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Sample records for 2 5 10

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation, and Closure §...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation, and Closure §...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation, and Closure §...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-10 - Hydrology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hydrology. 960.5-2-10 Section 960.5-2-10 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation, and Closure §...

  5. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  6. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  7. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  8. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  9. 5 CFR 10.2 - Accountability systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES AGENCY ACCOUNTABILITY SYSTEMS; OPM AUTHORITY TO REVIEW PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS (RULE X) § 10.2 Accountability systems. The Director of the Office of Personnel Management may require an agency to establish and maintain a system...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-5 - Environmental quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., technical, social, economic, and environmental factors; and (2) the requirements specified in § 960.5-1(a)(2... programmatic, technical, social, economic, and environmental factors. (2) Any part of the restricted area or... of reasonable measures, taking into account programmatic, technical, social, economic,...

  15. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  16. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  17. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  18. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  19. 10 CFR 960.4-2-5 - Erosion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Erosion. 960.4-2-5 Section 960.4-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4-2-5 Erosion. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall allow the underground... consider the climatic, tectonic, and geomorphic evidence of rates and patterns of erosion in the...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2 - Technical guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Technical guidelines. 960.5-2 Section 960.5-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5-2 Technical guidelines. The technical guidelines in this subpart...

  6. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION..., the Commission staff shall, if necessary, issue Scoping Document 2....

  7. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION..., the Commission staff shall, if necessary, issue Scoping Document 2....

  8. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  9. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  10. 18 CFR 5.10 - Scoping Document 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Scoping Document 2. 5.10 Section 5.10 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS §...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... impacts. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that (1) any significant adverse social and/or economic impacts induced in communities and surrounding regions by repository siting... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... impacts. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that (1) any significant adverse social and/or economic impacts induced in communities and surrounding regions by repository siting... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... impacts. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that (1) any significant adverse social and/or economic impacts induced in communities and surrounding regions by repository siting... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... impacts. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that (1) any significant adverse social and/or economic impacts induced in communities and surrounding regions by repository siting... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-6 - Socioeconomic impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Socioeconomic impacts. 960.5-2-6 Section 960.5-2-6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... sectors of the economy of the affected area. (c) Potentially adverse conditions. (1) Potential...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.5-2-9 Section 960.5-2-9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... openings during repository operation and closure. (4) Potential for such phenomena as thermally...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.5-2-9 Section 960.5-2-9 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... openings during repository operation and closure. (4) Potential for such phenomena as thermally...

  18. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-8 - Surface characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Surface characteristics. 960.5-2-8 Section 960.5-2-8 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Ease and Cost of Siting, Construction, Operation,...

  3. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...% 10% 2 10% 2 10% 2 10% 2 Precision of PM2.5 or PM10-2.5 candidate method, CP, each site 10% 2 15% 2 15% 2 15% 2 Slope of regression relationship 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.05 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.10 1 ±...

  4. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...% 10% 2 10% 2 10% 2 10% 2 Precision of PM2.5 or PM10-2.5 candidate method, CP, each site 10% 2 15% 2 15% 2 15% 2 Slope of regression relationship 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.05 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.10 1 ± 0.10 1 ±...

  5. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM10, PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...% 10% 2 10% 2 10% 2 10% 2 Precision of PM2.5 or PM10-2.5 candidate method, CP, each site 10% 2 15% 2 15% 2 15% 2 Slope of regression relationship 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.05 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.12...

  6. Nqrs Data for C10H10Cl4Ga2N2 [Cl4Ga2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1236)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H10Cl4Ga2N2 [Cl4Ga2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1236)

  7. Nqrs Data for C10H10Br4Ga2N2 [Br4Ga2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1230)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H10Br4Ga2N2 [Br4Ga2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1230)

  8. Nqrs Data for C10H10CdI2N2 [CdI2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1231)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H10CdI2N2 [CdI2·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1231)

  9. Nqrs Data for C10H10I2N2Pb [I2Pb·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1238)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H10I2N2Pb [I2Pb·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1238)

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-2 - Site ownership and control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Site ownership and control. 960.5-2-2 Section 960.5-2-2 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-2 Site...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-5 - Formal site nomination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formal site nomination. 960.3-2-2-5 Section 960.3-2-2-5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-5 Formal site nomination. After the...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... accommodation of the underground facility; (2) repository construction, operation, and closure will not cause.... (5) Existing faults, shear zones, pressurized brine pockets, dissolution effects, or other... predicted to cause significant risk to the health and safety of personnel, taking into account...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-9 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... accommodation of the underground facility; (2) repository construction, operation, and closure will not cause.... (5) Existing faults, shear zones, pressurized brine pockets, dissolution effects, or other... predicted to cause significant risk to the health and safety of personnel, taking into account...

  2. Distribution of PM(2.5) and PM(10-2.5) in PM(10) fraction in ambient air due to vehicular pollution in Kolkata megacity.

    PubMed

    Das, Manab; Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ujjal

    2006-11-01

    This research paper aims at establishing baseline PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentration levels, which could be effectively used to develop and upgrade the standards in air pollution in developing countries. The relative contribution of fine fractions (PM(2.5)) and coarser fractions (PM(10-2.5)) to PM(10) fractions were investigates in a megacity which is overcrowded and congested due to lack of road network and deteriorated air quality because of vehicular pollution. The present study was carried out during the winter of 2002. The average 24h PM(10) concentration was 304 microg/m(3), which is 3 times more than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and higher PM(10) concentration was due to fine fraction (PM(2.5)) released by vehicular exhaust. The 24h average PM(2.5) concentration was found 179 microg/m(3), which is exceeded USEPA and EU standards of 65 and 50 microg/m(3) respectively for the winter. India does not have any PM(2.5) standards. The 24 h average PM(10-2.5) concentrations were found 126 microg/m(3). The PM(2.5) constituted more than 59% of PM(10) and whereas PM(10)-PM(2.5) fractions constituted 41% of PM(10). The correlation between PM(10) and PM(2.5) was found higher as PM(2.5) comprised major proportion of PM(10) fractions contributed by vehicular emissions.

  3. Particulate matter in California: part 2--Spatial, temporal, and compositional patterns of PM2.5, PM10-2.5, and PM10.

    PubMed

    Motallebi, Nehzat; Taylor, Clinton A; Croes, Bart E

    2003-12-01

    Geographic and temporal variations in the concentration and composition of particulate matter (PM) provide important insights into particle sources, atmospheric processes that influence particle formation, and PM management strategies. In the nonurban areas of California, annual-average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations range from 3 to 10 microg/m3 and from 5 to 18 microg/m3, respectively. In the urban areas of California, annual-averages for PM2.5 range from 7 to 30 microg/m3, with observed 24-hr peaks reaching levels as high as 160 microg/m3. Within each air basin, exceedances are a mixture of isolated events as well as periods of elevated PM2.5 concentrations that are more prolonged and regional in nature. PM2.5 concentrations are generally highest during the winter months. The exception is the South Coast Air Basin, where fairly high values occur throughout the year. Annual-average PM2.5 mass, as well as the concentrations of major components, declined from 1988 to 2000. The declines are especially pronounced for the sulfate (SO4(2-)) and nitrate (NO3-) components of PM2.5 and PM10) and correlate with reductions in ambient levels of oxides of sulfur (SOx) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Annual averages for PM10-2.5 and PM10 exhibited similar downwind trends from 1994 to 1999, with a slightly less pronounced decrease in the coarse fraction.

  4. Nqrs Data for C10H12Br5Cl2InN2O [C10H10Br5Cl2InN2·H2O] (Subst. No. 1254)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12Br5Cl2InN2O [C10H10Br5Cl2InN2·H2O] (Subst. No. 1254)

  5. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... method, CP, each site 10% 2 15% 2 15% 2 15% 2 Slope of regression relationship 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.05 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.12 Intercept of regression relationship, µg/m 3 0 ±5 0 ±1 Between: 13.55 −...

  6. 40 CFR Table C-4 to Subpart C of... - Test Specifications for PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... method, CP, each site 10% 2 15% 2 15% 2 15% 2 Slope of regression relationship 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.05 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.10 1 ±0.12 Intercept of regression relationship, µg/m 3 0 ±5 0 ±1 Between: 13.55 −...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of sharp curves or steep grades and are not likely to be affected by landslides or rock slides. (v... required. (5) Total projected life-cycle cost and risk for transportation of all wastes designated for the... highways and railroads such that steep grades, sharp switchbacks, rivers, lakes, landslides, rock...

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of sharp curves or steep grades and are not likely to be affected by landslides or rock slides. (v... required. (5) Total projected life-cycle cost and risk for transportation of all wastes designated for the... highways and railroads such that steep grades, sharp switchbacks, rivers, lakes, landslides, rock...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of sharp curves or steep grades and are not likely to be affected by landslides or rock slides. (v... required. (5) Total projected life-cycle cost and risk for transportation of all wastes designated for the... highways and railroads such that steep grades, sharp switchbacks, rivers, lakes, landslides, rock...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of sharp curves or steep grades and are not likely to be affected by landslides or rock slides. (v... required. (5) Total projected life-cycle cost and risk for transportation of all wastes designated for the... highways and railroads such that steep grades, sharp switchbacks, rivers, lakes, landslides, rock...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-7 - Transportation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of sharp curves or steep grades and are not likely to be affected by landslides or rock slides. (v... required. (5) Total projected life-cycle cost and risk for transportation of all wastes designated for the... highways and railroads such that steep grades, sharp switchbacks, rivers, lakes, landslides, rock...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-11 - Tectonics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of active faulting within the geologic setting. (2) Historical earthquakes or past man-induced... design limits. (3) Evidence, based on correlations of earthquakes with tectonic processes and features, (e.g., faults) within the geologic setting, that the magnitude of earthquakes at the site...

  17. PM2.5 and PM10 Emission from agricultural soils by wind erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil tillage and wind erosion are a major source of particulate matter less than 2.5 and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) emission from cultivated soil. Fifteen cultivated soils collected from 5 states were tested as crushed (<2.0 mm) and uncrushed (natural aggregation) at 8, 10, and 13 m s-1 wind velocity in...

  18. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHI, M.; Wu, H.; Zhang, S.; Li, H.; Yang, T.

    2013-12-01

    In urban areas,fine particle matter with aerodynamic diameter between 2.5 um and 10 um (PM2.5-10), and 2.5 um (PM2.5), as an important source of urban particulate matter (PM) pollutants, have significant negative effects on health, atmospheric visibility and climate. PM has increasingly become a significant index of indicating the atmospheric pollution of city. In recent years, Beijing, China has been listed as one of the most serious air pollution city in the world. In order to investigate the sources of air pollutants, a total of 283 pairs of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples were collected daily from July, 2010 to June, 2011 in Beijing. Mineral magnetic properties and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 were measured to verify the magnetic materials. Magnetic measures for PM indicated that the major magnetic phase was coarse-grained magnetite-like material. The χlf, χarm, SIRM and χarm/SIRM series of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show seasonal dependences: high values in winter and low values in summer. In additional the parameters analyzed by Time-series methods show a strong cycle about 7 days above 95% confidence level. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show different pattern: the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5-10 show high values in mid-week, and particle sizes is steady, while the concentration of magnetic particles in PM2.5 show reverse a weekly cycle pattern, and particle sizes is smaller in the mid-week.Microscopy analyses reveal basically three morphologies of magnetic grains: aggregate, spherules and angular particles. The ultrafine carbonaceous particles which tend to form complex clusters and chain-like structures, most likely come from coal burning and motor vehicle exhaust. Spherical particles in PM2.5 are dominantly composed of Fe, O and C, grain-diameters of particles range from 0.3 to 2 um. Angular particles of Fe

  19. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da < 2.5 microm (PM2.5) and coarse PM with 2.5 < da < 10 microm (PM2.5-10) were collected using dichotomous samplers. The inhalable particle fraction, PM10, was determined as the sum of fine and coarse concentrations. Wind speed, temperature and relative humidity (RH) were also measured continuously. Average concentrations of PM2.5 for the 1989-2001 period ranged from 38.5 microg/m3 to 53 microg/m3. For PM2.5-10 levels ranged from 35.8-48.2 microg/m3 and for PM10 results were 74.4-101.2 microg/m3 across the four sites. Both annual and daily PM2.5 and PM10 concentration levels exceeded the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  20. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A CONTINUOUS COARSE (PM10-PM2.5) PARTICLE MONITOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this paper, we describe the development and laboratory and field evaluation of a continuous coarse (2.5-10 um) particle mass (PM) monitor that can provide reliable measurements of the coarse mass (CM) concentrations in time intervals as short as 5-10 min. The operating princ...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offsite installations and operations. 960.5-2-4 Section 960.5-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL... operations, including atomic energy defense activities, (1) will not significantly affect repository...

  5. 75 FR 51080 - Determination That DIASTAT (Diazepam Rectal Gel), 5 Milligrams/Milliliter, 10 Milligrams/2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... (diazepam rectal gel) (DIASTAT), 5 milligrams (mg)/milliliter (mL), 10 mg/2 mL, 15 mg/3 mL, and 20 mg/4 mL... to approve abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for diazepam rectal gel, 5 mg/mL, 10 mg/2 mL, 15 mg/3 mL, and 20 mg/4 mL, if all other legal and regulatory requirements are met. FOR...

  6. Theoretical Prediction on [5]Radialene Sandwich Complexes (CpM)2(C10H10) (Cp = η(5)-C5H5; M = Fe, Co, Ni): Geometry, Spin States, and Bonding.

    PubMed

    Liu, Nan-Nan; Xue, Ying-Ying; Ding, Yi-Hong

    2017-02-09

    [5]Radialene, the missing link for synthesis of radialene family, has been finally obtained via the preparation and decomplexation of the [5]radialene-bis-Fe(CO)3 complex. The stability of [5]radialene complex benefits from the coordination with Fe(CO)3 by losing free 1,3-butadiene structures to avoid polymerization. In light of the similar coordination ability of half-sandwiches CpM(Cp = η(5)-C5H5; M = Fe, Co, Ni), there is a great possibility that the sandwiched complexes of [5]radialene with CpM are available. Herein, we present the first theoretical prediction on the geometry, spin states and bonding of (CpM)(C10H10) and (CpM)2(C10H10). For M = Fe, Co, Ni, the ground states of (CpM)(C10H10) and (CpM)2(C10H10) are doublet and triplet, singlet and singlet, and doublet and triplet states, where each Fe, Co, and Ni adopts 17, 18, and 19 electron-configuration, respectively. In particular, (CpFe)2(C10H10) and (CpNi)2(C10H10) have considerable open-shell singlet features. Generally the trans isomers of (CpM)2(C10H10) with two CpM fragments on the opposite sides of the [5]radialene plane are apparently more stable than the cis ones with CpM fragments on the same side. However, for the singlet and triplet isomers of (CpNi)2(C10H10) (both cis and trans isomers), the energy differences are relatively small, indicating that these isomers all have the opportunity to exist. Besides, the easy Diels-Alder (DA) dimerization between the [3]dendralene-like fragments of (CpM)(C10H10) suggests the great difficulty in isolating the (CpM)(C10H10) monomer.

  7. Nqrs Data for C10H12Cl4N2Pd [Cl4H2Pd·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1261)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12Cl4N2Pd [Cl4H2Pd·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1261)

  8. Nqrs Data for C10H12Cl4N2Pt [Cl4H2Pt·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1262)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12Cl4N2Pt [Cl4H2Pt·2(C5H5N)] (Subst. No. 1262)

  9. An improved synthesis of 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspiro /5.5/ undecane /pentaerythritol diformal/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poshkus, A. C.

    1979-01-01

    It is found that high yields of pentaerythritol diformal can be prepared in less than 10 minutes by heating a stirred mixture of pentaerythritol with a slight excess of paraformaldehyde up to about 120 C in the presence of catalic amounts of acid, but without any solvents or with only a small amount of water. The reaction was carried out in two stages: first by preparing the monoformal with a molar equivalent of paraformaldehyde in about five minutes, and then, after cooling to about 70 C, adding the remainder of paraformaldehyde in 1% excess, and heating to about 120 C for a total heating time of 10 minutes

  10. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in Northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, N.; Hannigan, M. P.; Miller, S. L.; Peel, J. L.; Milford, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10-2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study measured PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM) in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10-2.5), for three years in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10-2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10-2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 μg m-3 and mean PM10-2.5/PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10-2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10-2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10-2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10-2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s-1. Little wind speed dependence was observed for the residential sites in Denver and Greeley.

  11. Comparisons of urban and rural PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations and semi-volatile fractions in northeastern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Nicholas; Hannigan, Michael P.; Miller, Shelly L.; Peel, Jennifer L.; Milford, Jana B.

    2016-06-01

    Coarse (PM10-2.5) and fine (PM2.5) particulate matter in the atmosphere adversely affect human health and influence climate. While PM2.5 is relatively well studied, less is known about the sources and fate of PM10-2.5. The Colorado Coarse Rural-Urban Sources and Health (CCRUSH) study measured PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 mass concentrations, as well as the fraction of semi-volatile material (SVM) in each size regime (SVM2.5, SVM10-2.5), from 2009 to early 2012 in Denver and comparatively rural Greeley, Colorado. Agricultural operations east of Greeley appear to have contributed to the peak PM10-2.5 concentrations there, but concentrations were generally lower in Greeley than in Denver. Traffic-influenced sites in Denver had PM10-2.5 concentrations that averaged from 14.6 to 19.7 µg m-3 and mean PM10-2.5 / PM10 ratios of 0.56 to 0.70, higher than at residential sites in Denver or Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were more temporally variable than PM2.5 concentrations. Concentrations of the two pollutants were not correlated. Spatial correlations of daily averaged PM10-2.5 concentrations ranged from 0.59 to 0.62 for pairs of sites in Denver and from 0.47 to 0.70 between Denver and Greeley. Compared to PM10-2.5, concentrations of PM2.5 were more correlated across sites within Denver and less correlated between Denver and Greeley. PM10-2.5 concentrations were highest during the summer and early fall, while PM2.5 and SVM2.5 concentrations peaked in winter during periodic multi-day inversions. SVM10-2.5 concentrations were low at all sites. Diurnal peaks in PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 concentrations corresponded to morning and afternoon peaks of traffic activity, and were enhanced by boundary layer dynamics. SVM2.5 concentrations peaked around noon on both weekdays and weekends. PM10-2.5 concentrations at sites located near highways generally increased with wind speeds above about 3 m s-1. Little wind speed dependence was observed for the residential sites in Denver and Greeley. The mass

  12. [Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 particulate material in the atmosphere of Rome].

    PubMed

    Marconi, A; Menichini, E; Ziemacki, G; Cattani, G; Stacchini, G

    2000-01-01

    Starting from 1993, various monitoring campaigns were carried out in Rome to determine PM10 and PM2.5. Their results are presented here cumulatively, with the aim of obtaining preliminary information on relationships among these size fractions, in various seasonal periods and in two sites with different characteristics (a road site and an urban background site in a public park). Particles were collected on filter and gravimetrically determined. Both PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations show temporal fluctuations with higher values during winter months. Background concentrations are lower than those contemporaneously measured at the road site only to a limited extent (10-17%). The contribution of PM2.5 to PM10 during the winter semester is higher than during the summer one (67 vs. 52%), with no substantial intersite differences.

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that, during... specified in § 960.5-1(a)(1). (b) Favorable conditions. (1) A low population density in the general...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that, during... specified in § 960.5-1(a)(1). (b) Favorable conditions. (1) A low population density in the general...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that, during... specified in § 960.5-1(a)(1). (b) Favorable conditions. (1) A low population density in the general...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that, during... specified in § 960.5-1(a)(1). (b) Favorable conditions. (1) A low population density in the general...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-1 - Population density and distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Population density and distribution. 960.5-2-1 Section 960... Population density and distribution. (a) Qualifying condition. The site shall be located such that, during... specified in § 960.5-1(a)(1). (b) Favorable conditions. (1) A low population density in the general...

  18. K5LaLi2F10:Er3+ crystals. Growth, structure and optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominiak-Dzik, G.; Golab, S.; Baluka, M.; Pietraszko, A.; Hermanowicz, K.

    1999-07-01

    Single crystals of K5LaLi2F10:Er3+ and K5LaLi2F10 were synthesized and the structural determination was made by x-ray diffraction analysis. The structure is orthorhombic with space group Pnma. The unit cell parameters are: a = 20.775, b = 7.822 and c = 6.963 Å. The infrared transmission and Raman scattering spectra of oriented single crystals were measured and discussed in terms of factor group analysis and x-ray structure. A vibrational assignment is proposed. Preliminary optical properties of Er3+ ions in K5LaLi2F10 crystals have been investigated using absorption, luminescence and lifetime measurements in the 5-300 K temperature range. The low temperature absorption and luminescence spectra of Er3+ have allowed us to identify the Stark levels of low-lying multiplets. The luminescence observed at 5 K has been attributed to the 4S3/2icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/>4I15/2 (18 300 cm-1), 4F9/2icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/>4I15/2 (15 000 cm-1), 4S3/2icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/>4I13/2 (11800 cm-1) and 4I11/2icons/Journals/Common/to" ALT="to" ALIGN="TOP"/>4I15/2 (10000 cm-1) transitions. The lifetimes of selected excited states were measured at 5 and 300 K temperature. The obtained data gave the first insight into the luminescent properties of Er3+ ions in the fluorine surroundings in K5LaLi2F10 crystals.

  19. Process for manufacturing bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene

    DOEpatents

    Rasmussen, Paul George; Lawton, Richard Graham

    2014-06-03

    A process to manufacture substituted tetracyano-hexaazatricyclics with the substitutions occurring at the 9 and 10 hydrogens. The process begins with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyanopyrazine, which is reacted to form the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different process embodiments enable different reaction paths to the desired tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic. Different tetracyano-hexaazatricyclic embodiments include bis(2-methoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracene and bis(2-methoxyethoxyethyl)-2,3,6,7-tetracyano-1,4,5,8,9,10-hexazaanthracen- e.

  20. The distribution of PM10 and PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosol in Baotou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Haijun; He, Jiang; Zhao, Boyi; Zhang, Lijun; Fan, Qingyun; Lü, Changwei; Dudagula; Liu, Tao; Yuan, Yinghui

    2016-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM), including PM10 and PM2.5, is one of the major impacts on air quality, visibility, climate change, earth radiation balance, and public health. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are the major components of PM. 804 samples (PM10 and PM2.5) were simultaneously collected from six urban sites covering 3 districts in Baotou, in January, April, September, and November 2014. As to a long-term study on the effects of carbonaceous aerosol, data were collected annually at Environmental Protection Agency of Baotou (EPB). The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, the spatial distribution and content of OC and EC, the relationship between OC and EC, and the formation of secondary organic carbon (SOC) have been investigated. The findings indicated that the concentrations of these particle matter are higher than that in US or European standards. The average concentrations of OC in PM10 and PM2.5 follow the order: January > November > April > September; and for EC in PM10 and PM2.5 follow the order: January > November > September > April. Affected by metrological factors, it was indicated that high wind speed and low relative humidity were beneficial for removal of OC and EC in January and November. Pearson correlations and cluster analysis on OC and EC concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 with gaseous pollutants (SO2, NO2, and CO) suggested that OC shared the same emission sources with SO2 and CO from combustion, while EC's sources mainly came from vehicles exhaust and combustion which contributed to NO2 as well. The OC concentration is mainly primary in warm months, while it appears secondary in cold months in Baotou. There is a common characteristic among the cities with higher SOC in winter, wherever the coal combustion can lead to the severe pollution. This work is important for the construction of the database of OC and EC concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 at spatial and time intervals, and it can provide scientific suggestion for similar PM

  1. Chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Mexico City during winter 1997.

    PubMed

    Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Edgerton, Sylvia A; Vega, Elizabeth

    2002-03-27

    PM2.5 and PM10 were measured over 24-h intervals at six core sites and at 25 satellite sites in and around Mexico City from 23 February to 22 March 1997. In addition, four 6-h samples were taken each day at three of the core sites. Sampling locations were selected to represent regional, central city, commercial, residential, and industrial portions of the city. Mass and light transmission concentrations were determined on all of the samples, while elements, ions and carbon were measured on approximately two-thirds of the samples. PM10 concentrations were highly variable, with almost three-fold differences between the highest and lowest concentrations. Fugitive dust was the major cause of PM10 differences, although carbon concentrations were also highly variable among the sampling sites. Approximately 50% of PM10 was in the PM2.5 fraction. The majority of PM mass was comprised of carbon, sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and crustal components, but in different proportions on different days and at different sites. The largest fine-particle components were carbonaceous aerosols, constituting approximately 50% of PM2.5 mass, followed by approximately 30% secondary inorganic aerosols and approximately 15% geological material. Geological material is the largest component of PM10, constituting approximately 50% of PM10 mass, followed by approximately 32% carbonaceous aerosols and approximately 17% secondary inorganic aerosols. Sulfate concentrations were twice as high as nitrate concentrations. Sulfate and nitrate were present as ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Approximately two-thirds of the ammonium sulfate measured in urban areas appears to have been transported from regions outside of the study domain, rather than formed from emissions in the urban area. Diurnal variations are apparent, with two-fold increases in concentration from night-time to daytime. Morning samples had the highest PM2.5 and PM10 mass, secondary inorganic aerosols and carbon concentrations

  2. 4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]dodecane Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimowski, Paweł; Gołofit, Tomasz

    2013-07-01

    4,10-Dinitro-2,6,8,12-tetraoxa-4,10-diazatetracyclo[5.5.0.05,903,11]dodecane (TEX) was obtained by nitrolysis of 1,4-diformyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydroxypiperazine reaction using a mixture of fuming nitric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid. The optimal process temperature was 54-56°C. The yield of the synthesis depends inter alia on the rate the reactants are introduced into the reaction medium and on the time of conditioning of the reaction mixture. A maximal yield of ca. 40% was achieved at the reactant addition time of 2 h and conditioning time of 2 h. None of the other nitrating mixtures examined proved superior to the conventional nitrating mixture. The product was examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques and the results are reported.

  3. 40 CFR 93.117 - Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. 93.117 Section 93.117 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....117 Criteria and procedures: Compliance with PM10 and PM2.5 control measures. The FHWA/FTA project must comply with any PM10 and PM2.5 control measures in the applicable implementation plan....

  4. Characterization and Cytotoxicity of PM<0.2, PM0.22.5 and PM2.510 around MSWI in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lingling; Zeng, Jianrong; Liu, Ke; Bao, Liangman; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential impact of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), which is an anthropogenic source of aerosol emissions, is of great public health concern. This study investigated the characterization and cytotoxic effects of ambient ultrafine particles (PM<0.2), fine particles (PM0.22.5) and coarse particles (PM2.510) collected around a municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plant in the Pudong district of Shanghai. Methods: Mass concentrations of trace elements in particulate matter (PM) samples were determined using ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The cytotoxicity of sampled atmospheric PM was evaluated by cell viability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in A549 cells. Result: The mass percentage of PM0.22.5 accounted for 72.91% of the total mass of PM. Crustal metals (Mg, Al, and Ti) were abundant in the coarse particles, while the anthropogenic elements (V, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb) were dominant in the fine particles. The enrichment factors of Zn, Cd and Pb in the fine and ultrafine particles were extremely high (>100). The cytotoxicity of the size-resolved particles was in the order of coarse particles < fine particles < ultrafine particles. Conclusions: Fine particles dominated the MSWI ambient particles. Emissions from the MSWI could bring contamination of anthropogenic elements (Zn, Cd and Pb) into ambient environment. The PM around the MSWI plant displayed an additive toxic effect, and the ultrafine and fine particles possessed higher biological toxicity than the coarse particles. PMID:25985309

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Chloroethanol C2H5ClO + C5H10O2 Propyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4799_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume C 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes III' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 2-Chloroethanol C2H5ClO + C5H10O2 Propyl ethanoate (VMSD1511, LB4799_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. Frequency dependent dielectric properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumtaz, M.; Khan, Nawazish A.; Khan, Sajid

    2012-01-01

    The frequency dependent dielectric properties such as dielectric constants (ɛ/r, ɛ//r), absolute dielectric loss |tanδ|, and ac-conductivity (σac) of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ (M = Si, Ge, Sn, y = 0, 1) superconductor have been investigated by means of capacitance (C) and conductance (G) measurements with the test frequency (f) in the range of 10 KHz to 10 MHz at various temperatures from superconducting state to normal conducting state. The negative capacitance has been observed in all Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ samples. The large values of negative dielectric constant (ɛ/r) at lower frequencies and temperatures are linked with reduced thermal vibrations of the atoms due to which polarizability has been enhanced. The decreased value of dielectric constant observed in the Ge-doped samples may possibly be linked with its greater electronegativity (EN) and less polarization. The electronegativity of Si and Sn has approximately the same values as that of Cu, so almost all the dielectric properties do not vary significantly in Si-doped Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2 Ca2(Cu2Si1)O10-δ and Sn-doped Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu2Sn1)O10-δ samples. These experimental investigations on dielectric properties of Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ superconductor have shown lower dielectric loss and higher ac-conductivity at all frequencies and temperatures as compared to that of other high Tc superconductor families. The decreased dielectric loss in Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2(Cu3-yMy)O10-δ samples suggests that the polarization is most likely arising from the charge carriers between Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2O4-δ charge reservoir layer and conducting CuO2/MO2 planes; since the charge reservoir layer has localized charge carriers at Ba+2, Tl+3, and Cu+2 sites, whereas CuO2/MO2 planes contain mobile charge carriers, which are displaced from their equilibrium position by external applied ac-field.

  7. Basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 in the atmosphere of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Vega, E; Reyes, E; Sánchez, G; Ortiz, E; Ruiz, M; Chow, J; Watson, J; Edgerton, S

    2002-03-27

    The high levels of fine particulate matter in Mexico City are of concern since they may induce severe public health effects as well as the attenuation of visible light. Sequential filter samplers were used at six different sites from 23 February to 22 March 1997. The sampling campaign was carried out as part of the project 'Investigación sobre Materia Particulada y Deterioro Atmosferico-Aerosol and Visibility Evaluation Research'. This research was a cooperative project sponsored by PEMEX and by the US Department of Energy. Sampling sites represent the different land uses along the city, the northwest station, Tlalnepantla, is located in a mixed medium income residential and industrial area. The northeast station, Xalostoc, is located in a highly industrialized area, Netzahualcoyotl is located in a mixed land use area, mainly commercial and residential. Station La Merced is located in the commercial and administrative district downtown. The southwest station is located in the Pedregal de San Angel, in a high-income neighborhood, and the southeast station located in Cerro de la Estrella is a mixed medium income residential and commercial area. Samples were collected four times a day in Cerro de la Estrella (CES), La Merced (MER) and Xalostoc (XAL) with sampling periods of 6 h. In Pedregal (PED), Tlalnepantla (TLA) and Netzahualcoyot1 (NEZ) sampling periods were every 24 h. In this paper the basic statistics of PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations are presented. The average results showed that 49, 61, 46, 57, 51 and 44% of the PM10 consisted of PM2.5 for CES, MER, XAL, PED, TLA and NEZ, respectively. The 24-h average highest concentrations of PM25 and PM10 were registered at NEZ (184 and 267 microg/m3) and the lowest at PED (22 and 39 microg/m3). The highest PM10 correlations were between XAL-CES (0.79), PED-TLA (0.80). In contrast, the highest PM2.5 correlations were between CES-PED (0.74), MER-CES (0.73) and TLA-PED (0.72), showing a lower correlation than the PM10

  8. Chemical characterization and mass closure of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site in Karachi - Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, Imran; Kistler, Magdalena; Mukhtar, Azam; Ghauri, Badar M.; Ramirez-Santa Cruz, Carlos; Bauer, Heidi; Puxbaum, Hans

    2016-03-01

    A mass balance method is applied to assess main source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 levels in Karachi. Carbonaceous species (elemental carbon, organic carbon, carbonate carbon), soluble ions (Ca++, Mg++, Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, NO3-, SO4-), saccharides (levoglucosan, galactosan, mannosan, sucrose, fructose, glucose, arabitol and mannitol) were determined in atmospheric fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) aerosol samples collected under pre-monsoon conditions (March-April 2009) at an urban site in Karachi (Pakistan). The concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 were found to be 75 μg/m3 and 437 μg/m3 respectively. The large difference between PM10 and PM2.5 originated predominantly from mineral dust. "Calcareous dust" and "siliceous dust" were the over all dominating material in PM, with 46% contribution to PM2.5 and 78% to PM10-2.5. Combustion particles and secondary organics (EC + OM) comprised 23% of PM2.5 and 6% of PM10-2.5. EC, as well as OC ambient levels were higher (59% and 56%) in PM10-2.5 than in PM2.5. Biomass burning contributed about 3% to PM2.5, and had a share of about 13% of "EC + OM" in PM2.5. The impact of bioaerosol (fungal spores) was minor and had a share of 1 and 2% of the OC in the PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 size fractions. In case of secondary inorganic aerosols, ammonium sulphate (NH4)2SO4 contributes 4.4% to PM2.5 and no detectable quantity were found in fraction PM10-2.5. The sea salt contribution is about 2% both to PM2.5 and PM10-2.5.

  9. The characteristic study of TSP, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 in the rural site of central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, G C; Chang, C N; Wu, Y S; Fu, P C; Chang, K F; Yang, D G

    1999-08-01

    The total suspended particle (TSP), PM2.5-10 (aerodynamic diameter less than 10 microns) and PM2.5 concentration (aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microns) concentrations were sampled by PS-1 and Universal sampler on the roof (25 m) of the Medical and Engineering Building in the campus of Hungkuang Institute of Technology (HKIT) which is located at a height of 500 m on Da Du Mountain. The results indicated that average TSP, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 concentrations are 0.42, 0.34 and 0.019 mg/m3 in the day time, respectively and are 0.32, 0.26 and 0.017 mg/m3 in the night time, respectively. The ratios of PM2.5-10/TSP were from 76% to 85% and from 50% to 91% for day and night period, respectively. It indicated that the major composition in the total suspended particles was PM2.5-10 in the rural site. The relationship between TSP and PM2.5-10 is TSP = 1.16PM2.5-10 + 0.027 and TSP = 1.01 PM2.5-10 + 0.058 in the day and night time, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.98 and 0.97 for day and night period, respectively. The relationship between PM2.5-10 and PM2.5 is PM2.5 = 0.0005PM2.5-10 + 0.019 and PM2.5 = 0.037PM2.5-10 + 0.0076 in the day and night period, respectively. The correlation coefficient (R2) is 3E-5 and 0.67 for day and night period, respectively. The relationships between TSP, PM2.5-10, PM2.5 particle concentrations and wind speed (R2) in the day time are 0.71, 0.64, 0.43, respectively and are 0.83, 0.79, 0.57, respectively in the night time. The proposed reasons are that there are more activities caused by people (students) and natural living animals which absorbed some of the particles during the day time. Thus, the correlation coefficients for the night time are better than those of day time. The particle size distributions are both bimodel in the day and night time. The major peaks in the day time appear in the particle diameter between 0.031-0.056 micron and 3.16-5.62 microns in the day period and appear between 0.017-0.031 micron and 1

  10. Framework 'interstitial' oxygen in La(10)(GeO(4))(5-)(GeO(5))O(2) apatite electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Pramana, Stevin S; Klooster, Wim T; White, T J

    2007-08-01

    Oxygen conduction at low temperatures in apatites make these materials potentially useful as electrolytes in solid-oxide fuel cells, but our understanding of the defect structures enabling ion migration is incomplete. While conduction along [001] channels is dominant, considerable inter-tunnel mobility has been recognized. Using neutron powder diffraction of stoichiometric 'La(10)(GeO(4))(6)O(3)', it has been shown that this compound is more correctly described as an La(10)(GeO(4))(5-)(GeO(5))O(2) apatite, in which high concentrations of interstitial oxygen reside within the channel walls. It is suggested that these framework interstitial O atoms provide a reservoir of ions that can migrate into the conducting channels of apatite, via a mechanism of inter-tunnel oxygen diffusion that transiently converts GeO(4) tetrahedra to GeO(5) distorted trigonal bipyramids. This structural modification is consistent with known crystal chemistry and may occur generally in oxide apatites.

  11. PM 2.5 and PM 10: The influence of sugarcane burning on potential cancer risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Flavio S.; Cristale, Joyce; André, Paulo A.; Saldiva, Paulo H. N.; Marchi, Mary R. R.

    2010-12-01

    In Brazil, sugarcane fields are often burned to facilitate manual harvesting, and this burning causes environmental pollution from the large amounts of soot released into the atmosphere. This material contains numerous organic compounds such as PAHs. In this study, the concentrations of PAHs in two particulate-matter fractions (PM 2.5 and PM 10) in the city of Araraquara (SE Brazil, with around 200,000 inhabitants and surrounded by sugarcane plantations) were determined during the sugarcane harvest (HV) and non-harvest (NHV) seasons in 2008 and 2009. The sampling strategy included four campaigns, with 60 samples in the NHV season and 220 samples in the HV season. The PM 2.5 and PM 10 fractions were collected using a dichotomous sampler (10 L min -1, 24 h) with Teflon™ filters. The filter sets were extracted (ultrasonic bath with hexane/acetone (1:1 v/v)) and analyzed by HPLC/Fluorescence. The median concentration for total PAHs (PM 2.5 in 2009) was 0.99 ng m -3 (NHV) and 3.3 ng m -3 (HV). In the HV season, the total concentration of carcinogenic PAHs (benz(a)anthracene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene) was 5 times higher than in the NHV season. B(a)P median concentrations were 0.017 ng m -3 and 0.12 ng m -3 for the NHV and HV seasons, respectively. The potential cancer risk associated with exposure through inhalation of these compounds was estimated based on the benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence (BaP eq), where the overall toxicity of a PAH mixture is defined by the concentration of each compound multiplied by its relative toxic equivalence factor (TEF). BaP eq median (2008 and 2009 years) ranged between 0.65 and 1.0 ng m -3 and 1.2-1.4 ng m -3 for the NHV and HV seasons, respectively. Considering that the maximum permissible BaP eq in ambient air is 1 ng m -3, related to the increased carcinogenic risk, our data suggest that the level of human exposure to PAHs in cities surrounded by sugarcane crops where the burning process is used

  12. Structure and magnetism of the Sm7.5Y2.5Fe90-xSix (x=0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W. Y.; Zhao, H.; Lai, Y. F.; Du, H. L.; Liu, S. Q.; Wang, C. S.; Han, J. Z.; Yang, Y. C.; Yu, X.; Qi, Z. Q.; Yang, J. B.

    2017-03-01

    Sm7.5Y2.5Fe90-xSix (x=0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10) alloys have been prepared by arc melting method and equilibrium disordered Th2Zn17-type phases, (Sm,Y)2-y(Fe,Si)17+2y, with relative lower rare-earth content than the ordered Th2Zn17-type phase, have been obtained. Compared to the ordered Th2Zn17-type structure, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity of the superstructure lines of the (Sm,Y)2-y(Fe,Si)17+2y decreases with the increase of the Si content and becomes zero for x=10. According to the refinement with the disordered Th2Zn17-type structure, the occupation rates of the R atoms at (3a) and (6c) sites tend to reach the same value with the increase of the Si content, and the lattice parameter a decreases while the lattice parameter c increases, leading to an increase of c/a. It was found that the atomic ratio of Fe(Si)/Sm(Y) in the disordered Th2Zn17-type structure increases with the increase of Si content and reaches a maximum value of 9.07 with x=10. The XRD diagrams of the magnetic aligned samples indicate that the easy magnetization direction (EMD) of the (Sm,Y)2-y(Fe,Si)17+2y is in the a-b plane, and the change of the EMD in a-b plane has also been observed due to the Si preferred site occupation. The remanence ratios along the easy direction are higher than that along hard direction; however, all the remanence ratios are less than 0.5. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant K increases first and then decreases with increasing the Si content. The Curie temperature of Sm7.5Y2.5Fe90-xSix alloys increases by about 65 K per Si. The saturation magnetization increases first and then decreases with a maximum of 135.5 emu/g observed for x=2.5 at room temperature.

  13. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  14. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  15. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  16. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  17. 10 CFR 10.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 10.5 Section 10.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.5 Definitions. Access...

  18. Growth, dielectric and nonlinear optical properties of Li3Cs2B5O10 single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukumar, M.; Ramesh Babu, R.; Ramamurthi, K.

    2017-01-01

    Lithium cesium borate (Li3Cs2B5O10), an alkali metal borate, single crystals were grown by Czochralski method. Chemical etching was performed on grown Li3Cs2B5O10 crystal at various regions. The observed dislocation densities are varied at different regions of the grown Li3Cs2B5O10 crystal. Dielectric behavior of Li3Cs2B5O10 crystal at different temperatures is studied. The third-order nonlinear optical parameters of lithium cesium borate crystal are determined by Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index ( n 2) value is estimated to be -7.272 × 10-11 cm2/W, and the corresponding third-order nonlinear susceptibility ( χ 3) is estimated to be 4.19 × 10-9 esu. The measured nonlinear refractive indices reveal the self-defocusing effect of Li3Cs2B5O10 crystal.

  19. Application of positive matrix factorization in characterization of PM(10) and PM(2.5) emission sources at urban roadside.

    PubMed

    Srimuruganandam, B; Shiva Nagendra, S M

    2012-06-01

    The 24-h average coarse (PM(10)) and fine (PM(2.5)) fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM) samples were collected for winter, summer and monsoon seasons during November 2008-April 2009 at an busy roadside in Chennai city, India. Results showed that the 24-h average ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations were significantly higher in winter and monsoon seasons than in summer season. The 24-h average PM(10) concentration of weekdays was significantly higher (12-30%) than weekends of winter and monsoon seasons. On weekends, the PM(2.5) concentration was found to slightly higher (4-15%) in monsoon and summer seasons. The chemical composition of PM(10) and PM(2.5) masses showed a high concentration in winter followed by monsoon and summer seasons. The U.S.EPA-PMF (positive matrix factorization) version 3 was applied to identify the source contribution of ambient PM(10) and PM(2.5) concentrations at the study area. Results indicated that marine aerosol (40.4% in PM(10) and 21.5% in PM(2.5)) and secondary PM (22.9% in PM(10) and 42.1% in PM(2.5)) were found to be the major source contributors at the study site followed by the motor vehicles (16% in PM(10) and 6% in PM(2.5)), biomass burning (0.7% in PM(10) and 14% in PM(2.5)), tire and brake wear (4.1% in PM(10) and 5.4% in PM(2.5)), soil (3.4% in PM(10) and 4.3% in PM(2.5)) and other sources (12.7% in PM(10) and 6.8% in PM(2.5)).

  20. Structure of the toxaphene compound 2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-octachlorobornene-2: a temperature-dependent formation of two rotamers.

    PubMed

    Parlar, Harun; Burhenne, Jürgen; Coelhan, Mehmet; Vetter, Walter

    2005-03-15

    The irradiation of 2,2,3-exo,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-decachlorobornane in n-hexane at 254 nm leads to a spontaneous Cl2 elimination as the major reaction pathway. This results finally in the main product 2,5-endo,6-exo,8,9,9,10,10-octachlorobornene-2, of which the structure could be elucidated with the help of X-ray, 1H and 13C NMR, IR, and MS. Temperature-dependent 1H NMR spectroscopic investigations have shown that the -CHCl2 groups located at C1 and C7 are able to rotate slowly under normal circumstances. If such measurements, however, are exerted at low temperatures (-10 to -60 degrees C), so can be seen that two rotamers are formed due to the hindrance of the free rotation about the bonds C1-C10, C7-C8, and C7-C9, which for the first time could be revealed for a toxaphene compound. Furthermore, as all 1H NMR chlorobornane spectra known so far show only sharp and clear signals, it can be assumed that chlorobornane compounds as main toxaphene components have fixed bonds, which requires to indicate chlorine atoms within the tentacles such as "a", "b", and "c" for characterizing the correct position. Those fixed tentacles are probably the reason that many toxaphene congeners remain very stable in environmental compartments, and particularly the biotic and abiotic transformation may strongly be hindered by the inflexibility of the tentacles.

  1. Thermally stable compositions including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Huynh, My Hang

    2010-01-26

    An explosive formulation including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt and a high temperature binder is disclosed together with a process of preparing 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt.

  2. Global emissions of PM10 and PM2.5 from agricultural tillage and harvesting operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W.; Tong, D.; Lee, P.

    2014-12-01

    Soil particles emitted during agricultural activities is a major recurring source contributing to atmospheric aerosol loading. Emission inventories of agricultural dust emissions have been compiled in several regions. These inventories, compiled based on historic survey and activity data, may reflect the current emission strengths that introduce large uncertainties when they are used to drive chemical transport models. In addition, there is no global emission inventory of agricultural dust emissions required to support global air quality and climate modeling. In this study, we present our recent efforts to develop a global emission inventory of PM10 and PM2.5 released from field tillage and harvesting operations using an emission factors-based approach. Both major crops (e.g., wheat and corn) and forage production were considered. For each crop or forage, information of crop area, crop calendar, farming activities and emission factors of specified operations were assembled. The key issue of inventory compilation is the choice of suitable emission factors for specified operations over different parts of the world. Through careful review of published emission factors, we modified the traditional emission factor-based model by multiplying correction coefficient factors to reflect the relationship between emission factors, soil texture, and climate conditions. Then, the temporal (i.e., monthly) and spatial (i.e., 0.5º resolution) distribution of agricultural PM10 and PM2.5 emissions from each and all operations were estimated for each crop or forage. Finally, the emissions from individual crops were aggregated to assemble a global inventory from agricultural operations. The inventory was verified by comparing the new data with the existing agricultural fugitive dust inventory in North America and Europe, as well as satellite observations of anthropogenic agricultural dust emissions.

  3. Phase purity and superconductivity of ruthenocuprates RuySr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Y.; Uragami, Y.; Yasuoka, H.

    2008-12-01

    RuySr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ (y = 0.9, 0.95, 1.0, 1.05 and 1.1) were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. The phase purity of the specimens was examined by X-ray powder diffraction and their superconductivity was confirmed by resistivity measurements. All the specimens exhibited superconductivity and contained small amounts of impurity phases of SrRuO3 , Sr2RuGdO3 and RuSr2GdCu2O8 . Ru1.1Sr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ contained the least amount of impurities and had the highest superconducting transition temperature. Two magnetic transitions were observed at 128 and 88.5 K in both the dc magnetization measurements and the ac susceptibility measurements. It is concluded that the former transition originates from the weak ferromagnetic transition of RuSr2GdCu2O8 and the latter transition corresponds to the weak ferromagnetic transition of Ru ions in Ru1.1Sr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ . The isothermal magnetization curve was derived from fundamental and higher-harmonic complex susceptibility measurements. The magnetization curve consists of a hysteresisless diamagnetism component and a component that is typical for magnetization of the mixed state in a type-II superconductor. The former is due to intragrain superconductivity and the latter is due to intergrain superconductivity. The intergrain critical current density at 5 K is estimated to be 0.75A /cm2 and it is several orders of magnitude lower than that of the ceramic YBa2Cu3O7-δ .

  4. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  5. 33 CFR 66.10-5-66.10-10 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 66.10-5-66.10-10 Section 66.10-5-66.10-10 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION PRIVATE AIDS TO NAVIGATION Uniform State Waterway Marking System §§ 66.10-5—66.10-10...

  6. March 10, 2006, Transportation Conformity Rule That Addresses Requirements for Project-level Conformity Determinations in PM2.5 and PM10 Nonattainment and Maintenance Areas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This final rule, published March 10, 2006, establishes requirements for project-level conformity determinations in particulate matter (PM) 2.5 nonattainment and maintenance areas, and revises existing requirements for projects in PM10 areas.

  7. Possible involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 in the gene expression of Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5.

    PubMed

    Ashino, Takashi; Ohkubo-Morita, Haruyo; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoshida, Takemi; Numazawa, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 gene expression is altered by various chemical compounds. In this study, we used nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-deficient (Nrf2(-⧸-)) mice to investigate the involvement of Nrf2 in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression. Phorone, an Nrf2 activator, strongly increased Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 mRNA as well as Nrf2 target genes, including NAD(P)H-quinone oxidoreductase-1 and heme oxygenase-1, in wild-type mouse livers 8 h after treatment. The phorone-induced mRNA levels in Nrf2(-⧸-) mouse livers were lower than that in wild-type mouse livers. Nrf2(-⧸-) mice showed attenuated Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 induction by phenobarbital, a classical Cyp2b inducer. These findings suggest that the Nrf2 pathway is involved in Cyp2b10 and Cyp2a5 gene expression.

  8. 2,5,6,9,10-Pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDOHs): a new class of HBCD transformation products.

    PubMed

    Heeb, Norbert V; Zindel, Daniel; Schweizer, W Bernd; Lienemann, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Pentabromocyclododecanols (PBCDOHs) are potential environmental transformation products of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). They are also potential stage one metabolites of biological HBCD transformations. Herein, we present analytical evidence that PBCDOHs are also constituents of technical HBCDs and flame-proofed polystyrenes (FP-PSs). PBCDOHs are possibly formed during the synthesis of technical HBCD, presumably during the bromination of cyclododecatrienes in aqueous isobutanol together with isobutoxypentabromocyclododecanes (iBPBCDs), which have been identified in these materials recently. Of the 64 stereoisomers possible, eight pairs of enantiomers, named α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ε-, ζ-, η-, and θ-PBCDOHs were separated with a combination of normal-, reversed- and chiral-phase LC. Crystal structure analysis revealed the stereochemistry of the α-PBCDOH pair of enantiomers, which was assigned to (1S,2S,5R,6S,9S,10R)-2,5,6,9,10-pentabromocyclododecanol and its enantiomer. Mass spectrometric data are in accordance with the expected isotope patterns. On a C(18)-RP-column, the polar PBCDOHs eluted before the HBCD and iBPBCD classes of compounds. PBCDOHs were also found in FP-PS materials. The stereoisomer patterns varied considerably in these materials like those of HBCDs and iBPBCDs. Expanded polystyrenes were rich in late-eluting stereoisomers, similar to technical HBCD mixtures. Extruded polystyrenes contained more of the polar, faster-eluting isomers. The presented chromatographic and analytical methods allow a stereoisomer-specific search for PBCDOHs in biota samples, which might have experienced metabolic HBCD transformation reactions. Besides this potential source, it has to be recognized that PBCDOHs are by-products in technical HBCDs and in flame-proofed polystyrenes. Therefore, it is likely that PBCDOHs and iBPBCDs are released to the environment together with HBCD-containing plastic materials.

  9. Weekly cycle of magnetic characteristics of the daily PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Meinan; Wu, Huaichun; Zhang, Shihong; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Tianshui; Liu, Wei; Liu, He

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, Beijing has been shown to suffer one of the most serious air pollution problems of any major world city. The concentrations of particulate matter (PM) pollutants, PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, are commonly used as air pollution indexes. We conducted a detailed environmental magnetism study to investigate possible sources of air pollution in Beijing, China, using 283 pairs of the PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 samples collected daily from July 2010 to June 2011. Rock magnetic measurements, including magnetic susceptibility, anhysteretic remanent magnetization, isothermal remanent magnetization, saturation isothermal remanent magnetization, hysteresis loops, first-order reversal curves (FORCs), and thermomagnetism, indicate that the main magnetic mineral is low-coercivity pseudo-single domain (PSD) magnetite. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the PM indicate that the major magnetic phase is coarse-grained magnetite, which is most likely from automobile exhausts and braking system debris. Magnetic parameters of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 show significant seasonal patterns that may be attributed to domestic heating enhancing magnetization of the PM during late autumn to early spring. Power spectral analyses and box-whisker plots indicate that the magnetic parameters have strong weekly variations that may be due to traffic emissions. These results indicate that magnetic parameters can be used as efficient proxies for monitoring Beijing's air pollution, and that the atmospheric environment may be improved by controlling vehicle emissions.

  10. Chemical Characterization of Outdoor and Subway Fine (PM2.51.0) and Coarse (PM102.5) Particulate Matter in Seoul (Korea) by Computer-Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM)

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Sang-Hoon; Willis, Robert; Peters, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor and indoor (subway) samples were collected by passive sampling in urban Seoul (Korea) and analyzed with computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (CCSEM-EDX). Soil/road dust particles accounted for 42%–60% (by weight) of fine particulate matter larger than 1 µm (PM2.51.0) in outdoor samples and 18% of PM2.51.0 in subway samples. Iron-containing particles accounted for only 3%–6% in outdoor samples but 69% in subway samples. Qualitatively similar results were found for coarse particulate matter (PM102.5) with soil/road dust particles dominating outdoor samples (66%–83%) and iron-containing particles contributing most to subway PM102.5 (44%). As expected, soil/road dust particles comprised a greater mass fraction of PM102.5 than PM2.51.0. Also as expected, the mass fraction of iron-containing particles was substantially less in PM102.5 than in PM2.51.0. Results of this study are consistent with known emission sources in the area and with previous studies, which showed high concentrations of iron-containing particles in the subway compared to outdoor sites. Thus, passive sampling with CCSEM-EDX offers an inexpensive means to assess PM2.51.0 and PM10-2.5 simultaneously and by composition at multiple locations. PMID:25689348

  11. Urban aerosol in Oporto, Portugal: Chemical characterization of PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Danilo; Ferreira, Catarina; Alves, Célia; Duarte, Mácio; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Frosini, Daniele; Colombi, Cristina; Gianelle, Vorne; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Several urban and industrial areas in Southern Europe are not capable of meeting the implemented EU standards for particulate matter. Efficient air quality management is required in order to ensure that the legal limits are not exceeded and that the consequences of poor air quality are controlled and minimized. Many aspects of the direct and indirect effects of suspended particulate matter on climate and public health are not well understood. The temporal variation of the chemical composition is still demanded, since it enables to adopt off-set strategies and to better estimate the magnitude of anthropogenic forcing on climate. This study aims to provide detailed information on concentrations and chemical composition of aerosol from Oporto city, an urban center in Southern Europe. This city is located near the coast line in the North of Portugal, being the country's second largest urban area. Moreover, Oporto city economic prospects depend heavily on a diversified industrial park, which contribute to air quality degradation. Another strong source of air pollution is traffic. The main objectives of this study are: 1) to characterize the chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 by setting up an orchestra of aerosol sampling devices in a strategic place in Oporto; 2) to identify the sources of particles exploring parameters such as organic and inorganic markers (e.g. sugars as tracers for biomass burning; metals and elemental carbon for industrial and vehicular emissions); 3) to evaluate long range transport of pollutants using back trajectory analysis. Here we present data obtained between January 2013 and January 2014 in a heavy traffic roadside sampling site located in the city center. Different PM10 and PM2.5 samplers were operated simultaneously in order to collect enough mass on different filter matrixes and to fulfill the requirements of analytical methodologies. More than 100 aerosol samples were collected and then analysed for their mass concentration and

  12. Toxicity of firemaster FF-1 and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl in cultures of C3H/10T 1/2 mammalian fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bairstow, F; Hsia, M T; Norback, D H; Allen, J R

    1978-04-01

    A procedure for purifying 2,2', 4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB) from FireMaster FF-1 in gram amounts by crystallization is presented. Following purification, the structural assignment of HBB was made by using proton and carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and mass spectroscopy (MS). The growth of C3H/10T 1/2 cells treated with 5, 37, 75, and 150 microgram of HBB and FF-1 per milliliter of medium was measured at 4, 8, and 13 days following treatment. FF-1 was more toxic at 37 and 75 microgram/ml at both 4 and 8 days, but the same at 13 days. At 150 microgram/ml cell growth was completely inhibited by both compounds. Growth of cells was stimulated at 5 microgram/ml, by HBB at 4 and 8 days, and FF-1 at 8 and 12 days. HCB was compared with HBB and FF-1 for cell growth toxicity at 37 and 75 microgram/ml. At 75 microgram/ml, HCB was more toxic than HBB and FF-1 during the entire time period. At 37 microgram/ml, HCB was more toxic than HBB and FF-1 at 4 and 8 days. Cells seeded at high densities and treated with HBB for three days lost the high degree of postconfluence inhibition of cell division observed in control cultures. Cells treated with FF-1 for three days did not adhere well to the plastic growth surface. Ultrastructural features of the HBB- and FF-1-treated cells included decreased surface villi and increased lysosomes relative to the control cells.

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of New Insensitive High Energy Polynitramine Compound, 2,4,8,10-Tetranitro-2,4,8,10-Tetraazaspiro(5.5)Undecane (TNSU).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Corporation, Kingsport , TN ( Plant Manager) 2 Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD Freeman K. Hill (1) I Johns Hopkins University... Tennessee . TETRAKIS(AMINOMETHYL)METHANE The tetrabenzenesulfonyl derivative of pentaerythritol was prepared from pentaerythritol, benzenesulfonvl chloride...Test Center, Point Mugu (Code 2145) I Seal Team 2 1 Underwater Demolition Team 21 I Naval Intelligence Support Center Liaison Officer (LNN) *1 3 Army

  14. Source Apportionment and Elemental Composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khodeir, Mamdouh; Shamy, Magdy; Alghamdi, Mansour; Zhong, Mianhua; Sun, Hong; Costa, Max; Chen, Lung-Chi; Maciejczyk, Polina

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first comprehensive investigation of PM2.5 and PM10 composition and sources in Saudi Arabia. We conducted a multi-week multiple sites sampling campaign in Jeddah between June and September, 2011, and analyzed samples by XRF. The overall mean mass concentration was 28.4 ± 25.4 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 87.3 ± 47.3 μg/m3 for PM10, with significant temporal and spatial variability. The average ratio of PM2.5/PM10 was 0.33. Chemical composition data were modeled using factor analysis with varimax orthogonal rotation to determine five and four particle source categories contributing significant amount of for PM2.5 and PM10 mass, respectively. In both PM2.5 and PM10 sources were (1) heavy oil combustion characterized by high Ni and V; (2) resuspended soil characterized by high concentrations of Ca, Fe, Al, and Si; and (3) marine aerosol. The two other sources in PM2.5 were (4) Cu/Zn source; (5) traffic source identified by presence of Pb, Br, and Se; while in PM10 it was a mixed industrial source. To estimate the mass contributions of each individual source category, the CAPs mass concentration was regressed against the factor scores. Cumulatively, resuspended soil and oil combustion contributed 77 and 82% mass of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PMID:24634602

  15. Trends and variability of atmospheric PM2.5 and PM10-2.5 concentration in the Po Valley, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigi, Alessandro; Ghermandi, Grazia

    2016-12-01

    The Po Valley is one of the largest European regions with a remarkably high concentration level of atmospheric pollutants, both for particulate and gaseous compounds. In the last decade stringent regulations on air quality standards and on anthropogenic emissions have been set by the European Commission, including also for PM2.5 and its main components since 2008. These regulations have led to an overall improvement in air quality across Europe, including the Po Valley and specifically PM10, as shown in a previous study by Bigi and Ghermandi (2014). In order to assess the trend and variability in PM2.5 in the Po Valley and its role in the decrease in PM10, we analysed daily gravimetric equivalent concentration of PM2.5 and of PM10-2.5 at 44 and 15 sites respectively across the Po Valley. The duration of the times series investigated in this work ranges from 7 to 10 years. For both PM sizes, the trend in deseasonalized monthly means, annual quantiles and in monthly frequency distribution was estimated: this showed a significant decreasing trend at several sites for both size fractions and mostly occurring in winter. All series were tested for a significant weekly periodicity (a proxy to estimate the impact of primary anthropogenic emissions), yielding positive results for summer PM2.5 and for summer and winter PM10-2.5. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed moderate variability in PM2.5 across the valley, with two to three main clusters, dividing the area in western, eastern and southern/Apennines foothill sectors. The trend in atmospheric concentration was compared with the time series of local emissions, vehicular fleet details and fuel sales, suggesting that the decrease in PM2.5 and in PM10 originates from a drop both in primary and in precursors of secondary inorganic aerosol emissions, largely ascribed to vehicular traffic. Potentially, the increase in biomass burning emissions in winter and the modest decrease in NH3 weaken an otherwise even larger drop in

  16. Lattice distortion and stripelike antiferromagnetic order in Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5

    SciTech Connect

    Sapkota, Aashish; Tucker, Gregory S; Ramazanoglu, Mehmet; Tian, Wei; Ni, N; Cava, R J; McQueeney, Robert J; Goldman, Alan I; Kreyssig, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 is the parent compound for a class of Fe-based high-temperature superconductors where superconductivity with transition temperatures up to 30 K can be introduced by partial element substitution. We present a combined high-resolution high-energy x-ray diffraction and elastic neutron scattering study on a Ca10(Pt3As8)(Fe2As2)5 single crystal. This study reveals the microscopic nature of two distinct and continuous phase transitions to be very similar to other Fe-based high-temperature superconductors: an orthorhombic distortion of the high-temperature tetragonal Fe-As lattice below TS=110(2) K followed by stripelike antiferromagnetic ordering of the Fe moments below TN=96(2) K. These findings demonstrate that major features of the Fe-based high-temperature superconductors are very robust against variations in chemical constitution as well as structural imperfection of the layers separating the Fe-As layers from each other and confirms that the Fe-As layers primarily determine the physics in this class of material.

  17. Fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) particulate matter on a heavily trafficked London highway: sources and processes.

    PubMed

    Charron, Aurelie; Harrison, Roy M

    2005-10-15

    A large dataset for PM2.5 and PMcoarse (PM2.5-10) concentrations monitored near a busy London highway (Marylebone Road) has been analyzed to define the factors that lead to high concentrations. The following have been highlighted as major influencing parameters: wind speed, prevailing wind direction (because of its role on the microscale dispersion within the street), the daily cycle of the atmospheric boundary layer (stable during the night/ convective and mixed during the day), and traffic density. The mainly diesel heavy-duty vehicles are the main source of fine particulate matter at Marylebone Road. In particular, lorries (trucks) dominate PM10 exhaust emissions which are mainly in the fine (<2.5 microm) size range. A strong correlation with PMcoarse suggests that the heavy-duty traffic is largely responsible for this component also. Substantial local increments in PM2.5 and PMcoarse due to traffic have been estimated and a large part of the increment in PMcoarse concentrations is inferred to arise from resuspended road dust emissions since the contribution of abrasion processes estimated from emission factors is modest. Despite the strong influence of traffic on PM concentrations measured at Marylebone Road the analysis of factors leading to the highest 5% of hourly concentrations of PM10 at Marylebone Road reveals that almost half of these events were due to building works. The other events occurred when all or most of the key factors occurred simultaneously (heavy traffic, poor dispersion, etc.). Some episodes of high PM2.5 concentrations were associated with long-range transport in which the regional PM2.5 constituted most of the local concentrations.

  18. Endotoxin in fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle mass of ambient aerosols. A temporo-spatial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Joachim; Pitz, Mike; Bischof, Wolfgang; Krug, Norbert; Borm, Paul J. A.

    Objectives: We collected fine (PM 2.5) and coarse (PM 2.5-10) particulate matter fractions in two areas ˜80 km apart and measured soluble endotoxin concentrations in both particle fractions. Here we report on temporo-spatial variation of endotoxin content in the collected particles. Methods: Dichotomous Anderson samplers were used to collect 21 weekly samples of PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in both towns from January to June 2002. Each Teflon filter was water extracted and endotoxin was measured by a chromogenic Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate method. Endotoxin concentrations were expressed per mg of fine or mg of coarse mass and per sampled air volume (m 3). Results: For both cities, the mean endotoxin content in PM 2.5 was 1.2 EU mg -1; however the endotoxin content in the coarse fraction was ˜10 times higher compared to the fine mass fractions. Although endotoxin content is highly variable over time, a good correlation was observed between the two town sites for both fine ( r=0.85) and coarse PM ( r=0.88). The fluctuations of weekly endotoxin means were high in both areas suggesting a strong temporal dependence on particle source and composition. The endotoxin content in particles collected during May and June were two to four times higher than concentrations measured during the winter and early spring weeks. Conclusions: Ambient airborne endotoxin concentrations were detected in coarse and fine particle fraction, but 10-fold higher in the coarse PM. The strong seasonality and the week to week fluctuation of endotoxin content in PM indicate different biologic PM properties which might affect results of time series studies on short-term effects as well as in vitro studies and human exposure studies.

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-4 - Offsite installations and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-4..., construction, operation, closure, or decommissioning or can be accommodated by engineering measures and (2... releases from other nuclear installations and operations that must be considered under the requirements...

  20. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, Henry F.; Maghirang, Ronaldo G.; Trabue, Steven L.; McConnell, Laura L.; Prueger, John H.; Bonifacio, Edna R.

    2015-01-01

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentration profiles at the feedlot were measured using gravimetric samplers, and micrometeorological parameters were monitored with eddy covariance instrumentation during the nine 4- to 5-day intensive sampling campaigns from May 2010 through September 2011. Emission fluxes were determined from the measured concentration gradients and meteorological parameters using the flux-gradient technique. PM ratios based on calculated emission fluxes were 0.28 for PM2.5/PM10, 0.12 for PM2.5/TSP, and 0.24 for PM10/TSP, indicating that a large fraction of the PM emitted at the studied feedlot was in the coarse range of aerodynamic diameter, >10 μm. Median daily emission factors were 57, 21, and 11 kg 1000-head (hd)-1 d-1 for TSP (n = 20 days), PM10 (n = 19 days), and PM2.5 (n = 11 days), respectively. Cattle pen surface moisture contents of at least 20-30% significantly reduced both TSP and PM10 emissions, but moisture's effect on PM2.5 emissions was not established due to difficulty in measuring PM2.5 concentrations under low-PM conditions.

  1. Motor vehicle contributions to ambient PM10 and PM2.5 at selected urban areas in the USA.

    PubMed

    Abu-Allaban, Mahmoud; Gillies, John A; Gertler, Alan W; Clayton, Russ; Proffitt, David

    2007-09-01

    A source apportionment study was carried out to estimate the contribution of motor vehicles to ambient particulate matter (PM) in selected urban areas in the USA. Measurements were performed at seven locations during the period September 7, 2000 through March 9, 2001. Measurements included integrated PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Ambient PM(2.5) and PM(10) were apportioned to their local sources using the chemical mass balance (CMB) receptor model and compared with results obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results indicate that PM(2.5) components were mainly from combustion sources, including motor vehicles, and secondary species (nitrates and sulfates). PM(10) consisted mainly of geological material, in addition to emissions from combustion sources. The fractional contributions of motor vehicles to ambient PM were estimated to be in the range from 20 to 76% and from 35 to 92% for PM(2.5) and PM(10), respectively.

  2. PIXE analysis of PM2.5 and PM(2.5-10) for air quality assessment of Islamabad, Pakistan: application of chemometrics for source identification.

    PubMed

    Waheed, Shahida; Jaafar, Muhammad Z; Siddique, Naila; Markwitz, Andreas; Brereton, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    A Gent sampler was used to collect 379 pairs of filters from Nilore, a suburban area of Islamabad city. The study was designed to assess the concentration variations of trace elements in fine and coarse particulate matter due to anthropogenic activities and naturally occurring events. Source identification was performed by applying MATLAB software for principal component analysis (PCA), and cluster analysis (CA). The average fine and coarse particulate masses during the study period were 15.1 ± 11.9 and 37.3 ± 28.0 μg/m(3) respectively which complies with the 24-h air quality limits set by the government of Pakistan. The application of PCA to PM(2.5) data suggests the PM contribution from sources such as soil, automobile exhaust and coal combustion, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood combustion, biomass burning and fertilizers and fungicides whereas for the PM(2.5-10) data shows signatures of suspended soil, automobile exhaust, road dust and wearing of tyres, wood and biomass burning, refuse incineration, Ni smelter, fertilizers and fungicides are obtained. Cluster analysis of PM(2.5) and PM(2.5-10) datasets reveals that there are mainly three contributory pollution sources and these are suspended soil particles, automobile related sources and wood and coal combustion.

  3. Design note of an air-cooled 2 ft x 2 ft x 10. 5 ft long muon spoiler

    SciTech Connect

    Visser, A.; Pathiyil, J.

    1988-01-06

    This note describes the construction of a muon spoiler (magnetized steel assembly) with a cross section of 2 ft by 2 ft and a length of 10.5 ft. Two such spoilers are operated in series at an average field of about 15 kGauss, from one 100 ADC, 40 V power supply. The purpose of the spoilers is to prevent muons from easily escaping beyond the muon laboratory experimental area by bending them down so that they have to pass through more earth. The spoilers reduce the muon dose rate beyond the experimental area by about a factor of 15 to 20. These types of spoilers are not precision devices. They were inexpensive to build from scrap materials using rough flame cutting methods. It took about 14 days to fabricate them.

  4. Software Design Document Vehicle Simulation CSCI (5). Volume 1. Sections 1.0 - 2.2.3.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    169 2.1.2.2.2.14.4 storeroundfired ........................ 170 2.1.2.2.2.14.5 store_viewmagnification ........... 171 x BBN Systems and...1330 2.6.1.4.2 allocate- x -powers .............. 1331 2.6.1.4.3 allocate-y-.powers .............. 1332 2.6.1.4.4 allocate-sim-lin-eq...1332 2.6.1.4.5 generate x -powers.............. 1333 2.6.1.4.6 generate..y-powers.............. 1333 2.6.1.4.7 generate-simjlineq

  5. Suppressed 3D conductivity in Mn doped Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2-yMnyCu3O10-δ superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qurat-ul-Ain, Khan, Nawazish A.

    2013-04-01

    We have synthesised Mn-doped Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2(Ca2-yMny)Cu3O10-δ superconducting samples and studied their Fluctuation Induced Conductivity (FIC) analysis. The Tc(R = 0) and magnitude of diamagnetism are suppressed with increased Mn-doping in the final compound. FIC analyses have shown a suppression of 3D Lawrence and Doniach (LD) regime and a significant enhancement of 2D LD regime of Mn-doping of y = 0.35. In the sample with Mn-doping of y = 0.5, the 3D LD regime vanishes altogether and only 2D LD regime is observed, showing the confinement of superconductivity in the two dimensional planes. The coherence length along the c-axis and the Fermi velocity of the carriers are suppressed with increased Mn doping. Using the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) number [NG] and GL equations, the thermodynamic critical magnetic field Bc(0), the lower critical field Bc1(0), the upper critical field Bc2(0), the critical current density Jc(0), and penetration depth λp.d are determined. The values of critical fields Bc(0) and Bc1(0) increases, despite suppression in the Tc(R = 0) with increased Mn-doping. The values of Jc(0), the penetration depth Λp.d, and inter-layer coupling are suppressed with enhanced Mn-doping. These observations suggested that Mn ions act as sub-nano-scale pinning centers between the CuO2 planes and their presence at the Ca-sites promote the de-coupling of CuO2 planes.

  6. Concentrations and emission factors for PM2.5 and PM10 from road traffic in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferm, Martin; Sjöberg, Karin

    2015-10-01

    PM10 concentrations exceed the guidelines in some Swedish cities and the limit values will likely be further reduced in the future. In order to gain more knowledge of emission factors for road traffic and concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5, existing monitoring stations in two cities, Gothenburg and Umeå, with international E-road thoroughfares, were complemented with some PM2.5 measurements. Emission factors for PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated using NOX as a tracer. Monitoring data from kerbside and urban background sites in Gothenburg during 2006-2010 and in Umeå during 2006-2012 were used. NOX emissions were estimated from the traffic flow and emission factors calculated from the HBEFA3.1 model. PM2.5 constitutes the finer part of PM10. Emissions of the coarser part of PM10 (PM10-PM2.5) are suppressed when roads are wet and show a maximum during spring when the roads dry up and studded tyres are still used. Less than 1% of the road wear caused by studded tyres give rise to airborne PM2.5-10 particles. The NOX emission factors decrease with time in the used model, due to the renewal of the vehicle fleet. However, the NOX concentrations resulting from the roads show no clear trend. The air dispersion is an important factor controlling the PM concentration near the road. The dispersion has a minimum in winter and during midnight. The average street level concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Gothenburg were 21 ± 20 and 8 ± 6 μg m-3 respectively, which is 36% and 22% higher than the urban background concentrations. Despite the four times lower traffic flow in Umeå compared to Gothenburg, the average particle concentrations were very similar; 21 ± 31 and 7 ± 5 μg m-3 for PM10 and PM2.5 respectively. These concentrations were, however, 108% and 55% higher than the urban background concentrations in Umeå. The emission factors for PM10 decreased with time, and the average factor was 0.06 g km-1 vehichle-1. The emission factors for PM2.5 are very uncertain due to the

  7. Contamination characteristics and possible sources of PM10 and PM2.5 in different functional areas of Shanghai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Zimei; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chen, Zhenlou; Xu, Shiyuan

    2013-04-01

    From July 2009 through September 2010, PM10 and PM2.5 were collected at two different functional areas in Shanghai (Baoshan district, an industrial area, and Putuo district, a mixed-use area of residential, commercial, and educational compounds). In our analysis, 15 elements were determined using a 710-ES Inductively Coupled Plasma-Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). The contents of PM2.5, PM10, and metal elements at the two different sites were comparatively analyzed. The results show that the mean annual concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 (149.22 μg m-3 and 103.07 μg m-3, respectively) in Baoshan district were significantly higher than those in Putuo district (97.44 μg m-3 and 62.25 μg m-3 respectively). The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were both greatest in winter and lowest in summer, with the two different sites exhibiting the same seasonal variation. It was found that the proportions of 15 metal elements in PM10 and PM2.5 in Baoshan district were 20.49% and 20.56%, respectively, while the proportions in Putuo district were higher (25.98% and 25.93%, respectively). In addition, the proportions of eight heavy metals in PM10 and PM2.5 were 5.50% and 3.07%, respectively, for Baoshan district, while these proportions in Putuo district were 3.18% and 2.77%, respectively, indicating that heavy metal pollution is more pronounced in Baoshan district. Compared with cities in developed countries, the total levels of PM10, PM2.5 and heavy metals in Shanghai were slightly higher. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that the possible sources of PM10 in Baoshan district were ground level fugitive dust, traffic sources, and industrial activities, whereas PM2.5 mainly originated from industrial activities, coal combustion, and traffic sources. The sources are same for PM10 and PM2.5 in Putuo region, which originate from traffic sources and ground level fugitive dust.

  8. Structural investigation of 5,10-A2B2-type porphyrins: palladium(II) and zinc(II) complexes of 5,10-dibromo-15,20-bis(4-methylphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Senge, Mathias O; Zawadzka, Monika

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of [5,10-dibromo-15,20-bis(4-methylphenyl)porphyrinato]palladium(II), [Pd(C34H22Br2N4)], and [5,10-dibromo-15,20-bis(4-methylphenyl)porphyrinato](methanol)zinc(II), [Zn(C34H22Br2N4)(CH4O)], reveals a small but localized influence of the bromine residues on the conformation of the macrocycle. A comparison of the 5,10-dibromo substituent pattern with literature data for 5,15-dibromoporphyrins shows similar in-plane distortions in both but a different mix of out-of-plane distortion modes for the different regiochemical arrangements.

  9. 46 CFR 59.10-5 - Cracks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cracks. 59.10-5 Section 59.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPURTENANCES Welding Repairs to Boilers and Pressure Vessels in -Service § 59.10-5 Cracks. (a) Cracks extending... cracks are veed out so that complete penetration of the weld metal is secured. (b) Circumferential...

  10. Elemental compositions of PM10-2.5 and PM2.5 aerosols of a Nigerian urban city using ion beam analytical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezeh, G. C.; Obioh, I. B.; Asubiojo, O. I.; Chiari, M.; Nava, S.; Calzolai, G.; Lucarelli, F.; Nuviadenu, C. K.

    2014-09-01

    The paucity of data on air quality studies in Nigeria prompted us to commence the sampling of particulate matter (PM10-2.5 and PM2.5) in Mushin Lagos, Nigeria. Both size-segregated fractions were collected using a double staged ‘Gent' stack filter unit sampler. Elemental characterization was carried out by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Proton Induced γ-ray Emission (PIGE) techniques using an external ion beam set-up. Twenty-four elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, Cs and Pb) were detected in both fractions and their concentrations were assessed. A study of their inter-elemental correlations indicated that some elements could have common source origins or similar chemical properties while enrichment factors (EF) displayed that most elements emanated from anthropogenic sources. Source apportionment studies are thus recommended.

  11. Quantitative analysis on windblown dust concentrations of PM10 (PM2.5) during dust events in Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugder, Dulam; Shinoda, Masato; Kimura, Reiji; Batbold, Altangerel; Amarjargal, Danzansambuu

    2014-09-01

    Dust concentration, wind speed and visibility, measured at four sites in the Gobi Desert and at a site in the steppe zone of Mongolia over a period of 4.5 years (January 2009 to May 2013), have been analyzed for their relationships, their effects on visibility, and for an estimate of the threshold wind necessary for dust emission in the region. Based on quantitative analysis on measurements, we evaluated that dust emission concentrations of 41-61 (20-24) μg m-3 of PM10 (PM2.5) are as the criterion between normal and hazy atmospheric conditions. With the arrival of dust events, wind-borne soil particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) that originates in the Gobi Desert is changed dramatically. PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations increase by at least double or by several tens of times during severe dust events in comparison with the normal atmospheric condition. Ratio (PM2.5/PM10) between monthly means of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations showed that anthropogenic particles were dominant in the ambient air of province centers in cool months (November to February). Threshold values of the onset of dust events were determined for PM10 (PM2.5) concentrations. According to the definition of dust storms, dust concentrations of PM10 corresponding to visibility of 1 km or less were determined at sites in the Gobi Desert and the steppe region. The threshold wind speeds during days with dust events were estimated at four sites in the Gobi Desert and compared each other. The threshold wind was higher at Sainshand and its cause might be due to smaller silt and clay fractions of soil.

  12. Mechanical Behaviors of Fe75Mo5P10C7.5B2.5 Bulk Metallic Glass under Torsional Loadings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinjian; Huang, Lu; Chen, Xu; Liaw, Peter K; An, Ke; Zhang, Tao

    2011-01-01

    Pure- and cyclic-torsional studies were conducted on a Fe{sub 75}Mo{sub 5}P{sub 10}C{sub 7.5}B{sub 2.5} (atomic percent, at.%) bulk-metallic glass at room temperature for an understanding of its damage and fracture mechanisms. Under pure-torsional loading, the metallic glass exhibited very little plastic strain before fracture. The fracture initiated along the maximum tensile-stress plane, which is about 45{sup o} to the axial direction. The shear-fracture strength ({approx}510 MPa) is much lower than the compressive-fracture strength ({approx}3280 MPa), which suggests that different deformation mechanisms be present under various loading modes. Instead of an apparent vein-type structure, the fracture morphologies revealed a crack-initiation site, a mirror region, a mist region, and a hackle region. Under cyclic-torsional loading, fatigue cracks initiated from casting defects, and propagate generally along the maximum tensile-stress plane. A slight cyclic-hardening behavior was observed in initial loading steps. The fatigue-fracture surface consists of three main regions: the fatigue crack-initiation, crack-propagation, and final-fast-fracture areas. The striations resulting from the blunting and re-sharpening of the fatigue crack tip were observed in the crack-propagation region. Based on these results, the damage and fracture mechanisms of the metallic glass induced by torsional loadings are elucidated.

  13. Dust Monitoring on the Hanford Site: An Investigation into the Relationship Between TSP, PM-10, and PM-2.5

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, T.; Fitz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    High levels of particulate matter (PM) are linked to some health problems and environmental issues. Air quality standards have been developed in hopes to reduce particulate matter problems. The most common fractions of particulate matter measured include PM2.5, PM10, and total suspended particles (TSP). The focus of this study was to evaluate relationships between PM2.5, PM10, and TSP concentrations specific to the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. Measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations continued while additional measurements of TSP were made over several summer months. Four sampling locations on the Hanford Site were used to compare spatial differences in the data. Comparison of the data revealed a strong linear correlation between PM10 and TSP for the time period evaluated. The correlation between PM2.5 and TSP was not as strong, and indicated that local sources rarely were above background measurements. This was supported by the correlation of ground level PM2.5 with PM2.5 concentrations measured on a near by mountain.

  14. Spatial distribution of particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) in Seoul Metropolitan Subway stations.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Youn; Kim, Yoon Shin; Roh, Young Man; Lee, Cheol Min; Kim, Chi Nyon

    2008-06-15

    The aims of this study are to examine the concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in areas within the Seoul Metropolitan Subway network and to provide fundamental data in order to protect respiratory health of subway workers and passengers from air pollutants. A total of 22 subway stations located on lines 1-4 were selected based on subway official's guidance. At these stations both subway worker areas (station offices, rest areas, ticket offices and driver compartments) and passengers areas (station precincts, subway carriages and platforms) were the sites used for measuring the levels of PM. The mean concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were relatively higher on platforms, inside subway carriages and in driver compartments than in the other areas monitored. The levels of PM10 and PM2.5 for station precincts and platforms exceeded the 24-h acceptable threshold limits of 150 microg/m3 for PM10 and 35 microg/m3 for PM2.5, which are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). However, levels measured in station and ticket offices fell below the respective threshold. The mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations on platforms located underground were significantly higher than those at ground level (p<0.05).

  15. Understanding intra-neighborhood patterns in PM2.5 and PM10 using mobile monitoring in Braddock, PA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Braddock, Pennsylvania is home to the Edgar Thomson Steel Works (ETSW), one of the few remaining active steel mills in the Pittsburgh region. An economically distressed area, Braddock exceeds average annual (>15 μg/m3) and daily (>35 μg/m3) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods A mobile air monitoring study was designed and implemented in morning and afternoon hours in the summer and winter (2010–2011) to explore the within-neighborhood spatial and temporal (within-day and between-day) variability in PM2.5 and PM10. Results Both pollutants displayed spatial variation between stops, and substantial temporal variation within and across study days. For summer morning sampling runs, site-specific mean PM2.5 ranged from 30.0 (SD = 3.3) to 55.1 (SD = 13.0) μg/m3. Mean PM10 ranged from 30.4 (SD = 2.5) to 69.7 (SD = 51.2) μg/m3, respectively. During summer months, afternoon concentrations were significantly lower than morning for both PM2.5 and PM10, potentially owing to morning subsidence inversions. Winter concentrations were lower than summer, on average, and showed lesser diurnal variation. Temperature, wind speed, and wind direction predicted significant variability in PM2.5 and PM10 in multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Data reveals significant morning versus afternoon variability and spatial variability in both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations within Braddock. Information obtained on peak concentration periods, and the combined effects of industry, traffic, and elevation in this region informed the design of a larger stationary monitoring network. PMID:23051204

  16. Intergranular pinning potential and critical current in the magnetic superconductor Ru Sr2 Gd1.5 Ce0.5 Cu2 O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Virgens, M. G.; García, S.; Continentino, M. A.; Ghivelder, L.

    2005-02-01

    The intergranular pinning potential U and the critical current density JC for polycrystalline RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10 ruthenate-cuprate were determined at zero magnetic field and temperature through the frequency shift in the peak of the imaginary part of the ac magnetic susceptibility, χ″ . A critical state model, including a flux creep term, was found to accurately describe the χ″ behavior. The obtained values, U(H=0,T=0)≅30meV and JC(H=0,T=0)≅110A/cm2 are about two orders of magnitude and four times lower, respectively, in comparison with the high- TC cuprate YBa2Cu3O7 . These results were ascribed to the effects of the Ru magnetization on the connectivity of the weak-linked network, giving an intrinsic local field at the junctions of ˜15Oe . The impact on JC is less intense because of the small average grain radius (˜1μm) . The intragranular London penetration length at T=0[λL(0)≅2μm] was derived using a Kim-type expression for the field dependence of JC . A possible source for the large value of λL in comparison to the high- Tc cuprates is suggested to come from a strong intragrain granularity, due to structural domains of coherent-rotated RuO6 octahedra separated by antiphase boundaries.

  17. Organic and elemental carbon associated to PM10 and PM 2.5 at urban sites of northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Samara, Constantini; Voutsa, Dimitra; Kouras, Athanasios; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Maggos, Thomas; Saraga, D; Petrakakis, M

    2014-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations, associated to PM10 and PM2.5 particle fractions, were concurrently determined during the warm and the cold months of the year (July-September 2011 and February-April 2012, respectively) at two urban sites in the city of Thessaloniki, northern Greece, an urban-traffic site (UT) and an urban-background site (UB). Concentrations at the UT site (11.3 ± 5.0 and 8.44 ± 4.08 14 μg m(-3) for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 6.56 ± 2.14 and 5.29 ± 1.54 μg m(-3) for EC10 and EC2.5) were among the highest values reported for urban sites in European cities. Significantly lower concentrations were found at the UB site for both carbonaceous species, particularly for EC (6.62 ± 4.59 and 5.72 ± 4.36 μg m(-3) for OC10 and OC2.5 vs. 0.93 ± 0.61 and 0.69 ± 0.39 μg m(-3) for EC10 and EC2.5). Despite that, a negative UT-UB increment was frequently evidenced for OC2.5 and PM2.5 in the cold months possibly indicative of emissions from residential wood burning at the urban-background site. At both sites, cconcentrations of OC fractions were significantly higher in the cold months; on the contrary, EC fractions at the UT site were prominent in the warm season suggesting some influence from maritime emissions in the nearby harbor area. Secondary organic carbon, being estimated using the EC tracer method and seasonally minimum OC/EC ratios, was found to be an appreciable component of particle mass particularly in the cold season. The calculated secondary contributions to OC ranged between 35 and 59 % in the PM10 fraction, with relatively higher values in the PM2.5 fraction (39-61 %). The source origin of carbonaceous species was investigated by means of air parcel back trajectories, satellite fire maps, and concentration roses. A local origin was mainly concluded for OC and EC with limited possibility for long range transport of biomass (agricultural waste) burning aerosol.

  18. Investigation into the Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Concentrations on GPS Signals

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Lawrence; He, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths. Air pollution is a serious problem globally, especially in developing countries that causes health problems to humans and damage to the ecosystem. Respirable suspended particles are coarse particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less, also known as PM10. Moreover, fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less are known as PM2.5. GPS signals travel through the atmosphere before arriving at receivers on the Earth’s surface, and the research question posed in this paper is: are GPS signals affected by the increased concentration of the PM2.5/PM10 particles? There is no standard model of the effect of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals in GPS data processing, although an approximate generic model of non-gaseous atmospheric constituents (<1 mm) can be found in the literature. This paper investigates the effect of the concentration of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals and validates the aforementioned approximate model with a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based empirical method. Both the approximate model and the empirical results show that the atmospheric PM2.5/PM10 particles and their concentrations have a negligible effect on GPS signals and the effect is comparable with the noise level of GPS measurements. PMID:28273798

  19. Investigation into the Effect of Atmospheric Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) Concentrations on GPS Signals.

    PubMed

    Lau, Lawrence; He, Jun

    2017-03-03

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) has been widely used in navigation, surveying, geophysical and geodynamic studies, machine guidance, etc. High-precision GPS applications such as geodetic surveying need millimeter and centimeter level accuracy. Since GPS signals are affected by atmospheric effects, methods of correcting or eliminating ionospheric and tropospheric bias are needed in GPS data processing. Relative positioning can be used to mitigate the atmospheric effect, but its efficiency depends on the baseline lengths. Air pollution is a serious problem globally, especially in developing countries that causes health problems to humans and damage to the ecosystem. Respirable suspended particles are coarse particles with a diameter of 10 micrometers or less, also known as PM10. Moreover, fine particles with a diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less are known as PM2.5. GPS signals travel through the atmosphere before arriving at receivers on the Earth's surface, and the research question posed in this paper is: are GPS signals affected by the increased concentration of the PM2.5/PM10 particles? There is no standard model of the effect of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals in GPS data processing, although an approximate generic model of non-gaseous atmospheric constituents (<1 mm) can be found in the literature. This paper investigates the effect of the concentration of PM2.5/PM10 particles on GPS signals and validates the aforementioned approximate model with a carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR)-based empirical method. Both the approximate model and the empirical results show that the atmospheric PM2.5/PM10 particles and their concentrations have a negligible effect on GPS signals and the effect is comparable with the noise level of GPS measurements.

  20. Fabrication of nano ZrO2 dispersed novel W79Ni10Ti5Nb5 alloy by mechanical alloying and pressureless sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, R. R.; Patra, A.; Karak, S. K.

    2017-02-01

    A high energy planetary ball-mill was employed to synthesize tungsten (W) based alloy with nominal composition of W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 (in wt. %) for 20 h with chrome steel as grinding media, toluene as process control agent (PCA) along with compaction at 500 MPa pressure for 5 mins and sintering at 1500°C for 2 h using Ar atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), elemental mapping and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to study the phase formation, microstructure of both milled powder and consolidated alloy. The crystallite size of W in W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 powder was 37 nm, 14.7 nm at 10 h and 20 h of milling respectively and lattice strain enhances to 0.54% at 20 h of milling. The crystallite size reduction is more at 10 h of milling and the rate drop beyond 10 to 20 h of milling. The intense improvement in dislocation density was evident upto 10 h of milling and the rate decreases between 10 to 20 h of milling. Increase in the lattice parameter of tungsten in W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 alloy upto 0.09% was observed at 10 h of milling owing to severe stress assisted deformation followed by contraction upto 0.07% at 20 h of milling due to formation of solid solution. The large spherical particles at 0 h of milling transformed to elongated shape at 10 h of milling and finer morphology at 20 h of milling. The average particle size reduced from 100 µm to 4.5 µm with the progress of milling from 0 to 20 h. Formation of fine polycrystallites of W was revealed by bright field TEM analysis and the observed crystallite size from TEM study was well supported by the evaluated crystallite size from XRD. XRD pattern and SEM micrograph of sintered alloy revealed the formation of NbNi, Ni3Ti intermetallic phases. Densification of 91.5% was attained in the 20 h milled and sintered alloy. Mechanical behaviour of the sintered product was evaluated by hardness and wear study. W79Ni10Ti5Nb5(ZrO2)1 alloy

  1. Chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 and PM2.5 in different functional areas of Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xionghui; Duan, Lei; Gao, Jian; Wang, Shulan; Chai, Fahe; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Jingqiao; Yun, Yaru

    2016-02-01

    To elucidate the air pollution characteristics of northern China, airborne PM10 (atmospheric dynamic equivalent diameter ≤ 10 μm) and PM2.5 (atmospheric dynamic equivalent diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were sampled in three different functional areas (Yuzhong County, Xigu District and Chengguan District) of Lanzhou, and their chemical composition (elements, ions, carbonaceous species) was analyzed. The results demonstrated that the highest seasonal mean concentrations of PM10 (369.48 μg/m(3)) and PM2.5 (295.42 μg/m(3)) were detected in Xigu District in the winter, the lowest concentration of PM2.5 (53.15 μg/m(3)) was observed in Yuzhong District in the fall and PM10 (89.60 μg/m(3)) in Xigu District in the fall. The overall average OC/EC (organic carbon/elemental carbon) value was close to the representative OC/EC ratio for coal consumption, implying that the pollution of Lanzhou could be attributed to the burning of coal. The content of SNA (the sum of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, SNA) in PM2.5 in Yuzhong County was generally lower than that at other sites in all seasons. The content of SNA in PM2.5 and PM10 in Yuzhong County was generally lower than that at other sites in all seasons (0.24-0.38), indicating that the conversion ratios from precursors to secondary aerosols in the low concentration area was slower than in the area with high and intense pollutants. Six primary particulate matter sources were chosen based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, and emissions from dust, secondary aerosols, and coal burning were identified to be the primary sources responsible for the particle pollution in Lanzhou.

  2. Trends in arsenic levels in PM10 and PM 2.5 aerosol fractions in an industrialized area.

    PubMed

    García-Aleix, J R; Delgado-Saborit, J M; Verdú-Martín, G; Amigó-Descarrega, J M; Esteve-Cano, V

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that affects human health and is widely distributed in the environment. In the area of study, the main Spanish and second largest European industrial ceramic cluster, the main source of arsenic aerosol is related to the impurities in some boracic minerals used in the ceramic process. Epidemiological studies on cancer occurrence in Spain points out the study region as one with the greater risk of cancer. Concentrations of particulate matter and arsenic content in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured and characterized by ICP-MS in the area of study during the years 2005-2010. Concentrations of PM10 and its arsenic content range from 27 to 46 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 6 ng/m(3) in the industrial area, respectively, and from 25 to 40 μg/m(3) and from 0.7 to 2.8 ng/m(3) in the urban area, respectively. Concentrations of PM2.5 and its arsenic content range from 12 to 14 μg/m(3) and from 0.5 to 1.4 ng/m(3) in the urban background area, respectively. Most of the arsenic content is present in the fine fraction, with ratios of PM2.5/PM10 in the range of 0.65-0.87. PM10, PM2.5, and its arsenic content show a sharp decrease in recent years associated with the economic downturn, which severely hit the production of ceramic materials in the area under study. The sharp production decrease due to the economic crisis combined with several technological improvements in recent years such as substitution of boron, which contains As impurities as raw material, have reduced the concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, and As in air to an extent that currently meets the existing European regulations.

  3. Source contributions to PM2.5 and PM10 at an urban background and a street location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keuken, M. P.; Moerman, M.; Voogt, M.; Blom, M.; Weijers, E. P.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2013-06-01

    The contribution of regional, urban and traffic sources to PM2.5 and PM10 in an urban area was investigated in this study. The chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 was measured over a year at a street location and up- and down-wind of the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The 14C content in EC and OC concentrations was also determined, to distinguish the contribution from "modern" carbon (e.g., biogenic emissions, biomass burning and wildfires) and fossil fuel combustion. It was concluded that the urban background of PM2.5 and PM10 is dominated by the regional background, and that primary and secondary PM emission by urban sources contribute less than 15%. The 14C analysis revealed that 70% of OC originates from modern carbon and 30% from fossil fuel combustion. The corresponding percentages for EC are, respectively 17% and 83%. It is concluded that in particular the urban population living in street canyons with intense road traffic has potential health risks. This is due to exposure to elevated concentrations of a factor two for EC from exhaust emissions in PM2.5 and a factor 2-3 for heavy metals from brake and tyre wear, and re-suspended road dust in PM10. It follows that local air quality management may focus on local measures to street canyons with intense road traffic.

  4. In vitro antibacterial activity of meclofenamate metal complexes with Cd(II), Pb(II), Co(II), and Cu(II). Crystal structures of [Cd(C14H10NO2Cl2)2∙(CH3OH)]n and [Cu(C14H10NO2Cl2)2(C5H5N)2].

    PubMed

    Palacios-Hernández, T; Höpfl, H; Sánchez-Salas, J L; González-Vergara, E; Pérez-Benítez, A; Quiroz-Alfaro, M A; Méndez-Rojas, M A

    2014-10-01

    The synthesis and characterization of five metal complexes derived from sodium meclofenamate (1) are reported: [Cd(C14H10NO2Cl2)2∙(CH3OH)]n∙nCH3OH (6), [Pb(C14H10NO2Cl2)2]n (7), [Co(C14H10NO2Cl2)]n (8), [Cu(C14H10NO2Cl2)]n (9), and [Cu(C14H10NO2Cl2)2(C5H5N)2] (10) (C14H10NO2Cl2=meclofenamate; C5H5N=pyridine). The characterization of the compounds was based on FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and, in the case of complexes 6 and 10, single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. For compound 6, the structural analysis revealed a 1-D polymeric chain structure, in which pentagonal planar [Cd(RCOO)2(CH3OH)] units were linked through bridging carboxylate functions of the meclofenamate ligands. The overall coordination environment of the Cd(II) ions was seven-coordinate, since each carboxylate group exhibited a μ3-bridging coordination mode. On the other hand, for complex 10 a discrete mononuclear structure was observed, in which the six-coordinate copper(II) metal atoms were coordinated by two pyridine molecules and the carboxylate functions of two meclofenamate entities, in an anisobidentate coordination mode. The antibacterial activity of compounds 6-9 against four strains of Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) and Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria was examined, finding that only complex 6 was active. Additionally, it was found that the Co(II) and Cu(II) complexes 8 and 9 showed peroxidase activity.

  5. Influence of tobacco smoke on carcinogenic PAH composition in indoor PM 10 and PM 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slezakova, K.; Castro, D.; Pereira, M. C.; Morais, S.; Delerue-Matos, C.; Alvim-Ferraz, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Because of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic properties, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH), have a direct impact on human population. Consequently, there is a widespread interest in analysing and evaluating the exposure to PAH in different indoor environments, influenced by different emission sources. The information on indoor PAH is still limited, mainly in terms of PAH distribution in indoor particles of different sizes; thus, this study evaluated the influence of tobacco smoke on PM 10 and PM 2.5 characteristics, namely on their PAH compositions, with further aim to understand the negative impact of tobacco smoke on human health. Samples were collected at one site influenced by tobacco smoke and at one reference (non-smoking) site using low-volume samplers; the analyses of 17 PAH were performed by Microwave Assisted Extraction combined with Liquid Chromatography (MAE-LC). At the site influenced by tobacco smoke PM concentrations were higher 650% for PM 10, and 720% for PM 2.5. When influenced by smoking, 4 ring PAH (fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene) were the most abundant PAH, with concentrations 4600-21 000% and 5100-20 800% higher than at the reference site for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, accounting for 49% of total PAH (Σ PAH). Higher molecular weight PAH (5-6 rings) reached concentrations 300-1300% and 140-1700% higher for PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, at the site influenced by tobacco smoke. Considering 9 carcinogenic PAH this increase was 780% and 760% in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, indicating the strong potential risk for human health. As different composition profiles of PAH in indoor PM were obtained for reference and smoking sites, those 9 carcinogens represented at the reference site 84% and 86% of Σ PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively, and at the smoking site 56% and 55% of Σ PAH in PM 10 and PM 2.5, respectively. All PAH (including the carcinogenic ones) were mainly present in fine particles, which corresponds to a strong risk

  6. Crystal structure of ethyl 2-[9-(5-bromo-2-hy-droxy-phen-yl)-1,8-dioxo-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-deca-hydro-acridin-10-yl]acetate.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Shaaban K; Akkurt, Mehmet; Jasinski, Jerry P; Abdelhamid, Antar A; Tamam, Asmaa H; Albayati, Mustafa R

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C23H24BrNO5, the central 1,4-di-hydro-pyridine ring of the 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10-deca-hydro-acridine ring system adopts a half-chair conformation. The two cyclo-hexene rings fused to the central ring both have a twisted-boat conformation. The mean planes of the bromo-hydroxy-phenyl ring and the major and minor components of the disordered ethyl amino-acetate moiety make dihedral angles of 78.99 (12), 85.9 (2) and 88.3 (9)°, respectively, with the 1,4-di-hydro-pyridine ring. The terminal ethyl group of the ethyl amino-acetate moiety is disordered over two sets of sites with refined occupancies of 0.768 (17) and 0.232 (17). The mol-ecular conformation is stabilized by an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond, forming an S(8) ring motif. In the crystal, C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the mol-ecules into layers parallel to (001), enclosing R 1 (2)(7) ring motifs.

  7. Proceedings of the National Technological Literacy Conference (10th, Arlington, Virginia, March 2-5, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Dennis W., Ed.; Cheek, Kim A., Ed.

    This collection of 20 papers represents the work of 24 authors with a variety of perspectives on the growth of the science, technology and society movement in the United States in the past 10 years. These essays are seen as a representative sample of the work of the movement. Divided into four sections, Section 1, "General Science, Technology and…

  8. CHANGES IN OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION UNIFORMITY FOR PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLER TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note documents changes in the standard operating procedures used at the Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) aerosol testing wind tunnel facility for testing of particulate matter monitoring methods of PM2.5 and PM10. These changes are relative to the op...

  9. TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 emissions from a beef cattle feedlot using the flux-gradient technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions data on air pollutants from large open-lot beef cattle feedlots are limited. This research was conducted to determine emissions of total suspended particulates (TSP) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from a commercial beef cattle feedlot in Kansas (USA). Vertical particulate concentr...

  10. Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) in PM2.5 and PM10 at a subtropical site of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Puja; Baruah, B. P.; Rao, P. G.

    2011-11-01

    PM2.5 and PM10 samples collected at a suburban site of northeastern part of India have been analysed for particle mass, total carbon (TC), water-soluble total carbon (WSTC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), water-soluble inorganic carbon (WSIC), organic acids (formic, acetic, proponoic and oxalic acids) along with inorganic ions (NO3-, SO42- and NH4-). Most of the PM10 consists of PM2.5 in the present site (ratio 54-74%). WSTC content in PM2.5 and PM10 corresponds to 21% and 16%, respectively, of their total particle masses. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed the presence of humic-like substances (16-22%) in particulate samples. Domestic heating and stagnant atmospheric conditions enhanced the levels of these carbonaceous compounds in PM2.5 and PM10 in winter. Qualitative estimation of various functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis indicates the presence of carboxylic, hydroxyl, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, amines and sulphurous compounds in these aerosols. Absolute principal component analysis applied on the aerosol data resolves four factors. These factors are associated with carbonaceous aerosols released from combustion of coal and wood, secondary inorganic and organic aerosols and water-soluble inorganic fraction.

  11. CTEPP STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR PRE-CLEANING FILTERS AND XAD-2 (SOP-5.10)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This SOP summarizes the method for pre-cleaning XAD-2 resin and quartz fiber filters. The procedure provides a cleaning method to help reduce potential background contamination in the resin and filters.

  12. Bis(6-nitro-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium) 2,5-di-carb-oxy-terephthalate.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Kai-Long; Ni, Chao

    2014-03-01

    In the structure of the title 2:1 proton-transfer compound, 2C12H8N3O2 (+)·C10H4O8 (2-), the 6-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline mol-ecules act as proton sponges, accepting protons from pyromellitic acid. The -NO2 group of one of the 6-nitro-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium cations is disordered and was refined with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.624 (15):0.376 (15). Two -COOH(-COO(-)) groups of the 2,5-di-carb-oxy-terephthalate dianion are disordered and were refined with site-occupancy ratios of 0.769 (4):0.231 (4) and 0.766 (5):0.234 (5). The -NO2 group of the second cation is also disordered about a pseudo-twofold rotation axis and was refined with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.903 (3):0.097 (3). There is an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond in the anion. The phenanthroline rings of the two cations are inclined to one another by 31.3 (1)°. In the anions, considering the major components only, the carb-oxy-lic acid groups (-COOH) are inclined to the benzene ring by 17.3 (2) and 22.3 (3)°. The carboxyl-ate groups (-COO(-)) are twisted by 9.3 (2) and 13.6 (6)° with respect to the benzene ring. In the crystal, adjacent 2,5-di-carb-oxy-terephthalate anions are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. The cations are attached to the chain of anions by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds.

  13. The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric PM2.5, PM10 and PAH in Venice.

    PubMed

    Contini, D; Gambaro, A; Belosi, F; De Pieri, S; Cairns, W R L; Donateo, A; Zanotto, E; Citron, M

    2011-09-01

    The direct influence of ship traffic on atmospheric levels of coarse and fine particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10)) and fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been estimated in the urban area of Venice. Data analysis has been performed on results collected at three sites over the summer, when ship traffic is at a maximum. Results indicate that monitoring of the PM daily concentrations is not sufficiently detailed for the evaluation of this contribution, even though it could be useful for specific markers such as PAHs. Therefore a new methodology, based on high temporal resolution measurements coupled with wind direction information and the database of ship passages of the Harbour Authority of Venice has been developed. The sampling sites were monitored with optical detectors (DustTrack(®) and Mie pDR-1200) operating at a high temporal resolution (20s and 1s respectively) for PM(2.5) and PM(10). PAH in the particulate and gas phases were recovered from quartz fibre filters and polyurethane foam plugs using pressurised solvent extraction, the extracts were then analysed by gas chromatography- high-resolution mass spectrometry. Our results shows that the direct contribution of ships traffic to PAHs in the gas phase is 10% while the contribution to PM(2.5) and to PM(10) is from 1% up to 8%.

  14. Group 2 metal salts of pyromellitic acid: [Mg(H2O)6](C10H4O8) and [Ba(C10H4O8)(H2O)5].

    PubMed

    Dale, Sophie H; Elsegood, Mark R J; Kainth, Sarita

    2003-12-01

    Structural determinations of the magnesium(II) and barium(II) salts of pyromellitic acid (benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid) are presented. Hexaaquamagnesium(II) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylate(2-), [Mg(H(2)O)(6)](C(10)H(4)O(8)), (I), and pentaaqua[benzene-1,2,4,5-tetracarboxylato(2-)]barium(II), [Ba(C(10)H(4)O(8))(H(2)O)(5)], (II), are both centrosymmetric and both possess a 1:1 metal-ligand ratio, but the two structures are found to differ in that the magnesium salt contains a hexaaqua cation and possesses only hydrogen-bonding interactions between cations and anions, while the barium salt exhibits coordination of the carboxylate ligand to the nine-coordinate metal centre. In (I), both ions sit on a 2/m site symmetry, and in (II), the cation and anion are located on m and i site symmetries, respectively.

  15. Cyclone robber system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  16. First stage mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions using stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent n...

  17. Master trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  18. Mote cleaner system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  19. Overflow system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This c...

  20. Mote trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rate for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  1. Combined mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  2. Mote cyclone robber system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  3. Combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  4. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  5. GIS Assessment of the PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 Concentrations in Urban Area of Tehran in Warm and Cold Seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halek, F.; Kavousi-rahim, A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, atmospheric models, such as GIS, are used for environmental analysis and the related management for supporting the environmental decision makers in different countries. In this study, concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 are found in urban areas of Tehran in warm and cold seasons and the data applied in the related modelling, using Arc-GIS. For this purpose, samples were collected from 42 sites in an 18 km2 region located in the west and central parts of Tehran. The mean concentrations of PM1.0, PM2.5 and PM10 are found to be 13.14 μg/m3, 22.67 μg/m3 and 95.72 μg/m3 in the warm season; and 50.12 μg/m3, 70.72 μg/m3 and 193.86 μg/m3 in the cold season respectively. In this paper, with the aid of GIS, concentrations of the suspended particles were measured in 22 major hospitals, the patients in which are in contact with these pollutants. It was found the concentrations of the suspended particles were much higher in the cold season.

  6. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY09-FY10 Implementation Plan, Volume 2, Revision 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Hopson, J; Peery, J; McCoy, M

    2008-10-07

    that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC must continue to meet three objectives: Objective 1. Robust Tools--Develop robust models, codes, and computational techniques to support stockpile needs such as refurbishments, SFIs, LEPs, annual assessments, and evolving future requirements. Objective 2. Prediction through Simulation--Deliver validated physics and engineering tools to enable simulations of nuclear weapons performance in a variety of operational environments and physical regimes and to enable risk-informed decisions about the performance, safety, and reliability of the stockpile. Objective 3. Balanced Operational Infrastructure--Implement a balanced computing platform acquisition strategy and operational infrastructure to meet Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and SSP needs for capacity and high-end simulation capabilities.

  7. Advanced Simulation and Computing FY10-FY11 Implementation Plan Volume 2, Rev. 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, R; Peery, J; McCoy, M; Hopson, J

    2009-09-08

    from one that was very successful in delivering an initial capability to one that is integrated and focused on requirements-driven products that address long-standing technical questions related to enhanced predictive capability in the simulation tools. ASC must continue to meet three objectives: (1) Robust Tools - Develop robust models, codes, and computational techniques to support stockpile needs such as refurbishments, SFIs, LEPs, annual assessments, and evolving future requirements; (2) Prediction through Simulation - Deliver validated physics and engineering tools to enable simulations of nuclear weapons performance in a variety of operational environments and physical regimes and to enable risk-informed decisions about the performance, safety, and reliability of the stockpile; and (3) Balanced Operational Infrastructure - Implement a balanced computing platform acquisition strategy and operational infrastructure to meet Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and SSP needs for capacity and high-end simulation capabilities.

  8. 76 FR 52215 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-10E2A1; CF34-10E5; CF34-10E5A1; CF34-10E6...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... Electric Company CF34-10E turbofan engine experiencing high fan frame vibrations led to removal of the fan...-07-AD; Amendment 39-16784; AD 2011-18-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provides for the measurement of the mass concentration of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in ambient..., collocated measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, where the PM10 measurements are obtained with a specially approved... conventional PM10 samplers described in appendix J of this part. Measurements obtained with a PM10c sampler...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provides for the measurement of the mass concentration of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in ambient..., collocated measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, where the PM10 measurements are obtained with a specially approved... conventional PM10 samplers described in appendix J of this part. Measurements obtained with a PM10c sampler...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix O to Part 50 - Reference Method for the Determination of Coarse Particulate Matter as PM10-2.5 in the Atmosphere

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... provides for the measurement of the mass concentration of coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) in ambient..., collocated measurements of PM10 and PM2.5, where the PM10 measurements are obtained with a specially approved... conventional PM10 samplers described in appendix J of this part. Measurements obtained with a PM10c sampler...

  12. Granular superconductivity in polycrystalline ruthenocuprate RuSr2(Gd1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10-δ: magnetoresistive and magnetization studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belevtsev, B. I.; Beliayev, E. Yu; Naugle, D. G.; Rathnayaka, K. D. D.; Anatska, M. P.; Felner, I.

    2007-01-01

    Granular superconductivity effects in polycrystalline samples of RuSr2(Gd1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10-δ, as prepared (by a solid-state reaction method) and annealed (12 h at 845 °C) in pure oxygen at 30 atm, are presented. The resistive transition to the superconducting state of the as-prepared sample is found to be considerably affected by granularity. In particular, an evident kink in the temperature dependence of the resistance R(T) is seen at the temperature, Tc0ap34 K, at which grains become superconducting. The resistive transition depends strongly on the applied current. The family of R(T) curves taken for different transport currents is branched with a branching point at TcJap23.2 K. Below this temperature the intergrain Josephson coupling starts to develop. For low current, R decreases with decreasing temperature below TcJ as expected for the transition to the superconducting state, whereas R(T) curves for higher current form a minimum at Tap17.3 K, showing a quasi-re-entrant behaviour. The influence of the granular structure of the as-prepared sample shows itself also in the temperature behaviour of the magnetization, M(T), in low field. Application of low magnetic field (below 400 Oe) leads to a broadening of the resistive transitions below TcJ, similar to that caused by increasing the current. Both the current and magnetic field depress the Josephson coupling between the grains, producing a dramatically large effect on the resistive transition. The R(T) and M(T) dependences of the annealed sample show a fairly sharp superconducting transition far less affected by granularity. The results obtained imply that oxygen annealing improves the intergranular connection considerably, but it does not exert much influence on the intragrain superconductivity. No indication of intragrain granularity has been found in the samples studied. The influence of ageing (due to deoxidation) of samples for different conditions of storage is considered briefly as well.

  13. INCREASED AIRWAYS INFLAMMATION AND MODIFIED BAL CELL SURFACE PHENOTYPES IN ASTHMATICS EXPOSED TO COARSE SIZE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATED AMBIENT PARTICLES (CAPS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although associations between inhalation of PM10 and disease morbidity and mortality appear stronger for fine (PM2.5) vs coarse (PM2.5-10) or ultrafine/UF (PM<0.1) PM. In vitro studies suggest that PM2.5-10 are more potent in inducing pro-inflammatory cytokine responses from alve...

  14. Synthesis and photoluminescence control of Ca10.5-1.5xLax(PO4)7:Eu2+ phosphors by aliovalent cation substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yanting; Tang, Miao; Qiu, Zhongxian; Zhang, Jilin; Yu, Liping; Li, Chengzhi; Lian, Shixun; Zhou, Wenli

    2017-02-01

    A range of Ca10.5-1.5xLax(PO4)7:Eu2+phosphors were synthesized by high temperature solid state method. Subsequently we studied the crystal structures and luminescent properties through X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation, diffuse reflection spectra, Raman spectra and decay curves systematically. Based on the special crystal structure ofβ-Ca3(PO4)2:Eu2+, its emission undergoes a variation from violet-blue to cyan through introducing La3+. The substitution of La3+ for Ca2+ could form some cation vacancies in Ca(4) sites according to the scheme 3Ca2+= 2La3++ □ due to the different ion valence, which compels Eu2+ to migrate from Ca(4) site to other sites. Additionally, the formation of the cation vacancies can further reduce the thermal stability of phosphors.

  15. Equine herpesvirus type-1 modulates CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9, and CXCL10 chemokine expression.

    PubMed

    Wimer, Christine L; Damiani, Armando; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Wagner, Bettina

    2011-04-15

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is highly prevalent in horses and causes rhinopneumonitis, abortion, and encephalopathy. Studies on the related human herpes simplex virus and of murine models of EHV-1 suggest that chemokines play important roles in coordinating of innate and adaptive immune responses, and thus effective control of herpesvirus infection and prevention of severe clinical disease. Here, equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were infected with one of three EHV-1 strains, which differ in pathogenicity (RacL11, NY03=abortogenic, Ab4=neurogenic). Changes in CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10 chemokine gene expression relative to non-infected PBMC were measured by real-time PCR. CXCL9 and CXCL10 gene expression was up-regulated 10h post infection and decreased to the level of non-infected cells after 24h. CCL2 and CCL3 were significantly down-regulated 24h post infection with NY03 and Ab4. CCL5 was up-regulated 24h after infection with RacL11. Ab4 infected PBMC had significantly lower expression of all chemokines except CCL2 24h post infection then RacL11 infected cells. While there was not a significant difference between NY03 and the other strains, there was a trend with each chemokine toward NY03 inducing less expression then RacL11 but more then Ab4. The data suggested that EHV-1 infection of PBMC induced up-regulation of inflammatory chemokines CCL5, CXCL9 and CXCL10, and down-regulation of chemotactic CCL2 and CCL3. The data also implies that different EHV-1 strains have varying effects on all five chemokines, with the nuropathogenic strain, Ab4, having the greatest suppressive potential.

  16. A novel scandium fluoride, [C2N2H10]0.5[ScF4], with an unprecedented tungsten bronze-related layer structure.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicholas F; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Lightfoot, Philip

    2004-03-07

    [C(2)N(2)H(10)](0.5)[ScF(4)] exhibits isolated anionic layers of corner-linked ScF(6) octahedra enclosing 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-membered rings, with features reminiscent of both hexagonal and tetragonal tungsten bronze-type structures.

  17. Characterization of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta Alloy for Biomedical Applications. Part 2: Wettability, Tribological Performance and Biocompatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braic, V.; Balaceanu, M.; Braic, M.; Vitelaru, C.; Titorencu, I.; Pruna, V.; Parau, A. C.; Fanara, C.; Vladescu, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy, prepared in a levitation melting furnace, was investigated as a possible candidate for replacing Ti6Al4V alloy in medical applications. The sessile drop method, pin-on-disc and in vitro tests were used to analyze wettability, wear resistance, and biocompatibility of the new alloy. The characteristics of the Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy were assessed in comparison to those of the Ti6Al4V alloy. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta system was found to have hydrophilic characteristics with similar contact angle as the Ti6Al4V alloy. In all environments (deionized water, simulated body fluid and Fusayama Meyer artificial saliva), the friction coefficient showed a stable evolution versus sliding distance, being similar for both alloys. On overall, the wear resistance of Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy was lower than that of Ti6Al4V for all testing environments. The Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta alloy exhibited good biocompatibility characteristics at in vitro test compared to Ti6Al4V alloy. The cell viability on Ti-10Nb-10Zr-5Ta surfaces was higher than the one observed on Ti6Al4V samples, regardless the number of days spent in osteoblast-like cells culture. A high degree of cell attachment and spreading was observed on both alloys.

  18. Bis(6-nitro-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium) 2,5-di­carb­oxy­terephthalate

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Kai-Long; Ni, Chao

    2014-01-01

    In the structure of the title 2:1 proton-transfer compound, 2C12H8N3O2 +·C10H4O8 2−, the 6-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline mol­ecules act as proton sponges, accepting protons from pyromellitic acid. The –NO2 group of one of the 6-nitro-1,10-phenanthrolin-1-ium cations is disordered and was refined with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.624 (15):0.376 (15). Two –COOH(–COO−) groups of the 2,5-di­carb­oxy­terephthalate dianion are disordered and were refined with site-occupancy ratios of 0.769 (4):0.231 (4) and 0.766 (5):0.234 (5). The –NO2 group of the second cation is also disordered about a pseudo-twofold rotation axis and was refined with a site-occupancy ratio of 0.903 (3):0.097 (3). There is an intra­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bond in the anion. The phenanthroline rings of the two cations are inclined to one another by 31.3 (1)°. In the anions, considering the major components only, the carb­oxy­lic acid groups (–COOH) are inclined to the benzene ring by 17.3 (2) and 22.3 (3)°. The carboxyl­ate groups (–COO−) are twisted by 9.3 (2) and 13.6 (6)° with respect to the benzene ring. In the crystal, adjacent 2,5-di­carb­oxy­terephthalate anions are linked via O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. The cations are attached to the chain of anions by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. PMID:24764973

  19. Structural and magnetic characterization of BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} oxides (x=0.5, 1.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Retuerto, M.; Martinez-Lope, M.J.; Krezhov, K.; Fernandez-Diaz, M.T.; Alonso, J.A.

    2011-09-15

    The title compounds have been synthesized by a citrate technique followed by thermal treatments in air (BiFe{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 1.5}O{sub 5}) or under high oxygen pressure conditions (BiFeMnO{sub 5}), and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and magnetization measurements. The crystal structures have been refined from NPD data in the space group Pbam at 295 K. These phases are isostructural with RMn{sub 2}O{sub 5} oxides (R=rare earths) and contain infinite chains of Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra sharing edges, linked together by (Fe,Mn){sup 3+}O{sub 5} pyramids and BiO{sub 8} units. These units are strongly distorted with respect to those observed in other RFeMnO{sub 5} compounds, due to the presence of the electronic lone pair on Bi{sup 3+}. It is noteworthy the certain level of antisite disorder exhibited in both samples, where the octahedral positions are partially occupied by Fe cations, and vice versa. BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (x=0.5, 1.0) are short-range magnetically ordered below 20 K for x=0.5 and at 40 K for x=1.0. The main magnetic interactions seem to be antiferromagnetic (AFM); however, the presence of a small hysteresis in the magnetization cycles indicates the presence of some weak ferromagnetic (FM) interactions. - Graphical Abstract: BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (x=0.5, 1.0) samples are isostructural with BiMn{sub 2}O{sub 5}, belonging to the Pbam space group. The crystal structure contains infinite chains of edge-sharing Mn{sup 4+}O{sub 6} octahedra, interconnected by dimer units of Fe{sup 3+}O{sub 5} square pyramids. These units are strongly distorted due to the presence of the electronic lone pair on Bi{sup 3+}. They are magnetically ordered at low temperatures. The main magnetic interactions seem to be antiferromagnetic with the presence of some weak ferromagnetic response. Highlights: > Two new compounds of formula BiFe{sub x}Mn{sub 2-x}O{sub 5} (x=0.5, 1.0) have been obtained. > Their crystallographic

  20. Chemical and morphological properties of particulate matter (PM 10, PM 2.5) in school classrooms and outdoor air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fromme, H.; Diemer, J.; Dietrich, S.; Cyrys, J.; Heinrich, J.; Lang, W.; Kiranoglu, M.; Twardella, D.

    Studies have shown high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in schools. Further insights into the sources and the composition of these particles are needed. During school hours for a period of 6 weeks, outdoor air and the air in two classrooms were sampled. PM was measured gravimetrically, and PM filters were used for the determination of the elemental and organic carbon, light absorbance, and 10 water-soluble ions. Some filters were further analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive microanalysis (EDX). The median PM 10 concentrations were 118.2 μg m -3 indoors and 24.2 μg m -3 outdoors; corresponding results for PM 2.5 were 37.4 μg m -3 indoors and 17.0 μg m -3 outdoors. Using PM 10 and PM 2.5 data, we calculated the following indoor/outdoor ratios: 0.3 and 0.4 (sulfate), 0.1 and 0.2 (nitrate), 0.1 and 0.3 (ammonium), and 1.4 and 1.6 (calcium). Using the measured sulfate content on PM filters as an indicator for ambient PM sources, we estimated that 43% of PM 2.5 and 24% of PM 10, respectively, were of ambient origin. The composition of the classrooms' PM (e.g., high calcium concentrations) and the findings from SEM/EDX suggest that the indoor PM consists mainly of earth crustal materials, detrition of the building materials and chalk. Physical activity of the pupils leads to resuspension of mainly indoor coarse particles and greatly contributes to increased PM 10 in classrooms. The concentration of fine particles caused by combustion processes indoors and outdoors is comparable. We conclude that PM measured in classrooms has major sources other than outdoor particles. Assuming that combustion-related particles and crustal materials vary in toxicity, our results support the hypothesis that indoor-generated PM may be less toxic compared to PM in ambient air.

  1. DFT studies on a high-energy density cage compound 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12-hexaazatetracyclo[5, 5, 0, 0, 0] dodecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Yong, Yong-Liang; Zhang, Xian-Zhou

    2014-04-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra, heat of formation (HOF) and thermodynamic properties were investigated by B3LYP/6-31G** method for a new designed polynitro cage compound 1,3,5,7,9,11-hexo(N(CH3)NO2)-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazatetracyclo[5,5,0,0,0]dodecane. The detonation velocity (D) and pressure (P) were predicted by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the theoretical density and condensed HOF. The bond dissociation energies and bond orders for the weakest bonds were analysed to investigate the thermal stability of the title compound. The computational result shows that the detonation velocity and pressure of the title compound are superior to those of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), but inferior to those of 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetraazacyclooctane (HMX) and hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (HNIW). And the analysis of thermal stability shows that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N7-NO2 bond. The crystal structure obtained by molecular mechanics belongs to the P21 space group, with the lattice parameters Z = 2, a = 11.8246 Å, b = 10.4632 Å, c = 15.9713 Å, ρ = 1.98 g cm-3.

  2. Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of 5,6-Disubstituted Pyridin-2(1H)-one Derivatives as Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) Antagonists.

    PubMed

    Lingam, V S Prasadarao; Dahale, Dnyaneshwar H; Rathi, Vijay E; Shingote, Yogesh B; Thakur, Rajni R; Mindhe, Ajit S; Kummari, Srinivas; Khairatkar-Joshi, Neelima; Bajpai, Malini; Shah, Daisy M; Sapalya, Ratika S; Gullapalli, Srinivas; Gupta, Praveen K; Gudi, Girish S; Jadhav, Satyawan B; Pattem, Rambabu; Thomas, Abraham

    2015-10-22

    We report the design and synthesis of novel 5,6-diarylated pyridin-2(1H)-one derivatives as pharmacophoric PDE10A inhibitors. This highly potent molecular scaffold was developed from an inactive diarylpyridine-2-amine derivative 3b by extensive and systematic analogue synthesis and SAR analysis. Further optimization of the scaffold resulted in identification of pyridin-2(1H)-one 18b as a lead compound with good potency (IC50 = 1.6 nM) and selectivity (>6000-fold) over other related PDEs but with a poor pharmacokinetic profile. Careful metabolite profiling of 18b revealed that poor systemic exposure in rats (Cmax = 44 ng/mL; AUC0-t = 359 ng · h/mL) at 10 mg/kg was due to the formation of O-glucuronide conjugate by phase 2 metabolism. The structure of the glucuronide metabolite was confirmed by retention time and LC-MS/MS fragmentation matching with the synthetic glucuronide 26. The problem of low exposure of 18b was effectively addressed by its conversion to an acetate prodrug 25b, which upon oral dosing resulted in an improved pharmacokinetic profile (Cmax = 359 ng.h/mL; AUC0-t = 2436 ng.h/mL) and a desirable brain to plasma ratio of 1.2. The prodrug 25b showed good efficacy in selected rodent models of psychosis.

  3. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (~2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of “fluctuation” range (~1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (~2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. PMID:24035819

  4. Nqrs Data for C10H12Br4N2Zn [Br4Zn·2(C5H6N)] (Subst. No. 1253)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chihara, H.; Nakamura, N.

    This document is part of Subvolume A `Substances Containing Ag … C10H15' of Volume 48 `Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance Spectroscopy Data' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III `Condensed Matter'. It contains an extract of Section `3.2 Data tables' of the Chapter `3 Nuclear quadrupole resonance data' providing the NQRS data for C10H12Br4N2Zn [Br4Zn·2(C5H6N)] (Subst. No. 1253)

  5. Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,5-Dibromopentane C5H10Br2 + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB5019_V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

    This document is part of Subvolume B 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes II' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Volumetric Properties of the Mixture 1,5-Dibromopentane C5H10Br2 + C7H16 Heptane (VMSD1511, LB5019_V)' providing data from direct measurement of low-pressure thermodynamic speed of sound at variable mole fraction and constant temperature, in the single-phase region(s).

  6. DNA methylation in 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine-resistant variants of C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Flatau, E; Gonzales, F A; Michalowsky, L A; Jones, P A

    1984-01-01

    A cell line (T17) was derived from C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells after 17 treatments with increasing concentrations of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine. The T17 cell line was very resistant to the cytotoxic effects of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, and the 50% lethal dose for 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine was ca. 3 microM, which was 30-fold greater than that of the parental C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells. Increased drug resistance was not due to a failure of the T17 cell line to incorporate 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine into DNA. The cells were also slightly cross-resistant to 5-azacytidine. The percentage of cytosines modified to 5-methylcytosine in T17 cells was 0.7%, a 78% decrease from the level of 3.22% in C3H 10T1/2 C18 cells. The DNA cytosine methylation levels in several clones isolated from the treated lines were on the order of 0.7%, and clones with methylation levels lower than 0.45% were not obtained even after further drug treatments. These highly decreased methylation levels appeared to be unstable, and DNA modification increased as the cells divided in the absence of further drug treatment. The results suggest that it may not be possible to derive mouse cells with vanishingly low levels of 5-methylcytosine and that considerable de novo methylation can occur in cultured lines. PMID:6209556

  7. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-03-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro, PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μPM2.5 m-3). This is most probably due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. On the platforms, levels were considerably higher, reaching mean levels of 59 and 88 μgPM2.5 m-3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is more difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed clear PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m., and marked decreases between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment are those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM inside the metro system, the contribution of commuting by metro

  8. Mitsunobu alkylation of cancerostatic 5-fluorouridine with (2E)-10-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid, a fatty acid from royal jelly with multiple biological activities.

    PubMed

    Ottenhaus, Vanessa; Rosemeyer, Helmut

    2015-09-01

    5-Fluorouridine (1) - a nucleoside antimetabolite with strong cancerostatic properties - was protected i) at the 2'- and 3'-OH groups with a heptan-4-ylidene residue and ii) at the 5'-OH group with a (4-methoxyphenyl)(diphenyl)methyl residue. This fully protected compound, 3, was submitted to a Mitsunobu reaction with the N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) ester, 5, of (2E)-10-hydroxydec-2-enoic acid (4) which gave nucleolipid 6. The latter was detritylated with Cl2 CHCOOH to yield the co-drug 7 as NHS ester.

  9. Pulmonary toxicity study in rats with PM 10 and PM 2.5: Differential responses related to scale and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Lei, Tian; Lin, Zhi-Qing; Zhang, Hua-Shan; Yang, Dan-Feng; Xi, Zhu-Ge; Chen, Jian-Hua; Wang, Wei

    2011-02-01

    ObjectionTo study the pollution of atmospheric particles at winter in Beijing and compare the lung toxicity which induced by particle samples from different sampling sites. MethodWe collected samples from two sampling points during the winter for toxicity testing and chemical analysis. Wistar rats were administered with particles by intratracheal instillation. After exposure, biochemically index, esimmunity indexes, histopathology and DNA damage were detected in rat pulmonary cells. ResultThe elements with enrichment factors (EF) larger than 10 were As, Cd, Cu, Zn, S and Pb in the four experiment groups. The priority control of the total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM 10 and PM 2.5 of Near-traffic source was much higher than that of Far-traffic source, it demonstrated that near the traffic source of PAHs pollution was heavier than that of Far-traffic source, as it was close to main roads Beiyuan Road, motor vehicle emissions were much higher. The pathology of lung showed that the degree of inflammation was increased with the particle diameter minished, it was the same as the detection of biochemical parameters such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), Total antioxidant status(T-AOC) and total protein (TP) in BALF and inflammation cytokine(interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in lung homogenate. The indexes of DNA damage including the content of DNA and Olive empennage of PM 2.5 were significant higher than that of PM 10 at the same surveillance point ( P < 0.05), near-traffic particles were higher than the far-traffic particles at the same diameter, ( P < 0.05). ConclusionNear-traffic area particles had certain pollution at winter in Beijing. Meanwhile, atmospheric particulate matters on lung toxicity were related to the particles size and distance related sites which were exposed: smaller size, more toxicity; nearer from traffic, more toxicity.

  10. Quantification of Global Primary Emissions of PM2.5, PM10, and TSP from Combustion and Industrial Process Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ye; Tao, Shu

    2015-04-01

    Emission quantification of primary particulate matter (PM) is essential for assessment of its related climate and health impacts. To reduce uncertainty associated with global emissions of TSP, PM10 and PM2.5, we compiled data with high spatial (0.1° ×0.1° ) and sectorial (77 primary sources) resolutions for 2007 based on a newly released global fuel data product (PKU-FUEL-2007), and an emission factor database including emission factors measured recently in developing countries. Total emissions for TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 were estimated to be 162 (123-224), 99 (80-130), and 78 (64-101) Tg, respectively. Our estimates for developing countries are higher than those previously reported. Spatial bias associated with large countries could be reduced by using sub-national fuel consumption data. Despite the fact that most industrial and transport sources locate in urban areas, residential fuel consumptions are quite different between rural and urban areas, especially in developing countries. As a result, per person annual primary PM emission in rural areas are much higher than those in urban areas. Further, this difference in developed countries (12 and 2.8 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas) is larger than that in developing countries (8.4 and 4.6 kg PM2.5 for rural and urban areas). Additionally, we looked at temporal trends from 1960 to 2009 at country-scale resolution. Although total emissions are still increasing in developing countries, their intensities in terms of gross domestic production or energy consumption have decreased. PM emitted in developed countries is finer owing to a larger contribution from non-industrial sources, and use of abatement technologies. In contrast, countries like China, with strong industry emissions and limited abatement facilities, emit coarser PM. The health impacts of PM are intensified in hotspots and cities owing to covariance of sources and receptors. Although urbanization reduces the per person emission, overall health impacts

  11. A novel synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of a potential dopamine D1/D2 agonist: 1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline-6,7-diol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Danyang; Dijkstra, Durk; de Vries, Jan B; Wikström, Håkan V

    2008-03-15

    Previously, we have demonstrated that enone prodrugs of dopaminergic catecholamines represent a new type of dopamine (DA) agonist. Trans-1-propyl-1,2,3,4,4a,5,10,10a-octahydrobenzo[g]quinoline-6,7-diol (TL-334), the active form of trans-1-propyl-2,3,4,4a,5,7,8,9,10,10a-decahydro-1H-benzo[g]quinolin-6-one (GMC-6650), in vivo showed an extremely potent dopaminergic activity. Here, we report a novel synthesis and a pharmacological evaluation of TL-334 by means of microdialysis.

  12. Crystal structures of two deca-vanadates(V) with penta-aqua-manganese(II) pendant groups: (NMe4)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}25H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}22H2O.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maurício P; Rüdiger, André Luis; Soares, Jaísa F; Nunes, Giovana G; Hughes, David L

    2015-02-01

    Two heterometallic deca-vanadate(V) compounds, bis-(tetra-methyl-ammonium) deca-aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa-deca-μ2-oxido-hexa-oxidodimang-anese(II)-deca-vanadate(V) penta-hydrate, (Me4N)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}25H2O, A, and bis-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]ammonium} deca-aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa-deca-μ2-oxido-hexa-oxidodimanganese(II)deca-vanadate(V) dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}22H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH2)5](2+) complex units bound to the deca-vanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the deca-vanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetra-methyl-ammonium and [tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water mol-ecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water mol-ecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent mol-ecules and, in B, through the 'tris-' cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A number of C-H⋯O inter-actions are also observed in both structures.

  13. 2-Sulfanylidene-1,3-dithiolo[4,5-b]naphtho­[2,3-e][1,4]dithiine-5,10-dione

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Bernès, Sylvain; Pérez-Benítez, Aarón; Romero Zarazúa, María Fernanda; Castellanos-Uribe, Adrián

    2011-01-01

    The title mol­ecule, C13H4O2S5, is folded by 47.83 (6)° along the S⋯S vector of the [1,4]dithiine six-membered ring, with the naphtho­quinone and [1,3]dithiole-2-thione moieties being nearly planar [largest deviations from least-squares planes = 0.028 (2) and 0.016 (1) Å, respectively]. This boat conformation is close to that observed in the analogous compound [Mendez-Rojas et al. (2001). J. Chem. Crystallogr. 31, 17–28] including a 2-oxo group [folding angle: 42.3 (1)° at 213 (2) K]. Both compounds are indeed isomorphous, and the small difference in the folding angle probably results from the involvement of the thioxo group of the title compound in inter­molecular S⋯S contacts [3.5761 (13) Å]. In the crystal structure, mol­ecules are stacked in the [100] direction, with dithiole rings making π–π inter­actions. In a stack, alternating short and long separations are observed between the centroids of dithiole rings, 3.5254 (17) and 4.7010 (18) Å. PMID:22219881

  14. Variability of levels and composition of PM10 and PM2.5 in the Barcelona metro system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, X.; Moreno, T.; Karanasiou, A.; Reche, C.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Font, O.; Gil, J.; de Miguel, E.; Capdevila, M.

    2012-06-01

    From an environmental perspective, the underground metro system is one of the cleanest forms of public transportation in urban agglomerations. Current studies report contradicting results regarding air quality in the metro systems: whereas some reveal poor air quality, others report PM levels which are lower or of the same order of magnitude than those measured in traffic sites above ground level. The present work assesses summer and winter indoor air quality and passenger exposure in the Barcelona metro, focusing on PM levels and their metal contents. In addition, the impact on indoor air quality of platform screen door systems (automated systems consisting of closed rail track and platforms) is evaluated, to determine whether these systems reduce passenger exposure to PM when compared with conventional systems (open tracks and platforms). In the Barcelona metro PM levels inside the trains in summer are amongst the lowest reported for worldwide metro systems (11-32 μg m-3 PM2.5). This is most likely due to the air conditioning system working in all carriages of the Barcelona metro during the whole year. Levels were considerably higher on the platforms, reaching mean levels of 46 and 125 μg m3 in the new (L9) and old (L3) lines, respectively. PM10 data are also reported in the present study, but comparison with other metro systems is difficult due to the scarcity of data compared with PM2.5. Results showed distinct PM daily cycles, with a drastic increase from 06:00 to 07:00 a.m., a diurnal maximum from 07:00 to 10:00 p.m., and marked decrease between 10:00 p.m. and 05:00 a.m. The elements with the highest enrichment were those associated with wheel or brake abrasion products (Ba, Fe, Cu, Mn, Cr, Sb, As, Mo, Co, Sr, among others). Laminar hematite (Fe2O3) was the dominant particle type, being mainly originated by mechanical abrasion of the rail track and wheels. Regarding passenger exposure to PM, the contribution of commuting by metro was estimated to account

  15. Extrasolar Giant Magnetospheric Response to Steady-state Stellar Wind Pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt A.; Harnett, Erika M.; Winglee, Robert M.

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet’s magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semimajor axes—10, 5, 1, and 0.2 au. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semimajor axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass-loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 and 5 au cases, which reach a state of mass-loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 or 0.2 au cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 and 0.2 au cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents, associated with auroral radio emissions, is shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus, which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (>0.1 au) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons—via the plasma torus—could be observable with future missions.

  16. Extrasolar giant magnetospheric response to steady-state stellar wind pressure at 10, 5, 1, and 0.2 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Matt; Harnett, Erika; Winglee, Robert

    2016-10-01

    A three-dimensional, multifluid simulation of a giant planet's magnetospheric interaction with steady-state stellar wind from a Sun-like star was performed for four different orbital semi-major axes - 10, 5, 1 and 0.2 AU. We simulate the effect of the increasing, steady-state stellar wind pressure related to the planetary orbital semi-major axis on the global magnetospheric dynamics for a Saturn-like planet, including an Enceladus-like plasma torus. Mass loss processes are shown to vary with orbital distance, with the centrifugal interchange instability displayed only in the 10 AU and 5 AU cases which reach a state of mass loss equilibrium more slowly than the 1 AU or 0.2 AU cases. The compression of the magnetosphere in the 1 AU and 0.2 AU cases contributes to the quenching of the interchange process by increasing the ratio of total plasma thermal energy to corotational energy. The strength of field-aligned currents (FAC), associated with auroral radio emissions, are shown to increase in magnitude and latitudinal coverage with a corresponding shift equatorward from increased dynamic ram pressure experienced in the hotter orbits. Similar to observed hot Jovian planets, the warm exo-Saturn simulated in the current work shows enhanced ion density in the magnetosheath and magnetopause regions, as well as the plasma torus which could contribute to altered transit signals, suggesting that for planets in warmer (> 0.1 AU) orbits, planetary magnetic field strengths and possibly exomoons - via the plasma torus - could be observable with future missions.

  17. V 2.38Nb 10.7O 32.7: A V 2O 5-Nb 2O 5 mixed oxide tunnel structure related to the tetragonal tungsten bronzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börrnert, Carina; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder; Simon, Paul; Langbein, Hubert

    2010-05-01

    A crystal structural model for the orthorhombic compound V 2.38Nb 10.7O 32.7, which is known as "V 2Nb 9O 27.5", was developed by means of selected area electron diffraction (SAED), Rietveld refinement and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The metastable compound is obtained by thermal decomposition of freeze-dried precursors as chain-like agglomerated nanoparticles or by reaction of V 2O 5 with fresh-precipitated Nb 2O 5 as more compact micro-scaled crystals. With the latter, it was possible to identify its structure for the first time (space group Cmmm). The tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)-type structure shows high potential for ionic intercalation, since easily reducible [V 5+2O 2-] units are implemented in the tunnels of a rigid niobium oxide framework.

  18. Novel frame-shift mutation in Slc5a2 encoding SGLT2 in a strain of senescence-accelerated mouse SAMP10.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Toda, Masateru; Hagiwara, Shiori; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Hoshino, Minoru; Takabayashi, Fumiyo; Hasegawa-Ishii, Sanae; Shimada, Atsuyoshi; Hosokawa, Masanori; Higuchi, Keiichi; Mori, Masayuki

    2014-11-07

    The senescence-accelerated mouse prone10 (SAMP10) strain, a model of aging, exhibits cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. We noticed that SAMP10/TaSlc mice, a SAMP10 substrain, have developed persistent glucosuria over the past few years. In the present study, we characterized SAMP10/TaSlc mice and further identified a spontaneous mutation in the Slc5a2 gene encoding sodium-glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2. The mean concentration of urine glucose was high in SAMP10/TaSlc mice and increased further with advancing age, whereas other strains of senescence-accelerated mice, including SAMP1/SkuSlc, SAMP6/TaSlc and SAMP8/TaSlc or normal aging control SAMR1/TaSlc mice, exhibited no detectable glucose in urine. SAMP10/TaSlc mice consumed increasing amounts of food and water compared to SAMR1/TaSlc mice, suggesting the compensation of polyuria and the loss of glucose. Oral glucose tolerance tests showed decreased glucose reabsorption in the kidney of SAMP10/TaSlc mice. In addition, blood glucose levels decreased in an age-dependent fashion. The kidney was innately larger than that of control mice with no histological alterations. We examined the expression levels of glucose transporters in the kidney. Among SGLT1, SGLT2, glucose transporter (GLUT) 1 and GLUT2, we found a significant decrease only in the level of SGLT2. DNA sequencing of SGLT2 in SAMP10/TaSlc mice revealed a single nucleotide deletion of guanine at 1236, which resulted in a frameshift mutation that produced a truncated protein. We designate this strain as SAMP10/TaSlc-Slc5a2(slc) (SAMP10-ΔSglt2). Recently, SGLT2 inhibitors have been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). SAMP10-ΔSglt2 mice may serve as a unique preclinical model to study the link between aging-related neurodegenerative disorders and T2D.

  19. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  20. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  1. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  2. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  3. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  4. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  5. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  6. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  7. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  8. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing,...

  9. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  10. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  11. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  12. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  13. 10 CFR 63.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 63.5 Section 63.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN A GEOLOGIC REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA General Provisions § 63.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by...

  14. 10 CFR 95.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 95.5 Section 95.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative... the National Industrial Security Program. Combination lock means a three position,...

  15. 10 CFR 95.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Definitions. 95.5 Section 95.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative... three position, manipulation resistant, dial type lock bearing an Underwriters' Laboratories,...

  16. 10 CFR 95.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Definitions. 95.5 Section 95.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative... three position, manipulation resistant, dial type lock bearing an Underwriters' Laboratories,...

  17. 10 CFR 95.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Definitions. 95.5 Section 95.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative... three position, manipulation resistant, dial type lock bearing an Underwriters' Laboratories,...

  18. 10 CFR 95.5 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definitions. 95.5 Section 95.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 95.5 Definitions. Access authorization means an administrative... three position, manipulation resistant, dial type lock bearing an Underwriters' Laboratories,...

  19. 10 CFR 51.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 51.5 Section 51.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  20. 10 CFR 51.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 51.5 Section 51.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING AND RELATED REGULATORY FUNCTIONS § 51.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in...

  1. 10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 75.5 Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in writing,...

  2. 10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 75.5 Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in writing,...

  3. 10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 75.5 Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in writing,...

  4. 10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 75.5 Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in writing,...

  5. 10 CFR 75.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 75.5 Section 75.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFEGUARDS ON NUCLEAR MATERIAL-IMPLEMENTATION OF US/IAEA AGREEMENT General Provisions § 75.5 Interpretations. Except as authorized specifically by the Commission in writing,...

  6. 10 CFR 74.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 74.5 Section 74.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL General Provisions § 74.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing,...

  7. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of 1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-d2 in n-hexane at 10 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smulevich, Giulietta; Foggi, Paolo

    1987-11-01

    The fluorescence excitation, between 430 and 505 nm, and emission, between 505 and 725 nm, spectra in n-hexane of 1,5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-d0 and -d2 at 10 K have been measured. Dual excitation and emission associated to excited state proton transfer were observed. Apart from the long wavelength emission, well resolved vibrational structures were obtained. A remarkable spectral shift (684 cm-1) of the origin of the high frequency transition was observed upon deuteration. The energy gaps between the transition origins both in excitation and emission as well as the isotopic shifts of the origins, were interpreted in terms of Lippincott-Schroeder asymmetric double minimum potential functions along the OH coordinate. An extra fluorescence occurs in the low frequency range, vanishing upon deuteration. It was explained as due to the ν(OH) stretching mode of the high frequency emission enhanced via vibronic coupling between the two ground states.

  8. Monitoring stress related velocity variation in concrete with a 2 x 10(-5) relative resolution using diffuse ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Larose, Eric; Hall, Stephen

    2009-04-01

    Ultrasonic waves propagating in solids have stress-dependent velocities. The relation between stress (or strain) and velocity forms the basis of non-linear acoustics. In homogeneous solids, conventional time-of-flight techniques have measured this dependence with spectacular precision. In heterogeneous media such as concrete, the direct (ballistic) wave around 500 kHz is strongly attenuated and conventional techniques are less efficient. In this manuscript, the effect of weak stress changes on the late arrivals constituting the acoustic diffuse coda is tracked. A resolution of 2 x 10(-5) in relative velocity change is attained which corresponds to a sensitivity to stress change of better than 50 kPa. Therefore, the technique described here provides an original way to measure the non-linear parameter with stress variations on the order of tens of kPa.

  9. Martensitic transformation and magnetocaloric properties in Ni40.4Mn46.5Sn10.9Sb2.2 ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, H. C.; Zhang, T.; Wu, Y. F.; Xu, Y. K.; Li, H.; Han, P. D.; Du, Y. W.; Zhang, C. L.

    2017-01-01

    The Ni40.4Mn46.5Sn10.9Sb2.2 ribbons were prepared by melt-spun method. The martensitic transformation (MT) and magnetocaloric effect in melt-spun and annealed Ni40.4Mn46.5Sn10.9Sb2.2 ribbons were investigated. After the heat treatment, the MT temperature increases obviously in the annealed ribbons. The large values of magnetic entropy changes and the effective refrigerant capacity around the MT and Curie temperature of the austenite are found to be 30.9 and -2.2 J/kg K, 70.6 and 132.6 J/kg, respectively, under the field change of 30 kOe for the annealed ribbons. The annealing effect on the MT and magnetocaloric effect, together with the origin of the large magnetic entropy changes, has been discussed in this paper.

  10. The stable carbon isotope composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 in Mexico City Metropolitan Area air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Veneroni, D.

    The sources and distribution of carbon in ambient suspended particles (PM 2.5 and PM 10) of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) air were traced using stable carbon isotopes ( 13C/ 12C). Tested potential sources included rural and agricultural soils, gasoline and diesel, liquefied-petroleum gas, volcanic ash, and street dust. The complete combustion of LP gas, diesel and gasoline yielded the lightest δ13C values (-27 to -29‰ vs. PDB), while street dust (PM 10) represented the isotopically heaviest endmember (-17‰). The δ13C values of rural soils from four geographically separated sites were similar (-20.7 ± 1.5‰). δ13C values of particles and soot from diesel and gasoline vehicle emissions and agricultural soils varied between -23 and -26‰. Ambient PM samples collected in November of 2000, and March and December of 2001 at three representative receptor sites of industrial, commercial and residential activities had a δ13C value centered around -25.1‰ in both fractions, resulting from common carbon sources. The predominant carbon sources to MCMA atmospheric particles were hydrocarbon combustion (diesel and/or gasoline) and particles of geological origin. The significantly depleted δ13C values from the industrial site reflect the input of diesel combustion by mobile and point source emissions. Based on stable carbon isotope mass balance, the carbon contribution of geological sources at the commercial and residential sites was approximately 73% for the PM 10 fraction and 54% for PM 2.5. Although not measured in this study, biomass-burning emissions from nearby forests are an important carbon source characterized by isotopically lighter values (-29‰), and can become a significant contributor (67%) of particulate carbon to MCMA air under the prevalence of southwesterly winds. Alternative sources of these 13C-depleted particles, such as cooking fires and municipal waste incineration, need to be assessed. Results show that stable carbon isotope

  11. Vertical differences in the composition of PM 10 and PM 2.5 in the urban atmosphere of Osaka, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Kansuke; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko

    Vertical differences in PM 10 and PM 2.5 suspended particles were investigated using a building in Osaka, Japan. Samples were collected on the roof of the building (200 m above ground level) and on the ground during 5-9 August and 2-6 December 2002. In addition to determination of sample mass, concentrations have been analyzed for major chemical components including elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Particle mass concentrations of the samples collected at 200 m were lower than those collected on the ground. "Others" species, defined as the difference between the total particle mass and the sum of the masses of the measured species, dominantly accounted for the vertical difference in mass concentrations in summer, whereas EC and OC were the major contributors in winter. Vertical profiles of relative humidity observed simultaneously indicated that relative humidity on the ground was higher than that at 200 m during the summer sampling period. Hence, it is likely that the higher concentrations of "others" species in the samples collected on the ground were probably caused by water having been absorbed by deliquescent components of the particles. Vertical temperature profiles during the winter sampling period suggested that stable meteorological conditions in winter resulted in the accumulation of primary particles, mainly emitted from vehicle exhaust, leading to the high concentrations of EC and OC on the ground.

  12. 10 CFR 55.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 55.5 Section 55.5 Energy NUCLEAR...) By mail addressed to—Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation or Director, Office of New Reactors, as appropriate, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC 20555-0001; or (2) By...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE SMPS-APS SYSTEM AS A CONTINUOUS MONITOR FOR MEASURING PM2.5, PM10 AND COARSE (PM2.5-10) CONCENTRATIONS. (R827352C011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respirable particulate matter (PM) has been linked to mortality and morbidity by a variety of epidemiological studies. This research has led to the creation of a new PM standard for particles with diameters <2.5 μm (PM2.5). Since the conclusion of these studie...

  14. Peroxisomal ubiquitin-protein ligases peroxin2 and peroxin10 have distinct but synergistic roles in matrix protein import and peroxin5 retrotranslocation in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Burkhart, Sarah E; Kao, Yun-Ting; Bartel, Bonnie

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisomal matrix proteins carry peroxisomal targeting signals (PTSs), PTS1 or PTS2, and are imported into the organelle with the assistance of peroxin (PEX) proteins. From a microscopy-based screen to identify Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants defective in matrix protein degradation, we isolated unique mutations in PEX2 and PEX10, which encode ubiquitin-protein ligases anchored in the peroxisomal membrane. In yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), PEX2, PEX10, and a third ligase, PEX12, ubiquitinate a peroxisome matrix protein receptor, PEX5, allowing the PEX1 and PEX6 ATP-hydrolyzing enzymes to retrotranslocate PEX5 out of the membrane after cargo delivery. We found that the pex2-1 and pex10-2 Arabidopsis mutants exhibited defects in peroxisomal physiology and matrix protein import. Moreover, the pex2-1 pex10-2 double mutant exhibited severely impaired growth and synergistic physiological defects, suggesting that PEX2 and PEX10 function cooperatively in the wild type. The pex2-1 lesion restored the unusually low PEX5 levels in the pex6-1 mutant, implicating PEX2 in PEX5 degradation when retrotranslocation is impaired. PEX5 overexpression altered pex10-2 but not pex2-1 defects, suggesting that PEX10 facilitates PEX5 retrotranslocation from the peroxisomal membrane. Although the pex2-1 pex10-2 double mutant displayed severe import defects of both PTS1 and PTS2 proteins into peroxisomes, both pex2-1 and pex10-2 single mutants exhibited clear import defects of PTS1 proteins but apparently normal PTS2 import. A similar PTS1-specific pattern was observed in the pex4-1 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme mutant. Our results indicate that Arabidopsis PEX2 and PEX10 cooperate to support import of matrix proteins into plant peroxisomes and suggest that some PTS2 import can still occur when PEX5 retrotranslocation is slowed.

  15. Crystal structure of (1S,2R,6R,7R,8S,12S)-4,10,17-triphenyl-15-thia-4,10-diaza-penta-cyclo[5.5.5.0(1,16).0(2,6).0(8,12)]hepta-deca-13,16-diene-3,5,9,11-tetrone p-xylene hemisolvate.

    PubMed

    Noland, Wayland E; Kroll, Neil J; Huisenga, Matthew P; Yue, Ruixian A; Lang, Simon B; Klein, Nathan D; Tritch, Kenneth J

    2014-12-01

    The title tetrone compound, C32H22N2O4S· 0.5C8H10, is the major product (50% yield) of an attempted Diels-Alder reaction of 2-(α-styr-yl)thio-phene with N-phenyl-male-imide (2 equivalents) in toluene. Recrystallization of the resulting powder from p-xylene gave the title hemisolvate; the p-xylene mol-ecule is located about an inversion center. In the crystal, the primary tetrone contacts are between a carbonyl O atom and the four flagpole H atoms of the bi-cyclo-[2.2.2]octene core, forming chains along [001].

  16. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of.... or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  17. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of.... or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  18. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of.... or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  19. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). 93.123 Section 93.123 Protection of.... or the Federal Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by §...

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2,5 Candidate...

  1. 40 CFR Figure C-3 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate Equivalent Methods C Figure C-3 to Subpart C of...—Illustration of the Slope and Intercept Limits for Class II and Class III PM 10-2.5 Candidate...

  2. MABGEL 1: First Phase 1 Trial of the Anti-HIV-1 Monoclonal Antibodies 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 as a Vaginal Microbicide

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Georgina C.; Wiggins, Rebecca C.; Woodhall, Sarah C.; Bland, J. Martin; Taylor, Carol R.; Jespers, Vicky; Vcelar, Brigitta A.; Lacey, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) which potently neutralize a broad range of HIV isolates are potential microbicide candidates. To date, topical application of mAbs in humans and their stability in vaginal secretions has not been studied. Objectives To assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of the mAbs 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 when applied vaginally in women. Design A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 1 trial. Methods Twenty-eight healthy, sexually abstinent women administered 2.5 g of gel daily for 12 days containing either 10 or 20 mg/g of each mAb (MABGEL) or placebo. Main clinical evaluations and sampling occurred at baseline, 1, 8, and 24 hours post-1st dose and 12 and 36 hours post-12th dose. Results After adjustment for dilution factors, median levels of 2F5, 4E10 and 2G12 in vaginal secretions at 1 hour post high-dose MABGEL were 7.74, 5.28 and 7.48 mg/ml respectively. Levels of 2F5 and 4E10 declined exponentially thereafter with similar estimated half-lives (4.6 and 4.3 hours). In contrast, 2G12 levels declined more rapidly in the first 8 hours, with an estimated half-life of 1.4 hours during this period. There was no evidence of systemic absorption. There were no significant differences in local or systemic adverse event rates or vaginal flora changes (by qPCR) between active and placebo gel arms. Whilst at least 1 adverse event was recorded in 96% of participants, 95% were mild and none were serious. Conclusions Vaginal application of 50 mg of each mAb daily was safe over a 12 day period. Median mAb concentrations detected at 8 hours post dose were potentially sufficient to block HIV transmission.2G12 exhibited more rapid elimination from the human vagina than 4E10 and 2F5, likely due to poor stability of 2G12 in acidic human vaginal secretions. Further research is needed to develop mAb-based vaginal microbicides and delivery systems. Trial Registration ISRCTN 64808733 UK CRN Portfolio 6470 PMID:25546420

  3. Synthesis, crystal structure and vibrational spectroscopic analysis of tetrakis(5-amino-1-H-1,2,4-triazol-4-ium) decachlorodibismuthate(III):[C2H5N4]4Bi2Cl10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloui, Z.; Ferretti, V.; Abid, S.; Lefebvre, F.; Rzaigui, M.; Nasr, C. Ben

    2015-10-01

    Physico-chemical properties of a new organic bismuthate(III), [C2H5N4]4Bi2Cl10 are discussed on the basis of X-ray crystal structure investigation. This compound crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c, with a = 16.3622(3), b = 12.7941(2), c = 14.8178(2) Å, β = 98.5660(10)°, V = 3067.35(8) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure consists of discrete binuclear [Bi2Cl10]4- anions and 3-amino-1-H-1,2,4-triazolium cations. The crystal packing is governed by strong Nsbnd H⋯N and weak Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and Π-Π stacking interactions to form three-dimensional network. The 13C CP-MAS NMR spectrum is in agreement with the X-ray structure. The infrared study confirms the presence of the organic cation [C2H5N4]+. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations allowed their attribution.

  4. Water detection by "turn on" fluorescence of the quinone-containing complexes [Ru(phen)2(1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione)2+] and [Ru(phenanthroline-5,6-dione)3]2+.

    PubMed

    Poteet, Steven A; MacDonnell, Frederick M

    2013-10-07

    Addition of water to the quinone functions in [Ru(phen)2(pdn)](2+) (1) and [Ru(pdn)3](2+) (2) (where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and pdn = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) turns on fluorescence at 605 nm, as formation of the geminal diol eliminates the predominant quinone-based non-radiative decay pathway and gives rise to a long-lived (3)MLCT state similar in nature to that seen in [Ru(phen)3](2+). Using NMR, the equilibrium constant for the hydration reaction of 1 in acetonitrile was determined to be 0.0253. From this data and experimental fitting of the luminescent titration data, the equilibrium constant for 2 of 1.62 × 10(-5) and emission yields for hydrated 1 and 2 were determined. Interestingly, all three quinone functions must be hydrated in 2 for luminescence, which is why the equilibrium constants vary so much. The 'turn on' luminescence allows for a very sensitive detection of water in aprotic solvents such as acetonitrile.

  5. Crystal structures of two deca­vanadates(V) with penta­aqua­manganese(II) pendant groups: (NMe4)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}25H2O and [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}22H2O

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Maurício P.; Rüdiger, André Luis; Soares, Jaísa F.; Nunes, Giovana G.; Hughes, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Two heterometallic deca­vanadate(V) compounds, bis­(tetra­methyl­ammonium) deca­aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa­deca-μ2-oxido-hexa­oxidodimang­anese(II)­deca­vanadate(V) penta­hydrate, (Me4N)2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}25H2O, A, and bis­{[tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)meth­yl]ammonium} deca­aquadi-μ4-oxido-tetra-μ3-oxido-hexa­deca-μ2-oxido-hexa­oxidodimanganese(II)deca­vanadate(V) dihydrate, [NH3C(CH2OH)3]2[V10O28{Mn(H2O)5}22H2O, B, have been synthesized under mild reaction conditions in an aqueous medium. Both polyanions present two [Mn(OH2)5]2+ complex units bound to the deca­vanadate cluster through oxide bridges. In A, the deca­vanadate unit has 2/m symmetry, whereas in B it has twofold symmetry. Apart from this, the main differences between A and B rest on the organic cations, tetra­methyl­ammonium and [tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)meth­yl]ammonium, respectively, and on the number and arrangement of the water mol­ecules of crystallization. In both compounds, the H atoms from the coordinating water mol­ecules participate in extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks, which link the cluster units both directly and through solvent mol­ecules and, in B, through the ‘tris­’ cation hydroxyl groups. The cation in B also participates in N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds. A number of C—H⋯O inter­actions are also observed in both structures. PMID:25878804

  6. [Pharmacological and toxicological investigation of 2,2-diethyl-2,3,5,10-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo(1,2-b)phthalazine-1,3-dione, a new compound with anti-inflammatory activity].

    PubMed

    Dalla Vedova, R; Cadel, S; D'Alò, G

    1980-06-01

    As part of research on 1H-pyrazole[1,2-b]phthalazine compounds with anti-inflammatory activity, the results of preliminary pharmacological and toxicological investigation of 2,2-diethyl-2,2,5,10-tetrahydro-1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-1,3-dione are reported.

  7. 10 CFR 52.5 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employee protection. 52.5 Section 52.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General... of the appropriate U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in appendix D to part...

  8. 10 CFR 52.5 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employee protection. 52.5 Section 52.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General... of the appropriate U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in appendix D to part...

  9. 10 CFR 52.5 - Employee protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employee protection. 52.5 Section 52.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General... of the appropriate U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in appendix D to part...

  10. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: ATTN: Document Control Desk, Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, or... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy...

  11. 10 CFR 140.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...: ATTN: Document Control Desk, Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Director, Office of New Reactors, Director, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, or... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 140.5 Section 140.5 Energy...

  12. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  13. 10 CFR 72.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 72.5 Section 72.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE General Provisions §...

  14. Superconductivity in Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2As2)5 with Square-Planar Coordination of Iridium

    PubMed Central

    Kudo, Kazutaka; Mitsuoka, Daisuke; Takasuga, Masaya; Sugiyama, Yuki; Sugawara, Kento; Katayama, Naoyuki; Sawa, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hiroaki S.; Takamori, Kenta; Ichioka, Masanori; Fujii, Tatsuo; Mizokawa, Takashi; Nohara, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    We report the unprecedented square-planar coordination of iridium in the iron iridium arsenide Ca10(Ir4As8)(Fe2As2)5. This material experiences superconductivity at 16 K. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and first-principles band calculation suggest Ir(II) oxidation state, which yields electrically conductive Ir4As8 layers. Such metallic spacer layers are thought to enhance the interlayer coupling of Fe2As2, in which superconductivity emerges, thus offering a way to control the superconducting transition temperature. PMID:24173038

  15. Inhalable Microorganisms in Beijing’s PM2.5 and PM10 Pollutants during a Severe Smog Event

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing’s PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners. PMID:24456276

  16. A Study of metabolic transformation of organic and inorganic components in PM2.5 and PM10, South Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Yoon, H.; Lee, M.

    2012-12-01

    The important factors of atmospheric particle matter (PM) are size, concentration, composition and toxicity which can considerably affect the possible human health problem, especially respiratory diseases, visibility reduction and climate change. PM2.5 and PM10 are complex mixture of ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, organic carbon, inorganic carbon and inorganic constituents. Recently, most researches of source attribution and assessments of the relationship between health effects and particle concentrations have not taken advantage of the development in analytical tools measuring the detailed molecular structure and microstructure of particles and of the knowledge of particle formation mechanisms in combustion system. This study will combine variety analytical techniques that can provide structural and compositional information to determine the correlation between sources of hazardous material and physicochemical properties in aerosol particle. Inorganic metal can be rapidly quantifying to filter base using ED-XRF (Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence). Speciation and quantification of water soluble components applied HPLC-ICP-MS and LC-MS NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance). Afterward, we investigate metabolic transformations of atmospheric particle matter also using FE-TEM (Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy).

  17. Inhalable microorganisms in Beijing's PM2.5 and PM10 pollutants during a severe smog event.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chen; Jiang, Wenjun; Wang, Buying; Fang, Jianhuo; Lang, Jidong; Tian, Geng; Jiang, Jingkun; Zhu, Ting F

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) air pollution poses a formidable public health threat to the city of Beijing. Among the various hazards of PM pollutants, microorganisms in PM2.5 and PM10 are thought to be responsible for various allergies and for the spread of respiratory diseases. While the physical and chemical properties of PM pollutants have been extensively studied, much less is known about the inhalable microorganisms. Most existing data on airborne microbial communities using 16S or 18S rRNA gene sequencing to categorize bacteria or fungi into the family or genus levels do not provide information on their allergenic and pathogenic potentials. Here we employed metagenomic methods to analyze the microbial composition of Beijing's PM pollutants during a severe January smog event. We show that with sufficient sequencing depth, airborne microbes including bacteria, archaea, fungi, and dsDNA viruses can be identified at the species level. Our results suggested that the majority of the inhalable microorganisms were soil-associated and nonpathogenic to human. Nevertheless, the sequences of several respiratory microbial allergens and pathogens were identified and their relative abundance appeared to have increased with increased concentrations of PM pollution. Our findings may serve as an important reference for environmental scientists, health workers, and city planners.

  18. Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 10(5) A/cm(2) dc Current.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng

    2016-08-22

    Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 10(5) A/cm(2) dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.

  19. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  1. Magnetic and transport properties of iron-platinum arsenide Ca10(Pt4-δAs8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Qing-Ping; Tsuchiya, Yuji; Mohan, Shyam; Taen, Toshihiro; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Tamegai, Tsuyoshi

    2012-03-01

    We report superconducting properties of single crystalline Ca10(Pt4-δAs8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 by x-ray diffraction, magnetization, resistivity, and magneto-optical imaging measurements. The magnetization measurements reveal a fish-tail hysteresis loop and relatively high critical current density Jc ˜ 0.8 × 105 A/cm2 at low temperatures. The exponential temperature dependence of Jc, which arises from the nonlinear effective flux-creep activation energy, has been observed. The upper critical field determined by resistive transition shows a relatively large anisotropy. The magneto-optical images reveal a homogenous current flow within the crystal.

  2. Magnetotransport study of intra- and intergrain transitions in the magnetic superconductors RuSr2GdCu2O8 and RuSr2(Gd1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, S.; Musa, J. E.; Freitas, R. S.; Ghivelder, L.

    2003-10-01

    A characterization of the magnetic superconductors RuSr2GdCu2O8 [Ru-(1212)] and RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10 [Ru-(1222)] through resistance measurements as a function of temperature and magnetic field is presented. Two peaks in the derivative of the resistive curves are identified as intra- and intergrain superconducting transitions. Strong intragrain granularity effects are observed, and explained by considering the antiphase boundaries between structural domains of coherently rotated RuO6 octahedra as intragrain Josephson junctions. A different field dependence of the intragrain transition temperature in these compounds was found. For Ru-(1212) it remains unchanged up to 0.1 T, decreasing for higher fields. In Ru-(1222) it smoothly diminishes with the increase in field even for a value as low as 100 Oe. These results are interpreted as a consequence of a spin-flop transition of the Ru moments. The large separation between the RuO2 layers in Ru-(1222) promotes a weak interlayer coupling, leading the magnetic transition to occur at lower fields. The suppression rate of the intragrain transition temperature is about five times higher for Ru-(1222), a result we relate to an enhancement of the two-dimensional character of the vortex structure. A distinctive difference with conventional cuprates is the sharp increase in amplitude of the intergrain peak in both systems, as the field is raised, which is ascribed to percolation through a fraction of high quality intergrain junctions.

  3. Molecule 1,5-C10H6(SO2Cl)2 as prototype of conformational properties of naphthalene sulfonyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Vjacheslav M.; Giricheva, Nina I.; Ivanov, Sergey N.; Petrova, Valentina N.; Girichev, Georgiy V.

    2017-03-01

    Conformational composition of the vapor (T = 413(5) K) and the conformer structures of 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonylchloride (1,5-NaphDSC) have been studied by a combined gas-phase electron diffraction and mass spectrometry (GED/MS) method complemented by quantum chemical calculations. According to quantum chemical calculations at DFT/B3LYP/cc-pVTZ and MP2/cc-pVTZ theory levels, the molecule 1,5-NaphDSC possesses four conformers differing mutual orientation of the two SO2Cl groups. GED data clearly indicate that only two conformers, whose structures are characterized by deviation of two Ssbnd Cl bonds from perpendicular position relative to the plane of the naphthalene skeleton (syn-symmetry C2 and anti-symmetry Ci), are present in vapor at 413 K. The following geometrical parameters of these conformers were obtained from the experiment (Å and degrees; uncertainties are in parentheses): rh1(Csbnd H) = 1.098(9), rh1(Csbnd C) = 1.405(3), rh1(Csbnd S) = 1.781(4), rh1(Ssbnd O) = 1.426(3), rh1(Ssbnd Cl) = 2.056(4), ∠Csbnd CSsbnd C = 122.9(1), ∠CSsbnd Ssbnd Cl = 101.8(6); C9sbnd C1sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12), C10sbnd C5sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12)-syn conformer; C9sbnd C1sbnd Ssbnd Cl = 71.2(12), C10sbnd C5sbnd Ssbnd Cl = -71.2(12) -anti-conformer. The presence of C9Hn+ ions in the mass spectra of naphthalenesulfonyl chlorides, which are absent in the mass spectrum of naphthalene, may be attributed to the weakening of two Csbnd C bonds adjacent to the substituent of the naphthalene skeleton. This reflects in the geometric parameters of 1,5-NaphDSC. The barriers to internal rotation of sulfonyl chloride groups were calculated. It is shown that the low-energy syn- and anti-conformers are structurally rigid, in contrast to high-energy conformers with one or two Ssbnd Cl bonds, lying in the plane of the naphthalene skeleton. The dependence of C1sbnd C2, Csbnd S, Ssbnd Cl bond lengths from SO2Cl groups orientation relative to naphthalene skeleton is discussed in terms of NBO

  4. 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM - Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Shi, X.; Phipps, S. J.; Smith, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 year time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model, driven with sea-surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather- or climate-driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies at lower frequencies, dominated by the 11 year solar cycle within the 30 year timescale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies than 11 years during the 30 year period studied. We first apply empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis to the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low-frequency components and the long-term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high-frequency components represent climate-driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that

  5. 10Be in late deglacial climate simulated by ECHAM5-HAM - Part 2: Isolating the solar signal from 10Be deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikkilä, U.; Shi, X.; Phipps, S. J.; Smith, A. M.

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of deglacial climate on the deposition of the solar proxy 10Be globally, and at two specific locations, the GRIP site at Summit, Central Greenland, and the Law Dome site in coastal Antarctica. The deglacial climate is represented by three 30 yr time slice simulations of 10 000 BP (years before present = 1950 CE), 11 000 BP and 12 000 BP, compared with a preindustrial control simulation. The model used is the ECHAM5-HAM atmospheric aerosol-climate model, driven with sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover simulated using the CSIRO Mk3L coupled climate system model. The focus is on isolating the 10Be production signal, driven by solar variability, from the weather or climate driven noise in the 10Be deposition flux during different stages of climate. The production signal varies on lower frequencies, dominated by the 11yr solar cycle within the 30 yr time scale of these experiments. The climatic noise is of higher frequencies. We first apply empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) analysis to global 10Be deposition on the annual scale and find that the first principal component, consisting of the spatial pattern of mean 10Be deposition and the temporally varying solar signal, explains 64% of the variability. The following principal components are closely related to those of precipitation. Then, we apply ensemble empirical decomposition (EEMD) analysis on the time series of 10Be deposition at GRIP and at Law Dome, which is an effective method for adaptively decomposing the time series into different frequency components. The low frequency components and the long term trend represent production and have reduced noise compared to the entire frequency spectrum of the deposition. The high frequency components represent climate driven noise related to the seasonal cycle of e.g. precipitation and are closely connected to high frequencies of precipitation. These results firstly show that the 10Be atmospheric production signal is preserved

  6. 17 CFR 230.168 - Exemption from sections 2(a)(10) and 5(c) of the Act for certain communications of regularly...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...)(10) and 5(c) of the Act for certain communications of regularly released factual business information... paragraph (a)(3) of this section) of communications containing factual business information or forward... Exemption from sections 2(a)(10) and 5(c) of the Act for certain communications of regularly...

  7. Unloading system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  8. Highly Efficient Blue Organic-Light Emitting Diodes Based on 9,10-Diphenylanthracene End-Capped 5H-Pyrido[3,2-b]lndole Groups.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul Bee; Lee, Hyun Woo; Lee, Ho Won; Kim, Young Kwan; Yoon, Seung Soo

    2015-10-01

    In this study, two blue emitters based on 9,10-diphenylanthracene and 5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole were designed and synthesized for OLEDs. Among those, a device using 5-(9,10-diphenyl-2-(5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indol-5-yl)anthracen-6-yl)-5H-pyrido[3,2-b]indole (2) exhibited efficient blue emission with a luminous, power and external quantum efficiency of 5.99 cd/A, 2.70 lm/W and 3.94% at 20 mA/cm2, respectively. The CIE coordinates of this device were (x = 0.15, y = 0.21) at 6.0 V.

  9. 10 CFR 10.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scope. 10.2 Section 10.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.2 Scope. The criteria...

  10. 10 CFR 10.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Scope. 10.2 Section 10.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.2 Scope. The criteria...

  11. 10 CFR 10.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Scope. 10.2 Section 10.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.2 Scope. The criteria...

  12. 10 CFR 10.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scope. 10.2 Section 10.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.2 Scope. The criteria...

  13. 10 CFR 10.2 - Scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Scope. 10.2 Section 10.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES FOR DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA OR NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION OR AN EMPLOYMENT CLEARANCE General Provisions § 10.2 Scope. The criteria...

  14. 46 CFR 105.10-5 - Approved.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approved. 105.10-5 Section 105.10-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 105.10-5 Approved. (a) The...

  15. Characteristics of water-soluble inorganic ions in PM2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in the coastal urban agglomeration along the Western Taiwan Strait Region, China.

    PubMed

    Yin, Liqian; Niu, Zhenchuan; Chen, Xiaoqiu; Chen, Jinsheng; Zhang, Fuwang; Xu, Lingling

    2014-04-01

    PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 aerosol samples were collected in four seasons during November 2010, January, April, and August 2011 at 13 urban/suburban sites and one background site in Western Taiwan Straits Region (WTSR), which is the coastal area with rapid urbanization, high population density, and deteriorating air quality. The 10 days average PM2.5 concentrations were 92.92, 51.96, 74.48, and 89.69 μg/m(3) in spring, summer, autumn, and winter, respectively, exceeding the Chinese ambient air quality standard for annual average value of PM2.5 (grade II, 35 μg/m(3)). Temporal distribution of water-soluble inorganic ions (WSIIs) in PM2.5 was coincident with PM2.5 mass concentrations, showing highest in spring, lowest in summer, and middle in autumn and winter. WSIIs took considerable proportion (42.2 ∼ 50.1 %) in PM2.5 and PM2.5-10. Generally, urban/suburban sites had obviously suffered severer pollution of fine particles compared with the background site. The WSIIs concentrations and characteristics were closely related to the local anthropogenic activities and natural environment, urban sites in cities with higher urbanization level, or sites with weaker diffuse condition suffered severer WSIIs pollution. Fossil fuel combustion, traffic emissions, crustal/soil dust, municipal constructions, and sea salt and biomass burnings were the major potential sources of WSIIs in PM2.5 in WTSR according to the result of principal component analysis.

  16. Synthesis, crystal structure determination and antiproliferative activity of novel 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hranjec, Marijana; Pavlović, Gordana; Karminski-Zamola, Grace

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript describes the synthesis of novel 2-amino-4-aryl-4,10-dihydro-[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazoles as hydrochloride salts 4a-n and 5b which were prepared in the reaction of cyclocondensation between 2-guanidinobenzimidazole and versatile heteroaromatic aldehydes. Structures of all prepared compounds have been studied by using 1H and 13C NMR, IR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The crystal and molecular structure of 4f was determined by X-ray diffraction on single crystals. The molecule of 2-amino-4-(4'-methylphenyl)-4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazole hydrochloride 4f (C 16H 16N 5+·Cl -) exists in the solid state in one of the possible tautomeric forms, being protonated at the one of the nitrogen atoms of the 1,4-dihydrotriazine ring. The molecule is highly delocalized within the 4,10-dihydro[1,3,5]triazino[1,2- a]benzimidazole moiety with the highest deviation from the plane for the methine carbon atom and the protonated nitrogen atom of the 1,4-dihydrotriazine ring. The cations are joined via N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds into R22(8) centrosymmetric dimers. Cation dimers are further connected with Cl - ions via N-H⋯Cl and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds into 2D chains spreading along the b axis. The obtained single-crystal X-ray structure determination unequivocally confirms tautomeric form of the compound present in the solid-state and can represent tantative pattern for other prepared compounds. All prepared compounds were tested on their antiproliferative activity in vitro on several human cancer cell lines. Compound 4m was the most active one (IC 50 ≈ 20 μM), while compounds 4d, 4f, 4k, 4l4m showed moderate, but non-selective, antiproliferative activity with IC 50 25-60 μM.

  17. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor PM 2.5 and PM 10 in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gemenetzis, Panagiotis; Moussas, Panagiotis; Arditsoglou, Anastasia; Samara, Constantini

    The mass concentration and the elemental composition of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were measured in 40 rooms (mainly offices or mixed office-lab rooms, and photocopying places) of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, northern Greece. A total of 27 major, minor and trace elements were determined by ED-XRF analysis. The PM 2.5/PM 10 concentration ratios averaged 0.8±0.2, while the corresponding elemental ratios ranged between 0.4±0.2 and 0.9±0.2. The concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 were significantly higher (by 70% and 50%, respectively) in the smokers' rooms compared to the non-smokers' places. The total elemental concentrations were also higher in the smokers' rooms (11.5 vs 8.2 μg m -3 for PM 2.5, and 10.3 vs 7.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5-10). Fine particle concentrations (PM 2.5) were found to be quite proportional to smoking strength. On the contrary, the two environments exhibited similar coarse (PM 2.5-10) particle fractions not related to the number of cigarettes smoked. A slight decrease of particle concentrations with increasing the floor level was also observed, particularly for PM 2.5, suggesting that high-level floors are less impacted by near ground-level sources like traffic emissions. Finally, the removal efficiency of air purification systems was evaluated.

  18. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2,5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2,5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  19. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM102.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  20. 40 CFR Figure C-4 to Subpart C of... - Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Class II...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM 2.5 and PM 10-2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part...

  1. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some 10-substituted 2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-5(10H)-ones, a new class of bronchodilators.

    PubMed

    Hardtmann, G E; Koletar, G; Pfister, O R; Gogerty, J H; Iorio, L C

    1975-05-01

    On treatment of N-substituted isatoic anhydrides with 2-methylmercaptoimidazolines, 10-substituted imidazo[2,1-b]quinazolin-5(10H)-ones are obtained. Several members of this class exhibited pronounced broncholytic activity. The structure-activity relationships (based on results obtained in the guinea pig histamine aerosol test) of these nonsympathomimetic bronchodilators are discussed. In addition, the detailed pharmacological evaluation of two analogs found to be five to ten times more active than theophyline as bronchodilators without having central nervous system or cardiovascular side effects is described.

  2. Determination of the anti-tumor agent, 10-chloro-5-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-7h-indolo[2,3-c] quinoline-6(5h)-one. HCl in blood or plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Strojny, N; D'Arconte, L; de Silva, J A

    1981-04-10

    A sensitive and specific high-performance liquid chromatographic assay was developed for the determination of 10-chloro-5-(2-dimethylaminoethyl)-7H-indolo [2,3-C] quinolin-6(5H) one [I] in blood or plasma with an overall recovery of 100.3 +/- 9.1% and a limit of quantitation of 1.0 ng per ml of blood or plasma. the assay was used to determine blood concentrations of the drug in the rat following oral administration by intubation of a 1.17-mg dose of [I] . HCl.

  3. Exposure of Particulate Matters PM10 and PM2.5 to Pregnant Ladies during First Trimester and its Impact on Adverse Birth Outcomes in Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Goyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant exposure to criteria air pollutants at different level of concentrations is associated with adverse birth outcomes. The present study advocates the importance of the early period of pregnancy (first trimester) for association between growth in term of small gestational age (SGA) and birth weight (BW) with PM2.5 and PM10 for megacity Delhi. The association of PM10 and PM2.5 average concentration, SGA, pre term birth (PTB) and lower birth weight (LBW < 2500g or 5.5 pounds) outcomes have been investigated among 1749 live births in a large hospital during the year 2012 New Delhi, India. The air pollutants PM2.5 and PM10 have been used in single pollutant logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) for these outcomes. Growth in term of SGA is associated with PM2.5 levels (OR = 0.99, confidence interval (CI) = 0.99 - 1.0) and PM10 levels (OR= 0.99, CI= 0.99 - 1.001) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth weight outcome in terms of lower birth weight (LBW) has been found to be significantly associated with PM2.5 (OR= 0.99, CI = 0.98 - 1.00) exposure in the first trimester. A very significant decrease of 0.1% has been observed in growth of infant in terms of SGA with per 10 mg/m3 increase in PM2.5. Also, 0.1 % statistically significant adverse association of BW in terms of LBW has been found with per 10 mg/m3 increased vulnerability of PM2.5 during first trimester of gestation.

  4. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  5. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  6. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  7. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  8. 46 CFR 61.10-5 - Pressure vessels in service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pressure vessels in service. 61.10-5 Section 61.10-5... INSPECTIONS Tests and Inspections of Pressure Vessels § 61.10-5 Pressure vessels in service. (a) Basic requirements. Each pressure vessel must be examined or tested every 5 years. The extent of the test...

  9. Observation by two-photon laser spectroscopy of the 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} clock transition in atomic silver

    SciTech Connect

    Badr, T.; Plimmer, M. D.; Juncar, P.; Himbert, M. E.; Louyer, Y.; Knight, D. J. E.

    2006-12-15

    We report the observation of the very narrow 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 9}5s{sup 2} {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} transition in atomic silver. The frequencies of the hyperfine components in {sup 107}Ag and {sup 109}Ag have been measured using Doppler-free two-photon laser spectroscopy of a thermal beam and heterodyne calibration with respect to the a{sub 1} component of the 62P(4-5) line in molecular iodine near 661 nm. For the center of gravity of a mixture of natural abundance, we deduce the value 906 641 295.77(19) MHz. For the isotope shift, we obtain {nu}({sup 109}Ag)-{nu}({sup 107}Ag)=564.15(37) MHz, from which we deduce the frequency and isotope shift of the 4d{sup 10}5s {sup 2}S{sub 1/2}{yields}4d{sup 10}6p {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transition at 206 nm.

  10. Source apportionment of PM10 and PM(2.5) at Tocopilla, Chile (22 degrees 05' S, 70 degrees 12' W).

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Héctor

    2009-06-01

    Tocopilla is located on the coast of Northern Chile, within an arid region that extends from 30 degrees S to the border with Perú. The major industrial activities are related to the copper mining industry. A measurement campaign was conducted during March and April 2006 to determine ambient PM10 and PM(2.5) concentrations in the city. The results showed significantly higher PM10 concentrations in the southern part of the city (117 microg/m3) compared with 79 and 80 (microg/m3) in the central and northern sites. By contrast, ambient PM2.5 concentrations had a more uniform spatial distribution across the city, around 20 (microg/m3). In order to conduct a source apportionment, daily PM10 and PM(2.5) samples were analyzed for elements by XRF. EPA's Positive Matrix Factorization software was used to interpret the results of the chemical compositions. The major source contributing to PM(2.5) at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively are: (a) sulfates, with approximately 50% of PM2.5 concentrations at the three sites; (b) fugitive emissions from fertilizer storage and handling, with 16%, 21% and 10%; (c) Coal and residual oil combustion, with 15%, 15% and 4%; (d) Sea salt, 5%, 6% and 16%; (e) Copper ore processing, 4%, 5% and 15%; and (f) a mixed dust source with 11%, 7% and 4%. Results for PM10--at sites 1, 2 and 3, respectively--show that the major contributors are: (a) sea salt source with 36%, 32% and 36% of the PM10 concentration; (b) copper processing emissions mixed with airborne soil dust with 6.6%, 11.5% and 41%; (c) sulfates with 31%, 31% and 12%; (d) a mixed dust source with 16%, 12% and 10%, and (e) the fertilizer stockpile emissions, with 11%, 14% and 2% of the PM10 concentration. The high natural background of PM10 implies that major reductions in anthropogenic emissions of PM10 and SO2 would be required to attain ambient air quality standards for PM10; those reductions would curb down ambient PM(2.5) concentrations as well.

  11. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Localized CO....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  12. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Localized CO....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  13. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Criteria and procedures: Localized CO....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  14. 40 CFR 93.123 - Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Procedures for determining localized CO... Transit Laws § 93.123 Procedures for determining localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 concentrations (hot-spot analysis). (a) CO hot-spot analysis. (1) The demonstrations required by § 93.116 (“Localized CO, PM10,...

  15. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Localized CO....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  16. 40 CFR 93.116 - Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria and procedures: Localized CO....116 Criteria and procedures: Localized CO, PM10, and PM2.5 violations (hot-spots). (a) This paragraph applies at all times. The FHWA/FTA project must not cause or contribute to any new localized CO, PM10,...

  17. Levels of PM2.5/PM10 and associated metal(loid)s in rural households of Henan Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuyong; Wang, Wei; Man, Yu Bon; Chan, Chuen Yu; Liu, Wenxin; Tao, Shu; Wong, Ming Hung

    2015-04-15

    Although a majority of China's rural residents use solid fuels (biomass and coal) for household cooking and heating, clean energy such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas is becoming more popular in the rural area. Unfortunately, both solid fuels and clean energy could result in indoor air pollution. Daily respirable particulate matter (PM≤10 μm) and inhalable particulate matter (PM≤2.5 μm) were investigated in kitchens, sitting rooms and outdoor area in rural Henan during autumn (Sep to Oct 2012) and winter (Jan 2013). The results showed that PM (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metal(loid)s varied among the two seasons and the four types of domestic energy used. Mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in kitchens during winter were 59.2-140.4% and 30.5-145.1% higher than those during autumn, respectively. Similar with the trends of PM2.5 and PM10, concentrations of As, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn in household PM2.5 and PM10 were apparently higher in winter than those in autumn. The highest mean concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 (368.5 and 588.7 μg m(-3)) were recorded in sitting rooms in Baofeng during winter, which were 5.7 and 3.9 times of corresponding health based guidelines for PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. Using coal can result in severe indoor air pollutants including PM and associated metal(loid)s compared with using crop residues, electricity and gas in rural Henan Province. Rural residents' exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 would be roughly reduced by 13.5-22.2% and 8.9-37.7% via replacing coal or crop residues with electricity. The present study suggested that increased use of electricity as domestic energy would effectively improve indoor air quality in rural China.

  18. Syntheses of Anthracenones. 2. Preparation of 1,8-Dimethoxy- (Dimethylanthralin) and 4,5-Dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (Isoanthralin): A Revision.

    PubMed

    Prinz, Helge; Burgemeister, Thomas; Wiegrebe, Wolfgang; Müller, Klaus

    1996-04-19

    The reduction of 1,8-dimethoxyanthracenedione with zinc dust and aqueous ammonia gives a mixture of 1,8-dimethoxyanthracene and 4,5-dimethoxy-9(10H)-anthracenone, rather than the isomeric 1,8-dimethoxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (dimethylanthralin). This isomer was obtained exclusively using SnCl(2) in HCl and acetic acid as reducing agent at room temperature. The structure was confirmed to exist as the tautomeric 1,8-dimethoxy-9-hydroxyanthracene. Furthermore, the reduction of 1,8-diacetoxyanthracenedione with SnCl(2) in HCl and acetic acid leads to 1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (anthralin) rather than 4,5-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone (isoanthralin), which was prepared by ether cleavage of 4,5-dimethoxy-9(10H)-anthracenone. In light of these findings some biological studies on antipsoriatic anthracenones have to be reconsidered.

  19. Efficiency of Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook (MWAC) samplers to collect PM10, PM2.5 and PM1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendez, Mariano J.; Funk, Roger; Buschiazzo, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    The internal efficiency of Big Spring Number Eight (BSNE) and Modified Wilson and Cook (MWAC) samplers for trapping PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 were tested in a wind tunnel, at two wind speeds (3.0 and 6.8 m s-1) in the saltation zone (SAZ) and the suspension zone (SAZ). PM concentrations measured in the inlet and the outlet of both samplers were correlated and the slopes of fitting equations were used for calculating sampling efficiencies. Results showed that BSNE efficiencies ranged from 12% to 32% for PM10, from 0% to 19% for PM2.5 and from 0% to 12% for PM1. The BSNE's efficiency decreased with decreasing particle sizes in SAZ and SUZ at both wind speeds as a consequence of the very low deposition velocity of the finest size particles. The BSNE's efficiency increased with increasing wind speed in SAZ for PM10 and PM2.5 and in SUZ for PM2.5. The MWAC's efficiency ranged from 1% to 20% for PM10, from 0% to 15% for PM2.5 and from 0% to 16% for PM1. The MWAC efficiency was 0% for PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in the SUZ at 3 m s-1 and for PM2.5 and PM1 in the SUZ at 6.8 m s-1. These results provide evidence that the efficiency of BSNE and MWAC for trapping PM10 change with wind speed and position of the sampler. Results also show that BSNEs and MWACs can potentially be used for PM10 emission studies but more research is needed in order to understand and improve their efficiency.

  20. Source identification and apportionment of PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 in iron and steel scrap smelting factory environment using PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Lasun T; Owoade, Oyediran K; Olise, Felix S; Hopke, Philip K

    2016-10-01

    To identify the potential sources responsible for the particulate matter emission from secondary iron and steel smelting factory environment, PM2.5 and PM2.5-10 particles were collected using the low-volume air samplers twice a week for a year. The samples were analyzed for the elemental and black carbon content using x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and optical transmissometer, respectively. The average mass concentrations were 216.26, 151.68, and 138. 62 μg/m(3) for PM2.5 and 331.36, 190.01, and 184.60 μg/m(3) for PM2.5-10 for the production, outside M1 and outside M2 sites, respectively. The same size resolved data set were used as input for the positive matrix factorization (PMF), principal component factor analysis (PCFA), and Unmix (UNMIX) receptor modeling in order to identify the possible sources of particulate matter and their contribution. The PMF resolved four sources with their respective contributions were metal processing (33 %), e-waste (33 %), diesel emission (22 %) and soil (12 %) for PM2.5, and coking (50 %), soil (29 %), metal processing (16 %) and diesel combustion (5 %) for PM2.5-10. PCFA identified soil, metal processing, Pb source, and diesel combustion contributing 45, 41, 9, and 5 %, respectively to PM2.5 while metal processing, soil, coal combustion and open burning contributed 43, 38, 12, and 7 %, respectively to the PM2.5-10. Also, UNMIX identified metal processing, soil, and diesel emission with 43, 42 and 15 % contributions, respectively for the fine fraction, and metal processing (71 %), soil (21 %) and unidentified source (1 %) for the coarse fraction. The study concluded that metal processing and e-waste are the major sources contributing to the fine fraction while coking and soil contributed to the coarse fraction within the factory environment. The application of PMF, PCFA and UNMIX receptor models improved the source identification and apportionment of particulate matter drive in the study area.

  1. Concentrations, correlations and chemical species of PM2.5/PM10 based on published data in China: Potential implications for the revised particulate standard.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuehua; Cao, Zhaoyu; Ma, Yujie; Wang, Linpeng; Wu, Ruidong; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-02-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been of great concern in China due to the increasing haze pollution in recent years. In 2012, the Chinese national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) was amended with a "more strict" regulation on the PM concentrations, i.e., 35 and 70 µg/m(3) for annual PM2.5 and PM10 averages, respectively (Grade-Ⅱ, GB3095-2012). To evaluate the potential of China to attain such new NAAQS and provide a more generalized chemical profile of PM in China, a comprehensive statistical analysis was carried out based on the published data of parallel PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations and chemical compositions of PM2.5 and PM10. The results show that most of the measured concentrations far exceed the new NAAQS. PM2.5 and PM10 show a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.87, p < 0.01) with PM2.5 accounting for about 65% of PM10, suggesting that the abatement of PM2.5 is crucial for reducing PM pollution and hence improving air quality in China. Organic carbon (OC), sulfate and crustal species are the three major components of PM. The NO3(-)/SO4(2-) ratios are 0.43 ± 0.26 in PM2.5 and 0.56 ± 0.29 in PM10, and the OC/EC ratios are 3.63 ± 1.73 in PM2.5 and 4.17 ± 2.09 in PM10, signifying that the stationary emissions from coal combustion remain the main PM source. An evaluation of PM2.5 situation in current China was carried out and the results show that it would take about 27 years to meet the limit value of 35 µg/m(3) in the revised standard, implying a rigorous challenge in PM2.5 control in China in the future.

  2. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Responsibilities. 10.5 Section... SECURITY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS Agency Implementing Procedures § 10.5 Responsibilities. (a... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  3. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  4. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  5. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  6. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  7. 43 CFR 10.5 - Consultation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Consultation. 10.5 Section 10.5 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior NATIVE AMERICAN GRAVES PROTECTION AND REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony...

  8. Bioequivalence and food effect of heat-stressed and non-heat-stressed dapagliflozin 2.5- and 10-mg tablets.

    PubMed

    LaCreta, Frank; Griffen, Steven C; Liu, Xiaoni; Smith, Charles; Hines, Carey; Volk, Kevin; Tejwani, Ravindra; Boulton, David W

    2016-09-10

    Physical storage of formulations may result in physical composition changes that affect pharmacokinetics. Dapagliflozin, an oral sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor used for type 2 diabetes mellitus, stored under prolonged exposure to heat converts crystalline dapagliflozin to an amorphous form. Bioequivalence of the amorphous to crystalline form and food effects of each form in the 2.5-mg formulation are unknown. Two open-label, crossover, single-dose studies in healthy participants assessed pharmacokinetics for heat-stressed (HS) and non-heat-stressed (NH) dapagliflozin 10-mg (study 1, N=29, fasted+HS food effect) and 2.5-mg (study 2, N=28, fasted+HS and NH food effect) tablets. The 90% confidence intervals for geometric mean ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration (Cmax) for HS 2.5- and 10-mg tablets were within 80-125%, indicating bioequivalence. In the fed vs. fasted state for 2.5-mg and 10-mg HS tablets, AUCs were similar, time to Cmax was prolonged by 1.25h, and Cmax decreased by approximately 50%. No serious adverse events were reported. Given that dapagliflozin's efficacy is dependent upon AUC, it was concluded that HS and NH dapagliflozin tablets are bioequivalent in 2.5- and 10-mg doses with no clinically meaningful food effect for either form.

  9. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2−xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A. B.; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E. W.

    2016-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity. PMID:27739517

  10. Interrogating the superconductor Ca-10(Pt4As8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Jisun; Zhu, Yimei; Nam, Hyoungdo; ...

    2016-10-14

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individualmore » layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.« less

  11. Interrogating the superconductor Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2-xPtxAs2)5 Layer-by-layer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisun; Nam, Hyoungdo; Li, Guorong; Karki, A B; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yimei; Shih, Chih-Kang; Zhang, Jiandi; Jin, Rongying; Plummer, E W

    2016-10-14

    Ever since the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity in layered cuprates, the roles that individual layers play have been debated, due to difficulty in layer-by-layer characterization. While there is similar challenge in many Fe-based layered superconductors, the newly-discovered Ca10(Pt4As8)(Fe2As2)5 provides opportunities to explore superconductivity layer by layer, because it contains both superconducting building blocks (Fe2As2 layers) and intermediate Pt4As8 layers. Cleaving a single crystal under ultra-high vacuum results in multiple terminations: an ordered Pt4As8 layer, two reconstructed Ca layers on the top of a Pt4As8 layer, and disordered Ca layer on the top of Fe2As2 layer. The electronic properties of individual layers are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), which reveals different spectra for each surface. Remarkably superconducting coherence peaks are seen only on the ordered Ca/Pt4As8 layer. Our results indicate that an ordered structure with proper charge balance is required in order to preserve superconductivity.

  12. Ambiental dust speciation and metal content variation in TSP, PM 10 and PM 2.5 in urban atmospheric air of Harare (Zimbabwe).

    PubMed

    Kuvarega, A T; Taru, P

    2008-09-01

    Levels of TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) as well as levels of Pb, Co, Ni and Cd in TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) have been determined in atmospheric particulates collected at Loius Mountbatten School (Harare). The samples were collected for a period of 6 months from July to December 2002. The average levels of TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) measured at the site are 106.11, 59.70 and 40.55 mg m(-3) respectively. The average level of TSP at Loius Mountbatten School is 106.11 mg m(-3), which is higher than the annual WHO guideline limit of 90 mg m(-3). The average level of PM(10) measured at Loius Mountbatten School is 59.70 mg m(-3), and is higher than the US-EPA and UK-EU guideline limit of 50 mg m(-3). The average level of PM(2.5) measured at the site are also higher than the WHO and US-EPA annual guideline limit of 15 mg m(-3). The analysis of metal concentrations in TSP, PM(10) and PM(2.5) was done using Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GFAAS). The analysis showed the following average elemental concentrations: 0.157 mg Pb m(-3) in TSP, 0.166 mg Pb m(-3) in PM(10), 0.185 mg Pb m(-3) in PM(2.5), 0.009 mg Co m(-3) in TSP, 0.007 mg Co m(-3) in PM(10), 0.011 mg Co m(-3) in PM(2.5), 0.223 mg Ni m(-3) in TSP, 0.166 mg Ni m(-3) in PM(10), 0.180 mg Ni m(-3) in PM(2.5) and 0.005 mg Cd m(-3) in TSP, 0.006 mg Cd m(-3) in PM(10), 0.005 mg Cd m(-3) in PM(2.5). The levels of Pb and Ni were generally higher than those of Co and Cd and this could have been due to high traffic volumes and various industrial activities in the Workington Industrial Area.

  13. Synthesis of the Stereoisomeric Clusters 1,2-Os3(CO)10(trans-dpmn) and 1,2-Os3(CO)10(cis-dpmn) [where dpmn = 2,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)-5-norbornene]: DFT Evaluation of the Isomeric Clusters 1,2-Os3(CO)10(dpmn) and Isomer-Dependent Diphosphine Ligand Activation

    DOE PAGES

    Yang, Li; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Wang, Xiaoping; ...

    2014-07-23

    The bicyclic diphosphines trans- and cis-2,3-bis(diphenylphosphinomethyl)-5-norbornene (dpmn) react with 1,2-Os3(CO)10(MeCN)2 (1) to furnish the corresponding ligand-bridged clusters Os3(CO)10(trans-dpmn) (2) and Os3(CO)10(cis-dpmn) (3). Both new products have been isolated and the molecular structures established by X-ray diffraction analyses. The dihydroxyl-bridged cluster 1,2-Os3(CO)8(μ-OH)2(cis-dpmn) (4), which accompanied the formation of 3 in one reaction, has been isolated and characterized by mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. Whereas cluster 2 is stable in toluene at 373 K, 3 is thermally sensitive under identical conditions and undergoes loss of CO (2 equiv), coupled with the activation of three norbornene C-H bonds and one P-C(phenyl) bond, tomore » furnish the dihydride cluster H2Os3(CO)8[μ3-2-PhPC-3-endo-Ph2PCH2(C7H7)] (5). The solid-state structure of 5 confirms the multiple activation of the cis-dpmn ligand and accompanying formation of the face-capping 2-PhPC-3-endo-Ph2PCH2(C7H7) moiety in the product. DFT calculations on 2 and 3 indicate that the former cluster is the thermodynamically more stable isomer, and the conversion of 3→ 5 + 2CO + benzene is computed to be exergonic by 12.7 kcal/mol and is entropically favored due to the release of the CO and benzene by-products.« less

  14. Mechano-thermal synthesis of nanocrystalline RuSr2Eu1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ materials: Micro-structural, optical and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balamurugan, S.; Hussain, A. K. Jakkir; Parthiban, P.; Satya, A. T.; Janaki, J.

    2016-05-01

    The nanocrystalline RuSr2Eu1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ (referred to as Ru1222Eu) materials were successfully prepared by mechano-thermal route and studied the Ru1222Eu materials by powder XRD, FT-IR, SEM-EDX and ac-susceptibility measurements. The as-milled powder annealed at 950 - 1000°C is crystallized in nearly single tetragonal phase of Ru1222Eu materials with average crystalline size of ~40 nm. Agglomeration of fine particles is seen through SEM micro-images in the Ru1222Eu phase materials. Contrary to magneto-superconductivity, a magnetic ordering is seen at ~60 K for Ru1222Eu phase under low applied field of 0.5 Oe at 10 Hz.

  15. Estimating daily PM2.5 and PM10 across the complex geo-climate region of Israel using MAIAC satellite-based AOD data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloog, Itai; Sorek-Hamer, Meytar; Lyapustin, Alexei; Coull, Brent; Wang, Yujie; Just, Allan C.; Schwartz, Joel; Broday, David M.

    2015-12-01

    Estimates of exposure to PM2.5 are often derived from geographic characteristics based on land-use regression or from a limited number of fixed ground monitors. Remote sensing advances have integrated these approaches with satellite-based measures of aerosol optical depth (AOD), which is spatially and temporally resolved, allowing greater coverage for PM2.5 estimations. Israel is situated in a complex geo-climatic region with contrasting geographic and weather patterns, including both dark and bright surfaces within a relatively small area. Our goal was to examine the use of MODIS-based MAIAC data in Israel, and to explore the reliability of predicted PM2.5 and PM10 at a high spatiotemporal resolution. We applied a three stage process, including a daily calibration method based on a mixed effects model, to predict ground PM2.5 and PM10 over Israel. We later constructed daily predictions across Israel for 2003-2013 using spatial and temporal smoothing, to estimate AOD when satellite data were missing. Good model performance was achieved, with out-of-sample cross validation R2 values of 0.79 and 0.72 for PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Model predictions had little bias, with cross-validated slopes (predicted vs. observed) of 0.99 for both the PM2.5 and PM10 models. To our knowledge, this is the first study that utilizes high resolution 1 km MAIAC AOD retrievals for PM prediction while accounting for geo-climate complexities, such as experienced in Israel. This novel model allowed the reconstruction of long- and short-term spatially resolved exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 in Israel, which could be used in the future for epidemiological studies.

  16. Synthesis, Structure, and Electrochemical Properties of Na3MB5O10 (M = Fe, Co) Containing M(2+) in Tetrahedral Coordination.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Florian; Rousse, Gwenaëlle; Sougrati, Moulay Tahar; Dalla Corte, Daniel Alves; Courty, Matthieu; Dominko, Robert; Tarascon, Jean-Marie

    2016-12-19

    In the search for new cathode materials for sodium ion batteries, the exploration of polyanionic compounds has led to attractive candidates in terms of high redox potential and cycling stability. Herein we report the synthesis of the two new sodium transition-metal pentaborates Na3MB5O10 (M = Fe, Co), where Na3FeB5O10 represents the first sodium iron borate reported at present. By means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, we reveal a layered structure consisting of pentaborate B5O10 groups connected through M(2+) in tetrahedral coordination, providing possible three-dimensional Na-ion migration pathways. Inspired by these structural features, we examined the electrochemical performances versus sodium and showed that Na3FeB5O10 is active at an average potential of 2.5 V vs Na(+)/Na(0), correlated to the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) redox couple as deduced from ex situ Mössbauer measurements. This contrasts with the case for Na3CoB5O10, which is electrochemically inactive. Moreover, we show that their electrochemical performances are kinetically limited, as deduced by complementary ac/dc conductivity measurements, hence confirming once again the complexity in designing high-performance borate-based electrodes.

  17. 40 CFR 53.34 - Test procedure for methods for PM 10 and Class I methods for PM 2.5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) AMBIENT AIR MONITORING REFERENCE AND EQUIVALENT METHODS... for PM 10 methods and for Class I methods for PM 2.5 when the relationship between: (1) Measurements made by a candidate method, and (2) Measurements made by a corresponding reference method...

  18. Linear and extended: a common polyglutamine conformation recognized by the three antibodies MW1, 1C2 and 3B5H10.

    PubMed

    Klein, Fabrice A C; Zeder-Lutz, Gabrielle; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Mitschler, André; Katz, Aline; Eberling, Pascal; Mandel, Jean-Louis; Podjarny, Alberto; Trottier, Yvon

    2013-10-15

    A long-standing pathomechanistic model proposes that the polyglutamine (polyQ)-length-dependent toxicity threshold observed in all polyQ diseases is triggered by a conformational change within the monomer that occurs only above a certain polyQ length. If true, this yet undefined and elusive mutant-specific toxic conformation would constitute a direct therapeutic target. Three anti-polyQ antibodies-MW1, 1C2 and 3B5H10-have been extensively used to probe the conformation of polyQ. The crystal structure of the MW1 epitope reveals a linear, non-pathogenic polyQ. In contrast, although the detailed structure of its epitope is unknown, the 3B5H10 antibody is widely advertised and used as a conformational antibody that recognizes the toxic conformation of expanded polyQ. We solved the crystal structure of the 1C2 antigen-binding domain (1C2-Fab) and performed a direct comparison between the 1C2, MW1 and 3B5H10 structures. The MW1 and 1C2 antibodies have similar sequences and structures, consistent with their binding to short polyQ and their polyQ length-discrimination properties. Unexpectedly, the 3B5H10 antibody also shares striking features with MW1 and 1C2, which prompted us to revisit its binding properties. We show that the 3B5H10 epitope is actually a short, non-pathogenic polyQ. All three antibodies MW1, 1C2 and 3B5H10 interact similarly with polyQ of various lengths, and bind small polyQ epitopes in similar linear and extended conformations. Together with studies published during the recent years, our work argues against the hypothesis that a mutant-specific conformation in monomeric polyQ molecules is the toxic entity responsible for polyQ diseases.

  19. 2-Chloro-N-{5-[(4R,5R,10S)-dehydro­abiet-4-yl]-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-yl}benzamide

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Qijin; Duan, Wengui; Ma, Xianli; Huang, Jianxin; Ma, Zhen

    2011-01-01

    There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H32ClN3OS (systematic name: 2-chloro-N-{5-[(1R,4aS,10aR)-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octa­hydro­phenanthren-1-yl]-1,3,4-thia­diazol-2-yl}benzamide). In each mol­ecule, the cyclo­hexyl ring attached to the thia­diazole fragment adopts a classic chair conformation with two of its two methyl groups in the axial positions. In the crystal, pairs of inter­molecular N—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into centrosymmetric dimers, which are further linked via C—H⋯π inter­actions. PMID:21754102

  20. Temporal variation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM10 and PM2.5 collected in Northern Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Valle-Hernández, B L; Mugica-Alvarez, V; Salinas-Talavera, E; Amador-Muñoz, O; Murillo-Tovar, M A; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; De Vizcaya-Ruíz, A

    2010-10-15

    With the aim to determine the presence of individual nitro-PAH contained in particles in the atmosphere of Mexico City, a monitoring campaign for particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) was carried out in Northern Mexico City, from April 2006 to February 2007. The PM(10) annual median concentration was 65.2μgm(-3) associated to 7.6μgm(-3) of solvent-extractable organic matter (SEOM) corresponding to 11.4% of the PM(10) concentration and 38.6μgm(-3) with 5.9μgm(-3) SEOM corresponding to 15.2% for PM(2.5). PM concentration and SEOM varied with the season and the particle size. The quantification of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) was developed through the standards addition method under two schemes: reference standard with and without matrix, the former giving the best results. The recovery percentages varied with the extraction method within the 52 to 97% range depending on each nitro-PAH. The determination of the latter was effected with and without sample purification, also termed fractioning, giving similar results. 8 nitro-PAH were quantified, and their sum ranged from 111 to 819pgm(-3) for PM(10) and from 58 to 383pgm(-3) for PM(2.5), depending on the season. The greatest concentration was for 9-Nitroanthracene in PM(10) and PM(2.5), detected during the cold-dry season, with a median (10th-90th percentiles) concentration in 235pgm(-3) (66-449pgm(-3)) for PM(10) and 73pgm(-3) (18-117pgm(-3)) for PM(2.5). The correlation among mass concentrations of the nitro-PAH and criteria pollutants was statistically significant for some nitro-PAH with PM(10), SEOM in PM(10), SEOM in PM(2.5), NO(X), NO(2) and CO, suggesting either sources, primary or secondary origin. The measured concentrations of nitro-PAH were higher than those reported in other countries, but lower than those from Chinese cities. Knowledge of nitro-PAH atmospheric concentrations can aid during the surveillance of diseases (cardiovascular and cancer risk) associated with these

  1. Concentrations and light absorption characteristics of carbonaceous aerosol in PM2.5 and PM10 of Lhasa city, the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoliu; Chen, Pengfei; Kang, Shichang; Yan, Fangping; Hu, Zhaofu; Qu, Bin; Sillanpää, Mika

    2016-02-01

    Light absorption properties of carbonaceous aerosol strongly influence the Earth's radiative balance, yet the related knowledge is limited for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the highest and largest plateau in the world. In this study, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of PM2.5 and PM10 of Lhasa collected from May 2013 to March 2014 were studied. It showed that daily-average concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC of PM2.5 and PM10 were lower than those of other megacities. Lhasa PM2.5 was characterized by low OC/EC ratio (1.46 ± 0.55), which was similar to that of Lhasa roadside PM2.5 (1.25 ± 0.45), reflecting mainly direct influence of primary emissions and less secondary formation. Hence, although Lhasa atmosphere is relatively clean, it is intensively influenced by local vehicle emissions. Mass absorption cross-section of EC (MACEC) for both PM2.5 and PM10 at 632 nm were 7.19 ± 1.19 m2 g-1 and 7.98 ± 2.32 m2 g-1, respectively, both of which had similar variation patterns to OC/EC and secondary OC (SOC)/OC, indicating that the increase of MACEC might be caused by coating with organic aerosol. Additionally, the loading of EC for both PM2.5 and PM10 showed logarithmic relationships with those of optical attenuation (ATN) of EC, implying that the shadowing effect enhanced logarithmic with increased EC concentration. MAC of WSOC at 365 nm for PM2.5 (0.74 ± 0.22 m2 g-1) and PM10 (0.78 ± 0.21 m2 g-1) were also close to reported values of other cities mainly influenced by fossil combustion. Additionally, attenuation at 365 nm of WSOC of both PM2.5 and PM10 showed the same relationship with their WSOC concentrations, implying no difference for light absorption properties of WSOC for these two grain sizes.

  2. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. 73.3117 Section 73.3117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this...

  3. 21 CFR 73.3117 - 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho[2,3-a:2′,3′-i] naphth [2′,3′:6,7] indolo [2,3-c] carbazole-5,10,15,17,22...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,23-Dihydrodinaphtho naphth indolo carbazole-5,10,15,17,22,24-hexone. 73.3117 Section 73.3117 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect. (2) Authorization for this...

  4. 5 CFR 1604.10 - Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loans. 1604.10 Section 1604.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD UNIFORMED SERVICES ACCOUNTS § 1604.10 Loans. A service member may be eligible for a TSP loan as described at 5 CFR part 1655, with the...

  5. 5 CFR 1604.10 - Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loans. 1604.10 Section 1604.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD UNIFORMED SERVICES ACCOUNTS § 1604.10 Loans. A service member may be eligible for a TSP loan as described at 5 CFR part 1655, with the...

  6. 5 CFR 1604.10 - Loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans. 1604.10 Section 1604.10 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD UNIFORMED SERVICES ACCOUNTS § 1604.10 Loans. A service member may be eligible for a TSP loan as described at 5 CFR part 1655, with the...

  7. Decoupling of the CuO2 plane and superconductivity in Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2(Ca2-ySry)Cu3O10-δ(y = 0-0.4) samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nawazish A.; Usman Muzaffar, M.

    2016-05-01

    Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2(Ca2-ySry)Cu3O10-δ(y = 0-0.4) samples have been synthesized at normal pressure at 860∘C. The main objectives of these experiments to study the role of inter-plane decoupling in suppressing the superconductivity of high temperature superconductors (HTSC). These samples have shown orthorhombic crystal structure and the c-axis length increases with increased Sr-doping. All the samples have shown metallic variations of resistivity (ρ) from room temperature down to the onset of superconductivity. The magnitude of the superconductivity is suppressed and the apical oxygen modes are hardened with Sr-doping. These studies have shown that Sr-doping promotes decoupling of conducting CuO2 planes which suppress the superconducting properties of final compound. The excess conductivity analyses have shown increases in the width of two-dimensional (2D) Lawrence-Doniach (LD) regime with Sr-doping. The coherence length along the c-axis ξc(0), the inter-layer coupling J, the phase relaxation time of the carriers τφ and the Fermi velocity vF of superconductor carriers is suppressed. The underlying reason for the suppression of superconductor properties is the decrease in the density of carriers in the superconductor planes. However, the values of Bc0(T), Bc1(T) and Jc(0) have been found to increase with the increased Sr-doping, which is suggested to be originating from the enhancement in the flux pinning character which is induced by Sr-doping. The values of magnetic field penetration depth λp.d and the Ginzburg-Landau (GL) parameter κ decrease with Sr-doping and it is also suggested to be originating from the increase of flux pinning character of the samples with Sr-doping.

  8. Assessment of the long-term impacts of PM10 and PM2.5 particles from construction works on surrounding areas.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant; Marsh, Daniel; Fuller, Gary

    2016-02-01

    Construction activities are common across cities; however, the studies assessing their contribution to airborne PM10 (≤10 μm) and PM2.5 (≤2.5 μm) particles on the surrounding air quality are limited. Herein, we assessed the impact of PM10 and PM2.5 arising from construction works in and around London. Measurements were carried out at 17 different monitoring stations around three construction sites between January 2002 and December 2013. Tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM 1400) and OSIRIS (2315) particle monitors were used to measure the PM10 and PM2.5 fractions in the 0.1-10 μm size range along with the ambient meteorological data. The data was analysed using bivariate concentration polar plots and k-means clustering techniques. Daily mean concentrations of PM10 were found to exceed the European Union target limit value of 50 μg m(-3) at 11 monitoring stations but remained within the allowable 35 exceedences per year, except at two monitoring stations. In general, construction works were found to influence the downwind concentrations of PM10 relatively more than PM2.5. Splitting of the data between working (0800-1800 h; local time) and non-working (1800-0800 h) periods showed about 2.2-fold higher concentrations of PM10 during working hours when compared with non-working hours. However, these observations did not allow to conclude that this increase was from the construction site emissions. Together, the polar concentration plots and the k-means cluster analysis applied to a pair of monitoring stations across the construction sites (i.e. one in upwind and the other in downwind) confirmed the contribution of construction sources on the measured concentrations. Furthermore, pairing the monitoring stations downwind of the construction sites showed a logarithmic decrease (with R(2) about 0.9) in the PM10 and PM2.5 concentration with distance. Our findings clearly indicate an impact of construction activities on the nearby downwind areas and a need

  9. Emission and profile characteristic of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in PM2.5 and PM10 from stationary sources based on dilution sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Li, Zhiyong; Lu, Bing; Bai, Zhipeng

    2013-10-01

    The mass concentrations and profile characteristic for 18 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM2.5 and PM10 from stack gases for six types of stationary sources in Shandong Province, China were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method from February to March in 2010. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 from the six types of stationary sources varied in 8.2-79.4 mg m-3 and 23.3-156.7 mg m-3, respectively. The total mass concentrations of analyzed PAHs in PM2.5 and PM10 were in the ranges of 0.40-94.35 μg m-3 and 9.16-122.91 μg m-3. The most toxic ashes were from sinter and coke oven for both PM2.5 and PM10 with high carcinogenic PAHs concentrations. BbF, Phe, NaP, BghiP, Pyr, BaP and BeP were abundant which was different from formers and one of the key reasons may be the differences of sampling methods. Diversities in PAHs compositions existed between fly ashes within PM2.5 and PM10 fractions for coke oven according to coefficient of divergence (CD) values. PAHs profiles for PM10 emitted from coke oven were different from those of other stationary sources (with CD values higher than 0.35) and for PM2.5, it was the same for sinter (with most CD values close to 0.30). There existed similar PAHs markers for fine particles emitted from stationary sources excepted for the sinter. For PM10, PAHs markers were primary 3-ring PAHs except for the coke oven with BbF, IND and BghiP as its signatures. Diagnostic ratios of BaA/(BaA + Chr), Flu/(Flu + Pyr), BaP/(BaP + BeP), BeP/BghiP and IND/(IND + BghiP) could be not well distinguished for the six types of stationary sources with the maximum/minimum ratios lower than 2 for both PM2.5 and PM10 of fly ashes which should be not used for source identification studies. The mass concentrations and source profiles of PAHs should be updated timely for size-differentiated fly ashes from various stationary sources by dilution sampling method.

  10. Combined optical parametric oscillator with continuous tuning of radiation wavelength in the spectral range 2.510.8 μm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolker, D. B.; Sherstov, I. V.; Kostyukova, N. Yu.; Boyko, A. A.; Zenov, K. G.; Pustovalova, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    A combined optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with continuous tuning of the radiation wavelength in the spectral range 2.510.8 μm, optically pumped with the radiation from a Q-switched Nd : YLF laser (1.053 μm), is developed and tested. The oscillation is provided by an OPO1 based on a MgO : PPLN ‘fan-out’ structure in the spectral region 2.5–4.5 μm and by an OPO2 based on HgGa2S4 nonlinear crystals in the spectral region 4.18–10.8 μm, respectively. The angles of phase matching are measured for the HgGa2S4 crystals in the spectral range 4.18–10.8 μm for the type II conversion (eo-e), which virtually coincide with the calculated ones. The experimental absorption spectra of a gas mixture in the range 2.510.8 μm obtained using a gas-filled sealed-off photoacoustic cell are presented.

  11. The effect of outdoor air and indoor human activity on mass concentrations of PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Branis, Martin; Rezácová, Pavla; Domasová, Markéta

    2005-10-01

    The 12-h mass concentration of PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1) was measured in a lecturing room by means of three co-located Harvard impactors. The filters were changed at 8 AM and at 8 PM to cover the periods of presence and absence of students. Concentrations were assessed by gravimetry. Ambient PM(10) data were available for corresponding 12-h intervals from the nearest state air-quality-monitoring network station. The data were pooled into four periods according to the presence and absence of students-Monday-Thursday day (workday daytime), Monday-Thursday night (workday night), Friday-Sunday day (weekend daytime), and Friday-Sunday night (weekend night). Average indoor workday daytime concentrations were 42.3, 21.9 and 13.7 microgm(-3), workday night were 20.9, 19.1 and 15.2 microgm(-3), weekend daytime were 21.9, 18.1 and 11.4 microgm(-3), and weekend night were 24.5, 21.3, and 15.6 microgm(-3) for PM(10), PM(2.5), and PM(1), respectively. The highest 12-h mean, median, and maximum (42.3, 43.0, and 76.2 microgm(-3), respectively) indoor concentrations were recorded on workdays during the daytime for PM(10). The statistically significant (r=0.68,P<0.0009) correlation between the number of students per hour per day and the indoor coarse fraction calculated as PM(10--2.5) during daytime on workdays indicates that the presence of people is an important source of coarse particles indoor. On workdays, the daytime PM(10) indoor/outdoor ratio was positively associated (r=0.93) with an increasing indoor coarse fraction (PM(10--2.5)), also indicating that an important portion of indoor PM(10) had its source inside the classroom. With the exception of the calculated coarse fraction (PM(10--2.5)), all of the measured indoor particulate matter fractions were significantly highly correlated with outdoor PM(10) and negatively correlated with wind velocity, showing that outdoor levels of particles influence their indoor concentrations.

  12. Theoretical investigations of a high density cage compound 10-(1-nitro-1, 2, 3, 4-tetraazol-5-yl)) methyl-2, 4, 6, 8, 12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-ying; Du, Hong-chen; Wang, Fang; Gong, Xue-dong; Huang, Yin-sheng

    2012-01-01

    A new polynitro cage compound with the framework of HNIW and a tetrazole unit, i.e., 10-(1-nitro-1, 2, 3, 4-tetraazol-5-yl)) methyl-2, 4, 6, 8, 12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (NTz-HNIW) has been proposed and studied by density functional theory (DFT) and molecular mechanics methods. Properties such as IR spectrum, heat of formation, thermodynamic properties, and crystal structure were predicted. The compound belongs to the Pbca space group, with the lattice parameters a = 15.07 Å, b = 12.56 Å, c = 18.34 Å, Z = 8, and ρ = 1.990 g·cm(-3). The stability of the compound was evaluated by the bond dissociation energies and results showed that the first step of pyrolysis is the rupture of the N-NO(2) bond in the side chain. The detonation properties were estimated by the Kamlet-Jacobs equations based on the calculated crystal density and heat of formation, and the results were 9.240 km·s(-1) for detonation velocity and 40.136 GPa for detonation pressure. The designed compound has high thermal stability and good detonation properties and is probably a promising high energy density compound (HEDC).

  13. Investigation of optical and electrical properties of amorphous Se{sub 95−x}S{sub x}Zn{sub 5}(x=0.2, 2, 5 and 10) thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Nasir, Mohd Ahmad, Shabir; Zulfequar, M.

    2015-08-28

    In this study, we reported that the optical and electrical analysis of amorphous Se{sub 90-x}S{sub x}Zn{sub 5} (x=0.2, 2, 5, 10) thin films. Bulk samples of the investigated material were prepared by melt quenching technique. Thin films of ~ 300nm thickness were deposited on cleaned glass substrates by thermal evaporation technique. The morphological study of the investigated material in powder form carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirms the disorder of the material increases at lower sulfur doping (up to 5%) whereas at higher (S) doping (10%) the defects of the material decreases. The optical parameters were estimated from optical absorption spectra data measured from UV-Vis-spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 200-900 nm. It was found that the value of optical band gap (E{sub g}) of the investigated thin films decreases up to lower S doping and increases at higher (S) doping. The other optical parameters such as absorption coefficient (α) and extinction coefficient (K) increases up to lower S doping and decreases at higher S doping. This remarkable change in the values of optical parameters was interpreted on the basis of model proposed by Davis and Mott. Electrical parameters of the investigated thin films were carried out in the temperature range 309-370 K. Analysis of data shows activation energy decreases with the increase of concentration of (S) increases up to 5% and at 10% it increases again.

  14. Synthesis of a novel 5a,10a-dihydroxy-5aH-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f] indeno[1,2-b]benzofuran-10(10aH)-one their XRD, FTIR, NMR and DFT studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Komal; Khurana, Jitender M.

    2017-02-01

    A novel compound 5a,10a-dihydroxy-5aH-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-f]indeno[1,2-b]benzofuran-10 (10aH)-one (1) was synthesized and its structure has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, FTIR and NMR studies. X-ray studies revealed the presence of π-π stacking and intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions which stabilises the molecular lattice. A detailed interpretation of vibrational spectra has been carried out on the basis of peak positions and relative intensities. The optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and NMR analysis of the compound in the ground state have also been calculated by the density function theory method (DFT) with 6-311G (d,p) basis set. All the theoretically obtained data has been compared with experimental data and it shows good agreement. TDDFT calculations were used to compare the experimental and theoretical absorption spectra. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. In addition, the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis of the title molecule has been investigated using theoretical calculations.

  15. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin.

  16. Indomethacin-loaded polymer nanocarriers based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane): preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P; Nistor, Manuela T; Tartau, Liliana

    2012-05-01

    The study is focused on the development of copolymers based on poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro [5.5]-undecane). The macromolecular compounds were synthesized by dispersion polymerization in the presence of the radical initiator 4,4'-azobis(cyanopentanoic acid) and using sodium lauryl sulfate as tensioactive compound and poly(aspartic acid) (PAS) as protective colloid. PAS presents biocompatibility and biodegradability, and assures the increase of the absorbent character for the new synthesized network, and also, can supplement the hydrogen bonds contributing to the stability of the achieved complexes. The prepared polymeric networks were characterized by FTIR, SEM, and thermogravimetric analyses. The dependence on the pH of the swelling degree equilibrium was also evaluated correlated also with different temperature values. The poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro [5.5]-undecane) copolymers were evaluated as matrix for indomethacin (INN) as model drug loaded onto these polymeric networks. The evaluation of the homogeneity distribution of the INN drug in polymeric network was made by near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) and correspondingly statistical analysis. The pharmacokinetic profile was achieved performing the in vitro release of the INN drug from the polymeric network. The data resulted from the in vivo experimental studies, respectively the biocompatibility tests, somatic nociceptive experimental model (Tail flick test) and visceral nociceptive experimental model (Writhing test)-are also reported in the study.

  17. Thermal Emission Spectroscopy (5.2 To 38 Microns) And Analysis Of 10 Near-earth Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Riddhi; Emery, J.; Cruikshank, D.; Mueller, M.; Delbo, M.; Trilling, D. E.; Mommert, M.

    2010-10-01

    Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs- 0.983AU5.2-38 m thermal emission spectra[R 60-130] have been fitted with models of the thermal continuum employing the Near Earth Asteroid Thermal Model [NEATM](Harris 1998) and a Thermophysical model. Simultaneous measurements of the asteroid flux in the thermal infrared, combined with a thermal model, allow both the diameter and the albedo to be determined. The sample of Asteroids to be a part of this study are 1602 Geographos, 1580 Betulia, 433 Eros, 2212 Hephaistos, 1685 Toro, 1917 Cuyo, 1566 Icarus, 3200 Phaethon, 7092 Cadmus and 1866 Sisyphus. This study will give in-depth understanding of the applicability of the NEATM for NEAs observed at higher phase angles, having larger thermal inertia than main-belt asteroids, and/or displaying varied geometries. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under a contract with NASA.

  18. Comparative PM10-PM2.5 source contribution study at rural, urban and industrial sites during PM episodes in Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sergio; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Viana, María-Mar; Alarcón, Marta; Mantilla, Enrique; Ruiz, C R

    2004-07-26

    In this study a set of 340 PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected throughout 16 months at rural, an urban kerbside and an industrial background site (affected by the emissions from the ceramic manufacture and other activities) were interpreted. On the regional scale, the main PM10 sources were mineral dust (mainly Al2O3, Fe, Ti, Sr, CaCO3, Mg, Mn and K), emissions derived from power generation (SO4=, V, Zn and Ni), vehicle exhausts (organic and elemental carbon, NO3- and trace elements) and marine aerosol (Na, Cl and Mg). The latter was not identified in PM2.5. At the industrial site, additional PM10 sources were identified (tile covering in the ceramic production, petrochemical emissions and bio-mass burning from a large orange tree cultivation area). The contribution of each PM source to PM10 and PM2.5 levels experiences significant variations depending on the type of PM episode (Local-urban mainly in autumn-winter, regional mainly in summer, African or Atlantic episode), which are discussed in this study. The results show that it would be very difficult to meet the EU limit values for PM10 established for 2010. The annual mean PM levels are 22.0 microg PM10/m3 at the rural and 49.5 microg PM10/m3 and 33.9 microg PM2.5/m3 at the urban site. The natural contribution in this region, estimated at 6 microg/m3 of natural mineral dust (resulting from the African events and natural resuspension) and 2 microg/m3 of marine aerosol, accounts for 40% of the 2010 EU annual limit value (20 microg PM10/m3). Mineral dust concentrations at the urban and industrial sites are higher than those at the rural site because of the urban road dust and the ceramic-production contributions, respectively. At the urban site, the vehicle exhaust contribution (17 microg/m3) alone is very close to the 2010 EU PM10 limit value. At the rural site, the African dust is the main contributor to PM10 levels during the highest daily mean PM10 events (100th-97th percentile range). At the urban site, the

  19. Nano-network with dual temperature and pH responsiveness based on copolymers of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, Aurica P.; Nita, Loredana E.; Nistor, Manuela T.

    2011-12-01

    This study refers to the synthesis of a nano-network with dual temperature and pH responsiveness based on the 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) copolymers with a comonomer with spiroacetal moiety and crosslinking capacity, namely 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5.5]-undecane (U). The copolymers were synthesized by radical emulsion polymerization, using 4,4'-azobis(cyanopentanoic acid) as initiator, in the presence of sodium lauryl sulfate as tensioactive agent and poly(vinyl alcohol) as protective colloid. Three copolymer variants were taken into study resulted from the different ratio between the comonomers (HEMA/U), which was about 98/2, 95/5, and 90/10, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR and thermal analysis. The copolymers sensitivity was evidenced by studying the evolution of the hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential of the polymeric particles as a function of pH. Thus, the particles size increases with the comonomer amount, from 193 nm in case of the homopolymer up to 253 nm for the copolymer with maximum content of the comonomer (10%). The increase of the particle hydrodynamic radius with the growth of temperature was also put into evidence.

  20. Effects of 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages on conception rates of Holstein cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    DeJarnette, J M; McCleary, C R; Leach, M A; Moreno, J F; Nebel, R L; Marshall, C E

    2010-09-01

    The objective was to compare conceptions rates of Holstein cows and heifers after artificial insemination (AI) with 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm or 15x10(6) conventional sperm. Ejaculates collected from 7 Holstein sires were cryopreserved conventionally at 15x10(6) sperm per dose or sorted to 90% purity for X-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa using flow cytometry and cryopreserved at either 2.1 or 3.5x10(6) sperm per dose. All treatments were processed in an egg-yolk (20%), Tris, glycerol (7%) extender and packaged in color-coded 0.25-mL French straws. Straws (n=700 straws/dosage per sire) were packaged and distributed in aliquots of 12 (4 straws/sperm dosage) to 69 Holstein herds with an across-herd goal of achieving approximately 50% use in heifers and cows. Straw color was recorded in the on-farm recordkeeping system at the time of AI and retrieved by electronic download. Data for cows and heifers were analyzed separately. Among heifers, 6,268 services were retrieved from 45 herds (298+/-4.2 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 244 to 344). Conception rate of heifers was influenced by the sire by treatment interaction. Conception rate of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages were comparable in 6 of 7 sires. Conception rate of both sex-sorted dosages were less than those of conventional semen for 6 of 7 sires. Across sires, heifer conception rates for 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosages and 15x10(6) conventional dosages were 44, 46, and 61%, respectively. Among cows, 5,466 services were retrieved from 52 herds (260+/-3.3 services/sperm dose per sire; range: 236 to 289). Conception rates of cows were influenced by herd, sire, and sperm dosage. Conception rates of the 2.1 and 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were comparable for all 7 sires. Conception rates of 2.1x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of conventional semen for 4 of 7 sires and conception rates of the 3.5x10(6) sex-sorted sperm dosage were less than those of

  1. The Research on the Bionic Friction Layers of TiAl-10wt.%V2O5 Nanowires at the Applied Loads of 6-24 N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kang; Shi, Xiaoliang; Zou, Jialiang; Radwan, Amr Rady; Ibrahim, Ahmed Mohamed Mahmoud; Li, Xuewu; Huang, Yuchun; Shen, Qiao

    2016-12-01

    The objective of searching the optimum applied load was to minimize friction and decrease wear in mechanical moving components. The friction and wear behaviors of TiAl-10wt.%V2O5 nanowires (TiAl-10wt.%V2O5) were evaluated sliding against the fixed Al2O3 balls with the Vickers hardness of 18.07 GPa at the applied loads of 6-24 N. The testing results showed that the smaller friction coefficient and wear rate of TiAl-10wt.%V2O5 were obtained at 18 N, if compared to those at 6, 12 and 24 N. The smaller friction coefficient and wear rate were mainly attributed to the forming of cambiform structure of large crystalline grain, the higher totals of oxide interionic potential and the higher thickness of friction layer at 18 N, if compared to those at the other applied loads. It was obvious that the applied load of 18 N was reasonable for obtaining the lower sliding friction coefficient and the less wear rate of TiAl-10wt.%V2O5.

  2. The High Arctic Magnetic High - The Geophysical Manifestation of a Large (1.36 x 10e6 km2) and Voluminous (5-10 x 10e6 km3) Igneous Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saltus, Richard; Oakey, Gordon; Miller, Elizabeth; Jackson, Ruth

    2013-04-01

    The High Arctic Magnetic High (HAMH) dominates the magnetic anomaly field of the Earth north of about 75°N; this magnetic domain consists of very high amplitude magnetic highs and lows with variable orientations. The HAMH is visible on satellite magnetic compilations (e.g., MF6) with anomaly amplitudes greater than 200 nT indicating it is a globally significant feature. The magnetic potential of this magnetic feature is a single large intensity high indicative of a large volume of magnetic material in the crust. The map area of this magnetic domain is roughly 1.36 x 10e6 km2. Geographically the HAMH lies within the Amerasian Basin adjacent to the Lomonosov Ridge, encompasses the region of the Alpha and Mendeleev Ridges, and extends beneath the northern portions of the Canada Basin. Ocean floor geomorphology, limited seismic and sonobouy data, sparse dredge samples, and dated samples from the perimeter of the Arctic Ocean are consistent with the interpretation of the HAMH as the geophysical manifestation of a Large Igneous Province. The designation "High Arctic Large Igneous Province (HALIP)" has been applied to portions of the Arctic perimeter based on geologic mapping and sampling. The designation "Alpha/Mendeleev Large Igneous Province (AMLIP)" has been applied to the offshore Alpha/Mendeleev region (e.g., Grantz et al., 2009) with boundaries defined, in large part, by magnetic anomaly patterns. We have constructed 2D and 3D models of the HAMH to investigate the structure and geometry of this significant crustal feature. We estimate the overall volume of magnetic material as between 5-10 x 10e6 km3. The area and volume of this feature are comparable with estimates for the Deccan Traps and the North Atlantic Igneous Province, but are significantly smaller than the Kerguellen or Ontong Java Plateaus (based on tables in Coffin and Eldholm, 1994). In detail we find significant correlation between shorter wavelength portions of this magnetic feature and the

  3. Synthesis, structure and properties of new chain cuprates, Na 3Cu 2O 4 and Na 8Cu 5O 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofin, Mikhail; Peters, Eva-Maria; Jansen, Martin

    2005-12-01

    Na3Cu2O4 and Na8Cu5O10 were prepared via the azide/nitrate route from stoichiometric mixtures of the precursors CuO, NaN3 and NaNO3. Single crystals have been grown by subsequent annealing of the as prepared powders at 500 °C for 2000 h in silver crucibles, which were sealed in glass ampoules under dried Ar. According to the X-ray analysis of the crystal structures (Na3Cu2O4: P21/n, Z = 4, a = 5.7046 (2), b = 11.0591 (4), c=8.0261(3) Å, β = 108.389 (1) °, 2516 independent reflections, R1(all)=0.0813, wR2 (all)=0.1223; Na8Cu5O10: Cm, Z = 2, a = 8.228 (1), b = 13.929 (2), c = 5.707 (1) Å, β = 111.718 (2) °, 2949 independent reflections, R1(all)=0.0349, wR2 (all)=0.0850), the main feature of both crystal structures are CuO2 chains built up from planar, edge-sharing CuO4 squares. From the analysis of the Cu-O bond lengths, the valence states of either +2 or +3 can be unambiguously assigned to each copper atom. In Na3Cu2O4 these ions alternate in the chains, in Na8Cu5O10 the periodically repeated part consists of five atoms according to CuII-CuII-CuIII-CuII-CuIII. The magnetic susceptibilities show the dominance of antiferromagnetic interactions. At high temperatures the compounds exhibit Curie-Weiss behaviour (Na3Cu2O4: μ = 1.7μB, Θ = - 160 K, Na8Cu5O10: μ = 1.8μB, Θ = - 58 K, magnetic moments per divalent copper ion). Antiferromagmetic ordering is observed to occur in these compounds below 13 K (Na3Cu2O4) and 24 K (Na8Cu5O10).

  4. Anthropogenic and natural influence on the PM(10) and PM(2.5) aerosol in Madrid (Spain). Analysis of high concentration episodes.

    PubMed

    Artíñano, Begoña; Salvador, Pedro; Alonso, Diana G; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    Non-mineral carbon is the main component of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban roadside site in Madrid accounting for more than 50% of the total bulk mass in winter pollution episodes. In these cases a 70-80% of the particle mass is anthropogenic. Particles of crustal/mineral origin contribute significantly to the observed PM10 concentrations, especially in spring and summer. They have also been found in the PM2.5 fraction although secondary particles are the next most important contributor in this size. Long-range transport particle episodes of Saharan dust significantly contribute to exceedence of the new daily limiting PM10 value in the urban network and at nearby rural background stations. This type of long-range transport event also influences PM2.5 concentrations. The crustal contribution can account for up to 67 and 53% of the PM10 and PM2.5 bulk mass in such cases.

  5. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office... Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading room containing agency records that the FOIA requires to be...

  6. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office... Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading room containing agency records that the FOIA requires to be...

  7. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office... Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2), the Department maintains a public reading room containing agency records that the FOIA requires to be...

  8. 34 CFR 5.10 - Public reading room.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Public reading room. 5.10 Section 5.10 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC Agency Records Available to the Public § 5.10 Public reading room. (a) General. Pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2),...

  9. 10 CFR 5.105 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 5.105 Section 5.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... regulations means the provisions set forth at §§ 5.100 through 5.605. Transition plan means a plan subject to... transition from being an educational institution that admits only students of one sex to being one...

  10. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect....

  11. 21 CFR 73.3120 - 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho [1,2,3-cd:3′,2′,1′-lm] perylene-5,10-dione.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 16,17-Dimethoxydinaphtho perylene-5,10-dione. 73.3120 Section 73.3120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... to exceed the minimum reasonably required to accomplish the intended coloring effect....

  12. Developing Street-Level PM2.5 and PM10 Land Use Regression Models in High-Density Hong Kong with Urban Morphological Factors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2016-08-02

    Monitoring street-level particulates is essential to air quality management but challenging in high-density Hong Kong due to limitations in local monitoring network and the complexities of street environment. By employing vehicle-based mobile measurements, land use regression (LUR) models were developed to estimate the spatial variation of PM2.5 and PM10 in the downtown area of Hong Kong. Sampling runs were conducted along routes measuring a total of 30 km during a selected measurement period of total 14 days. In total, 321 independent variables were examined to develop LUR models by using stepwise regression with PM2.5 and PM10 as dependent variables. Approximately, 10% increases in the model adjusted R(2) were achieved by integrating urban/building morphology as independent variables into the LUR models. Resultant LUR models show that the most decisive factors on street-level air quality in Hong Kong are frontal area index, an urban/building morphological parameter, and road network line density and traffic volume, two parameters of road traffic. The adjusted R(2) of the final LUR models of PM2.5 and PM10 are 0.633 and 0.707, respectively. These results indicate that urban morphology is more decisive to the street-level air quality in high-density cities than other cities. Air pollution hotspots were also identified based on the LUR mapping.

  13. Estimating the probability of polyreactive antibodies 4E10 and 2F5 disabling a gp41 trimer after T cell-HIV adhesion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bin; Liao, Hua-Xin; Alam, S Munir; Goldstein, Byron

    2014-01-01

    A few broadly neutralizing antibodies, isolated from HIV-1 infected individuals, recognize epitopes in the membrane proximal external region (MPER) of gp41 that are transiently exposed during viral entry. The best characterized, 4E10 and 2F5, are polyreactive, binding to the viral membrane and their epitopes in the MPER. We present a model to calculate, for any antibody concentration, the probability that during the pre-hairpin intermediate, the transient period when the epitopes are first exposed, a bound antibody will disable a trivalent gp41 before fusion is complete. When 4E10 or 2F5 bind to the MPER, a conformational change is induced that results in a stably bound complex. The model predicts that for these antibodies to be effective at neutralization, the time to disable an epitope must be shorter than the time the antibody remains bound in this conformation, about five minutes or less for 4E10 and 2F5. We investigate the role of avidity in neutralization and show that 2F5 IgG, but not 4E10, is much more effective at neutralization than its Fab fragment. We attribute this to 2F5 interacting more stably than 4E10 with the viral membrane. We use the model to elucidate the parameters that determine the ability of these antibodies to disable epitopes and propose an extension of the model to analyze neutralization data. The extended model predicts the dependencies of IC50 for neutralization on the rate constants that characterize antibody binding, the rate of fusion of gp41, and the number of gp41 bridging the virus and target cell at the start of the pre-hairpin intermediate. Analysis of neutralization experiments indicate that only a small number of gp41 bridges must be disabled to prevent fusion. However, the model cannot determine the exact number from neutralization experiments alone.

  14. Estimation of the direct and indirect impacts of fireworks on the physicochemical characteristics of atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Y. Z.; Wang, J.; Peng, X.; Shi, G. L.; Feng, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    To quantify the total, direct and indirect impacts of fireworks individually, size-resolved PM samples were collected before, during and after a Chinese folk festival (Chinese New Year) in a megacity in China. Through chemical analysis and morphological characterisation, a strong influence of fireworks on the physicochemical characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was observed. The concentrations of many species exhibited an increasing trend during the heavy-firework period, especially for K+, Mg2+ and Cr; the results of the non-sea-salt ions demonstrated an anthropogenic influence on K+ and Mg2+. Then, source apportionment was conducted by receptor models and peak analysis (PA). The total influence of the fireworks was quantified by positive matrix factorisation (PMF), showing that the fireworks contributed higher fractions (23.40% for PM10 and 29.66% for PM2.5) during the heavy-firework period than during the light-firework period (4.28% for PM10 and 7.18% for PM2.5). The profiles of the total fireworks obtained by two independent methods (PMF and peak analysis) were consistent, with higher abundances of K+, Al, Si, Ca and organic carbon (OC). Finally, the individual contributions of the direct and indirect impacts of fireworks were quantified by chemical mass balance (CMB). The percentage contributions of resuspended dust, biomass combustion and direct fireworks were 36.8 ± 8.37%, 14.1 ± 2.82% and 44.4 ± 8.26%, respectively, for PM10 and 34.9 ± 4.19%, 16.6 ± 3.05% and 52.5 ± 9.69%, respectively, for PM2.5, in terms of the total fireworks. The quantification of the total, direct and indirect impacts of fireworks in the ambient PM gives a original contribution for understanding the physicochemical characteristics and mechanisms of such high-intensity anthropogenic activities.

  15. A Controlled Route to a Luminescent 3 d(10) -5 d(10) Sulfido Cluster Containing Unique AuCu2 (μ3 -S) Motifs.

    PubMed

    Polgar, Alexander M; Khadka, Chhatra B; Azizpoor Fard, Mahmood; Nikkel, Brian; O'Donnell, Terrence; Neumann, Tobias; Lahring, Kiana; Thompson, Kyle; Cadogan, Carolyn; Weigend, Florian; Corrigan, John F

    2016-12-19

    The first examples of gold(I) trimethylsilylchalcogenolate complexes were synthesized and their reactivity showcased in the preparation of a novel gold-copper-sulfur cluster [Au4 Cu4 S4 (dppm)2 ] (dppm=bis(diphenylphosphino)methane). The unprecedented structural chemistry of this compound gives rise to interesting optoelectronic properties, including long-lived orange luminescence in the solid state. Through time-dependent density functional theory calculations, this emission is shown to originate from ligand-to-metal charge transfer facilitated by Au⋅⋅⋅Cu metallophilic bonding.

  16. The Exposure Uncertainty Analysis: The Association between Birth Weight and Trimester Specific Exposure to Particulate Matter (PM2.5 vs. PM10)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    Often spatiotemporal resolution/scale of environmental and health data do not align. Therefore, researchers compute exposure by interpolation or by aggregating data to coarse spatiotemporal scales. The latter is often preferred because of sparse geographic coverage of environmental monitoring, as interpolation method cannot reliably compute exposure using the small sample of sparse data points. This paper presents a methodology of diagnosing the levels of uncertainty in exposure at a given distance and time interval, and examines the effects of particulate matter (PM) ≤2.5 µm and ≤10 µm in diameter (PM2.5 and PM10, respectively) on birth weight (BW) and low birth weight (LBW), i.e., birth weight <2500 g in Chicago (IL, USA), accounting for exposure uncertainty. Two important findings emerge from this paper. First, uncertainty in PM exposure increases significantly with the increase in distance from the monitoring stations, e.g., 50.6% and 38.5% uncertainty in PM10 and PM2.5 exposure respectively for 0.058° (~6.4 km) distance from the monitoring stations. Second, BW was inversely associated with PM2.5 exposure, and PM2.5 exposure during the first trimester and entire gestation period showed a stronger association with BW than the exposure during the second and third trimesters. But PM10 did not show any significant association with BW and LBW. These findings suggest that distance and time intervals need to be chosen with care to compute exposure, and account for the uncertainty to reliably assess the adverse health risks of exposure. PMID:27649214

  17. 44 CFR 10.5 - Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Responsibilities. 10.5... Responsibilities. (a) The Regional Administrators shall, for each action not categorically excluded from this... impact statements and assign lead agency responsibility when more than one FEMA office or...

  18. 10 Yr Spatial and Temporal Trends of PM2.5 Concentrations in the Southeastern US Estimated Using High-resolution Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, X.; Waller, L. A.; Lyapustin, A.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term PM2.5 exposure has been reported to be associated with various adverse health outcomes. However, most ground monitors are located in urban areas, leading to a potentially biased representation of the true regional PM2.5 levels. To facilitate epidemiological studies, accurate estimates of spatiotemporally continuous distribution of PM2.5 concentrations are essential. Satellite-retrieved aerosol optical depth (AOD) has been widely used for PM2.5 concentration estimation due to its comprehensive spatial coverage. Nevertheless, an inherent disadvantage of current AOD products is their coarse spatial resolutions. For instance, the spatial resolutions of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are 10 km and 17.6 km, respectively. In this paper, a new AOD product with 1 km spatial resolution retrieved by the multi-angle implementation of atmospheric correction (MAIAC) algorithm was used. A two-stage model was developed to account for both spatial and temporal variability in the PM2.5-AOD relationship by incorporating the MAIAC AOD, meteorological fields, and land use variables as predictors. Our study area is in the southeastern US, centered at the Atlanta Metro area, and data from 2001 to 2010 were collected from various sources. The model was fitted for each year individually, and we obtained model fitting R2 ranging from 0.71 to 0.85, MPE from 1.73 to 2.50 g m3, and RMSPE from 2.75 to 4.10 g m3. In addition, we found cross validation R2 ranging from 0.62 to 0.78, MPE from 2.00 to 3.01 g m3, and RMSPE from 3.12 to 5.00 g m3, indicating a good agreement between the estimated and observed values. Spatial trends show that high PM2.5 levels occurred in urban areas and along major highways, while low concentrations appeared in rural or mountainous areas. A time series analysis was conducted to examine temporal trends of PM2.5 concentrations in the study area from 2001 to 2010. The results showed

  19. Effect of Sn substitution on the para-conductivity of polycrystalline Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3-ySnyO10-δ superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nawazish Ali; Hassan, Najmul; Nawaz, Sana; Shabbir, Babar; Khan, Sajid; Rizvi, Azhar A.

    2010-04-01

    High quality electrical resistivity ρ(T) versus temperature data of as-prepared and O2-annealed Cu0.5Tl0.5Ba2Ca2Cu3-ySnyO10-δ (y=0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5) superconductors has been studied for fluctuation-induced phenomena setting in at temperatures well above the critical temperature [Tc(R=0)]. The analysis of the data is done by using Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) and Lawrence-Doniach models for the excess conductivity. We have estimated several physical parameters, including coherence length, interplane coupling strength, exponents, and dimensionality of the fluctuations. The as-prepared and oxygen postannealed samples have shown a cross-over temperature associated with two distinct exponents and the excess conductivity data fits well with the two-dimensional and three-dimensional AL equations. The coherence length along the c-axis [ξc(0)] and the interlayer coupling strength (J) are found to decrease with increased Sn doping. These values are increased after annealing the samples in oxygen atmosphere, which is most likely associated with the approach of carrier concentration in the conducting CuO2/SnO2 planes to the optimum value. The Tc(R=0) and the peak temperature (TP) as determined from the dρ /dT versus temperature plots are also found to decrease with increased Sn substitution, however, these temperatures are improved to higher values after annealing the samples in oxygen atmosphere. The decreased values of Tc(R=0) and TP with increased Sn substitution in the as-prepared samples are most likely arising from the suppression of carrier's density promoted by the increased volume of unit cell and the localization of the carriers at the Sn4+ sites.

  20. Water soluble inorganic species of PM10 and PM2.5 at an urban site of Delhi, India: Seasonal variability and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Mohit; Sharma, A.; Sen, A.; Saxena, Priyanka; Saraswati; Mandal, T. K.; Sharma, S. K.; Sharma, C.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive data of 2 years (2013-2014) of water soluble inorganic species (WSIS) in the particulate matter (PM10: mean: 233.0 ± 124.6 μg m- 3 and PM2.5: mean: 108.0 ± 86.5 μg m- 3) have been used to study seasonal effect on the variation of total WSIS concentration, composition variability of inorganic aerosols and extent to which secondary formation of sulfate and nitrate aerosol occurred from their precursor gases. Mean concentrations of total WSIS in PM10 and PM2.5 were 82.12 ± 72.15 μg m- 3 and 54.03 ± 49.22 μg m- 3, respectively during the study period. Concentrations of total WSIS (PM10: 140.11 ± 90.67 μg m- 3; PM2.5: 74.41 ± 47.55 μg m- 3) during winter season was recorded higher than summer, monsoon and spring seasons. Significant correlation (p < 0.01) between NH4+ and Cl-, SO42 -, NO3- in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively indicates NH4+ as the major cation species for the neutralization of acidic components in the winter season. On the contrary, in summer season Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+ and K+ were the alkaline species responsible for the neutralization of acidic components in the PM10 samples. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that secondary aerosol, biomass burning and soil driven dust were the possible sources that explained 70% of the total variance. Cluster analysis and Concentration Weighted Trajectory (CWT) analysis for different season depicts the advection of air masses over the continental landmasses of Afghanistan (summer season), northwestern region of Pakistan (summer and winter season), marine region (monsoon season) and adjoining states of Delhi. These air masses from different regions could be the cause of an increase in PM10 and PM2.5 aerosol over the study site.

  1. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  2. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  3. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  4. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  5. 17 CFR 240.10b5-2 - Duties of trust or confidence in misappropriation insider trading cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... circumstances in which a person has a duty of trust or confidence for purposes of the “misappropriation” theory... sale of securities on the basis of, or the communication of, material nonpublic information... others: (1) Whenever a person agrees to maintain information in confidence; (2) Whenever the...

  6. Characterization of PAHs and metals in indoor/outdoor PM10/PM2.5/PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory.

    PubMed

    Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Naddafi, Kazem; Faridi, Sasan; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Momeniha, Fatemeh; Gholampour, Akbar; Arhami, Mohammad; Kashani, Homa; Zare, Ahad; Niazi, Sadegh; Rastkari, Noushin; Nazmara, Shahrokh; Ghani, Maryam; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-15

    In the present work, we investigated the characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metal(loid)s in indoor/outdoor PM10, PM2.5, and PM1 in a retirement home and a school dormitory in Tehran from May 2012 to May 2013. The results indicated that the annual levels of indoor and outdoor PM10 and PM2.5 were much higher than the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization (WHO). The most abundant detected metal(loid)s in PM were Si, Fe, Zn, Al, and Pb. We found higher percentages of metal(loid)s in smaller size fractions of PM. Additionally, the results showed that the total PAHs (ƩPAHs) bound to PM were predominantly (83-88%) found in PM2.5, which can penetrate deep into the alveolar regions of the lungs. In general, carcinogenic PAHs accounted for 40-47% of the total PAHs concentrations; furthermore, the smaller the particle size, the higher the percentage of carcinogenic PAHs. The percentages of trace metal(loid)s and carcinogenic PAHs in PM2.5 mass were almost twice as high as those in PM10. This can most likely be responsible for the fact that PM2.5 can cause more adverse health effects than PM10 can. The average BaP-equivalent carcinogenic (BaP-TEQ) levels both indoors and outdoors considerably exceeded the maximum permissible risk level of 1 ng/m(3) of BaP. The enrichment factors and diagnostic ratios indicated that combustion-related anthropogenic sources, such as gasoline- and diesel-fueled vehicles as well as natural gas combustion, were the major sources of PAHs and trace metal(loid)s bound to PM.

  7. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  8. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  9. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  10. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  11. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS General Provisions § 36.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  12. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  13. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS General Provisions § 36.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  14. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  15. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  16. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS General Provisions § 36.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  17. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  18. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS General Provisions § 36.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  19. 10 CFR 39.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 39.5 Section 39.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING General Provisions § 39.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  20. 10 CFR 36.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 36.5 Section 36.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS General Provisions § 36.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the...

  1. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  2. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  3. 10 CFR 5.515 - Compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Compensation. 5.515 Section 5.515 Energy NUCLEAR... Activities Prohibited § 5.515 Compensation. A recipient shall not make or enforce any policy or practice that, on the basis of sex: (a) Makes distinctions in rates of pay or other compensation; (b) Results in...

  4. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  5. 10 CFR 830.5 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enforcement. 830.5 Section 830.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.5 Enforcement. The requirements in this part are DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements and are subject to enforcement by all appropriate means, including the imposition...

  6. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  7. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  8. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  9. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  10. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  11. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  12. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  13. 10 CFR 5.540 - Advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Advertising. 5.540 Section 5.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL... Prohibited § 5.540 Advertising. A recipient shall not in any advertising related to employment...

  14. 10 CFR 824.5 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigations. 824.5 Section 824.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... VIOLATIONS § 824.5 Investigations. The Director may conduct investigations and inspections relating to the... investigation or inspection, including signing, issuing and serving subpoenas....

  15. 10 CFR 824.5 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Investigations. 824.5 Section 824.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... VIOLATIONS § 824.5 Investigations. The Director may conduct investigations and inspections relating to the... investigation or inspection, including signing, issuing and serving subpoenas....

  16. 10 CFR 824.5 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Investigations. 824.5 Section 824.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... VIOLATIONS § 824.5 Investigations. The Director may conduct investigations and inspections relating to the... investigation or inspection, including signing, issuing and serving subpoenas....

  17. 10 CFR 824.5 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigations. 824.5 Section 824.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... VIOLATIONS § 824.5 Investigations. The Director may conduct investigations and inspections relating to the... investigation or inspection, including signing, issuing and serving subpoenas....

  18. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed with the Docketing Clerk must be served on the addressee of the document and shall not be...

  19. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  20. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  1. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  2. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  3. 10 CFR 850.5 - Dispute resolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dispute resolution. 850.5 Section 850.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM General Provisions § 850.5 Dispute resolution. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, any worker who is adversely affected by...

  4. 10 CFR 820.5 - Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Service. 820.5 Section 820.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR DOE NUCLEAR ACTIVITIES General § 820.5 Service. (a) General rule. Any document filed with the Docketing Clerk must be served on the addressee of the document and shall not be...

  5. 10 CFR 830.5 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enforcement. 830.5 Section 830.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.5 Enforcement. The requirements in this part are DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements and are subject to enforcement by all appropriate means, including the imposition...

  6. 10 CFR 830.5 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enforcement. 830.5 Section 830.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.5 Enforcement. The requirements in this part are DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements and are subject to enforcement by all appropriate means, including the imposition...

  7. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  8. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  9. 10 CFR 830.5 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enforcement. 830.5 Section 830.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.5 Enforcement. The requirements in this part are DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements and are subject to enforcement by all appropriate means, including the imposition...

  10. 10 CFR 830.5 - Enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement. 830.5 Section 830.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY NUCLEAR SAFETY MANAGEMENT § 830.5 Enforcement. The requirements in this part are DOE Nuclear Safety Requirements and are subject to enforcement by all appropriate means, including the imposition...

  11. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  12. 10 CFR 9.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interpretations. 9.5 Section 9.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS § 9.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no interpretation of the meaning of the regulations in this part by an officer or employee of...

  13. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  14. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  15. 10 CFR 810.5 - Interpretations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 810.5 Section 810.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.5 Interpretations. A person may request the advice of the Director, Nuclear Transfer and Supplier Policy Division (NN-43), on whether a...

  16. 10 CFR 420.5 - Reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports. 420.5 Section 420.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM General Provisions for State Energy Program Financial Assistance § 420.5 Reports. (a) Each State receiving financial assistance under this part shall submit to...

  17. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  18. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  19. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  5. 10 CFR 1045.5 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sanctions. 1045.5 Section 1045.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.5 Sanctions. (a) Knowing,...

  6. 10 CFR 1045.5 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 1045.5 Section 1045.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.5 Sanctions. (a) Knowing,...

  7. 10 CFR 1045.5 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sanctions. 1045.5 Section 1045.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.5 Sanctions. (a) Knowing,...

  8. 10 CFR 1045.5 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sanctions. 1045.5 Section 1045.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.5 Sanctions. (a) Knowing,...

  9. 10 CFR 1045.5 - Sanctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sanctions. 1045.5 Section 1045.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Program Management of the Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Classification System § 1045.5 Sanctions. (a) Knowing,...

  10. 10 CFR 5.230 - Transition plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Transition plans. 5.230 Section 5.230 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Coverage § 5.230 Transition plans. (a) Submission of plans. An institution to... either a single transition plan applicable to all such units, or a separate transition plan applicable...

  11. 10 CFR 961.5 - Federal agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Federal agencies. 961.5 Section 961.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDARD CONTRACT FOR DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND/OR HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE General § 961.5 Federal agencies. Federal agencies or departments requiring DOE's disposal services for SNF...

  12. 10 CFR 725.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Communications. 725.5 Section 725.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PERMITS FOR ACCESS TO RESTRICTED DATA General Provisions § 725.5 Communications. All communications concerning this part should be addressed to the Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer,...

  13. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  14. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  15. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  16. 10 CFR 5.430 - Financial assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Financial assistance. 5.430 Section 5.430 Energy NUCLEAR... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.430 Financial assistance. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of...

  17. 10 CFR 1048.5 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Violations. 1048.5 Section 1048.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.5 Violations. Willful unauthorized entry, or willful unauthorized introduction of weapons...

  18. 10 CFR 1048.5 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Violations. 1048.5 Section 1048.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY § 1048.5 Violations. Willful unauthorized entry, or willful unauthorized introduction of weapons...

  19. 10 CFR 861.5 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Penalties. 861.5 Section 861.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.5 Penalties. Any person doing any act forbidden or failing to do any act required by the Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations shall, upon conviction, be...

  20. 10 CFR 861.5 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Penalties. 861.5 Section 861.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.5 Penalties. Any person doing any act forbidden or failing to do any act required by the Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations shall, upon conviction, be...

  1. 10 CFR 861.5 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Penalties. 861.5 Section 861.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.5 Penalties. Any person doing any act forbidden or failing to do any act required by the Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations shall, upon conviction, be...

  2. 10 CFR 861.5 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Penalties. 861.5 Section 861.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.5 Penalties. Any person doing any act forbidden or failing to do any act required by the Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations shall, upon conviction, be...

  3. 10 CFR 861.5 - Penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Penalties. 861.5 Section 861.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTROL OF TRAFFIC AT NEVADA TEST SITE § 861.5 Penalties. Any person doing any act forbidden or failing to do any act required by the Nevada Test Site Traffic Regulations shall, upon conviction, be...

  4. Synthesis and crystal structure of copper complex of 7,16-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-nitrobenzyl)-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shu-lan; Zhu, Wen-xiang

    2002-12-01

    A lariat crown ether compound 7,16-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzyl)-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane has been prepared via one-pot Mannich reaction. A copper(II) complex with the ligand 7,16-bis(2-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-nitrobenzyl)-1,4,10,13-tetraoxa-7,16-diazacyclooctadecane was unexpectedly synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and UV spectra. The crystal structure of the complex has been determined by X-ray diffraction. Both crystal structure analysis and spectroscopy study indicated that the side-arm phenols of lariat crown ether are nitrated while complexing with Cu(NO 3) 2. Structure shows that the copper(II) ion is coordinated to two nitrogen and four oxygen atoms, two from the crown ether and other two from the deprotonated phenolate groups. The coordination polyhedron is a distorted octahedron.

  5. Application of an octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nido-carboranylmethyl)phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as dual sensitizer for BNCT and PDT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The applications of the octa-anionic 5,10,15,20-tetra[3,5-(nidocarboranylmethyl) phenyl]porphyrin (H2OCP) as a boron delivery agent in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and a photosensitizer in photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been investigated. Using F98 Rat glioma cells, we evaluated the cytotox...

  6. Electron Capture by B^5+ from H2 At E < 1.0 keV/amu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Dwayne C.; Saha, Bidhan C.

    2007-06-01

    The capture of electrons from molecular targets has considerable influence on the charge state balance of astrophysical as well as magnetically confined fusion plasmas. Molecular targets are in general more complicated than their atomic counterparts. A suitable method by freezing the molecular details of the targets is applied with a core potential [1] that represents the ionic core of the target. The molecular orbital method, including the electron translation factor [2], in the impact parameter formalism [3] is employed to evaluate the state selective cross sections. The motion of the nuclei is treated classically and that due to electron is considered quantum mechanically [4]. Details will be presented at the conference. [1] J. N. Bradsley, Case Stud. At. Phys. 4, 299 (1974). [2] M. Kimura and N. F. Lane, Adv. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26, 79 (1990). [3] B. C. Saha and A. Kumar, J. Mol. Struct. THEOCHEM, 487, 11 (1999). [4] A. Kumar and B. C. Saha, Phys. Rev. A 59, 1273 (1999).

  7. Water soluble aerosols and gases at a UK background site - Part 1: Controls of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigg, M. M.; Di Marco, C. F.; Leeson, S.; van Dijk, N.; Jones, M. R.; Leith, I. D.; Morrison, E.; Coyle, M.; Proost, R.; Peeters, A. N. M.; Lemon, E.; Frelink, T.; Braban, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Cape, J. N.

    2015-07-01

    There is limited availability of long-term, high temporal resolution, chemically speciated aerosol measurements which can provide further insight into the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter. The Monitor for AeRosols and Gases (MARGA, Applikon B.V., NL) allows for the characterisation of the inorganic components of PM10 and PM2.5 (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and inorganic reactive gases (NH3, SO2, HCl, HONO and HNO3) at hourly resolution. The following study presents 6.5 years (June 2006 to December 2012) of quasi-continuous observations of PM2.5 and PM10 using the MARGA at the UK EMEP supersite, Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland. Auchencorth Moss was found to be representative of a remote European site with average total water soluble inorganic mass of PM2.5 of 3.82 μg m-3. Anthropogenically derived secondary inorganic aerosols (sum of NH4+, NO3- and nss-SO42-) were the dominating species (63 %) of PM2.5. In terms of equivalent concentrations, NH4+ provided the single largest contribution to PM2.5 fraction in all seasons. Sea salt was the main component (73 %) of the PMcoarse fraction (PM10-PM2.5), though NO3- was also found to make a relatively large contribution to the measured mass (17 %) providing evidence of considerable processing of sea salt in the coarse mode. There was on occasions evidence of aerosol from combustion events being transported to the site in 2012 as high K+ concentrations (deviating from the known ratio in sea salt) coincided with increases in black carbon at the site. Pollution events in PM10 (defined as concentrations > 12 μg m-3) were on average dominated by NH4+ and NO3-, where smaller loadings at the site tended to be dominated by sea salt. As with other western European sites, the charge balance of the inorganic components resolved were biased towards cations, suggesting the aerosol was basic or more likely that organic acids contributed to the charge balance. This study demonstrates the UK

  8. Water soluble aerosols and gases at a UK background site - Part 1: Controls of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twigg, M. M.; Di Marco, C. F.; Leeson, S.; van Dijk, N.; Jones, M. R.; Leith, I. D.; Morrison, E.; Coyle, M.; Proost, R.; Peeters, A. N. M.; Lemon, E.; Frelink, T.; Braban, C. F.; Nemitz, E.; Cape, J. N.

    2015-02-01

    There is limited availability of long-term, high temporal resolution, chemically speciated aerosol measurements, which can lead to further insight into the health and environmental impacts of particulate matter. The Monitor for AeRosols and Gases (MARGA, Applikon B.V., NL) allows characterisation of the inorganic components of PM10 and PM2.5 (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+) and inorganic reactive gases (NH3, SO2, HCl, HONO and HNO3) at hourly resolution. The following study presents 6.5 years (June 2006 to December 2012) of quasi-continuous observations of PM2.5 and PM10 using the MARGA at the UK EMEP "Supersite", Auchencorth Moss, SE Scotland. Auchencorth Moss was found to be representative of a remote European site with average total water soluble inorganic mass of PM2.5 of 3.82 μg m-3. Anthropogenically derived secondary inorganic aerosols (sum of NH4+, NO3- and nss-SO42-), were the dominating species (63%) of PM2.5. In terms of equivalent concentrations, NH4+ provided the single largest contribution to PM2.5 fraction in all seasons. Sea salt, was the main component (73%) of the PMcoarse fraction (PM10-PM2.5), though NO3- was also found to make a relatively large contribution to the measured mass (17%) as providing evidence of considerable processing of sea salt in the coarse mode. There was on occasions evidence of aerosol from combustion events being transported to the site in 2012 as high K+ concentrations (deviating from the known ratio in sea salt) coincided with increases in black carbon at the site. Pollution events in PM10 (defined as concentrations > 12 μg m-3) were on average dominated by NH4+ and NO3-, where as smaller loadings at the site tended to be dominated by sea salt. As with other Western European sites, the charge balance of the inorganic components resolved were biased towards cations, suggesting the aerosol was basic or more likely, that organic acids contributed to the charge

  9. A 0.06 mm2 1.0 V 2.5 mW 10 bit 250 MS/s current-steering D/A converter in 65 nm GP CMOS process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yawei, Guo; Li, Li; Peng, Ou; Zhida, Hui; Xu, Cheng; Xiaoyang, Zeng

    2014-06-01

    A 10 bit 250 MS/s current-steering digital-to-analog converter is presented. Only standard VT core devices are available for the sake of simplicity and low cost. In order to meet the INL performance, a Monte Carlo model is built to analyze the impact of mismatch on integral nonlinearity (INL) yield with both end-point line and best-fit line. A formula is derived for the relationship of INL and output impedance. The relation of dynamic range and output impedance is also discussed. The double centroid layout is adopted for the current source array in order to mitigate the effect of electrical, process, and temperature gradient. An adapted current mirror is used to overcome the gate leakage of the current source array, which cannot be ignored in the 65 nm GP CMOS process. The digital-to-analog converter occupies 0.06 mm2, and consumes 2.5 mW from a single 1.0 V supply at 250 MS/s.

  10. Micro-structural, thermal, optical and physical properties nanocrystalline NbSr2Pr1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ material synthesized by mechano-thermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthiban, P.; Balamurugan, S.; Satya, A. T.; Janaki, J.

    2015-06-01

    We have prepared nanocrystalline NbSr2Pr1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ (Nb1222Pr) material by annealing the ball milled powder at 1000°C for 24h and studied by various characterization techniques such as TG-DTA, XRD, FT-IR, NIR, SEM-EDX, magnetization and electrical resistivity. Significant difference is seen in the TG-DTA curves of the as-milled powder due to ball milling. The annealed Nb1222Pr material is crystallized in tetragonal symmetry with lattice parameters, a = 0.3887(3) nm and c = 2.878(2) nm with reduced average particle size of ˜42.67 nm. Agglomeration of fine spherical particle sizes in the range of ˜180 - 280 nm is seen through SEM micro-image. The variation in the crystalline sizes of the Nb1222Pr phase obtained from XRD and SEM image indicate the polycrystalline characteristic of fine nanocrystalline particles. Neither superconductivity nor magnetic ordering is seen for the Nb1222Pr phase down to 5 K under 100 Oe. The four probe resistivity measurement reveals the semiconducting behavior of the Nb1222Pr phase.

  11. Vibrational spectroscopy investigation using ab initio and density functional theory analysis on the structure of 5-chloro-10-oxa-3-thia-tricyclo[5.2.1.0 1,5]dec-8-ene-3,3-dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arslan, Hakan; Demircan, Aydın; Göktürk, Ersen

    2008-01-01

    The IR spectra of 5-chloro-10-oxa-3-thia-tricyclo[5.2.1.0 1,5]dec-8-ene-3,3-dioxide (COTDO) has been recorded in the region 4000-525 cm -1. The optimized molecular geometry, frequency and intensity of the vibrational bands of COTDO in the ground state has been calculated using the Hartree-Fock and density functional using Becke's three-parameter hybrid method with the Lee, Yang, and Parr correlation functional methods with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-311G(d,p) basis sets. The harmonic vibrational frequencies were calculated and the scaled values have been compared with experimental IR spectra. The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrations are predicted in a very good agreement with the experimental data. The theoretical vibrational spectra of the title compound were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions (PEDs) using VEDA 4 program. With the help of this modern technique we were able to complete the assignment of the vibrational spectra of the title compound.

  12. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  13. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  14. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  15. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  16. 46 CFR 58.10-5 - Gasoline engine installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 58.10-5 Gasoline engine installations. (a) Engine design. All installations shall be of marine type engines suitable for the intended... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gasoline engine installations. 58.10-5 Section...

  17. Effects of 5,6-Dihydroxy-2,4-Dimethoxy-9,10-Dihydrophenanthrene on G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Lung Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Duangprompo, Wipada; Aree, Kalaya; Itharat, Arunporn; Hansakul, Pintusorn

    2016-01-01

    5,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (HMP) is an active compound isolated from the rhizome extracts of Dioscorea membranacea Pierre, a Thai medicinal plant. This study aimed to investigate the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of HMP in human lung cancer A549 cells. The antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects of HMP were analyzed by a Sulforhodamine B assay. Cell division, cell cycle distribution and membrane asymmetry changes were each performed with different fluorescent dyes and then analyzed by flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting were used to detect cell cycle- and apoptosis-related mRNA levels and proteins, respectively. The nuclear morphology of the cells stained with DAPI and DNA fragmentation were detected by fluorescence microscopy and gel electrophoresis, respectively. The results showed that HMP exerted strong antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities in A549 cells with the highest selectivity index. It halted the cell cycle in [Formula: see text]/M phase via down-regulation of the expression levels of regulatory proteins Cdc25C, Cdk1 and cyclinB1. In addition, HMP induced early apoptotic cells with externalized phosphatidylserine and subsequent apoptotic cells in sub-[Formula: see text] phase. HMP increased caspase-3 activity and levels of the cleaved (active) form of caspase-3 whose actions were supported by the cleavage of its target PARP, nuclear condensation and DNA apoptotic ladder. Moreover, HMP significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of proapoptotic Bax as well as promoted subsequent caspase-9 activation and BID cleavage, indicating HMP-induced apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These data support, for the first time, the potential role of HMP as a cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis-inducing agent for lung cancer treatment.

  18. Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10/PM2.5 and human exposure to PAEs via inhalation of indoor air in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leibo; Wang, Fumei; Ji, Yaqin; Jiao, Jiao; Zou, Dekun; Liu, Lingling; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2014-03-01

    In this study, filter samples of six Phthalate esters (PAEs) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were collected from thirteen homes in Tianjin, China. The results showed that the concentrations of Σ6PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were in the range of 13.878-1591.277 ng m-3 and 7.266-1244.178 ng m-3, respectively. Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) was the most abundant compounds followed by di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in indoor PM10 and PM2.5. Whereas DBP and dimethyl phthalate (DMP) were the predominant compounds in indoor air (gas-phase + particle-phase), the median values were 573.467 and 368.364 ng m-3 respectively. The earlier construction time, the lesser indoor area, the old decoration, the very crowded items coated with plastic and a lower frequency of dusting may lead to a higher level of PAEs in indoor environment. The six PAEs in indoor PM10 and PM2.5 were higher in summer than those in winter. The daily intake (DI) of six PAEs for five age groups through air inhalation in indoor air in Tianjin was estimated. The results indicated that the highest exposure dose was DBP in every age group, and infants experienced the highest total DIs (median: 664.332 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs, whereas adults experienced the lowest total DIs (median: 155.850 ng kg-bw-1 day-1) to ∑6PAEs. So, more attention should be paid on infants in the aspect of indoor inhalation exposure to PAEs.

  19. Deposition of calcium phosphate coatings using condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) as phosphate source through induction heating.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huan; Hou, Saisai; Zhang, Mingjie; Yang, Mengmeng; Deng, Linhong; Xiong, Xinbo; Ni, Xinye

    2016-12-01

    In present work condensed phosphates (P2O7(4-) and P3O10(5-)) were used as phosphate source in induction heating to deposit calcium phosphate coatings. The phase, morphology, and composition of different phosphate-related coatings were characterized and compared using XRD, FTIR, and SEM analyses. Results showed that P2O7(4-)formed calcium pyrophosphate hydrate coatings with interconnected cuboid-like particles. The as-deposited calcium tripolyphosphate hydrate coating with P3O10(5-) was mainly composed of flower-like particles assembled by plate-like crystals. The bioactivity and cytocompatibility of the coatings were also studied. Moreover, the feasibility of using hybrid phosphate sources for preparing and depositing coatings onto magnesium alloy was investigated.

  20. Hole transporting material 5, 10, 15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3, 2-a:3‧, 2‧-c]-carbazole for efficient optoelectronic applications as an active layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yan-Qiong; J. Potscavage, William, Jr.; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Wei, Bin; Huang, Rong-Juan

    2015-02-01

    In order to explore the novel application of the transparent hole-transporting material 5,10,15-tribenzyl-5H-diindolo[3,2-a:3‧,2‧-c]-carbazole (TBDI), in this article TBDI is used as an active layer but not a buffer layer in a photodetector (PD), organic light-emitting diode (OLED), and organic photovoltaic cell (OPV) for the first time. Firstly, the absorption and emission spectra of a blend layer comprised of TBDI and electron-transporting material bis-(2-methyl-8-quinolinate) 4-phenylphenolate (BAlq) are investigated. Based on the absorption properties, an organic PD with a peak absorption at 320 nm is fabricated, and a relatively-high detectivity of 2.44 × 1011 cm·Hz1/2/W under 320-nm illumination is obtained. The TBDI/tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) OLED device exhibits a comparable external quantum efficiency and current efficiency to a traditional 4, 4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl-amino]biphenyl (α-NPD)/Alq3 OLED. A C70-based Schottky junction with 5 wt%-TBDI yields a power conversion efficiency of 5.0%, which is much higher than 1.7% for an α-NPD-based junction in the same configuration. These results suggest that TBDI has some promising properties which are in favor of the hole-transporting in Schottky junctions with a low-concentration donor. Project supported by the Funding Program for World-Leading Innovative R & D on Science and Technology (FIRST) from JSPS, the Fund from the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant Nos. 14DZ2280900 and 14XD1401800), and the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai (Grant No. 15ZR1416600).

  1. Lower critical field and intragrain critical current density in the ruthenate-cuprate RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das Virgens, M. G.; Garcia, S.; Ghivelder, L.

    2006-01-01

    The lower critical field of the grains, Hc1, and the intragrain critical current density, Jc, were determined for the superconducting ruthenate-cuprate RuSr2Gd1.5Ce0.5Cu2O10-δ [Ru-1222(Gd)] through a systematic study of the hysteresis in magnetoresistance loops. A reliable method, based on the effects of the magnetization of the grains on the net local field at the intergranular junctions is provided, circumventing the problem of the strong masking of the superconducting diamagnetic signal by the ferromagnetic background. The temperature dependency of Hc1 and Jc both exhibit a smooth increase on cooling without saturation down to T/T_{SC} \\cong 0.2. The obtained Hc1 values vary between 150 and 1500 Oe in the 0.2 ≤ T/TSC ≤0.4 interval, for samples annealed in an oxygen flow; oxygenation under high pressure (50 atm) leads to a further increase. These values are much larger than the previously reported rough assessments (25 50 Oe), using conventional magnetization measurements. High Jc values of 107 A/cm2, comparable to the high-Tc cuprates, were obtained. The Hc1(T) and Jc(T) dependencies are explained in the context of a magnetic phase separation scenario.

  2. Synthesis and unusual properties of the first 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetraalkylporphyrin

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON,NORA Y.; MEDFORTH,CRAIG J.; NURCO,DANIEL J.; JIA,SONG-LING; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; SMITH,KEVIN M.

    2000-03-06

    The new perhalogenated porphyrin 2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octabromo-5,10,15,20-tetrakis(trifluoromethyl)porphinato-nickel(II) exhibits several striking features, including an extremely ruffled macrocycle with a very short Ni-N distance, an unusually red-shifted optical spectrum, and, surprisingly, hindered rotation of the meso-trifluoromethyl substituents ({Delta}G{sub 278}{sup +} = 47 kJ/mol).

  3. PM10 and PM2.5 chemical source profiles with optical attenuation and health risk indicators of paved and unpaved road dust in Bhopal, India.

    PubMed

    Samiksha, Shilpi; Sunder Raman, Ramya; Nirmalkar, Jayant; Kumar, Samresh; Sirvaiya, Rohit

    2017-03-01

    Size classified (PM10 and PM2.5) paved and unpaved road dust chemical source profiles, optical attenuation and potential health risk from exposure to these sources are reported in this study. A total of 45 samples from 9 paved road and 6 unpaved road sites located in and around Bhopal were re-suspended in the laboratory, collected onto filter substrates and subjected to a variety of chemical analyses. In general, road dust was enriched (compared to upper continental crustal abundance) in anthropogenic pollutants including Sb, Cu, Zn, Co, and Pb. Organic and elemental carbon (OC/EC) in PM10 and PM2.5 size fractions were 50-75% higher in paved road dust compared to their counterparts in unpaved road dust. Further, the results suggest that when it is not possible to include carbon fractions in source profiles, the inclusion of optical attenuation is likely to enhance the source resolution of receptor models. Additionally, profiles obtained in this study were not very similar to the US EPA SPECIATE composite profiles for PM10 and PM2.5, for both sources. Specifically, the mass fractions of Si, Fe, OC, and EC were most different between SPECIATE composite profiles and Bhopal composite profiles. An estimate of health indicators for Bhopal road dust revealed that although Cr was only marginally enriched, its inhalation may pose a health risk. The estimates of potential lifetime incremental cancer risk induced by the inhalation of Cr in paved and unpaved road dust (PM10 and PM2.5) for both adults and children were higher than the baseline values of acceptable risk. These results suggest that road dust Cr induced carcinogenic risk should be further investigated.

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of phthalic acid esters (PAEs) in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 and the influence of ambient temperature in Tianjin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Shaofei; Ji, Yaqin; Liu, Lingling; Chen, Li; Zhao, Xueyan; Wang, Jiajun; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong

    2013-08-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are produced in large amounts throughout the world and are excessively used in various industries, which have posed a serious threat to human health and the environment. An investigation of six major PAEs congeners in atmospheric PM10 and PM2.5 was synchronously conducted at seven sites belonging to different functional zones in spring, summer and winter in Tianjin, China in 2010. Results showed that the average concentrations of DMP, DEP, DBP, BBP, DEHP and DOP in PM10 were 0.88, 0.73, 12.90, 0.15, 98.29 and 0.83 ng m-3, respectively, and in PM2.5, they were 0.54, 0.30, 8.72, 0.08, 75.68 and 0.33 ng m-3, respectively. DEHP and DBP were the predominant species. The industrial site exhibited highest PAEs values as 135.9 ± 202.8 ng m-3. In winter, the detected percentages for DOP were low. The other five PAEs concentrations were higher in winter than those in spring and summer, which may be related to the influence of emission sources, meteorological parameters and the chemical-physical characteristic of themselves. Except for DOP, other PAEs were negatively correlated with ambient temperature and the relationships were the best fitted as exponential forms. Significant positive correlations were found for PAEs in PM2.5 and PM10, indicating common sources. The PM2.5/PM10 ratios (0.53-0.70) for the six PAEs concentrations suggested that they were preferentially concentrated in finer particles. Principal component analysis indicated the emission from cosmetics and personal care products, plasticizers and sewage and industrial wastewater may be important sources for PAEs in atmospheric particulate matter in Tianjin.

  5. Ultrasound-assisted one-pot, three-component synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-5,10-diones.

    PubMed

    Nabid, Mohammad Reza; Rezaei, Seyed Jamal Tabatabaei; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin; Bazgir, Ayoob

    2010-01-01

    Triethylamine was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 1H-pyrazolo[1,2-b]phthalazine-5,10-diones by one-pot reaction of phthalhydrazide, aromatic aldehydes, and malononitrile or ethyl cyanoacetate in ethanol under ultrasonic irradiation. The advantages of this method are the use of an inexpensive and readily available catalyst, easy workup, improved yields, and the use of ethanol as a solvent that is considered to be relatively environmentally benign.

  6. PM10 and PM2.5 and health risk assessment for heavy metals in a typical factory for cathode ray tube television recycling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wenxiong; Yang, Yichen; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-01-01

    The representative waste television recycling process was chosen as the object of this study, including manual dismantling and mechanical separation of printed circuit boards (PCBs) and cathode ray tubes (CRTs) in two independent workshops. During these recycling processes, fine particulate matter and heavy metals will be released into the air to impact the environment and the health of the workers. The mass concentrations of PM2.5 (particles below 2.5 μm diameter) in mechanical and dismantling workshops ranged from 252.6 to 290.8 μg/m(3) and from 112.7 to 169.4 μg/m(3), respectively. The average concentration of PM2.5 around the workshop was 98.5 μg/m(3). Meanwhile, the contents of PM10 (particles below 10 μm diameter) were all below the risk threshold, except that (360.4 μg/m(3)) monitored in the mechanical workshop. In two workshops, Pb (20.46 and 6.935 mg/g) was the most enriched metal in the PM2.5 samples, while in PM10, the concentration of Cu (27.76 and 31.80 mg/g) was the largest. The concentration of Cd was the least in both PM10 and PM2.5. Health risk assessment showed that the total hazard indexes for non-carcinogenic metal in PM2.5 monitored in mechanical and dismantling workshops and in the southeast of the workshops were 7.61, 3.01, and 1.57, respectively, all above the safety level. Furthermore, Pb (7.28 and 3.01) might possibly have a non-carcinogenic effect on the workers in two workshops, and the sequence of the hazard quotient (HQ) through the three exposure ways was ingestion > dermal contact > inhalation. The lifetime cancer risk of four targeted metals was Cr > Ni > Pb > Cd, which could be proven in all monitoring samples. This study aims to provide a large amount of valid data for the State Environmental Protection Department to develop relevant environmental standards and for companies to improve the waste television recycling system to be more efficiently and environmentally friendly.

  7. Rotational energy transfer of SH(X2Π, v''=0, J''=0.5-10.5) by collision with Ar: Λ-doublet resolved transition propensity.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Lin, King-Chuen

    2012-01-16

    The behavior of Λ-doublet resolved rotational energy transfer (RET) by Ar collisions within the SH(X(2)Π, v''=0) state is characterized. The matrix elements of terms in the interaction potential responsible for interference effects are calculated to explain the propensity rules for collision-induced transitions within and between spin-orbit manifolds. In this manner, the physical mechanisms responsible for the F(1)-F(1), F(2)-F(2), and F(1)-F(2) transitions may be reasonably identified. As collision energy increases, the propensity for collisional population of the final e or f level is replaced by the e/f-conserving propensity. Such a change in propensity rule can be predicted in terms of energy sudden approximation at high J limit for the pure Hund's case scheme.

  8. Early lung cancer detection project: Evaluation of 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphine (H{sub 2}TCPP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tockman, M.S.

    1998-10-01

    The author evaluated a synthetic porphyrin, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4-carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP) as a marker of carcinogenesis. H{sub 2}TCPP was compared with two other carcinogenesis markers evaluated in the laboratory for their ability to detect exfoliated sputum cells undergoing transformation to lung cancer. In the present project the authors first established optimal conditions for cultured neoplastic and non-neoplastic (sputum) cells to take up H{sub 2}TCPP. This was accomplished using spectrofluorimetry and video-enhanced fluorescent microscopy to maximize H{sub 2}TCPP auto-fluorescence across a matrix of substrate conditions, including; reagent concentration, incubation time, temperature, and pH. The second aim was to validate H{sub 2}TCPP on clinical material obtained from subjects monitored in advance of clinical cancer and link those marker results with subsequent histologic confirmation of disease. This was accomplished by applying H{sub 2}TCPP to sputum specimens archived by the Frost Center at Johns Hopkins which maintains a record of the clinical course and long-term follow-up for the patients from whom the specimens were obtained. The authors have used fluorescent immunostaining and flow cytometry to compare uptake of these cytoplasmic Mabs to that of a potential new marker of carcinogenesis, 5, 10, 15, 20 tetrakis (4 carboxyphenyl) porphene (H{sub 2}TCPP). The nuclear uptake of H{sub 2}TCPP was compared to a standard quantitative fluorescent DNA marker (7-AAD).

  9. AIRUSE-LIFE +: estimation of natural source contributions to urban ambient air PM10 and PM2. 5 concentrations in southern Europe - implications to compliance with limit values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diapouli, Evangelia; Manousakas, Manousos I.; Vratolis, Stergios; Vasilatou, Vasiliki; Pateraki, Stella; Bairachtari, Kyriaki A.; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio; Alastuey, Andrés; Karanasiou, Angeliki A.; Lucarelli, Franco; Nava, Silvia; Calzolai, Giulia; Gianelle, Vorne L.; Colombi, Cristina; Alves, Célia; Custódio, Danilo; Pio, Casimiro; Spyrou, Christos; Kallos, George B.; Eleftheriadis, Konstantinos

    2017-03-01

    The contribution of natural sources to ambient air particulate matter (PM) concentrations is often not considered; however, it may be significant for certain areas and during specific periods of the year. In the framework of the AIRUSE-LIFE+ project, state-of-the-art methods have been employed for assessing the contribution of major natural sources (African dust, sea salt and forest fires) to PM concentrations, in southern European urban areas. 24 h measurements of PM10 and PM2. 5 mass and chemical composition were performed over the course of a year in five cities: Porto, Barcelona, Milan, Florence and Athens. Net African dust and sea-salt concentrations were calculated based on the methodologies proposed by the EC (SEC 2011/208). The contribution of uncontrolled forest fires was calculated through receptor modelling. Sensitivity analysis with respect to the calculation of African dust was also performed, in order to identify major parameters affecting the estimated net dust concentrations. African dust contribution to PM concentrations was more pronounced in the eastern Mediterranean, with the mean annual relative contribution to PM10 decreasing from 21 % in Athens, to 5 % in Florence, and around 2 % in Milan, Barcelona and Porto. The respective contribution to PM2. 5 was calculated equal to 14 % in Athens and from 1.3 to 2.4 % in all other cities. High seasonal variability of contributions was observed, with dust transport events occurring at different periods in the western and eastern Mediterranean basin. Sea salt was mostly related to the coarse mode and also exhibited significant seasonal variability. Sea-salt concentrations were highest in Porto, with average relative contributions equal to 12.3 % for PM10. Contributions from uncontrolled forest fires were quantified only for Porto and were low on an annual basis (1.4 and 1.9 % to PM10 and PM2. 5, respectively); nevertheless, contributions were greatly increased during events, reaching 20 and 22 % of 24 h

  10. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Communications. 19.5 Section 19.5 Energy NUCLEAR... Communications. Except where otherwise specified in this part, all communications and reports concerning the... Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in Appendix D of part 20 of this chapter....

  11. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Communications. 19.5 Section 19.5 Energy NUCLEAR... Communications. Except where otherwise specified in this part, all communications and reports concerning the... Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in Appendix D of part 20 of this chapter....

  12. 10 CFR 19.5 - Communications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Communications. 19.5 Section 19.5 Energy NUCLEAR... Communications. Except where otherwise specified in this part, all communications and reports concerning the... Regulatory Commission Regional Office listed in Appendix D of part 20 of this chapter....

  13. 10 CFR 1048.5 - Violations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Violations. 1048.5 Section 1048.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) TRESPASSING ON STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE FACILITIES AND OTHER PROPERTY... regulations is subject to the maximum fine permitted by law, imprisonment for not more than one year, or both....

  14. 10 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to...

  15. 10 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to...

  16. 10 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to...

  17. 10 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to...

  18. 10 CFR 5.405 - Housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Housing. 5.405 Section 5.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY....405 Housing. (a) Generally. A recipient shall not, on the basis of sex, apply different rules or regulations, impose different fees or requirements, or offer different services or benefits related to...

  19. 10 CFR 904.5 - Revenue requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Revenue requirements. 904.5 Section 904.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL REGULATIONS FOR THE CHARGES FOR THE SALE OF POWER FROM THE BOULDER CANYON... which payment was deferred because of a deficiency in firm energy generation due to a shortage...

  20. 10 CFR 824.5 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Investigations. 824.5 Section 824.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY... scope, nature and extent of compliance by a person with DOE security requirements specified in §...