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Sample records for 2 5 10

  1. 46 CFR 2.10-5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exemptions. 2.10-5 Section 2.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Fees § 2.10-5 Exemptions. (a) Vessels owned or operated by a non-profit organization may be exempted from payment of...

  2. 46 CFR 2.10-5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Exemptions. 2.10-5 Section 2.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Fees § 2.10-5 Exemptions. (a) Vessels owned or operated by a non-profit organization may be exempted from payment of the fees required by this subpart, only if...

  3. 46 CFR 2.10-5 - Exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exemptions. 2.10-5 Section 2.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC VESSEL INSPECTIONS Fees § 2.10-5 Exemptions. (a) Vessels owned or operated by a non-profit organization may be exempted from payment of the fees required by this subpart, only if...

  4. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accountability systems. 10.2 Section 10.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director...

  5. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accountability systems. 10.2 Section 10.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation, and Closure §...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... Hydrology. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that the geohydrologic setting of...

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... Hydrology. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that the geohydrologic setting of...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... Hydrology. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that the geohydrologic setting of...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-5 Environmental..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in §...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-5 Environmental... repository siting, construction, operation, closure, and decommissioning, and projected environmental...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-5 Environmental... repository siting, construction, operation, closure, and decommissioning, and projected environmental...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-5 Environmental... repository siting, construction, operation, closure, and decommissioning, and projected environmental...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental quality. 960.5-2-5 Section 960.5-2-5 Energy... quality. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that (1) the quality of the environment... decommissioning the quality of the environment in the affected area could not be adequately protected or...

  15. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  16. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  17. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  18. Characterization of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 in ambient air, Yokohama, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Md. Firoz; Shirasuna, Yuichiro; Hirano, Koichiro; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2010-04-01

    This study elucidated the characteristics of ambient PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 with water soluble ions, i.e., Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42-, Na +, NH 4+, K +, Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ and carbonaceous aerosol, i.e., EC and OC in above size fractions from the samples collected for the period of 2007-2008. The total numbers of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 samples collected with MCI sampler were 91, 87 and 79, respectively. The ambient particulate samples were collected twice in a week for a period of 24 h at the roof of a three-storied building in Yokohama National University. The annual arithmetic mean concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 were 20.6, 9.6 and 5.1 µg m - 3 , respectively. The results of the daily PM 2.5 concentrations indicated that 67% of the daily PM 2.5 exceeded USEPA National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) (15 µg m - 3 ) while 95% in respect of WHO ambient air quality guidelines (10 µg m - 3 ). The concentrations of water soluble ions in PM 2.5, PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 accounted for 40%, 31% and 19%, respectively. The estimation of non-sea-salt particles implies that the major sources of water soluble ions in PM 2.5 are anthropogenic. On the other hand, a large proportion of sea salt particles contributes to PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 . Spearman correlation indicated that the concentrations of OC and EC in PM 2.5 can originate from similar type of sources. However, the concentration of OC and EC in PM 2.5-10 and PM > 10 can have multiple sources. In addition, some atmospheric reactions were also characterized in this study.

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-6...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  6. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  7. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  8. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  9. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2 - Technical guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Technical guidelines. 960.5-2 Section 960.5-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5-2 Technical guidelines. The technical guidelines in this subpart...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2 - Technical guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Technical guidelines. 960.5-2 Section 960.5-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5-2 Technical guidelines. The technical guidelines in this subpart...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2 - Technical guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Technical guidelines. 960.5-2 Section 960.5-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5-2 Technical guidelines. The technical guidelines in this subpart...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transportation. 960.5-2-7 Section 960.5-2-7 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-7 Transportation... using reasonably available technology; (iii) will not require transportation system components to...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transportation. 960.5-2-7 Section 960.5-2-7 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-7 Transportation... using reasonably available technology; (iii) will not require transportation system components to...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Transportation. 960.5-2-7 Section 960.5-2-7 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-7 Transportation... using reasonably available technology; (iii) will not require transportation system components to...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transportation. 960.5-2-7 Section 960.5-2-7 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-7 Transportation... using reasonably available technology; (iii) will not require transportation system components to...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transportation. 960.5-2-7 Section 960.5-2-7 Energy... REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Environment, Socioeconomics, and Transportation § 960.5-2-7 Transportation... using reasonably available technology; (iii) will not require transportation system components to...

  18. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.5-2-9 Section 960.5-2-9 Energy... Rock characteristics. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that (1) the thickness and lateral extent and the characteristics and composition of the host rock will be suitable...

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2 - Technical guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Technical guidelines. 960.5-2 Section 960.5-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... repository and to the transportation of waste to a repository site. The third group includes conditions...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.5-2-9 Section 960.5-2-9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... openings during repository operation and closure. (4) Potential for such phenomena as thermally...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.5-2-9 Section 960.5-2-9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... openings during repository operation and closure. (4) Potential for such phenomena as thermally...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.5-2-9 Section 960.5-2-9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... openings during repository operation and closure. (4) Potential for such phenomena as thermally...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  8. 2. 8' x 10' enlargement from 4' x 5' negative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. 8' x 10' enlargement from 4' x 5' negative Kevin Kriesel-Coons, Photographer, November 13, 1990 INTERIOR OF HYDRO PLANT, SHOWING CURRENT STATE OF DISREPAIR. - Crosscut Steam Plant, Ancillary Hydro Unit, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  14. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods Specification PM10 PM2.5 Class I Class II Class III...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A..., in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.121, ownership, surface and subsurface rights,...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A..., in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.121, ownership, surface and subsurface rights,...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A..., in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.121, ownership, surface and subsurface rights,...

  18. Synthesis of 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspiro5,5undecane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poshkus, A. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Pentaerythritol is converted to its diformal, 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspirol5.5undecane, by heating it to a temperature within the range of about 110 to 150 C, for a period of up to 10 minutes, in the presence of a slight excess of paraformaldehyde and of a catalytic quantity of an acid catalyst such as sulfuric acid. The reaction may be carried out in two steps, by forming first the monoformal, then the diformal. In any case, total reaction time is about 10 minutes, and yield of diformal are greater than 90%. Previous processes require hours or days, and often, tedious operating procedures.

  19. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5...

  20. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of Environment... Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site ownership..., in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.121, ownership, surface and subsurface rights,...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site ownership..., in accordance with the requirements of 10 CFR 60.121, ownership, surface and subsurface rights,...

  3. Synthesis crystal structure and ionic conductivity of Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 and Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porob, Digamber G.; Guru Row, T. N.

    2004-12-01

    Two new compounds Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 and Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 have been synthesized in the ternary system: MO-Bi 2O 3-V 2O 5 system ( M=M 2+). The crystal structure of Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 has been determined from single crystal X-ray diffraction data, space group P1¯ and Z=2, with cell parameters a=7.1453(3) Å, b=7.8921(3) Å, c=9.3297(3) Å, α=106.444(2)°, β=94.088(2)°, γ=112.445(2)°, V=456.72(4) Å 3. Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 is isostructural with Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10, with, a=7.0810(2) Å, b=7.8447(2) Å, c=9.3607(2) Å, α=106.202(1)°, β=94.572(1)°, γ=112.659(1)°, V=450.38(2) Å 3 and its structure has been refined by Rietveld method using powder X-ray data. The crystal structure consists of infinite chains of (Bi 2O 2) along c-axis formed by linkage of BiO 8 and BiO 6 polyhedra interconnected by MO 8 polyhedra forming 2D layers in ac plane. The vanadate tetrahedra are sandwiched between these layers. Conductivity measurements give a maximum conductivity value of 4.54×10 -5 and 3.63×10 -5 S cm -1 for Ca 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10 and Sr 0.5Bi 3V 2O 10, respectively at 725 °C.

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... significant impacts on housing supply and demand. (2) Availability of an adequate labor force in the affected area. (3) Projected net increases in employment and business sales, improved community services, and... State and local government agencies in the affected area. (2) Lack of an adequate labor force in...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... significant impacts on housing supply and demand. (2) Availability of an adequate labor force in the affected area. (3) Projected net increases in employment and business sales, improved community services, and... State and local government agencies in the affected area. (2) Lack of an adequate labor force in...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... significant impacts on housing supply and demand. (2) Availability of an adequate labor force in the affected area. (3) Projected net increases in employment and business sales, improved community services, and... State and local government agencies in the affected area. (2) Lack of an adequate labor force in...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... significant impacts on housing supply and demand. (2) Availability of an adequate labor force in the affected area. (3) Projected net increases in employment and business sales, improved community services, and... State and local government agencies in the affected area. (2) Lack of an adequate labor force in...

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  13. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from Agricultural Soils by Wind Erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  14. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  15. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for...

  16. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53 Protection of... Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Table C-4 Table C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Test Specifications for...

  17. Study on ambient concentrations of PM 10, PM 10-2.5, PM 2.5 and gaseous pollutants. Trace elements and chemical speciation of atmospheric particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dongarrà, G.; Manno, E.; Varrica, D.; Lombardo, M.; Vultaggio, M.

    2010-12-01

    This study provides the first comprehensive report on mass concentrations of particulate matter of various sizes, inorganic and organic gas concentrations monitored at three sampling sites in the city of Palermo (Sicily, Italy). It also provides information on the water-soluble species and trace elements. A total of 2054 PM 10 (1333) and PM 2.5 (721) daily measurements were collected from November 2006 to February 2008. The highest mass concentrations were observed at the urban stations, average values being about two times higher than those at the suburban (control) site. Time variations in PM 10 and also PM 10-2.5 were observed at the urban stations, the highest concentrations being measured in autumn and winter. CO, NOx, NO 2, benzene, toluene and o-xylene concentrations peaked in autumn and winter, a pattern similar to those recorded for PM 10 and PM 10-2.5 mass levels, indicating the importance of traffic emissions in urban air pollution. 91% and 51% of the benzene measurements exceeded the limit of 5 μg m -3 at the two urban monitoring sites. Trace elements (As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb) suspected of being introduced into the atmosphere mainly by anthropogenic activities, were highly enriched with respect to local soil. Results indicate that a large fraction of PM 10 (31-47% in weight) and PM 2.5 (29% in weight) is made up of water-soluble ions. Ammonium sulphate and nitrate particles accounted for 14-29 wt% of particulate matter mass concentrations. Crustal and marine components, combined, account for 41% and 49% in PM 2.5 and PM 10, respectively. The calculated deficits in Cl - and NH 4+ ions suggest that a proportion of these ions are lost, via the formation of gaseous NH 4Cl or HCl and NH 3.

  18. Electron attachment to SF5X compounds: SF5C6H5, SF5C2H3, S2F10, and SF5Br, 300-550 K.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas M; Viggiano, A A; Dolbier, William R; Sergeeva, Tatiana A; Friedman, Jeffrey F

    2007-02-15

    Rate constants and ion product channels have been measured for electron attachment to four SF5 compounds, SF5C6H5, SF5C2H3, S2F10, and SF5Br, and these data are compared to earlier results for SF6, SF5Cl, and SF5CF3. The present rate constants range over a factor of 600 in magnitude. Rate constants measured in this work at 300 K are 9.9+/-3.0x10(-8) (SF5C6H5), 7.3+/-1.8x10(-9) (SF5C2H3), 6.5+/-2.5x10(-10) (S2F10), and 3.8+/-2.0x10(-10) (SF5Br), all in cm3 s-1 units. SF5- was the sole ionic product observed for 300-550 K, though in the case of S2F10 it cannot be ascertained whether the minor SF4- and SF6- products observed in the mass spectra are due to attachment to S2F10 or to impurities. G3(MP2) electronic structure calculations (G2 for SF5Br) have been carried out for the neutrals and anions of these species, primarily to determine electron affinities and the energetics of possible attachment reaction channels. Electron affinities were calculated to be 0.88 (SF5C6H5), 0.70 (SF5C2H3), 2.95 (S2F10), and 2.73 eV (SF5Br). An anticorrelation is found for the Arrhenius A-factor with exothermicity for SF5- production for the seven molecules listed above. The Arrhenius activation energy was found to be anticorrelated with the bond strength of the parent ion. PMID:17286358

  19. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

  20. Levels and major sources of PM2.5 and PM10 in Bangkok Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Chuersuwan, Nares; Nimrat, Subuntith; Lekphet, Sukanda; Kerdkumrai, Tida

    2008-07-01

    This research was the first long-term attempt to concurrently measure and identify major sources of both PM(10) and PM(2.5) in Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR). Ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) were evaluated at four monitoring stations and analyzed for elemental compositions, water-soluble ions, and total carbon during February 2002-January 2003. Fifteen chemical elements, four water-soluble ions, and total carbon were analyzed to assist major source identification by a receptor model approach, known as chemical mass balance. PM(10) and PM(2.5) were significantly different (p<0.05) at all sites and 24 h averages were high at traffic location while two separated residential sites were similar. Seasonal difference of PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations was distinct between dry and wet seasons. Major source of PM(10) at the traffic site indicated that automobile emissions and biomass burning-related sources contributed approximately 33% each. Automobiles contributed approximately 39 and 22% of PM(10) mass at two residential sites while biomass burning contributed about 36 and 28%. PM(10) from re-suspended soil and cooking sources accounted for 10 to 15% at a residential site. Major sources of PM(2.5) at traffic site were automobile and biomass burning, contributing approximately 32 and 26%, respectively. Biomass burning was the major source of PM(2.5) mass concentrations at residential sites. Meat cooking also accounted for 31% of PM(2.5) mass at a low impact site. Automobile, biomass burning, and road dust were less significant, contributed 10, 6, and 5%, respectively. Major sources identification at some location had difficulty to achieve performance criteria due to limited source profiles. Improved in characterize other sources profiles will help local authority to better air quality. PMID:18258301

  1. HAER PA,48BETH,10 (sheet 2 of 5) Luckenbach Flour Mill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HAER PA,48-BETH,10- (sheet 2 of 5) - Luckenbach Flour Mill, 250 feet east of Monocacy Creek, 250 feet west of Main Street, 700 feet south of Broad Street, north side of Ohio Road, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  2. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... in misappropriation insider trading cases. 240.10b5-2 Section 240.10b5-2 Commodity and Securities... Devices and Contrivances § 240.10b5-2 Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading... of insider trading under Section 10(b) of the Act and Rule 10b-5. The law of insider trading...

  3. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas; Hannigan, Michael P.; Miller, Shelly L.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Milford, Jana B.

    2016-06-01

    Coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10-2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study measured PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM) in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10-2.5), from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10-2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10-2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m-3 and mean PM10-2.5 / PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10-2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10-2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10-2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10-2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s-1. Little wind speed dependence was observed for the residential sites in Denver and Greeley. The mass

  4. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, antimicrobial activity and crystal structure of [Ag2(C10H10N3O3S)2(C5H5N)3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailor, Sanjay M.; Patel, Urmila H.

    2015-05-01

    Silver complex of 4-Amino-N-(5-methyl-1,2-oxazol-3-yl)benzenesulfonamide (sulfamethoxazole) (SMX) has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, infrared, UV and NMR spectroscopy. The title compound, [Ag2(C10H10N3O3S)2(C5H5N)3] crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pna21 with lattice parameters a = 17.9527(5), b = 8.6529(3), c = 25.1621(7) Å and Z = 4. The structure is solved by direct method and refined to a final R = 0.0567 for 6732 reflections with I ⩾ 2σ(I). The results of IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral data suggest the binding of silver atom to the sulfonamide ligand which is in agreement with the crystal structure determination. X-ray analysis revealed that in the title compound, one silver atom is surrounded by three N atoms and one Ag atom leading to a distorted tetrahedral geometry and another silver atom is surrounded by four N atoms and one Ag atom leading to a slightly distorted square pyramid geometry with Ag⋯Ag separation distance of 3.026 Å. The dihedral angle between phenyl and isoxazole ring is 85.7(4)°. In the crystal structure, the molecules are linked via Nsbnd H⋯O, Csbnd H⋯O intermolecular and Csbnd H⋯O intramolecular interactions. Silver complex of sulfamethoxazole has been studied by electrical and thermal analysis. Silver sulfamethoxazole presents different antibacterial behavior against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains.

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., when issued by the NRC, in 10 CFR part 60, subpart I, “Emergency Planning Criteria.” ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that,...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., when issued by the NRC, in 10 CFR part 60, subpart I, “Emergency Planning Criteria.” ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that,...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., when issued by the NRC, in 10 CFR part 60, subpart I, “Emergency Planning Criteria.” ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that,...

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., when issued by the NRC, in 10 CFR part 60, subpart I, “Emergency Planning Criteria.” ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that,...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., when issued by the NRC, in 10 CFR part 60, subpart I, “Emergency Planning Criteria.” ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that,...

  10. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in four dairies on the Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Air quality was determined in 4 dairies at the boundary, commodity barn, and compost field. Two laser DustTrak PM10 aerosol monitors and four RAAS -300 gravimetric monitors, 2 PM2.5 and 2 PM10 were employed. The DustTrak flow rate was set at 1.7 L/min and the RAAS were set at 16.6 L/min. Monitors we...

  11. An improved synthesis of 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspiro /5.5/ undecane /pentaerythritol diformal/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poshkus, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    It is found that high yields of pentaerythritol diformal can be prepared in less than 10 minutes by heating a stirred mixture of pentaerythritol with a slight excess of paraformaldehyde up to about 120 C in the presence of catalic amounts of acid, but without any solvents or with only a small amount of water. The reaction was carried out in two stages: first by preparing the monoformal with a molar equivalent of paraformaldehyde in about five minutes, and then, after cooling to about 70 C, adding the remainder of paraformaldehyde in 1% excess, and heating to about 120 C for a total heating time of 10 minutes

  12. Diborylated magnesium anthracene as precursor for B2H5(-)-bridged 9,10-dihydroanthracene.

    PubMed

    Pospiech, Steffen; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2015-05-26

    9,10-(Bpin)2-anthracene (3, HBpin = pinacolborane) was synthesized from 9,10-dibromoanthracene in a stepwise lithiation/borylation sequence. The reaction of 3 with highly activated magnesium furnished the diborylated magnesium anthracene 4, which was quenched in situ with ethereal HCl to yield cis-9,10-(Bpin)2-DHA (cis-5, DHA = 9,10-dihydroanthracene). Compound cis-5, in turn, can be reduced with Li[AlH4] in THF to give its diborate Li2[cis-9,10-(BH3)2-DHA] (Li2 [cis-6]). In the crystal lattice, the THF solvate Li2[cis-6]⋅3 THF establishes a dimeric structure with Li-(μ-H)-B coordination modes. Hydride abstraction from Li2[cis-6] with Me3SiCl yields the B-H-B-bridged DHA Li[7]. This product can also be viewed as a unique cyclic B2H7(-) derivative with a hydrocarbon backbone. Treatment of Li2[cis-6] with the stronger hydride abstracting agent Me3SiOTf (HOTf = trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) in THF affords the THF diadduct of cis-9,10-(BH(OTf))2-DHA. PMID:25892077

  13. Impurities in a morphine sulfate drug product identified as 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, 10-hydroxymorphine and 10-oxomorphine.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Seán S; Glynn, Padraig M; Madden, Stuart J; Grayson, David H

    2003-03-01

    Stability testing of morphine sulfate formulated with nonpareil sugar seeds (consisting of sucrose and starch) and fumaric acid revealed the formation of the three impurities 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural, 10-hydroxymorphine and 10-oxomorphine. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural was isolated via semipreparative HPLC utilizing volatile mobile phase constituents and was identified by analysis of its HRMS and NMR spectra. 10-Hydroxymorphine and 10-oxomorphine were obtained via semipreparative HPLC and subsequent removal of ion-pair reagents using an anion exchange resin, or by solid phase extraction, and identified by spectroscopic analysis followed by comparison with authentic materials. 5-(Hydroxymethyl)-2-furfural is a degradation product of hexose sugars, and its formation in the presence of morphine sulfate formulated with fumaric acid suggests that caution should be exercised when including nonpareil seeds in formulations that contain acidic drug salts and/or acid excipients. The preliminary results of tests on the interaction of acidic salts of some other drugs with nonpareil seeds are presented. PMID:12587110

  14. Monitoring trace elements by nuclear techniques in PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, M. Carmo; Almeida, S. Marta; Reis, Miguel A.; Oliveira, Orlando R.

    2003-06-01

    As part of a contract for air quality monitoring at an urban waste incinerator neighborhood, measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 are being routinely evaluated. Two samples are collected for 24 h at the weekend and a working day, using a Gent collector, which separates the particulate in two fractions: PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. Filters are polycarbonate Nuclepore, sized 47 mm, which, for analysis, are cut as: one half to be analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and one quarter for proton induced X-rays emission (PIXE). Both techniques are multielemental determining together around 25 chemical elements. Comparison of results is just possible for potassium, iron and zinc, which are compared in this work. A better agreement is obtained in PM2.5 suggesting a homogeneity trend. Fe and K compare quite well and Zn may show quite different results.

  15. Sources of PM(10) and PM (2.5) in Cairo's ambient air.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, M; Lowenthal, D H; Gertler, A W; Labib, M

    2007-10-01

    A source attribution study was performed to assess the contributions of specific pollutant source types to the observed particulate matter (PM) levels in the greater Cairo Area using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model. Three intensive ambient monitoring studies were carried out during the period of February 21-March 3, 1999, October 27-November 27, 1999, and June 8-June 26, 2002. PM(10), PM(2.5), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured on a 24-h basis at six sampling stations during each of the intensive periods. The six intensive measurement sites represented background levels, mobile source impacts, industrial impacts, and residential exposure. Major contributors to PM(10) included geological material, mobile source emissions, and open burning. PM(2.5) tended to be dominated by mobile source emissions, open burning, and secondary species. This paper presents the results of the PM(10) and PM(2.5), source contribution estimates. PMID:17268919

  16. ν=5/2 Fractional Quantum Hall Effect at 10 T: Implications for the Pfaffian State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chi; Knuuttila, T.; Dai, Yanhua; Du, R. R.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.

    2010-04-01

    We report on the magnetotransport (including tilt fields) around Landau level filling factor ν=5/2 in a high-purity modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well with twice the electron density of standard samples. A quantized 5/2 Hall plateau is observed at B≈10T, with an activation gap ˜125mK; the plateau can persist up to ˜25° tilt field. This finding is discussed in the context of a proposed Moore-Read Pfaffian (or anti-Pfaffian) wave function being a possible ground state at 5/2. The tilt fields induce a background resistance at 5/2 that could be either isotropic or anisotropic, depending simply on the in-plane magnetic field direction with respect to the GaAs crystalline axis. Such data indicate a substantial coupling between the 5/2 collective phases and the GaAs crystal.

  17. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  18. Hospital indoor PM10/PM2.5 and associated trace elements in Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinhua; Bi, Xinhui; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2006-07-31

    PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected in the indoor environments of four hospitals and their adjacent outdoor environments in Guangzhou, China during the summertime. The concentrations of 18 target elements in particles were also quantified. The results showed that indoor PM2.5 levels with an average of 99 microg m(-3) were significantly higher than outdoor PM2.5 standard of 65 microg m(-3) recommended by USEPA [United States Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air and Radiation, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards, Fact Sheet. EPA's Revised Particulate Matter Standards, 17, July 1997] and PM2.5 constituted a large fraction of indoor respirable particles (PM10) by an average of 78% in four hospitals. High correlation between PM2.5 and PM10 (R(2) of 0.87 for indoors and 0.90 for outdoors) suggested that PM2.5 and PM10 came from similar particulate emission sources. The indoor particulate levels were correlated with the corresponding outdoors (R(2) of 0.78 for PM2.5 and 0.67 for PM10), demonstrating that outdoor infiltration could lead to direct transportation into indoors. In addition to outdoor infiltration, human activities and ventilation types could also influence indoor particulate levels in four hospitals. Total target elements accounted for 3.18-5.56% of PM2.5 and 4.38-9.20% of PM10 by mass, respectively. Na, Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and Ti were found in the coarse particles, while K, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Pb, As and Se existed more in the fine particles. The average indoor concentrations of total elements were lower than those measured outdoors, suggesting that indoor elements originated mainly from outdoor emission sources. Enrichment factors (EF) for trace element were calculated to show that elements of anthropogenic origins (Zn, Pb, As, Se, V, Ni, Cu and Cd) were highly enriched with respect to crustal composition (Al, Fe, Ca, Ti and Mn). Factor analysis was used to identify possible pollution source-types, namely street dust, road traffic

  19. The distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol in Baotou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haijun; He, Jiang; Zhao, Boyi; Zhang, Lijun; Fan, Qingyun; Lü, Changwei; Dudagula; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Yinghui

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM), including PM10 and PM2.5, is one of the major impacts on air quality, visibility, climate change, earth radiation balance, and public health. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are the major components of PM. 804 samples (PM10 and PM2.5) were simultaneously collected from six urban sites covering 3 districts in Baotou, in January, April, September, and November 2014. As to a long-term study on the effects of carbonaceous aerosol, data were collected annually at Environmental Protection Agency of Baotou (EPB). The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, the spatial distribution and content of OC and EC, the relationship between OC and EC, and the formation of secondary organic carbon (SOC) have been investigated. The findings indicated that the concentrations of these particle matter are higher than that in US or European standards. The average concentrations of OC in PM10 and PM2.5 follow the order: January > November > April > September; and for EC in PM10 and PM2.5 follow the order: January > November > September > April. Affected by metrological factors, it was indicated that high wind speed and low relative humidity were beneficial for removal of OC and EC in January and November. Pearson correlations and cluster analysis on OC and EC concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 with gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, and CO) suggested that OC shared the same emission sources with SO2 and CO from combustion, while EC's sources mainly came from vehicles exhaust and combustion which contributed to NO2 as well. The OC concentration is mainly primary in warm months, while it appears secondary in cold months in Baotou. There is a common characteristic among the cities with higher SOC in winter, wherever the coal combustion can lead to the severe pollution. This work is important for the construction of the database of OC and EC concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 at spatial and time intervals, and it can provide scientific suggestion for similar PM

  20. Using support vector regression to predict PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weizhen, Hou; Zhengqiang, Li; Yuhuan, Zhang; Hua, Xu; Ying, Zhang; Kaitao, Li; Donghui, Li; Peng, Wei; Yan, Ma

    2014-03-01

    Support vector machine (SVM), as a novel and powerful machine learning tool, can be used for the prediction of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter less or equal than 10 and 2.5 micrometer) in the atmosphere. This paper describes the development of a successive over relaxation support vector regress (SOR-SVR) model for the PM10 and PM2.5 prediction, based on the daily average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed), which were all measured in Beijing during the year of 2010-2012. The Gaussian kernel function, as well as the k-fold crosses validation and grid search method, are used in SVR model to obtain the optimal parameters to get a better generalization capability. The result shows that predicted values by the SOR-SVR model agree well with the actual data and have a good generalization ability to predict PM10 and PM2.5. In addition, AOD plays an important role in predicting particulate matter with SVR model, which should be included in the prediction model. If only considering the meteorological parameters and eliminating AOD from the SVR model, the prediction results of predict particulate matter will be not satisfying.

  1. A PROBABILISTIC POPULATION EXPOSURE MODEL FOR PM10 AND PM 2.5

    EPA Science Inventory

    A first generation probabilistic population exposure model for Particulate Matter (PM), specifically for predicting PM10, and PM2.5, exposures of an urban, population has been developed. This model is intended to be used to predict exposure (magnitude, frequency, and duration) ...

  2. 4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]dodecane Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimowski, Paweł; Gołofit, Tomasz

    2013-07-01

    4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]dodecane (TEX) was obtained by nitrolysis of 1,4-diformyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxypiperazine reaction using a mixture of fuming nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. The optimal process temperature was 54-56°C. The yield of the synthesis depends inter alia on the rate the reactants are introduced into the reaction medium and on the time of conditioning of the reaction mixture. A maximal yield of ca. 40% was achieved at the reactant addition time of 2 h and conditioning time of 2 h. None of the other nitrating mixtures examined proved superior to the conventional nitrating mixture. The product was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques and the results are reported.

  3. Intraurban variability of PM10 and PM2.5 in an Eastern Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoud, Rawad; Shihadeh, Alan. L.; Roumié, Mohamed; Youness, Myriam; Gerard, Jocelyne; Saliba, Nada; Zaarour, Rita; Abboud, Maher; Farah, Wehbeh; Saliba, Najat Aoun

    2011-09-01

    The results of the first large scale chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5 at three different sites in the urban city of Beirut, Lebanon, are presented. Between May 2009 and April 2010 a total of 304 PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected by sampling every sixth day at three different sites in Beirut. Observed mass concentrations varied between 19.7 and 521.2 μg m - 3 for PM10 and between 8.4 and 72.2 μg m - 3 for PM2.5, respectively. Inorganic concentrations accounted for 29.7-35.6 μg m - 3 and 46.0-53.5 μg m - 3 of the total mass of PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Intra-city temporal and spatial variations were assessed based on the study of three factors: correlation coefficients (R) for PM and chemical components, coefficient of divergence (CODs), and source apportionment using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Based on R and COD of PM concentrations, the three sites appear homogeneous. However, when individual elements were compared, heterogeneity among sites was found. This latter was attributed to the variability in the percent contribution of biogenic and local anthropogenic source factors such as traffic related sources and dust resuspension. Other factors included the proximity to the Mediterranean sea, the population density and the topographical structure of the city. Hence, despite its small size (20.8 km 2), one PM monitoring site does not reflect an accurate PM level in Beirut.

  4. Identification of GH10 xylanases in strains 2 and Mz5 of Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Diego J; Kopečný, Jan; Mrázek, Jakub; Marinšek-Logar, Romana; Paez Lama, Sebastián; Escudero, Miguel Sosa; Arenas, Graciela N

    2014-11-01

    Genes encoding glycosyl hydrolase family 11 (GH11) xylanases and xylanases have been identified from Pseudobutyrivibrio xylanivorans. In contrast, little is known about the diversity and distribution of the GH10 xylanase in strains of P. xylanivorans. Xylanase and associated activities of P. xylanivorans have been characterized in detail in the type strain, Mz5. The aim of the present study was to identify GH10 xylanase genes in strains 2 and Mz5 of P. xylanivorans. In addition, we evaluated degradation and utilization of xylan by P. xylanivorans 2 isolated from rumen of Creole goats. After a 12-h culture, P. xylanivorans 2 was able to utilize up to 53% of the total pentose content present in birchwood xylan (BWX) and to utilize up to 62% of a ethanol-acetic acid-soluble fraction prepared from BWX. This is the first report describing the presence of GH10 xylanase-encoding genes in P. xylanivorans. Strain 2 and Mz5 contained xylanases which were related to GH10 xylanase of Butyrivibrio sp. Identifying xylanase-encoding genes and activity of these enzymes are a step toward understanding possible functional role of P. xylanivorans in the rumen ecosystem and contribute to providing an improved choice of enzymes for improving fiber digestion in ruminant animals, agricultural biomass utilization for biofuel production, and other industries. PMID:24942109

  5. Combustion synthesis of 5 and 10 mol% YO 1.5 doped ThO 2 powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purohit, R. D.; Saha, S.; Tyagi, A. K.

    2003-11-01

    Nanocrystalline 5 and 10 mol% YO 1.5 doped ThO 2 powders were prepared by the combustion technique using citric acid as a fuel and nitrates as oxidants. The auto-ignition of the fuel-deficient precursors (prepared by thermal dehydration of the aqueous solutions containing metal nitrates and citric acid in required molar ratio) directly resulted in the well crystalline powders of the desired solid solutions along with traces of carbonaceous material. The as-prepared and calcined powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-temperature XRD and by their sinterability. The YO 1.5 doped ThO 2 powders when cold-pressed and sintered at 1300 °C for 2 h resulted in ⩾95% of their theoretical densities with nanograin microstructure.

  6. Ln3I5(S2N2)(S2)(THF)10 - a new type of molecular compounds.

    PubMed

    Fagin, A A; Fukin, G K; Cherkasov, A V; Shestakov, A F; Pushkarev, A P; Balashova, T V; Maleev, A A; Bochkarev, M N

    2016-03-21

    Unprecedented complexes of the composition Ln3I5(S2N2)(S2)(THF)10 were obtained in the reactions of neodymium and dysprosium iodide-nitrides with sulfur. The inorganic core of the molecules contains the cyclic fragments Ln(μ-S2)Ln, LnSNSN and LnSN. Ten of the fourteen atoms of the core are coplanar, the remaining four S2 and I2 atoms lie in the other two orthogonal planes. The dysprosium complex upon excitation with UV light exhibits the metal-centered luminescence characteristic of the Dy(3+) ion. Geometric parameters of the molecules, computational data, electron spectroscopy and fluorescence suggest the existence of some conjugation in the mentioned heterocycles. PMID:26842841

  7. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  8. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  9. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  10. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  11. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  12. Spatial and temporal variability of ultrafine particles, NO2, PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10 and PMcoarse in Swiss study areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eeftens, Marloes; Phuleria, Harish C.; Meier, Reto; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Corradi, Elisabetta; Davey, Mark; Ducret-Stich, Regina; Fierz, Martin; Gehrig, Robert; Ineichen, Alex; Keidel, Dirk; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Ragettli, Martina S.; Schindler, Christian; Künzli, Nino; Tsai, Ming-Yi

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to outdoor air pollutants remains an important concern in Europe, as limit values for NO2 and PM10 continue to be exceeded. Few studies have addressed the long-term spatial contrasts in PM2.5, PM absorbance, PMcoarse and especially ultrafine particles. This scarcity of data hampers the possibility to conduct epidemiological studies, assessing the health relevance of these markers of potentially harmful pollutants. Air pollution measurements were performed in eight geographically distinct areas of the Swiss Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) in Switzerland. NO2 was measured in all eight areas at 40 sites per area, and PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10 and ultrafine particles (particle number concentration (PNC) and lung deposited surface area (LDSA)) were measured in 4 of these areas, at a subset of 20 out of 40 sites. Each site was sampled three times during different seasons of the year, using the same equipment, sampling protocols and the same central facilities for analysis of samples. We assessed the spatial variability between areas and between individual sites, as well as pollution contrasts between the seasons and correlations between different pollutants. Within-area spatial contrasts (defined as the ratio between the 90th and 10th percentile) were highest for NO2 (3.14), moderate for PMcoarse (2.19), PNC (2.00) and PM2.5 absorbance (1.94), and lowest for LDSA (1.63), PM2.5 (1.50) and PM10 (1.46). Concentrations in the larger cities were generally higher than in smaller towns and rural and alpine areas, and were higher in the winter than in the summer and intermediate seasons, for all pollutants. Between-area differences accounted for more variation than within-area differences for all pollutants except NO2 and PMcoarse. Despite substantial within-area contrasts for PNC and LDSA, 74.7% and 83.3% of the spatial variance was attributed to between-area variability, respectively. Coefficients of determination between

  13. Crystal structure and photoluminescence properties of Eu 2+-activated Ba 2LiB 5O 10 phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qian; Deng, Degang; Xu, Shiqing; Hua, Youjie; Huang, Lihui; Wang, Huanping; Zhao, Shilong; Jia, Guohua; Li, Chenxia

    2011-10-01

    A novel orange-yellow-emitting Ba 2LiB 5O 10:Eu 2+ phosphor has been synthesized by traditional high temperature solid state reaction. A monoclinic crystal structure of Barium lithiumborates Ba 2LiB 5O 10 was verified by the investigation of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The compound crystallizes in the space group of P121/m1(11) (Z = 2) with the unit cell parameters a = 4.414(1) Å, b = 14.576(2) Å, c = 6.697(2) Å and β = 104.26(2)°. Barium and lithium atoms are located in distorted octahedral and tetrahedral oxygen coordinations, respectively. Upon around 365 nm excitation, the Eu 2+-activated Ba 2LiB 5O 10 phosphors exhibit a single broad emission band with the maximum at about 587 nm, due to the 4f 65d → 4f 7(8S 7/2) transition of Eu 2+. This work investigates the relationship between luminescence properties and structural characterization of the Ba 2LiB 5O 10: Eu 2+. This newly developed phosphor shows high potential as a phosphor conversion for white LED applications.

  14. Characterization and Cytotoxicity of PM<0.2, PM0.22.5 and PM2.510 around MSWI in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingling; Zeng, Jianrong; Liu, Ke; Bao, Liangman; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), which is an anthropogenic source of aerosol emissions, is of great public health concern. This study investigated the characterization and cytotoxic effects of ambient ultrafine particles (PM<0.2), fine particles (PM0.22.5) and coarse particles (PM2.510) collected around a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant in the Pudong district of Shanghai. Methods: Mass concentrations of trace elements in particulate matter (PM) samples were determined using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The cytotoxicity of sampled atmospheric PM was evaluated by cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in A549 cells. Result: The mass percentage of PM0.22.5 accounted for 72.91% of the total mass of PM. Crustal metals (Mg, Al, and Ti) were abundant in the coarse particles, while the anthropogenic elements (V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) were dominant in the fine particles. The enrichment factors of Zn, Cd and Pb in the fine and ultrafine particles were extremely high (>100). The cytotoxicity of the size-resolved particles was in the order of coarse particles < fine particles < ultrafine particles. Conclusions: Fine particles dominated the MSWI ambient particles. Emissions from the MSWI could bring contamination of anthropogenic elements (Zn, Cd and Pb) into ambient environment. The PM around the MSWI plant displayed an additive toxic effect, and the ultrafine and fine particles possessed higher biological toxicity than the coarse particles. PMID:25985309

  15. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl‑, NO3‑, SO4‑), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC + OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  16. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  17. Synthesis, structures, and properties of 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiolate linked group 10 metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Kuppuswamy; Shaw, Mohamed C; Chandrasekaran, P; Villagrán, Dino; Gray, Thomas G; Mague, Joel T; Donahue, James P

    2009-11-16

    Dimetallic compounds [(P-P)M(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))M(P-P)] (M = Ni, Pd; P-P = chelating bis(phosphine), 3a-3f) are prepared from O=CS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)C=O or (n)Bu(2)SnS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)Sn(n)Bu(2), which are protected forms of 1,2,4,5-benzenetetrathiolate. Selective monodeprotections of O=CS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)C=O or (n)Bu(2)SnS(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)Sn(n)Bu(2) lead to [(P-P)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)C=O)] or [(P-P)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2)Sn(n)Bu(2))]; the former is used to prepare trimetallic compounds [(dcpe)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))M(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dcpe)] (M = Ni (6a) or Pt (6b); dcpe = 1,2-bis(dicyclohexylphosphino)ethane). Compounds 3a-3f are redox active and display two oxidation processes, of which the first is generally reversible. Dinickel compound [(dcpe)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dcpe)] (3d) reveals two reversible oxidation waves with DeltaE(1/2) = 0.66 V, corresponding to K(c) of 1.6 x 10(11) for the mixed valence species. Electrochemical behavior is unstable to repeated scanning in the presence of [Bu(4)N][PF(6)] electrolyte but indefinitely stable with Na[BArF(24)] (BArF(24) = tetrakis(3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)borate), suggesting that the radical cation generated by oxidation is vulnerable to reaction with PF(6)(-). Chemical oxidation of 3d with [Cp(2)Fe][BArF(24)] leads to formation of [3d][BArF(24)]. Structural identification of [3d][BArF(24)] reveals appreciable shortening and lengthening of C-S and C-C bond distances, respectively, within the tetrathioarene fragment compared to charge-neutral 3d, indicating this to be the redox active moiety. Attempted oxidation of [(dppb)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dppb)] (3c) (dppb = 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)benzene) with AgBArF(24) produces [[(dppb)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(dppb)](2)(mu-Ag(2))][BArF(24)](2), [4c][BArF(24)](2), in which no redox chemistry has occurred. Crystal structures of bis(disulfide)-linked compounds [(P-P)Ni(S(2)C(6)H(2)(mu-S(2))(2)C(6)H(2)S(2))Ni(P-P)] are reported. Near IR spectroscopy upon cationic [3d](+) and neutral 6a

  18. Concentration measurements and chemical composition of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 at a coastal site in Beirut, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaka', Huda; Saliba, Najat A.

    Emission measurements and chemical profiles of PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine) in Lebanon are reported for the months of February till May of 2003. A 4 month average of 76 μg m -3 for PM10-2.5 and 40 μg m -3 for PM2.5 compared well with East Mediterranean cities but was higher than most emission measurements reported for the West Mediterranean basin. Using the ATR-FTIR technique, the chemical composition of aerosols was identified. Inorganic ions such as SO 42-, NO 3-, SiO 42-, CO 32-, and NH 4+, showed higher concentrations of PM2.5 when compared to PM10-2.5. Organic functional groups like aliphatic carbons, alcohols, carbonyls, and organic nitrates were also detected. Higher concentrations of organic species, i.e. aliphatic hydrocarbons and long chains of alcoholic and carboxylic acid substances, were identified in PM2.5 while in PM10-2.5, higher water concentrations were observed. Comparison between the ATR spectra of samples collected on a "regular" and a "sandy" day clearly showed the increase of SiO 42- ions and calcium carbonate during the sand storm due to dust loading on the Teflon filters. This study is one of the few works that have reported emission measurements in the Eastern Mediterranean, complementing thereby the large amount of data available in the Western Mediterranean. More importantly, this paper establishes a comparison between the main constituents of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 using ATR-infrared spectroscopy, for the first time. Understanding the composition of different aerosol size fractions in the atmosphere enables us to better predict detailed chemical environmental variations.

  19. Thermally stable compositions including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Huynh, My Hang

    2010-01-26

    An explosive formulation including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt and a high temperature binder is disclosed together with a process of preparing 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt.

  20. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  1. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  2. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  3. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative...

  4. Effect of local and long-range transport emissions on the elemental composition of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 in Beirut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, Najat A.; Kouyoumdjian, Hovig; Roumié, Mohamad

    The elemental composition of PM 10-2.5 and PM 2.5 were studied in winter, summer, stormy and non-stormy dates during a period extending from February 2004 till January 2005, in a populated area of Beirut. Results of PIXE analysis and enrichment factor (E.F.) calculation, using Si as a reference of crustal material, showed that crustal elements (E.F.<10) like Si, Ca, K, Ti, Mn and Fe were more abundant in PM 10-2.5 while enriched elements (E.F.>10) like S, Cu, Zn and Pb predominated in PM 2.5. In PM 10-2.5, concentrations of crustal elements increased during stormy episodes, all time high Ca concentrations were due to the abundance of calcite and limestone rocks in Lebanon, and increased Cl levels correlated with marine air masses. In PM 2.5, sulfur concentrations were more prominent in the summer due to the enhancement of photochemical reactions. Sources of sulfur were attributed to local, sea-water and long-range transport from Eastern Europe, with the latter being the most predominate. Anthropogenic elements like Cu and Zn were generated from worn brakes and tires in high traffic density area and spikes of Pb were directly linked to a southerly wind originated from Egypt and/or Israel as determined by the air trajectory HYSPLIT model. In brief, elemental variations depended on the regional variability of the transport pattern and the different removal rates of aerosols.

  5. Global emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 from agricultural tillage and harvesting operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil particles emitted during agricultural activities is a major recurring source contributing to atmospheric aerosol loading. Emission inventories of agricultural dust emissions have been compiled in several regions. These inventories, compiled based on historic survey and activity data, may reflect the current emission strengths that introduce large uncertainties when they are used to drive chemical transport models. In addition, there is no global emission inventory of agricultural dust emissions required to support global air quality and climate modeling. In this study, we present our recent efforts to develop a global emission inventory of PM10 and PM2.5 released from field tillage and harvesting operations using an emission factors-based approach. Both major crops (e.g., wheat and corn) and forage production were considered. For each crop or forage, information of crop area, crop calendar, farming activities and emission factors of specified operations were assembled. The key issue of inventory compilation is the choice of suitable emission factors for specified operations over different parts of the world. Through careful review of published emission factors, we modified the traditional emission factor-based model by multiplying correction coefficient factors to reflect the relationship between emission factors, soil texture, and climate conditions. Then, the temporal (i.e., monthly) and spatial (i.e., 0.5º resolution) distribution of agricultural PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from each and all operations were estimated for each crop or forage. Finally, the emissions from individual crops were aggregated to assemble a global inventory from agricultural operations. The inventory was verified by comparing the new data with the existing agricultural fugitive dust inventory in North America and Europe, as well as satellite observations of anthropogenic agricultural dust emissions.

  6. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  7. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  8. Characterization of particulate, metallic elements of TSP, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) aerosols at a farm sampling site in Taiwan, Taichung.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Cheng-Nan; Chu, Chia-Chium; Wu, Yuh-Shen; Fu, Peter Pi-Cheng; Yang, I-Lin; Chen, Ming-Hsiang

    2003-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles and metallic concentrations were monitored at the Experimental Farm of Tunghai University (EFTU) sampling site in this study. Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was collected by using a PS-1 sampler at the farm-sampling site, in central Taiwan, from July 2001 to April 2002. At the same time, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) were also measured with a Universal sampler from January 2002 to April 2002. Only subjects with the most complete data records on TSP sampling (N=43) and PM(10) sampling (N=23) were used in this analysis. Taichung Industrial Park, Taichung Kang Road (traffic) and a Hospital Incinerator surround the Experimental Farm of Tunghai University. Atmospheric concentrations of metallic elements were analyzed by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA-680/G). The results indicated that the metallic elements Mg, Cu and Mn were the largest components in the TSP fraction; the metallic elements Fe and Cd were the largest composition in the PM(2.5-10) fraction; however, the metallic elements Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni were the largest abundance in the PM(2.5) fraction. The atmospheric metallic elements in the TSP, PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) fractions came different emission sources, such as soil, traffic, industry and resuspended particles. PMID:12738209

  9. Multivariate methods for indoor PM10 and PM2.5 modelling in naturally ventilated schools buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbayoumi, Maher; Ramli, Nor Azam; Md Yusof, Noor Faizah Fitri; Yahaya, Ahmad Shukri Bin; Al Madhoun, Wesam; Ul-Saufie, Ahmed Zia

    2014-09-01

    In this study the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, CO and CO2 concentrations and meteorological variables (wind speed, air temperature, and relative humidity) were employed to predict the annual and seasonal indoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5 using multivariate statistical methods. The data have been collected in twelve naturally ventilated schools in Gaza Strip (Palestine) from October 2011 to May 2012 (academic year). The bivariate correlation analysis showed that the indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were highly positive correlated with outdoor concentration of PM10 and PM2.5. Further, Multiple linear regression (MLR) was used for modelling and R2 values for indoor PM10 were determined as 0.62 and 0.84 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. The Performance indicators of MLR models indicated that the prediction for PM10 and PM2.5 annual models were better than seasonal models. In order to reduce the number of input variables, principal component analysis (PCA) and principal component regression (PCR) were applied by using annual data. The predicted R2 were 0.40 and 0.73 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. PM10 models (MLR and PCR) show the tendency to underestimate indoor PM10 concentrations as it does not take into account the occupant's activities which highly affect the indoor concentrations during the class hours.

  10. Speciation of PM10 and PM2.5 in the urban atmosphere of Milan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolzacchini, E.; Gianelle, V.; Perrone, G.; Pozzoli, L.; Rindone, B.; Mognaschi, G.; Avella, F.; Faedo, D.

    2003-04-01

    A new project (Urban Particulate in Milan, PUMI) is started since last February 2002 to study the air pollution in the Milan urban area which during last winter reached a critical dimension, not only for the city of Milan (Italy) but also for all the Region Lombardia. A project involve the collection and elaboration of all the data about fine particles (PM10, PM2.5) in the Milan urban area to study their spatial and temporal distribution and their correlation with meteorological parameters and other pollutants. Monitoring campaigns for the emissions from primary representative sources (mobile sources, household heating, power plants and incinerators). Speciation of the samples collected from the principal sources and speciation of the fine particulate samples. Compounds of particular interest for the health (e.g. elements, PAH, nitro-PHA) will be analysed to identify the impact of the different sources.

  11. Characterisation of chemical species in PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols in Brisbane, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Y. C.; Simpson, R. W.; McTainsh, G. H.; Vowles, P. D.; Cohen, D. D.; Bailey, G. M.

    Aerosol samples for PM 10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than 10 um) were collected from September 1993 to August 1994 at five sites representing the major land use patterns in Brisbane, a subtropical coastal city in Australia. The samples collected were analysed by techniques such as ion beam analysis and the integrating plate laser absorption method, and the chemical composition of the samples was reconstructed from the observed elemental composition. For these PM 10 samples, the major components, on average, were crustal matter (25% by mass), organics (17%), sea salt (12%), elemental carbon (10%) and ammonium sulphate (7%). Aerosol samples of PM 2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) were collected by a dichotomous sampler at one of the sites (GU), a site on university buildings located in a suburban area of Brisbane but surrounded by a buffer zone provided by a forest conservation area. A high average fine Br/Pb ratio of 0.36 in the GU samples, which is close to that in vehicle exhausts, indicates that this site probably has low background levels of lead even though there has been significant traffic in the area for 20 years, so the forest area is an effective buffer to road dust from the surrounding suburbia. Temporal trends at this site suggest that road side dust and industry-sourced crustal matter could contribute to more than half of the mass of crustal matter. Seasonal meteorological conditions which determine the dispersion of pollutants out of Brisbane and the continuous input of rural dust into Brisbane are potentially important factors influencing the level of crustal matter in Brisbane. However, major rural dust events do not considerably increase the seasonal average level of crustal matter. Also, apart from significant local influences at some sites (such as heavy road traffic network or a cement factory), the results from the GU site show a similar level of elemental and chemical components from

  12. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.51.0) and Coarse (PM102.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.51.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.51.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM102.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM102.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM102.5 than PM2.51.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM102.5 than in PM2.51.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.51.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  13. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  14. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PMID:24634602

  15. Lattice distortion and stripelike antiferromagnetic order in Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5

    SciTech Connect

    Sapkota, Aashish; Tucker, Gregory S; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Tian, Wei; Ni, N; Cava, R J; McQueeney, Robert J; Goldman, Alan I; Kreyssig, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 is the parent compound for a class of Fe-based high-temperature superconductors where superconductivity with transition temperatures up to 30 K can be introduced by partial element substitution. We present a combined high-resolution high-energy x-ray diffraction and elastic neutron scattering study on a Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 single crystal. This study reveals the microscopic nature of two distinct and continuous phase transitions to be very similar to other Fe-based high-temperature superconductors: an orthorhombic distortion of the high-temperature tetragonal Fe-As lattice below TS=110(2) K followed by stripelike antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments below TN=96(2) K. These findings demonstrate that major features of the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors are very robust against variations in chemical constitution as well as structural imperfection of the layers separating the Fe-As layers from each other and confirms that the Fe-As layers primarily determine the physics in this class of material.

  16. Performance of Passive Samplers Analyzed by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy to Measure PM10-2.5.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Sawvel, Eric J; Willis, Robert; West, Roger R; Casuccio, Gary S

    2016-07-19

    We report on the precision and accuracy of measuring PM10-2.5 and its components with particles collected by passive aerosol samplers and analyzed by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Passive samplers were deployed for week-long intervals in triplicate and colocated with a federal reference method sampler at three sites and for 5 weeks in summer 2009 and 5 weeks in winter 2010 in Cleveland, OH. The limit of detection of the passive method for PM10-2.5 determined from blank analysis was 2.8 μg m(-3). Overall precision expressed as root-mean-square coefficient of variation (CVRMS) improved with increasing concentrations (37% for all samples, n = 30; 19% for PM10-2.5 > 10 μg m(-3), n = 9; and 10% for PM10-2.5 > 15 μg m(-3), n = 4). The linear regression of PM10-2.5 measured passively on that measured with the reference sampler exhibited an intercept not statistically different than zero (p = 0.46) and a slope not statistically different from unity (p = 0.92). Triplicates with high CVs (CV > 40%, n = 5) were attributed to low particle counts (and mass concentrations), spurious counts attributed to salt particles, and Al-rich particles. This work provides important quantitative observations that can help guide future development and use of passive samplers for measuring atmospheric particulate matter. PMID:27300163

  17. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  18. Flux Pinning by Cr Nanoparticles in Cu_{0.5} Tl_{0.5} Ba2 Ca2 Cu3 O_{10-δ } Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Qasim, Irfan; Nadeem, K.

    2016-04-01

    Increase in flux pinning strength of Cu_{0.5} Tl_{0.5} Ba2 Ca2 Cu3 O_{10-δ } (CuTl-1223) superconductor has been observed after addition of Cr nanoparticles. We have thoroughly investigated the infield response of Cr nanoparticles-added CuTl-1223 superconductor in an external applied magnetic field in the range of 0-7 T. Solid-state reaction technique has been employed to synthesize (Cr)x -CuTl-1223; x = 0-1.00 wt% nanoparticle-superconductor composites. The flux pinning mechanism has been analyzed on the basis of thermally activated flux flow model in the presence of a small current (10 μ A). The increase in activation energy and decrease in transition width of CuTl-1223 superconducting phase show the enhancement in its flux pinning strength upon the addition of Cr nanoparticles.

  19. Flux Pinning by Cr Nanoparticles in Cu_{0.5}Tl_{0.5}Ba2Ca2Cu3O_{10-δ } Superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waqee-ur-Rehman, M.; Mumtaz, M.; Qasim, Irfan; Nadeem, K.

    2016-09-01

    Increase in flux pinning strength of Cu_{0.5}Tl_{0.5}Ba2Ca2Cu3O_{10-δ }(CuTl-1223) superconductor has been observed after addition of Cr nanoparticles. We have thoroughly investigated the infield response of Cr nanoparticles-added CuTl-1223 superconductor in an external applied magnetic field in the range of 0-7 T. Solid-state reaction technique has been employed to synthesize (Cr)x-CuTl-1223; x = 0-1.00 wt% nanoparticle-superconductor composites. The flux pinning mechanism has been analyzed on the basis of thermally activated flux flow model in the presence of a small current (10 μ A). The increase in activation energy and decrease in transition width of CuTl-1223 superconducting phase show the enhancement in its flux pinning strength upon the addition of Cr nanoparticles.

  20. 77 FR 17386 - Significant New Use Rule for Hexabromocyclododecane and 1,2,5,6,9,10-Hexabromocyclododecane

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ...EPA is proposing a significant new use rule (SNUR) under section 5(a)(2) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) for two chemical substances: Hexabromocyclododecane (Chemical Abstracts Service Registry Number (CASRN) 25637-99-4) and 1,2,5,6,9,10- hexabromocyclododecane (CASRN 3194-55-6), hereinafter collectively referred to as HBCD. This proposed rule would designate ``use in consumer......

  1. Identification of autoantigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guang; Holl, T. Matt; Liu, Yang; Li, Yi; Lu, Xiaozhi; Nicely, Nathan I.; Kepler, Thomas B.; Alam, S. Munir; Liao, Hua-Xin; Cain, Derek W.; Spicer, Leonard; VandeBerg, John L.; Haynes, Barton F.

    2013-01-01

    Many human monoclonal antibodies that neutralize multiple clades of HIV-1 are polyreactive and bind avidly to mammalian autoantigens. Indeed, the generation of neutralizing antibodies to the 2F5 and 4E10 epitopes of HIV-1 gp41 in man may be proscribed by immune tolerance because mice expressing the VH and VL regions of 2F5 have a block in B cell development that is characteristic of central tolerance. This developmental blockade implies the presence of tolerizing autoantigens that are mimicked by the membrane-proximal external region of HIV-1 gp41. We identify human kynureninase (KYNU) and splicing factor 3b subunit 3 (SF3B3) as the primary conserved, vertebrate self-antigens recognized by the 2F5 and 4E10 antibodies, respectively. 2F5 binds the H4 domain of KYNU which contains the complete 2F5 linear epitope (ELDKWA). 4E10 recognizes an epitope of SF3B3 that is strongly dependent on hydrophobic interactions. Opossums carry a rare KYNU H4 domain that abolishes 2F5 binding, but they retain the SF3B3 4E10 epitope. Immunization of opossums with HIV-1 gp140 induced extraordinary titers of serum antibody to the 2F5 ELDKWA epitope but little or nothing to the 4E10 determinant. Identification of structural motifs shared by vertebrates and HIV-1 provides direct evidence that immunological tolerance can impair humoral responses to HIV-1. PMID:23359068

  2. MULTI-SITE EVALUATIONS OF CANDIDATE METHODOLOGIES FOR DETERMINING COARSE PARTICULATE (PM 10-2.5) CONCENTRATIONS: AUGUST 2005 UPDATED REPORT REGARDING SECOND-GENERATION AND NEW PM 10-2.5 SAMPLERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multi-site field studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of sampling methods for measuring the coarse fraction of PM10 (PM10 2.5) in ambient air. The field studies involved the use of both time-integrated filter-based and direct continuous methods. Despite operationa...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-4... 40 CFR 191, subpart A. (c) Potentially adverse conditions. (1) The presence of nearby potentially...) Presence of other nuclear installations and operations, subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 190...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... 40 CFR 191, subpart A. (c) Potentially adverse conditions. (1) The presence of nearby potentially...) Presence of other nuclear installations and operations, subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 190...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... 40 CFR 191, subpart A. (c) Potentially adverse conditions. (1) The presence of nearby potentially...) Presence of other nuclear installations and operations, subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 190...

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... 40 CFR 191, subpart A. (c) Potentially adverse conditions. (1) The presence of nearby potentially...) Presence of other nuclear installations and operations, subject to the requirements of 40 CFR part 190...

  7. [Characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations in mountain background region of East China].

    PubMed

    Su, Bin-Bin; Liu, Xin-Dong; Tao, Jun

    2013-02-01

    The online PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were measured from March 2011 'to February 2012 at the national atmospheric background monitoring station in Wuyishan of Fujian Province to discuss the characteristic of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations and the impact factors in forest and mountain background region of East China. HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model was used to investigate the potential sources of particulates during the pollution episodes. The results showed that the background concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were (23 +/- 16) microg.m-3 and (18 +/- 12) microg.m-3, respectively. Seasonal variations of PMl0 and PM2.5 loadings were observed, and loadings decreased in the same order: spring > autumn > winter > summer. PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations were obviously higher in spring than in other seasons because of the transportation of dust storm. The fine particles were the dominant pollutant which accounted for 76% of PM10. The good correlation between PM10/PM2.5 and gas pollutants suggested that regional transportation and secondary aerosol were the major sources in the background station. One episode occurring in April 2011 was related with the transportation of dust storm. However, another episode occurring in September 2011 had close relationship with the transportation of higher pollutant loadings in East China. PMID:23668109

  8. Linear Magnetoresistance of Ca10 Ptn As8 (Fe2 As2)5 (n = 3 and 4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jiayun; Karki, Amar; Jin, Rongying

    We report the normal-state magnetoresistance (MR) of superconducting Ca10 Ptn As8(Fe2 As2) 5 (n = 3 and 4) as a function of temperature (50 - 300 K) and magnetic field (0 - 14 Tesla). It is found that MR is positive in a wide temperature range in both transverse (H ⊥ I) and longitudinal (H ∥ I) cases. At a fixed temperature and field, we observe MR (H ⊥ I) > MR (H ∥ I), suggesting spin-orbital coupling in addition to charge-spin interaction. Remarkably, MR shows linear field dependence between 0 and 14 Tesla in a wide temperature range for both n = 3 and 4. The implication of such unusual field dependence of MR will be discussed.

  9. Concentrations and emission factors for PM2.5 and PM10 from road traffic in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferm, Martin; Sjöberg, Karin

    2015-10-01

    PM10 concentrations exceed the guidelines in some Swedish cities and the limit values will likely be further reduced in the future. In order to gain more knowledge of emission factors for road traffic and concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, existing monitoring stations in two cities, Gothenburg and Umeå, with international E-road thoroughfares, were complemented with some PM2.5 measurements. Emission factors for PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated using NOX as a tracer. Monitoring data from kerbside and urban background sites in Gothenburg during 2006-2010 and in Umeå during 2006-2012 were used. NOX emissions were estimated from the traffic flow and emission factors calculated from the HBEFA3.1 model. PM2.5 constitutes the finer part of PM10. Emissions of the coarser part of PM10 (PM10-PM2.5) are suppressed when roads are wet and show a maximum during spring when the roads dry up and studded tyres are still used. Less than 1% of the road wear caused by studded tyres give rise to airborne PM2.5-10 particles. The NOX emission factors decrease with time in the used model, due to the renewal of the vehicle fleet. However, the NOX concentrations resulting from the roads show no clear trend. The air dispersion is an important factor controlling the PM concentration near the road. The dispersion has a minimum in winter and during midnight. The average street level concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Gothenburg were 21 ± 20 and 8 ± 6 μg m-3 respectively, which is 36% and 22% higher than the urban background concentrations. Despite the four times lower traffic flow in Umeå compared to Gothenburg, the average particle concentrations were very similar; 21 ± 31 and 7 ± 5 μg m-3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. These concentrations were, however, 108% and 55% higher than the urban background concentrations in Umeå. The emission factors for PM10 decreased with time, and the average factor was 0.06 g km-1 vehichle-1. The emission factors for PM2.5 are very uncertain due to the

  10. Dust monitoring on the Hanford Site: An investigation into the relationship between TSP, PM-10 and PM-2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Tara L.; Fritz, Brad G.

    2004-12-01

    Samples were collected to determine TSP concentration in air on the central plateau of the Hanford Site. These were compared to PM-10 and PM-2.5 data collected over the same time period. Results provide a means to estimate TSP concentration based on PM-10 concentration.

  11. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cracks. 59.10-5 Section 59.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending from the calking edge of plates...

  12. Ion concentrations of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols over the eastern Mediterranean region: seasonal variation and source identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, H.; Saliba, N. A.

    2005-12-01

    The annual averages of particulate matters (PM10, PM10-2.5 (coarse) and PM2.5 (fine)) in a densely populated area of Beirut were measured and found to be 84±27, 53±20 and 31±9 μg m-3, respectively. Ion Chromatography (IC) analysis of the collected PM Teflon filters showed that NaCl, CaSO4 and Ca(NO3)2 were predominant in the coarse particles, while (NH4)2SO4 was the main salt in the fine particles. Using the non destructive Fourier Transform Infra Red-Attenuated Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) technique, CaCO3 was determined in the coarse filter. In addition, ATR measurements showed that inorganic salts present in the coarse particles are mostly water insoluble while salts found in fine particles are soluble. Concentrations of nitrates and calcium higher than the ones reported in neighboring Mediterranean countries were good indication of high traffic density and crustal dust abundance in Beirut, respectively. The study of the seasonal variation showed that long-range transport of SO2 from Eastern and Central Europe, sandy storms coming from Africa and marine aerosols are considered major sources of the determined inorganic ions. Considering the importance of the health and climate impacts of aerosols locally and regionally, this study constitutes a point of reference for eastern Mediterranean transport modeling studies and local regulatory and policy makers.

  13. PM10 and PM2.5 composition over the Central Black Sea: origin and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    Koçak, M; Mihalopoulos, N; Tutsak, E; Theodosi, C; Zarmpas, P; Kalegeri, P

    2015-11-01

    Daily PM10 and PM2.5 samples were collected between April 2009 and July 2010 at a rural site (Sinop) situated on the coast of the Central Black Sea. The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were 23.2 ± 16.7 and 9.8 ± 6.9 μg m(-3), respectively. Coarse and fine filters were analyzed for Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), C2O4(2-), PO4(3-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), and Ca(2+) by using ion chromatography. Elemental and organic carbon content in bulk quartz filters were also analyzed. The highest PM2.5 contribution to PM10 was found in summer with a value of 0.54 due to enhanced secondary aerosols in relation to photochemistry. Cl(-), Na(+), and Mg(2+) illustrated their higher concentrations and variability during winter. Chlorine depletion was chiefly attributed to nitrate. Higher nssCa(2+) concentrations were ascribed to episodic mineral dust intrusions from North Africa into the region. Crustal material (31%) and sea salt (13%) were found to be accounted for the majority of the PM10. The ionic mass (IM), particulate organic matter (POM), and elemental carbon (EC) explained 13, 20, and 3% of the PM10 mass, correspondingly. The IM, POM, and EC dominated the PM2.5 (~74%) mass. Regarding EU legislation, the exceeded PM2.5 values were found to be associated with secondary aerosols, with a particular dominance of POM. For the exceeded PM10 values, six of the events were dominated by dust while two and four of these exceedances were caused by sea salt and mix events, respectively. PMID:26174981

  14. Wintertime PM 2.5 and PM 10 carbonaceous and inorganic constituents from urban site in western India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengarajan, R.; Sudheer, A. K.; Sarin, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Daily variability in the chemical composition of atmospheric PM 2.5 and PM 10 has been studied from an urban site (Ahmedabad) in western India over a span of 30 days during winter. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass concentrations ranged from 32 to 106 μg m - 3 and 121 to 327 μg m - 3 , respectively. On average, PM 2.5 constitutes ~ 33% of PM 10, indicating dominance of coarse mode aerosols in the urban atmosphere. The particulate EC and OC show higher abundances in PM 2.5 (average: 3.0 ± 0.9 and 18.3 ± 5.9 μg m - 3 respectively) whereas those in PM 10 are 4.4 ± 2.4 and 29.8 ± 11.2 μg m - 3 respectively. A linear increasing trend and representative OC/EC ratio of 6.2 indicate their primary source from biomass burning emissions. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC: 4.0-14.7 μg m - 3 ) and its linear relationship with K + (0.6-1.7 μg m - 3 ) in PM 2.5 further support biomass burning emissions as a dominant source for carbonaceous aerosol. Among water-soluble inorganic species, SO 42- is the most abundant (range: 3.2-22.5 μg m - 3 ); almost all of it occurs in fine mode (PM 2.5) and exhibits near-quantitative neutralization with NH 4+ (r = 0.98, slope: 1.3). The water-soluble Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ mainly abundant in the coarse mode, suggest significant contribution from mineral dust. Documenting large temporal variability in the chemical composition of coarse and fine mode aerosol is essential in order to assess the changing regional emission scenario over mega-cities and their down-wind transport.

  15. Quantitative analysis on windblown dust concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) during dust events in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugder, Dulam; Shinoda, Masato; Kimura, Reiji; Batbold, Altangerel; Amarjargal, Danzansambuu

    2014-09-01

    Dust concentration, wind speed and visibility, measured at four sites in the Gobi Desert and at a site in the steppe zone of Mongolia over a period of 4.5 years (January 2009 to May 2013), have been analyzed for their relationships, their effects on visibility, and for an estimate of the threshold wind necessary for dust emission in the region. Based on quantitative analysis on measurements, we evaluated that dust emission concentrations of 41-61 (20-24) μg m-3 of PM10 (PM2.5) are as the criterion between normal and hazy atmospheric conditions. With the arrival of dust events, wind-borne soil particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) that originates in the Gobi Desert is changed dramatically. PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations increase by at least double or by several tens of times during severe dust events in comparison with the normal atmospheric condition. Ratio (PM2.5/PM10) between monthly means of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations showed that anthropogenic particles were dominant in the ambient air of province centers in cool months (November to February). Threshold values of the onset of dust events were determined for PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations. According to the definition of dust storms, dust concentrations of PM10 corresponding to visibility of 1 km or less were determined at sites in the Gobi Desert and the steppe region. The threshold wind speeds during days with dust events were estimated at four sites in the Gobi Desert and compared each other. The threshold wind was higher at Sainshand and its cause might be due to smaller silt and clay fractions of soil.

  16. Dust Monitoring on the Hanford Site: An Investigation into the Relationship Between TSP, PM-10, and PM-2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.; Fitz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    High levels of particulate matter (PM) are linked to some health problems and environmental issues. Air quality standards have been developed in hopes to reduce particulate matter problems. The most common fractions of particulate matter measured include PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particles (TSP). The focus of this study was to evaluate relationships between PM2.5, PM10, and TSP concentrations specific to the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations continued while additional measurements of TSP were made over several summer months. Four sampling locations on the Hanford Site were used to compare spatial differences in the data. Comparison of the data revealed a strong linear correlation between PM10 and TSP for the time period evaluated. The correlation between PM2.5 and TSP was not as strong, and indicated that local sources rarely were above background measurements. This was supported by the correlation of ground level PM2.5 with PM2.5 concentrations measured on a near by mountain.

  17. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05). PMID:18036738

  18. Understanding intra-neighborhood patterns in PM2.5 and PM10 using mobile monitoring in Braddock, PA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Braddock, Pennsylvania is home to the Edgar Thomson Steel Works (ETSW), one of the few remaining active steel mills in the Pittsburgh region. An economically distressed area, Braddock exceeds average annual (>15 μg/m3) and daily (>35 μg/m3) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods A mobile air monitoring study was designed and implemented in morning and afternoon hours in the summer and winter (2010–2011) to explore the within-neighborhood spatial and temporal (within-day and between-day) variability in PM2.5 and PM10. Results Both pollutants displayed spatial variation between stops, and substantial temporal variation within and across study days. For summer morning sampling runs, site-specific mean PM2.5 ranged from 30.0 (SD = 3.3) to 55.1 (SD = 13.0) μg/m3. Mean PM10 ranged from 30.4 (SD = 2.5) to 69.7 (SD = 51.2) μg/m3, respectively. During summer months, afternoon concentrations were significantly lower than morning for both PM2.5 and PM10, potentially owing to morning subsidence inversions. Winter concentrations were lower than summer, on average, and showed lesser diurnal variation. Temperature, wind speed, and wind direction predicted significant variability in PM2.5 and PM10 in multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Data reveals significant morning versus afternoon variability and spatial variability in both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations within Braddock. Information obtained on peak concentration periods, and the combined effects of industry, traffic, and elevation in this region informed the design of a larger stationary monitoring network. PMID:23051204

  19. Ti12.5Zr21V10Cr8.5MnxCo1.5Ni46.5-x AB2-type metal hydride alloys for electrochemical storage application: Part 2. Hydrogen storage and electrochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, K.; Chao, B.; Bendersky, L. A.; Wang, K.

    2012-11-01

    In Part 2 of this report, the hydrogen gas charging and electrochemical properties of a series of AB2-based metal alloys (Ti12.5Zr21V10Cr8.5MnxCo1.5Ni46.5-x) designed to have different fractions of Zr-Ni-type secondary phases by varying the Mn/Ni-content were studied to establish correlations of these properties with abundances of the secondary phases. In the gas charging, the general trend of pressure-concentration-temperature slope factor and hysteresis is to diminish with increase in the Zr7Ni10 phase abundance; the trend of reversible hydrogen storage capacity is to increase as the TiNi-derived AB phase abundance increases. As for the electrochemical properties, the number of activation cycles needed to achieve a given percentage of capacity and power decreases with increase in the total amount of secondary phases. Trends of changes in both the total and reversible capacities follow that in AB phase abundance; the evolution of high-rate dischargeability, bulk diffusion, and surface exchange current is similar to that of Zr7Ni10 phase abundance - increase in the beginning and decrease afterward as the Mn-content in the alloy increases. Other properties, such as metal-hydrogen bond strength and maximum gaseous phase storage capacity, are predominately dependent on the alloys' composition, i.e. the Mn/Ni ratio.

  20. Organic and elemental carbon associated to PM10 and PM 2.5 at urban sites of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Maggos, Thomas; Saraga, D; Petrakakis, M

    2014-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations, associated to PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions, were concurrently determined during the warm and the cold months of the year (July-September 2011 and February-April 2012, respectively) at two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, an urban-traffic site (UT) and an urban-background site (UB). Concentrations at the UT site (11.3 ± 5.0 and 8.44 ± 4.08 14 μg m(-3) for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 6.56 ± 2.14 and 5.29 ± 1.54 μg m(-3) for EC10 and EC2.5) were among the highest values reported for urban sites in European cities. Significantly lower concentrations were found at the UB site for both carbonaceous species, particularly for EC (6.62 ± 4.59 and 5.72 ± 4.36 μg m(-3) for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 0.93 ± 0.61 and 0.69 ± 0.39 μg m(-3) for EC10 and EC2.5). Despite that, a negative UT-UB increment was frequently evidenced for OC2.5 and PM2.5 in the cold months possibly indicative of emissions from residential wood burning at the urban-background site. At both sites, cconcentrations of OC fractions were significantly higher in the cold months; on the contrary, EC fractions at the UT site were prominent in the warm season suggesting some influence from maritime emissions in the nearby harbor area. Secondary organic carbon, being estimated using the EC tracer method and seasonally minimum OC/EC ratios, was found to be an appreciable component of particle mass particularly in the cold season. The calculated secondary contributions to OC ranged between 35 and 59 % in the PM10 fraction, with relatively higher values in the PM2.5 fraction (39-61 %). The source origin of carbonaceous species was investigated by means of air parcel back trajectories, satellite fire maps, and concentration roses. A local origin was mainly concluded for OC and EC with limited possibility for long range transport of biomass (agricultural waste) burning aerosol. PMID:23979848

  1. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols in ambient PM10 and PM2.5 particles in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkoma, Stelyus L; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-02-15

    Ambient daytime and nighttime PM(10) and PM(2.5) samples were collected in parallel at a kerbside in Dar es Salaam in August and September 2005 (dry season) and in April and May 2006 (wet season). All samples were analyzed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM(10) and PM(2.5) mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 76+/-32microg/m(3) and 26+/-7microg/m(3) for the 2005 dry season and 52+/-27microg/m(3) and 19+/-10microg/m(3) for the 2006 wet season campaign. On average, TC accounted for 29% of the PM(10) mass and 49% of the PM(2.5) mass for the 2005 dry season campaign and the corresponding values for the 2006 wet season campaign were 35% and 59%. There was little difference between the two campaigns for the WSOC/OC ratios with the PM(2.5) fraction having higher ratios than the PM(10) fraction during each campaign. Also for EC/TC higher ratios were noted in PM(2.5) than in PM(10), but the ratios were substantially larger in the 2006 wet season than in the 2005 dry season. The large EC/TC ratios (means 0.22-0.38) reflect the substantial impact from traffic at Dar es Salaam, as was also apparent from the clear diurnal variation in OC levels, with higher values during the day. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to traffic and charcoal burning. On average, 70% of the PM(10) OC was attributed to traffic and 30% to charcoal burning in both campaigns. A definite explanation for the substantially larger EC/TC ratios in the 2006 campaign as compared to the 2005 campaign is not available. PMID:19906404

  2. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from "modern" carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM2.5 and PM10 is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The 14C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM2.5 and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM10. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  3. The empirical correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and AOD in the Beijing metropolitan region and the PM2.5, PM10 distributions retrieved by MODIS.

    PubMed

    Kong, Lingbin; Xin, Jinyuan; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2016-09-01

    We observed PM2.5, PM10 concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and Ångström exponents (α) in three typical stations, the Beijing city, the Xianghe suburban and the Xinglong background station in the Beijing metropolitan region, from 2009 to 2010, synchronously. The annual means of PM2.5 (PM10) were 62 ± 45 (130 ± 88) μg m(-3) and 79 ± 61 (142 ± 96) μg m(-3) in the city and suburban region, which were much higher than the regional background (PM2.5: 36 ± 29 μg m(-3)). The annual means of AOD were 0.53 ± 0.47 and 0.54 ± 0.46 and 0.24 ± 0.22 in the city, suburban and the background region, respectively. The annual means of Ångström exponents were 1.11 ± 0.31, 1.09 ± 0.31 and 1.02 ± 0.31 in three typical stations. Meanwhile, the rates of PM2.5 accounting for PM10 were 44%-54% and 46%-70% in the city and suburban region during four seasons. The pollution of fine particulate was more serious in winter than other seasons. The linear regression functions of PM2.5 (y) and ground-observed AOD (x) were similarly with high correlation coefficient in the three typical areas, which were y = 74x + 18 (R(2) = 0.58, N = 337, in the City), y = 80x + 25 (R(2) = 0.55, N = 306, in the suburban) and y = 87x + 9 (R(2) = 0.64, N = 350, in the background). The functions of PM10 (y) and ground-observed AOD (x) were y = 112x + 57 (R(2) = 0.54, N = 337, in the city) and y = 114x + 68 (R(2) = 0.47, N = 304, in the suburban). But the functions had large differences in four seasons. The correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and MODIS AOD were similar with the correlations between PM2.5, PM10 and the ground-observed AOD. With MODIS C6 AOD, the distributions of PM2.5 and PM10 concentration were retrieved by the seasonal functions. The absolute retrieval errors of seasonal PM2.5 distribution were less than 5 μg m(-3) in the pollutant city and suburb, and less than 7 μg m(-3) in the clean background. PMID

  4. Influence of tobacco smoke on carcinogenic PAH composition in indoor PM 10 and PM 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, K.; Castro, D.; Pereira, M. C.; Morais, S.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), have a direct impact on human population. Consequently, there is a widespread interest in analysing and evaluating the exposure to PAH in different indoor environments, influenced by different emission sources. The information on indoor PAH is still limited, mainly in terms of PAH distribution in indoor particles of different sizes; thus, this study evaluated the influence of tobacco smoke on PM 10 and PM 2.5 characteristics, namely on their PAH compositions, with further aim to understand the negative impact of tobacco smoke on human health. Samples were collected at one site influenced by tobacco smoke and at one reference (non-smoking) site using low-volume samplers; the analyses of 17 PAH were performed by Microwave Assisted Extraction combined with Liquid Chromatography (MAE-LC). At the site influenced by tobacco smoke PM concentrations were higher 650% for PM 10, and 720% for PM 2.5. When influenced by smoking, 4 ring PAH (fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene) were the most abundant PAH, with concentrations 4600-21 000% and 5100-20 800% higher than at the reference site for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, accounting for 49% of total PAH (Σ PAH). Higher molecular weight PAH (5-6 rings) reached concentrations 300-1300% and 140-1700% higher for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, at the site influenced by tobacco smoke. Considering 9 carcinogenic PAH this increase was 780% and 760% in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, indicating the strong potential risk for human health. As different composition profiles of PAH in indoor PM were obtained for reference and smoking sites, those 9 carcinogens represented at the reference site 84% and 86% of Σ PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, and at the smoking site 56% and 55% of Σ PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. All PAH (including the carcinogenic ones) were mainly present in fine particles, which corresponds to a strong risk

  5. Characteristics of vertical profiles and sources of PM 2.5, PM 10 and carbonaceous species in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, C. Y.; Xu, X. D.; Li, Y. S.; Wong, K. H.; Ding, G. A.; Chan, L. Y.; Cheng, X. H.

    In August 2003 during the anticipated month of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympic Games, we simultaneously collected PM 10 and PM 2.5 samples at 8, 100, 200 and 325 m heights up a meteorological tower and in an urban and a suburban site in Beijing. The samples were analysed for organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents. Particulate matter (PM) and carbonaceous species pollution in the Beijing region were serious and widespread with 86% of PM 2.5 samples exceeding the daily National Ambient Air Quality Standard of the USA (65 μg m -3) and the overall daily average PM 10 concentrations of the three surface sites exceeding the Class II National Air Quality Standard of China (150 μg m -3). The maximum daily PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations reached 178.7 and 368.1 μg m -3, respectively, while those of OC and EC reached 22.2 and 9.1 μg m -3 in PM 2.5 and 30.0 and 13.0 μg m -3 in PM 10, respectively. PM, especially PM 2.5, OC and EC showed complex vertical distributions and distinct layered structures up the meteorological tower with elevated levels extending to the 100, 200 and 300 m heights. Meteorological evidence suggested that there exist fine atmospheric layers over urban Beijing. These layers were featured by strong temperature inversions close to the surface (<50 m) and more stable conditions aloft. They enhanced the accumulation of pollutants and probably caused the complex vertical distributions of PM and carbonaceous species over urban Beijing. The built-up of PM was accompanied by transport of industrial emissions from the southwest direction of the city. Emissions from road traffic and construction activities as well as secondary organic carbon (SOC) are important sources of PM. High OC/EC ratios (range of 1.8-5.1 for PM 2.5 and 2.0-4.3 for PM 10) were found, especially in the higher levels of the meteorological tower suggesting there were substantial productions of SOC in summer Beijing. SOC is estimated to account for at least 33.8% and 28

  6. CHANGES IN OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION UNIFORMITY FOR PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLER TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note documents changes in the standard operating procedures used at the Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) aerosol testing wind tunnel facility for testing of particulate matter monitoring methods of PM2.5 and PM10. These changes are relative to the op...

  7. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  8. Synthesis and anti-tubercular activity of N(2)-arylbenzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione-3-iminium bromides.

    PubMed

    Rotthier, G; Cappoen, D; Nguyen, Quang Trung; Dang Thi, Tuyet Anh; Mathys, V; Nguyen, Van Tuyen; Huygen, K; Maes, L; Cos, P; Abbaspour Tehrani, K

    2016-02-14

    Tuberculosis has remained a challenge for medicinal chemists worldwide. In the framework of a collaborative program to identify and evaluate novel antitubercular candidate compounds, the biological properties of benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-diones have been found to be very promising. In this paper we have further expanded the library by incorporation of an amidinium moiety into the benzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione scaffold. The presence of this functional group also increased the solubility of the quinones in polar solvents. To this purpose N(2)-arylbenzo[g]isoquinoline-5,10-dione-3-iminium bromides were synthesized in a straightforward way by means of a reaction of anilines with 2-(bromomethyl)-3-(cyanomethyl)-1,4-dimethoxynaphthalene. Following the biological evaluation, N(2)-(4-chlorophenyl)-5,10-dioxobenzo[g]isoquinoline-3(2H)-iminium bromide (MIC = 1.16 μM, CC50 = 28.51 μM, SI = 24.58) was selected as the most promising representative. Apart from the nano-molar anti-mycobacterial activity, the compound was able to target intracellular residing Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the susceptibility of a multi-drug-resistant strain towards the compound was confirmed. PMID:26763748

  9. Maternal exposure to air pollutant PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhao, Jinzhu; Qian, Zhengmin; Bassig, Bryan A; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Yiming; Hu, Ke; Xu, Shunqing; Zheng, Tongzhang; Yang, Shaoping

    2016-06-01

    Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has increasingly been linked to congenital heart defects (CHDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 are related to increased risk of CHDs in Wuhan, China. We conducted a cohort study with a total of 105,988 live-born infants, stillbirths, and fetal deaths. The study included mothers living in the urban district of Wuhan during pregnancy over the 2-year period from 10 June 2011 to 9 June 2013. For each study participant, we assigned 1-month and 1-week averages of PM10 and PM2.5 exposure based on measurements obtained from the nearest exposure monitor to the living residence of mothers during their early pregnancy period. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between exposure to these ambient air pollutants during early pregnancy and CHDs. We observed an increased risk of CHDs, particularly ventricular septal defect (VSD), with increasing PM2.5 exposure. Using 1-week averages, we also observed significant monotonically increasing associations between PM2.5 exposure during weeks 7-10 of pregnancy and risk of VSD, with aORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02-1.20, 1.03-1.22, 1.05-1.24, and 1.08-1.26 separately) per a 10 μg/m(3) change in PM2.5 concentration. Our study contributes to the small body of knowledge regarding the association between in utero exposure to air pollution and CHDs, but confirmation of these associations will be needed in future studies. PMID:26883477

  10. Maternal exposure to air pollutant PM2.5 and PM10 during pregnancy and risk of congenital heart defects

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Liang, Shengwen; Zhao, Jinzhu; Qian, Zhengmin; Bassig, Bryan A; Yang, Rong; Zhang, Yiming; Hu, Ke; Xu, Shunqing; Zheng, Tongzhang; Yang, Shaoping

    2016-01-01

    Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has increasingly been linked to congenital heart defects (CHDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high levels of maternal exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 are related to increased risk of CHDs in Wuhan, China. We conducted a cohort study with a total of 105,988 live-born infants, stillbirths, and fetal deaths. The study included mothers living in the urban district of Wuhan during pregnancy over the 2-year period from 10 June 2011 to 9 June 2013. For each study participant, we assigned 1-month and 1-week averages of PM10 and PM2.5 exposure based on measurements obtained from the nearest exposure monitor to the living residence of mothers during their early pregnancy period. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between exposure to these ambient air pollutants during early pregnancy and CHDs. We observed an increased risk of CHDs, particularly ventricular septal defect (VSD), with increasing PM2.5 exposure. Using 1-week averages, we also observed significant monotonically increasing associations between PM2.5 exposure during weeks 7–10 of pregnancy and risk of VSD, with aORs ranging from 1.11 to 1.17 (95% CI: 1.02–1.20, 1.03–1.22, 1.05–1.24, and 1.08–1.26 separately) per a 10 μg/m3 change in PM2.5 concentration. Our study contributes to the small body of knowledge regarding the association between in utero exposure to air pollution and CHDs, but confirmation of these associations will be needed in future studies. PMID:26883477

  11. Ni5, Ni8, and Ni10 clusters with 2,6-diacetylpyridine-dioxime as a ligand.

    PubMed

    Escuer, Albert; Esteban, Jordi; Roubeau, Olivier

    2011-09-19

    In the present work, novel coordination possibilities for the system dapdoH(2)/Ni(II) (dapdoH(2) = 2,6-diacetylpyridine-dioxime) have been explored. Depending on the starting reagents and solution conditions, several clusters with nuclearities ranging from Ni(5) to Ni(10) were achieved and structurally characterized, namely, [Ni(5)(R-COO)(2)(dapdo)(2)(dapdoH)(2)(N(CN)(2))(2)(MeOH)(2)] in which R-COO(-) = benzoate (1) or 3-chlorobenzoate (2), [Ni(8)(dapdo)(4)(NO(3))(4)(OH)(4)(MeOH)(4)] (3), and [Ni(10)(dapdo)(8)(N(CN)(2))(2)(MeO)(MeOH)](NO(3)) (4). For the first time, pentadentate coordination for the dapdo(2-) ligand has been established. All compounds show a combination of square-planar and octahedrally coordinated nickel atoms. According to the Ni(2)(sp)Ni(3)(Oh) (1 and 2), Ni(4)(sp)Ni(4)(Oh) (3), and Ni(4)(sp)Ni(6)(Oh) (4) environments, these systems magnetically behave as trimer, tetramer, and hexanuclear clusters, respectively. dc magnetic measurements in the 2-300 K range of temperature reveal antiferromagnetic coupling for all compounds, and the correlation of the superexchange interaction with the torsion angles involving the oximato bridges is experimentally confirmed. PMID:21853990

  12. Spatial and temporal variations in airborne particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) across Spain 1999-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Moreno, T.; Viana, M. M.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; Rodríguez, S.; Artiñano, B.; Salvador, P.; Sánchez, M.; Garcia Dos Santos, S.; Herce Garraleta, M. D.; Fernandez-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Sanz, M. J.; Palomo-Marín, R.; Pinilla-Gil, E.; Cuevas, E.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.

    Average ranges of particulate matter (PM 10 and PM 2.5) concentrations and chemical composition in Spain show significant variations across the country, with current PM 10 levels at several industrial and traffic hotspots exceeding recommended pollution limits. Such variations and exceedances are linked to patterns of anthropogenic and natural PM emissions, climate, and reactivity/stability of particulate species. PM 10 and PM 2.5 concentrations reach 14-22 μg PM 10 m -3 and 8-12 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at most rural/regional background sites, 25-30 μg PM 10 m -3 and 15-20μg PM 2.5 m -3 at suburban sites, 30-46 μg PM 10 m -3 and 20-30 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at urban background and industrial sites, and 46-50 μg PM 10 m -3 and 30-35 μg PM 2.5 m -3 at heavy traffic hotpots. Spatial distributions show sulphate and carbon particle levels reach maxima in industrialised areas and large cities (where traffic emissions are higher), and nitrate levels increase from the Atlantic to the Mediterranean (independent of the regional NO x emissions). African dust outbreaks have an influence on the number of exceedances of the daily limit value, but its additional load on the mean annual PM 10 levels is only highly significant in Southern Iberia and Canary and Balearic islands. The marine aerosol contribution is near one order of magnitude higher in the Canaries compared to the other regions. Important temporal influences include PM intrusion events from Africa (more abundant in February-March and spring-summer), regional-scale pollution episodes, and weekday versus weekend activity. Higher summer insolation enhances (NH 4) 2SO 4 but depletes particulate NO 3- (as a consequence of the thermal instability of ammonium nitrate in summer) and Cl - (due to HCl volatilisation resulting from the interaction of gaseous HNO 3 with the marine NaCl), as well as generally increasing dry dust resuspension under a semi-arid climate. Average trace metal concentrations rise with the highest levels at

  13. Proceedings of the National Technological Literacy Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 2-5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W., Ed.; Cheek, Kim A., Ed.

    This collection of 20 papers represents the work of 24 authors with a variety of perspectives on the growth of the science, technology and society movement in the United States in the past 10 years. These essays are seen as a representative sample of the work of the movement. Divided into four sections, Section 1, "General Science, Technology and…

  14. 75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5... for use in the management of selected, refractory patients with epilepsy, on stable regimens...

  15. Origin and variability of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) mass concentrations over an Eastern Mediterranean city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saliba, N. A.; El Jam, F.; El Tayar, G.; Obeid, W.; Roumie, M.

    2010-07-01

    Being a semi-enclosed area, the Eastern Mediterranean region experiences high Particulate Matter (PM) levels that could be attributed to sources originating from the region and from long-range transported pollutants. In this study, a long-term evaluation of PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations reveals that averages of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations collected between 2003 and 2007 in several different sites in Beirut exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) PM10 and PM2.5 annual averages (20 and 10 µg m - 3 , respectively). When compared to other sites in the region, levels fell in general outside the usual range for most other urban sites that are not directly affected by industrial activity. The average PM2.5/PM10 ratios were about 0.42, a value that is typical of urban sites. The overall averages for different seasons were higher in fall and summer as a result of low precipitations, the increase of dust storm activities in fall and the enhancement of sea and land breezes in summer, along with the increase in traffic activities (summer is a high touristic season). Using the HYSPLIT model for about 500 sampled days in Beirut, Lebanon, it was found that 60% of the wind comes from the N, NW and NE, while the remaining 40% comes from the S, SW and SE. Comparing the sources assigned to the pre- (BH) and post- (HH) 2006-war sites, it was found that aged dust increased by 64% in total PM10 and secondary aerosols by 150% in fine PM in HH over BH. Furthermore, much higher average percentages of sulfates and nitrates were determined in fine PMs in HH, indicating increased levels of their precursors NO x, SO x and Ca generated from a higher density of gasoline, diesel vehicles and construction debris.

  16. Seasonal and regional variations of source contributions for PM10 and PM2.5 in urban environment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ying-Ze; Shi, Guo-Liang; Huang-Fu, Yan-Qi; Song, Dan-Lin; Liu, Jia-Yuan; Zhou, Lai-Dong; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the sources of to PM10 and PM2.5, a long-term, speciate and simultaneous dataset was sampled in a megacity in China during the period of 2006-2014. The PM concentrations and PM2.5/PM10 were higher in the winter. Higher percentages of Al, Si, Ca and Fe were observed in the summer, and higher concentrations of OC, NO3(-) and SO4(2-) occurred in the winter. Then, the sources were quantified by an advanced three-way model (defined as an ABB three-way model), which estimates different profiles for different sizes. A higher percentage of cement and crustal dust was present in the summer; higher fractions of coal combustion and nitrate+SOC were observed in the winter. Crustal and cement contributed larger portion to coarse part of PM10, whereas vehicular and secondary source categories were enriched in PM2.5. Finally, potential source contribution function (PSCF) and source regional apportionment (SRA) methods were combined with the three-way model to estimate geographical origins. During the sampling period, the southeast region (R4) was an important region for most source categories (0.6%-11.5%); the R1 (centre region) also played a vital role (0.3-6.9%). PMID:27037891

  17. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... design limits of stress and temperature indicated in ASME B31.1 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 56... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe. 56.10-5 Section 56.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... § 56.10-5 Pipe. (a) General. Pipe and tubing shall be selected as described in Table 56.60-1(a)....

  18. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PRE-CLEANING FILTERS AND XAD-2 (SOP-5.10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP summarizes the method for pre-cleaning XAD-2 resin and quartz fiber filters. The procedure provides a cleaning method to help reduce potential background contamination in the resin and filters.

  19. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H{sub 2} hydrogenation reaction network.

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II and III...

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II and III...

  2. Combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  3. Cyclone robber system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  4. Mote cyclone robber system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  5. Master trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  6. Combined mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  7. Overflow system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This c...

  8. First stage mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions using stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent n...

  9. Mote cleaner system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  10. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  11. Mote trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rate for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  12. Parasite-Antigen Driven Expansion of IL-5− and IL-5+ Th2 Human Subpopulations in Lymphatic Filariasis and Their Differential Dependence on IL-10 and TGFβ

    PubMed Central

    Anuradha, Rajamanickam; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Hanna, Luke E.; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumaran, P. Paul; Nutman, Thomas B.; Babu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Background Two different Th2 subsets have been defined recently on the basis of IL-5 expression – an IL-5+Th2 subset and an IL-5−Th2 subset in the setting of allergy. However, the role of these newly described CD4+ T cells subpopulations has not been explored in other contexts. Methods To study the role of the Th2 subpopulation in a chronic, tissue invasive parasitic infection (lymphatic filariasis), we examined the frequency of IL-5+IL-4+IL-13+ CD4+ T cells and IL-5−IL-4 IL-13+ CD4+ T cells in asymptomatic, infected individuals (INF) and compared them to frequencies (Fo) in filarial-uninfected (UN) individuals and to those with filarial lymphedema (CP). Results INF individuals exhibited a significant increase in the spontaneously expressed and antigen-induced Fo of both Th2 subpopulations compared to the UN and CP. Interestingly, there was a positive correlation between the Fo of IL-5+Th2 cells and the absolute eosinophil and neutrophil counts; in addition there was a positive correlation between the frequency of the CD4+IL-5−Th2 subpopulation and the levels of parasite antigen – specific IgE and IgG4 in INF individuals. Moreover, blockade of IL-10 and/or TGFβ demonstrated that each of these 2 regulatory cytokines exert opposite effects on the different Th2 subsets. Finally, in those INF individuals cured of infection by anti-filarial therapy, there was a significantly decreased Fo of both Th2 subsets. Conclusions Our findings suggest that both IL-5+ and IL-5−Th2 cells play an important role in the regulation of immune responses in filarial infection and that these two Th2 subpopulations may be regulated by different cytokine-receptor mediated processes. PMID:24498448

  13. INCREASED AIRWAYS INFLAMMATION AND MODIFIED BAL CELL SURFACE PHENOTYPES IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO COARSE SIZE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although associations between inhalation of PM10 and disease morbidity and mortality appear stronger for fine (PM2.5) vs coarse (PM2.5-10) or ultrafine/UF (PM<0.1) PM. In vitro studies suggest that PM2.5-10 are more potent in inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from alve...

  14. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  15. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  16. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  17. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  18. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). 93.116 Section 93.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph... hot-spot analysis in PM10 and PM2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas for FHWA/FTA projects that...

  19. Exposure of bakery and pastry apprentices to airborne flour dust using PM2.5 and PM10 personal samplers

    PubMed Central

    Mounier-Geyssant, Estelle; Barthélemy, Jean-François; Mouchot, Lory; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Background This study describes exposure levels of bakery and pastry apprentices to flour dust, a known risk factor of occupational asthma. Methods Questionnaires on work activity were completed by 286 students. Among them, 34 performed a series of two personal exposure measurements using a PM2.5 and PM10 personal sampler during a complete work shift, one during a cold ("winter") period, and the other during a hot ("summer") period. Results Bakery apprentices experience greater average PM2.5 and PM10 exposures than pastry apprentices (p < 0.006). Exposure values for both particulate fractions are greater in winter (average PM10 values among bakers = 1.10 mg.m-3 [standard deviation: 0.83]) than in summer (0.63 mg.m-3 [0.36]). While complying with current European occupational limit values, these exposures exceed the ACGIH recommendations set to prevent sensitization to flour dust (0.5 mg.m-3). Over half the facilities had no ventilation system. Conclusion Young bakery apprentices incur substantial exposure to known airways allergens, a situation that might elicit early induction of airways inflammation. PMID:17976230

  20. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC Superstation and their ratios as source signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kang, K.

    2012-02-01

    PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method, which produced five organic carbon (OC) fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP), and three elemental carbon (EC) fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.7 μg m-3, 17.2 μg m-3, and 28.4 μg m-3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0% and 10.4% for PM1.0, 22.9% and 9.8% for PM2.5, and 16.4% and 6.0% for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC) measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion (Han et al., 2010). In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP) to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was heavily influenced

  1. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Hopson, J; Peery, J; McCoy, M

    2008-10-07

    that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC must continue to meet three objectives: Objective 1. Robust Tools--Develop robust models, codes, and computational techniques to support stockpile needs such as refurbishments, SFIs, LEPs, annual assessments, and evolving future requirements. Objective 2. Prediction through Simulation--Deliver validated physics and engineering tools to enable simulations of nuclear weapons performance in a variety of operational environments and physical regimes and to enable risk-informed decisions about the performance, safety, and reliability of the stockpile. Objective 3. Balanced Operational Infrastructure--Implement a balanced computing platform acquisition strategy and operational infrastructure to meet Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and SSP needs for capacity and high-end simulation capabilities.

  2. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-FY11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Peery, J; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2009-09-08

    from one that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC must continue to meet three objectives: (1) Robust Tools - Develop robust models, codes, and computational techniques to support stockpile needs such as refurbishments, SFIs, LEPs, annual assessments, and evolving future requirements; (2) Prediction through Simulation - Deliver validated physics and engineering tools to enable simulations of nuclear weapons performance in a variety of operational environments and physical regimes and to enable risk-informed decisions about the performance, safety, and reliability of the stockpile; and (3) Balanced Operational Infrastructure - Implement a balanced computing platform acquisition strategy and operational infrastructure to meet Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and SSP needs for capacity and high-end simulation capabilities.

  3. High Energy Magnetic Excitations from the Edge-sharing CuO2 Chains in Ca2Y2Cu5O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Masaaki; Kakurai, Kazuhisa; Yethiraj, Mohana; Oka, Kunihiko

    2005-05-01

    Ca2Y2Cu5O10 is a quasi-one-dimensional magnet, which consists of the ferromagnetic edge-sharing CuO2 chains. It was previously reported from neutron inelastic scattering experiments in Ca2Y2Cu5O10 up to ˜14 meV that in the magnetically ordered state there is an anomalous broadening of spin-wave excitations along the chain, which is caused mainly by the antiferromagnetic interchain interactions [M. Matsuda et al.: Phys. Rev. B 63 (2001) 180403(R)]. In this study we extended an energy range of the measurement up to ˜25 meV. The experimental result suggests that there exist two excitation modes, which is consistent with a theoretical result qualitatively. One mode corresponds to the relatively sharp spin-wave excitations, which broaden with increasing qchain and disappear around qchain˜ 0.2 r.l.u. and ω˜ 10 meV. Another one corresponds to the very broad excitations apparent at qchain˜ 0.2--0.3 r.l.u. and ω˜ 12--25 meV.

  4. Ionic and carbonaceous compositions of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 at Gosan ABC superstation and their ratios as source signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, S.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Kim, S.; Yoon, S.; Kang, K.

    2011-07-01

    PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were sampled at Gosan ABC Superstation on Jeju Island from August 2007 to September 2008. The carbonaceous aerosols were quantified with the thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) method, which produced five organic carbon (OC) fractions, OC1, OC2, OC3, OC4, and pyrolyzed organic carbon (OP), and three elemental carbon (EC) fractions, EC1, EC2, and EC3. The mean mass concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5, and PM10 were 13.72 μg m-3, 17.24 μg m-3, and 28.37 μg m-3, respectively. The averaged mass fractions of OC and EC were 23.0 % and 10.4 % for PM1.0, 22.9 % and 9.8 % for PM2.5, and 16.4 % and 6.0 % for PM10. Among the OC and EC sub-components, OC2 and EC2+3 were enriched in the fine mode, but OC3 and OC4 in the coarse mode. The filter-based PM1.0 EC agreed well with black carbon (BC) measured by an Aethalometer, and PM10 EC was higher than BC, implying less light absorption by larger particles. EC was well correlated with sulfate, resulting in good relationships of sulfate with both aerosol scattering coefficient measured by Nephelometer and BC concentration. Our measurements of EC confirmed the definition of EC1 as char-EC emitted from smoldering combustion and EC2+3 as soot-EC generated from higher-temperature combustion such as motor vehicle exhaust and coal combustion. In particular, EC1 was strongly correlated with potassium, a traditional biomass burning indicator, except during the summer, when the ratio of EC1 to EC2+3 was the lowest. We also found the ratios of major chemical species to be a useful tool to constrain the main sources of aerosols, by which the five air masses were well distinguished: Siberia, Beijing, Shanghai, Yellow Sea, and East Sea types. Except Siberian air, the continental background of the study region, Beijing plumes showed the highest EC1 (and OP) to sulfate ratio, which implies that this air mass had the highest net warming by aerosols of the four air masses. Shanghai-type air, which was heavily influenced by

  5. Characterization of trace elements and ions in PM 10 and PM 2.5 emitted from animal confinement buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xufei; Wang, Xinlei; Zhang, Yuanhui; Lee, Jongmin; Su, Jingwei; Gates, Richard S.

    2011-12-01

    Chemical characterization of PM emanating from animal confinement buildings can provide essential information for receptor modeling-based PM source apportionment as well as health effects assessment. In this study, PM 10 and PM 2.5 samples were collected from twelve swine (farrowing, gestation, weaning, and finishing) and six poultry (layer hen and tom turkey) confinement buildings in the U.S. Midwest and their inorganic composition, in terms of trace elements and ions, was investigated. A total of 23 species were identified and quantified, including Al, B, Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Si, Sr, Ti, Zn, Cl -, NO 3-, SO 42- and NH 4+. The total mass fraction of identified species was typically less than 16%. NH 4+ was detected in low contents (<1% wt.) in collected PM samples, suggesting that the majority of NH 3-N emissions were in gas form and the formation of NH 4+-containing secondary aerosols is insignificant in animal confinement buildings. Several multivariate analysis tools prevalent in ecology research were implemented for examining variability in PM inorganic compositions. Results showed that PM inorganic composition varied significantly with animal building type. Seasons had no significant effect on PM 10 and a significant but weak effect on PM 2.5 inorganic compositions. Compared to PM 10 samples, PM 2.5 samples from different types of animal confinement buildings were more similar in inorganic composition.

  6. Granular superconductivity in polycrystalline ruthenocuprate RuSr2(Gd1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10-δ: magnetoresistive and magnetization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belevtsev, B. I.; Beliayev, E. Yu; Naugle, D. G.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Anatska, M. P.; Felner, I.

    2007-01-01

    Granular superconductivity effects in polycrystalline samples of RuSr2(Gd1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10-δ, as prepared (by a solid-state reaction method) and annealed (12 h at 845 °C) in pure oxygen at 30 atm, are presented. The resistive transition to the superconducting state of the as-prepared sample is found to be considerably affected by granularity. In particular, an evident kink in the temperature dependence of the resistance R(T) is seen at the temperature, Tc0ap34 K, at which grains become superconducting. The resistive transition depends strongly on the applied current. The family of R(T) curves taken for different transport currents is branched with a branching point at TcJap23.2 K. Below this temperature the intergrain Josephson coupling starts to develop. For low current, R decreases with decreasing temperature below TcJ as expected for the transition to the superconducting state, whereas R(T) curves for higher current form a minimum at Tap17.3 K, showing a quasi-re-entrant behaviour. The influence of the granular structure of the as-prepared sample shows itself also in the temperature behaviour of the magnetization, M(T), in low field. Application of low magnetic field (below 400 Oe) leads to a broadening of the resistive transitions below TcJ, similar to that caused by increasing the current. Both the current and magnetic field depress the Josephson coupling between the grains, producing a dramatically large effect on the resistive transition. The R(T) and M(T) dependences of the annealed sample show a fairly sharp superconducting transition far less affected by granularity. The results obtained imply that oxygen annealing improves the intergranular connection considerably, but it does not exert much influence on the intragrain superconductivity. No indication of intragrain granularity has been found in the samples studied. The influence of ageing (due to deoxidation) of samples for different conditions of storage is considered briefly as well.

  7. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II and III...

  8. Effects of the substitution of P2O5 by B2O3 on the structure and dielectric properties in (90-x) P2O5-xB2O3-10Fe2O3 glasses.

    PubMed

    Sdiri, N; Elhouichet, H; Dhaou, H; Mokhtar, F

    2014-01-01

    90%[xB2O3 (1-x) P2O5] 10%Fe2O3, glass systems where (x=0 mol%, 5 mol%, 10 mol%, 15 mol%, 20 mol%) was prepared via a melt quenching technique. The structure of glass is investigated at room temperature by, Raman and EPR spectroscopy. Raman studies have been performed on these glasses to examine the distribution of different borate and phosphate structural groups. We have noted an increase from 3 to 4 in the coordination number of the boron atoms from 3 to 4, i.e., the conversion of the BO3 triangular structural units into BO4 tetrahedra. The samples have been investigated by means of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). The results obtained from the gef=4.28 EPR line are typical of the occurrence of iron (III) occupying substitutional sites. Moreover, the dielectric sizes such as ε'(ω), ε″(ω), imaginary parts of the electrical modulus, M(*)(ω) and the loss tanδ, their variation with frequency at room temperature show a decrease in relaxation intensity with an increase in the concentration of (B2O3). On the present work, we have found a weak extinction index with our new glass. PMID:23995605

  9. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 near a large mining zone in Northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorquera, H.

    2008-12-01

    Chile's economic growth is mainly driven by intensive mining activities; currently Chile produces ~ 40% of copper worldwide. Most of those activities are located in northern Chile, in a desert region where strong regional winds contribute with soil erosion as well. The city of Calama (22.4°S, 68.9°W) is about 17 km south of Chuquicamata, one of the largest open pit copper mines in the world, both located on the west edge of the Andes; Calama is at 2,400 m asl and it is 215 km east of the Pacific Ocean. The mining complex releases ~ 21 kton/y of PM10 and ~ 78 kton/y of SO2 from a copper smelter. The levels of ambient PM10 have steadily increased at Calama in the last 5 years, so there is concern about the impacts from copper industry in the city´s inhabitants, most of who work in mining or related economic activities. A campaign was conducted at Calama between October and December 2007, sampling ambient PM10 and PM2.5 at several sites across the city. Filters were analyzed at the Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV for elemental composition by XRF and for elemental and organic carbon using thermal analysis. The application of positive matrix factorization (PMF) model identified four sources contributing to ambient PM2.5: secondary sulfates (49%), traffic emissions (37%), dust street (9%) and copper smelter emissions (5%). In the coarse fraction, four sources were identified: dust street (45%), wind erosion (34%), mineral processing (14%) and copper smelter emissions (7%). No natural background was found for PM2.5. For ambient PM10 the source apportionment obtained is: mining activities (33%), street dust (34%), wind erosion (22%) and traffic emissions (12%). With a current PM10 annual average of 58 μg/m3 and further mining activities projected in the area, there is a big challenge to improve air quality in the populated area close to the mining operations.

  10. Characterization of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications. Part 2: Wettability, Tribological Performance and Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braic, V.; Balaceanu, M.; Braic, M.; Vitelaru, C.; Titorencu, I.; Pruna, V.; Parau, A. C.; Fanara, C.; Vladescu, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy, prepared in a levitation melting furnace, was investigated as a possible candidate for replacing Ti6Al4V alloy in medical applications. The sessile drop method, pin-on-disc and in vitro tests were used to analyze wettability, wear resistance, and biocompatibility of the new alloy. The characteristics of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy were assessed in comparison to those of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta system was found to have hydrophilic characteristics with similar contact angle as the Ti6Al4V alloy. In all environments (deionized water, simulated body fluid and Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva), the friction coefficient showed a stable evolution versus sliding distance, being similar for both alloys. On overall, the wear resistance of Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy was lower than that of Ti6Al4V for all testing environments. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy exhibited good biocompatibility characteristics at in vitro test compared to Ti6Al4V alloy. The cell viability on Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta surfaces was higher than the one observed on Ti6Al4V samples, regardless the number of days spent in osteoblast-like cells culture. A high degree of cell attachment and spreading was observed on both alloys.

  11. 76 FR 27282 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-10E2A1; CF34-10E5, CF34-10E5A1; CF34-10E6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... 45215, telephone 513-552-3272; e-mail: geae.aoc@ge.com . You may review copies of the referenced service..., Cincinnati, OH 45215, telephone 513-552- 3272; e-mail: geae.aoc@ge.com , for a copy of this...

  12. Structural and magnetic characterization of BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} oxides (x=0.5, 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Retuerto, M.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Krezhov, K.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Alonso, J.A.

    2011-09-15

    The title compounds have been synthesized by a citrate technique followed by thermal treatments in air (BiFe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 5}) or under high oxygen pressure conditions (BiFeMnO{sub 5}), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The crystal structures have been refined from NPD data in the space group Pbam at 295 K. These phases are isostructural with RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxides (R=rare earths) and contain infinite chains of Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra sharing edges, linked together by (Fe,Mn){sup 3+}O{sub 5} pyramids and BiO{sub 8} units. These units are strongly distorted with respect to those observed in other RFeMnO{sub 5} compounds, due to the presence of the electronic lone pair on Bi{sup 3+}. It is noteworthy the certain level of antisite disorder exhibited in both samples, where the octahedral positions are partially occupied by Fe cations, and vice versa. BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (x=0.5, 1.0) are short-range magnetically ordered below 20 K for x=0.5 and at 40 K for x=1.0. The main magnetic interactions seem to be antiferromagnetic (AFM); however, the presence of a small hysteresis in the magnetization cycles indicates the presence of some weak ferromagnetic (FM) interactions. - Graphical Abstract: BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (x=0.5, 1.0) samples are isostructural with BiMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}, belonging to the Pbam space group. The crystal structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra, interconnected by dimer units of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. These units are strongly distorted due to the presence of the electronic lone pair on Bi{sup 3+}. They are magnetically ordered at low temperatures. The main magnetic interactions seem to be antiferromagnetic with the presence of some weak ferromagnetic response. Highlights: > Two new compounds of formula BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (x=0.5, 1.0) have been obtained. > Their crystallographic

  13. Calorimetric Study of Phase Stability and Phase Transformation in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Arun Kumar; Subramanian, Raju; Hajra, Raj Narayan; Tripathy, Haraprasanna; Rengachari, Mythili; Saibaba, Saroja

    2015-11-01

    A comprehensive calorimetric study of high-temperature phase equilibria and phase transformation characteristics in U- xZr ( x = 2, 5, 10 wt pct) alloys has been undertaken, as a function of heating and cooling rates. It is found that the following sequence of phase transformation takes place upon slow heating in annealed U-2 wt pct Zr alloy: α + α' + δ-UZr2 → α + γ 2 → β + γ 2 → β + γ 1 → γ. For alloys of 5 and 10 wt pct Zr, the additional presence of a miscibility gap ( γ 1 U-rich bcc + γ 2 Zr-rich bcc) in the high-temperature γ(bcc) phase region resulted in the following transformation sequence: α + α' + δ-UZr2 → α + γ 2 → β + γ 2 → γ 1 + γ 2 → γ. Further, it has been demonstrated that depending on the nature of starting microstructure, namely whether it is α eq + δ-UZr2, or a mix of α' + α eq + δ-UZr2 phases, the relative extents of two possible co-occurring modes of the first on-heating phase transformation step differ. In case of starting microstructure having mixture of three phases α' + α eq + δ-UZr2, it is found that α'-martensite relaxation via α' + α eq + δ-UZr2 → α eq + δ-UZr2 constitutes the first on-heating thermal response. The α'-martensitic relaxation is very closely followed by the dissolution of δ-UZr2. The co-occurrence of these two events gives rise to a composite thermal arrest in a normal dynamic calorimetry profile. However, if the starting microstructure is the one having the equilibrium mix of α eq and δ-UZr2, then only the peritectoidal dissolution of δ-UZr2 is found in the calorimetry profile. Unless, a very slow cooling rate of the order of 0.1 K min-1 is adopted from high-temperature γ(bcc) phase, it is not possible to obtain 100 pct of α eq phase along with equilibrium amount of δ-UZr2. At normal and high cooling rates, it is possible to suppress the diffusional decomposition of γ to varying extents. The direct γ → α'-martensite transformation has been observed at

  14. A theoretical investigation on the geometry and vibrational spectra of 10,10,2,6,5-pentamethyl-1-hydroxychroman: A model of α-tocopherol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yong; Zhu, Yuanqiang; Xue, Ying; Xie, Daiqian

    2007-12-01

    In the present study, density functional theory calculations with the combined Becke's three-parameter exchange functional in combination with the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) exchange-correlation energy functions were performed by using the 6-311G** basis set to study the structure and vibrational spectra of 10,10,2,6,5-pentamethyl-1-hydroxychroman (a model of α-tocopherol). The fully optimized geometry of the molecule was found to be very consistent with the X-ray crystal structure. The predicted vibrational frequencies made it possible to give a reliable assignment of the IR spectrum of the molecule according to the potential energy distributions (PEDs).

  15. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere O Appendix O to Part 50 Protection of... Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere 1.0Applicability and Definition 1.1This...

  20. Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of 5,6-Disubstituted Pyridin-2(1H)-one Derivatives as Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lingam, V S Prasadarao; Dahale, Dnyaneshwar H; Rathi, Vijay E; Shingote, Yogesh B; Thakur, Rajni R; Mindhe, Ajit S; Kummari, Srinivas; Khairatkar-Joshi, Neelima; Bajpai, Malini; Shah, Daisy M; Sapalya, Ratika S; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Gupta, Praveen K; Gudi, Girish S; Jadhav, Satyawan B; Pattem, Rambabu; Thomas, Abraham

    2015-10-22

    We report the design and synthesis of novel 5,6-diarylated pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives as pharmacophoric PDE10A inhibitors. This highly potent molecular scaffold was developed from an inactive diarylpyridine-2-amine derivative 3b by extensive and systematic analogue synthesis and SAR analysis. Further optimization of the scaffold resulted in identification of pyridin-2(1H)-one 18b as a lead compound with good potency (IC50 = 1.6 nM) and selectivity (>6000-fold) over other related PDEs but with a poor pharmacokinetic profile. Careful metabolite profiling of 18b revealed that poor systemic exposure in rats (Cmax = 44 ng/mL; AUC0-t = 359 ng · h/mL) at 10 mg/kg was due to the formation of O-glucuronide conjugate by phase 2 metabolism. The structure of the glucuronide metabolite was confirmed by retention time and LC-MS/MS fragmentation matching with the synthetic glucuronide 26. The problem of low exposure of 18b was effectively addressed by its conversion to an acetate prodrug 25b, which upon oral dosing resulted in an improved pharmacokinetic profile (Cmax = 359 ng.h/mL; AUC0-t = 2436 ng.h/mL) and a desirable brain to plasma ratio of 1.2. The prodrug 25b showed good efficacy in selected rodent models of psychosis. PMID:26421921

  1. PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0—Emissions from industrial plants—Results from measurement programmes in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrlich, C.; Noll, G.; Kalkoff, W.-D.; Baumbach, G.; Dreiseidler, A.

    Emission measurement programmes were carried out at industrial plants in several regions of Germany to determine the fine dust in the waste gases; the PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 1.0 fractions were sampled using a cascade impactor technique. The installations tested included plants used for: combustion (brown coal, heavy fuel oil, wood), cement production, glass production, asphalt mixing, and processing plants for natural stones and sand, ceramics, metallurgy, chemical production, spray painting, wood processing/chip drying, poultry farming and waste treatment. In addition waste gas samples were taken from small-scale combustion units, like domestic stoves, firing lignite briquettes or wood. In total 303 individual measurement results were obtained during 106 different measurement campaigns. In the study it was found that in more than 70% of the individual emission measurement results from industrial plants and domestic stoves the PM 10 portion amounted to more than 90% and the PM 2.5 portion between 50% and 90% of the total PM (particulate matter) emission. For thermal industrial processes the PM 1.0 portion constituted between 20% and 60% of the total PM emission. Typical particle size distributions for different processes were presented as cumulative frequency distributions and as frequency distributions. The particle size distributions determined for the different plant types show interesting similarities and differences depending on whether the processes are thermal, mechanical, chemical or mixed. Consequently, for the groups of plant investigated, a major finding of this study has been that the particle size distribution is a characteristic of the industrial process. Attempts to correlate particle size distributions of different plants to different gas cleaning technologies did not lead to usable results.

  2. Emissions inventory of anthropogenic PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Delhi during Commonwealth Games 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Saroj Kumar; Beig, Gufran; Parkhi, Neha S.

    2011-11-01

    As part of the System of Air quality Forecasting and Research (SAFAR) project developed for air quality forecasting during the Commonwealth Games (CWG) - 2010, a high resolution Emission Inventory (EI) of PM 10 and PM 2.5 has been developed for the metropolitan city Delhi for the year 2010. The comprehensive inventory involves detailed activity data and developed for a domain of 70 km × 65 km with a 1.67 km × 1.67 km resolution covering Delhi and surrounding region using Geographical Information System (GIS) technique. The major sectors considered are, transport, thermal power plants, industries, residential and commercial cooking along with windblown road dust which is found to play a major role for Delhi environment. It has been found that total emissions of PM 10 and PM 2.5 including wind blown dust over the study area are found to be 236 Gg yr -1 and 94 Gg yr -1 respectively. The contribution of windblown road dust is found to be as high as 131 Gg yr -1 for PM 10.

  3. Magnetic and dielectric behavior of nanostructured (Li0.5Fe0.5)(1-x)ZnxFe2O4(x≤1.0) Spinel Ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, S.; Ram, S.; Shinde, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    A series of Li0.5(1-x)ZnxFe(2.5-x/2)O4(x≤1.0) spinel ferrite powders was prepared using a novel citrate-gel combustion method at moderate temperature 100°C. A single phase cubic crystal structure formed in the heat-treated as-prepared powders is determined in terms of X-ray diffraction patterns. Saturation magnetization (Ms) expressed in magneton number increased from 2.446 μB at x=0.0 to a maximum 3.123 μB at x=0.3 and then decreased with higher Zn2+-content (x>0.3) in this series at a magnetic fields 5000 Oe in room temperature. Frequency dependence of dielectric properties provides an evidence for polarization mechanism present in the ferrites.

  4. 40 CFR 53.34 - Test procedure for methods for PM10 and Class I methods for PM2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Class I methods for PM2.5. 53.34 Section 53.34 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... for PM10 and Class I methods for PM2.5. (a) Comparability. Comparability is shown for PM10 methods and for Class I methods for PM2.5 when the relationship between: (1) Measurements made by a...

  5. Assessment of air quality in preschool environments (3-5 years old children) with emphasis on elemental composition of PM10 and PM2.5.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated concentrations of main air pollutants in a Portuguese preschool (indoors/outdoors) environment, with emphasis on elemental characterization of different PM fractions, and estimated risks for the pupils (aged 3-5 years). With exception to total volatile organic compounds, levels of PM10, PM2.5, CO, CO2, and formaldehyde were below legislative guidelines. Calcium, sodium, aluminium, and potassium were the most abundant elements in indoor PM (82-84% of the analysed content) resulting mainly from crustal sources. Carcinogenic elements (1-2% of the indoor analysed content) were mostly PM2.5-bound (83-91%). Indoor-to-outdoor ratios of individual elements indicated contributions of indoor origin and from penetration of outdoor emissions indoors; trace metals were associated with ambient anthropogenic emissions (namely traffic). Non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks from overall preschool exposure were acceptable for children; for adults carcinogenic risks exceeded (4-11 times) the USEPA recommend value of 10(-6), being 8-40 times higher than for children. PMID:27112725

  6. 5,5-Diphenyl-2-thiohydantoin-N10 (DPTH-N10) suppresses proliferation of cultured colon cancer cell line COLO-205 by inhibiting DNA synthesis and activating apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Ching; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Jender; Liang, Yu-Chih; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential applications of 5,5-diphenyl-2-thiohydantoin-N10 (DPTH-N10) in the treatment of human colon cancer. Subcultured human colon cancer cell line, COLO-205, was used for examining the antiproliferation effect of DPTH-N10 on colon cancer. Thymidine incorporation and cell count were conducted to examine the antiproliferation effect of DPTH-N10. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the protein levels of cell cycle-related proteins. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to examine the occurrence of apoptosis. DPTH-N10 at a range of concentrations (0-30 microM) inhibits the proliferation but did not cause the cell death of COLO-205, indicating that it may have an inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation in COLO-205. The apoptosis was observed in COLO-205 when the DPTH-N10 concentrations were higher than 30 muM. Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of the cell cycle inhibitory protein, p21, in COLO-205 increased after DPTH-N10 treatment. Immunoprecipitation showed that the formation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2-p21 complex was increased in the DPTH-N10-treated COLO-205. Kinase assay further demonstrated that the CDK2 activity was decreased in the DPTH-N10-treated COLO-205. DPTH-N10 caused growth inhibition in COLO-205 by inhibiting DNA synthesis and activating apoptosis. The findings from our previous in vitro studies in DPTH-N10-induced anti-angiogenic effect and from the present in vitro studies in DPTH-N10-induced antiproliferation effect on colon cancer cell line strongly suggest the potential applications of DPTH-N10 in the treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:20449574

  7. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-03-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro, PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μPM2.5 m-3). This is most probably due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. On the platforms, levels were considerably higher, reaching mean levels of 59 and 88 μgPM2.5 m-3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is more difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed clear PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., and marked decreases between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment are those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM inside the metro system, the contribution of commuting by metro

  8. 76 FR 34066 - In Accordance With Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army In Accordance With Section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App 2.), Announcement Is Made of the Following Committee Meeting: Western Hemisphere Institute...

  9. Chemical characterization of outdoor and subway fine (PM(2.5-1.0)) and coarse (PM(10-2.5)) particulate matter in Seoul (Korea) by computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy (CCSEM).

    PubMed

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M

    2015-02-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%-60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM(2.5-1.0)) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.5-1.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%-6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM(10-2.5)) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%-83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM(10-2.5) (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM(10-2.5) than PM(2.5-1.0). Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM(10-2.5) than in PM(2.5-1.0). Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM(2.5-1.0) and PM(10-2.5) simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  10. Beyond y and μ: the shape of the CMB spectral distortions in the intermediate epoch, 1.5 × 10{sup 4}∼2 × 10{sup 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Khatri, Rishi; Sunyaev, Rashid A. E-mail: sunyaev@mpa-Garching.mpg.de

    2012-09-01

    We calculate numerical solutions and analytic approximations for the intermediate-type spectral distortions. Detection of a μ-type distortion (saturated comptonization) in the CMB will constrain the time of energy injection to be at a redshift 2 × 10{sup 6}∼>z∼>2 × 10{sup 5}, while a detection of a y-type distortion (minimal comptonization) will mean that there was heating of CMB at redshift z∼<1.5 × 10{sup 4}. We point out that the partially comptonized spectral distortions, generated in the redshift range 1.5 × 10{sup 4}∼2 × 10{sup 5}, are much richer in information than the pure y and μ-type distortions. The spectrum created during this period is intermediate between y and μ-type distortions and depends sensitively on the redshift of energy injection. These intermediate-type distortions cannot be mimicked by a mixture of y and μ-type distortions at all frequencies and vice versa. The measurement of these intermediate-type CMB spectral distortions has the possibility to constrain precisely not only the amount of energy release in the early Universe but also the mechanism, for example, particle annihilation and Silk damping can be distinguished from particle decay. The intermediate-type distortion templates and software code using these templates to calculate the CMB spectral distortions for user-defined energy injection rate is made publicly available.

  11. Absolute VUV Photoionization Spectra for Hcho, HO{_2}, and H{_2}O{_2} from 10.5-12.0 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, Leah G.; Shen, Linhan; Eddingsaas, Nathan C.; Takematsu, Kana; Savee, John D.; Welz, Oliver; Taatjes, Craig A.; Osborn, David L.; Sander, Stanley P.; Okumura, Mitchio

    2013-06-01

    The absolute vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization spectra of formaldehyde (HCHO), the hydroperoxy radical (HO{_2}) and hydrogen peroxide (H{_2}O{_2}) have been measured. The ability to quantify these species is critical for photoionization mass spectrometry studies of the kinetics of atmospheric and combustion reactions, which require accurate cross sections over a wide range of ionization energies. Experiments were performed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. HCHO, HO{_2}, and H{_2}O{_2} were generated from the oxidation of methanol which is initiated by pulsed-laser-photolysis of Cl{_2} in a low pressure flow cell. Sampled gas was ionized by tunable VUV radiation from the ALS synchrotron and detected by time-resolved multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry using the Sandia Multiplexed Chemical Kinetics Reactor. The photoionization spectra were obtained by scanning the photon energy from 10.5 to 12.0 eV. Absolute cross sections were determined relative to methanol from measurements of the depletion of precursors and kinetic modeling of the initial chemistry ({<} 10 ms). The absolute photoionization spectrum of HCHO and the relative photoionization spectra of HO{_2} and H{_2}O{_2} are in good agreement with previous work. D. L. Osborn, P. Zou, H. Johnson, C. C. Hayden, C. A. Taatjes, V. D. Knyazev, S. W. North, D. S. Peterka, M. Ahmed, S. R. Leone. Rev. Sci. Inst. 2008, 79, 104103. G. Cooper, J. E. Anderson, C. E. Brion. Chem. Phys. 1996, 209, 61. M. Litorja, B. J. Ruscic. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 1998, 97, 131.

  12. Effect of ball milling and thermal treatment on exchange bias and magnetocaloric properties of Ni48Mn39.5Sn10.5Al2 ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, P.; Przewoźnik, J.; Fitta, M.; Bałanda, M.; Chrobak, A.; Kania, B.; Zackiewicz, P.; Wójcik, A.; Szlezynger, M.; Maziarz, W.

    2016-03-01

    The combined effect of ball milling and subsequent heat treatment on microstructure, magnetic, magnetocaloric and exchange bias properties of Ni48Mn39.5Sn10.5Al2 ribbons is reported. The annealing treatment results in the increase of the critical martensitic transformation temperature. The magnetic entropy change ΔSM of the order of 7.9 and -2.3 J kg K-1 for the annealed 50-32 μm powder fraction is determined. This is less than in the as melt spun ribbon but appears at a considerably higher temperature. At the same time EB is decreased due to annealing treatment. This decrease is attributed to the strengthened ferromagnetic exchange coupling due heat induced stress and structural relaxation.

  13. Quantification of Global Primary Emissions of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP from Combustion and Industrial Process Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    Emission quantification of primary particulate matter (PM) is essential for assessment of its related climate and health impacts. To reduce uncertainty associated with global emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, we compiled data with high spatial (0.1° ×0.1° ) and sectorial (77 primary sources) resolutions for 2007 based on a newly released global fuel data product (PKU-FUEL-2007), and an emission factor database including emission factors measured recently in developing countries. Total emissions for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated to be 162 (123-224), 99 (80-130), and 78 (64-101) Tg, respectively. Our estimates for developing countries are higher than those previously reported. Spatial bias associated with large countries could be reduced by using sub-national fuel consumption data. Despite the fact that most industrial and transport sources locate in urban areas, residential fuel consumptions are quite different between rural and urban areas, especially in developing countries. As a result, per person annual primary PM emission in rural areas are much higher than those in urban areas. Further, this difference in developed countries (12 and 2.8 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas) is larger than that in developing countries (8.4 and 4.6 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas). Additionally, we looked at temporal trends from 1960 to 2009 at country-scale resolution. Although total emissions are still increasing in developing countries, their intensities in terms of gross domestic production or energy consumption have decreased. PM emitted in developed countries is finer owing to a larger contribution from non-industrial sources, and use of abatement technologies. In contrast, countries like China, with strong industry emissions and limited abatement facilities, emit coarser PM. The health impacts of PM are intensified in hotspots and cities owing to covariance of sources and receptors. Although urbanization reduces the per person emission, overall health impacts

  14. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with PM 10 and PM 2.5: Differential responses related to scale and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lei, Tian; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    ObjectionTo study the pollution of atmospheric particles at winter in Beijing and compare the lung toxicity which induced by particle samples from different sampling sites. MethodWe collected samples from two sampling points during the winter for toxicity testing and chemical analysis. Wistar rats were administered with particles by intratracheal instillation. After exposure, biochemically index, esimmunity indexes, histopathology and DNA damage were detected in rat pulmonary cells. ResultThe elements with enrichment factors (EF) larger than 10 were As, Cd, Cu, Zn, S and Pb in the four experiment groups. The priority control of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 of Near-traffic source was much higher than that of Far-traffic source, it demonstrated that near the traffic source of PAHs pollution was heavier than that of Far-traffic source, as it was close to main roads Beiyuan Road, motor vehicle emissions were much higher. The pathology of lung showed that the degree of inflammation was increased with the particle diameter minished, it was the same as the detection of biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total antioxidant status(T-AOC) and total protein (TP) in BALF and inflammation cytokine(interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in lung homogenate. The indexes of DNA damage including the content of DNA and Olive empennage of PM 2.5 were significant higher than that of PM 10 at the same surveillance point ( P < 0.05), near-traffic particles were higher than the far-traffic particles at the same diameter, ( P < 0.05). ConclusionNear-traffic area particles had certain pollution at winter in Beijing. Meanwhile, atmospheric particulate matters on lung toxicity were related to the particles size and distance related sites which were exposed: smaller size, more toxicity; nearer from traffic, more toxicity.

  15. Nodeless superconducting gaps in Ca10(Pt4- δ As8)((Fe1- x Pt x )2As2)5 probed by quasiparticle heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xun; He, LanPo; Hong, XiaoChen; Zhang, Zhen; Pan, Jian; Shen, XiaoPing; Feng, DongLai; Li, ShiYan

    2016-05-01

    The in-plane thermal conductivity of the iron-based superconductor Ca10(Pt4- δ As8)((Fe1- x Pt x )2As2)5 single crystal ("10-4-8", T c = 22 K) was measured down to 80 mK. In a zero field, the residual linear term κ 0/ T is negligible, suggesting the nodeless superconducting gaps in this multiband compound. In the magnetic fields, κ 0/ T increases rapidly, which mimics the multiband superconductor NbSe2 and LuNi2B2C with highly anisotropic gap. Such a field dependence of κ 0/ T is an evidence for the multiple superconducting gaps with quite different magnitudes or highly anisotropic gap. Compared with the London penetration depth results of the Ca10(Pt4- δ As8)((Fe1- x Pt x )2As2)5 ("10-3-8") compound, the 10-4-8 and 10-3-8 compounds may have a similar superconducting gap structure.

  16. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 E Table E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT...

  17. Molecular vibrations of [n]oligoacenes (n=2-5 and 10) and phonon dispersion relations of polyacene.

    PubMed

    Yamakita, Yoshihiro; Kimura, Jin; Ohno, Koichi

    2007-02-14

    As model compounds for nanosize carbon clusters, the phonon dispersion curves of polyacene are constructed based on density functional theory calculations for [n]oligoacenes (n=2-5, 10, and 15). Complete vibrational assignments are given for the observed Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectra of [n]oligoacenes (n=2-5). Raman intensity distributions by the 1064-nm excitation are well reproduced by the polarizability-approximation calculations for naphthalene and anthracene, whereas several bands of naphthacene and pentacene at 1700-1100 cm(-1) are calculated to be enhanced by the resonance Raman effect. It is found from vibronic calculations that the coupled a(g) modes between the Kekulé deformation and joint CC stretching give rise to the Raman enhancements of the Franck-Condon type, and that the b(3g) mode corresponding to the graphite G mode is enhanced by vibronic coupling between the (1)L(a)((1)B(1u)) and (1)B(b)((1)B(2u)) states. The phonon dispersion curves of polyacene provide a uniform foundation for understanding molecular vibrations of the oligoacenes in terms of the phase difference. The mode correlated with the defect-sensitive D mode of the bulk carbon networks is also found for the present one-dimensional system. PMID:17313241

  18. Extrasolar Giant Magnetospheric Response to Steady-state Stellar Wind Pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt A.; Harnett, Erika M.; Winglee, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet’s magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semimajor axes—10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semimajor axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass-loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 and 5 au cases, which reach a state of mass-loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 or 0.2 au cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 and 0.2 au cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents, associated with auroral radio emissions, is shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus, which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (>0.1 au) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons—via the plasma torus—could be observable with future missions.

  19. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-06-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μg m-3 PM2.5). This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was estimated to account

  20. Novel frame-shift mutation in Slc5a2 encoding SGLT2 in a strain of senescence-accelerated mouse SAMP10.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Toda, Masateru; Hagiwara, Shiori; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Hoshino, Minoru; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Masanori; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2014-11-01

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone10 (SAMP10) strain, a model of aging, exhibits cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. We noticed that SAMP10/TaSlc mice, a SAMP10 substrain, have developed persistent glucosuria over the past few years. In the present study, we characterized SAMP10/TaSlc mice and further identified a spontaneous mutation in the Slc5a2 gene encoding sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2. The mean concentration of urine glucose was high in SAMP10/TaSlc mice and increased further with advancing age, whereas other strains of senescence-accelerated mice, including SAMP1/SkuSlc, SAMP6/TaSlc and SAMP8/TaSlc or normal aging control SAMR1/TaSlc mice, exhibited no detectable glucose in urine. SAMP10/TaSlc mice consumed increasing amounts of food and water compared to SAMR1/TaSlc mice, suggesting the compensation of polyuria and the loss of glucose. Oral glucose tolerance tests showed decreased glucose reabsorption in the kidney of SAMP10/TaSlc mice. In addition, blood glucose levels decreased in an age-dependent fashion. The kidney was innately larger than that of control mice with no histological alterations. We examined the expression levels of glucose transporters in the kidney. Among SGLT1, SGLT2, glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT2, we found a significant decrease only in the level of SGLT2. DNA sequencing of SGLT2 in SAMP10/TaSlc mice revealed a single nucleotide deletion of guanine at 1236, which resulted in a frameshift mutation that produced a truncated protein. We designate this strain as SAMP10/TaSlc-Slc5a2(slc) (SAMP10-ΔSglt2). Recently, SGLT2 inhibitors have been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). SAMP10-ΔSglt2 mice may serve as a unique preclinical model to study the link between aging-related neurodegenerative disorders and T2D. PMID:25450362

  1. 10 CFR 170.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 170.5 Section 170.5 Energy NUCLEAR... REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 170.5 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to the NRC's...

  2. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 140.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and...

  3. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  4. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  5. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 95.5 Section 95.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION AND RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative determination that an individual (including...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 73.5 Section 73.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.5 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 73.5 Section 73.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.5 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its...

  10. 10 CFR 73.5 - Specific exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 73.5 Section 73.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.5 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 73.5 Section 73.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.5 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its own initiative, grant such exemptions from...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specific exemptions. 73.5 Section 73.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS General Provisions § 73.5 Specific exemptions. The Commission may, upon application of any interested person or upon its...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 54.5 Section 54.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR RENEWAL OF OPERATING LICENSES FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 54.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

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    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

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    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

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    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  18. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  19. 10 CFR 170.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 170.5 Section 170.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FEES FOR FACILITIES, MATERIALS, IMPORT AND EXPORT LICENSES, AND OTHER REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 170.5...

  20. 10 CFR 170.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 170.5 Section 170.5 Energy NUCLEAR... REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 170.5 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to the NRC's...

  1. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 140.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and...

  2. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 140.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and...

  3. 10 CFR 170.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 170.5 Section 170.5 Energy NUCLEAR... REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 170.5 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to the NRC's...

  4. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 140.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and...

  5. 10 CFR 170.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 170.5 Section 170.5 Energy NUCLEAR... REGULATORY SERVICES UNDER THE ATOMIC ENERGY ACT OF 1954, AS AMENDED General Provisions § 170.5 Communications. All communications concerning the regulations in this part should be addressed to the NRC's...

  6. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  7. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  8. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  9. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  10. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  11. 10 CFR 76.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 76.5 Section 76.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  12. 10 CFR 76.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 76.5 Section 76.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  13. 10 CFR 76.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 76.5 Section 76.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  14. 10 CFR 76.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 76.5 Section 76.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) CERTIFICATION OF GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANTS General Provisions § 76.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  15. Ti12.5Zr21V10Cr8.5MnxCo1.5Ni46.5-x AB2-type metal hydride alloys for electrochemical storage application: Part 1. Structural characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendersky, L. A.; Wang, K.; Levin, I.; Newbury, D.; Young, K.; Chao, B.; Creuziger, A.

    2012-11-01

    The microstructures of a series of AB2-based metal hydride alloys (Ti12.5Zr21V10Cr8.5MnxCo1.5Ni46.5-x) designed to have different fractions of non-Laves secondary phases were studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry, and electron backscatter diffraction. The results indicate that the alloys contain a majority of hydrogen storage Laves phases and a minority of fine-structured non-Laves phases. Formation of the phases is accomplished by dendritic growth of a hexagonal C14 Laves phase. The C14 phase is followed by either a peritectic solidification of a cubic C15 Laves phase (low Mn containing alloys) or a C14 phase of different composition (high Mn containing alloys), and finally a B2 phase formed in the interdendritic regions (IDR). The interdendritic regions may then undergo further solid-state transformation into Zr7Ni10-type, Zr9Ni11-type and TiNi-type phases. As the Mn content in the alloy increases, the fraction of the C14 phase increases, whereas the fraction of C15 decreases. In the IDRs when the alloy's Mn content increases the Zr9Ni11 phases and Zr7Ni10 phase fraction first increases and then decreases, while the TiNi-based phase fraction first increases and then stabilized at 0.02. IDR compositions can be generally expressed as (Ti,Zr,V,Cr,Mn,Co)50Ni50, which accounted for 7-10% of the overall alloy volume fraction.

  16. NiO nanoparticles modified with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin: promising peroxidase mimetics for H2O2 and glucose detection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingyun; Yang, Yanting; Li, Hui; Zhu, Renren; Shao, Qian; Yang, Shanguang; Xu, Jingjing

    2015-02-15

    NiO nanoparticles (NPs) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-carboxyl pheyl)-porphyrin (H2TCPP) functionalized NiO nanoparticles (H2TCPP-NiO nanocomposites) have been prepared by a facile method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), respectively. NiO NPs and H2TCPP-NiO nanocomposites have been proven to function as peroxidase mimetics that can catalyze the reaction of peroxidase substrate 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) in the presence of H2O2 to produce a blue color reaction. Kinetic analysis indicated that the catalytic behavior was in accord with typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. And these nanoparticles also exhibited strong affinity for the substrates of 3,3,5,5-tetramethylbiphenyl dihydrochloride (TMB). Experimental results showed that H2TCPP-NiO NPs exhibited a high sensitivity and a low detection limit towards H2O2 (8.0 × 10(-6) M). The H2TCPP-NiO NPs/glucose oxidase (GOx)/TMB system provides a novel colorimetric sensor for glucose and shows good response toward glucose detection over arrange of 0.05-0.50 mM with a limit of detection 2.0 × 10(-5)M. Fluorescence probe experiments demonstrated that the peroxidase-like activity of H2TCPP-NiO NPs originated from the generation of OH radical. Thus it may provide great potential applications in biomedicine, biotechnology and environmental chemistry. PMID:25212068

  17. The sulphur stable isotope compositions of urban sources and atmospheric particles (PM2.5 & PM10) from Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Landry, J.; Helie, J.; Ravelomanantsoa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulphur (S) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and its vicinity, we are investigating the suitability of sulphur stable isotope compositions (δ34S) as tracers of origins and processes affecting the atmospheric S budget. Characterization of S isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic and heating sources) shows these are clearly discriminated by specific coupled S-δ34S isotope signatures. While S concentrations vary from 0.7 to 11.5%, δ34S display a large range of values from -2.2 and 13.4‰. PM10 samples from Paris and its vicinity show that S is usually present at low levels, around 1 μg.m-3 in average, but that concentrations as high as 100 μg.m-3 can punctually be observed. By the time of the conference, we will have analysed and interpreted the corresponding δ34S in order to help elucidate the origin(s) of sulphur in the atmosphere of the city.

  18. The superexchange interactions and magnetic ordering in low-dimentional ludwigite Ni5GeB2O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofronova, S. N.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Eremin, E. V.; Nazarenko, I. I.; Volkov, N. V.; Kartashev, A. V.; Moshkina, E. M.

    2016-03-01

    The ludwigite Ni5Ge(BO5)2 belongs to a family of oxyborates which have low-dimensional subunits in the form of three-leg ladders unit structure. This material was studied by magnetic and thermodynamic measurements. Ni5Ge(BO5)2 does not show full long-range magnetic order, but one goes into a partial ordering or spin-glass state at 87 K. The superexchange interactions were calculated in the framework of a simple indirect coupling model. Different models of magnetic structure of Ni5Ge(BO5)2 and its unique magnetic behaviour was discussed.

  19. Elemental characterization of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the town of Genoa (Italy).

    PubMed

    Ariola, V; D'Alessandro, A; Lucarelli, F; Marcazzan, G; Mazzei, F; Nava, S; Garcia-Orellana, I; Prati, P; Valli, G; Vecchi, R; Zucchiatti, A

    2006-01-01

    The particulate matter (PM) concentration and composition, the PM10, PM2.5, PM1 fractions, were studied in the urban area of Genoa, a coastal town in the northwest of Italy. Two instruments, the continuous monitor TEOM and the sequential sampler PARTISOL, were operated almost continuously on the same site from July 2001 to September 2004. Samples collected by PARTISOL were weighted to obtain PM concentration and then analysed by PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) and by ED-XRF (energy dispersion X-ray fluorescence), obtaining concentrations for elements from Na to Pb. Some of the filters used in the TEOM microbalance were analysed by ED-XRF to calculate Pb concentration values averaged over 7-30 d periods. PMID:15982708

  20. Anthropogenic platinum group element (Pt, Pd, Rh) concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 from Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Diong, Huey Ting; Das, Reshmi; Khezri, Bahareh; Srivastava, Bijayen; Wang, Xianfeng; Sikdar, Pradip K; Webster, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates platinum group elements (PGEs) in the breathable (PM10) and respirable (PM2.5) fractions of air particulates from a heavily polluted Indian metro city. The samples were collected from traffic junctions at the heart of the city and industrial sites in the suburbs during winter and monsoon seasons of 2013-2014. PGE concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The PGE concentrations in the samples from traffic junctions are within the range of 2.7-111 ng/m(3) for Pd, 0.86-12.3 ng/m(3) for Pt and 0.09-3.13 ng/m(3) for Rh, and from industrial sites are within the range of 3.12-32.3 ng/m(3) for Pd, 0.73-7.39 ng/m(3) for Pt and 0.1-0.69 ng/m(3) for Rh. Pt concentrations were lower in the monsoon compared to winter while Pd concentrations increased during monsoon and Rh stayed relatively unaffected across seasons. For all seasons and locations, concentrations of Pd > Pt > Rh, indicating dominance of Pd-containing exhaust converters. Most of the PGEs were concentrated in the PM2.5 fraction. A strong correlation (R ≥ 0.62) between the PGEs from traffic junction indicates a common emission source viz. catalytic converters, whereas a moderate to weak correlation (R ≤ 0.5) from the industrial sites indicate mixing of different sources like coal, raw materials used in the factories and automobile. A wider range of Pt/Pd, Pt/Rh and Pd/Rh ratios measured in the traffic junction possibly hint towards varying proportions of PGEs used for catalyst productions in numerous rising and established car brands. PMID:27536525

  1. Luminescence and Energy Levels of Mn2+ in LnMB5O10 (Ln=La, Gd and Y; M=Mg, Zn and Cd)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagannathan, R.; Manoharan, S. P.; Rao, R. P.; Kutty, T. R. N.

    1990-10-01

    Luminescence of Bi3+ or/and Mn2+ in LnMB5O10 system of phosphor has been studied. Bi3+ in LnMB5O10 leads to two types of emissions, viz. emission due to (i) Bi3+ isolated centres and (ii) Bi3+ clusters. In LaMB5O10, Bi3+ emission can cover longer distances (25 Å) for resonant transfer. In LaMgB5O10, replacement of Mg by Cd or Zn leads to considerable enhancement in Mn2+ emission intensity. In the case of GdMB5O10 system, this substitution leads to significant increase in the Gd3+→Mn2+ energy transfer rate. Energy levels of Mn2+ in LaMB5O10 and crystal field parameters (for the case of cubic field) have been calculated and the results based on these are discussed.

  2. Patterning poly(maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) copolymer bioconjugates for controlled release of drugs.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P; Mititelu-Tartau, Liliana; Stoleru, Elena; Doroftei, Florica; Diaconu, Alina

    2015-09-30

    Owing to the special characteristics and abilities polymeric networks have received special interest for a range of biomedical applications especially for drug delivery systems. This study was devoted to preparation of new polymeric compounds based on maleic anhydride and 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane copolymer (poly maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) (PMAU) patterned as a network for bioconjugation and tested as drug carrier systems. The PMAU copolymer was improved in its functionality by opening the maleic anhydride ring with different amounts of erythritol, which is free of side effects in regular use and a multifunctional compound, and also confers antioxidant character for the new compounds. The new polymeric matrices were loaded with acetaminophen, codeine and their fixed dose combinations. The investigation demonstrated the capability of the new structures to be used as polymer networks for linking bioactive compounds and to perform controlled delivery. The physico-chemical investigations--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, contact angle, zeta potential (ZP - z, PMAU and its derivatives samples loaded with medicines present decreased values of zeta potential attesting the bioconjugate formation and as well their stability), and hydrodynamic radius, near infrared chemical imaging evaluation (new specific bands being registered for bio-conjugate with acetaminophen around of 1150-1200 nm and 1700 nm, and also between 1150 and 1200 nm in case of the codeine bio-conjugate), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis--evidenced the formation of the bioconjugates in relation to the chemical composition of the polymer matrices, while in vitro release study and in vivo tests confirm the capacity for drug delivery of the prepared bioactive systems. PMID:26220652

  3. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters <2.5 μm (PM2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  4. Central-metal exchange, improved catalytic activity, photoluminescence properties of a new family of d(10) coordination polymers based on the 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid ligand.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huarui; Huang, Chao; Han, Yanbing; Shao, Zhichao; Hou, Hongwei; Fan, Yaoting

    2016-05-01

    The rigid and planar tetracarboxylic acid 5,5'-(1H-2,3,5-triazole-1,4-diyl)diisophthalic acid (H4L), incorporating a triazole group, has been used with no or different pyridine-based linkers to construct a family of d(10) coordination polymers, namely, {[H2N(CH3)2]3[Cd3(L)2(HCOO)]}n (), {[Cd2(L)(py)6]·H2O}n (), {[H2N(CH3)2] [Cd2(L)(HCOO)(H2O)4]}n (), {[Zn(H2L)]·H2O}n (), and {[Zn(H2L)(4,4'-bipy)0.5]·C2H5OH·H2O}n () (py = pyridine, 4,4'-bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine). constructs a 3D porous network containing two kinds of channels: one is filled with coordinated HCOO(-) anions, and the other with [H2N(CH3)2](+) cations. The framework of can be described as a rare (5,6,7)-connected net with the Schläfli symbol of (4(12)·5·6(2))(4(55(3)·6(2))2(4(8)·5(3)·6(8)·8(2))2. The Cd(ii) ions in are connected through the carboxylate ligands to form a 2D layer, with aperture dimensions of ∼15.1 Å × 16.2 Å. The network of features a 3D (3,4)-connected (6·8·10)2(6·8(3)·10(2)) topology. A 3D network with the (4(2)·6·8(3)) topology of possesses an open 1D channel with the free volume of 29.2%. is a 2D layer structure with the (4(2)·6(3)·8)(4(2)·6) topology. The fluorescence lifetime τ values of are on the nanosecond timescale at room temperature. In particular, central-metal exchange in leads to a series of isostructural M(ii)-Cd frameworks [M = Cu (), Co (), Ni ()] showing improved catalytic activity for the synthesis of 1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrimidine derivatives. Based on this, a plausible mechanism for the catalytic reaction has been proposed and the reactivity-structure relationship has been further clarified. PMID:27063339

  5. DNA-binding, photocleavage studies of ruthenium(II) complexes with 2-(2-quinolinyl) imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue-Wen; Chen, Zhen-gan; Li, Lin; Chen, Yuan-Dao; Lu, Ji-Lin; Zhang, Da-Shun

    2013-02-01

    Two new ruthenium complexes with [Ru(L)2(qip)]2+ (L = bpy (2,2'- bipyridine), phen (1,10-phenanthroline); qip = 2-(2-quinolinyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, 1H NMR. The binding properties of two complexes towards CT-DNA were investigated by various optical methods and viscosity measurements. The experiment results suggested that both Ru(II) complexes can intercalate into DNA base pairs. Strong quenching in emission intensity of two Ru(II) complexes were observed upon addition of Ag+ in the absence and presence of CT-DNA. Furthermore, the two complexes can promote cleavage of pBR322 DNA under irradiation at 365 nm, and complex 2 exhibits a stronger DNA-photocleavage efficiency than complex 1. The mechanism of DNA cleavage suggests that singlet oxygen (1O2) is likely to be the cleaving agent.

  6. Wigner crystallization in Na3Cu2O4 and Na8Cu5O10 chain compounds.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, P.; Sofin, M.; Mayr, M.; Jansen, M.

    2006-03-01

    We report the synthesis of novel doped edge-sharing chain compounds Na3Cu2O4 and Na8Cu5O10, which form insulating states with commensurate charge order [1]. We identify these systems as one-dimensional Wigner lattices, where the charge order is determined by the long-range Coulomb interaction and the number of holes in the d-shell of Cu. Our interpretation is supported by X-ray structure data as well as by an analysis of magnetic susceptibility and specific heat data. Remarkably, due to large second neighbor Cu-Cu hopping, these systems allow for an unambiguous distinction between the classical Wigner lattice and the 4kF charge-density wave of quantum mechanical origin. Finally, we briefly discuss the domain-wall type charge excitations and the theoretical expectation for the optical conductivity of 1D Wigner lattices [2]. [1] P. Horsch, M. Sofin, M. Mayr, and M. Jansen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 076403 (2005). [2] M. Mayr and P. Horsch, (unpublished).

  7. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on Air Quality..., PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of Environment... Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations...

  8. 40 CFR Table E-1 to Subpart E of... - Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Summary of Test Requirements for Reference and Class I Equivalent Methods for PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 E Table E-1 to Subpart E of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT...

  9. Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectroscopic analysis of tetrakis(5-amino-1-H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium) decachlorodibismuthate(III):[C2H5N4]4Bi2Cl10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Rzaigui, M.; Nasr, C. Ben

    2015-10-01

    Physico-chemical properties of a new organic bismuthate(III), [C2H5N4]4Bi2Cl10 are discussed on the basis of X-ray crystal structure investigation. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 16.3622(3), b = 12.7941(2), c = 14.8178(2) Å, β = 98.5660(10)°, V = 3067.35(8) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure consists of discrete binuclear [Bi2Cl10]4- anions and 3-amino-1-H-1,2,4-triazolium cations. The crystal packing is governed by strong Nsbnd H⋯N and weak Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and Π-Π stacking interactions to form three-dimensional network. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure. The infrared study confirms the presence of the organic cation [C2H5N4]+. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations allowed their attribution.

  10. 10 CFR 76.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 76.5 Section 76.5 Energy NUCLEAR... Communications. Except where otherwise specified, all communications and reports concerning the regulations in... communications shall be transmitted in accordance with § 95.39 of this chapter to the NRC...

  11. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  12. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  13. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  14. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  15. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  16. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Reactors, Director, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, or... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION REQUIREMENTS AND INDEMNITY AGREEMENTS...

  17. Superconductivity in Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2As2)5 with Square-Planar Coordination of Iridium

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kazutaka; Mitsuoka, Daisuke; Takasuga, Masaya; Sugiyama, Yuki; Sugawara, Kento; Katayama, Naoyuki; Sawa, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hiroaki S.; Takamori, Kenta; Ichioka, Masanori; Fujii, Tatsuo; Mizokawa, Takashi; Nohara, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    We report the unprecedented square-planar coordination of iridium in the iron iridium arsenide Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2As2)5. This material experiences superconductivity at 16 K. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles band calculation suggest Ir(II) oxidation state, which yields electrically conductive Ir4As8 layers. Such metallic spacer layers are thought to enhance the interlayer coupling of Fe2As2, in which superconductivity emerges, thus offering a way to control the superconducting transition temperature. PMID:24173038

  18. Short-term exposure to PM 10, PM 2.5, ultrafine particles and CO 2 for passengers at an intercity bus terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Chang, Hsiao-Peng; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2011-04-01

    The Taipei Bus Station is the main transportation hub for over 50 bus routes to eastern, central, and southern Taiwan. Daily traffic volume at this station is about 2500 vehicles, serving over 45,000 passengers daily. The station is a massive 24-story building housing a bus terminal, a business hotel, a shopping mall, several cinemas, offices, private residential suites, and over 900 parking spaces. However, air quality inside this bus terminal is a concern as over 2500 buses are scheduled to run daily. This study investigates the PM 10, PM 2.5, UFP and CO 2 levels inside and outside the bus terminal. All measurements were taken between February and April 2010. Measurement results show that coarse PM inside the bus terminal was resuspended by the movement of large numbers of passengers. The fine and ultrafine PM in the station concourse were from outside vehicles. Moreover, fine and ultrafine PM at waiting areas were exhausted directly from buses in the building. The CO 2 levels at waiting areas were likely elevated by bus exhaust and passengers exhaling. The PM 10, PM 2.5 and CO 2 levels at the bus terminal were lower than Taiwan's EPA suggested standards for indoor air quality. However, UFP levels at the bus terminal were significantly higher than those in the urban background by about 10 times. Therefore, the effects of UFPs on the health of passengers and workers must be addressed at this bus terminal since the levels of UFPs are higher than >1.0 × 10 5 particles cm -3.

  19. [Characterization of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and PM1.0 in summer in Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Zhang, Ren-jian; Dong, Lin; Zhang, Tao; Zhu, Li-hua; Han, Jing-lei; Xu, Zhen-cheng

    2010-07-01

    PM2.5 and PM1.0 samples were collected simultaneously during July of 2008 in Guangzhou. The concentrations of water-soluble inorganic ions (Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, F-, Cl-, NO3-, and SO4(2-)) were determined by ion chromatography. Meteorological parameters, atmospheric scattering, visibility, and concentrations of trace gases (SO2, NO2, and O3) for this period were also recorded. The results showed the total water-soluble inorganic ions concentrations were (25.5 +/- 10.9) microg x m(-1) and (22. 7 +/- 10.5) microg x m(-3) in PM2.5 and PM1.0, which occupied (47.9 +/- 4.3)% and (49.3 +/- 4.3)% of PM mass respectively. Sulfate was the most abundant ion and contributed (25.8 +/- 4.0)% of PM2.5 mass and (27.5 +/- 4.5)% of PM1.0 mass respectively. High temperature and high ozone level favored the formation of sulfate from sulfur dioxide, while the high relative humidity favored the formation of nitrate were observed. Moreover, sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium in PM2.5 and PM1.0 had great impact on the scattering coefficient and visibility degradation. PMID:20825004

  20. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices. PMID:27546199

  1. 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM - Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Shi, X.; Phipps, S. J.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 yr time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 BP and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model, driven with sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather or climate driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies on lower frequencies, dominated by the 11yr solar cycle within the 30 yr time scale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies. We first apply empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis on the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low frequency components and the long term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high frequency components represent climate driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that the 10Be atmospheric production signal is preserved

  2. 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM - Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Shi, X.; Phipps, S. J.; Smith, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 year time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model, driven with sea-surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather- or climate-driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies at lower frequencies, dominated by the 11 year solar cycle within the 30 year timescale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies than 11 years during the 30 year period studied. We first apply empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis to the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low-frequency components and the long-term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high-frequency components represent climate-driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that

  3. Unloading system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  4. Sol-gel synthesis of quaternary (P2O5)55-(CaO)25-(Na2O)(20-x)-(TiO2) x bioresorbable glasses for bone tissue engineering applications (x = 0, 5, 10, or 15).

    PubMed

    Foroutan, Farzad; Walters, Nick J; Owens, Gareth J; Mordan, Nicola J; Kim, Hae-Won; de Leeuw, Nora H; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, we report a new and facile sol-gel synthesis of phosphate-based glasses with the general formula of (P2O5)55-(CaO)25-(Na2O)(20-x)-(TiO2) x , where x = 0, 5, 10 or 15, for bone tissue engineering applications. The sol-gel synthesis method allows greater control over glass morphology at relatively low processing temperature (200 °C) in comparison with phosphate-based melt-derived glasses (~1000 °C). The glasses were analyzed using several characterization techniques, including x-ray diffraction (XRD), (31)P magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance ((31)P MAS-NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, which confirmed the amorphous and glassy nature of the prepared samples. Degradation was assessed by measuring the ion release and pH change of the storage medium. Cytocompatibility was also confirmed by culturing osteoblast-like osteosarcoma cell line MG-63 on the glass microparticles over a seven-day period. Cell attachment to the particles was imaged using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The results revealed the potential of phosphate-based sol-gel derived glasses containing 5 or 10 mol% TiO2, with high surface area, ideal dissolution rate for cell attachment and easily metabolized dissolution products, for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:26306553

  5. Paramagnetic molecular centers in the gamma-irradiated novel compound of aluminum and leucine, Al 6O 4(OH) 10(leucine) 2·5H 2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothig-Laslo, Vesna; Himdan, Takialdin A.; Bilinski, Halka

    A new microcrystalline compound Al 6O 4(OH) 10(leucine) 2·5H 2O of possible biological and biochemical interest has been prepared and characterized by chemical analysis, i.r. spectrum, X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis. It was exposed to γ-irradiation at 77 K and at room temperature. Paramagnetic species formed were studied by ESR spectroscopy. The leucine radical ? has been identified which seems to be stabilized in the aluminium leucine compound by crystalline water. Coordinated leucine molecule in aluminium hydroxide acts as a trap for γ-irradiation energy.

  6. Transport and thermodynamic properties of (Ca1-xLax)10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Ni, N.; Straszheim, Warren E.; Williams, D. J.; Tanatar, Makariy A.; Prozorov, Ruslan; Bauer, E. D.; Ronning, F.; Thompson, J. D.; Cava, R. J.

    2013-02-22

    Single crystals of (Ca1-xLax)(10)(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)(5) (x = 0-0.182) superconductors have been grown and characterized by x-ray, microprobe, transport, and thermodynamic measurements. Features in the magnetic susceptibility, specific heat, and two kinks in the derivative of the electrical resistivity around 100 K in the x = 0 compound support the existence of decoupled structural and magnetic phase transitions. With La doping, the structural/magnetic phase transitions are suppressed and a half dome of superconductivity with a maximal T-c around 26 K is observed in the temperature-concentration phase diagram.

  7. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... its own Privacy Act regulations (49 CFR Part 1007), except to the extent that any system of records... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Transportation... Applicability and Policy § 10.5 Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, the following...

  8. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... its own Privacy Act regulations (49 CFR Part 1007), except to the extent that any system of records... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Transportation... Applicability and Policy § 10.5 Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, the following...

  9. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... its own Privacy Act regulations (49 CFR Part 1007), except to the extent that any system of records... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Transportation... Applicability and Policy § 10.5 Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, the following...

  10. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... its own Privacy Act regulations (49 CFR Part 1007), except to the extent that any system of records... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Transportation... Applicability and Policy § 10.5 Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, the following...

  11. 49 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its own Privacy Act regulations (49 CFR Part 1007), except to the extent that any system of records... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Transportation... Applicability and Policy § 10.5 Definitions. Unless the context requires otherwise, the following...

  12. Airborne particle PM 2.5/PM 10 mass distribution and particle-bound PAH concentrations near a medical waste incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, I.-Fang; Chen, Chien-Nan; Lin, Yi-Chang; Chen, Mei-Lien

    This study attempts to determine the influence of air quality in a residential area near a medical waste incineration plant. Ambient air concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PM 10 and PM 2.5 (PM—particulate matter) were determined by collecting air samples in areas both upwind and downwind of the plant. The differences in air pollutant levels between the study area and a reference area 11 km away from the plant were evaluated. Dichotomous samplers were used for sampling PM 2.5 and PM 10 from ambient air. Two hundred and twenty samples were obtained from the study area, and 100 samples were taken from a reference area. Samples were weighed by an electronic microbalance and concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were determined. A HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector was employed to analyze the concentrations of 15 PAHs compounds adsorbed into PM 2.5 and PM 10. The experimental results indicated that the average concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 30.34±17.95 and 36.81±20.45 μg m -3, respectively, in the study area, while the average ratio of PM 2.5/PM 10 was 0.82±0.01. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 of the study area located downwind of the incinerator were significantly higher than the study area upwind of the incinerator ( P<0.05). The concentration of PAHs in PM 2.5 in the study area was 2.2 times higher than in the reference area ( P<0.05). Furthermore, the benzo( a)pyrene concentrations in PM 2.5 and PM 10 were 0.11±0.05 ng m -3 and 0.12±0.06 ng m -3 in the study area, respectively. The benzo( a)pyrene concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in the study area were 7 and 5.3 times higher than in the reference area ( P<0.05), respectively. The study indicated that the air quality of PM 2.5, PM 10 and PAHs had significant contamination by air pollutants emitted from a medical waste incineration factory, representing a public health problem for nearby residences, despite the factory being equipped with a modern air pollution

  13. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  14. Systematic Study of Rayleigh-Taylor Growth in Directly Driven Plastic Targets in a Laser-Intensity Range from ~2 x 10^14 to ~1.5 x 10^15 W/cm^2

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V.A.; Hu, S.X.; Goncharov, V.N.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Sangster, T.C.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-09-05

    Direct-drive, Rayleigh–Taylor (RT) growth experiments were performed using planar plastic targets on the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] at laser intensities between ~2 x 10^14 and ~1.5 x 10^15 W/cm^2. The primary purpose of the experiments was to test fundamental physics in hydrocodes at the range of drive intensities relevant to ignition designs. The target acceleration was measured with a streak camera using side-on, x-ray radiography, while RT growth was measured with a framing camera using face-on radiography. In a laser-intensity range from 2 to 5 x 10^14 W/cm^2, the measured RT growth agrees well with two-dimensional simulations, based on a local model of thermal-electron transport. The RT growth at drive intensities above ~1.0 x 10^15 W/cm^2 was strongly stabilized compared to the local model predictions. The experiments demonstrate that standard simulations, based on a local model of electron thermal transport, break down at peak intensities of ignition designs, although they work well at lower intensities. These results also imply that direct-drive ignition targets are significantly more stable than previously calculated using local electron-transport models at peak intensities of ignition designs. The preheating effects by nonlocal electron transport and hot electrons were identified as some of the stabilizing mechanisms.

  15. Systematic study of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in directly driven plastic targets in a laser-intensity range from {approx}2x10{sup 14} to {approx}1.5x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Hu, S. X.; Goncharov, V. N.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B.

    2008-08-15

    Direct-drive, Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth experiments were performed using planar plastic targets on the OMEGA Laser Facility [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] at laser intensities between {approx}2x10{sup 14} and {approx}1.5x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}. The primary purpose of the experiments was to test fundamental physics in hydrocodes at the range of drive intensities relevant to ignition designs. The target acceleration was measured with a streak camera using side-on, x-ray radiography, while RT growth was measured with a framing camera using face-on radiography. In a laser-intensity range from 2 to 5x10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}, the measured RT growth agrees well with two-dimensional simulations, based on a local model of thermal-electron transport. The RT growth at drive intensities above {approx}1.0x10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} was strongly stabilized compared to the local model predictions. The experiments demonstrate that standard simulations, based on a local model of electron thermal transport, break down at peak intensities of ignition designs, although they work well at lower intensities. These results also imply that direct-drive ignition targets are significantly more stable than previously calculated using local electron-transport models at peak intensities of ignition designs. The preheating effects by nonlocal electron transport and hot electrons were identified as some of the stabilizing mechanisms.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure determination and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hranjec, Marijana; Pavlović, Gordana; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes the synthesis of novel 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydro-[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazoles as hydrochloride salts 4a-n and 5b which were prepared in the reaction of cyclocondensation between 2-guanidinobenzimidazole and versatile heteroaromatic aldehydes. Structures of all prepared compounds have been studied by using 1H and 13C NMR, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The crystal and molecular structure of 4f was determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystals. The molecule of 2-amino-4-(4'-methylphenyl)-4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazole hydrochloride 4f (C 16H 16N 5+·Cl -) exists in the solid state in one of the possible tautomeric forms, being protonated at the one of the nitrogen atoms of the 1,4-dihydrotriazine ring. The molecule is highly delocalized within the 4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazole moiety with the highest deviation from the plane for the methine carbon atom and the protonated nitrogen atom of the 1,4-dihydrotriazine ring. The cations are joined via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into R22(8) centrosymmetric dimers. Cation dimers are further connected with Cl - ions via N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into 2D chains spreading along the b axis. The obtained single-crystal X-ray structure determination unequivocally confirms tautomeric form of the compound present in the solid-state and can represent tantative pattern for other prepared compounds. All prepared compounds were tested on their antiproliferative activity in vitro on several human cancer cell lines. Compound 4m was the most active one (IC 50 ≈ 20 μM), while compounds 4d, 4f, 4k, 4l4m showed moderate, but non-selective, antiproliferative activity with IC 50 25-60 μM.

  17. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2,5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2,5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  19. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane C2H2F4 + C4H10O2 2,5-Dioxahexane (EVLM1111, LB5748_E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'vapor-Liquid Equilibrium in the Mixture 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane C2H2F4 + C4H10O2 2,5-Dioxahexane (EVLM1111, LB5748_E)' providing data from direct measurement of pressure at variable mole fraction in liquid phase and constant temperature.

  20. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and Gas Phase in Office Environment in Shanghai, China: Occurrence and Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yue; Chen, Ling; Ngoc, Duong Minh; Duan, Yan-Ping; Lu, Zhi-Bo; Wen, Zhi-Hao; Meng, Xiang-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate risk via inhalation exposure of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in office environment, thirty-six pairs air samples including PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm), PM10 (particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm), total suspended particles (TSP) with matching gas phase were collected in office environment in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP were 20.4, 27.2 and 50.3 μg/m3, respectively. Σ15PBDEs mean concentrations in PM2.5, PM10, TSP and gas phase were 51.8, 110.7, 148 and 59.6 pg/m3, respectively. Much more PBDEs distributed in fine fractions than coarse ones. PBDEs congener profiles found in PM2.5, PM10 and TSP (dominated by BDE-209) were different from that in gas phase (dominated by the tri- to penta-BDEs). Approximately 3.20 pg/kg/d PM2.5 bound PBDEs can be inhaled into the lung; 3.62 pg/kg/d PM10-PM2.5(particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10 μm) bound PBDEs tended to be deposited in the upper part of respiratory system, and the intake of PBDEs via gas-phase was 2.74 pg/kg/d. The exposure of PBDEs was far below the minimal risk levels (MRLs), indicating lower risk from PBDEs via inhalation in the studied office in Shanghai. PMID:25793925

  1. Three-dimensional structure of nanocomposites from atomic pair distribution function analysis: study of polyaniline and (polyaniline)(0.5)V(2)O(5) x 1.0 H(2)O.

    PubMed

    Petkov, Valeri; Parvanov, Vencislav; Trikalitis, Pantelis; Malliakas, Christos; Vogt, Tom; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2005-06-22

    The three-dimensional structures of emeraldine base polyaniline (PANI) and (polyaniline)(0.5)V(2)O(5) x 1.0 H(2)O have been determined by total X-ray scattering experiments. Atomic pair distribution functions (PDF) were measured to obtain experimental observables against which structural models were tested and refined. The PDF approach is necessary because of the limited structural coherence in these nanostructured materials. Polyaniline possesses a well-defined local atomic arrangement that can be described in terms of an 84-atom orthorhombic unit cell. The nanocomposite (PANI)(0.5)V(2)O(5) x 1.0 H(2)O too is locally well ordered and may be described in terms of a small number of structure-sensible parameters. The PDF approach allows the construction of structure models of PANI and (PANI)(0.5)V(2)O(5) x 1.0 H(2)O on the basis of which important materials' properties can be explained predicted and possibly improved. PMID:15954787

  2. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  3. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  4. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  5. Exposure of Particulate Matters PM10 and PM2.5 to Pregnant Ladies during First Trimester and its Impact on Adverse Birth Outcomes in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant exposure to criteria air pollutants at different level of concentrations is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The present study advocates the importance of the early period of pregnancy (first trimester) for association between growth in term of small gestational age (SGA) and birth weight (BW) with PM2.5 and PM10 for megacity Delhi. The association of PM10 and PM2.5 average concentration, SGA, pre term birth (PTB) and lower birth weight (LBW < 2500g or 5.5 pounds) outcomes have been investigated among 1749 live births in a large hospital during the year 2012 New Delhi, India. The air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in single pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes. Growth in term of SGA is associated with PM2.5 levels (OR = 0.99, confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 - 1.0) and PM10 levels (OR= 0.99, CI= 0.99 - 1.001) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight outcome in terms of lower birth weight (LBW) has been found to be significantly associated with PM2.5 (OR= 0.99, CI = 0.98 - 1.00) exposure in the first trimester. A very significant decrease of 0.1% has been observed in growth of infant in terms of SGA with per 10 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Also, 0.1 % statistically significant adverse association of BW in terms of LBW has been found with per 10 mg/m3 increased vulnerability of PM2.5 during first trimester of gestation.

  6. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in the western coastal area of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che; Lin, Sheng-Lun; Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu; Chen, Yu-Cheng

    2016-01-15

    This study investigated seasonal variations in PM10 and PM2.5 mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM10 and PM2.5 were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM10 in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m(-3), respectively, while mean levels of PM2.5 in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m(-3), respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM10 and PM2.5 exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM10 and PM2.5 were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM10 and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM2.5. Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health. PMID:26473714

  7. Observation by two-photon laser spectroscopy of the 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} clock transition in atomic silver

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, T.; Plimmer, M. D.; Juncar, P.; Himbert, M. E.; Louyer, Y.; Knight, D. J. E.

    2006-12-15

    We report the observation of the very narrow 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} transition in atomic silver. The frequencies of the hyperfine components in {sup 107}Ag and {sup 109}Ag have been measured using Doppler-free two-photon laser spectroscopy of a thermal beam and heterodyne calibration with respect to the a{sub 1} component of the 62P(4-5) line in molecular iodine near 661 nm. For the center of gravity of a mixture of natural abundance, we deduce the value 906 641 295.77(19) MHz. For the isotope shift, we obtain {nu}({sup 109}Ag)-{nu}({sup 107}Ag)=564.15(37) MHz, from which we deduce the frequency and isotope shift of the 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 10}6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition at 206 nm.

  8. Electronic structure and energetics of LaNi{sub 5}, {alpha}-La{sub 2}Ni{sub 10}H and {beta}-La{sub 2}Ni{sub 10}H{sub 14}

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, H.; Nguyen-Manh, D.; Pettifor, D.G.

    1998-12-31

    The electronic structure and energetics of LaNi{sub 5}, its hydrogen solution ({alpha}-La{sub 2}Ni{sub 10}H) and its hydride ({beta}-La{sub 2}Ni{sub 10}H{sub 14}) were investigated by means of the tight-binding linear muffin-tin orbitals method within the atomic sphere approximation (TB-LMTO-ASA). Preferred site occupancy by the absorbed hydrogen atoms was investigated in terms of the charge density of the interstitial sites and the total energy, both of which indicate that the 6m site in the P6/mmm symmetry is the most preferred. A negative heat of formation of La{sub 2}Ni{sub 10}H{sub 14} was obtained from the total energy calculations.

  9. A vibrational spectroscopic study of the silicate mineral inesite Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)ṡ5H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Ray L.; López, Andrés; Xi, Yunfei; Scholz, Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    We have studied the hydrated hydroxyl silicate mineral inesite of formula Ca2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)ṡ5H2O using a combination of scanning electron microscopy with EDX and Raman and infrared spectroscopy. SEM analysis shows the mineral to be a pure monomineral with no impurities. Semiquantitative analysis shows a homogeneous phase, composed by Ca, Mn2+, Si and P, with minor amounts of Mg and Fe. Raman spectrum shows well resolved component bands at 997, 1031, 1051, and 1067 cm-1 attributed to a range of SiO symmetric stretching vibrations of [Si10O28] units. Infrared bands found at 896, 928, 959 and 985 cm-1 are attributed to the OSiO antisymmetric stretching vibrations. An intense broad band at 653 cm-1 with shoulder bands at 608, 631 and 684 cm-1 are associated with the bending modes of the OSiO units of the 6- and 8-membered rings of the [Si10O28] units. The sharp band at 3642 cm-1 with shoulder bands at 3612 and 3662 cm-1 are assigned to the OH stretching vibrations of the hydroxyl units. The broad Raman band at 3420 cm-1 with shoulder bands at 3362 and 3496 cm-1 are assigned to the water stretching vibrations. The application of vibrational spectroscopy has enabled an assessment of the molecular structure of inesite to be undertaken.

  10. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM(2.5) at Tocopilla, Chile (22 degrees 05' S, 70 degrees 12' W).

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Héctor

    2009-06-01

    Tocopilla is located on the coast of Northern Chile, within an arid region that extends from 30 degrees S to the border with Perú. The major industrial activities are related to the copper mining industry. A measurement campaign was conducted during March and April 2006 to determine ambient PM10 and PM(2.5) concentrations in the city. The results showed significantly higher PM10 concentrations in the southern part of the city (117 microg/m3) compared with 79 and 80 (microg/m3) in the central and northern sites. By contrast, ambient PM2.5 concentrations had a more uniform spatial distribution across the city, around 20 (microg/m3). In order to conduct a source apportionment, daily PM10 and PM(2.5) samples were analyzed for elements by XRF. EPA's Positive Matrix Factorization software was used to interpret the results of the chemical compositions. The major source contributing to PM(2.5) at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively are: (a) sulfates, with approximately 50% of PM2.5 concentrations at the three sites; (b) fugitive emissions from fertilizer storage and handling, with 16%, 21% and 10%; (c) Coal and residual oil combustion, with 15%, 15% and 4%; (d) Sea salt, 5%, 6% and 16%; (e) Copper ore processing, 4%, 5% and 15%; and (f) a mixed dust source with 11%, 7% and 4%. Results for PM10--at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively--show that the major contributors are: (a) sea salt source with 36%, 32% and 36% of the PM10 concentration; (b) copper processing emissions mixed with airborne soil dust with 6.6%, 11.5% and 41%; (c) sulfates with 31%, 31% and 12%; (d) a mixed dust source with 16%, 12% and 10%, and (e) the fertilizer stockpile emissions, with 11%, 14% and 2% of the PM10 concentration. The high natural background of PM10 implies that major reductions in anthropogenic emissions of PM10 and SO2 would be required to attain ambient air quality standards for PM10; those reductions would curb down ambient PM(2.5) concentrations as well. PMID:18512124

  11. Common variants at SCN5A-SCN10A and HEY2 are associated with Brugada syndrome, a rare disease with high risk of sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Bezzina, Connie R.; Barc, Julien; Mizusawa, Yuka; Remme, Carol Ann; Gourraud, Jean-Baptiste; Simonet, Floriane; Verkerk, Arie O.; Schwartz, Peter J.; Crotti, Lia; Dagradi, Federica; Guicheney, Pascale; Fressart, Véronique; Leenhardt, Antoine; Antzelevitch, Charles; Bartkowiak, Susan; Schulze-Bahr, Eric; Zumhagen, Sven; Behr, Elijah R.; Bastiaenen, Rachel; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Olesen, Morten Salling; Kääb, Stefan; Beckmann, Britt M.; Weeke, Peter; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Endo, Naoto; Minamino, Tohru; Horie, Minoru; Ohno, Seiko; Hasegawa, Kanae; Makita, Naomasa; Nogami, Akihiko; Shimizu, Wataru; Aiba, Takeshi; Froguel, Philippe; Balkau, Beverley; Lantieri, Olivier; Torchio, Margherita; Wiese, Cornelia; Weber, David; Wolswinkel, Rianne; Coronel, Ruben; Boukens, Bas J.; Bézieau, Stéphane; Charpentier, Eric; Chatel, Stéphanie; Despres, Aurore; Gros, Françoise; Kyndt, Florence; Lecointe, Simon; Lindenbaum, Pierre; Portero, Vincent; Violleau, Jade; Gessler, Manfred; Tan, Hanno L.; Roden, Dan M.; Christoffels, Vincent M.; Le Marec, Hervé; Wilde, Arthur A; Probst, Vincent; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Dina, Christian; Redon, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Brugada syndrome is a rare cardiac arrhythmia disorder, causally related to SCN5A mutations in around 20% of cases1–3. Through a genome-wide association study of 312 individuals with Brugada syndrome and 1,115 controls, we detected 2 significant association signals at the SCN10A locus (rs10428132) and near the HEY2 gene (rs9388451). Independent replication confirmed both signals (meta-analyses: rs10428132, P = 1.0 × 10−68; rs9388451, P = 5.1 × 10−17) and identified one additional signal in SCN5A (at 3p21; rs11708996, P = 1.0 × 10−14). The cumulative effect of the three loci on disease susceptibility was unexpectedly large (Ptrend = 6.1 × 10−81). The association signals at SCN5A-SCN10A demonstrate that genetic polymorphisms modulating cardiac conduction4–7 can also influence susceptibility to cardiac arrhythmia. The implication of association with HEY2, supported by new evidence that Hey2 regulates cardiac electrical activity, shows that Brugada syndrome may originate from altered transcriptional programming during cardiac development8. Altogether, our findings indicate that common genetic variation can have a strong impact on the predisposition to rare diseases. PMID:23872634

  12. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China. PMID:25622266

  13. Core electron excitations in U(4+): modelling of the nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions with n = 3, 4 and 5 by ligand field tools and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Ramanantoanina, Harry; Kuri, Goutam; Daul, Claude; Bertsch, Johannes

    2016-07-28

    Ligand field density functional theory (LFDFT) calculations have been used to model the uranium M4,5, N4,5 and O4,5-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) in UO2, characterized by the promotion of one electron from the core and the semi-core 3d, 4d and 5d orbitals of U(4+) to the valence 5f. The model describes the procedure to resolve non-empirically the multiplet energy levels originating from the two-open-shell system with d and f electrons and to calculate the oscillator strengths corresponding to the dipole allowed d(10)f(2)→ d(9)f(3) transitions appropriate to represent the d electron excitation process. In the first step, the energy and UO2 unit-cell volume corresponding to the minimum structures are determined using the Hubbard model (DFT+U) approach. The model of the optical properties due to the uranium nd(10)5f(2)→nd(9)5f(3) transitions, with n = 3, 4 and 5, has been tackled by means of electronic structure calculations based on the ligand field concept emulating the Slater-Condon integrals, the spin-orbit coupling constants and the parameters of the ligand field potential needed by the ligand field Hamiltonian from Density Functional Theory. A deep-rooted theoretical procedure using the LFDFT approach has been established for actinide-bearing systems that can be valuable to compute targeted results, such as spectroscopic details at the electronic scale. As a case study, uranium dioxide has been considered because it is a nuclear fuel material, and both atomic and electronic structure calculations are indispensable for a deeper understanding of irradiation driven microstructural changes occurring in this material. PMID:27356168

  14. Efficiency of Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook (MWAC) samplers to collect PM10, PM2.5 and PM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Mariano J.; Funk, Roger; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    The internal efficiency of Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook (MWAC) samplers for trapping PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were tested in a wind tunnel, at two wind speeds (3.0 and 6.8 m s-1) in the saltation zone (SAZ) and the suspension zone (SAZ). PM concentrations measured in the inlet and the outlet of both samplers were correlated and the slopes of fitting equations were used for calculating sampling efficiencies. Results showed that BSNE efficiencies ranged from 12% to 32% for PM10, from 0% to 19% for PM2.5 and from 0% to 12% for PM1. The BSNE's efficiency decreased with decreasing particle sizes in SAZ and SUZ at both wind speeds as a consequence of the very low deposition velocity of the finest size particles. The BSNE's efficiency increased with increasing wind speed in SAZ for PM10 and PM2.5 and in SUZ for PM2.5. The MWAC's efficiency ranged from 1% to 20% for PM10, from 0% to 15% for PM2.5 and from 0% to 16% for PM1. The MWAC efficiency was 0% for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the SUZ at 3 m s-1 and for PM2.5 and PM1 in the SUZ at 6.8 m s-1. These results provide evidence that the efficiency of BSNE and MWAC for trapping PM10 change with wind speed and position of the sampler. Results also show that BSNEs and MWACs can potentially be used for PM10 emission studies but more research is needed in order to understand and improve their efficiency.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of new antitumor 3-aminomethyl-4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Shchekotikhin, Andrey E; Glazunova, Valeria A; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Luzikov, Yuri N; Buyanov, Vladimir N; Treshalina, Helena M; Lesnaya, Nina A; Romanenko, Vladimir I; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Balzarini, Jan; Agama, Keli; Pommier, Yves; Shtil, Alexander A; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2014-10-30

    A series of new 3-aminomethyl-4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones 6-13 bearing the cyclic diamine in the position 3 of the indole ring was synthesized. The majority of new compounds demonstrated a superior cytotoxicity than doxorubicin against a panel of mammalian tumor cells with determinants of altered drug response, that is, Pgp expression or p53 inactivation. For naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones 6-9 bearing 3-aminopyrrolidine in the side chains, the ability to bind double-stranded DNA and inhibit topoisomerases 1 and 2 mediated relaxation of supercoiled DNA were demonstrated. Only one isomer, (R)-4,11-dihydroxy-3-((pyrrolidin-3-ylamino)methyl)-1H-naphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione (7) induced the formation of specific DNA cleavage products similar to the known topoisomerase 1 inhibitors camptothecin and indenoisoquinoline MJ-III-65, suggesting a role of the structure of the side chain of 3-aminomethylnaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-diones in interaction with the target. Compound 7 demonstrated an antitumor activity in mice with P388 leukemia transplants whereas its enantiomer 6 was inactive. Thus, 3-aminomethyl derivatives of 4,11-dihydroxynaphtho[2,3-f]indole-5,10-dione emerge as a new prospective chemotype for the search of antitumor agents. PMID:25244612

  16. Concentrations, correlations and chemical species of PM2.5/PM10 based on published data in China: Potential implications for the revised particulate standard.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuehua; Cao, Zhaoyu; Ma, Yujie; Wang, Linpeng; Wu, Ruidong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been of great concern in China due to the increasing haze pollution in recent years. In 2012, the Chinese national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) was amended with a "more strict" regulation on the PM concentrations, i.e., 35 and 70 µg/m(3) for annual PM2.5 and PM10 averages, respectively (Grade-Ⅱ, GB3095-2012). To evaluate the potential of China to attain such new NAAQS and provide a more generalized chemical profile of PM in China, a comprehensive statistical analysis was carried out based on the published data of parallel PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 and PM10. The results show that most of the measured concentrations far exceed the new NAAQS. PM2.5 and PM10 show a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.87, p < 0.01) with PM2.5 accounting for about 65% of PM10, suggesting that the abatement of PM2.5 is crucial for reducing PM pollution and hence improving air quality in China. Organic carbon (OC), sulfate and crustal species are the three major components of PM. The NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratios are 0.43 ± 0.26 in PM2.5 and 0.56 ± 0.29 in PM10, and the OC/EC ratios are 3.63 ± 1.73 in PM2.5 and 4.17 ± 2.09 in PM10, signifying that the stationary emissions from coal combustion remain the main PM source. An evaluation of PM2.5 situation in current China was carried out and the results show that it would take about 27 years to meet the limit value of 35 µg/m(3) in the revised standard, implying a rigorous challenge in PM2.5 control in China in the future. PMID:26397469

  17. Bioequivalence and food effect of heat-stressed and non-heat-stressed dapagliflozin 2.5- and 10-mg tablets.

    PubMed

    LaCreta, Frank; Griffen, Steven C; Liu, Xiaoni; Smith, Charles; Hines, Carey; Volk, Kevin; Tejwani, Ravindra; Boulton, David W

    2016-09-10

    Physical storage of formulations may result in physical composition changes that affect pharmacokinetics. Dapagliflozin, an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor used for type 2 diabetes mellitus, stored under prolonged exposure to heat converts crystalline dapagliflozin to an amorphous form. Bioequivalence of the amorphous to crystalline form and food effects of each form in the 2.5-mg formulation are unknown. Two open-label, crossover, single-dose studies in healthy participants assessed pharmacokinetics for heat-stressed (HS) and non-heat-stressed (NH) dapagliflozin 10-mg (study 1, N=29, fasted+HS food effect) and 2.5-mg (study 2, N=28, fasted+HS and NH food effect) tablets. The 90% confidence intervals for geometric mean ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration (Cmax) for HS 2.5- and 10-mg tablets were within 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence. In the fed vs. fasted state for 2.5-mg and 10-mg HS tablets, AUCs were similar, time to Cmax was prolonged by 1.25h, and Cmax decreased by approximately 50%. No serious adverse events were reported. Given that dapagliflozin's efficacy is dependent upon AUC, it was concluded that HS and NH dapagliflozin tablets are bioequivalent in 2.5- and 10-mg doses with no clinically meaningful food effect for either form. PMID:27418571

  18. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell.

    PubMed

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. PMID:26505793

  19. Synthesis of the Stereoisomeric Clusters 1,2-Os3(CO)10(trans-dpmn) and 1,2-Os3(CO)10(cis-dpmn) [where dpmn = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)-5-norbornene]: DFT Evaluation of the Isomeric Clusters 1,2-Os3(CO)10(dpmn) and Isomer-Dependent Diphosphine Ligand Activation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yang, Li; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Wang, Xiaoping; Richmond, Michael G.

    2014-07-23

    The bicyclic diphosphines trans- and cis-2,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)-5-norbornene (dpmn) react with 1,2-Os3(CO)10(MeCN)2 (1) to furnish the corresponding ligand-bridged clusters Os3(CO)10(trans-dpmn) (2) and Os3(CO)10(cis-dpmn) (3). Both new products have been isolated and the molecular structures established by X-ray diffraction analyses. The dihydroxyl-bridged cluster 1,2-Os3(CO)8(μ-OH)2(cis-dpmn) (4), which accompanied the formation of 3 in one reaction, has been isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Whereas cluster 2 is stable in toluene at 373 K, 3 is thermally sensitive under identical conditions and undergoes loss of CO (2 equiv), coupled with the activation of three norbornene C-H bonds and one P-C(phenyl) bond, tomore » furnish the dihydride cluster H2Os3(CO)8[μ3-2-PhPC-3-endo-Ph2PCH2(C7H7)] (5). The solid-state structure of 5 confirms the multiple activation of the cis-dpmn ligand and accompanying formation of the face-capping 2-PhPC-3-endo-Ph2PCH2(C7H7) moiety in the product. DFT calculations on 2 and 3 indicate that the former cluster is the thermodynamically more stable isomer, and the conversion of 3→ 5 + 2CO + benzene is computed to be exergonic by 12.7 kcal/mol and is entropically favored due to the release of the CO and benzene by-products.« less

  20. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 10.5 Section... SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.5 Responsibilities. (a... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  1. Mechano-thermal synthesis of nanocrystalline RuSr2Eu1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ materials: Micro-structural, optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, S.; Hussain, A. K. Jakkir; Parthiban, P.; Satya, A. T.; Janaki, J.

    2016-05-01

    The nanocrystalline RuSr2Eu1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ (referred to as Ru1222Eu) materials were successfully prepared by mechano-thermal route and studied the Ru1222Eu materials by powder XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDX and ac-susceptibility measurements. The as-milled powder annealed at 950 - 1000°C is crystallized in nearly single tetragonal phase of Ru1222Eu materials with average crystalline size of ~40 nm. Agglomeration of fine particles is seen through SEM micro-images in the Ru1222Eu phase materials. Contrary to magneto-superconductivity, a magnetic ordering is seen at ~60 K for Ru1222Eu phase under low applied field of 0.5 Oe at 10 Hz.

  2. Characterizing Spatial Patterns of Airborne Coarse Particulate (PM102.5) Mass and Chemical Components in Three Cities: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Timothy V.; Gassett, Amanda; Szpiro, Adam A.; Daviglus, Martha; Burke, Gregory L.; Kaufman, Joel D.; Adar, Sara D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The long-term health effects of coarse particular matter (PM102.5) are challenging to assess because of a limited understanding of the spatial variation in PM102.5 mass and its chemical components. Objectives: We conducted a spatially intensive field study and developed spatial prediction models for PM102.5 mass and four selected species (copper, zinc, phosphorus, and silicon) in three American cities. Methods: PM102.5 snapshot campaigns were conducted in Chicago, Illinois; St. Paul, Minnesota; and Winston-Salem, North Carolina, in 2009 for the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Coarse Airborne Particulate Matter (MESA Coarse). In each city, samples were collected simultaneously outside the homes of approximately 40 participants over 2 weeks in the winter and/or summer. City-specific and combined prediction models were developed using land use regression (LUR) and universal kriging (UK). Model performance was evaluated by cross-validation (CV). Results: PM102.5 mass and species varied within and between cities in a manner that was predictable by geographic covariates. City-specific LUR models generally performed well for total mass (CV R2, 0.41–0.68), copper (CV R2, 0.51–0.86), phosphorus (CV R2, 0.50–0.76), silicon (CV R2, 0.48–0.93), and zinc (CV R2, 0.36–0.73). Models pooled across all cities inconsistently captured within-city variability. Little difference was observed between the performance of LUR and UK models in predicting concentrations. Conclusions: Characterization of fine-scale spatial variability of these often heterogeneous pollutants using geographic covariates should reduce exposure misclassification and increase the power of epidemiological studies investigating the long-term health impacts of PM102.5. Citation: Zhang K, Larson TV, Gassett A, Szpiro AA, Daviglus M, Burke GL, Kaufman JD, Adar SD. 2014. Characterizing spatial patterns of airborne coarse particulate (PM102.5) mass and chemical

  3. Estimating daily PM2.5 and PM10 across the complex geo-climate region of Israel using MAIAC satellite-based AOD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloog, Itai; Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Lyapustin, Alexei; Coull, Brent; Wang, Yujie; Just, Allan C.; Schwartz, Joel; Broday, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of exposure to PM2.5 are often derived from geographic characteristics based on land-use regression or from a limited number of fixed ground monitors. Remote sensing advances have integrated these approaches with satellite-based measures of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is spatially and temporally resolved, allowing greater coverage for PM2.5 estimations. Israel is situated in a complex geo-climatic region with contrasting geographic and weather patterns, including both dark and bright surfaces within a relatively small area. Our goal was to examine the use of MODIS-based MAIAC data in Israel, and to explore the reliability of predicted PM2.5 and PM10 at a high spatiotemporal resolution. We applied a three stage process, including a daily calibration method based on a mixed effects model, to predict ground PM2.5 and PM10 over Israel. We later constructed daily predictions across Israel for 2003-2013 using spatial and temporal smoothing, to estimate AOD when satellite data were missing. Good model performance was achieved, with out-of-sample cross validation R2 values of 0.79 and 0.72 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Model predictions had little bias, with cross-validated slopes (predicted vs. observed) of 0.99 for both the PM2.5 and PM10 models. To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilizes high resolution 1 km MAIAC AOD retrievals for PM prediction while accounting for geo-climate complexities, such as experienced in Israel. This novel model allowed the reconstruction of long- and short-term spatially resolved exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 in Israel, which could be used in the future for epidemiological studies.

  4. K5.76Ga5.76Si10.24O32.3.4H2O, a gallosilicate with the zeolite gismondine topology.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A; Parise, J B; Kim, S J; Lee, Y; Uh, Y S

    2001-04-01

    The title compound, K-GaSi-GIS, potassium gallium silicon oxide hydrate, was synthesized hydrothermally and its crystal structure was determined from data collected on a single crystal of dimensions 10 x 10 x 8 microm at a synchrotron X-ray source. The compound, which has the aluminosilicate (AlSi) zeolite gismondine (GIS) topology, Ca(4)[Al(8)Si(8)O(32)].16H(2)O, crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a. A disordered distribution of the framework Si/Ga sites leads to higher symmetry of the GIS-type network compared with the usual monoclinic symmetry in AlSi-GIS. Framework Ga substitution for Al in AlSi-GIS leads to substantial distortion of the crankshaft chains, reducing the effective pore dimensions and suggesting the possibility of pore-dimension control via partial framework-cation substitution. PMID:11313552

  5. 2-Chloro-N-{5-[(4R,5R,10S)-dehydro­abiet-4-yl]-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-yl}benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qijin; Duan, Wengui; Ma, Xianli; Huang, Jianxin; Ma, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H32ClN3OS (systematic name: 2-chloro-N-{5-[(1R,4aS,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octa­hydro­phenanthren-1-yl]-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-yl}benzamide). In each mol­ecule, the cyclo­hexyl ring attached to the thia­diazole fragment adopts a classic chair conformation with two of its two methyl groups in the axial positions. In the crystal, pairs of inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers, which are further linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21754102

  6. Concentrations and light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in PM2.5 and PM10 of Lhasa city, the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoliu; Chen, Pengfei; Kang, Shichang; Yan, Fangping; Hu, Zhaofu; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol strongly influence the Earth's radiative balance, yet the related knowledge is limited for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world. In this study, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of PM2.5 and PM10 of Lhasa collected from May 2013 to March 2014 were studied. It showed that daily-average concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC of PM2.5 and PM10 were lower than those of other megacities. Lhasa PM2.5 was characterized by low OC/EC ratio (1.46 ± 0.55), which was similar to that of Lhasa roadside PM2.5 (1.25 ± 0.45), reflecting mainly direct influence of primary emissions and less secondary formation. Hence, although Lhasa atmosphere is relatively clean, it is intensively influenced by local vehicle emissions. Mass absorption cross-section of EC (MACEC) for both PM2.5 and PM10 at 632 nm were 7.19 ± 1.19 m2 g-1 and 7.98 ± 2.32 m2 g-1, respectively, both of which had similar variation patterns to OC/EC and secondary OC (SOC)/OC, indicating that the increase of MACEC might be caused by coating with organic aerosol. Additionally, the loading of EC for both PM2.5 and PM10 showed logarithmic relationships with those of optical attenuation (ATN) of EC, implying that the shadowing effect enhanced logarithmic with increased EC concentration. MAC of WSOC at 365 nm for PM2.5 (0.74 ± 0.22 m2 g-1) and PM10 (0.78 ± 0.21 m2 g-1) were also close to reported values of other cities mainly influenced by fossil combustion. Additionally, attenuation at 365 nm of WSOC of both PM2.5 and PM10 showed the same relationship with their WSOC concentrations, implying no difference for light absorption properties of WSOC for these two grain sizes.

  7. Formation, reactivity, and photorelease of metal bound nitrosyl in [Ru(trpy)(L)(NO)](n+) (trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline).

    PubMed

    Maji, Somnath; Sarkar, Biprajit; Patra, Malay; Das, Atanu Kumar; Mobin, Shaikh M; Kaim, Wolfgang; Lahiri, Goutam Kumar

    2008-04-21

    Nitrosyl complexes with {Ru-NO} (6) and {Ru-NO} (7) configurations have been isolated in the framework of [Ru(trpy)(L)(NO)] ( n+ ) [trpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5- f]1,10-phenanthroline] as the perchlorate salts [ 4](ClO 4) 3 and [ 4](ClO 4) 2, respectively. Single crystals of protonated material [ 4-H (+)](ClO 4) 4.2H 2O reveal a Ru-N-O bond angle of 176.1(7) degrees and triply bonded N-O with a 1.127(9) A bond length. Structures were also determined for precursor compounds of [ 4] (3+) in the form of [Ru(trpy)(L)(Cl)](ClO 4).4.5H 2O and [Ru(trpy)(L-H)(CH 3CN)](ClO 4) 3.H 2O. In agreement with largely NO centered reduction, a sizable shift in nu(NO) frequency was observed on moving from [ 4] (3+) (1953 cm (-1)) to [ 4] (2+) (1654 cm (-1)). The Ru (II)-NO* in isolated or electrogenerated [ 4] (2+) exhibits an EPR spectrum with g 1 = 2.020, g 2 = 1.995, and g 3 = 1.884 in CH 3CN at 110 K, reflecting partial metal contribution to the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO); (14)N (NO) hyperfine splitting ( A 2 = 30 G) was also observed. The plot of nu(NO) versus E degrees ({RuNO} (6) --> {RuNO} (7)) for 12 analogous complexes [Ru(trpy)(L')(NO)] ( n+ ) exhibits a linear trend. The electrophilic Ru-NO (+) species [ 4] (3+) is transformed to the corresponding Ru-NO 2 (-) system in the presence of OH (-) with k = 2.02 x 10 (-4) s (-1) at 303 K. In the presence of a steady flow of dioxygen gas, the Ru (II)-NO* state in [ 4] (2+) oxidizes to [ 4] (3+) through an associatively activated pathway (Delta S++ = -190.4 J K (-1) M (-1)) with a rate constant ( k [s (-1)]) of 5.33 x 10 (-3). On irradiation with light (Xe lamp), the acetonitrile solution of paramagnetic [Ru(trpy)(L)(NO)] (2+) ([ 4] (2+)) undergoes facile photorelease of NO ( k NO = 2.0 x 10 (-1) min (-1) and t 1/2 approximately 3.5 min) with the concomitant formation of the solvate [Ru (II)(trpy)(L)(CH 3CN)] (2+) [ 2'] (2+). The photoreleased NO can be trapped as an Mb-NO adduct. PMID

  8. Characterization of carbonaceous materials in PM2.5 and PM10 size fractions in Morogoro, Tanzania, during 2006 wet season campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Chi, Xuguang; Maenhaut, Willy

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric aerosol samples in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were collected in parallel at a rural site in Morogoro during wet season in March and April 2006. All samples were analysed for the particulate matter mass, for organic, elemental, and total carbon (OC, EC, and TC), and for water-soluble OC (WSOC). The average PM10 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and associated standard deviations were 14 ± 13 μg/m 3 and 7.3 ± 4 μg/m 3 respectively. On average, TC accounted for 33% of the PM10 mass and 44% of the PM2.5 mass for the campaign. The average OC/PM percentage ratios were 27% and 33% in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions respectively and a larger fraction of the OC was water-soluble. The observed low EC/TC mean percentage ratios of 10-14% respectively for PM10 and PM2.5 fractions indicate that the carbonaceous aerosol originates mainly from biogenic aerosols and/or biomass burning. A simple source apportionment approach was used to apportion the OC to biofuel and charcoal burning. On average, 93% of the PM10 OC was attributed to biofuel and 7% to charcoal burning in the 2006 wet season campaign. However, it is suggested that a contribution to the OC at Morogoro could also come from other natural biogenic matter, and/or biomass burning aerosols. The results for the sources of OC at Morogoro should therefore be considered with great caution.

  9. Assessment of the long-term impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from construction works on surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Marsh, Daniel; Fuller, Gary

    2016-02-17

    Construction activities are common across cities; however, the studies assessing their contribution to airborne PM10 (≤10 μm) and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) particles on the surrounding air quality are limited. Herein, we assessed the impact of PM10 and PM2.5 arising from construction works in and around London. Measurements were carried out at 17 different monitoring stations around three construction sites between January 2002 and December 2013. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM 1400) and OSIRIS (2315) particle monitors were used to measure the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions in the 0.1-10 μm size range along with the ambient meteorological data. The data was analysed using bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 were found to exceed the European Union target limit value of 50 μg m(-3) at 11 monitoring stations but remained within the allowable 35 exceedences per year, except at two monitoring stations. In general, construction works were found to influence the downwind concentrations of PM10 relatively more than PM2.5. Splitting of the data between working (0800-1800 h; local time) and non-working (1800-0800 h) periods showed about 2.2-fold higher concentrations of PM10 during working hours when compared with non-working hours. However, these observations did not allow to conclude that this increase was from the construction site emissions. Together, the polar concentration plots and the k-means cluster analysis applied to a pair of monitoring stations across the construction sites (i.e. one in upwind and the other in downwind) confirmed the contribution of construction sources on the measured concentrations. Furthermore, pairing the monitoring stations downwind of the construction sites showed a logarithmic decrease (with R(2) about 0.9) in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration with distance. Our findings clearly indicate an impact of construction activities on the nearby downwind areas and a need

  10. Decoupling of the CuO2 plane and superconductivity in Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2(Ca2‑ySry)Cu3O10‑δ(y = 0-0.4) samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nawazish A.; Usman Muzaffar, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2(Ca2‑ySry)Cu3O10‑δ(y = 0-0.4) samples have been synthesized at normal pressure at 860∘C. The main objectives of these experiments to study the role of inter-plane decoupling in suppressing the superconductivity of high temperature superconductors (HTSC). These samples have shown orthorhombic crystal structure and the c-axis length increases with increased Sr-doping. All the samples have shown metallic variations of resistivity (ρ) from room temperature down to the onset of superconductivity. The magnitude of the superconductivity is suppressed and the apical oxygen modes are hardened with Sr-doping. These studies have shown that Sr-doping promotes decoupling of conducting CuO2 planes which suppress the superconducting properties of final compound. The excess conductivity analyses have shown increases in the width of two-dimensional (2D) Lawrence-Doniach (LD) regime with Sr-doping. The coherence length along the c-axis ξc(0), the inter-layer coupling J, the phase relaxation time of the carriers τφ and the Fermi velocity vF of superconductor carriers is suppressed. The underlying reason for the suppression of superconductor properties is the decrease in the density of carriers in the superconductor planes. However, the values of Bc0(T), Bc1(T) and Jc(0) have been found to increase with the increased Sr-doping, which is suggested to be originating from the enhancement in the flux pinning character which is induced by Sr-doping. The values of magnetic field penetration depth λp.d and the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter κ decrease with Sr-doping and it is also suggested to be originating from the increase of flux pinning character of the samples with Sr-doping.

  11. Emission and profile characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM10 from stationary sources based on dilution sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng

    2013-10-01

    The mass concentrations and profile characteristic for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 from stack gases for six types of stationary sources in Shandong Province, China were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method from February to March in 2010. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 from the six types of stationary sources varied in 8.2-79.4 mg m-3 and 23.3-156.7 mg m-3, respectively. The total mass concentrations of analyzed PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10 were in the ranges of 0.40-94.35 μg m-3 and 9.16-122.91 μg m-3. The most toxic ashes were from sinter and coke oven for both PM2.5 and PM10 with high carcinogenic PAHs concentrations. BbF, Phe, NaP, BghiP, Pyr, BaP and BeP were abundant which was different from formers and one of the key reasons may be the differences of sampling methods. Diversities in PAHs compositions existed between fly ashes within PM2.5 and PM10 fractions for coke oven according to coefficient of divergence (CD) values. PAHs profiles for PM10 emitted from coke oven were different from those of other stationary sources (with CD values higher than 0.35) and for PM2.5, it was the same for sinter (with most CD values close to 0.30). There existed similar PAHs markers for fine particles emitted from stationary sources excepted for the sinter. For PM10, PAHs markers were primary 3-ring PAHs except for the coke oven with BbF, IND and BghiP as its signatures. Diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + Chr), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaP/(BaP + BeP), BeP/BghiP and IND/(IND + BghiP) could be not well distinguished for the six types of stationary sources with the maximum/minimum ratios lower than 2 for both PM2.5 and PM10 of fly ashes which should be not used for source identification studies. The mass concentrations and source profiles of PAHs should be updated timely for size-differentiated fly ashes from various stationary sources by dilution sampling method.

  12. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or 95... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 25.5 Section 25.5 Energy NUCLEAR...

  13. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or 95... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 25.5 Section 25.5 Energy NUCLEAR...

  14. 10 CFR 25.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Office of Personnel Management. License means a license issued pursuant to 10 CFR parts 50, 52, 60, 63... licensee, certificate holder or other organization under the requirements of 10 CFR parts 25 and/or 95... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 25.5 Section 25.5 Energy NUCLEAR...

  15. Prevalence of CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, and CYP3A5*3 in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing tamoxifen treatment

    PubMed Central

    Charoenchokthavee, Wanaporn; Panomvana, Duangchit; Sriuranpong, Virote; Areepium, Nutthada

    2016-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen (TAM) is used in breast cancer treatment, but interindividual variabilities in TAM-metabolizing enzymes exist and have been linked to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the respective encoding genes. The different alleles and genotypes of these genes have been presented for Caucasians and Asians. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of the incomplete functional alleles and genotypes of the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes in Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment. Patients and methods In total, 134 Thai breast cancer patients were randomly invited to join the Thai Tamoxifen Project. Their blood samples were collected and extracted for individual DNA. The alleles and genotypes were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction with TaqMan® Drug Metabolism Genotyping Assays. Results The patients were aged from 27.0 years to 82.0 years with a body mass index range from 15.4 to 40.0, with the majority (103/134) in the early stage (stages 0–II) of breast cancer. The median duration of TAM administration was 17.2 months (interquartile range 16.1 months). Most (53%) of the patients were premenopausal with an estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status of ER+/PR+ (71.7%), ER+/PR− (26.9%), ER−/PR+ (0.7%), and ER−/PR− (0.7%). The allele frequencies of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP3A5*1, and CYP3A5*3 were 72.9%, 3.2%, 1.1%, 22.8%, 37.3%, and 62.7%, respectively, while the genotype frequencies of CYP2D6*1/*1, CYP2D6*1/*2, CYP2D6*2/*2, CYP2D6*4/*4, CYP2D6*1/*10, CYP2D6*2/*10, CYP2D6*4/*10, CYP2D6*10/*10, CYP3A5*1/*1, CYP3A5*1/*3, and CYP3A5*3/*3 were 9.7%, 2.2%, 3.7%, 1.5%, 15.7%, 9.7%, 3.7%, 53.7%, 13.4%, 47.8%, and 38.8%, respectively. Conclusion The majority (97.8%) of Thai breast cancer patients undergoing TAM treatment carry at least one incomplete functional allele, including 20.9% of the patients who carry only incomplete functional alleles for both the CYP2D6 and CYP3A5 genes. This research

  16. Investigation of optical and electrical properties of amorphous Se{sub 95−x}S{sub x}Zn{sub 5}(x=0.2, 2, 5 and 10) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nasir, Mohd Ahmad, Shabir; Zulfequar, M.

    2015-08-28

    In this study, we reported that the optical and electrical analysis of amorphous Se{sub 90-x}S{sub x}Zn{sub 5} (x=0.2, 2, 5, 10) thin films. Bulk samples of the investigated material were prepared by melt quenching technique. Thin films of ~ 300nm thickness were deposited on cleaned glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The morphological study of the investigated material in powder form carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the disorder of the material increases at lower sulfur doping (up to 5%) whereas at higher (S) doping (10%) the defects of the material decreases. The optical parameters were estimated from optical absorption spectra data measured from UV-Vis-spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 200-900 nm. It was found that the value of optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the investigated thin films decreases up to lower S doping and increases at higher (S) doping. The other optical parameters such as absorption coefficient (α) and extinction coefficient (K) increases up to lower S doping and decreases at higher S doping. This remarkable change in the values of optical parameters was interpreted on the basis of model proposed by Davis and Mott. Electrical parameters of the investigated thin films were carried out in the temperature range 309-370 K. Analysis of data shows activation energy decreases with the increase of concentration of (S) increases up to 5% and at 10% it increases again.

  17. Synthesis and crystal structure of [C 6N 2H 14]ṡ(Zr 2F 10)ṡ1.5H 2O A new one-dimensional zirconium fluoride templated with DABCO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saada, M. A.; Maisonneuve, V.; Leblanc, M.; Hémon-Ribaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new organic-inorganic zirconium (IV) fluoride, [C 6N 2H 14]ṡ(Zr 2F 10)ṡ1.5H 2O, is prepared by slow evaporation at 45 °C from a solution of Zr 4+ and of 1,4-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]-octane (DABCO) in 40% aqueous HF. The structure, determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction, is monoclinic, space group C2/m, a=19.598(8) Å, b=6.658(3) Å, c=10.891(3) Å, β=101.25(4)° and Z=4. Previously unknown ∞(Zr 2F 10) 2- double chains, built up from edge-sharing ZrF 7 pentagonal bipyramids and ZrF 8 trigonal dodecahedra, are observed. The diprotonated organic cations, water molecules and the ∞(Zr 2F 10) 2- chains are linked by hydrogen bonds.

  18. Endogenous 5-HT2C Receptors Phosphorylate the cAMP Response Element Binding Protein via Protein Kinase C-Promoted Activation of Extracellular-Regulated Kinases-1/2 in Hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lauffer, Lisa; Glas, Evi; Gudermann, Thomas; Breit, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin 5-HT2C receptors (5-HT2CR) activate Gq proteins and are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). 5-HT2CR regulate emotion, feeding, reward, or cognition and may serve as promising drug targets to treat psychiatric disorders or obesity. Owing to technical difficulties in isolating cells from the CNS and the lack of suitable cell lines endogenously expressing 5-HT2CR, our knowledge about this receptor subtype in native environments is rather limited. The hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cell line was recently established and resembles appetite-regulating hypothalamic neurons of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where 5-HT2CR have been detected in vivo. Therefore, we tested mHypoA-2/10 cells for endogenous 5-HT2CR expression. Serotonin or the 5-HT2CR preferential agonist WAY-161,503 initiated cAMP response element (CRE)-dependent gene transcription with EC50 values of 15.5 ± 9.8 and 1.1 ± 0.9 nM, respectively. Both responses were blocked by two unrelated 5-HT2CR-selective antagonists (SB-242,084, RS-102,221) but not by a 5-HT2AR (EMD-281,014) or 5-HT2BR (RS-127,455) antagonists. By single-cell calcium imaging, we found that serotonin and WAY-161,503 induced robust calcium transients, which were also blunted by both 5-HT2CR antagonists. Additionally we revealed, first, that 5-HT2CR induced CRE activation via protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated engagement of extracellular-regulated kinases-1/2 and, second, that intrinsic activity of WAY-161,503 was in the range of 0.3-0.5 compared with serotonin, defining the frequently used 5-HT2CR agonist as a partial agonist of endogenous 5-HT2CR. In conclusion, we have shown that hypothalamic mHypoA-2/10 cells endogenously express 5-HT2CR and thus are the first cell line in which to analyze 5-HT2CR pharmacology, signaling, and regulation in its natural environment. PMID:27189964

  19. 10 CFR 5.310 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 5.310 Section 5.310 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Admission and Recruitment Prohibited § 5.310 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment. A recipient to which §§ 5.300 through 5.310 apply shall...

  20. 10 CFR 830.5 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 830.5 Section 830.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.5 Enforcement. The requirements in this part are DOE Nuclear... civil and criminal penalties in accordance with the provisions of 10 CFR part 820....

  1. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may not... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute...

  2. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may not... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute...

  3. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may not... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute...

  4. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may not... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute...

  5. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... relief in accordance with 10 CFR part 1003, Subpart G. (b) The Office of Hearings and Appeals may not... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute...

  6. 5-Meth­oxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-[(2E)-2-methyl­but-2-eno­yl]-10-phenyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-8-one (calophyllolide)

    PubMed Central

    Kalyanaraman, L.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Vishweshwar, Peddy; Pichai, R.; Narasimhan, S.

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C26H24O5, was isolated from calophyllum inophyllum seeds. In the mol­ecule, the phenyl and 2-methyl­but-2-enoyl groups are almost orthogonal to the chromene fragment [C—C—C—C torsion angles = 81.4 (3) and −90.1 (2)°, respectively]. In the crystal packing, centrosymmetrically related mol­ecules are linked by C—H⋯O contacts into dimers, which are connected via further C—H⋯O inter­actions into a double chain along [010]. PMID:21579166

  7. 5-Meth-oxy-2,2-dimethyl-6-[(2E)-2-methyl-but-2-eno-yl]-10-phenyl-2H,8H-pyrano[2,3-f]chromen-8-one (calophyllolide).

    PubMed

    Kalyanaraman, L; Mohan Kumar, R; Vishweshwar, Peddy; Pichai, R; Narasimhan, S

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, C(26)H(24)O(5), was isolated from calophyllum inophyllum seeds. In the mol-ecule, the phenyl and 2-methyl-but-2-enoyl groups are almost orthogonal to the chromene fragment [C-C-C-C torsion angles = 81.4 (3) and -90.1 (2)°, respectively]. In the crystal packing, centrosymmetrically related mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O contacts into dimers, which are connected via further C-H⋯O inter-actions into a double chain along [010]. PMID:21579166

  8. Effects of 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages on conception rates of Holstein cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    DeJarnette, J M; McCleary, C R; Leach, M A; Moreno, J F; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to compare conceptions rates of Holstein cows and heifers after artificial insemination (AI) with 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm or 15x10(6) conventional sperm. Ejaculates collected from 7 Holstein sires were cryopreserved conventionally at 15x10(6) sperm per dose or sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa using flow cytometry and cryopreserved at either 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sperm per dose. All treatments were processed in an egg-yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender and packaged in color-coded 0.25-mL French straws. Straws (n=700 straws/dosage per sire) were packaged and distributed in aliquots of 12 (4 straws/sperm dosage) to 69 Holstein herds with an across-herd goal of achieving approximately 50% use in heifers and cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm recordkeeping system at the time of AI and retrieved by electronic download. Data for cows and heifers were analyzed separately. Among heifers, 6,268 services were retrieved from 45 herds (298+/-4.2 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 244 to 344). Conception rate of heifers was influenced by the sire by treatment interaction. Conception rate of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages were comparable in 6 of 7 sires. Conception rate of both sex-sorted dosages were less than those of conventional semen for 6 of 7 sires. Across sires, heifer conception rates for 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages and 15x10(6) conventional dosages were 44, 46, and 61%, respectively. Among cows, 5,466 services were retrieved from 52 herds (260+/-3.3 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 236 to 289). Conception rates of cows were influenced by herd, sire, and sperm dosage. Conception rates of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were comparable for all 7 sires. Conception rates of 2.1x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of conventional semen for 4 of 7 sires and conception rates of the 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of

  9. Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40) (LoBAG30) decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb) from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our objective in the present 10-week study was to determine: 1) whether the above results could be maintained, or even improved (suggesting a metabolic adaptation) and 2) whether the subjects would accept the diet for this longer time period. In addition, protein balance, and a number of other blood and urine constituents were quantified at 5 and at 10 weeks on the LoBAG30 diet to address metabolic adaptation. Methods Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 10-week period. Blood was drawn and urine was collected over a 24 hour period at the beginning of the study with subjects ingesting a standard diet of 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat, and at the end of 5 and 10 weeks following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet. Results Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose decreased by 19% at week 5 and 28% at week 10; 24-h total glucose area decreased by 27% at week 5 and 35% at week 10 compared to baseline. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 13% at week 5, 25% at week 10, and was still decreasing linearly, indicating that a metabolic adaptation occurred. Serum NEFA, AAN, uric acid, urea, albumin, prealbumin, TSH, Total T3, free T4, B12, folate, homocysteine, creatinine, growth hormone and renin did not differ between weeks 5 and 10. IGF-1 increased modestly. Urinary glucose decreased; urinary pH and calcium were similar. Conclusions A LoBAG30 diet resulted in continued improvement in glycemic control. This improvement occurred without significant weight loss, with unchanged insulin and glucagon profiles, and without deterioration in serum lipids, blood pressure or kidney function. Extending the duration

  10. Fabrication, spectral and laser performance of 5 at.% Yb3+ doped (La0.10Y0.90)2O3 transparent ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haojia; Yang, Qiuhong; Lu, Shenzhou; Huang, Dongdong; Wang, Yonggang; Wei, Zhiyi; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Yongdong

    2013-02-01

    A 5 at.% Yb3+ doped (La0.10Y0.90)2O3 transparent ceramic was fabricated with nano-powders and sintered in H2 atmosphere. Spectroscopic properties and laser performance of Yb:(La0.10Y0.90)2O3 ceramic were studied. The ceramic exhibits excellent spectroscopic properties, with broad absorption and emission bands, and its refractive index (n) is close to 2. The gain cross-section (σg) was calculated at different population inversion ratio (β) values. In addition, among Yb3+ doped YAG crystal, Y2O3 and (YLa)2O3 ceramic, (YLa)2O3 ceramic has the least pump intensity (Imin) of 1.25 KW cm-2. Furthermore, a diode-pumped C-W ceramic laser output has been demonstrated at 1075 nm with a slope-efficiency of 60.2%.

  11. Thermal Emission Spectroscopy (5.2 To 38 Microns) And Analysis Of 10 Near-earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Riddhi; Emery, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Mommert, M.

    2010-10-01

    Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs- 0.983AU5.2-38 m thermal emission spectra[R 60-130] have been fitted with models of the thermal continuum employing the Near Earth Asteroid Thermal Model [NEATM](Harris 1998) and a Thermophysical model. Simultaneous measurements of the asteroid flux in the thermal infrared, combined with a thermal model, allow both the diameter and the albedo to be determined. The sample of Asteroids to be a part of this study are 1602 Geographos, 1580 Betulia, 433 Eros, 2212 Hephaistos, 1685 Toro, 1917 Cuyo, 1566 Icarus, 3200 Phaethon, 7092 Cadmus and 1866 Sisyphus. This study will give in-depth understanding of the applicability of the NEATM for NEAs observed at higher phase angles, having larger thermal inertia than main-belt asteroids, and/or displaying varied geometries. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  12. Balloon-borne laser spectrometer measurements of NO2 with gas absorption sensitivities below 10 to the -5th

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Randy D.; Webster, Christopher R.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared spectra of NO2 recorded during a recent flight of the Balloon-borne Laser In-Situ Sensor instrument have been analyzed to determine sensitivity limits for various signal integration times. Implications for direct detection of ClO, HOCl, H2O2, COF2, OH, and HO2 are discussed.

  13. Two-way chromic interconversion of the 2,2'-biphenol-6,6'-diyl dication with 5H,10H-dioxapyrene or 9H,10H-4,5-dihydroxyphenanthrene.

    PubMed

    Sakano, Yuto; Katoono, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kenshu; Suzuki, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Two-proton or two-electron transfer of the title biphenolic dication proceeds nearly simultaneously to induce 2,6'/2',6- or 6,6'-bond formation to give dioxapyrene or dihydrophenanthrene derivatives, respectively, with vivid changes in color (halochromism and electrochromism). PMID:26299764

  14. Partitioning of major and trace components in PM 10-PM 2.5-PM 1 at an urban site in Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; López, J. M.; Viana, M.

    Partitioning of major and trace components in PM 10-PM 2.5-PM 1 at an urban site in Barcelona (Spain) in the Western Mediterranean was studied in the period 2005-2006. Particular attention was paid to the partitioning of mineral matter and to the evidence of possible interactions of mineral matter with other pollutants (gaseous pollutants and secondary PM). The results showed a high contribution of mineral matter (mainly anthropogenic, but sporadically associated with African dust outbreaks) in levels of both PM 10 and PM 2.5. A high proportion of nitrate was also present in the coarse fractions as a result of the interaction of mineral matter with gaseous pollutants. As at most urban sites in Europe, sulphate and carbonaceous aerosols are mainly present in the finer PM fractions. The PM 1-2.5 fraction resembled that of PM 10 in composition. The chemically unaccounted fraction (mostly bounded water) had also a fine grain size, probably because of the fine size of the hygroscopic aerosol components. The data series follow an increasing trend for PM 1 levels (and less clearly for PM 2.5) from 1999 to 2006, whereas no trend is observed for PM 10. The contributions of African dust and regional soil resuspension to the annual PM 10 levels has been estimated in around 1-2 and 2-3 μg m -3 in this part of Spain. The African dust outbreaks accounted for around 15-20 exceedances of the European daily PM 10 limit value. Finally, the data obtained were compared with data from selected European sites to highlight major differences in levels and speciation of PM.

  15. Reduced anti-ferromagnetism promoted by Zn 3d 10 substitution at CuO 2 planar sites of Cu 0.5Tl 0.5Ba 2Ca 3Cu 4O 12-δ superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumtaz, M.; Khan, Nawazish A.

    2009-11-01

    The role of charge carriers in ZnO 2/CuO 2 planes of Cu 0.5Tl 0.5Ba 2Ca 3Cu 4-yZn yO 12-δ material in bringing about superconductivity has been explained. Due to suppression of anti-ferromagnetic order with Zn 3d 10 ( S=0) substitution at Cu 3d 9(S={1}/{2}) sites in the inner CuO 2 planes of Cu 0.5Tl 0.5Ba 2Ca 3Cu 4O 12-δ superconductor, the distribution of charge carriers becomes homogeneous and optimum, which is evident from the enhanced superconductivity parameters. The decreased c-axis length with the increase of Zn doping improves interlayer coupling and hence the three dimensional (3D) conductivity in the unit cell is enhanced. Also the softening of phonon modes with the increased Zn doping indicates that the electron-phonon interaction has an essential role in the mechanism of high- Tc superconductivity in these compounds.

  16. Nonlinear absorption properties of 5,10-A2B2 porphyrins--correlation of molecular structure with the nonlinear responses.

    PubMed

    Zawadzka, Monika; Wang, Jun; Blau, Werner J; Senge, Mathias O

    2013-06-01

    The nonlinear absorption properties of two series of novel free base and metalated meso 5,10-A2B2 substituted porphyrins, both bearing p-tolyl as an A substituent and TMS-ethynyl or bromine as a B substituent, were investigated with the open Z-scan technique at 532 nm in the ns time regime. Most of the compounds exhibited a transmission drop with increasing input fluence. This behavior is desirable for their applications in optical limiting. More complex responses: a drop in transmission followed by an increase in transmission or an increase in transmission followed by a transmission drop, with increasing input fluence, were detected for certain compounds. All of the recorded responses were successfully fitted with a four-level model with simultaneous two-photon absorption arising from the higher excited states (consecutive one- + one- + two-photon absorption). The TMS-ethynyl group was found to be a more efficient meso substituent in optical limiting than the bromine atom. Indium, lead and zinc complexes with TMS-ethynyl substituents were the strongest positive nonlinear absorbers amongst compounds studied which makes them the most interesting candidates for optical limiting application. PMID:23503655

  17. Reaching 5.0×10-13 τ -1/2 short term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, P.; Meng, Y. L.; Wan, J. Y.; Wang, X. M.; Wang, Y. N.; Xiao, L.; Cheng, H. D.; Liu, L.

    2016-06-01

    We present an improvement of short term frequency stability of the integrating sphere cold atom clock after increasing the intensities of clock signals and optimizing the feedback loop of the clock. A short term frequency stability of 5.0×10-13 τ -1/2 has been achieved and the limiting factors have been analyzed.

  18. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  19. Ba3P5N10Br:Eu(2+): a natural-white-light single emitter with a zeolite structure type.

    PubMed

    Marchuk, Alexey; Schnick, Wolfgang

    2015-02-16

    Illumination sources based on phosphor-converted light emitting diode (pcLED) technology are nowadays of great relevance. In particular, illumination-grade pcLEDs are attracting increasing attention. Regarding this, the application of a single warm-white-emitting phosphor could be of great advantage. Herein, we report the synthesis of a novel nitridophosphate zeolite Ba3P5N10Br:Eu(2+). Upon excitation by near-UV light, natural-white-light luminescence was detected. The synthesis of Ba3P5N10Br:Eu(2+) was carried out using the multianvil technique. The crystal structure of Ba3P5N10Br:Eu(2+) was solved and refined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and confirmed by Rietveld refinement and FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, spectroscopic luminescence measurements were performed. Through the synthesis of Ba3P5N10Br:Eu(2+), we have shown the great potential of nitridophosphate zeolites to serve as high-performance luminescence materials. PMID:25573329

  20. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  1. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quality models, data bases, and other requirements specified in 40 CFR part 51, Appendix W (Guideline on... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of... concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  2. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  3. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... Candidate Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-3 Figure C-3 to Subpart C of Part...

  4. 75 FR 31449 - In accordance with section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; Notice of Meeting In accordance with section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C., Appendix 2), announcement is made of a Health Care Policy and Research Special Emphasis...

  5. The electronic structure and luminescence properties of Ce3+ doped Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5]BO2 under UV/VUV and X-ray excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ang; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Zhu, Lin-Lin; Mao, Ri-Hua; Zhao, Jing-Tai

    2015-07-01

    The apatite related compound Sr10[(PO4)5.5(BO4)0.5]BO2 (SrBPO) doped with Ce3+ was synthesized via solid state reaction method. Undoped SrBPO shows blue-green emission under ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray excitation due to the defects in the host. When excited by vacuum ultraviolet-ultraviolet (VUV-UV) light or X-ray, Ce3+ doped SrBPO shows a broad emission band peaking at 450 nm originating from 5d-4f transition of Ce3+ and defects in the host. The phosphor exhibits strong excitation bands in UV range and a weak broad excitation band in VUV region. The site occupation of Ce3+ was proposed based on fluorescence decay curves. Electronic structure shows the compound is an indirect semiconductor with a band gap of 3.04 eV. The extremely small density of states of [PO4]3- or [BO4]5- group near Fermi level or in the conduction band is a possible origin of the weak excitation band in the VUV range. A possible mechanism was proposed to explain the luminescence properties observed.

  6. Developing Street-Level PM2.5 and PM10 Land Use Regression Models in High-Density Hong Kong with Urban Morphological Factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring street-level particulates is essential to air quality management but challenging in high-density Hong Kong due to limitations in local monitoring network and the complexities of street environment. By employing vehicle-based mobile measurements, land use regression (LUR) models were developed to estimate the spatial variation of PM2.5 and PM10 in the downtown area of Hong Kong. Sampling runs were conducted along routes measuring a total of 30 km during a selected measurement period of total 14 days. In total, 321 independent variables were examined to develop LUR models by using stepwise regression with PM2.5 and PM10 as dependent variables. Approximately, 10% increases in the model adjusted R(2) were achieved by integrating urban/building morphology as independent variables into the LUR models. Resultant LUR models show that the most decisive factors on street-level air quality in Hong Kong are frontal area index, an urban/building morphological parameter, and road network line density and traffic volume, two parameters of road traffic. The adjusted R(2) of the final LUR models of PM2.5 and PM10 are 0.633 and 0.707, respectively. These results indicate that urban morphology is more decisive to the street-level air quality in high-density cities than other cities. Air pollution hotspots were also identified based on the LUR mapping. PMID:27381187

  7. 10-year spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern US estimated using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2014-06-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of the spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are important. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been increasingly used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, previous studies indicated that an inherent disadvantage of many AOD products is their coarse spatial resolution. For instance, the available spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) AOD products are 10 and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm based on MODIS measurements was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US centered at the Atlanta metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted annually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, mean prediction error (MPE) from 1.73 to 2.50 μg m-3, and root mean squared prediction error (RMSPE) from 2.75 to 4.10 μg m-3. In addition, we found cross-validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 μg m-3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 μg m-3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends showed that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. Our time

  8. (2,3,5,6-Tetra­fluoro­phenolato-κO)(5,10,15,20-tetra­phenyl­porphyrinato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(C44H28N4)(C6HF4O)], is a porphyrin complex with iron(III) in fivefold coordination with a tetra­fluoro­phenolate group as the axial ligand. The Fe atom and the phenolate ligand are disordered across the porphyrin ring with the two phenolates appearing to be roughly related by a center of symmetry. The occupancies of the two phenolate groups refined to 0.788 (3) for the major component and 0.212 (3) for the minor component. The structure shows extraordinary Fe displacements of 0.488 (4) (major) and 0.673 (4) Å (minor) from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin. The Fe—Np distances range from 2.063 (4) to 2.187 (6) Å and the Fe—O distances are 1.903 (5) Å for major component and 1.87 (2) Å for minor component. The four phenyl groups attached to the porphyrin ring form dihedral angles of 63.4 (4), 49.6 (4), 62.4 (4), and 63.3 (4)° (in increasing numerical order) with the three nearest C atoms of the porphyrin ring. The major and minor component phenolate groups form dihedral angles of 24.9 (4)° and 24.8 (4)°, respectively, with the four porphyrin N atoms. The Fe⋯Fe distance between the two iron(III) atoms of adjacent porphyrin mol­ecules is 6.677 (3) Å. No close inter­molecular inter­action was observed. The crystal studied was twinned by inversion, with a major–minor component ratio of 0.53 (3):0.47 (3). PMID:24098188

  9. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3120...

  10. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 73.3120...

  11. 32 CFR 10.5 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001, “Detention, Treatment, and Trial of... event of an inconsistency, the provisions of 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Construction. 10.5 Section 10.5 National...

  12. 32 CFR 10.5 - Construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001, “Detention, Treatment, and Trial of... event of an inconsistency, the provisions of 32 CFR part 9, and Military Order of November 13, 2001... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Construction. 10.5 Section 10.5 National...

  13. 10 Yr Spatial and Temporal Trends of PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern US Estimated Using High-resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 g m3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 g m3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 g m3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 g m3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The results showed

  14. 10 yr spatial and temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the southeastern US estimated using high-resolution satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-10-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 μg m-3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 μg m-3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 μg m-3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 μg m-3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The

  15. Bromination of pentacyclo(6. 3. 0. 0/sup 2,6/. 0/sup 3,10/. 0/sup 5,9/)undecane

    SciTech Connect

    Sorochinskii, A.E.; Aleksandrov, A.M.; Petrenko, A.E.; Kukhar', V.P.

    1988-03-20

    Previously described methods for the production of derivatives of pentacyclo(6.3.0.0/sup 2,6/.0/sup 3,10/.0/sup 5,9/)undecane (I) (symmetrical trishomocubane) are based on the isomerization of the carbon skeleton in substituted pentacyclo(5.4.0.0/sup 2,6/.0/sup 3,10/.0/sup 5,9/)undecanes by the action of electrophilic reagents. The authors studied the possibility of the direct introduction of a bromine atom into the framework of the hydrogen (I). It was found that trisubane (I), unlike adamantane, does not react with bromine even after prolonged boiling. However, if catalytic amounts of aluminum chloride or bromide are added to the reaction mixture at 20/degree/C, hydrogen bromide is released and 1-bromotrishomocubane (II) is formed. The structure of the bromide (II) was demonstrated.

  16. 5 CFR 10.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.1 Section 10.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.1 Definitions. For purposes of this rule—...

  17. 5 CFR 10.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 10.1 Section 10.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.1 Definitions. For purposes of this rule—...

  18. 5 CFR 10.1 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 10.1 Section 10.1 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.1 Definitions. For purposes of this rule—...

  19. 5 CFR 2472.10 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Reports. 2472.10 Section 2472.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... of the Panel § 2472.10 Reports. When a report is issued after a hearing conducted pursuant to §...

  20. 5 CFR 2472.10 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports. 2472.10 Section 2472.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... of the Panel § 2472.10 Reports. When a report is issued after a hearing conducted pursuant to §...

  1. 5 CFR 2472.10 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports. 2472.10 Section 2472.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... of the Panel § 2472.10 Reports. When a report is issued after a hearing conducted pursuant to §...

  2. 5 CFR 2472.10 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports. 2472.10 Section 2472.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS... of the Panel § 2472.10 Reports. When a report is issued after a hearing conducted pursuant to §...

  3. 5 CFR 9301.10 - Other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Other charges. 9301.10 Section 9301.10 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act Costs § 9301.10 Other charges. SIGAR may apply other charges,...

  4. 5 CFR 9301.10 - Other charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Other charges. 9301.10 Section 9301.10 Administrative Personnel SPECIAL INSPECTOR GENERAL FOR AFGHANISTAN RECONSTRUCTION DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS AND INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act Costs § 9301.10 Other charges. SIGAR may apply other charges,...

  5. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  6. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  7. 5 CFR 2429.10 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advisory opinions. 2429.10 Section 2429.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR....10 Advisory opinions. The Authority and the General Counsel will not issue advisory opinions....

  8. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  9. 5 CFR 2429.10 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advisory opinions. 2429.10 Section 2429.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR....10 Advisory opinions. The Authority and the General Counsel will not issue advisory opinions....

  10. 5 CFR 2429.10 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advisory opinions. 2429.10 Section 2429.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR....10 Advisory opinions. The Authority and the General Counsel will not issue advisory opinions....

  11. 5 CFR 2429.10 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advisory opinions. 2429.10 Section 2429.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR....10 Advisory opinions. The Authority and the General Counsel will not issue advisory opinions....

  12. 5 CFR 2429.10 - Advisory opinions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advisory opinions. 2429.10 Section 2429.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR....10 Advisory opinions. The Authority and the General Counsel will not issue advisory opinions....

  13. 10 CFR 5.200 - Application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Application. 5.200 Section 5.200 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.200 Application. Except as provided in §§ 5.205 through 5.235(a), these Title IX regulations apply to...

  14. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    PubMed

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (ƩPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM. PMID:25958359

  15. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  16. Aromatization of hydrocarbons by oxidative dehydrogenation catalyzed by the mixed addenda heteropoly acid H sub 5 PMo sub 10 V sub 2 O sub 40

    SciTech Connect

    Neumann, R. ); Lissle, M. )

    1989-09-15

    The mixed addenda heteropoly acid H{sub 5}PMo{sub 10}V{sub 2}O{sub 40} dissolved in 1,2-dichloroethane with tetraglyme, forming the (tetraglyme){sub 3}-H{sub 5}PMo{sub 10}V{sub 2}O{sub 40} complex, catalyzes the aromatization of cyclic dienes at moderate temperatures in the presence of molecular oxygen. Dehydrogenations of exocyclic dienes such as limonene show that dehydrogenation is preceded by isomerization to their endocyclic isomers. Aromatization takes place by successive one-electron transfers and proton abstractions from the organic substrate to the heteropoly acid the latter being reoxidized by dioxygen coupled with the formation of water.

  17. The thermodynamic properties of 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. [Tetrahydropyrene and hexahydropyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Smith, N.K.; Steele, W.V.

    1992-12-01

    Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties are reported for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene. Experimental methods included combustion calorimetry, adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, vibrating-tube densitometry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). Critical properties were estimated for both materials based on the measurement results. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gases for selected temperatures between 380 K and 700 K. The property-measurement results reported here for 4,5,9,10-tetrahydropyrene and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexahydropyrene are the first for these important intermediates in the pyrene/H[sub 2] hydrogenation reaction network.

  18. Investigation of Methanol Formation Mechanisms in H2O+CH4 Ices Subjected to 5 keV Electrons at a 10-100 K Temperature Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, K. B.; Cooper, P. D.

    2014-12-01

    Methane (CH4) and water are one of the most common molecules in both planetary bodies and interstellar dust grains. Another common molecule, methanol (CH3OH), is thought to form in CH4+H2O ices. However, the exact formation mechanisms of methanol from cosmic rays are not well known, especially in the temperatures of interest. Experiments were performed using high energy electrons (5 keV) to irradiate mixtures of 1:10, 1:5, and 1:3 CH4+H2O ices under a temperature range of 10-100 Kelvin with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy being used to identify the products. Isotopologues of the two molecules (D2O and CD4) were used to probe for the mechanisms. Other products were formed as well and their potential mechanisms are identified. The implications of the mechanisms for planetary and interstellar chemistry are discussed.

  19. Reactions of Cp{sub *}Ir(2,5-dimethylthiophene) with Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, and [({eta}{sub 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6})RuCl{sub 2}]{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Young, V.G. Jr.; Angelici, R.J. |

    1996-06-11

    Reactions of the isomers Cp{sub *}Ir({eta}{sub 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T) (1) and Cp{sub *}Ir(C,S-2,5-Me{sub 2}T) (2), where 2,5-Me{sub 2}T is 2.5-dimethylthiophene, with Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, and [{eta}{sub 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6})RuCl{sub 2}]{sub 2} yield a remarkable diversity of products. With Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 12}, both 1 and 2 give the CO-substituted product Cp{sub *}Ir{eta}{sub 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T.Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 11} (4), in which the 2,5-Me{sub 2}T group is {eta}{sub 4}-coordinated to the Ir and S-coordinated to a Ru in the plane of the triangular Ru{sub 3}(CO){sub 11} cluster. With Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, 1 reacts to give the CO-substituted product Cp{sub *}Ir({eta}{sub 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T.Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 9}) (6), in which 1 is S-coordinated in an equatorial position of the metal-metal dimer Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 9}. However, another product of this reaction is Cp{sub *}Ir({eta}{sub 4}-SC{sub 3}H{sub 2}MeC(=O)Me)[Re{sub 2}-(CO){sub 9}] (7), in which the 2,5-Me{sub 2}T ligand has been converted to a ring-opened acyl-thiolate unit that is S-coordinated to Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 9}. Compound 7 is the major product of the reaction of 2 with Re{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}. The reaction of 2 with Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10} gives Cp{sub *}Ir({eta}{sub 4}SC{sub 3}H{sub 2}MeC(=O)Me)[Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 9}] (9), the Mn analog of 7. The reaction of [({eta}{sub 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6})RuCl{sub 2}]{sub 2} with 1 gives the product Cp{sub *}Ir({eta}{sub 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T.Ru({eta}{sub 6}-C{sub 6}H{sub 6})Cl{sub 2} (10), which illustrates again the strong S-donor ability of the Cp{sub *}Ir({eta}{sub 4}-2,5-Me{sub 2}T) (1), group. 39 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Water soluble aerosols and gases at a UK background site - Part 1: Controls of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigg, M. M.; Di Marco, C. F.; Leeson, S.; van Dijk, N.; Jones, M. R.; Leith, I. D.; Morrison, E.; Coyle, M.; Proost, R.; Peeters, A. N. M.; Lemon, E.; Frelink, T.; Braban, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Cape, J. N.

    2015-02-01

    There is limited availability of long-term, high temporal resolution, chemically speciated aerosol measurements, which can lead to further insight into the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter. The Monitor for AeRosols and Gases (MARGA, Applikon B.V., NL) allows characterisation of the inorganic components of PM10 and PM2.5 (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and inorganic reactive gases (NH3, SO2, HCl, HONO and HNO3) at hourly resolution. The following study presents 6.5 years (June 2006 to December 2012) of quasi-continuous observations of PM2.5 and PM10 using the MARGA at the UK EMEP "Supersite", Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland. Auchencorth Moss was found to be representative of a remote European site with average total water soluble inorganic mass of PM2.5 of 3.82 μg m-3. Anthropogenically derived secondary inorganic aerosols (sum of NH4+, NO3- and nss-SO42-), were the dominating species (63%) of PM2.5. In terms of equivalent concentrations, NH4+ provided the single largest contribution to PM2.5 fraction in all seasons. Sea salt, was the main component (73%) of the PMcoarse fraction (PM10-PM2.5), though NO3- was also found to make a relatively large contribution to the measured mass (17%) as providing evidence of considerable processing of sea salt in the coarse mode. There was on occasions evidence of aerosol from combustion events being transported to the site in 2012 as high K+ concentrations (deviating from the known ratio in sea salt) coincided with increases in black carbon at the site. Pollution events in PM10 (defined as concentrations > 12 μg m-3) were on average dominated by NH4+ and NO3-, where as smaller loadings at the site tended to be dominated by sea salt. As with other Western European sites, the charge balance of the inorganic components resolved were biased towards cations, suggesting the aerosol was basic or more likely, that organic acids contributed to the charge

  1. Water soluble aerosols and gases at a UK background site - Part 1: Controls of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigg, M. M.; Di Marco, C. F.; Leeson, S.; van Dijk, N.; Jones, M. R.; Leith, I. D.; Morrison, E.; Coyle, M.; Proost, R.; Peeters, A. N. M.; Lemon, E.; Frelink, T.; Braban, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Cape, J. N.

    2015-07-01

    There is limited availability of long-term, high temporal resolution, chemically speciated aerosol measurements which can provide further insight into the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter. The Monitor for AeRosols and Gases (MARGA, Applikon B.V., NL) allows for the characterisation of the inorganic components of PM10 and PM2.5 (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and inorganic reactive gases (NH3, SO2, HCl, HONO and HNO3) at hourly resolution. The following study presents 6.5 years (June 2006 to December 2012) of quasi-continuous observations of PM2.5 and PM10 using the MARGA at the UK EMEP supersite, Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland. Auchencorth Moss was found to be representative of a remote European site with average total water soluble inorganic mass of PM2.5 of 3.82 μg m-3. Anthropogenically derived secondary inorganic aerosols (sum of NH4+, NO3- and nss-SO42-) were the dominating species (63 %) of PM2.5. In terms of equivalent concentrations, NH4+ provided the single largest contribution to PM2.5 fraction in all seasons. Sea salt was the main component (73 %) of the PMcoarse fraction (PM10-PM2.5), though NO3- was also found to make a relatively large contribution to the measured mass (17 %) providing evidence of considerable processing of sea salt in the coarse mode. There was on occasions evidence of aerosol from combustion events being transported to the site in 2012 as high K+ concentrations (deviating from the known ratio in sea salt) coincided with increases in black carbon at the site. Pollution events in PM10 (defined as concentrations > 12 μg m-3) were on average dominated by NH4+ and NO3-, where smaller loadings at the site tended to be dominated by sea salt. As with other western European sites, the charge balance of the inorganic components resolved were biased towards cations, suggesting the aerosol was basic or more likely that organic acids contributed to the charge balance. This study demonstrates the UK

  2. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  4. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  5. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  6. A dual site study of PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosol chemistry in the larger region of Vienna, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puxbaum, H.; Gomiscek, B.; Kalina, M.; Bauer, H.; Salam, A.; Stopper, S.; Preining, O.; Hauck, H.

    The measurements of PM 2.5 and PM 10 at two sites—an urban site in Vienna (AUPHEP-1) and a rural site considered local background (AUPHEP-2)—indicated only low aerosol generation activity in the city on an annual basis. Defining the term "urban impact" as the difference between observations at the urban and the local background site we find an annually averaged urban impact for PM 2.5 of 3.4 μg m -3 and for PM C of 3.3 μg m -3 (the coarse fraction PM C=PM 10-PM 2.5). The relative increase of the particulate matter (PM) concentration at the urban site compared to the background site (AUPHEP-2) is annually averaged only 19% for PM 2.5, but 60% for PM C. The chemical main constituents of the PM 2.5 urban impact are black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), and sulfate; the main constituents of the PM C urban impact are OC and indicators for mineralic aerosol (Fe, Ca, Mg, Na, K). The BC/TC ratio of the PM 2.5 urban impact is typical as for combustion sources, e.g. automotive traffic, oil or coal combustion. Urban coarse OC is considered to originate from non-pyrogenic sources. From the trace metals investigated (As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) only Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn exhibited a slight cold season enrichment in the urban airshed. From the weak signal of a seasonality of oil or coal combustion indicators we conclude that local domestic heating sources are using "clean fuels".

  7. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  8. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  9. 10 CFR 420.5 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports. 420.5 Section 420.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY... § 420.5 Reports. (a) Each State receiving financial assistance under this part shall submit to the cognizant Regional Office Director a quarterly program performance report and a quarterly financial...

  10. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment....

  11. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe...

  12. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  13. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  14. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  15. 10 CFR 21.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 21.5 Section 21.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE General Provisions § 21.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified in this part, written communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  16. 10 CFR 207.5 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 207.5 Section 207.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL COLLECTION OF INFORMATION Collection of Information Under the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act of 1974 § 207.5 Violations. Any practice that circumvents or contravenes or results in...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  18. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  19. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  20. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  1. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  2. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  3. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed... filed until service is complete and unless accompanied by proof of service; provided that the...

  4. 10 CFR 1048.5 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 1048.5 Section 1048.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.5 Violations. Willful unauthorized entry, or willful unauthorized introduction of weapons...

  5. 10 CFR 1048.5 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations. 1048.5 Section 1048.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.5 Violations. Willful unauthorized entry, or willful unauthorized introduction of weapons...

  6. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  7. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  8. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  9. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  10. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  11. 10 CFR 5.510 - Recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recruitment. 5.510 Section 5.510 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Prohibited § 5.510 Recruitment. (a) Nondiscriminatory recruitment and hiring. A recipient shall not discriminate on the basis of sex in the recruitment and hiring of employees. Where a recipient has been...

  12. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  13. 10 CFR 5.115 - Assurance required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assurance required. 5.115 Section 5.115 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.115 Assurance required. (a) General. Either at the... specifically identified assurance from the applicant or recipient, satisfactory to the designated...

  14. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 5.500 Section 5.500 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded...

  15. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  16. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  17. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed... filed until service is complete and unless accompanied by proof of service; provided that the...

  18. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed... filed until service is complete and unless accompanied by proof of service; provided that the...

  19. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed... filed until service is complete and unless accompanied by proof of service; provided that the...

  20. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed... filed until service is complete and unless accompanied by proof of service; provided that the...

  1. 10 CFR 1706.5 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General rules. 1706.5 Section 1706.5 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.5 General... substantially involved in the development of the product or performance of the service, or has other...

  2. 10 CFR 1706.5 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General rules. 1706.5 Section 1706.5 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.5 General rules. (a) Award of Contracts. Contracts shall generally not be awarded to an offeror: (1) For any services where the award would result in the...

  3. 10 CFR 1706.5 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules. 1706.5 Section 1706.5 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.5 General rules. (a) Award of Contracts. Contracts shall generally not be awarded to an offeror: (1) For any services where the award would result in the...

  4. 10 CFR 1706.5 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General rules. 1706.5 Section 1706.5 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.5 General... substantially involved in the development of the product or performance of the service, or has other...

  5. 10 CFR 1706.5 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General rules. 1706.5 Section 1706.5 Energy DEFENSE NUCLEAR FACILITIES SAFETY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL AND CONSULTANT CONFLICTS OF INTERESTS § 1706.5 General... substantially involved in the development of the product or performance of the service, or has other...

  6. 10 CFR 5.105 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 5.105 Section 5.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.105 Definitions. As used in these Title IX regulations, the term: Administratively separate unit means...

  7. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  8. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  9. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  10. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  11. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  12. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  13. 10 CFR 824.5 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigations. 824.5 Section 824.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... VIOLATIONS § 824.5 Investigations. The Director may conduct investigations and inspections relating to the... investigation or inspection, including signing, issuing and serving subpoenas....

  14. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  17. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  18. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  19. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  20. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement...

  1. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement...

  2. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement...

  3. 10 CFR 5.525 - Fringe benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fringe benefits. 5.525 Section 5.525 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.525 Fringe benefits. (a) “Fringe benefits” defined. For purposes of these Title IX regulations, fringe benefits means: Any medical, hospital, accident, life insurance, or retirement...

  4. 10 CFR 21.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 21.5 Section 21.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE General Provisions § 21.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified in this part, written communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  5. 10 CFR 21.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 21.5 Section 21.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION REPORTING OF DEFECTS AND NONCOMPLIANCE General Provisions § 21.5 Communications. Except where otherwise specified in this part, written communications and reports concerning the regulations...

  6. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  7. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  8. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  9. 10 CFR 34.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 34.5 Section 34.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS General Provisions § 34.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  10. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  11. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  12. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  13. 10 CFR 5.105 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 5.105 Section 5.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Introduction § 5.105 Definitions. As used in these Title IX regulations, the term: Administratively separate unit means...

  14. Organic carboxylate anions effect on the structures of a series of Mn(II) complexes based on 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Xiuli; Chen Yongqiang; Liu Guocheng; Lin Hongyan; Zhang Jinxia

    2009-09-15

    In our efforts to tune the structures of Mn(II) complexes by selection of organic carboxylic acid ligands, six new complexes [Mn(PIP){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}] (1), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(4,4'-bpdc)(H{sub 2}O)].2H{sub 2}O (2), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(1,4-bdc)] (3), [Mn(PIP)(1,3-bdc)] (4), [Mn(PIP){sub 2}(2,6-napdc)].H{sub 2}O (5), and [Mn(PIP)(1,4-napdc)].H{sub 2}O (6) were obtained, where PIP=2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f]1,10-phenanthroline, 4,4'-H{sub 2}bpdc=biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid, 1,3-H{sub 2}bdc=benzene-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, 2,6-H{sub 2}napdc=2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid, 1,4-H{sub 2}napdc=1,4-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid. All complexes have been structurally characterized by IR, elemental analyses, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Structural analyses show that complexes 1 and 2 possess mononuclear structures, complexes 3, 4, and 5 feature chain structures, and complex 6 exhibits a 2D (4,4) network. The structural difference of 1-6 indicates that organic carboxylate anions play important roles in the formation of such coordination architectures. Furthermore, the thermal properties of complexes 1-6 and the magnetic property of 4 have been investigated. - Graphical Abstract: Through selecting organic carboxylate anions, six Mn(II) complexes have been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction.

  15. Micro-structural, thermal, optical and physical properties nanocrystalline NbSr2Pr1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ material synthesized by mechano-thermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthiban, P.; Balamurugan, S.; Satya, A. T.; Janaki, J.

    2015-06-01

    We have prepared nanocrystalline NbSr2Pr1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ (Nb1222Pr) material by annealing the ball milled powder at 1000°C for 24h and studied by various characterization techniques such as TG-DTA, XRD, FT-IR, NIR, SEM-EDX, magnetization and electrical resistivity. Significant difference is seen in the TG-DTA curves of the as-milled powder due to ball milling. The annealed Nb1222Pr material is crystallized in tetragonal symmetry with lattice parameters, a = 0.3887(3) nm and c = 2.878(2) nm with reduced average particle size of ˜42.67 nm. Agglomeration of fine spherical particle sizes in the range of ˜180 - 280 nm is seen through SEM micro-image. The variation in the crystalline sizes of the Nb1222Pr phase obtained from XRD and SEM image indicate the polycrystalline characteristic of fine nanocrystalline particles. Neither superconductivity nor magnetic ordering is seen for the Nb1222Pr phase down to 5 K under 100 Oe. The four probe resistivity measurement reveals the semiconducting behavior of the Nb1222Pr phase.

  16. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy investigation using ab initio and density functional theory analysis on the structure of 5-chloro-10-oxa-3-thia-tricyclo[5.2.1.0 1,5]dec-8-ene-3,3-dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Hakan; Demircan, Aydın; Göktürk, Ersen

    2008-01-01

    The IR spectra of 5-chloro-10-oxa-3-thia-tricyclo[5.2.1.0 1,5]dec-8-ene-3,3-dioxide (COTDO) has been recorded in the region 4000-525 cm -1. The optimized molecular geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of COTDO in the ground state has been calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional using Becke's three-parameter hybrid method with the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental IR spectra. The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrations are predicted in a very good agreement with the experimental data. The theoretical vibrational spectra of the title compound were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions (PEDs) using VEDA 4 program. With the help of this modern technique we were able to complete the assignment of the vibrational spectra of the title compound.

  18. Black Carbon as an Additional Indicator of the Adverse Health Effects of Airborne Particles Compared with PM10 and PM2.5

    PubMed Central

    Hoek, Gerard; Simic-Lawson, Milena; Fischer, Paul; van Bree, Leendert; ten Brink, Harry; Keuken, Menno; Atkinson, Richard W.; Anderson, H. Ross; Brunekreef, Bert; Cassee, Flemming R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) use the PM mass concentration [PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5)] as a metric. It has been suggested that particles from combustion sources are more relevant to human health than are particles from other sources, but the impact of policies directed at reducing PM from combustion processes is usually relatively small when effects are estimated for a reduction in the total mass concentration. Objectives: We evaluated the value of black carbon particles (BCP) as an additional indicator in air quality management. Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of health effects of BCP compared with PM mass based on data from time-series studies and cohort studies that measured both exposures. We compared the potential health benefits of a hypothetical traffic abatement measure, using near-roadway concentration increments of BCP and PM2.5 based on data from prior studies. Results: Estimated health effects of a 1-μg/m3 increase in exposure were greater for BCP than for PM10 or PM2.5, but estimated effects of an interquartile range increase were similar. Two-pollutant models in time-series studies suggested that the effect of BCP was more robust than the effect of PM mass. The estimated increase in life expectancy associated with a hypothetical traffic abatement measure was four to nine times higher when expressed in BCP compared with an equivalent change in PM2.5 mass. Conclusion: BCP is a valuable additional air quality indicator to evaluate the health risks of air quality dominated by primary combustion particles. PMID:21810552

  19. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated. PMID:27612721

  20. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.