TiO2 thin-films. Thickness and composition of the films and the interfacial properties were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), MEIS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Calculated stopping cross sections of Ti, Si, and TiO2 in the range of energies were compared with the commonly used SRIM2003 values. For Ti and Si, SRIM2003 values appear to be overestimated over the entire energy range. The new stopping cross sections explain deviations from previously reported values for SrTiO3. We note that the stopping cross sections of O in a gaseous phase, used in Bragg's rule calculations, cannot be applied for accurate quantitative ion beam analysis in solid compounds in the medium ion energy range.

  15. Measurement of the Inclusive Electron Neutrino Charged Current Cross Section on Carbon with the T2K Near Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Adam, J.; Aihara, H.; Akiri, T.; Andreopoulos, C.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Assylbekov, S.; Autiero, D.; Barbi, M.; Barker, G. J.; Barr, G.; Bass, M.; Batkiewicz, M.; Bay, F.; Berardi, V.; Berger, B. E.; Berkman, S.; Bhadra, S.; Blaszczyk, F. d. M.; Blondel, A.; Bojechko, C.; Bordoni, S.; Boyd, S. B.; Brailsford, D.; Bravar, A.; Bronner, C.; Buchanan, N.; Calland, R. G.; Caravaca Rodríguez, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castillo, R.; Catanesi, M. G.; Cervera, A.; Cherdack, D.; Christodoulou, G.; Clifton, A.; Coleman, J.; Coleman, S. J.; Collazuol, G.; Connolly, K.; Cremonesi, L.; Dabrowska, A.; Danko, I.; Das, R.; Davis, S.; de Perio, P.; De Rosa, G.; Dealtry, T.; Dennis, S. R.; Densham, C.; Dewhurst, D.; Di Lodovico, F.; Di Luise, S.; Drapier, O.; Duboyski, T.; Duffy, K.; Dumarchez, J.; Dytman, S.; Dziewiecki, M.; Emery-Schrenk, S.; Ereditato, A.; Escudero, L.; Finch, A. J.; Friend, M.; Fujii, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Furmanski, A. P.; Galymov, V.; Giffin, S.; Giganti, C.; Gilje, K.; Goeldi, D.; Golan, T.; Gonin, M.; Grant, N.; Gudin, D.; Hadley, D. R.; Haesler, A.; Haigh, M. D.; Hamilton, P.; Hansen, D.; Hara, T.; Hartz, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hastings, N. C.; Hayato, Y.; Hearty, C.; Helmer, R. L.; Hierholzer, M.; Hignight, J.; Hillairet, A.; Himmel, A.; Hiraki, T.; Hirota, S.; Holeczek, J.; Horikawa, S.; Huang, K.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Ieki, K.; Ieva, M.; Ikeda, M.; Imber, J.; Insler, J.; Irvine, T. J.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Iwai, E.; Iwamoto, K.; Iyogi, K.; Izmaylov, A.; Jacob, A.; Jamieson, B.; Johnson, R. A.; Jo, J. H.; Jonsson, P.; Jung, C. K.; Kabirnezhad, M.; Kaboth, A. C.; Kajita, T.; Kakuno, H.; Kameda, J.; Kanazawa, Y.; Karlen, D.; Karpikov, I.; Katori, T.; Kearns, E.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Kielczewska, D.; Kikawa, T.; Kilinski, A.; Kim, J.; Kisiel, J.; Kitching, P.; Kobayashi, T.; Koch, L.; Kolaceke, A.; Konaka, A.; Kormos, L. L.; Korzenev, A.; Koshio, Y.; Kropp, W.; Kubo, H.; Kudenko, Y.; Kurjata, R.; Kutter, T.; Lagoda, J.; Lamont, I.; Larkin, E.; Laveder, M.; Lawe, M.; Lazos, M.; Lindner, T.; Lister, C.; Litchfield, R. P.; Longhin, A.; Ludovici, L.; Magaletti, L.; Mahn, K.; Malek, M.; Manly, S.; Marino, A. D.; Marteau, J.; Martin, J. F.; Martynenko, S.; Maruyama, T.; Matveev, V.; Mavrokoridis, K.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.; McCauley, N.; McFarland, K. S.; McGrew, C.; Metelko, C.; Mijakowski, P.; Miller, C. A.; Minamino, A.; Mineev, O.; Missert, A.; Miura, M.; Moriyama, S.; Mueller, Th. A.; Murakami, A.; Murdoch, M.; Murphy, S.; Myslik, J.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakahata, M.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayama, S.; Nakaya, T.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nielsen, C.; Nirkko, M.; Nishikawa, K.; Nishimura, Y.; O'Keeffe, H. M.; Ohta, R.; Okumura, K.; Okusawa, T.; Oryszczak, W.; Oser, S. M.; Owen, R. A.; Oyama, Y.; Palladino, V.; Palomino, J. L.; Paolone, V.; Payne, D.; Perevozchikov, O.; Perkin, J. D.; Petrov, Y.; Pickard, L.; Pinzon Guerra, E. S.; Pistillo, C.; Plonski, P.; Poplawska, E.; Popov, B.; Posiadala, M.; Poutissou, J.-M.; Poutissou, R.; Przewlocki, P.; Quilain, B.; Radicioni, E.; Ratoff, P. N.; Ravonel, M.; Rayner, M. A. M.; Redij, A.; Reeves, M.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Rodrigues, P. A.; Rojas, P.; Rondio, E.; Roth, S.; Rubbia, A.; Ruterbories, D.; Sacco, R.; Sakashita, K.; Sánchez, F.; Sato, F.; Scantamburlo, E.; Scholberg, K.; Schoppmann, S.; Schwehr, J.; Scott, M.; Seiya, Y.; Sekiguchi, T.; Sekiya, H.; Sgalaberna, D.; Shiozawa, M.; Short, S.; Shustrov, Y.; Sinclair, P.; Smith, B.; Smy, M.; Sobczyk, J. T.; Sobel, H.; Sorel, M.; Southwell, L.; Stamoulis, P.; Steinmann, J.; Still, B.; Suda, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Suzuki, K.; Suzuki, S. Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Tacik, R.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, S.; Takeda, A.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tanaka, H. K.; Tanaka, H. A.; Tanaka, M. M.; Terhorst, D.; Terri, R.; Thompson, L. F.; Thorley, A.; Tobayama, S.; Toki, W.; Tomura, T.; Totsuka, Y.; Touramanis, C.; Tsukamoto, T.; Tzanov, M.; Uchida, Y.; Vacheret, A.; Vagins, M.; Vasseur, G.; Wachala, T.; Waldron, A. V.; Walter, C. W.; Wark, D.; Wascko, M. O.; Weber, A.; Wendell, R.; Wilkes, R. J.; Wilking, M. J.; Wilkinson, C.; Williamson, Z.; Wilson, J. R.; Wilson, R. J.; Wongjirad, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Yanagisawa, C.; Yano, T.; Yen, S.; Yershov, N.; Yokoyama, M.; Yuan, T.; Yu, M.; Zalewska, A.; Zalipska, J.; Zambelli, L.; Zaremba, K.; Ziembicki, M.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Zito, M.; Żmuda, J.; T2K Collaboration

    2014-12-01

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ˜1 GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged νe charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ ⟩ϕ =1.11 ±0.10 (stat)±0.18 (syst)×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon . The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23 ×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08 ×1 0-38 cm2/nucleon . The total νe charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment.

  16. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Perception: L2 and L3 Perception of Japanese Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onishi, Hiromi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the possible influence of language learners' second language (L2) on their perception of phonological contrasts in their third language (L3). Previous studies on Third Language Acquisition (TLA) suggest various factors as possible sources of cross-linguistic influence in the acquisition of an L3. This dissertation…

  17. Tracheal suspension by using 3-dimensional printed personalized scaffold in a patient with tracheomalacia

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lijun; Wang, Lei; He, Jiankang; Zhao, Jinbo; Zhong, Daixing; Yang, Guanying; Guo, Ting; Yan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lixiang; Li, Dichen

    2016-01-01

    The major methods are used to fix or stabilize the central airways and major bronchi with either anterior suspension and/or posterior fixation for severe tracheomalacia (TM). Many support biomaterials, like mesh and sternal plate, can be used in the surgery. But there are no specialized biomaterials for TM which must be casually fabricated by the doctors in operation. Three dimensional printing (3DP) has currently untapped potential to provide custom, protean devices for challenging and life-threatening disease processes. After meticulous design, we created a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold for a female patient with TM, which would support for at least 24 months, to maintain the native lumen size of collapsed airways. Using 4-0 Polyglactin sutures, we grasped and suspended the malacic trachea into the scaffold. A remarkable improvement can be observed in the view of bronchoscope and chest CT after surgery. In the narrowest cavity of malacic trachea, the inner diameter increased from 0.3 to 1.0 cm, and the cross sectional area increased 4–5 times. The patient felt an obvious relief of dyspnea after surgery. In a word, the 3DP PCL scaffold can supply a personalized tool for suspending the malacic trachea in the future. PMID:28066613

  18. Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Malaria Diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon: Impact of pfhrp2 Gene Deletions and Cross-Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Maltha, Jessica; Gamboa, Dionicia; Bendezu, Jorge; Sanchez, Luis; Cnops, Lieselotte; Gillet, Philippe; Jacobs, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background In the Peruvian Amazon, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria are endemic in rural areas, where microscopy is not available. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) provide quick and accurate diagnosis. However, pfhrp2 gene deletions may limit the use of histidine-rich protein-2 (PfHRP2) detecting RDTs. Further, cross-reactions of P. falciparum with P. vivax-specific test lines and vice versa may impair diagnostic specificity. Methods Thirteen RDT products were evaluated on 179 prospectively collected malaria positive samples. Species diagnosis was performed by microscopy and confirmed by PCR. Pfhrp2 gene deletions were assessed by PCR. Results Sensitivity for P. falciparum diagnosis was lower for PfHRP2 compared to P. falciparum-specific Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (Pf-pLDH)- detecting RDTs (71.6% vs. 98.7%, p<0.001). Most (19/21) false negative PfHRP2 results were associated with pfhrp2 gene deletions (25.7% of 74 P. falciparum samples). Diagnostic sensitivity for P. vivax (101 samples) was excellent, except for two products. In 10/12 P. vivax-detecting RDT products, cross-reactions with the PfHRP2 or Pf-pLDH line occurred at a median frequency of 2.5% (range 0%–10.9%) of P. vivax samples assessed. In two RDT products, two and one P. falciparum samples respectively cross-reacted with the Pv-pLDH line. Two Pf-pLDH/pan-pLDH-detecting RDTs showed excellent sensitivity with few (1.0%) cross-reactions but showed faint Pf-pLDH lines in 24.7% and 38.9% of P. falciparum samples. Conclusion PfHRP2-detecting RDTs are not suitable in the Peruvian Amazon due to pfhrp2 gene deletions. Two Pf-pLDH-detecting RDTs performed excellently and are promising RDTs for this region although faint test lines are of concern. PMID:22952633

  19. STATISTICAL STUDY OF 2XMMi-DR3/SDSS-DR8 CROSS-CORRELATION SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Yanxia; Zhou Xinlin; Zhao Yongheng; Wu Xuebing

    2013-02-01

    Cross-correlating the XMM-Newton 2XMMi-DR3 catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 8, we obtain one of the largest X-ray/optical catalogs and explore the distribution of various classes of X-ray emitters in the multidimensional photometric parameter space. Quasars and galaxies occupy different zones while stars scatter in them. However, X-ray active stars have a certain distributing rule according to spectral types. The earlier the type of stars, the stronger its X-ray emitting. X-ray active stars have a similar distribution to most stars in the g - r versus r - i diagram. Based on the identified samples with SDSS spectral classification, a random forest algorithm for automatic classification is performed. The result shows that the classification accuracy of quasars and galaxies adds up to more than 93.0% while that of X-ray emitting stars only amounts to 45.3%. In other words, it is easy to separate quasars and galaxies, but it is difficult to discriminate X-ray active stars from quasars and galaxies. If we want to improve the accuracy of automatic classification, it is necessary to increase the number of X-ray emitting stars, since the majority of X-ray emitting sources are quasars and galaxies. The results obtained here will be used for the optical spectral survey performed by the Large sky Area Multi-Object fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also named the Guo Shou Jing Telescope), which is a Chinese national scientific research facility operated by the National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Vibrationally specific photoionization cross sections of acrolein leading to the tilde{X} {}^2 A^' } ionic state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Domínguez, Jesús A.; Lucchese, Robert R.; Fulfer, K. D.; Hardy, David; Poliakoff, E. D.; Aguilar, A. A.

    2014-09-01

    The vibrational branching ratios in the photoionization of acrolein for ionization leading to the tilde{X} {}^2 A^' } ion state were studied. Computed logarithmic derivatives of the cross section and the corresponding experimental data derived from measured vibrational branching ratios for several normal modes (ν9, ν10, ν11, and ν12) were found to be in relatively good agreement, particularly for the lower half of the 11-100 eV photon energy range considered. Two shape resonances have been found near photon energies of 15.5 and 23 eV in the photoionization cross section and have been demonstrated to originate from the partial cross section of the A' scattering symmetry. The wave functions computed at the resonance complex energies are delocalized over the whole molecule. By looking at the dependence of the cross section on the different normal mode displacements together with the wave function at the resonant energy, a qualitative explanation is given for the change of the cross sections with respect to changing geometry.

  1. Differential cross sections for the single ionization of H2 by 75 keV proton impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, A.; Gulyás, L.

    2017-02-01

    We have calculated the double and triple differential cross sections for electron ejection with energy of 14.6 eV in single ionization of H2 by 75 keV proton impact. A molecular version of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approach is applied, where the interaction between the projectile and the residual molecular ion is considered more properly than in previous applications of the method. For triple differential cross sections, the present results are in better agreement with the experimental data than those of other descriptions when large momentum transfer values are considered. For double differential cross sections the experimental data are reproduced quite well for both coherent and incoherent proton beams.

  2. 3D Bi2S3/TiO2 cross-linked heterostructure: An efficient strategy to improve charge transport and separation for high photoelectrochemical performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Minmin; Jia, Junhong

    2016-10-01

    A novel 3D cross-linked heterostructure of TiO2 nanorods connecting with each other via ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets is constructed by a facile and effective strategy. The growth mechanism has been investigated and proposed based on the evolution of microstructure by changing the reaction parameters. Benefiting from the unique cross-linked heterostructure, the as-prepared Bi2S3 nanosheets modified TiO2 nanorods arrays could achieve a high energy conversion efficiency of 3.29% which is the highest value to date for Bi2S3-only sensitized solar cells as the reported highest value is 2.23% and other reported values are less than 1%. Furthermore, the photoelectrochemical studies clearly reveal that the novel cross-linked heterostructure exhibits much better activity than 0D nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanorods under visible light irradiation, which may be primarily ascribed to the efficient electron transfer from 2D ultrathin Bi2S3 nanosheets to 1D TiO2 nanorod arrays. The promising results in this work confirm the advantages of cross-linked heterostructure and also undoubtedly offer an attractive synthesis strategy to fabricate other nanorod-based hierarchical architecture as well as nano-devices for solar energy conversion.

  3. 1,2,5,6-Diepoxyhexane and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane cross-link duplex DNA at 5'-GNC sequences.

    PubMed

    Yunes, M J; Charnecki, S E; Marden, J J; Millard, J T

    1996-09-01

    The carcinogenicity of epoxide compounds has been attributed to covalent binding to DNA. Whereas monoepoxides form only monoadducts, diepoxides can form both monoadducts and interstrand cross-links. The latter are believed to be the more significant cytotoxic lesions as diepoxides are frequently more carcinogenic and mutagenic than their monoepoxide analogues. We therefore examined the relative DNA interstrand cross-linking capabilities of several diepoxides with respect to chain length, molecular flexibility, reported carcinogenic potential, and DNA sequences targeted. Using denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, we found that 1,2,5,6-diepoxyhexane and 1,2,7,8-diepoxyoctane share the 5'-GNC target sequence previously found for 1,2,3,4-diepoxybutane [Millard, J.T., and White, M.M. (1993) Biochemistry 32, 2120-2124] and that the efficiency of cross-linking this sequence may reflect carcinogenicity, 1,2,5,6-Diepoxycyclooctane, the biologically inactive rigid analogue of 1,2,5,6-diepoxyhexane, was found to be a poor cross-linker of all DNA sequences examined. Moreover, increasing the diepoxyalkane chain length did not result in enhanced cross-linking ability.

  4. Absolute cascade-free cross-sections for the 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged-beams methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven J.; Man, K.-F.; Chutjian, A.; Mawhorter, R. J.; Williams, I. D.

    1991-01-01

    Absolute cascade-free excitation cross-sections in an ion have been measured for the resonance 2S to 2P transition in Zn(+) using electron-energy-loss and merged electron-ion beams methods. Measurements were carried out at electron energies of below threshold to 6 times threshold. Comparisons are made with 2-, 5-, and 15-state close-coupling and distorted-wave theories. There is good agreement between experiment and the 15-state close-coupling cross-sections over the energy range of the calculations.

  5. CrossTalk: The Journal of Defense Software Engineering. Volume 20, Number 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    Hippocrates , the father of medicine, in the 4th Century B.C., or by one of his stu- dents [1...or vio- late it, may the reverse be my lot. Modern physicians found Hippocrates ’ Oath a bit antiquated and in 1964 Louis Lasagna, Academic Dean of the...gary.petersen@shiminc.com Hippocrates and the Oath CrossTalk / 517 SMXS/MXDEA 6022 Fir AVE BLDG 1238 Hill AFB, UT 84056-5820 PRSRT STD U.S. POSTAGE PAID Albuquerque, NM Permit 737 CrossTalk is co-sponsored by the following organizations:

  6. Effect of cross-section interpolated bathymetry on 2D hydrodynamic results in a large river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J.; Tonina, D.; Welcker, C.

    2011-12-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) hydrodynamic models have been used for many river research projects including flood analysis, aquatic habitat evaluation and sediment transport studies. River topography has a strong influence on flow patterns and a dominant effect on the resulting hydraulic conditions. Thus, it is important that adequate topographic data be collected so accurate DEMs can be developed in order to create 2D hydrodynamic models that correctly represent hydraulic conditions. Many techniques and methods have been used to acquire bathymetry data, from traditional survey methods, using sonar equipment combined with GPS and more recently the use of Experimental Advance Airborne Research LiDAR (EAARL). Multi-beam sonar and EAARL provide rapid collection of bathymetry data that can be used to create high resolution three dimensional surfaces. However, these systems do not work in all river conditions requiring other methods of data collection. One method that has been employed is to collect cross section data and interpolate a surface between the cross sections. This method is a valuable technique, because cross sections can be surveyed with traditional survey equipment for wadeable streams or with a variety of watercraft. In this study, we investigated the effect cross section spacing has on developing the streambed topography and flow properties for 2D modeling. To evaluate the resulting errors that can be expected, we compared 2D model results of two reaches of the Snake River (Idaho, USA) that had complete bathymetry, with 2D model results of the same river reaches, but were developed by interpolating bathymetry between transects. We chose reaches with simple and complex channel morphologies to test the variability of error that may be expected for natural channels that fall between these types. We evaluated the error created on sediment transport by size class and habitat quality for fish species. The preliminary results indicate that increasing the cross section

  7. A Serotonin Circuit Acts as an Environmental Sensor to Mediate Midline Axon Crossing through EphrinB2

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lingyan; Son, Jong-Hyun; Stevenson, Tamara J.; Lillesaar, Christina; Bally-Cuif, Laure; Dahl, Tiffanie

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of connectivity formation in the developing brain in response to external stimuli is poorly understood. Here, we show that the raphe nucleus and its serotonergic projections regulate pathfinding of commissural axons in zebrafish. We found that the raphe neurons extend projections toward midline-crossing axons and that when serotonergic signaling is blocked by pharmacological inhibition or by raphe neuron ablation, commissural pathfinding is disrupted. We demonstrate that the serotonin receptor htr2a is expressed on these commissural axons and that genetic knock-down of htr2a disrupts crossing. We further show that knock-down of htr2a or ablation of the raphe neurons increases ephrinB2a protein levels in commissural axons. An ephrinB2a mutant can rescue midline crossing when serotonergic signaling is blocked. Furthermore, we found that regulation of serotonin expression in the raphe neurons is modulated in response to the developmental environment. Hypoxia causes the raphe to decrease serotonin levels, leading to a reduction in midline crossing. Increasing serotonin in the setting of hypoxia restored midline crossing. Our findings demonstrate an instructive role for serotonin in axon guidance acting through ephrinB2a and reveal a novel mechanism for developmental interpretation of the environmental milieu in the generation of mature neural circuitry. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show here that serotonin has a novel role in regulating connectivity in response to the developmental environment. We demonstrate that serotonergic projections from raphe neurons regulate pathfinding of crossing axons. The neurons modulate their serotonin levels, and thus alter crossing, in response to the developmental environment including hypoxia. The findings suggest that modification of the serotonergic system by early exposures may contribute to permanent CNS connectivity alterations. This has important ramifications because of the association between premature birth and

  8. 3-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Using Different Fuels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Material Operating Temperature (oC) Efficiency (%) PEMFC H2, Methanol, Formic Acid Hydrated Organic Polymer < 90 40-50 AFC Pure H2 Aqueous...major types of fuel cells in practice are listed below: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) Alkaline Fuel cell (AFC) Phosphoric Acid ...potassium hydroxide 60 – 250 50 PAFC Pure H2 Phosphoric Acid 180 - 210 40 MCFC H2, CH4, CH3OH Molten Alkali Carbonate 600 – 700 45-55

  9. Cross sections for 14-eV e-H{sub 2} resonant collisions: Isotope effect in dissociative electron attachment

    SciTech Connect

    Celiberto, R.; Janev, R. K.; Wadehra, J. M.; Laricchiuta, A.

    2011-07-15

    The process of dissociative attachment of electrons to molecular hydrogen and its isotopes in the energy range at approximately 14 eV is investigated. The dissociative electron attachment cross sections for all six hydrogen isotopes are calculated over an extended range of electron energies using the local complex potential model with the excited Rydberg {sup 2}{Sigma}{sub g}{sup +} electronic state of H{sub 2}{sup -} acting as the intermediate resonant state. A significant isotope effect in theoretical electron attachment cross sections is observed, in agreement with previous predictions and experimental observations. A two-parameter analytic expression for the cross section is derived from the theory that fits accurately the numerically calculated cross sections for all isotopes. Similarly, an analytic mass-scaling relation is derived from the theory that accurately reproduces the numerically calculated rate coefficients for all isotopes in the 0.1-1000 eV temperature range by using the rate coefficient for the H{sub 2} isotope only. The latter is represented by an analytic fit expression with two parameters only.

  10. Prevalence of depression among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cross sectional study in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic metabolic disorder and one of the main causes of death in Palestine. Palestinians are continuously living under stressful economic and military conditions which make them psychologically vulnerable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depression among type II diabetic patients and to examine the relationship between depression and socio-demographic factors, clinical factors, and glycemic control. Methods This was a cross-sectional study at Al-Makhfiah primary healthcare center, Nablus, Palestine. Two hundred and ninety-four patients were surveyed for the presence of depressive symptoms using Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) scale. Patients' records were reviewed to obtain data pertaining to age, sex, marital status, Body Mass Index (BMI), level of education, smoking status, duration of diabetes mellitus, glycemic control using HbA1C test, use of insulin, and presence of additional illnesses. Patients’ medication adherence was assessed using the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). Results One hundred and sixty four patients (55.8%) of the total sample were females and 216 (73.5%) were < 65 years old. One hundred and twenty patients (40.2%) scored ≥ 16 on BDI-II scale. Statistical significant association was found between high BDI-II score (≥ 16) and female gender, low educational level, having no current job, having multiple additional illnesses, low medication adherence and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). No significant association between BDI score and glycemic control, duration of diabetes, and other socio-demographic factors was found. Multivatriate analysis showed that low educational level, having no current job, having multiple additional illnesses and low medication adherence were significantly associated with high BDI-II scores. Conclusion Prevalence of depression found in our study was higher than that reported in other countries. Although 40% of the

  11. The Bridge: A Journal of Cross-Cultural Affairs; Summer 1976, Volume 1, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Collins, Ed.

    This quarterly newsletter, announced in RIE on a one-time basis, investigates a different area of the world in each issue. It is intended for use by businessmen, government officials, and educators. Typical issues include feature articles highlighting problems of crossing cultural boundaries to teach, do business, or cope overseas and at home;…

  12. Effects of a Herbal Medicine, Yukgunja-Tang, on Functional Dyspepsia Patients Classified by 3-Dimensional Facial Measurement: A Study Protocol for Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Soo-Hyung; Yeo, Inkwon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Functional dyspepsia (FD), a common upper gastrointestinal disease, is difficult to manage because of the limitations of current conventional treatments. Yukgunja-tang (YGJT) is widely used to treat FD in clinical practice in Korea, Japan, and China. However, YGJT significantly improves few symptoms of FD. In Korean medicine, FD is a well-known functional gastric disease that shows difference in the effect of herbal medicine depending on constitution or type of Korean medicine diagnosis. This study aims to investigate the efficacy of YGJT on FD patients classified by 3-dimensional facial measurement using a 3-dimensional facial shape diagnostic system (3-FSDS). Methods. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, two-center trial will be performed to evaluate the efficacy of YGJT on FD patients. Eligible subjects will be initially classified as two types by 3-dimensional facial measurement using the 3-FSDS. Ninety-six subjects (48 subjects per each type) will be enrolled. These subjects will be randomly allocated into treatment or control groups in a 2 : 1 ratio. YGJT or placebo will be administered to each group during the 8-week treatment period. The primary outcome is total dyspepsia symptom scale, and the secondary outcomes include single dyspepsia symptom scale, proportion of responders with adequate symptom relief, visual analog scale, Nepean dyspepsia index-Korean version, functional dyspepsia-related quality of life, and spleen qi deficiency questionnaire. Discussion. This is the first randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of the YGJT on FD patients classified by 3-dimensional facial measurement. We will compare the treatment effect of the YGJT on FD patients classified as two types using the 3-FSDS. The results of this trial will help the FD patients improve the symptoms and quality of life effectively and provide objective evidence for prescribing the YGJT to FD patients in clinical practice. Trial Registration. This

  13. Studies of Cosmic Ray Modulation and Energetic Particle Propagation in Time-Dependent 3-Dimensional Heliospheric Magnetic Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ming

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was to perform theoretical calculations of propagation of cosmic rays and energetic particles in 3-dimensional heliospheric magnetic fields. We used Markov stochastic process simulation to achieve to this goal. We developed computation software that can be used to study particle propagation in, as two examples of heliospheric magnetic fields that have to be treated in 3 dimensions, a heliospheric magnetic field suggested by Fisk (1996) and a global heliosphere including the region beyond the termination shock. The results from our model calculations were compared with particle measurements from Ulysses, Earth-based spacecraft such as IMP-8, WIND and ACE, Voyagers and Pioneers in outer heliosphere for tests of the magnetic field models. We particularly looked for features of particle variations that can allow us to significantly distinguish the Fisk magnetic field from the conventional Parker spiral field. The computer code will eventually lead to a new generation of integrated software for solving complicated problems of particle acceleration, propagation and modulation in realistic 3-dimensional heliosphere of realistic magnetic fields and the solar wind with a single computation approach.

  14. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability during northward IMF conditions: Global 3-Dimensional MHD simulations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkin, V. G.; Lyon, J.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2013-12-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability (KHI) has long been suggested to operate on the magnetospheric boundary, where the magnetosheath plasma streams past the magnetosphere. The instability is thought to be responsible for inducing various wave populations in the magnetosphere and for mass, momentum and energy transport across the magnetospheric boundary. Waves attributed to the KHI have been observed at the Earth's magnetosphere flanks as well as at Saturn and Mercury during spacecraft crossings, and remotely at boundaries of Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Recent high-resolution global 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the magnetosphere confirm the existence of pronounced perturbations of the magnetospheric boundary, which are thought to be due to KHI. Such global simulations had been challenging in the past because of the need to encompass the entire magnetosphere, while sufficiently resolving the boundary layer. Here we present results of such a high-resolution simulation of the magnetosphere, using the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) model, under steady northward Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) conditions. We find the magnetospheric boundary to be globally unstable, including the high-latitude boundary layer (meridional plane), where magnetic tension is apparently not sufficient to stabilize the growth of oscillations. Roughly beyond the terminator, global modes, coupled into the surface modes, become apparent, so that the entire body of the magnetosphere is engaged in an oscillatory motion. The wave vector of the surface oscillations has a component perpendicular to the background flow and tangential to the shear layer (in the equatorial plane, k_z component of the wave vector), which is consistent with the generation of field-aligned currents that flow on closed field lines between the inner portion of the boundary layer and the ionosphere. We calculate the distribution of wave power in the equatorial plane and find it consistent with the existence of a

  15. Formulation and validation of the day-2 GPROF cross-track precipitation retrieval scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidd, Chris; Randel, David; Ringerud, Sarah; Kummerow, Christian; Skofronick-Jackson, Gail

    2016-04-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission Core Observatory, launched in February 2014, heralded a new era in the estimation global precipitation. The Core Observatory, with the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), acts as a reference for other satellite-based passive microwave sensors that form the GPM constellation. This constellation comprises of 7 conically-scanning 'imagers' and 6 cross-track 'sounders'; in the very near future it is anticipated that the cross-track sensors will form the majority of the passive microwave instruments. The Goddard PROFiling (GPROF) scheme is a physically-based Bayesian precipitation retrieval scheme. The day-1 version of the GPROF incorporated a pre-GPM surface reference data (conical-scanning) or modelled data (cross-track) to derive the database used in the retrieval process; the availability data from the GMI and the DPR now permits the use of satellite-based reference data from which to construct the database. An initial database for the conically-scanning sensors is constructed using the GMI and DPR matchups; since the GMI encompasses the precipitation-sensitive frequencies of the other conical-scanning sensors migration of this database to the other sensors is relatively straightforward. Extension of the technique to the observations from cross-track sensors is more challenging, and has to accommodate their different (and range of) frequencies and Earth incidence angles (affecting resolution, atmospheric path and polarization). Results from the latest version of GPROF are presented here for both the conical and cross-track sensors. Comparisons are made between the new and old versions of GPROF for a range of temporal and spatial scales, and with reference to surface radar data sets over the United States and Western Europe.

  16. Gelatin hydrogels cross-linked with bisvinyl sulfonemethyl. 2. The physical and chemical networks.

    PubMed

    Hellio-Serughetti, Dominique; Djabourov, Madeleine

    2006-09-26

    This paper deals with the physical and the chemical gelation of gelatin in the presence of a reactant, bisvinyl sulfonemethyl (BVSM). The strategy of this investigation is to separate the contributions of the two types of cross-links in order to deduce the resultant elasticity of the network. In addition, the question raised by several authors concerning an increase of the thermal stability of the triple helices in the presence of cross-links was examined by using several techniques. In this study, the concentration of gelatin and BVSM were kept constant, while the influence of the thermal protocols was put in evidence. The gel formation was followed by rheological, thermodynamic (microcalorimetry), and optical spectroscopy (optical rotation) measurements. The results demonstrate the large differences which arise on the storage moduli by changing the thermal protocols. Cross-linking of the networks in the presence of the triple helices induce a heterogeneous repartition of the bonds, which can form along the triple helices and at the end of the sequences. Consequently, the rubber like network obtained by denaturation of the triple helices is still reminiscent of the initial twist of the chains, and a large modulus is observed, as if rigid segments were still present (storage modulus 10 times larger than for random cross-linking). The hydrogels have an elastic modulus which is larger that the addition of the physical and chemical contributions. The interpretation of the network elasticity is based on the predominant role of the rigid rods of triple helices, where the BVSM cross-links can either modify the ratio between the apparent length and distance between rods, l/d, and/or increase the rigidity of the interchain connections, which are loose coils for the physical gels. The hydrogels investigated have a network which is still close to the percolation threshold of the physical gel, and therefore, the statistical models known for well developed networks cannot be

  17. INTEGRATING LIDAR AND SATELLITE OPTICAL DEPTH WITH AMBIENT MONITORING FOR 3-DIMENSIONAL PARTICULATE CHARACTERIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A combination of in-situ PM2.5, sunphotometers, upward pointing lidar and satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) instruments have been employed to better understand variability in the correlation between AOD and PM2.5 at the surface. Previous studies have shown good correlation be...

  18. Effect of Cross-Linking on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Poly(amidoamine) Dendrimer/Poly(vinyl alcohol) Hybrid Membranes for CO2 Separation

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Shuhong; Kai, Teruhiko; Saito, Takashi; Yamazaki, Kota; Ikeda, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimers were incorporated into cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) matrix to improve carbon dioxide (CO2) separation performance at elevated pressures. In our previous studies, PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes showed high CO2 separation properties from CO2/H2 mixed gases. In this study, three types of organic Ti metal compounds were selected as PVA cross-linkers that were used to prepare PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes. Characterization of the PAMAM/cross-linked PVA hybrid membranes was conducted using nanoindentation and thermogravimetric analyses. The effects of the cross-linker and CO2 partial pressure in the feed gas on CO2 separation performance were discussed. H2O and CO2 sorption of the PAMAM/PVA hybrid membranes were investigated to explain the obtained CO2 separation efficiencies. PMID:24957172

  19. Ion-molecule interactions in crossed-beams. [N/sup +/-H/sub 2/; F/sup +/-H; CO/sub 2//sup +/-D/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, S.G.

    1980-09-01

    Interactions of the ions N/sup +/, F/sup +/, and CO/sub 2//sup +/ with H/sub 2/ and/or its isotopes were examined using the crossed-beam technique in the low (< 4 eV) initial relative energy. For the reaction N/sup +/(/sup 3/P) + H/sub 2/ ..-->.. NH/sup +/ + H, complex formation dominates up to 1.9 eV and a substantial interaction occurs between all collision partners up to 3.6 eV. The distribution of N/sup +/ scattered nonreactively from H/sub 2/ also showed a long-lived complex channel below 1.9 eV. The reaction F/sup +/(/sup 3/P) + H/sub 2/ ..-->..FH/sup +/ + H proceeded by a direct reaction mechanism at 0.20 to 1.07 eV. The reaction CO/sub 2//sup +/ + D/sub 2/ ..-->.. DCO/sub 2//sup +/ + D gives asymmetric product distributions at 0.27 eV and above, indicating a direct reaction mechanism. Results indicated that there are probably barriers in the exit channels for DCO/sub 2//sup +/, DCO/sup +/, and D/sub 2/O/sup +/ products. The electronic state distributions of the N/sup +/, F/sup +/, and CO/sub 2//sup +/ beams was investigated using beam attenuation and total luminescence techniques.

  20. Cross-fertilization for enhancing tocotrienol biosynthesis in rice plants and QTL analysis of their F2 progenies.

    PubMed

    Sookwong, Phumon; Murata, Kazumasa; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Shibata, Akira; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Masayuki; Kojima, Yoichiro; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2009-06-10

    As rice bran tocotrienol (T3) has been known to have a wide range of physiological functions (e.g., antiangiogenesis), we aimed at developing a T3-rich rice variety for nutraceutical purposes. T3 content in more than 250 kinds of rice bran samples were investigated, and Milyang23 was found as the best variety rich in T3. The variety was therefore chosen for cross-fertilization with Koshihikari. Among obtained F(2) progenies, some of them became improved in T3 content (up to 2-fold of reference Koshihikari). QTL analysis of the F(2) progenies revealed five putative loci corresponding to T3 biosynthesis, in which the main loci were located near a marker RM3827 on chromosome 6. The results show that cross-breeding is effective in improving rice bran T3 and provides more genetic understanding on T3 biosynthesis in rice plants.

  1. 3-D Visualisation: Using Internet-based Activities to Enhance Student Understanding of 3-dimensional Spatial Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, A. P.; Williams, M.; Williams, P.

    2011-12-01

    Spatial ability forms its own category separate from verbal ability. Various spatial abilities have been identified over the last three decades and classified into three types: mental rotation, spatial rotation and spatial visualization, which have been linked to high performance in STEM subjects. Geoscience demands spatial thinking from learners and practitioners, and spatial literacy has been seen as a fundamental skill in Geography, Earth & Environmental Sciences (GEES disciplines) essential for progression. First year GEES students not only have to cope with new learning and teaching environments (Maguire et al., 2008), but, arriving with different science backgrounds, are faced with the challenge of developing essential skills that may be novel for them. These essential skills are subject-specific, as well as transferable, and require an understanding of 3-dimensional spatial relationships. However, spatial skills can be troublesome for some students to master. Not only do many students find difficulty in acquiring spatial skills, facing a succession of hurdles that need to be overcome in developing their understanding, but also educators, often strong spatial thinkers themselves and unaware of the degree to which some students are spatially-challenged, may find it difficult to help. Recent studies have suggested that performance on abstract and applied spatial tasks may be enhanced through instruction and practice and spatially-intensive geoscience courses may strengthen performance on spatial tasks. At Liverpool, many first year geoscience modules require understanding of 3-D spatial relationships, often from initial 2-D observations (e.g. mineralogy, petrography, vulcanology, sedimentology, palaeontology, geological map work, structural geology and fieldwork). In this paper we outline work, supported by the UK Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences (GEES), involving first year geosciences students at Liverpool, in which we explored

  2. Accurate hierarchical control of hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes for superior lithium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hong; Liu, Lixiang; Li, Tingting; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Jiajia; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Yicheng

    2014-04-01

    An effective approach of simultaneously coordinating etching and precipitation reactions is employed to prepare hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, amorphous hollow (NiCox)O(OH) nanoboxes form uniformly, and subsequent calcination results in the formation of NiCo2O4 nanocubes that exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g-1 at constant current density of 200 mA g-1 with capacity retention of over 91.1% after 200 cycles. The unique hollow structure can shorten the Li-ion diffusion path, which benefits the rate of performance. Furthermore, the hollow structure offers a sufficient void space to alleviate the mechanical stress caused by volume change. Additionally, the multi-element characteristics of active materials allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner. Therefore, hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocube electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. This method is simple and of low cost, which may open a new avenue for fast synthesis of hollow crossed structural nano-functional materials for energy storage, catalysts, sensors and other new applications.An effective approach of simultaneously coordinating etching and precipitation reactions is employed to prepare hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, amorphous hollow (NiCox)O(OH) nanoboxes form uniformly, and subsequent calcination results in the formation of NiCo2O4 nanocubes that exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g-1 at constant current density of 200 mA g-1 with capacity retention of over 91.1% after 200 cycles. The unique hollow structure can shorten the Li-ion diffusion path, which benefits the rate of performance. Furthermore, the hollow structure offers a sufficient void space to alleviate the mechanical stress caused by volume change. Additionally, the multi-element characteristics of active materials allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner

  3. Selective adsorption of metoprolol enantiomers using 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin cross-linked multiwalled carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Farhadian, Nafiseh; Sharifi, Arezoo; Lashgari, Elmira

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the ability of functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for enantio-separation of metoprolol chiral forms. 2Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD) was applied as a chiral selector to functionalize carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The modified multiwalled CNT samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results of analyses showed that CNTs were successfully cross-linked with 2HP-β-CD. To evaluate the enantio-separation property of the products, the separation of metoprolol chiral forms on the initial and final products was examined. Further, UV-visible spectroscopy and polarimeter analyses were used for characterization. The results indicate that MWCNT does not have any intrinsic enantio-separation ability, although its selectivity for enantio-separation can be enhanced by cross-linking it to 2HP-β-CD. Moreover, the optimal mass of adsorbent as well as optimal mass of functional groups is estimated to achieve maximum enantio-separation efficiency. The results indicate that applying large amounts of 2HP-β-CD to CNTs functionalization decreases the cross-linking efficiency, which consequently reduces enantio-separation efficiency.

  4. Dosimetric evaluation of the skin-sparing effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy for left breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jo, In Young; Kim, Shin-Wook; Son, Seok Hyun

    2017-01-10

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the skin-sparing effects of 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with early left-sided breast cancer. Twenty left breast cancer patients treated with whole breast radiotherapy following breast-conserving surgery were enrolled in this study, and the 3D-CRT and IMRT plans were generated for each patient. To evaluate the dose delivered to the skin, 2 mm thickness skin (2-mm skin) and 3 mm thickness skin (3-mm skin) were contoured and a dosimetric comparison between the 2 plans was performed. The target volume coverage was better in IMRT than in 3D-CRT. The mean dose was 50.8 Gy for 3D-CRT and 51.1 Gy for IMRT. V40Gy was 99.4% for 3D-CRT and 99.9% for IMRT. In the case of skin, the mean dose was higher in 3D-CRT than in IMRT (mean dose of 2-mm skin: 32.8 Gy and 24.2 Gy; mean dose of 3-mm skin: 37.2 Gy and 27.8 Gy, for 3D-CRT and IMRT, respectively). These results indicated that the skin-sparing effect is more prominent in IMRT compared to 3D-CRT without compromising the target volume coverage.

  5. Cross-linked sulfonated aromatic ionomers via SO2 bridges: Conductivity properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Vona, M. L.; Pasquini, L.; Narducci, R.; Pelzer, K.; Donnadio, A.; Casciola, M.; Knauth, P.

    2013-12-01

    The proton conductivity of SPEEK membranes in situ cross-linked by thermal treatment at 180 °C for various times was investigated by impedance spectroscopy. The conductivity measurements were made on fully humidified membranes between 25 and 65 °C and on membranes exposed to different relative humidity between 80 and 140 °C. The Ionic Exchange Capacity (IEC) was determined by acid-base titration and the water uptake by gravimetry. The proton conductivity was determined as function of temperature, IEC, degree of cross-linking and hydration number. A curve of proton conductivity vs. hydration number allows predicting that in order to reach a value of 0.1 S/cm at 100 °C a hydration number above 20 is necessary. The measured conductivity at this temperature is 0.16 S/cm for a hydration number of 60.

  6. Fast time variations of supernova neutrino signals from 3-dimensional models

    DOE PAGES

    Lund, Tina; Wongwathanarat, Annop; Janka, Hans -Thomas; ...

    2012-11-19

    Here, we study supernova neutrino flux variations in the IceCube detector, using 3D models based on a simplified neutrino transport scheme. The hemispherically integrated neutrino emission shows significantly smaller variations compared with our previous study of 2D models, largely because of the reduced activity of the standing accretion shock instability in this set of 3D models which we interpret as a pessimistic extreme. For the studied cases, intrinsic flux variations up to about 100 Hz frequencies could still be detected in a supernova closer than about 2 kpc.

  7. W/Z production cross sections and asymmetries at E(CM) = 2-TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Bellavance, Angela M.; /Nebraska U.

    2005-06-01

    The most recent results for W and Z boson production cross sections and asymmetries are presented from the CDF and D0 collaborations using Run II data taken at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) Tevatron. Data set sizes range from 72 pb{sup -1} to 226 pb{sup -1}, and results range from published to preliminary. Results presented agree with the Standard Model and world averages within errors.

  8. Dissociative recombination of H+(H2O)3 and D+(D2O)3 water cluster ions with electrons: Cross sections and branching ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Öjekull, J.; Andersson, P. U.; Nâgârd, M. B.; Pettersson, J. B. C.; Marković, N.; Derkatch, A. M.; Neau, A.; Al Khalili, A.; Rosén, S.; Larsson, M.; Semaniak, J.; Danared, H.; Källberg, A.; Österdahl, F.; af Ugglas, M.

    2007-11-01

    Dissociative recombination (DR) of the water cluster ions H+(H2O)3 and D+(D2O)3 with electrons has been studied at the heavy-ion storage ring CRYRING (Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University). For the first time, absolute DR cross sections have been measured for H+(H2O)3 in the energy range of 0.001-0.8eV, and relative cross sections have been measured for D+(D2O)3 in the energy range of 0.001-1.0eV. The DR cross sections for H+(H2O)3 are larger than previously observed for H+(H2O)n (n=1,2), which is in agreement with the previously observed trend indicating that the DR rate coefficient increases with size of the water cluster ion. Branching ratios have been determined for the dominating product channels. Dissociative recombination of H+(H2O)3 mainly results in the formation of 3H2O+H (probability of 0.95±0.05) and with a possible minor channel resulting in 2H2O+OH+H2 (0.05±0.05). The dominating channels for DR of D+(D2O)3 are 3D2O+D (0.88±0.03) and 2D2O+OD+D2 (0.09±0.02). The branching ratios are comparable to earlier DR results for H+(H2O)2 and D+(D2O)2, which gave 2X2O+X (X=H,D) with a probability of over 0.9.

  9. Studies for the 3-Dimensional Structure, Composition, and Dynamic of Io's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smyth, William H.

    2001-01-01

    Research work is discussed for the following: (1) the exploration of new H and Cl chemistry in Io's atmosphere using the already developed two-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model of Wong and Smyth; and (2) for the development of a new three-dimensional multi-species hydrodynamic model for Io's atmosphere.

  10. Measurement of the inclusive electron neutrino charged current cross section on carbon with the T2K near detector.

    PubMed

    Abe, K; Adam, J; Aihara, H; Akiri, T; Andreopoulos, C; Aoki, S; Ariga, A; Assylbekov, S; Autiero, D; Barbi, M; Barker, G J; Barr, G; Bass, M; Batkiewicz, M; Bay, F; Berardi, V; Berger, B E; Berkman, S; Bhadra, S; Blaszczyk, F d M; Blondel, A; Bojechko, C; Bordoni, S; Boyd, S B; Brailsford, D; Bravar, A; Bronner, C; Buchanan, N; Calland, R G; Caravaca Rodríguez, J; Cartwright, S L; Castillo, R; Catanesi, M G; Cervera, A; Cherdack, D; Christodoulou, G; Clifton, A; Coleman, J; Coleman, S J; Collazuol, G; Connolly, K; Cremonesi, L; Dabrowska, A; Danko, I; Das, R; Davis, S; de Perio, P; De Rosa, G; Dealtry, T; Dennis, S R; Densham, C; Dewhurst, D; Di Lodovico, F; Di Luise, S; Drapier, O; Duboyski, T; Duffy, K; Dumarchez, J; Dytman, S; Dziewiecki, M; Emery-Schrenk, S; Ereditato, A; Escudero, L; Finch, A J; Friend, M; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Furmanski, A P; Galymov, V; Giffin, S; Giganti, C; Gilje, K; Goeldi, D; Golan, T; Gonin, M; Grant, N; Gudin, D; Hadley, D R; Haesler, A; Haigh, M D; Hamilton, P; Hansen, D; Hara, T; Hartz, M; Hasegawa, T; Hastings, N C; Hayato, Y; Hearty, C; Helmer, R L; Hierholzer, M; Hignight, J; Hillairet, A; Himmel, A; Hiraki, T; Hirota, S; Holeczek, J; Horikawa, S; Huang, K; Ichikawa, A K; Ieki, K; Ieva, M; Ikeda, M; Imber, J; Insler, J; Irvine, T J; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Iwai, E; Iwamoto, K; Iyogi, K; Izmaylov, A; Jacob, A; Jamieson, B; Johnson, R A; Jo, J H; Jonsson, P; Jung, C K; Kabirnezhad, M; Kaboth, A C; Kajita, T; Kakuno, H; Kameda, J; Kanazawa, Y; Karlen, D; Karpikov, I; Katori, T; Kearns, E; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kikawa, T; Kilinski, A; Kim, J; Kisiel, J; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, T; Koch, L; Kolaceke, A; Konaka, A; Kormos, L L; Korzenev, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kubo, H; Kudenko, Y; Kurjata, R; Kutter, T; Lagoda, J; Lamont, I; Larkin, E; Laveder, M; Lawe, M; Lazos, M; Lindner, T; Lister, C; Litchfield, R P; Longhin, A; Ludovici, L; Magaletti, L; Mahn, K; Malek, M; Manly, S; Marino, A D; Marteau, J; Martin, J F; Martynenko, S; Maruyama, T; Matveev, V; Mavrokoridis, K; Mazzucato, E; McCarthy, M; McCauley, N; McFarland, K S; McGrew, C; Metelko, C; Mijakowski, P; Miller, C A; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Missert, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Mueller, Th A; Murakami, A; Murdoch, M; Murphy, S; Myslik, J; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakayama, S; Nakaya, T; Nakayoshi, K; Nielsen, C; Nirkko, M; Nishikawa, K; Nishimura, Y; O'Keeffe, H M; Ohta, R; Okumura, K; Okusawa, T; Oryszczak, W; Oser, S M; Owen, R A; Oyama, Y; Palladino, V; Palomino, J L; Paolone, V; Payne, D; Perevozchikov, O; Perkin, J D; Petrov, Y; Pickard, L; Pinzon Guerra, E S; Pistillo, C; Plonski, P; Poplawska, E; Popov, B; Posiadala, M; Poutissou, J-M; Poutissou, R; Przewlocki, P; Quilain, B; Radicioni, E; Ratoff, P N; Ravonel, M; Rayner, M A M; Redij, A; Reeves, M; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Rodrigues, P A; Rojas, P; Rondio, E; Roth, S; Rubbia, A; Ruterbories, D; Sacco, R; Sakashita, K; Sánchez, F; Sato, F; Scantamburlo, E; Scholberg, K; Schoppmann, S; Schwehr, J; Scott, M; Seiya, Y; Sekiguchi, T; Sekiya, H; Sgalaberna, D; Shiozawa, M; Short, S; Shustrov, Y; Sinclair, P; Smith, B; Smy, M; Sobczyk, J T; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Southwell, L; Stamoulis, P; Steinmann, J; Still, B; Suda, Y; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, S Y; Suzuki, Y; Tacik, R; Tada, M; Takahashi, S; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Tanaka, H K; Tanaka, H A; Tanaka, M M; Terhorst, D; Terri, R; Thompson, L F; Thorley, A; Tobayama, S; Toki, W; Tomura, T; Totsuka, Y; Touramanis, C; Tsukamoto, T; Tzanov, M; Uchida, Y; Vacheret, A; Vagins, M; Vasseur, G; Wachala, T; Waldron, A V; Walter, C W; Wark, D; Wascko, M O; Weber, A; Wendell, R; Wilkes, R J; Wilking, M J; Wilkinson, C; Williamson, Z; Wilson, J R; Wilson, R J; Wongjirad, T; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, K; Yanagisawa, C; Yano, T; Yen, S; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, M; Yuan, T; Yu, M; Zalewska, A; Zalipska, J; Zambelli, L; Zaremba, K; Ziembicki, M; Zimmerman, E D; Zito, M; Żmuda, J

    2014-12-12

    The T2K off-axis near detector ND280 is used to make the first differential cross-section measurements of electron neutrino charged current interactions at energies ∼1  GeV as a function of electron momentum, electron scattering angle, and four-momentum transfer of the interaction. The total flux-averaged ν(e) charged current cross section on carbon is measured to be ⟨σ⟩(ϕ)=1.11±0.10(stat)±0.18(syst)×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The differential and total cross-section measurements agree with the predictions of two leading neutrino interaction generators, NEUT and GENIE. The NEUT prediction is 1.23×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon and the GENIE prediction is 1.08×10⁻³⁸ cm²/nucleon. The total ν(e) charged current cross-section result is also in agreement with data from the Gargamelle experiment.

  11. Visualizing 3D objects from 2D cross sectional images displayed in-situ versus ex-situ.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L; Stetten, George

    2010-03-01

    The present research investigates how mental visualization of a 3D object from 2D cross sectional images is influenced by displacing the images from the source object, as is customary in medical imaging. Three experiments were conducted to assess people's ability to integrate spatial information over a series of cross sectional images in order to visualize an object posed in 3D space. Participants used a hand-held tool to reveal a virtual rod as a sequence of cross-sectional images, which were displayed either directly in the space of exploration (in-situ) or displaced to a remote screen (ex-situ). They manipulated a response stylus to match the virtual rod's pitch (vertical slant), yaw (horizontal slant), or both. Consistent with the hypothesis that spatial colocation of image and source object facilitates mental visualization, we found that although single dimensions of slant were judged accurately with both displays, judging pitch and yaw simultaneously produced differences in systematic error between in-situ and ex-situ displays. Ex-situ imaging also exhibited errors such that the magnitude of the response was approximately correct but the direction was reversed. Regression analysis indicated that the in-situ judgments were primarily based on spatiotemporal visualization, while the ex-situ judgments relied on an ad hoc, screen-based heuristic. These findings suggest that in-situ displays may be useful in clinical practice by reducing error and facilitating the ability of radiologists to visualize 3D anatomy from cross sectional images.

  12. Rail Shear and Short Beam Shear Properties of Various 3-Dimensional (3-D) Woven Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    from stress-strain response. A 0.2% plastic strain offset method was used to calculate the yield of the material. Table 4 compares the maximum... plastic region where the progressive damages began to form in the samples. Based on the stress-strain curves, it was notable that the 12° configuration...outperformed the other architectures in terms of shear strength and moduli. Another observation made from the curvatures was that the plastic portion

  13. Image analysis and superimposition of 3-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography models

    PubMed Central

    Cevidanes, Lucia H. S.; Styner, Martin A.; Proffit, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques can provide valuable information to clinicians and researchers. But as we move from traditional 2-dimensional (2D) cephalometric analysis to new 3D techniques, it is often necessary to compare 2D with 3D data. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) provides simulation tools that can help bridge the gap between image types. CBCT acquisitions can be made to simulate panoramic, lateral, and posteroanterior cephalometric radioagraphs so that they can be compared with preexisting cephalometric databases. Applications of 3D imaging in orthodontics include initial diagnosis and superimpositions for assessing growth, treatment changes, and stability. Three-dimensional CBCT images show dental root inclination and torque, impacted and supernumerary tooth positions, thickness and morphology of bone at sites of mini-implants for anchorage, and osteotomy sites in surgical planning. Findings such as resorption, hyperplasic growth, displacement, shape anomalies of mandibular condyles, and morphological differences between the right and left sides emphasize the diagnostic value of computed tomography acquisitions. Furthermore, relationships of soft tissues and the airway can be assessed in 3 dimensions. PMID:16679201

  14. Role of LRP-1 in cancer cell migration in 3-dimensional collagen matrix.

    PubMed

    Appert-Collin, Aline; Bennasroune, Amar; Jeannesson, Pierre; Terryn, Christine; Fuhrmann, Guy; Morjani, Hamid; Dedieu, Stéphane

    2016-07-27

    The low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1 (LRP-1) is a member of Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor (LDLR) family, which is ubiquitously expressed and which is described as a multifunctional endocytic receptor which mediates the clearance of various extracellular matrix molecules including serine proteinases, proteinase-inhibitor complexes, and matricellular proteins. Several studies showed that high LRP-1 expression promotes breast cancer cell invasiveness, and LRP-1 invalidation leads to cell motility abrogation in both tumor and non-tumor cells. Furthermore, our group has reported that LRP-1 silencing prevents the invasion of a follicular thyroid carcinoma despite increased pericellular proteolytic activities from MMP2 and uPA using a 2D-cell culture model. As the use of 3D culture systems is becoming more and more popular due to their promise as enhanced models of tissue physiology, the aim of the present work is to characterize for the first time how the 3D collagen type I matrix may impact the ability of LRP-1 to regulate the migratory properties of thyroid carcinoma using as a model FTC-133 cells. Our results show that inhibition of LRP-1 activity or expression leads to morphological changes affecting cell-matrix interactions, reorganizations of the actin-cytoskeleton especially by inhibiting FAK activation and increasing RhoA activity and MLC-2 phosphorylation, thus preventing cell migration. Taken together, our results suggest that LRP-1 silencing leads to a decrease of cell migratory capacity in a 3D configuration.

  15. Measurement of the {sup 241}Am(n,2n) reaction cross section using the activation method

    SciTech Connect

    Perdikakis, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Vlastou, R.; Kokkoris, M.; Galanopoulos, S.; Patronis, N.; Lagoyannis, A.; Spyrou, A.; Zarkadas, Ch.; Kalyva, G.; Kossionides, S.; Karamanis, D.

    2006-06-15

    In the context of the n{sub T}OF Collaboration, the measurement of the cross section of the reaction {sup 241}Am(n,2n){sup 240}Am, has been performed, for the first time at neutron energies from 8.8 to 11.4 MeV, by the activation method, relative to the {sup 27}Al(n,a){sup 24}Na reaction reference cross section. The monoenergetic neutron beam was produced at the 5.5 MV TANDEM accelerator of NCSR ''Demokritos,'' by means of the {sup 2}H(d,n){sup 3}He reaction, using a deuterium filled gas cell. The radioactive target consisted of a 37 GBq {sup 241}Am source enclosed in a Pb container. After the end of the irradiation, the activity induced by the neutron beam at the target and reference, was measured off-line by a 56% relative efficiency, HPGe detector.

  16. Absolute Charge Transfer and Fragmentation Cross Sections in He{sup 2+}-C{sub 60} Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Rentenier, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Ruiz, L. F.; Diaz-Tendero, S.; Alcami, M.; Martin, F.; Zarour, B.; Hanssen, J.; Hervieux, P.-A.; Politis, M. F.

    2008-05-09

    We have determined absolute charge transfer and fragmentation cross sections in He{sup 2+}+C{sub 60} collisions in the impact-energy range 0.1-250 keV by using a combined experimental and theoretical approach. We have found that the cross sections for the formation of He{sup +} and He{sup 0} are comparable in magnitude, which cannot be explained by the sole contribution of pure single and double electron capture but also by contribution of transfer-ionization processes that are important even at low impact energies. The results show that multifragmentation is important only at impact energies larger than 40 keV; at lower energies, sequential C{sub 2} evaporation is the dominant process.

  17. [Analysis of the inheritance patterns of 5'-truncated copies of the German cockroach R2 retroposons in individual crosses].

    PubMed

    Kagramanova, A S; Korolev, A L; Mukha, D V

    2010-11-01

    The inheritance patterns of the 5'-truncated copies of R2 retroposons were analyzed in individual crosses of the German cockroach. The recombination level within the cluster of ribosomal RNA genes was determined. It was demonstrated that only the frequencies of individual variants of 5'-truncated retroposon copies are appropriate for population analysis rather than the patterns characterizing individual X chromosomes. The methodical approach used in the work is convenient for studying the genetic variation in ribosomal DNA multigene families.

  18. A Fast Apparent-Horizon Finder for 3-Dimensional Cartesian Grids in Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    2003-10-01

    In 3 + 1 numerical simulations of dynamic black hole spacetimes, it's useful to be able to find the apparent horizon(s) (AH) in each slice of a time evolution. A number of AH finders are available, but they often take many minutes to run, so they're too slow to be practically usable at each time step. Here I present a new AH finder, AHFINDERDIRECT, which is very fast and accurate, typically taking only a few seconds to find an AH to ~ 10-5m accuracy on a GHz-class processor. I assume that an AH to be searched for is a Strahlkörper (``star-shaped region'') with respect to some local origin, and so parameterize the AH shape by r = h(angle) for some single-valued function h: S2 --> R+. The AH equation then becomes a nonlinear elliptic PDE in h on S2, whose coefficients are algebraic functions of gij, Kij, and the Cartesian-coordinate spatial derivatives of gij. I discretize S2 using 6 angular patches (one each in the neighborhood of the +/-x, +/-y, and +/-z axes) to avoid coordinate singularities, and finite difference the AH equation in the angular coordinates using 4th order finite differencing. I solve the resulting system of nonlinear algebraic equations (for h at the angular grid points) by Newton's method, using a ``symbolic differentiation'' technique to compute the Jacobian matrix. AHFINDERDIRECT is implemented as a thorn in the CACTUS computational toolkit, and will be made freely available starting in fall 2003.

  19. Texture Library for 3-Dimensional Visualization Systems. Revised. SBIR- A93-030

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-29

    visualization system much like wallpaper is applied to walls. Texture patterns, however, can include transparent cut-outs, so that outlines of objects...the four colors of the print separation (cyan, magenta, yellow , and black) should be used to achieve pleasing results for certain objects or surfaces...0.2717, bougainvillea red 12.0n Flower, "potato plant" 2.5P 4/10 strong violet 41,18,84 0.2619, 0.1903, 12.00 Flower, daisy 5Y 8.5/12 vivid yellow

  20. A system for extracting 3-dimensional measurements from a stereo pair of TV cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yakimovsky, Y.; Cunningham, R.

    1976-01-01

    Obtaining accurate three-dimensional (3-D) measurement from a stereo pair of TV cameras is a task requiring camera modeling, calibration, and the matching of the two images of a real 3-D point on the two TV pictures. A system which models and calibrates the cameras and pairs the two images of a real-world point in the two pictures, either manually or automatically, was implemented. This system is operating and provides three-dimensional measurements resolution of + or - mm at distances of about 2 m.

  1. Comparison of Isocentric C-Arm 3-Dimensional Navigation and Conventional Fluoroscopy for Percutaneous Retrograde Screwing for Anterior Column Fracture of Acetabulum

    PubMed Central

    He, Jiliang; Tan, Guoqing; Zhou, Dongsheng; Sun, Liang; Li, Qinghu; Yang, Yongliang; Liu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Percutaneous screw insertion for minimally displaced or reducible acetabular fracture using x-ray fluoroscopy and computer-assisted navigation system has been advocated by some authors. The purpose of this study was to compare intraoperative conditions and clinical results between isocentric C-arm 3-dimensional (Iso-C 3D) fluoroscopy and conventional fluoroscopy for percutaneous retrograde screwing of acetabular anterior column fracture. A prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 22 patients were assigned to 2 different groups: 10 patients in the Iso-C 3D navigation group and 12 patients in the conventional group. The operative time, fluoroscopic time, time of screw insertion, blood loss, and accuracy were analyzed between the 2 groups. There were significant differences in operative time, screw insertion time, fluoroscopy time, and mean blood loss between the 2 groups. Totally 2 of 12 (16.7%) screws were misplaced in the conventional fluoroscopy group, and all 10 screws were in safe zones in the navigation group. Percutaneous screw fixation using the Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system significantly reduced the intraoperative fluoroscopy time and blood loss in percutaneous screwing for acetabular anterior column fracture. The Iso-C 3D computer-assisted navigation system provided a reliable and effective method for percutaneous screw insertion in acetabular anterior column fractures compared to conventional fluoroscopy. PMID:26765448

  2. Adjuvant Radiotherapy for Gastric Cancer: A Dosimetric Comparison of 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy, Tomotherapy (registered) and Conventional Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Dahele, Max; Skinner, Matthew; Schultz, Brenda; Cardoso, Marlene; Bell, Chris; Ung, Yee C.

    2010-07-01

    Some patients with gastric cancer benefit from post-operative chemo-radiotherapy, but adequately irradiating the planning target volume (PTV) whilst avoiding organs at risk (OAR) can be difficult. We evaluate 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (CRT), conventional intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and helical tomotherapy (TT). TT, 2 and 5-field (F) CRT and IMRT treatment plans with the same PTV coverage were generated for 5 patients and compared. Median values are reported. The volume of left/right kidney receiving at least 20Gy (V20) was 57/51% and 51/60% for 2 and 5F-CRT, and 28/14% for TT and 27/19% for IMRT. The volume of liver receiving at least 30Gy (V30) was 45% and 62% for 2 and 5F-CRT, and 37% for TT and 35% for IMRT. With TT, 98% of the PTV received 95-105% of the prescribed dose, compared with 45%, 34% and 28% for 2F-CRT, 5F-CRT and IMRT respectively. Using conventional metrics, conventional IMRT can achieve comparable PTV coverage and OAR sparing to TT, but at the expense of PTV dose heterogeneity. Both irradiate large volumes of normal tissue to low doses. Additional studies are needed to demonstrate the clinical impact of these technologies.

  3. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernow, V. F.; Alaeian, H.; Dionne, J. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ˜40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ˜50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  4. Polymer lattices as mechanically tunable 3-dimensional photonic crystals operating in the infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Chernow, V. F.; Alaeian, H.; Dionne, J. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-09-07

    Broadly tunable photonic crystals in the near- to mid-infrared region could find use in spectroscopy, non-invasive medical diagnosis, chemical and biological sensing, and military applications, but so far have not been widely realized. We report the fabrication and characterization of three-dimensional tunable photonic crystals composed of polymer nanolattices with an octahedron unit-cell geometry. These photonic crystals exhibit a strong peak in reflection in the mid-infrared that shifts substantially and reversibly with application of compressive uniaxial strain. A strain of ∼40% results in a 2.2 μm wavelength shift in the pseudo-stop band, from 7.3 μm for the as-fabricated nanolattice to 5.1 μm when strained. We found a linear relationship between the overall compressive strain in the photonic crystal and the resulting stopband shift, with a ∼50 nm blueshift in the reflection peak position per percent increase in strain. These results suggest that architected nanolattices can serve as efficient three-dimensional mechanically tunable photonic crystals, providing a foundation for new opto-mechanical components and devices across infrared and possibly visible frequencies.

  5. Cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid polymer as an electrolyte/electrode material for H2-O2 proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, D.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Haridoss, Prathap

    2016-02-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance with a cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid (PVA/SSA) polymer is compared with Nafion® N-115 polymer. In this study, PVA/SSA (≈5 wt. % SSA) polymer membranes are synthesized by a solution casting technique. These cross-linked PVA/SSA polymers and Nafion are used as electrolytes and ionomers in catalyst layers, to fabricate different membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for PEMFCs. Properties of each MEA are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, impedance spectroscopy and hydrogen pumping technique. I-V characteristics of each cell are evaluated in a H2-O2 fuel cell testing fixture under different operating conditions. PVA/SSA ionomer causes only an additional ≈4% loss in the anode performance compared to Nafion ionomer. The maximum power density obtained from PVA/SSA based cells range from 99 to 117.4 mW cm-2 with current density range of 247 to 293.4 mA cm-2. Ionic conductivity of PVA/SSA based cells is more sensitive to state of hydration of MEA, while maximum power density obtained is less sensitive to state of hydration of MEA. Maximum power density of cross-linked PVA/SSA membrane based cell is about 35% that of Nafion® N-115 based cell. From these results, cross-linked PVA/SSA polymer is identified as potential candidate for PEMFCs.

  6. Accurate hierarchical control of hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes for superior lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Liu, Lixiang; Li, Tingting; Chen, Weiwei; Liu, Jiajia; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Yicheng

    2014-05-21

    An effective approach of simultaneously coordinating etching and precipitation reactions is employed to prepare hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocubes as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. Firstly, amorphous hollow (NiCox)O(OH) nanoboxes form uniformly, and subsequent calcination results in the formation of NiCo2O4 nanocubes that exhibit a stable reversible capacity of 1160 mA h g(-1) at constant current density of 200 mA g(-1) with capacity retention of over 91.1% after 200 cycles. The unique hollow structure can shorten the Li-ion diffusion path, which benefits the rate of performance. Furthermore, the hollow structure offers a sufficient void space to alleviate the mechanical stress caused by volume change. Additionally, the multi-element characteristics of active materials allow the volume change to take place in a stepwise manner. Therefore, hollow crossed NiCo2O4 nanocube electrodes exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. This method is simple and of low cost, which may open a new avenue for fast synthesis of hollow crossed structural nano-functional materials for energy storage, catalysts, sensors and other new applications.

  7. Adsorption of Hg2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions from aqueous solution using formaldehyde cross-linked modified chitosan-thioglyceraldehyde Schiff's base.

    PubMed

    Monier, M

    2012-04-01

    A chitosan-thioglyceraldehyde Schiff's base cross-linked magnetic resin (CSTG) was prepared and characterized using various instrumental methods. Then, the prepared resin was used for comparative studies on the removal of toxic metal ions like: Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) from aqueous solutions. The effects of the initial pH value of the solution, contact time, the initial metal ion concentration and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the composite were investigated. The kinetics data were analyzed by pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order equations. The adsorption kinetics was well described by the pseudo-second order equation, and the adsorption isotherms were better fitted by the Langmuir equation. The maximum theoretical adsorption capacities of the CSTG resin for Hg(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) were found to be 98±2, 76±1 and 52±1 mg g(-1), respectively. The negative values of Gibbs free energy of adsorption (ΔG(ads°) indicated the spontaneity of the adsorption of all metal ions on the novel resin.

  8. MIRD pamphlet No. 23: quantitative SPECT for patient-specific 3-dimensional dosimetry in internal radionuclide therapy.

    PubMed

    Dewaraja, Yuni K; Frey, Eric C; Sgouros, George; Brill, A Bertrand; Roberson, Peter; Zanzonico, Pat B; Ljungberg, Michael

    2012-08-01

    In internal radionuclide therapy, a growing interest in voxel-level estimates of tissue-absorbed dose has been driven by the desire to report radiobiologic quantities that account for the biologic consequences of both spatial and temporal nonuniformities in these dose estimates. This report presents an overview of 3-dimensional SPECT methods and requirements for internal dosimetry at both regional and voxel levels. Combined SPECT/CT image-based methods are emphasized, because the CT-derived anatomic information allows one to address multiple technical factors that affect SPECT quantification while facilitating the patient-specific voxel-level dosimetry calculation itself. SPECT imaging and reconstruction techniques for quantification in radionuclide therapy are not necessarily the same as those designed to optimize diagnostic imaging quality. The current overview is intended as an introduction to an upcoming series of MIRD pamphlets with detailed radionuclide-specific recommendations intended to provide best-practice SPECT quantification-based guidance for radionuclide dosimetry.

  9. Comparison of Ground-Based 3-Dimensional Lightning Mapping Observation with Satellite-Based LIS Observations in Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Ronald J.; Krehbiel, Paul R.; Rison, William; Hamlin, Timothy; Boccippio, Dennis J.; Goodman, Steven J.; Christian, Hugh J.

    1999-01-01

    3-dimensional lightning mapping observations were obtained in central Oklahoma during June 1998, using New Mexico Tech's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA). The results have been compared with observations of the discharges from space obtained by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spacecraft. Excellent spatial and temporal correlations were obtained between the two sets of observations. All discharges seen by LIS were mapped by the LMA. Most of the detected optical events were associated with lightning channels that extended into the upper part of the storm. Cloud-to-ground discharges that were confined to mid- and lower-altitudes tended to be detected by LIS at the time of late-stage return strokes. Extensive illumination tended to occur in impulsive bursts toward the end or part way through intracloud discharges and appeared to be produced by energetic K-changes that typically occur at these times.

  10. A 3-dimensional digital atlas of the ascending sensory and the descending motor systems in the pigeon brain.

    PubMed

    Güntürkün, Onur; Verhoye, Marleen; De Groof, Geert; Van der Linden, Annemie

    2013-01-01

    Pigeons are classic animal models for learning, memory, and cognition. The majority of the current understanding about avian neurobiology outside of the domain of the song system has been established using pigeons. Since MRI represents an increasingly relevant tool for comparative neuroscience, a 3-dimensional MRI-based atlas of the pigeon brain becomes essential. Using multiple imaging protocols, we delineated diverse ascending sensory and descending motor systems as well as the hippocampal formation. This pigeon brain atlas can easily be used to determine the stereotactic location of identified neural structures at any angle of the head. In addition, the atlas is useful to find the optimal angle of sectioning for slice experiments, stereotactic injections and electrophysiological recordings. This pigeon brain atlas is freely available for the scientific community.

  11. New insights into the coronary artery bifurcation hypothesis-generating concepts utilizing 3-dimensional optical frequency domain imaging.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Vasim; Serruys, Patrick W; Heo, Jung Ho; Gogas, Bill D; Okamura, Takayuki; Gomez-Lara, Josep; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Garcìa-Garcìa, Hector M; van Geuns, Robert Jan

    2011-08-01

    Coronary artery bifurcations are a common challenging lesion subset accounting for approximately 10% to 20% of all percutaneous coronary interventions. The provisional T-stenting approach is generally recommended as the first-line management of most lesions. Carina shift is suggested to be the predominant mechanism of side-branch pinching during provisional T-stenting and has been indirectly inferred from bench work and other intravascular imaging modalities. Offline 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of patients studied in the first-in-man trial of the high-frequency (160 frames/s) Terumo optical frequency domain imaging system were undertaken using volume-rendering software. Through a series of 3D reconstructions, several novel hypothesis-generating concepts are presented.

  12. Nanophotonic light trapping in 3-dimensional thin-film silicon architectures.

    PubMed

    Lockau, Daniel; Sontheimer, Tobias; Becker, Christiane; Rudigier-Voigt, Eveline; Schmidt, Frank; Rech, Bernd

    2013-01-14

    Emerging low cost and large area periodic texturing methods promote the fabrication of complex absorber structures for thin film silicon solar cells. We present a comprehensive numerical analysis of a 2 μm square periodic polycrystalline silicon absorber architecture designed in our laboratories. Simulations are performed on the basis of a precise finite element reconstruction of the experimentally realized silicon structure. In contrast to many other publications, superstrate light trapping effects are included in our model. Excellent agreement to measured absorptance spectra is obtained. For the inclusion of the absorber into a standard single junction cell layout, we show that light trapping close to the Yablonovitch limit can be realized, but is usually strongly damped by parasitic absorption.

  13. Reconstruction of a 3-dimensional transonic rotor flow field from holographic interferogram data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Y. H.; Kittleson, J. K.; Becker, F.

    1985-01-01

    Holographic interferometry and computer-assisted tomography (CAT) are used to determine the transonic velocity field of a model rotor blade in hover. A pulsed ruby laser recorded 40 interferograms with a 2-ft-diam view field near the model rotor-blade tip operating at a tip Mach number of 0.90. After digitizing the interferograms and extracting fringe-order functions, the data are transferred to a CAT code. The CAT code then calculates the perturbation velocity in seeral planes above the blade surface. The values from the holography-CAT method compare favorably with previously obtained numerical computations in most locations near the blade tip. The results demonstrate the technique's potential for three-dimensional transonic rotor flow studies.

  14. Designer Self-Assembling Peptide Nanofiber Scaffolds for Adult Mouse Neural Stem Cell 3-Dimensional Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Gelain, Fabrizio; Bottai, Daniele; Vescovi, Angleo; Zhang, Shuguang

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical researchers have become increasingly aware of the limitations of conventional 2-dimensional tissue cell culture systems, including coated Petri dishes, multi-well plates and slides, to fully address many critical issues in cell biology, cancer biology and neurobiology, such as the 3-D microenvironment, 3-D gradient diffusion, 3-D cell migration and 3-D cell-cell contact interactions. In order to fully understand how cells behave in the 3-D body, it is important to develop a well-controlled 3-D cell c