Science.gov

Sample records for 2-3 billion people

  1. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare. PMID:26933676

  2. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  3. Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Nocera

    2016-07-12

    Daniel Nocera, a Massachusetts Institute of Technology professor whose recent research focuses on solar-powered fuels, presents a Brookhaven Science Associates Distinguished Lecture, titled "Harnessing Energy from the Sun for Six Billion People -- One at a Time."

  4. How to Bring Solar Energy to Seven Billion People (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Wadia, Cyrus

    2016-07-12

    By exploiting the powers of nanotechnology and taking advantage of non-toxic, Earth-abundant materials, Berkeley Lab's Cyrus Wadia has fabricated new solar cell devices that have the potential to be several orders of magnitude less expensive than conventional solar cells. And by mastering the chemistry of these materials-and the economics of solar energy-he envisions bringing electricity to the 1.2 billion people now living without it.

  5. The rapid assembly of an elliptical galaxy of 400 billion solar masses at a redshift of 2.3.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hai; Cooray, Asantha; Feruglio, C; Ivison, R J; Riechers, D A; Gurwell, M; Bussmann, R S; Harris, A I; Altieri, B; Aussel, H; Baker, A J; Bock, J; Boylan-Kolchin, M; Bridge, C; Calanog, J A; Casey, C M; Cava, A; Chapman, S C; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Cox, P; Farrah, D; Frayer, D; Hopwood, R; Jia, J; Magdis, G; Marsden, G; Martínez-Navajas, P; Negrello, M; Neri, R; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Pérez-Fournon, I; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Smith, A; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vieira, J D; Viero, M; Wang, L; Wardlow, J L; Zemcov, M

    2013-06-20

    Stellar archaeology shows that massive elliptical galaxies formed rapidly about ten billion years ago with star-formation rates of above several hundred solar masses per year. Their progenitors are probably the submillimetre bright galaxies at redshifts z greater than 2. Although the mean molecular gas mass (5 × 10(10) solar masses) of the submillimetre bright galaxies can explain the formation of typical elliptical galaxies, it is inadequate to form elliptical galaxies that already have stellar masses above 2 × 10(11) solar masses at z ≈ 2. Here we report multi-wavelength high-resolution observations of a rare merger of two massive submillimetre bright galaxies at z = 2.3. The system is seen to be forming stars at a rate of 2,000 solar masses per year. The star-formation efficiency is an order of magnitude greater than that of normal galaxies, so the gas reservoir will be exhausted and star formation will be quenched in only around 200 million years. At a projected separation of 19 kiloparsecs, the two massive starbursts are about to merge and form a passive elliptical galaxy with a stellar mass of about 4 × 10(11) solar masses. We conclude that gas-rich major galaxy mergers with intense star formation can form the most massive elliptical galaxies by z ≈ 1.5.

  6. Providing safe drinking water to 1.2 billion unserved people

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, Ashok J.; Derby, Elisabeth A.

    2003-06-01

    Despite substantial advances in the past 100 years in public health, technology and medicine, 20% of the world population, mostly comprised of the poor population segments in developing countries (DCs), still does not have access to safe drinking water. To reach the United Nations (UN) Millennium Goal of halving the number of people without access to safe water by 2015, the global community will need to provide an additional one billion urban residents and 600 million rural residents with safe water within the next twelve years. This paper examines current water treatment measures and implementation methods for delivery of safe drinking water, and offers suggestions for making progress towards the goal of providing a timely and equitable solution for safe water provision. For water treatment, based on the serious limitations of boiling water and chlorination, we suggest an approach based on filtration coupled with ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, combined with public education. Additionally, owing to the capacity limitations for non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to take on this task primarily on their own, we suggest a strategy based on financially sustainable models that include the private sector as well as NGOs.

  7. A handful of 'antipoverty' vaccines exist for neglected diseases, but the world's poorest billion people need more.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter

    2011-06-01

    So-called neglected tropical diseases are the most common infections of the world's poor. Almost all of the "bottom billion"--the 1.4 billion people who live below the poverty level defined by the World Bank--suffer from one or more neglected diseases including hookworm infection, sleeping sickness, or Chagas disease. These diseases are actually a cause of poverty because of their adverse effects on child growth and development and worker productivity. Vaccines to combat such diseases have come to be known as "antipoverty vaccines." Unfortunately, the recent surge in the development and delivery of vaccines to combat the major childhood killers--such as pneumococcal pneumonia and measles--has bypassed neglected diseases. Nevertheless, some vaccines for these neglected diseases are now entering the clinical pipeline. In this article I describe how some antipoverty vaccine development is proceeding and offer recommendations for stimulating further development such as through pooled funding for innovation, developing-country manufacturers, and public-private partnerships for product development.

  8. Missing billions.

    PubMed

    Conly, S

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses funding of population programs that support the Cairo International Conference on Population and Development's Plan of Action. The Plan of Action calls for a quadrupling of annual financial commitments for population programs to $17 billion by the year 2000 and $22 billion by 2015. The increased expenditures would cover the increased demand for services from unmet need and population growth. Donor countries are expected to increase their share from the current 25% to about 33%, or $5.7 billion by the year 2000. The estimates are in 1993 constant dollars. $17 billion is less than the $40 billion that is spent worldwide on playing golf. During 1993-94, general donor support increased to $1.2 billion. Denmark, Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States increased their support. The United States doubled its support for population programs during 1992-95 to $583 million. During 1996-97 the US Congress cut funding back to the 1995 level. France, Italy, Spain, Belgium, and Austria have lagged in support for population programs in the present and the past. Equal burden sharing would require the US to increase funding to $1.9 billion. Developed country assistance declined to the lowest share of combined gross national product since 1970. This shifts the burden to multilateral sources. The European Union is committed to increasing its funding, and the World Bank increased funding for population and reproductive health to about $600 million in 1996 from $424 million in 1994. Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, South Africa, and Turkey spent 85% of all government expenditures on family planning in developing countries. External donors in Africa are the main support of family planning. Private consumers in Latin America pay most of the costs of family planning. External assistance will be needed for some time.

  9. Nine billion or bust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    nerd, nerd; Pepperday, Mike; Szautner, a. a. z.

    2014-02-01

    In reply to a review of Tony Ryan and Steve McKevitt's book Project Sunshine, which explores ways in which the Earth could support a future population of nine billion people (Letting the sunshine in, November 2013 pp50-51, http://ow.ly/r0FTM).

  10. Can the World's Farmers Feed a World of 10 Billion People In Spite of Climate Change? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easterling, W. E.

    2010-12-01

    The rapid rise in agricultural productivity due to technological innovation and science-based methods was one of the great human achievements of the 20th century. We now face the prospect of needing to double agricultural output by the latter third of the current century to match the growth of demand for food and fiber—albeit the pace of growth in demand shows signs of slowing in the future. How farmers and the agricultural industry deal with climate change will, in large measure, determine success or failure. The Earth is committed to about the same amount of warming in the future as has been experienced over the past hundred years regardless of future greenhouse gas emissions trajectories; such will require adaptive responses by plants, animals, producers and consumers if society’s goals for global food security are to be met. In this paper, I summarize the state-of-the science of how climate change may affect our global agricultural production system. I review the latest thinking on the combined effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration and climate changes on crop productivity across the globe. Prospects for adaptation in agriculturally important regions are examined. While it appears that global food production will be adequate to meet global food demand in spite of advancing climate change, it is clear that many parts of the tropics and dry sub-tropics will see yield decreases and possible loss of comparative advantage. In those regions, continued large population growth and deleterious climate changes will contribute to declining per capita agricultural production. Increasing numbers of people at risk of hunger are probable there.

  11. Safely Managed Sanitation for All Means Fecal Sludge Management for At Least 1.8 Billion People in Low and Middle Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Berendes, David M; Sumner, Trent A; Brown, Joe M

    2017-02-14

    Although global access to sanitation is increasing, safe management of fecal waste is a rapidly growing challenge in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the current need for fecal sludge management (FSM) in LMICs by region, urban/rural status, and wealth. Recent Demographic and Health Survey data from 58 countries (847 685 surveys) were used to classify households by sanitation facility (facilities needing FSM, sewered facilities, ecological sanitation/other, or no facilities). Onsite piped water infrastructure was quantified to approximate need for wastewater management and downstream treatment. Over all surveyed nations, 63% of households used facilities requiring FSM, totaling approximately 1.8 billion people. Rural areas had similar proportions of toilets requiring FSM as urban areas. FSM needs scaled inversely with wealth: in the poorest quintile, households' sanitation facilities were almost 170 times more likely to require FSM (vs sewerage) than in the richest quintile. About one out of five households needing FSM had onsite piped water infrastructure, indicating domestic or reticulated wastewater infrastructure may be required if lacking for safe management of aqueous waste streams. FSM strategies must be included in future sanitation investment to achieve safe management of fecal wastes and protect public health.

  12. Spend Billions and They Will Come

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Bette-Lee

    2004-01-01

    People look at one billion dollars in one of two ways: if it is the result of the long, hard effort of years of fundraising, they rejoice; if it signifies an astronomical budget deficit, they cringe. How, then, should people respond as a community to reaching the $1 billion mark ($1,242,436,438, to be exact) in this year's spending for public…

  13. 5.5 billion -- and growing.

    PubMed

    Robey, B

    1992-07-17

    On World Population Day in 1992 the total world population reached 5.5 billion, 100 million more than on July 11, 1991, and it is expected to pass the 6 billion figure by 2000. In developed countries the average number of children is 2/family, while in developing countries the norm is 4 children, a substantial drop from 6 children in the 1960s. The 2 billion level was reached in 1930, the world population doubled from 1 billion in 100 years. The billion mark in 1960 took only 30 years, the 4 billion figure was reached in 1975 in only 15 years, and to grow to 5 billion in 1987 took only 12 years. A 20-year delay to reach replacement level adds another 1 billion to the population size. If the 2-children-per family size had been reached in 1990, the total would still have increased to 8 billion by 2100. Provided the present trend of 3.4 children/couple continues, there will be 102 billion people in 2100. Some claim that the resources of the Earth are already overtaxed with ever-worsening environmental pollution. Family planning information and services have to me made available to those millions who want to avoid pregnancy and ensure a better future for fewer children.

  14. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Sean A; Døssing, Lasse N; Beukes, Nicolas J; Bau, Michael; Kruger, Stephanus J; Frei, Robert; Canfield, Donald E

    2013-09-26

    It is widely assumed that atmospheric oxygen concentrations remained persistently low (less than 10(-5) times present levels) for about the first 2 billion years of Earth's history. The first long-term oxygenation of the atmosphere is thought to have taken place around 2.3 billion years ago, during the Great Oxidation Event. Geochemical indications of transient atmospheric oxygenation, however, date back to 2.6-2.7 billion years ago. Here we examine the distribution of chromium isotopes and redox-sensitive metals in the approximately 3-billion-year-old Nsuze palaeosol and in the near-contemporaneous Ijzermyn iron formation from the Pongola Supergroup, South Africa. We find extensive mobilization of redox-sensitive elements through oxidative weathering. Furthermore, using our data we compute a best minimum estimate for atmospheric oxygen concentrations at that time of 3 × 10(-4) times present levels. Overall, our findings suggest that there were appreciable levels of atmospheric oxygen about 3 billion years ago, more than 600 million years before the Great Oxidation Event and some 300-400 million years earlier than previous indications for Earth surface oxygenation.

  15. World population beyond six billion.

    PubMed

    Gelbard, A; Haub, C; Kent, M M

    1999-03-01

    This world report reviews population growth pre-1900, population change during 1900-50 and 1950-2000, causes and effects of population change and projections to 2050. World population grew from 2 billion in 1900 to almost 6 billion in 2000. Population showed more rapid growth in the 17th and 18th centuries. Better hygiene and public sanitation in the 19th century led to expanded life expectancies and quicker growth, primarily in developed countries. Demographic transition in the 19th and 20th centuries was the result of shifts from high to low mortality and fertility. The pace of change varies with culture, level of economic development, and other factors. Not all countries follow the same path of change. The reproductive revolution in the mid-20th century and modern contraception led to greater individual control of fertility and the potential for rapid fertility decline. Political and cultural barriers that limit access affect the pace of decline. Population change is also affected by migration. Migration has the largest effect on the distribution of population. Bongaarts explains differences in fertility by the proportion in unions, contraceptive prevalence, infertility, and abortion. Educational status has a strong impact on adoption of family planning. Poverty is associated with multiple risks. In 2050, population could reach 10.7 billion or remain low at 7.3 billion.

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  17. Life with Four Billion Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Thomas

    2013-04-10

    Today it is commonplace to design and construct single silicon chips with billions of transistors. These are complex systems, difficult (but possible) to design, test, and fabricate. Remarkably, simple living systems can be assembled from a similar number of atoms, most of them in water molecules. In this talk I will present the current status of our attempts at full understanding and complexity reduction of one of the simplest living systems, the free-living bacterial species Mesoplasma florum. This 400 nm diameter cell thrives and replicates every 40 minutes with a genome of only 800 kilobases. Our recent experiments using transposon gene knockouts identified 354 of 683 annotated genes as inessential in laboratory culture when inactivated individually. While a functional redesigned genome will certainly not remove all of those genes, this suggests that roughly half the genome can be removed in an intentional redesign. I will discuss our recent knockout results and methodology, and our future plans for Genome re-engineering using targeted knock-in/knock-out double recombination; whole cell metabolic models; comprehensive whole cell metabolite measurement techniques; creation of plug-and-play metabolic modules for the simplified organism; inherent and engineered biosafety control mechanisms. This redesign is part of a comprehensive plan to lay the foundations for a new discipline of engineering biology. Engineering biological systems requires a fundamentally different viewpoint from that taken by the science of biology. Key engineering principles of modularity, simplicity, separation of concerns, abstraction, flexibility, hierarchical design, isolation, and standardization are of critical importance. The essence of engineering is the ability to imagine, design, model, build, and characterize novel systems to achieve specific goals. Current tools and components for these tasks are primitive. Our approach is to create and distribute standard biological parts

  18. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  19. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  20. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  1. Countdown to Six Billion Teaching Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This teaching kit features six activities focused on helping students understand the significance of the world population reaching six billion for our society and our environment. Featured activities include: (1) History of the World: Part Six Billion; (2) A Woman's Place; (3) Baby-O-Matic; (4) Earth: The Apple of Our Eye; (5) Needs vs. Wants; and…

  2. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people.

    PubMed

    Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla

    2010-02-12

    Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.

  3. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  4. Americans Are Spending Billions Nipping and Tucking

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tucking New report details costs of most popular plastic surgery procedures To use the sharing features on ... A new report from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) found that Americans spent $16 billion ...

  5. Great Plains makes 100 billion cubic feet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    The Great Plains coal gasification plant on January 18, 1987 produced its 100 billionth cubic foot of gas since start-up July 28, 1984. Owned by the Department of Energy and operated by ANG Coal Gasification Company, the plant uses the Lurgi process to produce about 50 billion cubic feet per year of gas from five million tons per year of lignite. The plant has been performing at well above design capacity.

  6. Teledesic pushes $9-billion, 900-satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-03-01

    Teledesic Corp. is seeking FCC approval to deploy a communication satellite system, costing $9 billion and using more than 900 satellites in low Earth orbit. This system would provide telephone and broadband data service to remote areas and developing countries. The two major stockholders in Teledesic are William Gates (of Microsoft Corp.) and Craig McCaw (of McCaw Cellular Communications). Each satellite would act as a node in a packet-switching network. The satellites would provide continuous global coverage.

  7. Expert fears doom if world population hits 12-15 billion.

    PubMed

    1994-02-22

    Earth's land, water and cropland are disappearing so rapidly that the world population must be slashed to 2 billion or less by 2100 to provide prosperity for all in that year, says a study released yesterday. The alternative, if current trends continue, is a population of 12 billion to 15 billion people and an apocalyptic worldwide scene of "absolute misery, poverty, disease and starvation," said the study's author, David Pimentel, an ecologist at Cornell University. In the US, the population would climb to 500 million and the standard of living would decline to slightly better than in present-day China. Mr. Pimentel said at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Even now, the world population of 6 billion is at least 3 times what the Earth's battered natural resources and depleted energy reserves would be able to comfortably support in 2100, Mr. Pimentel said. Mr. Pimentel defines "comfortably support" as providing something close to the current American standard of living, but with wiser use of energy and natural resources. Although a decline to 1 billion or 2 billion people over the next century sounds nearly impossible, it could be done by limiting families around the world to an average of 1.5 children, Mr. Pimentel said. Currently, US women have an average of 2.1 children, while the average in Rwanda is 8.5.

  8. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; Langholtz, Matthew; Brandt, Craig; Downing, Mark; Wright, Lynn; Skog, Kenneth; Hellwinckel, Chad; Stokes, Bryce; Lebow, Patricia

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removal from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.

  9. The updated billion-ton resource assessment

    DOE PAGES

    Turhollow, Anthony; Perlack, Robert; Eaton, Laurence; ...

    2014-10-03

    This paper summarizes the results of an update to a resource assessment, published in 2005, commonly referred to as the billion-ton study (BTS). The updated results are consistent with the 2005 BTS in terms of overall magnitude. However, in looking at the major categories of feedstocks the forest residue biomass potential was determined to be less owing to tighter restrictions on forest residue supply including restrictions due to limited projected increase in traditional harvest for pulpwood and sawlogs. The crop residue potential was also determined to be less because of the consideration of soil carbon and not allowing residue removalmore » from conventionally tilled corn acres. The energy crop potential was estimated to be much greater largely because of land availability and modeling of competition among various competing uses of the land. Generally, the scenario assumptions in the updated assessment are much more plausible to show a billion-ton resource, which would be sufficient to displace 30% or more of the country s present petroleum consumption.« less

  10. Conservation in a World of Six Billion: A Grassroots Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hren, Benedict J.

    This grassroots action guide features a conservation initiative working to bring the impacts of human population growth, economic development, and natural resource consumption into balance with the limits of nature for the benefit of current and future generations. Contents include information sheets entitled "Six Billion People and Growing,""The…

  11. Simulating Billion-Task Parallel Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Park, Alfred J

    2014-01-01

    In simulating large parallel systems, bottom-up approaches exercise detailed hardware models with effects from simplified software models or traces, whereas top-down approaches evaluate the timing and functionality of detailed software models over coarse hardware models. Here, we focus on the top-down approach and significantly advance the scale of the simulated parallel programs. Via the direct execution technique combined with parallel discrete event simulation, we stretch the limits of the top-down approach by simulating message passing interface (MPI) programs with millions of tasks. Using a timing-validated benchmark application, a proof-of-concept scaling level is achieved to over 0.22 billion virtual MPI processes on 216,000 cores of a Cray XT5 supercomputer, representing one of the largest direct execution simulations to date, combined with a multiplexing ratio of 1024 simulated tasks per real task.

  12. Age-specific and sex-specific incidence of systemic lupus erythematosus: an estimate from cross-sectional claims data of 2.3 million people in the German statutory health insurance 2002

    PubMed Central

    Brinks, Ralph; Hoyer, Annika; Weber, Sergej; Fischer-Betz, Rebecca; Sander, Oliver; Richter, Jutta G; Chehab, Gamal; Schneider, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an estimate of age-specific incidence rate of physician-diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) for German men and women. Methods The age-specific and sex-specific prevalence of diagnosed SLE in claims data is used to estimate the incidence in the German male and female population. The claims data set stems from a representative sample of the statutory health insurance in 2002 and comprises 2.3 million people. The statutory health insurance covers >85% of the German population. Results The estimated incidence rates are 0.9 (95% CI 0.7 to 1.1) per 100 000 person-years for men and 1.9 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.2) per 100 000 person-years for women. The age-specific incidence rate of SLE in the male population has a maximum of 2.2 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.4) per 100 000 person-years at the age of 65–70 years. In women, the incidence is peaking at the rate of 3.6 (95% CI 2.9 to 4.3) cases per 100 000 person-years at the age of 20–25 years, but has a second local maximum (2.6, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.8) at menopausal age. Conclusions For the first time, representative data on the incidence of SLE in Germany are provided. The estimated incidence rates of SLE for men and women in Germany are at the lower end of other estimates from comparable European countries. PMID:27933200

  13. Life: the first two billion years.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Andrew H; Bergmann, Kristin D; Strauss, Justin V

    2016-11-05

    Microfossils, stromatolites, preserved lipids and biologically informative isotopic ratios provide a substantial record of bacterial diversity and biogeochemical cycles in Proterozoic (2500-541 Ma) oceans that can be interpreted, at least broadly, in terms of present-day organisms and metabolic processes. Archean (more than 2500 Ma) sedimentary rocks add at least a billion years to the recorded history of life, with sedimentological and biogeochemical evidence for life at 3500 Ma, and possibly earlier; phylogenetic and functional details, however, are limited. Geochemistry provides a major constraint on early evolution, indicating that the first bacteria were shaped by anoxic environments, with distinct patterns of major and micronutrient availability. Archean rocks appear to record the Earth's first iron age, with reduced Fe as the principal electron donor for photosynthesis, oxidized Fe the most abundant terminal electron acceptor for respiration, and Fe a key cofactor in proteins. With the permanent oxygenation of the atmosphere and surface ocean ca 2400 Ma, photic zone O2 limited the access of photosynthetic bacteria to electron donors other than water, while expanding the inventory of oxidants available for respiration and chemoautotrophy. Thus, halfway through Earth history, the microbial underpinnings of modern marine ecosystems began to take shape.This article is part of the themed issue 'The new bacteriology'.

  14. Eight billion asteroids in the Oort cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, Andrew; Jackson, Alan P.; Veras, Dimitri; Wyatt, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The Oort cloud is usually thought of as a collection of icy comets inhabiting the outer reaches of the Solar system, but this picture is incomplete. We use simulations of the formation of the Oort cloud to show that ˜4 per cent of the small bodies in the Oort cloud should have formed within 2.5 au of the Sun, and hence be ice-free rock-iron bodies. If we assume that these Oort cloud asteroids have the same size distribution as their cometary counterparts, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope should find roughly a dozen Oort cloud asteroids during 10 years of operations. Measurement of the asteroid fraction within the Oort cloud can serve as an excellent test of the Solar system's formation and dynamical history. Oort cloud asteroids could be of particular concern as impact hazards as their high mass density, high impact velocity, and low visibility make them both hard to detect and hard to divert or destroy. However, they should be a rare class of object, and we estimate globally catastrophic collisions should only occur about once per billion years.

  15. Uranium in Canada: A billion dollar industry

    SciTech Connect

    Ruzicka, V. )

    1989-12-01

    In 1988, Canada maintained its position as the world's leading producer of uranium with an output of more than 12,400 MT of uranium in concentrates, worth $1.1 billion Canadian. As domestic requirements represent only 15% of current Canadian production, most of the output was exported. With current implementation of the Canada/US Free Trade Agreement, the US has become Canada's major uranium export customer. With a large share of the world's known uranium resources, Canada remains the focus of international uranium exploration activity. In 1988, the uranium exploration expenditures in Canada exceeded $58 million Canadian. The principal exploration targets were deposits associated with Proterozoic unconformities in Saskatchewan and Northwest Territories, particularly those in the Athabasca and Thelon basin regions of the Canadian Shield. Major attention was also paid to polymetallic deposits in which uranium is associated with precious metals, such as gold and platinum group elements. Conceptual genetic models for these deposit types represent useful tools to guide exploration.

  16. Chinese TV: Better Broadcasting for the Billion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollstein, Milton

    Chinese television started in 1958 but variety in programming and production of sets priced within reach of individuals were slowed by the Cultural Revolution. Since the economic and political reform movement began in 1979, Chinese television has been maturing as an important cultural and political force. The People's Republic of China is a Third…

  17. Sneak Peek to the 2016 Billion-Ton Report

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    The 2005 Billion-Ton Study became a landmark resource for bioenergy stakeholders, detailing for the first time the potential to produce at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually in a sustainable manner from U.S. agriculture and forest resources. The 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update expanded and updated the analysis, and in 2016, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office plans to release the 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy.

  18. Fuel efficient stoves for the poorest two billion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2012-03-01

    About 2 billion people cook their daily meals on generally inefficient, polluting, biomass cookstoves. The fuels include twigs and leaves, agricultural waste, animal dung, firewood, and charcoal. Exposure to resulting smoke leads to acute respiratory illness, and cancers, particularly among women cooks, and their infant children near them. Resulting annual mortality estimate is almost 2 million deaths, higher than that from malaria or tuberculosis. There is a large diversity of cooking methods (baking, boiling, long simmers, brazing and roasting), and a diversity of pot shapes and sizes in which the cooking is undertaken. Fuel-efficiency and emissions depend on the tending of the fire (and thermal power), type of fuel, stove characteristics, and fit of the pot to the stove. Thus, no one perfect fuel-efficient low-emitting stove can suit all users. Affordability imposes a further severe constraint on the stove design. For various economic strata within the users, a variety of stove designs may be appropriate and affordable. In some regions, biomass is harvested non-renewably for cooking fuel. There is also increasing evidence that black carbon emitted from stoves is a significant contributor to atmospheric forcing. Thus improved biomass stoves can also help mitigate global climate change. The speaker will describe specific work undertaken to design, develop, test, and disseminate affordable fuel-efficient stoves for internally displaced persons (IDPs) of Darfur, Sudan, where the IDPs face hardship, humiliation, hunger, and risk of sexual assault owing to their dependence on local biomass for cooking their meals.

  19. Palaeoclimates: the first two billion years

    PubMed Central

    Kasting, James F; Ono, Shuhei

    2006-01-01

    Earth's climate during the Archaean remains highly uncertain, as the relevant geologic evidence is sparse and occasionally contradictory. Oxygen isotopes in cherts suggest that between 3.5 and 3.2 Gyr ago (Ga) the Archaean climate was hot (55–85 °C); however, the fact that these cherts have experienced only a modest amount of weathering suggests that the climate was temperate, as today. The presence of diamictites in the Pongola Supergroup and the Witwatersrand Basin of South Africa suggests that by 2.9 Ga the climate was glacial. The Late Archaean was relatively warm; then glaciation (possibly of global extent) reappeared in the Early Palaeoproterozoic, around 2.3–2.4 Ga. Fitting these climatic constraints with a model requires high concentrations of atmospheric CO2 or CH4, or both. Solar luminosity was 20–25% lower than today, so elevated greenhouse gas concentrations were needed just to keep the mean surface temperature above freezing. A rise in O2 at approximately 2.4 Ga, and a concomitant decrease in CH4, provides a natural explanation for the Palaeoproterozoic glaciations. The Mid-Archaean glaciations may have been caused by a drawdown in H2 and CH4 caused by the origin of bacterial sulphate reduction. More work is needed to test this latter hypothesis. PMID:16754607

  20. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  1. Planet Earth 2025. A look into a future world of 8 billion humans.

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, D; Rowley, J

    1999-01-01

    Population projections for the next quarter century are reasonably predictable, and related resource challenges are quite visible. The world's population is expected to grow to around 8 billion by 2025. According to the International Food Policy Research Institute, if current levels of investments in agriculture and social welfare continue, food grain production will increase by about 1.5% and livestock production by 2.7% a year over the next 2 decades. These levels are much lower now compared to previous decades, and population could outstrip supply unless there is a big increase in developing country imports. The continued destruction of the earth's forest mantle as a result of human activities is another desperate concern. By 2025, some 3 billion people will live in land-short countries and another 2 billion will be living in urban areas with high levels of air pollution. In addition, coastal ecosystems, which are already exposed to unbridled coastal development and mounting pollution loads, will experience more pressures as the number of people living near them increases in the next 25 years. One final challenge is the unprecedented rate of habitat loss and species extinction. Ecosystem destruction is so severe that as many as 60,000 plant species could be lost by the year 2025.

  2. EPA Survey Shows $271 Billion Needed for Nations Wastewater Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today released a survey showing that $271 billion is needed to maintain and improve the nation's wastewater infrastructure, including the pipes that carry wastewater to treatment plants, th

  3. NASA Now Minute: Earth and Space Science: 100 Billion Planets

    NASA Video Gallery

    Stephen Kane, co-author of the article, “Study Shows Our Galaxy has 100Billion Planets” reveals details about this incredible study explainsjust how common planets are in our Milky Way galaxy...

  4. Academic Pork Barrel Tops $2-Billion for the First Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Borrego, Anne Marie

    2003-01-01

    Describes how, despite the growing budget deficit, Congress directed a record $2 billion to college projects in 2003, many of them dealing with security and bioterrorism. Includes data tables on the earmarks. (EV)

  5. Summary and Comparison of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report with the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-01

    In terms of the magnitude of the resource potential, the results of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report (BT16) are consistent with the original 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 report, U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry (BT2. An effort was made to reevaluate the potential forestland, agricultural, and waste resources at the roadside, then extend the analysis by adding transportation costs to a biorefinery under specified logistics assumptions to major resource fractions.

  6. White Nail Radio Transmitter: Billion Dollar Savings through Energy Efficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-10

    energy consumption ashore by 50 percent CNO, Navy Energy Vision, P 10 White Nail Vision Your Cell Phone Cell ...Greenhouse Gas Power 4 1 Energy Navy Use 7.3 Billion kWh White Nail Cell Phone Savings 11 Billion kWh One and a half times!!! Saves the output of four of...Estimated Total Number of transmitters 3,000,000 Estimated total power saved Watt 1,250,000,000 Cell Phone Transmitter Efficiency 1.25 Gigawatts

  7. Northwest Africa 8159: An approximately 2.3 Billion Year Old Martian Olivine-Bearing Augite Basalt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, J. I.; Peters, T. J.; Tappa, M. J.; Agee, C. B.

    2014-01-01

    Based on petrology, mineralogy, and bulk composition, the new NWA 8159 martian meteorite is distinct from all known samples from Mars. In particular, the augite compositional trends are unique, but most similar to those of nakhite intercumulus. Whether NWA 8159 represents a new lithology or is related to a known meteorite group remains to be determined. Sr and Nd isotopic analyses will allow comparison of source characteristics with SNC and other new ungrouped meteorites (e.g., NWA 7635). Here we report initial Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic results for NWA 8159 with the objective to determine its formation age and to potentially identify similarities and potential source affinities with other martian rocks.

  8. Winglets Save Billions of Dollars in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    The upturned ends now featured on many airplane wings are saving airlines billions of dollars in fuel costs. Called winglets, the drag-reducing technology was advanced through the research of Langley Research Center engineer Richard Whitcomb and through flight tests conducted at Dryden Flight Research Center. Seattle-based Aviation Partners Boeing -- a partnership between Aviation Partners Inc., of Seattle, and The Boeing Company, of Chicago -- manufactures Blended Winglets, a unique design featured on Boeing aircraft around the world. These winglets have saved more than 2 billion gallons of jet fuel to date, representing a cost savings of more than $4 billion and a reduction of almost 21.5 million tons in carbon dioxide emissions.

  9. Projecting a world of 10.4 billion.

    PubMed

    Yanagishita, M

    1988-01-01

    Summary data are presented from the World Bank's "World Population 1987-88: Short and Long-Term Estimates by Age and Sex with Related Demographic Statistics." The projections do not differ much from those in the World Bank's 1985 projection except for large upward revisions for South Asian and West Asian countries and especially large upward revisions for Kenya, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Nigeria, and Egypt. World population is expected to reach 10.4 billion in 2100 and to stabilize at 10 billion around year 2070. Intermediate figures are given for year 2000 (6.2 billion) and year 2050 (9.5 billion). The fifteen most populous countries in 2100 will be (in millions) China (1683), India (1678), Nigeria (529), Pakistan (395), USSR (385), Indonesia (363), Brazil (292), US (279), Ethiopia (204), Mexico (197), Iran (157), Philippines (137), Egypt (132), Japan (124), and Tanzania (123). The world's annual growth rate (currently 1.7%) will decrease to .9% in 2025 and .07% in 2100 due to decreasing birth rates, especially in Africa. Nevertheless, the population of Sub-Saharan Africa will be 5 times its present size. The slowest annual growth will be for Europe, North America, and China; and the highest for Sri Lanka, Pakistan, and Bangladesh.

  10. Bill and Melinda Gates Pledge $1-Billion for Minority Scholarships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, Peter; Lederman, Douglas; van der Werf, Martin; Pulley, John

    1999-01-01

    Reports on a $1 billion dollar grant from Bill and Melinda Gates to send 20,000 low-income minority students to college. The Gates Millenium Scholars Program will require students to demonstrate financial need and maintain a 3.0 grade point average in college. A list of the largest private gifts to higher education since 1967 is also provided. (DB)

  11. Colleges' Billion-Dollar Campaigns Feel the Economy's Sting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    The economy's collapse has caught up with the billion-dollar campaign. In the past 12 months, the amount of money raised by a dozen of the colleges engaged in higher education's biggest fund-raising campaigns fell 32 percent from the year before. The decline, which started before the worst of the recession, has forced colleges to postpone…

  12. Skeptics Say Billions for Education Won't Stimulate Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Skeptics question whether infusion of billions of dollars for education in the economic-stimulus bill before Congress would actually give a healthy jolt to the economy. The bill would help thousands of students pay for college and could give colleges money to fix crumbling buildings. Some members of Congress are calling for the removal of…

  13. Four laser companies to exceed $1 billion revenue in 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoss, Andreas F.

    2017-02-01

    It seems very likely that for first time four companies will exceed the revenue of 1 billion in 2016. This comes along with substantial changes in the market for lasers and laser systems. The article analyzes some of the changes and looks at the individual success strategies of the major players in these markets.

  14. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years

    PubMed Central

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M.; Gavira, Jose A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Little is known with certainty about the evolution of protein structures in general and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales in particular. Here we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating back up to ~4 billion years before present. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold while only small structural changes have occurred over 4 billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods of time and is followed by long periods of structural stasis. PMID:23932589

  15. Conservation of protein structure over four billion years.

    PubMed

    Ingles-Prieto, Alvaro; Ibarra-Molero, Beatriz; Delgado-Delgado, Asuncion; Perez-Jimenez, Raul; Fernandez, Julio M; Gaucher, Eric A; Sanchez-Ruiz, Jose M; Gavira, Jose A

    2013-09-03

    Little is known about the evolution of protein structures and the degree of protein structure conservation over planetary time scales. Here, we report the X-ray crystal structures of seven laboratory resurrections of Precambrian thioredoxins dating up to approximately four billion years ago. Despite considerable sequence differences compared with extant enzymes, the ancestral proteins display the canonical thioredoxin fold, whereas only small structural changes have occurred over four billion years. This remarkable degree of structure conservation since a time near the last common ancestor of life supports a punctuated-equilibrium model of structure evolution in which the generation of new folds occurs over comparatively short periods and is followed by long periods of structural stasis.

  16. Exploring for Galaxies in the First Billion Years with Hubble and Spitzer - Pathfinding for JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth D.

    2017-01-01

    Hubble has revolutionized the field of distant galaxies through its deep imaging surveys, starting with the Hubble Deep Field (HDF) in 1995. That first deep survey revealed galaxies at redshift z~1-3 that provided insights into the development of the Hubble sequence. Each new HST instrument has explored new regimes, through the peak of star formation at z~2-3, just 2-3 billion years after the Big Bang, to our first datasets at a billion years at z~6, and then earlier to z~11. HST's survey capabilities were enhanced by 40X with ACS, and then similarly with the WFC3/IR, which opened up the first billion years to an unforeseen degree. I will discuss what we have learned from the remarkable HST and Spitzer imaging surveys (HUDF, GOODS, HUDF09/12 and CANDELS), as well as surveys of clusters like the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF). Lensing clusters provide extraordinary opportunities for characterizing the faintest earliest galaxies, but also present extraordinary challenges. Together these surveys have resulted in the measurement of the volume density of galaxies in the first billion years down to astonishingly faint levels. The role of faint galaxies in reionizing the universe is still much-discussed, but there is no doubt that such galaxies contribute greatly to the UV ionizing flux, as shown by deep luminosity function studies. Together Hubble and Spitzer have also established the stellar-mass buildup over 97% of cosmic history. Yet some of the greatest surprises have come from the discovery of very luminous galaxies at z~8-11, around 400-650 million years after the Big Bang. Spectroscopic followup by Keck of some of these very rare, bright galaxies has confirmed redshifts from z~7 to z~9, and revealed, surprisingly, strong Lyα emission near the peak of reionization when the HI fraction in the IGM is high. The recent confirmation of a z=11.1 galaxy, just 400 million years after the Big Bang, by a combination of Hubble and Spitzer data, moved Hubble into JWST territory

  17. Ubiquitous Supercritical Wing Design Cuts Billions in Fuel Costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A Langley Research Center engineer’s work in the 1960s and ’70s to develop a wing with better performance near the speed of sound resulted in a significant increase in subsonic efficiency. The design was shared with industry. Today, Renton, Washington-based Boeing Commercial Airplanes, as well as most other plane manufacturers, apply it to all their aircraft, saving the airline industry billions of dollars in fuel every year.

  18. Oncology pharma costs to exceed $150 billion by 2020.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    Worldwide costs of oncology drugs will rise above $150 billion by 2020, according to a report by the IMS Institute for Healthcare Informatics. Many factors are in play, according to IMS, including the new wave of expensive immunotherapies. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), priced at $150,000 per year per patient, and nivolumab (Opdivo), priced at $165,000, may be harbingers of the market for cancer immunotherapies.

  19. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials. PMID:27570834

  20. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies.

    PubMed

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye

    2014-04-15

    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields.

  1. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project.

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials.

  2. Emergence of modern continental crust about 3 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhuime, Bruno; Wuestefeld, Andreas; Hawkesworth, Chris J.

    2015-07-01

    The continental crust is the principal record of conditions on the Earth during the past 4.4 billion years. However, how the continental crust formed and evolved through time remains highly controversial. In particular, the composition and thickness of juvenile continental crust are unknown. Here we show that Rb/Sr ratios can be used as a proxy for both the silica content and the thickness of the continental crust. We calculate Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile crust for over 13,000 samples, with Nd model ages ranging from the Hadean to Phanerozoic. The ratios were calculated based on the evolution of Sr isotopes in the period between the TDM Nd model age and the crystallization of the samples analysed. We find that the juvenile crust had a low silica content and was largely mafic in composition during the first 1.5 billion years of Earth’s evolution, consistent with magmatism on a pre-plate tectonics planet. About 3 billion years ago, the Rb/Sr ratios of the juvenile continental crust increased, indicating that the newly formed crust became more silica-rich and probably thicker. This transition is in turn linked to the onset of plate tectonics and an increase of continental detritus into the oceans.

  3. President Carter signs $227 billion excise tax measure

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.J.; McAfee, J.; Dibona, C.J.; Carter, J.

    1980-04-07

    According to President J. Carter, who signed into law a $227 billion excise tax (windfall profits tax) on revenue from decontrolled U.S. crude oil production, the new tax program will provide the U.S. with the incentive and the means to produce and conserve domestic oil and replace more oil with alternative sources of energy. According to C. DiBona (API), the new tax will discourage the increased amount of domestic production required to compensate, by the mid-to-late 1980's, for a 1.7 million bbl/day shortfall, which will have to be made up with imports from foreign producers. According to J. McAfee of Gulf Oil Corp., only a token amount, about $34 billion of the $227 billion which will be raised by the new tax over the next decade, will be devoted to energy development and mass transit. According to C. J. Miller of the Independent Petroleum Association of America, the tax's complex and sometimes conflicting regulations will pose harsh problems for smaller producers.

  4. A massive galaxy in its core formation phase three billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha Förster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-09-18

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores in early cosmic epochs. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes, but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we report a candidate core in the process of formation 11 billion years ago, at redshift z = 2.3. This galaxy, GOODS-N-774, has a stellar mass of 100 billion solar masses, a half-light radius of 1.0 kiloparsecs and a star formation rate of solar masses per year. The star-forming gas has a velocity dispersion of 317 ± 30 kilometres per second. This is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, which are compact quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 (refs 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 seem to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of this galaxy we infer that many star-forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  5. The Value Of The Nonprofit Hospital Tax Exemption Was $24.6 Billion In 2011.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Sara; Kindig, David A; Bao, Jie; Byrnes, Maureen K; O'Laughlin, Colin

    2015-07-01

    The federal government encourages public support for charitable activities by allowing people to deduct donations to tax-exempt organizations on their income tax returns. Tax-exempt hospitals are major beneficiaries of this policy because it encourages donations to the hospitals while shielding them from federal and state tax liability. In exchange, these hospitals must engage in community benefit activities, such as providing care to indigent patients and participating in Medicaid. The congressional Joint Committee on Taxation estimated the value of the nonprofit hospital tax exemption at $12.6 billion in 2002--a number that included forgone taxes, public contributions, and the value of tax-exempt bond financing. In this article we estimate that the size of the exemption reached $24.6 billion in 2011. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) brings a new focus on community benefit activities by requiring tax-exempt hospitals to engage in communitywide planning efforts to improve community health. The magnitude of the tax exemption, coupled with ACA reforms, underscores the public's interest not only in community benefit spending generally but also in the extent to which nonprofit hospitals allocate funds for community benefit expenditures that improve the overall health of their communities.

  6. Scalable in-memory RDFS closure on billions of triples.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Eric L.; Mizell, David

    2010-06-01

    We present an RDFS closure algorithm, specifically designed and implemented on the Cray XMT supercomputer, that obtains inference rates of 13 million inferences per second on the largest system configuration we used. The Cray XMT, with its large global memory (4TB for our experiments), permits the construction of a conceptually straightforward algorithm, fundamentally a series of operations on a shared hash table. Each thread is given a partition of triple data to process, a dedicated copy of the ontology to apply to the data, and a reference to the hash table into which it inserts inferred triples. The global nature of the hash table allows the algorithm to avoid a common obstacle for distributed memory machines: the creation of duplicate triples. On LUBM data sets ranging between 1.3 billion and 5.3 billion triples, we obtain nearly linear speedup except for two portions: file I/O, which can be ameliorated with the additional service nodes, and data structure initialization, which requires nearly constant time for runs involving 32 processors or more.

  7. Well servicing boom pushes costs over $3 billion

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Results of the Annual Petroleum Engineer Well Servicing Survey are presented. The most significant change in well servicing trends was reduced abandonments - the number of abandoned wells dropped from 9011 in 1979 to 3021 in 1980. For the second year in a row, producers will spend more than $3 billion for well services. Well servicing operators performed nearly 568,000 servicing and repair jobs on 734,728 operating wells in the US during 1980. In addition, 71,000 wells were completed or recompleted in 1980. Tables of data are summarized for completion, workover, and servicing activities and for servicing operations for 11 individual US regions, including Appalachia, California on shore/off shore, Four Corners, Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana (on shore), mid-continent, Rocky-Williston, Texas (on shore, includes SE New Mexico), and the southeast. The US total data exclude wells in Alaska.

  8. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions: the first billion seconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baym, Gordon

    2016-12-01

    I first review the early history of the ultrarelativistic heavy ion program, starting with the 1974 Bear Mountain Workshop, and the 1983 Aurora meeting of the U.S. Nuclear Science Committtee, just one billion seconds ago, which laid out the initial science goals of an ultrarelativistic collider. The primary goal, to discover the properties of nuclear matter at the highest energy densities, included finding new states of matter - the quark-gluon plasma primarily - and to use collisions to open a new window on related problems of matter in cosmology, neutron stars, supernovae, and elsewhere. To bring out how the study of heavy ions and hot, dense matter in QCD has been fulfilling these goals, I concentrate on a few topics, the phase diagram of matter in QCD, and connections of heavy ion physics to cold atoms, cosmology, and neutron stars.

  9. Fast scalable visualization techniques for interactive billion-particle walkthrough

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinlian

    This research develops a comprehensive framework for interactive walkthrough involving one billion particles in an immersive virtual environment to enable interrogative visualization of large atomistic simulation data. As a mixture of scientific and engineering approaches, the framework is based on four key techniques: adaptive data compression based on space-filling curves, octree-based visibility and occlusion culling, predictive caching based on machine learning, and scalable data reduction based on parallel and distributed processing. In terms of parallel rendering, this system combines functional parallelism, data parallelism, and temporal parallelism to improve interactivity. The visualization framework will be applicable not only to material simulation, but also to computational biology, applied mathematics, mechanical engineering, and nanotechnology, etc.

  10. Bigger, Better Catalog Unveils Half a Billion Celestial Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These frames are samples from the photographic sky surveys, which have been digitized by a technical team at the Space Telescope Science Institute to support the Hubble Space Telescope operations. The team processed these images to create a new astronomical catalog, called the Guide Star Catalog II. This project was undertaken by the Space Telescope Science Institute as an upgrade to an earlier sky survey and catalog (DSS-I and GSC-I), initially done to provide guide stars for pointing the Hubble Space Telescope. By virtue of its sheer size, the DSS-II and GSC-II have many research applications for both professional and amateur astronomers. [Top] An example from the DSS-II shows the Rosette Nebula, (originally photographed by the Palomar Observatory) as digitized in the DSS-I (left) and DSS-II (right). The DSS-II includes views of the sky at both red and blue wavelengths, providing invaluable color information on about one billion deep-sky objects. [Bottom] This blow-up of the inset box in the raw DSS-I scan shows examples of the GSC-I and the improved GSC-II catalogs. Astronomers extracted the stars from the scanned plate of the Rosette and listed them in the catalogs. The new GSC-II catalog provides the colors, positions, and luminosities of nearly half a billion stars -- over 20 times as many as the original GSC-I. The GSC-II contains information on stars as dim as the 19th magnitude. Credit: NASA, the DSS-II and GSC-II Consortia (with images from the Palomar Observatory-STScI Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky, based on scans of the Second Palomar Sky Survey are copyright c 1993-1999 by the California Institute of Technology)

  11. Redefining agricultural yields: from tonnes to people nourished per hectare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, Emily S.; West, Paul C.; Gerber, James S.; Foley, Jonathan A.

    2013-09-01

    Worldwide demand for crops is increasing rapidly due to global population growth, increased biofuel production, and changing dietary preferences. Meeting these growing demands will be a substantial challenge that will tax the capability of our food system and prompt calls to dramatically boost global crop production. However, to increase food availability, we may also consider how the world’s crops are allocated to different uses and whether it is possible to feed more people with current levels of crop production. Of particular interest are the uses of crops as animal feed and as biofuel feedstocks. Currently, 36% of the calories produced by the world’s crops are being used for animal feed, and only 12% of those feed calories ultimately contribute to the human diet (as meat and other animal products). Additionally, human-edible calories used for biofuel production increased fourfold between the years 2000 and 2010, from 1% to 4%, representing a net reduction of available food globally. In this study, we re-examine agricultural productivity, going from using the standard definition of yield (in tonnes per hectare, or similar units) to using the number of people actually fed per hectare of cropland. We find that, given the current mix of crop uses, growing food exclusively for direct human consumption could, in principle, increase available food calories by as much as 70%, which could feed an additional 4 billion people (more than the projected 2-3 billion people arriving through population growth). Even small shifts in our allocation of crops to animal feed and biofuels could significantly increase global food availability, and could be an instrumental tool in meeting the challenges of ensuring global food security.

  12. $75 Billion in Formula Grants Failed to Drive Reform. Can $5 Billion in Competitive Grants Do the Job? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2009-01-01

    In early 2009, Congress passed and President Barack Obama signed into law the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), the federal government's nearly $800 billion stimulus legislation. According to key members of Congress and the Obama administration, the education portions of the law, totaling about $100 billion, were designed both to…

  13. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E

    2015-03-24

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment.

  14. Nine Billion Years: Past and Future of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2013-05-01

    As the Sun is losing mass and thus gravity by radiation and solar wind, solar-planetary energy balances diminish. Since the planets are only weakly bound to the Sun, the planets have been moving away from the Sun, causing increases of orbits and orbital periods. This is modeled for selected planets from Mercury to Sedna and from the formation of the Solar system at -4.5 to +4.5 billion years (Byr/Ma). Planets were initially significantly closer to the Sun, suggesting that modeling of the formation of the solar system needs to be revisited. By +4.5Byr planets beyond Saturn will have separated from the Solar System. The presently outermost solar object, Sedna, is in the process of separation. Climate changes of Mars and Earth are modeled as a function of time. The prediction of the transition of Mars from water to ice at -3.6 Byr is in agreement with observations (-2.9 to -3.7 Byr). This provides for the first time answers to the why and when of water to ice transition on Mars. Earth temperatures are predicted to decrease by of 38, 24, and 20C between -4.5 Byr to +4.5 Byr for present temperatures of +50, 0, and -50 C, respectively. Mars: Water - Ice Transition

  15. Orbital forcing of climate 1.4 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Wang, Huajian; Costa, M. Mafalda; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Bian, Lizeng; Canfield, Donald E.

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating climate is a hallmark of Earth. As one transcends deep into Earth time, however, both the evidence for and the causes of climate change become difficult to establish. We report geochemical and sedimentological evidence for repeated, short-term climate fluctuations from the exceptionally well-preserved ∼1.4-billion-year-old Xiamaling Formation of the North China Craton. We observe two patterns of climate fluctuations: On long time scales, over what amounts to tens of millions of years, sediments of the Xiamaling Formation record changes in geochemistry consistent with long-term changes in the location of the Xiamaling relative to the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone. On shorter time scales, and within a precisely calibrated stratigraphic framework, cyclicity in sediment geochemical dynamics is consistent with orbital control. In particular, sediment geochemical fluctuations reflect what appear to be orbitally forced changes in wind patterns and ocean circulation as they influenced rates of organic carbon flux, trace metal accumulation, and the source of detrital particles to the sediment. PMID:25775605

  16. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 010F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2,3 - TRICHLOROPROPANE ( CAS No . 96 - 18 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC i DISCLAIMER This document ha

  17. Federal AIDS funding tops $4 billion in FY 99.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    AIDS-related funding for fiscal year (FY) 1999 is up $800 million from FY 1998 levels. The increases are earmarked for treatment and prevention programs, Ryan White funding, AIDS research, and housing for people with HIV. The spending package also allocates more funding for substance abuse treatment and prevention programs. A chart details the breakdown of funding by category.

  18. 3.5 billion years of reshaped Moho, southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Jacek; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-12-01

    According to some previous studies, Archean continental crust is, on global average, apparently thinner than Proterozoic crust. Subsequently, the validity of this statement has been questioned. To provide an additional perspective on this issue, we present analyses of Moho signatures derived from recent seismic data along swaths 2000 km in length across southern Africa and its flanking ocean. The imaged crust has a near continuous age range between ca. 0.1 and 3.7 billion years, and the seismic data allow direct comparison of Moho depths between adjacent Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic crust. We find no simple secular change in depth to Moho over this time period. In contrast, there is significant variation in depth to Moho beneath both Archean and Proterozoic crust; Archean crust of southern Africa displays as much crustal diversity in thickness as the adjacent Proterozoic crust. The Moho beneath all crustal provinces that we have analysed has been severely altered by tectono-metamorphic and igneous processes, in many cases more than once, and cannot provide unequivocal data for geodynamic models dealing with secular changes in continental crust formation. These results and conclusions are similar to those documented along ca. 2000 km swaths across the Canadian Shield recorded by Lithoprobe. Tying the age and character of the Precambrian crust of southern Africa to their depth diversities is clearly related to manifold processes of tectono-thermal ‘surgery’ subsequent to their origin, the details of which are still to be resolved, as they are in most Precambrian terranes. Reconstructing pristine Moho of the early Earth therefore remains a formidable challenge. In South Africa, better knowledge of ‘fossilised’ Archean crustal sections ‘turned-on-edge’, such as at the Vredefort impact crater (for the continental crust), and from the Barberton greenstone belt (for oceanic crust) is needed to characterize potential pristine Archean Moho transitions.

  19. Vizualization Challenges of a Subduction Simulation Using One Billion Markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudolph, M. L.; Gerya, T. V.; Yuen, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in supercomputing technology have permitted us to study the multiscale, multicomponent fluid dynamics of subduction zones at unprecedented resolutions down to about the length of a football field. We have performed numerical simulations using one billion tracers over a grid of about 80 thousand points in two dimensions. These runs have been performed using a thermal-chemical simulation that accounts for hydration and partial melting in the thermal, mechanical, petrological, and rheological domains. From these runs, we have observed several geophysically interesting phenomena including the development of plumes with unmixed mantle composition as well as plumes with mixed mantle/crust components. Unmixed plumes form at depths greater than 100km (5-10 km above the upper interface of subducting slab) and consist of partially molten wet peridotite. Mixed plumes form at lesser depth directly from the subducting slab and contain partially molten hydrated oceanic crust and sediments. These high resolution simulations have also spurred the development of new visualization methods. We have created a new web-based interface to data from our subduction simulation and other high-resolution 2D data that uses an hierarchical data format to achieve response times of less than one second when accessing data files on the order of 3GB. This interface, WEB-IS4, uses a Javascript and HTML frontend coupled with a C and PHP backend and allows the user to perform region of interest zooming, real-time colormap selection, and can return relevant statistics relating to the data in the region of interest.

  20. A Massive Galaxy in Its Core Formation Phase Three Billion Years After the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Erica; van Dokkum, Pieter; Franx, Marijn; Brammer, Gabriel; Momcheva, Ivelina; Schreiber, Natascha M. Forster; da Cunha, Elisabete; Tacconi, Linda; Bezanson, Rachel; Kirkpatrick, Allison; Leja, Joel; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind; van der Wel, Arjen; Whitaker, Katherine; Wuyts, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most massive galaxies are thought to have formed their dense stellar cores at early cosmic epochs. However, cores in their formation phase have not yet been observed. Previous studies have found galaxies with high gas velocity dispersions or small apparent sizes but so far no objects have been identified with both the stellar structure and the gas dynamics of a forming core. Here we present a candidate core in formation 11 billion years ago, at z = 2.3. GOODS-N-774 has a stellar mass of 1.0 × 10 (exp 11) solar mass, a half-light radius of 1.0 kpc, and a star formation rate of 90 (sup +45 / sub -20) solar mass/yr. The star forming gas has a velocity dispersion 317 plus or minus 30 km/s, amongst the highest ever measured. It is similar to the stellar velocity dispersions of the putative descendants of GOODS-N-774, compact quiescent galaxies at z is approximately equal to 2 (exp 8-11) and giant elliptical galaxies in the nearby Universe. Galaxies such as GOODS-N-774 appear to be rare; however, from the star formation rate and size of the galaxy we infer that many star forming cores may be heavily obscured, and could be missed in optical and near-infrared surveys.

  1. Large data analysis: automatic visual personal identification in a demography of 1.2 billion persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugman, John

    2014-05-01

    The largest biometric deployment in history is now underway in India, where the Government is enrolling the iris patterns (among other data) of all 1.2 billion citizens. The purpose of the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) is to ensure fair access to welfare benefits and entitlements, to reduce fraud, and enhance social inclusion. Only a minority of Indian citizens have bank accounts; only 4 percent possess passports; and less than half of all aid money reaches its intended recipients. A person who lacks any means of establishing their identity is excluded from entitlements and does not officially exist; thus the slogan of UIDAI is: To give the poor an identity." This ambitious program enrolls a million people every day, across 36,000 stations run by 83 agencies, with a 3-year completion target for the entire national population. The halfway point was recently passed with more than 600 million persons now enrolled. In order to detect and prevent duplicate identities, every iris pattern that is enrolled is first compared against all others enrolled so far; thus the daily workflow now requires 600 trillion (or 600 million-million) iris cross-comparisons. Avoiding identity collisions (False Matches) requires high biometric entropy, and achieving the tremendous match speed requires phase bit coding. Both of these requirements are being delivered operationally by wavelet methods developed by the author for encoding and comparing iris patterns, which will be the focus of this Large Data Award" presentation.

  2. Medical migration. A study projects Americans spending up to $68 billion abroad by 2010 for treatment, but some doubt the trend's momentum.

    PubMed

    Rhea, Shawn

    2008-05-05

    As soaring costs are sending Americans abroad for healthcare, a new study projects they'll spend $68 billion annually by 2010 for overseas treatment. Besides that cost, it could pressure U.S. providers to deliver quality for less. "As you see other cultures where the outcomes look very favorable, then we'll see more people questioning why we can't provide that level of care at similar costs," says Jeffrey Moe, left.

  3. A SWIRE Picture is Worth Billions of Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: SWIRE View of Distant Galaxies [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2Figure 3 Figure 4

    These spectacular images, taken by the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) Legacy project, encapsulate one of the primary objectives of the Spitzer mission: to connect the evolution of galaxies from the distant, or early, universe to the nearby, or present day, universe.

    The Tadpole galaxy (main image) is the result of a recent galactic interaction in the local universe. Although these galactic mergers are rare in the universe's recent history, astronomers believe that they were much more common in the early universe. Thus, SWIRE team members will use this detailed image of the Tadpole galaxy to help understand the nature of the 'faint red-orange specks' of the early universe.

    The larger picture (figure 2) depicts one-sixteenth of the SWIRE survey field called ELAIS-N1. In this image, the bright blue sources are hot stars in our own Milky Way, which range anywhere from 3 to 60 times the mass of our Sun. The fainter green spots are cooler stars and galaxies beyond the Milky Way whose light is dominated by older stellar populations. The red dots are dusty galaxies that are undergoing intense star formation. The faintest specks of red-orange are galaxies billions of light-years away in the distant universe.

    Figure 3 features an unusual ring-like galaxy called CGCG 275-022. The red spiral arms indicate that this galaxy is very dusty and perhaps undergoing intense star formation. The star-forming activity could have been initiated by a near head-on collision with another galaxy.

    The most distant galaxies that SWIRE is able to detect are revealed in a zoom of deep space (figure 4). The colors in this feature represent the same objects as those in the larger field image of ELAIS

  4. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  5. Stimulus Plan Aids Education: House Bill Could Provide $100 Billion to K-12 Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2009-01-01

    Cash-strapped school districts could see an unprecedented $100 billion infusion of federal aid under a massive economic-stimulus package unveiled by House Democrats this week. The overall measure, put forth January 15 by the House Appropriations Committee, is aimed at providing a $825 billion jolt to the stumbling U.S. economy, and to help avert…

  6. Billion here, a billion there - a review and analysis of synthetic-fuels development under Title I of the Energy Security Act

    SciTech Connect

    Contratto, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Title I of the Energy Security Act launched a synthetic fuels program that could produce 2 billion barrels of fuel per day by 1992 and could cost $88 billion. A review of the Act's statutory language to see how implementation will take place and to identify potential problems and opportunities concludes that there is room for creative use of the money in the institutional structure. It will be up to those in charge of implementing the Act to seek out and develop these opportunities. 271 references.

  7. The transition to a sulphidic ocean approximately 1.84 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Poulton, Simon W; Fralick, Philip W; Canfield, Donald E

    2004-09-09

    The Proterozoic aeon (2.5 to 0.54 billion years (Gyr) ago) marks the time between the largely anoxic world of the Archean (> 2.5 Gyr ago) and the dominantly oxic world of the Phanerozoic (< 0.54 Gyr ago). The course of ocean chemistry through the Proterozoic has traditionally been explained by progressive oxygenation of the deep ocean in response to an increase in atmospheric oxygen around 2.3 Gyr ago. This postulated rise in the oxygen content of the ocean is in turn thought to have led to the oxidation of dissolved iron, Fe(II), thus ending the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) around 1.8 Gyr ago. An alternative interpretation suggests that the increasing atmospheric oxygen levels enhanced sulphide weathering on land and the flux of sulphate to the oceans. This increased rates of sulphate reduction, resulting in Fe(II) removal in the form of pyrite as the oceans became sulphidic. Here we investigate sediments from the approximately 1.8-Gyr-old Animikie group, Canada, which were deposited during the final stages of the main global period of BIF deposition. This allows us to evaluate the two competing hypotheses for the termination of BIF deposition. We use iron-sulphur-carbon (Fe-S-C) systematics to demonstrate continued ocean anoxia after the final global deposition of BIF and show that a transition to sulphidic bottom waters was ultimately responsible for the termination of BIF deposition. Sulphidic conditions may have persisted until a second major rise in oxygen between 0.8 to 0.58 Gyr ago, possibly reducing global rates of primary production and arresting the pace of algal evolution.

  8. The transition to a sulphidic ocean ~ 1.84 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulton, Simon W.; Fralick, Philip W.; Canfield, Donald E.

    2004-09-01

    The Proterozoic aeon (2.5 to 0.54 billion years (Gyr) ago) marks the time between the largely anoxic world of the Archean (> 2.5Gyr ago) and the dominantly oxic world of the Phanerozoic (< 0.54Gyr ago). The course of ocean chemistry through the Proterozoic has traditionally been explained by progressive oxygenation of the deep ocean in response to an increase in atmospheric oxygen around 2.3Gyr ago. This postulated rise in the oxygen content of the ocean is in turn thought to have led to the oxidation of dissolved iron, Fe(II), thus ending the deposition of banded iron formations (BIF) around 1.8Gyr ago. An alternative interpretation suggests that the increasing atmospheric oxygen levels enhanced sulphide weathering on land and the flux of sulphate to the oceans. This increased rates of sulphate reduction, resulting in Fe(II) removal in the form of pyrite as the oceans became sulphidic. Here we investigate sediments from the ~1.8-Gyr-old Animikie group, Canada, which were deposited during the final stages of the main global period of BIF deposition. This allows us to evaluate the two competing hypotheses for the termination of BIF deposition. We use iron-sulphur-carbon (Fe-S-C) systematics to demonstrate continued ocean anoxia after the final global deposition of BIF and show that a transition to sulphidic bottom waters was ultimately responsible for the termination of BIF deposition. Sulphidic conditions may have persisted until a second major rise in oxygen between 0.8 to 0.58Gyr ago, possibly reducing global rates of primary production and arresting the pace of algal evolution.

  9. Rules Set for $4 Billion Race to Top Contest: Final Rules Give States Detailed Map in Quest for $4 Billion in Education Stimulus Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Michele

    2009-01-01

    For a good shot at $4 billion in grants from the federal Race to the Top Fund, states will need to make a persuasive case for their education reform agendas, demonstrate significant buy-in from local school districts, and devise plans to evaluate teachers and principals based on student performance, according to final regulations released last…

  10. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  11. Lewin estimates 2 billion barrels of US tar sand recoverable at mid $20/bbl

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    In 1983, Lewin and Associates prepared a report which established that the US tar sands resource amounts to over 60 billion barrels of bitumen in-place. However, no estimate was made of the technically or economically recoverable portion of this resource. More recent work carried out by Lewin for the US Department of Energy presents an appraisal of technically and economically recoverable tar sands. The paper describes the tar sand resource in-place, tar sand recovery models used in the study, engineering cost models, the economics of the steam soak prospect, and the economics of a surface mining prospect. The results of the Lewin study show that 5.7 billion barrels of domestic tar sand are technically recoverable, using cyclic steam injection and surface extractive mining. Of this, 4.9 billion barrels are technically recoverable from surface mining methods, with 0.8 billion recoverable from steam soak applications. 1 figure, 3 tables.

  12. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  13. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  14. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  15. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  16. 39 CFR 2.3 - Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offices. 2.3 Section 2.3 Postal Service UNITED... (ARTICLE II) § 2.3 Offices. The principal office of the Postal Service is located in Washington, DC, with such regional and other offices and places of business as the Postmaster General establishes from...

  17. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  18. 39 CFR 2.3 - Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offices. 2.3 Section 2.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE GENERAL AND TECHNICAL PROVISIONS (ARTICLE II) § 2.3 Offices. The principal office of the Postal Service is located in Washington, DC,...

  19. Regional Feedstock Partnership Summary Report: Enabling the Billion-Ton Vision

    SciTech Connect

    Owens, Vance N.; Karlen, Douglas L.; Lacey, Jeffrey A.

    2016-07-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Regional Feedstock Partnership (referred to as the Partnership) to address information gaps associated with enabling the vision of a sustainable, reliable, billion-ton U.S. bioenergy industry by the year 2030 (i.e., the Billion-Ton Vision). Over the past 7 years (2008–2014), the Partnership has been successful at advancing the biomass feedstock production industry in the United States, with notable accomplishments. The Billion-Ton Study identifies the technical potential to expand domestic biomass production to offset up to 30% of U.S. petroleum consumption, while continuing to meet demands for food, feed, fiber, and export. This study verifies for the biofuels and chemical industries that a real and substantial resource base could justify the significant investment needed to develop robust conversion technologies and commercial-scale facilities. DOE and the Sun Grant Initiative established the Partnership to demonstrate and validate the underlying assumptions underpinning the Billion-Ton Vision to supply a sustainable and reliable source of lignocellulosic feedstock to a large-scale bioenergy industry. This report discusses the accomplishments of the Partnership, with references to accompanying scientific publications. These accomplishments include advances in sustainable feedstock production, feedstock yield, yield stability and stand persistence, energy crop commercialization readiness, information transfer, assessment of the economic impacts of achieving the Billion-Ton Vision, and the impact of feedstock species and environment conditions on feedstock quality characteristics.

  20. Birth of the Kaapvaal tectosphere 3.08 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Moser, D E; Flowers, R M; Hart, R J

    2001-01-19

    The crustal remnants of Earth's Archean continents have been shielded from mantle convection by thick roots of ancient mantle lithosphere. The precise time of crust-root coupling (tectosphere birth) is poorly known but is needed to test competing theories of continental plate genesis. Our mapping and geochronology of an impact-generated section through the Mesoarchean crust of the Kaapvaal craton indicates tectosphere birth at 3.08 +/- 0.01 billion years ago, roughly 0.12 billion years after crust assembly. Growth of the southern African mantle root by subduction processes occurred within about 0.2 billion years. The assembly of crust before mantle may be common to the tectosphere.

  1. Drug trials for older people.

    PubMed

    Lindley, Richard I

    2012-02-01

    We are living in an era of unprecedented aging, with over a billion older people expected to be alive within a few decades. Despite this predictable demographic, drug trials have not kept pace with change and we now have significant evidence-practice gaps. These have arisen due to inappropriate age limits in randomized controlled trials and the near-universal exclusion of frail older people from studies. Suggested solutions include the abolition of age limits in new randomized controlled trials, and the routine measurement of frailty, with a new generation of randomized controlled trials to establish whether treatments remain effective and safe in old age and increasing frailty. We should all have a personal interest in ensuring that drugs used in our old age are truly effective.

  2. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence.

    PubMed

    Ohmoto, H; Kakegawa, T; Lowe, D R

    1993-10-22

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  3. 3.4-Billion-year-old biogenic pyrites from Barberton, South Africa: sulfur isotope evidence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, H.; Kakegawa, T.; Lowe, D. R.

    1993-01-01

    Laser ablation mass spectroscopy analyses of sulfur isotopic compositions of microscopic-sized grains of pyrite that formed about 3.4 billion years ago in the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa, show that the pyrite formed by bacterial reduction of seawater sulfate. These data imply that by about 3.4 billion years ago sulfate-reducing bacteria had become active, the oceans were rich in sulfate, and the atmosphere contained appreciable amounts (>>10(-13) of the present atmospheric level) of free oxygen.

  4. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2001-FY2005.

    PubMed

    Schuler, Ari

    2004-01-01

    Over the past several years, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. This article analyzes the civilian biodefense funding by the federal government from fiscal years 2001 through 2005, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security, the Department of Defense, the Department of Agriculture, the Environmental Protection Agency, the National Science Foundation, and the Department of State. In total, approximately $14.5 billion has been funded for civilian biodefense through FY2004, with an additional $7.6 billion in the President's budget request for FY2005.

  5. Multi-Billion Shot, High-Fluence Exposure of Cr(4+): YAG Passive Q-Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephen, Mark A.; Dallas, Joseph L.; Afzal, Robert S.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center is developing the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) employing a diode pumped, Q-Switched, ND:YAG laser operating at 40 Hz repetition rate. To meet the five-year mission lifetime goal, a single transmitter would accumulate over 6.3 billion shots. Cr(4+):YAG is a promising candidate material for passively Q-switching the laser. Historically, the performance of saturable absorbers has degraded over long-duration usage. To measure the multi-billion shot performance of Cr(4+):YAG, a passively Q-switched GLAS-like oscillator was tested at an accelerated repetition rate of 500 Hz. The intracavity fluence was calculated to be approximately 2.5 J/cm(exp 2). The laser was monitored autonomously for 165 days. There was no evidence of change in the material optical properties during the 7.2 billion shot test.. All observed changes in laser operation could be attributed to pump laser diode aging. This is the first demonstration of multi-billion shot exposure testing of Cr(4+):YAG in this pulse energy regime

  6. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    ScienceCinema

    Daniel Sperling

    2016-07-12

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  7. 2016 Billion-Ton Report: Advancing Domestic Resources for a Thriving Bioeconomy

    SciTech Connect

    Langholtz, M. H.; Stokes, B. J.; Eaton, L. M.

    2016-07-06

    This product builds on previous efforts, namely the 2005 Billion-Ton Study (BTS) and the 2011 U.S. Billion-Ton Update (BT2).With each report, greater perspective is gained on the potential of biomass resources to contribute to a national energy strategy. Similarly, each successive report introduces new questions regarding commercialization challenges. BTS quantified the broad biophysical potential of biomass nationally, and BT2 elucidated the potential economic availability of these resources. These reports clearly established the potential availability of up to one billion tons of biomass resources nationally. However, many questions remain, including but not limited to crop yields, climate change impacts, logistical operations, and systems integration across production, harvest, and conversion. The present report aims to address many of these questions through empirically modeled energy crop yields, scenario analysis of resources delivered to biorefineries, and the addition of new feedstocks. Volume 2 of the 2016 Billion-Ton Report is expected to be released by the end of 2016. It seeks to evaluate environmental sustainability indicators of select scenarios from volume 1 and potential climate change impacts on future supplies.

  8. The uncertain timing of reaching 8 billion, peak world population, and other demographic milestones.

    PubMed

    Scherbov, Sergei; Lutz, Wolfgang Lutz; Sanderson, Warren C

    2011-01-01

    We present new probabilistic forecasts of the timing of the world's population reaching 8 billion, the world's peak population, and the date at which one-third or more of the world's population would be 60+ years old. The timing of these milestones, as well as the timing of the Day of 7 Billion, is uncertain. We compute that the 60 percent prediction interval for the Day of 8 Billion is between 2024 and 2033. Our figures show that there is around a 60 percent chance that one-third of the world's population would be 60+ years old in 2100. In the UN 2010 medium variant, that proportion never reaches one-third. As in our past forecasts (Lutz et al. 2001, 2008), we find the chance that the world's population will peak in this century to be around 84 percent and the timing of that peak to be highly uncertain. Focal days, like the Day of 7 Billion, play a role in raising public awareness of population issues, but they give a false sense of the certainty of our knowledge. The uncertainty of the timing of demographic milestones is not a constant of nature. Understanding the true extent of our demographic uncertainty can help motivate governments and other agencies to make the investments necessary to reduce it.

  9. High-Stakes Hustle: Public Schools and the New Billion Dollar Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baines, Lawrence A.; Stanley, Gregory Kent

    2004-01-01

    High-stakes testing costs up to $50 billion per annum, has no impact on student achievement, and has changed the focus of American public schools. This article analyzes the benefits and costs of the accountability movement, as well as discusses its roots in the eugenics movements of the early 20th century.

  10. U.S. Health Care Costs from Birth Defects Total Almost $23 Billion a Year

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163141.html U.S. Health Care Costs From Birth Defects Total Almost $23 Billion ... U.S. newborns have a serious birth defect, and health care costs tied to these difficulties total almost $23 ...

  11. Universities Report $1.8-Billion in Earnings on Inventions in 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Universities and their inventors earned more than $1.8-billion from commercializing their academic research in the 2011 fiscal year, collecting royalties from new breeds of wheat, from a new drug for the treatment of HIV, and from longstanding arrangements over enduring products like Gatorade. Northwestern University earned the most of any…

  12. Mass spectrometry at and below 0.1 parts per billion

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.; Palmer, F.; Pritchard, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    The single ion Penning trap mass spectrometer at M.I.T. can compare masses to within 0.1 parts per billion. We have created a short table of fundamental atomic masses and made measurements useful for calibrating the X-ray standard, and determining Avogadro`s number, the molar Plank constant, and the fine structure constant.

  13. Two Billion Cars: What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Sperling

    2009-04-15

    April 13, 2009: Daniel Sperling, director of the Institute of Transportation Studies at UC Davis, presents the next installment of Berkeley Lab's Environmental Energy Technologies Divisions Distinguished Lecture series. He discusses Two Billion Cars and What it Means for Climate and Energy Policy.

  14. For states that opt out of Medicaid expansion: 3.6 million fewer insured and $8.4 billion less in federal payments.

    PubMed

    Price, Carter C; Eibner, Christine

    2013-06-01

    The US Supreme Court's ruling on the Affordable Care Act in 2012 allowed states to opt out of the health reform law's Medicaid expansion. Since that ruling, fourteen governors have announced that their states will not expand their Medicaid programs. We used the RAND COMPARE microsimulation to analyze how opting out of Medicaid expansion would affect coverage and spending, and whether alternative policy options-such as partial expansion of Medicaid-could cover as many people at lower costs to states. With fourteen states opting out, we estimate that 3.6 million fewer people would be insured, federal transfer payments to those states could fall by $8.4 billion, and state spending on uncompensated care could increase by $1 billion in 2016, compared to what would be expected if all states participated in the expansion. These effects were only partially mitigated by alternative options we considered. We conclude that in terms of coverage, cost, and federal payments, states would do best to expand Medicaid.

  15. Beastly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Don; Hurley, J. Casey

    1993-01-01

    Both positive and negative people can strongly influence other staff. The thinking majority can best be influenced by supplying them with positive information. Leaders can counteract negative staff by being good role models, considering verbal and nonverbal messages, identifying negative staffers and limiting their leadership opportunities, and…

  16. People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsini, S. R.

    The "Folkehojskole," or Folk High School (more accurately translated as "People's College") which is Denmark's unique contribution to adult education, offer residential adult instruction. The aims of folk education are to help adults behave as independent and mature members of the community and think and speak freely. Emphasis…

  17. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  18. The economic downturn and its lingering effects reduced medicare spending growth by $4 billion in 2009-12.

    PubMed

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Ody, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has found a strong connection between the most recent economic recession and reductions in private health spending. However, the effect of economic downturns on Medicare spending is less clear. In contrast to studies involving earlier time periods, our study found that when the macroeconomy slowed during the Great Recession of 2007-09, so did Medicare spending growth. A small (14 percent) but significant share of the decline in Medicare spending growth from 2009 to 2012 relative to growth from 2004 to 2009 can be attributed to lingering effects of the recession. Absent the economic downturn, Medicare spending would have been $4 billion higher in 2009-12. A major reason for the relatively small impact of the macroeconomy is the relative lack of labor-force participation among people ages sixty-five and older. We estimate that if they had been working at the same rate as the nonelderly before the recession, the effect of the downturn on Medicare spending growth would have been twice as large.

  19. Malthus is still wrong: we can feed a world of 9-10 billion, but only by reducing food demand.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete

    2015-08-01

    In 1798, Thomas Robert Malthus published 'An essay on the principle of population' in which he concluded that: 'The power of population is so superior to the power of the earth to produce subsistence for man, that premature death must in some shape or other visit the human race.' Over the following century he was criticised for underestimating the potential for scientific and technological innovation to provide positive change. Since then, he has been proved wrong, with a number of papers published during the past few decades pointing out why he has been proved wrong so many times. In the present paper, I briefly review the main changes in food production in the past that have allowed us to continue to meet ever growing demand for food, and I examine the possibility of these same innovations delivering food security in the future. On the basis of recent studies, I conclude that technological innovation can no longer be relied upon to prove Malthus wrong as we strive to feed 9-10 billion people by 2050. Unless we are prepared to accept a wide range of significant, undesirable environmental consequences, technology alone cannot provide food security in 2050. Food demand, particularly the demand for livestock products, will need to be managed if we are to continue to prove Malthus wrong into the future.

  20. Two billion years of magmatism recorded from a single Mars meteorite ejection site.

    PubMed

    Lapen, Thomas J; Righter, Minako; Andreasen, Rasmus; Irving, Anthony J; Satkoski, Aaron M; Beard, Brian L; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Jull, A J Timothy; Caffee, Marc W

    2017-02-01

    The timing and nature of igneous activity recorded at a single Mars ejection site can be determined from the isotope analyses of Martian meteorites. Northwest Africa (NWA) 7635 has an Sm-Nd crystallization age of 2.403 ± 0.140 billion years, and isotope data indicate that it is derived from an incompatible trace element-depleted mantle source similar to that which produced a geochemically distinct group of 327- to 574-million-year-old "depleted" shergottites. Cosmogenic nuclide data demonstrate that NWA 7635 was ejected from Mars 1.1 million years ago (Ma), as were at least 10 other depleted shergottites. The shared ejection age is consistent with a common ejection site for these meteorites. The spatial association of 327- to 2403-Ma depleted shergottites indicates >2 billion years of magmatism from a long-lived and geochemically distinct volcanic center near the ejection site.

  1. Two billion years of magmatism recorded from a single Mars meteorite ejection site

    PubMed Central

    Lapen, Thomas J.; Righter, Minako; Andreasen, Rasmus; Irving, Anthony J.; Satkoski, Aaron M.; Beard, Brian L.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Jull, A. J. Timothy; Caffee, Marc W.

    2017-01-01

    The timing and nature of igneous activity recorded at a single Mars ejection site can be determined from the isotope analyses of Martian meteorites. Northwest Africa (NWA) 7635 has an Sm-Nd crystallization age of 2.403 ± 0.140 billion years, and isotope data indicate that it is derived from an incompatible trace element–depleted mantle source similar to that which produced a geochemically distinct group of 327- to 574-million-year-old “depleted” shergottites. Cosmogenic nuclide data demonstrate that NWA 7635 was ejected from Mars 1.1 million years ago (Ma), as were at least 10 other depleted shergottites. The shared ejection age is consistent with a common ejection site for these meteorites. The spatial association of 327- to 2403-Ma depleted shergottites indicates >2 billion years of magmatism from a long-lived and geochemically distinct volcanic center near the ejection site. PMID:28164153

  2. Billions for biodefense: federal agency biodefense funding, FY2009-FY2010.

    PubMed

    Franco, Crystal

    2009-09-01

    Since 2001, the United States government has spent substantial resources on preparing the nation against a bioterrorist attack. Earlier articles in this series analyzed civilian biodefense funding by the federal government for fiscal years (FY) 2001 through 2009. This article updates those figures with budgeted amounts for FY2010, specifically analyzing the budgets and allocations for biodefense at the Departments of Health and Human Services, Defense, Homeland Security, Agriculture, and State; the Environmental Protection Agency; and the National Science Foundation. This year's article also provides an assessment of the proportion of the biodefense budget that serves multiple programmatic goals and benefits, including research into infectious disease pathogenesis and immunology, public health planning and preparedness, and disaster response efforts. The FY2010 federal budget for civilian biodefense totals $6.05 billion. Of that total, $4.96 billion is budgeted for programs that serve multiple goals and provide manifold benefits.

  3. Medicare, Medicaid fraud a billion-dollar art form in the US

    PubMed Central

    Korcok, M

    1997-01-01

    Medicare and Medicaid fraud costs billions of dollars each year in the US. Investigators have shown that fraud is found in all segments of the health care system. Even though the Canadian system has stricter regulations and tighter controls, can regulators here afford to be complacent about believing that such abuse would not happen here? One province has established an antifraud unit to monitor its health insurance scheme; it already has 1 prosecution under its belt. PMID:9141996

  4. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J; Greene, Jenny E; Blakeslee, John P; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-21

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day 'dormant' descendants of this population of 'active' black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall--the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600--a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  5. Two ten-billion-solar-mass black holes at the centres of giant elliptical galaxies.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Nicholas J; Ma, Chung-Pei; Gebhardt, Karl; Wright, Shelley A; Murphy, Jeremy D; Lauer, Tod R; Graham, James R; Richstone, Douglas O

    2011-12-08

    Observational work conducted over the past few decades indicates that all massive galaxies have supermassive black holes at their centres. Although the luminosities and brightness fluctuations of quasars in the early Universe suggest that some were powered by black holes with masses greater than 10 billion solar masses, the remnants of these objects have not been found in the nearby Universe. The giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 hosts the hitherto most massive known black hole, which has a mass of 6.3 billion solar masses. Here we report that NGC 3842, the brightest galaxy in a cluster at a distance from Earth of 98 megaparsecs, has a central black hole with a mass of 9.7 billion solar masses, and that a black hole of comparable or greater mass is present in NGC 4889, the brightest galaxy in the Coma cluster (at a distance of 103 megaparsecs). These two black holes are significantly more massive than predicted by linearly extrapolating the widely used correlations between black-hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion or bulge luminosity of the host galaxy. Although these correlations remain useful for predicting black-hole masses in less massive elliptical galaxies, our measurements suggest that different evolutionary processes influence the growth of the largest galaxies and their black holes.

  6. MMap: Fast Billion-Scale Graph Computation on a PC via Memory Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhiyuan; Kahng, Minsuk; Sabrin, Kaeser Md.; Chau, Duen Horng (Polo); Lee, Ho; Kang, U

    2015-01-01

    Graph computation approaches such as GraphChi and TurboGraph recently demonstrated that a single PC can perform efficient computation on billion-node graphs. To achieve high speed and scalability, they often need sophisticated data structures and memory management strategies. We propose a minimalist approach that forgoes such requirements, by leveraging the fundamental memory mapping (MMap) capability found on operating systems. We contribute: (1) a new insight that MMap is a viable technique for creating fast and scalable graph algorithms that surpasses some of the best techniques; (2) the design and implementation of popular graph algorithms for billion-scale graphs with little code, thanks to memory mapping; (3) extensive experiments on real graphs, including the 6.6 billion edge YahooWeb graph, and show that this new approach is significantly faster or comparable to the highly-optimized methods (e.g., 9.5× faster than GraphChi for computing PageRank on 1.47B edge Twitter graph). We believe our work provides a new direction in the design and development of scalable algorithms. Our packaged code is available at http://poloclub.gatech.edu/mmap/. PMID:25866846

  7. Severe Obesity In Adults Cost State Medicaid Programs Nearly $8 Billion In 2013.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Claire; Pamplin, John; Long, Michael W; Ward, Zachary J; Gortmaker, Steven L; Andreyeva, Tatiana

    2015-11-01

    Efforts to expand Medicaid while controlling spending must be informed by a deeper understanding of the extent to which the high medical costs associated with severe obesity (having a body mass index of [Formula: see text] or higher) determine spending at the state level. Our analysis of population-representative data indicates that in 2013, severe obesity cost the nation approximately $69 billion, which accounted for 60 percent of total obesity-related costs. Approximately 11 percent of the cost of severe obesity was paid for by Medicaid, 30 percent by Medicare and other federal health programs, 27 percent by private health plans, and 30 percent out of pocket. Overall, severe obesity cost state Medicaid programs almost $8 billion a year, ranging from $5 million in Wyoming to $1.3 billion in California. These costs are likely to increase following Medicaid expansion and enhanced coverage of weight loss therapies in the form of nutrition consultation, drug therapy, and bariatric surgery. Ensuring and expanding Medicaid-eligible populations' access to cost-effective treatment for severe obesity should be part of each state's strategy to mitigate rising obesity-related health care costs.

  8. LLNL's Big Science Capabilities Help Spur Over $796 Billion in U.S. Economic Activity Sequencing the Human Genome

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-28

    LLNL’s successful history of taking on big science projects spans beyond national security and has helped create billions of dollars per year in new economic activity. One example is LLNL’s role in helping sequence the human genome. Over $796 billion in new economic activity in over half a dozen fields has been documented since LLNL successfully completed this Grand Challenge.

  9. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  10. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  11. Global carrying capacity: how many people?

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    During 1980-85 energy consumption in developing countries increased by 22%, of which 50% was used to maintain current levels of use and 50% pertained to real economic growth. Commercial energy consumption during 1970-89 tripled in developing countries. Population growth alone is expected to increase world energy consumption from the current 13.5 terawatts (13.5 trillion watts) to 18 terawatts by 2025 at the same level of use. The increased level of consumption (4.5 terawatts) is the equivalent of total current commercial energy consumption. One terawatt is equal to energy use from 5 billion barrels of oil yearly, 1 billion tons of coal, or 1.6 billion tons of wood. Economic development will require even greater levels of energy use. Since the oil price increases of the 1970s, developed countries increased their energy consumption by about 33%, even while becoming more fuel efficient. During 1990-2025, if developing countries double their per capita energy use and developed countries reduce their use by 50%, world energy consumption will still be almost 21 terawatts. If consumption remains constant at current levels without any population increase, the oil supply will be exhausted in 40 years. Coal consumption will last hundreds of years but air pollution will worsen, and global warming will be accelerated. Developed countries, which are wealthier, are having difficulty switching to non-fossil fuels, and the prospects for developing countries pose even greater challenges. Slowing growth buys time for technological development. World population is expected to reach 8 billion by 2020. Stabilization of growth at 8 billion would occur only if world fertility averages 1.7 children per woman by 2025. One opinion is that the carrying capacity has been reached with the present population of 5.4 billion. Others say that with changes in consumption and technological developments the earth can sustain 8 billion people. The physical limits are 1) the finite capacity of natural

  12. People vs. animals.

    PubMed

    Engram, S

    1992-07-12

    Animal rights activists demonstrated against physicians in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, who had transplanted a baboon liver into a man. They complained that baboons should not serve as spare parts for humans, but the complaint misfired when another man with liver disease challenged them. Nevertheless the rapidly growing population in the world is threatening animal species such as elephants. In Zimbabwe where a severe drought exists and which has been somewhat able to protect animals from poachers, the government now allows people to kill elephants and other animals for their meat. The great numbers of wildlife have placed considerable population pressure on Gonarezhou National Park. The government hopes the good will plan will reduce the number of illegal poachings in the future. This illustrates the need for population stability to protect the environment. Yet the 1992 UN environment conference in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, did not address population growth as a threat to biodiversity and the environment. Indeed if population continues to grow at its present rate, the population in 2100 will stand at 19 billion and each year before that the Earth will lose more farmland and forests and witness more days of smog, polluted water, political instabilities, and environmental refugees. Viruses like HIV may afflict the population. Most of the population growth will be in developing countries where drought and economic and political instabilities are common. In 2100 with such a hugh population, a national park for wildlife will most likely only be a luxury. We can no longer be complacent and must take action now to prevent this disaster. It will soon be clear that a growing population does not produce more prosperity as many economists would like us to believe, and discussions about using animals for spare parts will be ludicrous.

  13. Technical challenges, past and future, in implementing THERESA: a one million patient, one billion item computer-based patient record and decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camp, Henry N.

    1996-02-01

    Challenges in implementing a computer-based patient record (CPR)--such as absolute data integrity, high availability, permanent on-line storage of very large complex records, rapid search times, ease of use, commercial viability, and portability to other hospitals and doctor's offices--are given along with their significance, the solutions, and their successes. The THERESA CPR has been used sine 1983 in direct patient care by a public hospital that is the primary care provider to 350,000 people. It has 1000 beds with 45,000 admissions and 750,000 outpatient visits annually. The system supports direct provider entry, including by physicians, of complete medical `documents'. Its demonstration site currently contains 1.1 billion data items on 1 million patients. It is also a clinical decision-aiding tool used for quality assurance and cost containment, for teaching as faculty and students can easily find and `thumb through' all cases similar to a particular study, and for research with over a billion medical items that can be searched and analyzed on-line within context and with continuity. The same software can also run in a desktop microcomputer managing a private practice physician's office.

  14. A 17-billion-solar-mass black hole in a group galaxy with a diffuse core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jens; Ma, Chung-Pei; McConnell, Nicholas J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Blakeslee, John P.; Janish, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    Quasars are associated with and powered by the accretion of material onto massive black holes; the detection of highly luminous quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 suggests that black holes of up to ten billion solar masses already existed 13 billion years ago. Two possible present-day ‘dormant’ descendants of this population of ‘active’ black holes have been found in the galaxies NGC 3842 and NGC 4889 at the centres of the Leo and Coma galaxy clusters, which together form the central region of the Great Wall—the largest local structure of galaxies. The most luminous quasars, however, are not confined to such high-density regions of the early Universe; yet dormant black holes of this high mass have not yet been found outside of modern-day rich clusters. Here we report observations of the stellar velocity distribution in the galaxy NGC 1600—a relatively isolated elliptical galaxy near the centre of a galaxy group at a distance of 64 megaparsecs from Earth. We use orbit superposition models to determine that the black hole at the centre of NGC 1600 has a mass of 17 billion solar masses. The spatial distribution of stars near the centre of NGC 1600 is rather diffuse. We find that the region of depleted stellar density in the cores of massive elliptical galaxies extends over the same radius as the gravitational sphere of influence of the central black holes, and interpret this as the dynamical imprint of the black holes.

  15. The First Billion Years: The Growth of Galaxies in the Reionization Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Garth

    2015-08-01

    Detection and measurement of the earliest galaxies in the first billion years only became possible after the Hubble Space Telescope was updated in 2009 with the infrared WFC3/IR camera during Shuttle servicing mission SM4. The first billion years is a fascinating epoch, not just because of the earliest galaxies known from about 450 Myr after the Big Bang, but also because it encompasses the reionization epoch that peaked around z~9, as Planck has recently shown, and ended around redshift z~6 at 900 Myr. Before 2009 just a handful of galaxies were known in the reionization epoch at z>6. But within the last 5 years, with the first HUDF09 survey, the HUDF12, CANDELS and numerous other surveys on the GOODS and CANDELS fields, as well as detections from the cluster lensing programs like CLASH and the Frontier Fields, the number of galaxies at redshifts 7-10 has exploded, with some 700 galaxies being found and characterized. The first billion years was a period of extraordinary growth in the galaxy population with rapid growth in the star formation rate density and global mass density in galaxies. Spitzer observations in the infrared of these Hubble fields are establishing masses as well as giving insights into the nature and timescales of star formation from the very powerful emission lines being revealed by the Spitzer IRAC data. I will discuss what we understand about the growth of galaxies in this epoch from the insights gained from remarkable deep fields like the XDF, as well as the wide-area GOODS/CANDELS fields, the detection of unexpectedly luminous galaxies at redshifts 8-10, the impact of early galaxies on reionization, confirmation of a number of galaxies at z~7-8 from ground-based spectroscopic measurements, and the indications of a change in the growth of the star formation rate around 500 Myr. The first billion years was a time of dramatic growth and change in the early galaxy population.

  16. The $1. 5 billion question: Can the US Global Change Research Program deliver on its promises

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1993-09-04

    President Clinton has continued the funding for scientific investigations of global climatic change, increasing funds to a total of $1.5 billion spread amoung 11 different agencies. However, a growing number of critics warn that the program appears heading toward failure. The main issue is relevancy. Almost every agrees that the research effort will support important scientific work over the next decade, but it will not necessarily provide the information policymakers need to address the threat of climatic change, ozone depletion, deforestation, desertification, and similiar issues. This article summarizes the concerns and comments of critics, and the gap between the climate scientists and governmental policymakers.

  17. Air density 2.7 billion years ago limited to less than twice modern levels by fossil raindrop imprints.

    PubMed

    Som, Sanjoy M; Catling, David C; Harnmeijer, Jelte P; Polivka, Peter M; Buick, Roger

    2012-03-28

    According to the 'Faint Young Sun' paradox, during the late Archaean eon a Sun approximately 20% dimmer warmed the early Earth such that it had liquid water and a clement climate. Explanations for this phenomenon have invoked a denser atmosphere that provided warmth by nitrogen pressure broadening or enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations. Such solutions are allowed by geochemical studies and numerical investigations that place approximate concentration limits on Archaean atmospheric gases, including methane, carbon dioxide and oxygen. But no field data constraining ground-level air density and barometric pressure have been reported, leaving the plausibility of these various hypotheses in doubt. Here we show that raindrop imprints in tuffs of the Ventersdorp Supergroup, South Africa, constrain surface air density 2.7 billion years ago to less than twice modern levels. We interpret the raindrop fossils using experiments in which water droplets of known size fall at terminal velocity into fresh and weathered volcanic ash, thus defining a relationship between imprint size and raindrop impact momentum. Fragmentation following raindrop flattening limits raindrop size to a maximum value independent of air density, whereas raindrop terminal velocity varies as the inverse of the square root of air density. If the Archaean raindrops reached the modern maximum measured size, air density must have been less than 2.3 kg m(-3), compared to today's 1.2 kg m(-3), but because such drops rarely occur, air density was more probably below 1.3 kg m(-3). The upper estimate for air density renders the pressure broadening explanation possible, but it is improbable under the likely lower estimates. Our results also disallow the extreme CO(2) levels required for hot Archaean climates.

  18. Validation of an evacuated canister method for measuring part-per-billion levels of chemical warfare agent simulants.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Christopher C; LeBouf, Ryan F; Calvert, Catherine A; Slaven, James E

    2011-08-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research on direct-reading instruments (DRIs) needed an instantaneous sampling method to provide independent confirmation of the concentrations of chemical warfare agent (CWA) simulants. It was determined that evacuated canisters would be the method of choice. There is no method specifically validated for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. The purpose of this study was to validate an evacuated canister method for sampling seven specific VOCs that can be used as a simulant for CWA agents (cyclohexane) or influence the DRI measurement of CWA agents (acetone, chloroform, methylene chloride, methyl ethyl ketone, hexane, and carbon tetrachloride [CCl4]). The method used 6-L evacuated stainless-steel fused silica-lined canisters to sample the atmosphere containing VOCs. The contents of the canisters were then introduced into an autosampler/preconcentrator using a microscale purge and trap (MPT) method. The MPT method trapped and concentrated the VOCs in the air sample and removed most of the carbon dioxide and water vapor. After preconcentration, the samples were analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a mass selective detector. The method was tested, evaluated, and validated using the NIOSH recommended guidelines. The evaluation consisted of determining the optimum concentration range for the method; the sample stability over 30 days; and the accuracy, precision, and bias of the method. This method meets the NIOSH guidelines for six of the seven compounds (excluding acetone) tested in the range of 2.3-50 parts per billion (ppb), making it suitable for sampling of these VOCs at the ppb level.

  19. Greenhouse gas implications of a 32 billion gallon bioenergy landscape in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Wang, W.; Khanna, M.; Long, S.; Dwivedi, P.; Parton, W. J.; Hartman, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable bioenergy for transportation fuel and greenhouse gas (GHGs) reductions may require considerable changes in land use. Perennial grasses have been proposed because of their potential to yield substantial biomass on marginal lands without displacing food and reduce GHG emissions by storing soil carbon. Here, we implemented an integrated approach to planning bioenergy landscapes by combining spatially-explicit ecosystem and economic models to predict a least-cost land allocation for a 32 billion gallon (121 billion liter) renewable fuel mandate in the US. We find that 2022 GHG transportation emissions are decreased by 7% when 3.9 million hectares of eastern US land are converted to perennial grasses supplemented with corn residue to meet cellulosic ethanol requirements, largely because of gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage. If renewable fuel production is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, CO2 equivalent emissions could be reduced by 12%, because it induces more cellulosic biofuel and land under perennial grasses (10 million hectares) than under the mandate alone. While GHG reducing bioenergy landscapes that meet RFS requirements and do not displace food are possible, the reductions in GHG emissions are 50% less compared to previous estimates that did not account for economically feasible land allocation.

  20. On the constancy of the lunar cratering flux over the past 3.3 billion yr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinness, E. A.; Arvidson, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    Utilizing a method that minimizes random fluctuations in sampling crater populations, it can be shown that the ejecta deposit of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and the region surrounding the Apollo 12 landing site have incremental crater size-frequency distributions that can be expressed as log-log linear functions over the diameter range from 0.1 to 1 km. Slopes are indistinguishable for the three populations, probably indicating that the surfaces are dominated by primary craters. Treating the crater populations of Tycho, the floor of Copernicus, and Apollo 12 as primary crater populations contaminated, but not overwhelmed, with secondaries, allows an attempt at calibration of the post-heavy bombardment cratering flux. Using the age of Tycho as 109 m.y., Copernicus as 800 m.y., and Apollo 12 as 3.26 billion yr, there is no basis for assuming that the flux has changed over the past 3.3 billion yr. This result can be used for dating intermediate aged surfaces by crater density.

  1. Energy tax price tag for CPI: $1. 2 billion, jobs, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Begley, R.

    1993-03-03

    If President Clinton's proposed energy tax had been fully in place last year, it would have cost the US chemical industry an additional $1.2 billion and 9,900 jobs, according to Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA; Washington) estimates. It also would have driven output down 3% and prices up 5%, CMA says. Allen Lenz, CMA director/trade and economics, says the increase in production costs that would accompany the tax will not be shared by foreign competitors, cannot be neutralized with higher border taxes because of existing trade agreements, and provides another reason to move production offshore. Worse, the US chemical industry's generally impressive trade surplus declined by $2.5 billion last year, and a further drop is projected for this year. The margin of error gets thinner all the time as competition increases, Lenz says. We're not concerned only with the chemical industry, but the rest of US-based manufacturing because they taken half our output, he adds. One problem is the energy intensiveness of the chemical process industries-a CMA report says that 55% of the cost of producing ethylene glycol is energy related. And double taxation of such things as coproducts returned for credit to oil refineries could add up to $115 million/year, the report says.

  2. Increased subaerial volcanism and the rise of atmospheric oxygen 2.5 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Kump, Lee R; Barley, Mark E

    2007-08-30

    The hypothesis that the establishment of a permanently oxygenated atmosphere at the Archaean-Proterozoic transition (approximately 2.5 billion years ago) occurred when oxygen-producing cyanobacteria evolved is contradicted by biomarker evidence for their presence in rocks 200 million years older. To sustain vanishingly low oxygen levels despite near-modern rates of oxygen production from approximately 2.7-2.5 billion years ago thus requires that oxygen sinks must have been much larger than they are now. Here we propose that the rise of atmospheric oxygen occurred because the predominant sink for oxygen in the Archaean era-enhanced submarine volcanism-was abruptly and permanently diminished during the Archaean-Proterozoic transition. Observations are consistent with the corollary that subaerial volcanism only became widespread after a major tectonic episode of continental stabilization at the beginning of the Proterozoic. Submarine volcanoes are more reducing than subaerial volcanoes, so a shift from predominantly submarine to a mix of subaerial and submarine volcanism more similar to that observed today would have reduced the overall sink for oxygen and led to the rise of atmospheric oxygen.

  3. The evolution in the stellar mass of brightest cluster galaxies over the past 10 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellstedt, Sabine; Lidman, Chris; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Guatelli, Susanna; Hill, Allison R.; Hoekstra, Henk; Kurinsky, Noah; Labbe, Ivo; Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Z. Cemile; Safavi-Naeini, Mitra; Sifón, Cristóbal; Stefanon, Mauro; van de Sande, Jesse; van Dokkum, Pieter; Weigel, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Using a sample of 98 galaxy clusters recently imaged in the near-infrared with the European Southern Observatory (ESO) New Technology Telescope, WIYN telescope and William Herschel Telescope, supplemented with 33 clusters from the ESO archive, we measure how the stellar mass of the most massive galaxies in the universe, namely brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs), increases with time. Most of the BCGs in this new sample lie in the redshift range 0.2 < z < 0.6, which has been noted in recent works to mark an epoch over which the growth in the stellar mass of BCGs stalls. From this sample of 132 clusters, we create a subsample of 102 systems that includes only those clusters that have estimates of the cluster mass. We combine the BCGs in this subsample with BCGs from the literature, and find that the growth in stellar mass of BCGs from 10 billion years ago to the present epoch is broadly consistent with recent semi-analytic and semi-empirical models. As in other recent studies, tentative evidence indicates that the stellar mass growth rate of BCGs may be slowing in the past 3.5 billion years. Further work in collecting larger samples, and in better comparing observations with theory using mock images, is required if a more detailed comparison between the models and the data is to be made.

  4. Parametrization and Classification of 20 Billion LSST Objects: Lessons from SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Z.; Axelrod, T.; Becker, A.C.; Becla, J.; Borne, K.; Burke, David L.; Claver, C.F.; Cook, K.H.; Connolly, A.; Gilmore, D.K.; Jones, R.L.; Juric, M.; Kahn, Steven M.; Lim, K-T.; Lupton, R.H.; Monet, D.G.; Pinto, P.A.; Sesar, B.; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Tyson, J.Anthony; /UC, Davis

    2011-11-10

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be a large, wide-field ground-based system designed to obtain, starting in 2015, multiple images of the sky that is visible from Cerro Pachon in Northern Chile. About 90% of the observing time will be devoted to a deep-wide-fast survey mode which will observe a 20,000 deg{sup 2} region about 1000 times during the anticipated 10 years of operations (distributed over six bands, ugrizy). Each 30-second long visit will deliver 5{sigma} depth for point sources of r {approx} 24.5 on average. The co-added map will be about 3 magnitudes deeper, and will include 10 billion galaxies and a similar number of stars. We discuss various measurements that will be automatically performed for these 20 billion sources, and how they can be used for classification and determination of source physical and other properties. We provide a few classification examples based on SDSS data, such as color classification of stars, color-spatial proximity search for wide-angle binary stars, orbital-color classification of asteroid families, and the recognition of main Galaxy components based on the distribution of stars in the position-metallicity-kinematics space. Guided by these examples, we anticipate that two grand classification challenges for LSST will be (1) rapid and robust classification of sources detected in difference images, and (2) simultaneous treatment of diverse astrometric and photometric time series measurements for an unprecedentedly large number of objects.

  5. Who'll have to pay? The cost of dealing with AIDS in Asia will run into the billions.

    PubMed

    1993-11-03

    In September 1993, at a meeting funded by the Asian Development Bank and the United Nations Development Program, researchers, economists, and government health officials from China, India, Indonesia, South Korea, Burma, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Thailand met to discuss the economic effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on Asia. The World Health Organization (WHO) places the estimate of the number of people in India who are infected with HIV at around 1 million. However, Jacob John of Vellore Medical College (who first discovered the virus in India) places the estimate at higher than 2.5 million with an increase to 9-18 million by the year 2000. Charles Myers of Harvard University, Mechai Viravaidya of Bangkok's Population and Community Development Association, and Stasia Obremskey ( a health and development consultant) predict 3.4-4.3 million Thais will be infected by that year. According to Obremskey, the number of AIDS cases will reach 650,000, of which 500,000 will die. Health care for full-blown AIDS costs $1016/yr, while lost productivity due to early death costs $22,000 per victim. Myers, Mechai and Obremskey state that Thailand could prevent 3.5 million cases and save $5.1 billion, if people ceased high-risk behavior and the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases was given the highest priority. In the Philippines there are only 416 reported cases of HIV and AIDS, but Dennis Maducduc of the Department of Health AIDS program states that Filipinos are secretive about this, and Orville Solon of the University of the Philippines suggests there are 100 cases for each reported case. Solon believes $15 million has been lost due to infection and death of overseas contract workers who account for 8% of the country's foreign exchange earnings. New studies in Africa, where, as in Thailand, mortality is less than predicted, suggest a less virulent strain of HIV. This apparent fact and prevention, especially

  6. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  7. A stimulating conversation. Healthcare organizations praise the economic stimulus law, start considering ways to use the $150 billion in relief.

    PubMed

    Lubell, Jennifer

    2009-02-23

    The industry eagerly awaits its $150 billion under the stimulus package, but not everyone will win, experts say. Still, "The initial stimulus package was a very solid start," said system exec Conway Collis, left.

  8. Evidence for Early Life in ˜3.5 Billion-Year-Old Pillow Lavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, N. R.; Furnes, H.; Muehlenbachs, K.; Staudigel, H.; de Wit, M.

    2004-12-01

    Recently discovered biosignatures in the formerly glassy rims of ˜3.5 billion-year-old pillow lavas from the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB) in South Africa suggest they were colonized by microbes early in Earth's history. These subaqueous volcanic rocks represent a new geological setting in the search for early life on Earth. This is not entirely surprising since microbial alteration of basaltic glass in pillow lavas and volcaniclastic rocks has been well documented from recent oceanic crust and well-preserved ophiolites. The BGB magmatic sequence contains exceptionally well-preserved mafic to ultramafic pillow lavas, sheet flows, and intrusions interpreted to represent 3.48 to 3.22 billion-year-old oceanic crust and island arc assemblages. We observed micron-sized tubular structures mineralized by titanite in the formerly glassy rims of the BGB pillow lavas. Based on their similarity to textures observed in recent glassy pillow basalts we interpret these structures to represent ancient traces of microbial activity formed during biogenic etching of the originally glassy pillow rims as microbes colonized the glass surface. Petrographic observations coupled with overlapping metamorphic and magmatic dates indicate this process occurred soon after eruption of the pillow lavas. Subsequent greenschist facies seafloor hydrothermal alteration caused the structures to be mineralized by titanite; a process also observed in ophiolitic pillow lavas of much younger age. X-ray mapping reveals the presence of carbon along the margins of the tubular structures interpreted as residual organic material. Disseminated carbonates within the microbially-altered BGB pillow rims have low carbon isotope values consistent with microbial oxidation of organic matter. In contrast, disseminated carbonate in the crystalline pillow interiors have carbon isotope values bracketed between Archean marine carbonate and mantle carbon dioxide. It remains to be seen how deep into the Archean oceanic

  9. The VIRMOS-VLT Deep Survey: the Last 10 Billion Years of Evolution of Galaxy Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollo, A.; Guzzo, L.; Le Fèvre, O.; Meneux, B.; Cappi, A.; McCracken, H. J.; Iovino, A.; Marinoni, C.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V. L.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Arnouts, S.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Charlot, S.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Foucaud, S.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Ilbert, O.; Marano, B.; Mazure, A.; Merighi, R.; Paltani, S.; Pellò, R.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zamorani, G.; Zucca, E.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brinchmann, J.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Lamareille, F.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Temporin, S.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    We discuss the evolution of clustering of galaxies in the Universe from the present epoch back to z ˜ 2, using the first-epoch data from the VIMOS-VLT Deep Survey (VVDS). We present the evolution of the projected two-point correlation function of galaxies for the global galaxy population, as well as its dependence on galaxy intrinsic luminosities and spectral types. While we do not find strong variations of the correlation function parameters with redshift for the global galaxy population, the clustering of objects with different intrinsic luminosities evolved significantly during last 8-10 billion years. Our findings indicate that bright galaxies in the past traced higher density peaks than they do now and that the shape of the correlation function of most luminous galaxies is different from observed for their local counterparts, which is a supporting evidence of a non-trivial evolution of the galaxy vs. dark matter bias.

  10. Collision-free spatial hash functions for structural analysis of billion-vertex chemical bond networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cheng; Bansal, Bhupesh; Branicio, Paulo S.; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Sharma, Ashish; Vashishta, Priya

    2006-09-01

    State-of-the-art molecular dynamics (MD) simulations generate massive datasets involving billion-vertex chemical bond networks, which makes data mining based on graph algorithms such as K-ring analysis a challenge. This paper proposes an algorithm to improve the efficiency of ring analysis of large graphs, exploiting properties of K-rings and spatial correlations of vertices in the graph. The algorithm uses dual-tree expansion (DTE) and spatial hash-function tagging (SHAFT) to optimize computation and memory access. Numerical tests show nearly perfect linear scaling of the algorithm. Also a parallel implementation of the DTE + SHAFT algorithm achieves high scalability. The algorithm has been successfully employed to analyze large MD simulations involving up to 500 million atoms.

  11. Enumeration of 166 billion organic small molecules in the chemical universe database GDB-17.

    PubMed

    Ruddigkeit, Lars; van Deursen, Ruud; Blum, Lorenz C; Reymond, Jean-Louis

    2012-11-26

    Drug molecules consist of a few tens of atoms connected by covalent bonds. How many such molecules are possible in total and what is their structure? This question is of pressing interest in medicinal chemistry to help solve the problems of drug potency, selectivity, and toxicity and reduce attrition rates by pointing to new molecular series. To better define the unknown chemical space, we have enumerated 166.4 billion molecules of up to 17 atoms of C, N, O, S, and halogens forming the chemical universe database GDB-17, covering a size range containing many drugs and typical for lead compounds. GDB-17 contains millions of isomers of known drugs, including analogs with high shape similarity to the parent drug. Compared to known molecules in PubChem, GDB-17 molecules are much richer in nonaromatic heterocycles, quaternary centers, and stereoisomers, densely populate the third dimension in shape space, and represent many more scaffold types.

  12. Geodynamo, solar wind, and magnetopause 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Tarduno, John A; Cottrell, Rory D; Watkeys, Michael K; Hofmann, Axel; Doubrovine, Pavel V; Mamajek, Eric E; Liu, Dunji; Sibeck, David G; Neukirch, Levi P; Usui, Yoichi

    2010-03-05

    Stellar wind standoff by a planetary magnetic field prevents atmospheric erosion and water loss. Although the early Earth retained its water and atmosphere, and thus evolved as a habitable planet, little is known about Earth's magnetic field strength during that time. We report paleointensity results from single silicate crystals bearing magnetic inclusions that record a geodynamo 3.4 to 3.45 billion years ago. The measured field strength is approximately 50 to 70% that of the present-day field. When combined with a greater Paleoarchean solar wind pressure, the paleofield strength data suggest steady-state magnetopause standoff distances of < or = 5 Earth radii, similar to values observed during recent coronal mass ejection events. The data also suggest lower-latitude aurora and increases in polar cap area, as well as heating, expansion, and volatile loss from the exosphere that would have affected long-term atmospheric composition.

  13. Early formation of the Moon 4.51 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Barboni, Melanie; Boehnke, Patrick; Keller, Brenhin; Kohl, Issaku E.; Schoene, Blair; Young, Edward D.; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Establishing the age of the Moon is critical to understanding solar system evolution and the formation of rocky planets, including Earth. However, despite its importance, the age of the Moon has never been accurately determined. We present uranium-lead dating of Apollo 14 zircon fragments that yield highly precise, concordant ages, demonstrating that they are robust against postcrystallization isotopic disturbances. Hafnium isotopic analyses of the same fragments show extremely low initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios corrected for cosmic ray exposure that are near the solar system initial value. Our data indicate differentiation of the lunar crust by 4.51 billion years, indicating the formation of the Moon within the first ~60 million years after the birth of the solar system. PMID:28097222

  14. Investigation of Radar Propagation in Buildings: A 10 Billion Element Cartesian-Mesh FETD Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M L; Fasenfest, B J; White, D A

    2008-01-14

    In this paper large scale full-wave simulations are performed to investigate radar wave propagation inside buildings. In principle, a radar system combined with sophisticated numerical methods for inverse problems can be used to determine the internal structure of a building. The composition of the walls (cinder block, re-bar) may effect the propagation of the radar waves in a complicated manner. In order to provide a benchmark solution of radar propagation in buildings, including the effects of typical cinder block and re-bar, we performed large scale full wave simulations using a Finite Element Time Domain (FETD) method. This particular FETD implementation is tuned for the special case of an orthogonal Cartesian mesh and hence resembles FDTD in accuracy and efficiency. The method was implemented on a general-purpose massively parallel computer. In this paper we briefly describe the radar propagation problem, the FETD implementation, and we present results of simulations that used over 10 billion elements.

  15. Billion-atom synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of critical 3D Ising systems

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, E.; Monasterio, P.R.; Marian, J.

    2011-02-20

    An extension of the synchronous parallel kinetic Monte Carlo (spkMC) algorithm developed by Martinez et al. [J. Comp. Phys. 227 (2008) 3804] to discrete lattices is presented. The method solves the master equation synchronously by recourse to null events that keep all processors' time clocks current in a global sense. Boundary conflicts are resolved by adopting a chessboard decomposition into non-interacting sublattices. We find that the bias introduced by the spatial correlations attendant to the sublattice decomposition is within the standard deviation of serial calculations, which confirms the statistical validity of our algorithm. We have analyzed the parallel efficiency of spkMC and find that it scales consistently with problem size and sublattice partition. We apply the method to the calculation of scale-dependent critical exponents in billion-atom 3D Ising systems, with very good agreement with state-of-the-art multispin simulations.

  16. Extraterrestrial demise of banded iron formations 1.85 billion years ago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, J.F.; Cannon, W.F.

    2009-01-01

    In the Lake Superior region of North America, deposition of most banded iron formations (BIFs) ended abruptly 1.85 Ga ago, coincident with the oceanic impact of the giant Sudbury extraterrestrial bolide. We propose a new model in which this impact produced global mixing of shallow oxic and deep anoxic waters of the Paleoproterozoic ocean, creating a suboxic redox state for deep seawater. This suboxic state, characterized by only small concentrations of dissolved O2 (???1 ??M), prevented transport of hydrothermally derived Fe(II) from the deep ocean to continental-margin settings, ending an ???1.1 billion-year-long period of episodic BIF mineralization. The model is supported by the nature of Precambrian deep-water exhalative chemical sediments, which changed from predominantly sulfide facies prior to ca. 1.85 Ga to mainly oxide facies thereafter. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  17. Barium fluoride whispering-gallery-mode disk-resonator with one billion quality-factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guoping; Diallo, Souleymane; Henriet, Rémi; Jacquot, Maxime; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-10-15

    We demonstrate a monolithic optical whispering-gallery-mode resonator fabricated with barium fluoride (BaF₂) with an ultra-high quality (Q) factor above 10⁹ at 1550 nm, and measured with both the linewidth and cavity-ring-down methods. Vertical scanning optical profilometry shows that the root mean square surface roughness of 2 nm is achieved for our mm-size disk. To the best of our knowledge, we show for the first time that one billion Q-factor is achievable by precision polishing in relatively soft crystals with mohs hardness of 3. We show that complex thermo-optical dynamics can take place in these resonators. Beside usual applications in nonlinear optics and microwave photonics, high-energy particle scintillation detection utilizing monolithic BaF₂ resonators potentially becomes feasible.

  18. Star Formation in Galaxy Clusters Over the Past 10 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Kim-Vy

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the universe and include the most massive galaxies in the universe; this makes galaxy clusters ideal laboratories for disentangling the nature versus nurture aspect of how galaxies evolve. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve in clusters continues to be a fundamental question in astronomy. The ages and assembly histories of galaxies in rich clusters test both stellar population models and hierarchical formation scenarios. Is star formation in cluster galaxies simply accelerated relative to their counterparts in the lower density field, or do cluster galaxies assemble their stars in a fundamentally different manner? To answer this question, I review multi-wavelength results on star formation in galaxy clusters from Coma to the most distant clusters yet discovered at look-back times of 10 billion years (z 2).

  19. Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?

    PubMed

    Beerling, David J

    2012-02-19

    Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO(2) increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO(2) in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system.

  20. Constraining the last 7 billion years of galaxy evolution in semi-analytic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Croton, Darren J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the ability of the Croton et al. semi-analytic model to reproduce the evolution of observed galaxies across the final 7 billion years of cosmic history. Using Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques we explore the available parameter space to produce a model which attempts to achieve a statistically accurate fit to the observed stellar mass function at z = 0 and z ≈ 0.8, as well as the local black hole-bulge relation. We find that in order to be successful we are required to push supernova feedback efficiencies to extreme limits which are, in some cases, unjustified by current observations. This leads us to the conclusion that the current model may be incomplete. Using the posterior probability distributions provided by our fitting, as well as the qualitative details of our produced stellar mass functions, we suggest that any future model improvements must act to preferentially bolster star formation efficiency in the most massive haloes at high redshift.

  1. Atmospheric carbon dioxide: a driver of photosynthetic eukaryote evolution for over a billion years?

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Exciting evidence from diverse fields, including physiology, evolutionary biology, palaeontology, geosciences and molecular genetics, is providing an increasingly secure basis for robustly formulating and evaluating hypotheses concerning the role of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the evolution of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Such studies span over a billion years of evolutionary change, from the origins of eukaryotic algae through to the evolution of our present-day terrestrial floras, and have relevance for plant and ecosystem responses to future global CO2 increases. The papers in this issue reflect the breadth and depth of approaches being adopted to address this issue. They reveal new discoveries pointing to deep evidence for the role of CO2 in shaping evolutionary changes in plants and ecosystems, and establish an exciting cross-disciplinary research agenda for uncovering new insights into feedbacks between biology and the Earth system. PMID:22232760

  2. Dust production 0.7-1.5 billion years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michałowski, Michał J.

    2016-06-01

    Cosmic dust is an important component of the Universe, and its origin, especially at high redshifts, is still unknown. I present a simple but powerful method of assessing whether dust observed in a given galaxy could in principle have been formed by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars or supernovae (SNe). Using this method I show that for most of the galaxies with detected dust emission between z=4 and z=7.5 (1.5-0.7 billion years after the Big Bang) AGB stars are not numerous and efficient enough to be responsible for the measured dust masses. Supernovae could account for most of the dust, but only if all of them had efficiencies close to the maximal theoretically allowed value. This suggests that a different mechanism is responsible for dust production at high redshifts, and the most likely possibility is the grain growth in the interstellar medium.

  3. Searching for Organics Preserved in 4.5 Billion Year Old Salt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zolensky, Michael E.; Fries, M.; Steele, A.; Bodnar, R.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of early solar system fluids took a dramatic turn a decade ago with the discovery of fluid inclusion-bearing halite (NaCl) crystals in the matrix of two freshly fallen brecciated H chondrite falls, Monahans and Zag. Both meteorites are regolith breccias, and contain xenolithic halite (and minor admixed sylvite -- KCl, crystals in their regolith lithologies. The halites are purple to dark blue, due to the presence of color centers (electrons in anion vacancies) which slowly accumulated as 40K (in sylvite) decayed over billions of years. The halites were dated by K-Ar, Rb-Sr and I-Xe systematics to be 4.5 billion years old. The "blue" halites were a fantastic discovery for the following reasons: (1) Halite+sylvite can be dated (K is in sylvite and will substitute for Na in halite, Rb substitutes in halite for Na, and I substitutes for Cl). (2) The blue color is lost if the halite dissolves on Earth and reprecipitates (because the newly-formed halite has no color centers), so the color serves as a "freshness" or pristinity indicator. (3) Halite frequently contains aqueous fluid inclusions. (4) Halite contains no structural oxygen, carbon or hydrogen, making them ideal materials to measure these isotopic systems in any fluid inclusions. (5) It is possible to directly measure fluid inclusion formation temperatures, and thus directly measure the temperature of the mineralizing aqueous fluid. In addition to these two ordinary chondrites halite grains have been reliably reported in several ureilites, an additional ordinary chondrite (Jilin), and in the carbonaceous chondrite (Murchison), although these reports were unfortunately not taken seriously. We have lately found additional fluid inclusions in carbonates in several additional carbonaceous chondrites. Meteoritic aqueous fluid inclusions are apparently relatively widespread in meteorites, though very small and thus difficult to analyze.

  4. Estimating the costs of caring for people with Alzheimer disease in California: 2000-2040.

    PubMed

    Fox, P J; Kohatsu, N; Max, W; Arnsberger, P

    2001-01-01

    The costs of caring for people with Alzheimer disease (AD) in California are estimated using data from a study of the costs of caring for community-resident and institutionalized people with AD, combined will prevalence and population projections. Costs for community-resident patients will increase 83 percent in the period 2000 ($23.4 billion) to 2020 ($42.8 billion), and will grow an additional 59 percent from 2020 to 2040 ($68.1 billion). Costs for AD patients in institutions will increase 84 percent from 2000 ($2.5 billion) to 2020 ($4.6 billion), and will grow an additional 61 percent from 2020 to 2040 ($7.4 billion), assuming the supply of nursing home beds meets projected demand. Total costs of caring for AD patients will nearly triple between 2000 and 2040. The rapid aging of the U.S. population makes more aggressive societal action necessary if the personal and societal burden of Alzheimer's disease is to be reduced in the future.

  5. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  6. Three Principles to REVISE People's Unethical Behavior.

    PubMed

    Ayal, Shahar; Gino, Francesca; Barkan, Rachel; Ariely, Dan

    2015-11-01

    Dishonesty and unethical behavior are widespread in the public and private sectors and cause immense annual losses. For instance, estimates of U.S. annual losses indicate $1 trillion paid in bribes, $270 billion lost due to unreported income, and $42 billion lost in retail due to shoplifting and employee theft. In this article, we draw on insights from the growing fields of moral psychology and behavioral ethics to present a three-principle framework we call REVISE. This framework classifies forces that affect dishonesty into three main categories and then redirects those forces to encourage moral behavior. The first principle, reminding, emphasizes the effectiveness of subtle cues that increase the salience of morality and decrease people's ability to justify dishonesty. The second principle, visibility, aims to restrict anonymity, prompt peer monitoring, and elicit responsible norms. The third principle, self-engagement, increases people's motivation to maintain a positive self-perception as a moral person and helps bridge the gap between moral values and actual behavior. The REVISE framework can guide the design of policy interventions to defeat dishonesty.

  7. U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, Mark; Eaton, Laurence M; Graham, Robin Lambert; Langholtz, Matthew H; Perlack, Robert D; Turhollow Jr, Anthony F; Stokes, Bryce; Brandt, Craig C

    2011-08-01

    The report, Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply (generally referred to as the Billion-Ton Study or 2005 BTS), was an estimate of 'potential' biomass based on numerous assumptions about current and future inventory, production capacity, availability, and technology. The analysis was made to determine if conterminous U.S. agriculture and forestry resources had the capability to produce at least one billion dry tons of sustainable biomass annually to displace 30% or more of the nation's present petroleum consumption. An effort was made to use conservative estimates to assure confidence in having sufficient supply to reach the goal. The potential biomass was projected to be reasonably available around mid-century when large-scale biorefineries are likely to exist. The study emphasized primary sources of forest- and agriculture-derived biomass, such as logging residues, fuel treatment thinnings, crop residues, and perennially grown grasses and trees. These primary sources have the greatest potential to supply large, reliable, and sustainable quantities of biomass. While the primary sources were emphasized, estimates of secondary residue and tertiary waste resources of biomass were also provided. The original Billion-Ton Resource Assessment, published in 2005, was divided into two parts-forest-derived resources and agriculture-derived resources. The forest resources included residues produced during the harvesting of merchantable timber, forest residues, and small-diameter trees that could become available through initiatives to reduce fire hazards and improve forest health; forest residues from land conversion; fuelwood extracted from forests; residues generated at primary forest product processing mills; and urban wood wastes, municipal solid wastes (MSW), and construction and demolition (C&D) debris. For these forest resources, only residues, wastes, and small-diameter trees were

  8. People's Libraries in Support of People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zijl, Philip

    This paper addresses the planning of information services in South Africa via Peoples Libraries in support of People's Education, i.e., Post-Apartheid education with a humanistic perspective that strives to offer black and white students education with equal levels of quality, and includes Black Studies in the curriculum. People's Libraries are…

  9. Cooling and exhumation of continents at billion-year time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, T.; Bowring, S. A.; Perron, T.; Mahan, K. H.; Dudas, F. O.

    2011-12-01

    The oldest rocks on Earth are preserved within the continental lithosphere, where assembled fragments of ancient orogenic belts have survived erosion and destruction by plate tectonic and surface processes for billions of years. Though the rate of orogenic exhumation and erosion has been measured for segments of an orogenic history, it remains unclear how these exhumation rates have changed over the lifetime of any terrane. Because the exhumation of the lithospheric surface has a direct effect on the rate of heat loss within the lithosphere, a continuous record of lithosphere exhumation can be reconstructed through the use of thermochronology. Thermochronologic studies have typically employed systems sensitive to cooling at temperatures <300 °C, such as the (U-Th)/He and 40Ar/39Ar systems. This largely restricts their application to measuring cooling in rocks from the outer 10 km of the Earth's crust, resulting in a thermal history that is controlled by either upper crustal flexure and faulting and/or isotherm inflections related to surface topography. Combining these biases with the uplift, erosion and recycling of these shallow rocks results in a poor preservation potential of any long-term record. Here, an ancient and long-term record of lithosphere exhumation is constructed using U-Pb thermochronology, a geochronologic system sensitive to cooling at temperatures found at 20-50 km depth (400-650 °C). Lower crustal xenoliths provide material that resided at these depths for billions of years or more, recording a thermal history that is buried deep enough to remain insensitive to upper crustal deformation and instead is dominated by the vertical motions of the continents. We show how this temperature-sensitive system can produce a long-term integrated measure of continental exhumation and erosion. Preserved beneath Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks within Montana, USA, the Great Falls Tectonic Zone formed when two Archean cratons, the Wyoming Province and Medicine

  10. A redox-stratified ocean 3.2 billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satkoski, Aaron M.; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Li, Weiqiang; Beard, Brian L.; Johnson, Clark M.

    2015-11-01

    Before the Great Oxidation Event (GOE) 2.4-2.2 billion years ago it has been traditionally thought that oceanic water columns were uniformly anoxic due to a lack of oxygen-producing microorganisms. Recently, however, it has been proposed that transient oxygenation of shallow seawater occurred between 2.8 and 3.0 billion years ago. Here, we present a novel combination of stable Fe and radiogenic U-Th-Pb isotope data that demonstrate significant oxygen contents in the shallow oceans at 3.2 Ga, based on analysis of the Manzimnyama Banded Iron Formation (BIF), Fig Tree Group, South Africa. This unit is exceptional in that proximal, shallow-water and distal, deep-water facies are preserved. When compared to the distal, deep-water facies, the proximal samples show elevated U concentrations and moderately positive δ56Fe values, indicating vertical stratification in dissolved oxygen contents. Confirmation of oxidizing conditions using U abundances is robustly constrained using samples that have been closed to U and Pb mobility using U-Th-Pb geochronology. Although redox-sensitive elements have been commonly used in ancient rocks to infer redox conditions, post-depositional element mobility has been rarely tested, and U-Th-Pb geochronology can constrain open- or closed-system behavior. The U abundances and δ56Fe values of the Manzimnyama BIF suggest the proximal, shallow-water samples record precipitation under stronger oxidizing conditions compared to the distal deeper-water facies, which in turn indicates the existence of a discrete redox boundary between deep and shallow ocean waters at this time; this work, therefore, documents the oldest known preserved marine redox gradient in the rock record. The relative enrichment of O2 in the upper water column is likely due to the existence of oxygen-producing microorganisms such as cyanobacteria. These results provide a new approach for identifying free oxygen in Earth's ancient oceans, including confirming the age of redox

  11. Iapetus: 4.5 Billion Years of Contamination by Phoebe Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, Douglas P.

    1997-07-01

    One of the strangest satellites in the Solar System is Saturn's tidally-locked Iapetus which has a bright white trailing hemisphere and a jet-black leading face. It has long been suspected that dark dusty debris, originating from Saturn's outermost satellite Phoebe and brought inward by Poynting-Robertson drag, is responsible for Iapetus' striking albedo asymmetry. The Phoebe-dust model is very compelling because it naturally explains why the leading face of Iapetus, the side that is receiving dust from Phoebe, is dark. The model has not gained universal acceptance, however, primarily due to the following dynamical problems: i) the distribution of dark material on Iapetus does not precisely match predicted contours of constant dust flux from Phoebe, ii) there are dark-floored craters in Iapetus' high-albedo hemisphere, and iii) Iapetus' North pole is brighter than parts of the trailing hemisphere. These problems are greatly reduced with the realization that Iapetus took nearly a billion years to become tidally locked to Saturn. I suggest the following scenario for the origin of the black/while dichotomy on Iapetus. Phoebe was probably captured early in the Solar System's history, well before Iapetus' spin slowed to its present synchronous rate. While Iapetus was spinning rapidly, dust from Phoebe accumulated at all longitudes on Iapetus uniformly. The accumulation was greatest near Iapetus' equator and decreased with roughly a cosine dependence toward the poles where the dust flux was lowest. After Iapetus became tidally locked, its trailing side was shielded from Phoebe dust, and volatile ice accumulated there burying the dark Phoebe material. Large impacts on the trailing side have dredged up some ancient Phoebe debris, creating the dark-floored craters. In addition, impacts have mixed dark debris with icy material, thereby lowering the albedo of the trailing side. Iapetus' poles are the brightest parts of the satellite simply because little Phoebe dust ever

  12. Galaxy evolution. Evidence for mature bulges and an inside-out quenching phase 3 billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Tacchella, S; Carollo, C M; Renzini, A; Förster Schreiber, N M; Lang, P; Wuyts, S; Cresci, G; Dekel, A; Genzel, R; Lilly, S J; Mancini, C; Newman, S; Onodera, M; Shapley, A; Tacconi, L; Woo, J; Zamorani, G

    2015-04-17

    Most present-day galaxies with stellar masses ≥10(11) solar masses show no ongoing star formation and are dense spheroids. Ten billion years ago, similarly massive galaxies were typically forming stars at rates of hundreds solar masses per year. It is debated how star formation ceased, on which time scales, and how this "quenching" relates to the emergence of dense spheroids. We measured stellar mass and star-formation rate surface density distributions in star-forming galaxies at redshift 2.2 with ~1-kiloparsec resolution. We find that, in the most massive galaxies, star formation is quenched from the inside out, on time scales less than 1 billion years in the inner regions, up to a few billion years in the outer disks. These galaxies sustain high star-formation activity at large radii, while hosting fully grown and already quenched bulges in their cores.

  13. Switching To Less-Expensive Blindness Drug Could Save Medicare Part B $18 Billion Over A Ten-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Hutton, DW; Newman-Casey, PA; Tavag, M; Zacks, DN; Stein, JD

    2014-01-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased, now accounting for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. Ranibizumab and bevacizumab have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse event rates, but at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010–2020) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less-expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, Medicare Part B, patients, and the health care system would save $18 billion, $4.6 billion, and $29 billion, respectively. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes. PMID:24889941

  14. Analogues of primeval galaxies two billion years after the Big Bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorín, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Pérez-Montero, Enrique; Castellano, Marco; Guaita, Lucia; Grazian, Andrea; Fèvre, Olivier Le; Ribeiro, Bruno; Schaerer, Daniel; Tasca, Lidia A. M.; Thomas, Romain; Bardelli, Sandro; Cassarà, Letizia; Cassata, Paolo; Cimatti, Andrea; Contini, Thierry; Barros, Stephane De; Garilli, Bianca; Giavalisco, Mauro; Hathi, Nimish; Koekemoer, Anton; Le Brun, Vincent; Lemaux, Brian C.; Maccagni, Dario; Pentericci, Laura; Pforr, Janine; Talia, Margherita; Tresse, Laurence; Vanzella, Eros; Vergani, Daniela; Zamorani, Giovanni; Zucca, Elena; Merlin, Emiliano

    2017-03-01

    Deep observations are revealing a growing number of young galaxies in the first billion years of cosmic time1. Compared to typical galaxies at later times, they show more extreme emission-line properties2, higher star formation rates3, lower masses4, and smaller sizes5. However, their faintness precludes studies of their chemical abundances and ionization conditions, strongly limiting our understanding of the physics driving early galaxy build-up and metal enrichment. Here we study a rare population of ultraviolet-selected, low-luminosity galaxies at redshift 2.4 < z < 3.5 that exhibit all the rest-frame properties expected from primeval galaxies. These low-mass, highly compact systems are rapidly forming galaxies able to double their stellar mass in only a few tens of millions of years. They are characterized by very blue ultraviolet spectra with weak absorption features and bright nebular emission lines, which imply hard radiation fields from young hot massive stars6,7. Their highly ionized gas phase has strongly sub-solar carbon and oxygen abundances, with metallicities more than a factor of two lower than that found in typical galaxies of similar mass and star formation rate at z≤2.58. These young galaxies reveal an early and short stage in the assembly of their galactic structures and their chemical evolution, a vigorous phase that is likely to be dominated by the effects of gas-rich mergers, accretion of metal-poor gas and strong outflows.

  15. Rapid analysis of perchlorate in drinking water at parts per billion levels using microchip electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Gertsch, Jana C; Noblitt, Scott D; Cropek, Donald M; Henry, Charles S

    2010-05-01

    A microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) system has been developed for the determination of perchlorate in drinking water. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recently proposed a health advisory limit for perchlorate in drinking water of 15 parts per billion (ppb), a level requiring large, sophisticated instrumentation, such as ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (IC-MS), for detection. An inexpensive, portable system is desired for routine online monitoring applications of perchlorate in drinking water. Here, we present an MCE method using contact conductivity detection for perchlorate determination. The method has several advantages, including reduced analysis times relative to IC, inherent portability, high selectivity, and minimal sample pretreatment. Resolution of perchlorate from more abundant ions was achieved using zwitterionic, sulfobetaine surfactants, N-hexadecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (HDAPS) and N-tetradecyl-N,N-dimethyl-3-ammonio-1-propane sulfonate (TDAPS). The system performance and the optimization of the separation chemistry, including the use of these surfactants to resolve perchlorate from other anions, are discussed in this work. The system is capable of detection limits of 3.4 +/- 1.8 ppb (n = 6) in standards and 5.6 +/- 1.7 ppb (n = 6) in drinking water.

  16. A large neutral fraction of cosmic hydrogen a billion years after the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Wyithe, J Stuart B; Loeb, Abraham

    2004-02-26

    The fraction of ionized hydrogen left over from the Big Bang provides evidence for the time of formation of the first stars and quasar black holes in the early Universe; such objects provide the high-energy photons necessary to ionize hydrogen. Spectra of the two most distant known quasars show nearly complete absorption of photons with wavelengths shorter than the Lyman alpha transition of neutral hydrogen, indicating that hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) had not been completely ionized at a redshift of z approximately 6.3, about one billion years after the Big Bang. Here we show that the IGM surrounding these quasars had a neutral hydrogen fraction of tens of per cent before the quasar activity started, much higher than the previous lower limits of approximately 0.1 per cent. Our results, when combined with the recent inference of a large cumulative optical depth to electron scattering after cosmological recombination therefore suggest the presence of a second peak in the mean ionization history of the Universe.

  17. A role for copper in protozoan grazing - two billion years selecting for bacterial copper resistance.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiuli; Lüthje, Freja; Rønn, Regin; German, Nadezhda A; Li, Xuanji; Huang, Fuyi; Kisaka, Javan; Huffman, David; Alwathnani, Hend A; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Rensing, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The Great Oxidation Event resulted in integration of soft metals in a wide range of biochemical processes including, in our opinion, killing of bacteria by protozoa. Compared to pressure from anthropologic copper contamination, little is known on impacts of protozoan predation on maintenance of copper resistance determinants in bacteria. To evaluate the role of copper and other soft metals in predatory mechanisms of protozoa, we examined survival of bacteria mutated in different transition metal efflux or uptake systems in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum. Our data demonstrated a strong correlation between the presence of copper/zinc efflux as well as iron/manganese uptake, and bacterial survival in amoebae. The growth of protozoa, in turn, was dependent on bacterial copper sensitivity. The phagocytosis of bacteria induced upregulation of Dictyostelium genes encoding the copper uptake transporter p80 and a triad of Cu(I)-translocating PIB -type ATPases. Accumulated Cu(I) in Dictyostelium was monitored using a copper biosensor bacterial strain. Altogether, our data demonstrate that Cu(I) is ultimately involved in protozoan predation of bacteria, supporting our hypothesis that protozoan grazing selected for the presence of copper resistance determinants for about two billion years.

  18. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon.

    PubMed

    Bell, Elizabeth A; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T Mark; Mao, Wendy L

    2015-11-24

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼ 3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼ 3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ(13)CPDB of -24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼ 300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  19. The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older.

    PubMed

    Bengtson, Stefan; Belivanova, Veneta; Rasmussen, Birger; Whitehouse, Martin

    2009-05-12

    The age of the Vindhyan sedimentary basin in central India is controversial, because geochronology indicating early Proterozoic ages clashes with reports of Cambrian fossils. We present here an integrated paleontologic-geochronologic investigation to resolve this conundrum. New sampling of Lower Vindhyan phosphoritic stromatolitic dolomites from the northern flank of the Vindhyans confirms the presence of fossils most closely resembling those found elsewhere in Cambrian deposits: annulated tubes, embryo-like globules with polygonal surface pattern, and filamentous and coccoidal microbial fabrics similar to Girvanella and Renalcis. None of the fossils, however, can be ascribed to uniquely Cambrian or Ediacaran taxa. Indeed, the embryo-like globules are not interpreted as fossils at all but as former gas bubbles trapped in mucus-rich cyanobacterial mats. Direct dating of the same fossiliferous phosphorite yielded a Pb-Pb isochron of 1,650 +/- 89 (2sigma) million years ago, confirming the Paleoproterozoic age of the fossils. New U-Pb geochronology of zircons from tuffaceous mudrocks in the Lower Vindhyan Porcellanite Formation on the southern flank of the Vindhyans give comparable ages. The Vindhyan phosphorites provide a window of 3-dimensionally preserved Paleoproterozoic fossils resembling filamentous and coccoidal cyanobacteria and filamentous eukaryotic algae, as well as problematic forms. Like Neoproterozoic phosphorites a billion years later, the Vindhyan deposits offer important new insights into the nature and diversity of life, and in particular, the early evolution of multicellular eukaryotes.

  20. Rapid oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J; Wang, David T; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E

    2016-05-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth's biogeochemical cycles. Although "whiffs" of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly-within 1 to 10 million years-and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, "Snowball Earth" glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions.

  1. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Evans, W. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, A. G.

    2014-02-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  2. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Lowenstern, J B; Evans, W C; Bergfeld, D; Hunt, A G

    2014-02-20

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  3. Prodigious degassing of a billion years of accumulated radiogenic helium at Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Evans, William C.; Bergfeld, D.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2014-01-01

    Helium is used as a critical tracer throughout the Earth sciences, where its relatively simple isotopic systematics is used to trace degassing from the mantle, to date groundwater and to time the rise of continents1. The hydrothermal system at Yellowstone National Park is famous for its high helium-3/helium-4 isotope ratio, commonly cited as evidence for a deep mantle source for the Yellowstone hotspot2. However, much of the helium emitted from this region is actually radiogenic helium-4 produced within the crust by α-decay of uranium and thorium. Here we show, by combining gas emission rates with chemistry and isotopic analyses, that crustal helium-4 emission rates from Yellowstone exceed (by orders of magnitude) any conceivable rate of generation within the crust. It seems that helium has accumulated for (at least) many hundreds of millions of years in Archaean (more than 2.5 billion years old) cratonic rocks beneath Yellowstone, only to be liberated over the past two million years by intense crustal metamorphism induced by the Yellowstone hotspot. Our results demonstrate the extremes in variability of crustal helium efflux on geologic timescales and imply crustal-scale open-system behaviour of helium in tectonically and magmatically active regions.

  4. Sharing global CO2 emission reductions among one billion high emitters.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Shoibal; Chikkatur, Ananth; de Coninck, Heleen; Pacala, Stephen; Socolow, Robert; Tavoni, Massimo

    2009-07-21

    We present a framework for allocating a global carbon reduction target among nations, in which the concept of "common but differentiated responsibilities" refers to the emissions of individuals instead of nations. We use the income distribution of a country to estimate how its fossil fuel CO(2) emissions are distributed among its citizens, from which we build up a global CO(2) distribution. We then propose a simple rule to derive a universal cap on global individual emissions and find corresponding limits on national aggregate emissions from this cap. All of the world's high CO(2)-emitting individuals are treated the same, regardless of where they live. Any future global emission goal (target and time frame) can be converted into national reduction targets, which are determined by "Business as Usual" projections of national carbon emissions and in-country income distributions. For example, reducing projected global emissions in 2030 by 13 GtCO(2) would require the engagement of 1.13 billion high emitters, roughly equally distributed in 4 regions: the U.S., the OECD minus the U.S., China, and the non-OECD minus China. We also modify our methodology to place a floor on emissions of the world's lowest CO(2) emitters and demonstrate that climate mitigation and alleviation of extreme poverty are largely decoupled.

  5. Genetic Code Mutations: The Breaking of a Three Billion Year Invariance

    PubMed Central

    Mat, Wai-Kin; Xue, Hong; Wong, J. Tze-Fei

    2010-01-01

    The genetic code has been unchanging for some three billion years in its canonical ensemble of encoded amino acids, as indicated by the universal adoption of this ensemble by all known organisms. Code mutations beginning with the encoding of 4-fluoro-Trp by Bacillus subtilis, initially replacing and eventually displacing Trp from the ensemble, first revealed the intrinsic mutability of the code. This has since been confirmed by a spectrum of other experimental code alterations in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To shed light on the experimental conversion of a rigidly invariant code to a mutating code, the present study examined code mutations determining the propagation of Bacillus subtilis on Trp and 4-, 5- and 6-fluoro-tryptophans. The results obtained with the mutants with respect to cross-inhibitions between the different indole amino acids, and the growth effects of individual nutrient withdrawals rendering essential their biosynthetic pathways, suggested that oligogenic barriers comprising sensitive proteins which malfunction with amino acid analogues provide effective mechanisms for preserving the invariance of the code through immemorial time, and mutations of these barriers open up the code to continuous change. PMID:20808824

  6. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; ...

    2015-10-19

    Here, evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ~3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ~3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in amore » crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ13CPDB of –24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ~300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.« less

  7. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnke, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; Mao, Wendy L.

    2015-10-19

    Here, evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ~3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ~3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ13CPDB of –24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ~300 My earlier than has been previously proposed.

  8. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes.

    PubMed

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D

    2014-07-28

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments.

  9. If slow rate of health care spending growth persists, projections may be off by $770 billion.

    PubMed

    Cutler, David M; Sahni, Nikhil R

    2013-05-01

    Despite earlier forecasts to the contrary, US health care spending growth has slowed in the past four years, continuing a trend that began in the early 2000s. In this article we attempt to identify why US health care spending growth has slowed, and we explore the spending implications if the trend continues for the next decade. We find that the 2007-09 recession, a one-time event, accounted for 37 percent of the slowdown between 2003 and 2012. A decline in private insurance coverage and cuts to some Medicare payment rates accounted for another 8 percent of the slowdown, leaving 55 percent of the spending slowdown unexplained. We conclude that a host of fundamental changes--including less rapid development of imaging technology and new pharmaceuticals, increased patient cost sharing, and greater provider efficiency--were responsible for the majority of the slowdown in spending growth. If these trends continue during 2013-22, public-sector health care spending will be as much as $770 billion less than predicted. Such lower levels of spending would have an enormous impact on the US economy and on government and household finances.

  10. Rapid oxygenation of Earth’s atmosphere 2.33 billion years ago

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Genming; Ono, Shuhei; Beukes, Nicolas J.; Wang, David T.; Xie, Shucheng; Summons, Roger E.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular oxygen (O2) is, and has been, a primary driver of biological evolution and shapes the contemporary landscape of Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Although “whiffs” of oxygen have been documented in the Archean atmosphere, substantial O2 did not accumulate irreversibly until the Early Paleoproterozoic, during what has been termed the Great Oxygenation Event (GOE). The timing of the GOE and the rate at which this oxygenation took place have been poorly constrained until now. We report the transition (that is, from being mass-independent to becoming mass-dependent) in multiple sulfur isotope signals of diagenetic pyrite in a continuous sedimentary sequence in three coeval drill cores in the Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa. These data precisely constrain the GOE to 2.33 billion years ago. The new data suggest that the oxygenation occurred rapidly—within 1 to 10 million years—and was followed by a slower rise in the ocean sulfate inventory. Our data indicate that a climate perturbation predated the GOE, whereas the relationships among GOE, “Snowball Earth” glaciation, and biogeochemical cycling will require further stratigraphic correlation supported with precise chronologies and paleolatitude reconstructions. PMID:27386544

  11. GERLUMPH Data Release 2: 2.5 Billion Simulated Microlensing Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernardos, G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bate, N. F.; Croton, D.; Vohl, D.

    2015-04-01

    In the upcoming synoptic all-sky survey era of astronomy, thousands of new multiply imaged quasars are expected to be discovered and monitored regularly. Light curves from the images of gravitationally lensed quasars are further affected by superimposed variability due to microlensing. In order to disentangle the microlensing from the intrinsic variability of the light curves, the time delays between the multiple images have to be accurately measured. The resulting microlensing light curves can then be analyzed to reveal information about the background source, such as the size of the quasar accretion disk. In this paper we present the most extensive and coherent collection of simulated microlensing light curves; we have generated \\gt 2.5 billion light curves using the GERLUMPH high resolution microlensing magnification maps. Our simulations can be used to train algorithms to measure lensed quasar time delays, plan future monitoring campaigns, and study light curve properties throughout parameter space. Our data are openly available to the community and are complemented by online eResearch tools, located at http://gerlumph.swin.edu.au.

  12. Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark; Mao, Wendy L.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of life on Earth is manifestly preserved in the rock record. However, the microfossil record only extends to ∼3.5 billion years (Ga), the chemofossil record arguably to ∼3.8 Ga, and the rock record to 4.0 Ga. Detrital zircons from Jack Hills, Western Australia range in age up to nearly 4.4 Ga. From a population of over 10,000 Jack Hills zircons, we identified one >3.8-Ga zircon that contains primary graphite inclusions. Here, we report carbon isotopic measurements on these inclusions in a concordant, 4.10 ± 0.01-Ga zircon. We interpret these inclusions as primary due to their enclosure in a crack-free host as shown by transmission X-ray microscopy and their crystal habit. Their δ13CPDB of −24 ± 5‰ is consistent with a biogenic origin and may be evidence that a terrestrial biosphere had emerged by 4.1 Ga, or ∼300 My earlier than has been previously proposed. PMID:26483481

  13. Enhanced cellular preservation by clay minerals in 1 billion-year-old lakes

    PubMed Central

    Wacey, David; Saunders, Martin; Roberts, Malcolm; Menon, Sarath; Green, Leonard; Kong, Charlie; Culwick, Timothy; Strother, Paul; Brasier, Martin D.

    2014-01-01

    Organic-walled microfossils provide the best insights into the composition and evolution of the biosphere through the first 80 percent of Earth history. The mechanism of microfossil preservation affects the quality of biological information retained and informs understanding of early Earth palaeo-environments. We here show that 1 billion-year-old microfossils from the non-marine Torridon Group are remarkably preserved by a combination of clay minerals and phosphate, with clay minerals providing the highest fidelity of preservation. Fe-rich clay mostly occurs in narrow zones in contact with cellular material and is interpreted as an early microbially-mediated phase enclosing and replacing the most labile biological material. K-rich clay occurs within and exterior to cell envelopes, forming where the supply of Fe had been exhausted. Clay minerals inter-finger with calcium phosphate that co-precipitated with the clays in the sub-oxic zone of the lake sediments. This type of preservation was favoured in sulfate-poor environments where Fe-silicate precipitation could outcompete Fe-sulfide formation. This work shows that clay minerals can provide an exceptionally high fidelity of microfossil preservation and extends the known geological range of this fossilization style by almost 500 Ma. It also suggests that the best-preserved microfossils of this time may be found in low-sulfate environments. PMID:25068404

  14. Constraints on the first billion years of the geodynamo from paleointensity studies of zircons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarduno, John; Cottrell, Rory; Davis, William

    2014-05-01

    Several lines of reasoning, including new ideas on core thermal conductivity, suggest that onset of a strong geomagnetic field might have been delayed by one billion years (or more) after the lunar forming event. Here we extend the Proterozoic/Archean to Paleoarchean record of the geomagnetic field constrained by single crystal paleointensity (SCP) analyses (Tarduno et al., Science, 2010) to older times using zircons containing minute magnetic inclusions. Specifically, we focus on samples from the Jack Hills (Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia). We employ a CO2 laser demagnetization system and a small bore (6.3 mm) 3-component DC SQUID magnetometer; the latter offers the highest currently available moment resolution. Sample age is analyzed using SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology. Preliminary data support the presence of a relatively strong Paleoarchean field produced by a core dynamo, extending the known record by at least 100 million years, to approximately 3.55 Ga. These data only serve to exacerbate the apparent problem posed by the presence of a Paleoarchean dynamo. Alternative dynamo driving mechanisms, or efficient core/lowermost mantle heat loss processes unique to the Paleoarchean (and older times) might have been at work. We will discuss these processes, and our efforts to study even older Eoarchean-Hadean zircons.

  15. Archean rocks in antarctica: 2.5-billion-year uranium-lead ages of pegmatites in enderby land.

    PubMed

    Grew, E S; Manton, W I

    1979-10-26

    Uranium-lead isotopic data indicate that the granulite-facies Napier complex of Enderby Land, Antarctica, was cut by charnockitic pegmatites 2.5 billion years ago and by pegmatites lacking hypersthene 0.52 billion years ago. The 4-bil-lion-years lead-lead ages (whole rock) reported for the Napier complex are rejected since these leads developed in three stages. Reconstructions of Gondwanaland suggest that the Napier complex may be a continuation of the Archean granulitic terrain of southern India.

  16. Megascopic Eukaryotic Algae from the 2.1-Billion-Year-Old Negaunee Iron-Formation, Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tsu-Ming; Runnegar, Bruce

    1992-07-01

    Hundreds of specimens of spirally coiled, megascopic, carbonaceous fossils resembling Grypania spiralis (Walcott), have been found in the 2.1-billion-year-old Negaunee Iron-Formation at the Empire Mine, near Marquette, Michigan. This occurrence of Grypania is 700 million to 1000 million years older than fossils from previously known sites in Montana, China, and India. As Grypania appears to have been a photosynthetic alga, this discovery places the origin of organelle-bearing eukaryotic cells prior to 2.1 billion years ago.

  17. Our World of 7 Billion: Population Studies in Today's Social Studies Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasserman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The study of world population integrates so many themes and disciplines in the social studies because it encompasses all of human history--the rise of agriculture and civilizations, scientific progress, territorial conflicts, changing gender roles and more. It is also at the heart of human geography and how people came to dominate and alter the…

  18. 2('),3(')-didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are degraded to furfuryl alcohol under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junxing; Ray, Adrian S; Mathew, Judy S; Anderson, Karen S; Chu, Chung K; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2004-05-03

    2('),3(')-Didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are clinically relevant antiviral agents. These nucleosides could be degraded under acidic conditions. Acidic stability studies showed the D4N had the following increasing stability order: D4G

  19. Herschel-ATLAS: rapid evolution of dust in galaxies over the last 5 billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunne, L.; Gomez, H. L.; da Cunha, E.; Charlot, S.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Maddox, S. J.; Rowlands, K.; Smith, D. J. B.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bonfield, D. G.; Bourne, N.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Clements, D. L.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Cooray, A.; Dariush, A.; de Zotti, G.; Driver, S.; Fritz, J.; Geach, J.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Kelvin, L.; Pascale, E.; Pohlen, M.; Popescu, C.; Rigby, E. E.; Robotham, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Sansom, A. E.; Serjeant, S.; Temi, P.; Thompson, M.; Tuffs, R.; van der Werf, P.; Vlahakis, C.

    2011-10-01

    We present the first direct and unbiased measurement of the evolution of the dust mass function of galaxies over the past 5 billion years of cosmic history using data from the Science Demonstration Phase of the Herschel-Astrophysical Terahertz Large Area Survey (Herschel-ATLAS). The sample consists of galaxies selected at 250 ?m which have reliable counterparts from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) at z < 0.5, and contains 1867 sources. Dust masses are calculated using both a single-temperature grey-body model for the spectral energy distribution and also a model with multiple temperature components. The dust temperature for either model shows no trend with redshift. Splitting the sample into bins of redshift reveals a strong evolution in the dust properties of the most massive galaxies. At z= 0.4-0.5, massive galaxies had dust masses about five times larger than in the local Universe. At the same time, the dust-to-stellar mass ratio was about three to four times larger, and the optical depth derived from fitting the UV-sub-mm data with an energy balance model was also higher. This increase in the dust content of massive galaxies at high redshift is difficult to explain using standard dust evolution models and requires a rapid gas consumption time-scale together with either a more top-heavy initial mass function (IMF), efficient mantle growth, less dust destruction or combinations of all three. This evolution in dust mass is likely to be associated with a change in overall interstellar medium mass, and points to an enhanced supply of fuel for star formation at earlier cosmic epochs.

  20. ESA's billion star surveyor - Flight operations experience from Gaia's first 1.5 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milligan, D.; Rudolph, A.; Whitehead, G.; Loureiro, T.; Serpell, E.; di Marco, F.; Marie, J.; Ecale, E.

    2016-10-01

    This paper details the initial in-flight mission operations experience from ESA's ultra-precise Gaia spacecraft. Tasked with mapping the positions and movements of 1 billion stars to unprecedented precision (to the 10 s of micro-arc-second level, comparable to the width of a coin on the Moon as viewed from Earth). ESA's Science cornerstone mission is expected to also discover and chart 100,000's of new objects including near Earth Asteroids, exoplanets, brown dwarfs and Quasars. After a flawless launch 19 Dec 2013, Gaia was brought the circa 1.5 million kms into L2 via a sequence of technically demanding orbit transfer manoeuvres using onboard thrusters in thrust vectoring mode. Starting in parallel to this, and lasting 6 months, the full spacecraft was commissioned and brought gradually up to the highest operational mode. A number of problems were detected and tackled during commissioning and early routine phase operations. An apparent dimming of the on-board laser and imaged stars, was tracked down to water ice building up inside the telescope enclosure. Also apparent was more straylight than expected. Elsewhere, a micro-propulsion thruster developed unexpected performance levels and a back-up chemical thruster suffered a failed latch valve. These issues, like several others, were dealt with and solved in a series of review meetings, in-orbit special operations and newly developed procedures and on-board software changes. After commissioning Gaia was working so well that it was producing approximately 45% more science data than originally foreseen, primarily since it was able to see stars fainter than required. The mission operations concept was quickly adapted to partially automate ground operations and increase ground station time to allow the full scientific potential of Gaia to be realised.

  1. Searching for the birthplaces of open clusters with ages of several billion years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acharova, I. A.; Shevtsova, E. S.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of finding the birthplaces of open clusters (OC) with ages of several billion years. The proposed method is based on the comparison of the results of the chemical evolution modeling of the Galactic disk with the parameters of the cluster. Five OCs older than 7 Gyr are known: NGC6791, BH176, Collinder 261, Berkeley 17, and Berkeley 39. The oxygen and iron abundances in NGC6791 and the oxygen abundance in BH176 are twice the solar level, the heavy-element abundances in other clusters are close to the corresponding solar values. According to chemical evolution models, at the time of the formation of the objects considered the regions where the oxygen and iron abundances reached the corresponding levels extended out to 5 kpc from the Galactic center.At present time theOCs considered are located several kpc from the Galactic center. Some of these clusters are located extremely high, about 1 kpc above the disk midplane, i.e., they have been subject to some mechanism that has carried them into orbits uncharacteristic of this type of objects. It follows from a comparison with the results of chemical evolution that younger clusters with ages of 4-5 Gyr, e.g., NGC1193,M67, and others, may have formed in a broad range of Galactocentric distances. Their large heights above the disk midplane is sufficient to suggest that these clusters have moved away from their likely birthplaces. Clusters are carried far away from the Galactic disk until the present time: about 40 clusters with ages from 0 to 2 Gyr are observed at heights ranging from 300 to 750 pc.

  2. Layout finishing of a 28nm, 3 billions transistors, multi-core processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morey-Chaisemartin, Philippe; Beisser, Eric

    2013-06-01

    Designing a fully new 256 cores processor is a great challenge for a fabless startup. In addition to all architecture, functionalities and timing issues, the layout by itself is a bottleneck due to all the process constraints of a 28nm technology. As developers of advanced layout finishing solutions, we were involved in the design flow of this huge chip with its 3 billions transistors. We had to face the issue of dummy patterns instantiation with respect to design constraints. All the design rules to generate the "dummies" are clearly defined in the Design Rule Manual, and some automatic procedures are provided by the foundry itself, but these routines don't take care of the designer requests. Such a chip, embeds both digital parts and analog modules for clock and power management. These two different type of designs have each their own set of constraints. In both cases, the insertion of dummies should not introduce unexpected variations leading to malfunctions. For example, on digital parts were signal race conditions are critical on long wires or bus, introduction of uncontrolled parasitic along these nets are highly critical. For analog devices such as high frequency and high sensitivity comparators, the exact symmetry of the two parts of a current mirror generator should be guaranteed. Thanks to the easily customizable features of our dummies insertion tool, we were able to configure it in order to meet all the designer requirements as well as the process constraints. This paper will present all these advanced key features as well as the layout tricks used to fulfill all requirements.

  3. Large molecular gas reservoirs in ancestors of Milky Way-mass galaxies nine billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papovich, C.; Labbé, I.; Glazebrook, K.; Quadri, R.; Bekiaris, G.; Dickinson, M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Fisher, D.; Inami, H.; Livermore, R. C.; Spitler, L.; Straatman, C.; Tran, K.-V.

    2016-12-01

    The gas accretion and star formation histories of galaxies like the Milky Way remain an outstanding problem in astrophysics 1,2 . Observations show that 8 billion years ago, the progenitors to Milky Way-mass galaxies were forming stars 30 times faster than today and were predicted to be rich in molecular gas 3 , in contrast to the low present-day gas fractions (<10%) 4-6 . Here we show the detection of molecular gas from the CO (J = 3-2) emission (rest-frame 345.8 GHz) in galaxies at redshifts z = 1.2-1.3, selected to have the stellar mass and star formation rate of the progenitors of today's Milky Way-mass galaxies. The CO emission reveals large molecular gas masses, comparable to or exceeding the galaxy stellar masses, and implying that most of the baryons are in cold gas, not stars. The total luminosities of the galaxies from star formation and CO luminosities yield long gas consumption timescales. Compared to local spiral galaxies, the star formation efficiency, estimated from the ratio of total infrared luminosity (L IR) to CO emission, has remained nearly constant since redshift z = 1.2, despite the order of magnitude decrease in gas fraction, consistent with the results for other galaxies at this epoch 7-10 . Therefore, the physical processes that determine the rate at which gas cools to form stars in distant galaxies appear to be similar to that in local galaxies.

  4. Survival of Pure Disk Galaxies over the Last 8 Billion Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachdeva, Sonali; Saha, Kanak

    2016-03-01

    Pure disk galaxies without any bulge component, i.e., bulges that are neither classical nor pseudo, seem to have escaped the effects of merger activity that are inherent to hierarchical galaxy formation models as well as strong internal secular evolution. We discover that a significant fraction (˜15%-18%) of disk galaxies in the Hubble Deep Field (0.4\\lt z\\lt 1.0) and in the local universe (0.02\\lt z\\lt 0.05) are such pure disk systems (PDSs). The spatial distribution of light in these PDSs is well-described by a single exponential function from the outskirts to the center and appears to have remained intact over the last 8 billion years, keeping the mean central surface brightness and scale-length nearly constant. These two disk parameters of PDSs are brighter and shorter, respectively, than those of disks which are part of disk galaxies with bulges. Since the fraction of PDSs, as well as their profile-defining parameters, do not change, this indicates that these galaxies have not witnessed either major mergers or multiple minor mergers since z˜ 1. However, there is a substantial increase in their total stellar mass and total size over the same time range. This suggests that smooth accretion of cold gas via cosmic filaments is the most probable mode of their evolutions. We speculate that PDSs are dynamically hotter and cushioned in massive dark matter halos, which may prevent them from undergoing strong secular evolution.

  5. The formation of submillimetre-bright galaxies from gas infall over a billion years.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Desika; Turk, Matthew; Feldmann, Robert; Robitaille, Thomas; Hopkins, Philip; Thompson, Robert; Hayward, Christopher; Ball, David; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2015-09-24

    Submillimetre-bright galaxies at high redshift are the most luminous, heavily star-forming galaxies in the Universe and are characterized by prodigious emission in the far-infrared, with a flux of at least five millijanskys at a wavelength of 850 micrometres. They reside in haloes with masses about 10(13) times that of the Sun, have low gas fractions compared to main-sequence disks at a comparable redshift, trace complex environments and are not easily observable at optical wavelengths. Their physical origin remains unclear. Simulations have been able to form galaxies with the requisite luminosities, but have otherwise been unable to simultaneously match the stellar masses, star formation rates, gas fractions and environments. Here we report a cosmological hydrodynamic galaxy formation simulation that is able to form a submillimetre galaxy that simultaneously satisfies the broad range of observed physical constraints. We find that groups of galaxies residing in massive dark matter haloes have increasing rates of star formation that peak at collective rates of about 500-1,000 solar masses per year at redshifts of two to three, by which time the interstellar medium is sufficiently enriched with metals that the region may be observed as a submillimetre-selected system. The intense star formation rates are fuelled in part by the infall of a reservoir gas supply enabled by stellar feedback at earlier times, not through major mergers. With a lifetime of nearly a billion years, our simulations show that the submillimetre-bright phase of high-redshift galaxies is prolonged and associated with significant mass buildup in early-Universe proto-clusters, and that many submillimetre-bright galaxies are composed of numerous unresolved components (for which there is some observational evidence).

  6. Atmospheric sulfur rearrangement 2.7 billion years ago: Evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzweil, Florian; Claire, Mark; Thomazo, Christophe; Peters, Marc; Hannington, Mark; Strauss, Harald

    2013-03-01

    Mass-independently fractionated sulfur isotopes (MIF-S) provide strong evidence for an anoxic atmosphere during the Archean. Moreover, the temporal evolution of MIF-S shows increasing magnitudes between 2.7 and 2.5 Ga until the start of the Great Oxidation Event (G.O.E.) at around 2.4 Ga. The conclusion of a completely anoxic atmosphere up to the G.O.E. is in contrast to recent studies on redox-sensitive elements, which suggest slightly oxidizing conditions during continental weathering already several hundred million years prior to the G.O.E. In order to investigate this apparent inconsistency, we present multiple sulfur isotopes for 2.71 Ga pyritic black shales derived from the Kidd Creek area, Ontario, Canada. These samples display high positive Δ33S values up to 3.8‰ and the typical late Archean slope in Δ36S/Δ33S of -0.9. In contrast, the time period before (3.2-2.73 Ga) is characterized by greatly attenuated MIF-S magnitudes and a slope in Δ36S/Δ33S of -1.5. We attribute the increase in Δ33S magnitude as well as the contemporaneous change in the slope of Δ36S/Δ33S to changes in the relative reaction rate of different MIF-S source reactions and changes in atmospheric sulfur exit channels. Both of these are dependent on atmospheric CH4:CO2 and O2 mixing ratios. We propose a distinct change in atmospheric composition at 2.7 Ga resulting from increased fluxes of oxygen and methane as the best explanation for the observed Neoarchean MIF-S record. Our data and modeling results suggest that oxygenic photosynthesis was a major contributor to primary productivity 2.7 billion years ago.

  7. No Photon Left Behind: How Billions of Spectral Lines are Transforming Planetary Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Geronimo L.

    2014-06-01

    With the advent of realistic potential energy surface (PES) and dipole moment surface (DMS) descriptions, theoretically computed linelists can now synthesize accurate spectral parameters for billions of spectral lines sampling the untamed high-energy molecular domain. Being the initial driver for these databases the characterization of stellar spectra, these theoretical databases, in combination with decades of precise experimental studies (nicely compiled in community databases such as HITRAN and GEISA), are leading to unprecedented precisions in the characterization of planetary atmospheres. Cometary sciences are among the most affected by this spectroscopic revolution. Even though comets are relatively cold bodies (T˜100 K), their infrared molecular emission is mainly defined by non-LTE solar fluorescence induced by a high-energy source (Sun, T˜5600 K). In order to interpret high-resolution spectra of comets acquired with extremely powerful telescopes (e.g., Keck, VLT, NASA-IRTF), we have developed advanced non-LTE fluorescence models that integrate the high-energy dynamic range of ab-initio databases (e.g., BT2, VTT, HPT2, BYTe, TROVE) and the precision of laboratory and semi-empirical compilations (e.g., HITRAN, GEISA, CDMS, WKMC, SELP, IUPAC). These new models allow us to calculate realistic non-LTE pumps, cascades, branching-ratios, and emission rates for a broad range of excitation regimes for H2O, HDO, HCN, HNC and NH3. We have implemented elements of these compilations to the study of Mars spectra, and we are now exploring its application to modeling non-LTE emission in exoplanets. In this presentation, we present application of these advanced models to interpret highresolution spectra of comets, Mars and exoplanets.

  8. Industrial R&D Spending Reached $26.6 Billion in 1976. Science Resources Studies Highlights, May 5, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    This report presents data compiled as part of a comprehensive program to measure and analyze the nation's resources expended for research and development (R&D). Industry, which carries out 69% of the R&D in the United States, spent $26.6 billion on these activities in 1976, 10% above the 1975 level. In constant dollars, this presents an…

  9. Switching to less expensive blindness drug could save medicare part B $18 billion over a ten-year period.

    PubMed

    Hutton, David; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Tavag, Mrinalini; Zacks, David; Stein, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    The biologic drugs bevacizumab and ranibizumab have revolutionized treatment of diabetic macular edema and neovascular age-related macular degeneration, leading causes of blindness. Ophthalmologic use of these drugs has increased and now accounts for roughly one-sixth of the Medicare Part B drug budget. The two drugs have similar efficacy and potentially minor differences in adverse-event rates; however, at $2,023 per dose, ranibizumab costs forty times more than bevacizumab. Using modeling methods, we predict ten-year (2010-20) population-level costs and health benefits of using bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Our results show that if all patients were treated with the less expensive bevacizumab instead of current usage patterns, savings would amount to $18 billion for Medicare Part B and nearly $5 billion for patients. With an additional $6 billion savings in other health care expenses, the total savings would be almost $29 billion. Altering patterns of use with these therapies by encouraging bevacizumab use and hastening approval of biosimilar therapies would dramatically reduce spending without substantially affecting patient outcomes.

  10. $100 Billion: For Reform...or to Subsidize the Status Quo? Education Stimulus Watch. Special Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smarick, Andy

    2009-01-01

    This is the first in a quarterly series of special reports on the K-12 education implications of the federal government's economic stimulus package, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). That the ARRA, which was signed into law in February, will pump nearly $100 billion--an unprecedented sum of federal money--into K-12 education is…

  11. 77 FR 3075 - Resolution Plans Required for Insured Depository Institutions With $50 Billion or More in Total...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... Plan will describe the plan to resolve each parent holding company under the Bankruptcy Code, the Rule... insurance fund or the economy, or if the parent company has been designated as a systemically important... association is over $50 billion and receives a CAMELS rating of 3 or worse or its parent receives...

  12. The Sexual and Reproductive Health of Young People in Low and Middle Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Orain; Peterson, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Young people ages 10-24 account for 25 percent of the world's population: a total of 1.8 billion, most of whom are living in low- and middle-income countries. They face significant challenges, including HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), adolescent pregnancy, unsafe abortion, and gender-based violence. Youth have the right to lead…

  13. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  14. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  15. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genzel, R.; Schreiber, N. M. Förster; Übler, H.; Lang, P.; Naab, T.; Bender, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Wisnioski, E.; Wuyts, S.; Alexander, T.; Beifiori, A.; Belli, S.; Brammer, G.; Burkert, A.; Carollo, C. M.; Chan, J.; Davies, R.; Fossati, M.; Galametz, A.; Genel, S.; Gerhard, O.; Lutz, D.; Mendel, J. T.; Momcheva, I.; Nelson, E. J.; Renzini, A.; Saglia, R.; Sternberg, A.; Tacchella, S.; Tadaki, K.; Wilman, D.

    2017-03-01

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies—stars and gas—are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius—a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early

  16. Strongly baryon-dominated disk galaxies at the peak of galaxy formation ten billion years ago.

    PubMed

    Genzel, R; Schreiber, N M Förster; Übler, H; Lang, P; Naab, T; Bender, R; Tacconi, L J; Wisnioski, E; Wuyts, S; Alexander, T; Beifiori, A; Belli, S; Brammer, G; Burkert, A; Carollo, C M; Chan, J; Davies, R; Fossati, M; Galametz, A; Genel, S; Gerhard, O; Lutz, D; Mendel, J T; Momcheva, I; Nelson, E J; Renzini, A; Saglia, R; Sternberg, A; Tacchella, S; Tadaki, K; Wilman, D

    2017-03-15

    In the cold dark matter cosmology, the baryonic components of galaxies-stars and gas-are thought to be mixed with and embedded in non-baryonic and non-relativistic dark matter, which dominates the total mass of the galaxy and its dark-matter halo. In the local (low-redshift) Universe, the mass of dark matter within a galactic disk increases with disk radius, becoming appreciable and then dominant in the outer, baryonic regions of the disks of star-forming galaxies. This results in rotation velocities of the visible matter within the disk that are constant or increasing with disk radius-a hallmark of the dark-matter model. Comparisons between the dynamical mass, inferred from these velocities in rotational equilibrium, and the sum of the stellar and cold-gas mass at the peak epoch of galaxy formation ten billion years ago, inferred from ancillary data, suggest high baryon fractions in the inner, star-forming regions of the disks. Although this implied baryon fraction may be larger than in the local Universe, the systematic uncertainties (owing to the chosen stellar initial-mass function and the calibration of gas masses) render such comparisons inconclusive in terms of the mass of dark matter. Here we report rotation curves (showing rotation velocity as a function of disk radius) for the outer disks of six massive star-forming galaxies, and find that the rotation velocities are not constant, but decrease with radius. We propose that this trend arises because of a combination of two main factors: first, a large fraction of the massive high-redshift galaxy population was strongly baryon-dominated, with dark matter playing a smaller part than in the local Universe; and second, the large velocity dispersion in high-redshift disks introduces a substantial pressure term that leads to a decrease in rotation velocity with increasing radius. The effect of both factors appears to increase with redshift. Qualitatively, the observations suggest that baryons in the early (high

  17. Gaia Data Release 1. Astrometry: one billion positions, two million proper motions and parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindegren, L.; Lammers, U.; Bastian, U.; Hernández, J.; Klioner, S.; Hobbs, D.; Bombrun, A.; Michalik, D.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Butkevich, A.; Comoretto, G.; Joliet, E.; Holl, B.; Hutton, A.; Parsons, P.; Steidelmüller, H.; Abbas, U.; Altmann, M.; Andrei, A.; Anton, S.; Bach, N.; Barache, C.; Becciani, U.; Berthier, J.; Bianchi, L.; Biermann, M.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Busonero, D.; Carlucci, T.; Castañeda, J.; Charlot, P.; Clotet, M.; Crosta, M.; Davidson, M.; de Felice, F.; Drimmel, R.; Fabricius, C.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Fraile, E.; Gai, M.; Garralda, N.; Geyer, R.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Guerra, R.; Hambly, N. C.; Hauser, M.; Jordan, S.; Lattanzi, M. G.; Lenhardt, H.; Liao, S.; Löffler, W.; McMillan, P. J.; Mignard, F.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Portell, J.; Riva, A.; Sarasso, M.; Serraller, I.; Siddiqui, H.; Smart, R.; Spagna, A.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I.; Taris, F.; Torra, J.; van Reeven, W.; Vecchiato, A.; Zschocke, S.; de Bruijne, J.; Gracia, G.; Raison, F.; Lister, T.; Marchant, J.; Messineo, R.; Soffel, M.; Osorio, J.; de Torres, A.; O'Mullane, W.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Gaia Data Release 1 (DR1) contains astrometric results for more than 1 billion stars brighter than magnitude 20.7 based on observations collected by the Gaia satellite during the first 14 months of its operational phase. Aims: We give a brief overview of the astrometric content of the data release and of the model assumptions, data processing, and validation of the results. Methods: For stars in common with the Hipparcos and Tycho-2 catalogues, complete astrometric single-star solutions are obtained by incorporating positional information from the earlier catalogues. For other stars only their positions are obtained, essentially by neglecting their proper motions and parallaxes. The results are validated by an analysis of the residuals, through special validation runs, and by comparison with external data. Results: For about two million of the brighter stars (down to magnitude 11.5) we obtain positions, parallaxes, and proper motions to Hipparcos-type precision or better. For these stars, systematic errors depending for example on position and colour are at a level of ± 0.3 milliarcsecond (mas). For the remaining stars we obtain positions at epoch J2015.0 accurate to 10 mas. Positions and proper motions are given in a reference frame that is aligned with the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) to better than 0.1 mas at epoch J2015.0, and non-rotating with respect to ICRF to within 0.03 mas yr-1. The Hipparcos reference frame is found to rotate with respect to the Gaia DR1 frame at a rate of 0.24 mas yr-1. Conclusions: Based on less than a quarter of the nominal mission length and on very provisional and incomplete calibrations, the quality and completeness of the astrometric data in Gaia DR1 are far from what is expected for the final mission products. The present results nevertheless represent a huge improvement in the available fundamental stellar data and practical definition of the optical reference frame.

  18. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  19. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  20. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  1. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  2. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  3. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  4. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or...

  5. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  6. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  7. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  8. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  9. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  10. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  11. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or...

  12. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  18. Transgender People (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Transgender People KidsHealth > For Parents > Transgender People A A ... feel "trapped in someone else's body." What Being Transgender Means When we think of ourselves as male ...

  19. The continuing cost of privatization: extra payments to Medicare Advantage plans jump to $11.4 billion in 2009.

    PubMed

    Biles, Brian; Pozen, Jonah; Guterman, Stuart

    2009-05-01

    The Medicare Modernization Act of 2003 explicitly increased Medicare payments to private Medicare Advantage (MA) plans. As a result, MA plans have, for the past six years, been paid more for their enrollees than they would be expected to cost in traditional fee-for-service Medicare. Payments to MA plans in 2009 are projected to be 13 percent greater than the corresponding costs in traditional Medicare--an average of $1,138 per MA plan enrollee, for a total of $11.4 billion. Although the extra payments are used to provide enrollees additional benefits, those benefits are not available to all beneficiaries-- but they are financed by general program funds. If payments to MA plans were instead equal to the spending level under traditional Medicare, the more than $150 billion in savings over 10 years could be used to finance improved benefits for the low-income elderly and disabled, or for expanding health-insurance coverage.

  20. Counseling with Deaf People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sussman, Allen E., Ed.; Stewart, Larry G., Ed.

    The book presents information on effective counseling with deaf people by discussing issues that confront counselors and administrators involved in providing counseling services to deaf people. A basic assumption of the book is that deaf people of all ages have been frequently denied counseling services due to communication problems between…

  1. THE CHEMICAL EVOLUTION OF STAR-FORMING GALAXIES OVER THE LAST 11 BILLION YEARS

    SciTech Connect

    Zahid, H. Jabran; Kewley, Lisa J.; Geller, Margaret J.; Hwang, Ho Seong; Fabricant, Daniel G.; Kurtz, Michael J.

    2013-07-10

    We calculate the stellar mass-metallicity relation at five epochs ranging to z {approx} 2.3. We quantify evolution in the shape of the mass-metallicity relation as a function of redshift; the mass-metallicity relation flattens at late times. There is an empirical upper limit to the gas-phase oxygen abundance in star-forming galaxies that is independent of redshift. From examination of the mass-metallicity relation and its observed scatter, we show that the flattening at late times is a consequence of evolution in the stellar mass where galaxies enrich to this empirical upper metallicity limit; there is also evolution in the fraction of galaxies at a fixed stellar mass that enrich to this limit. The stellar mass where metallicities begin to saturate is {approx}0.7 dex smaller in the local universe than it is at z {approx} 0.8.

  2. A billion pixels, a billion stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Gerry; van Leeuwen, Floor

    2016-09-01

    The Gaia spacecraft is conducting the most ambitious and thorough census of our galaxy ever attempted, gathering data on 100,000 stars every hour. With the mission's first major data release due this month, Gerry Gilmore and Floor van Leeuwen explain how the spacecraft works and assess its likely impact on the field of astrophysics

  3. Radiation-induced degradation of aqueous 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiewicz, Malgorzata; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Getoff, Nikola

    2006-02-01

    The degradation of aqueous 2,3-dihydroxynaphthaline (2,3-DHN) under the influence of γ-ray was investigated under various experimental conditions. Using 2.5×10 -5 mol L -1 2,3-DHN in aerated media (pH=6-6.8) an initial degradation yield, Gi-(2,3-DHN)=0.32 was obtained, whereas in solutions saturated with N 2O the yield come to Gi-(2,3-DHN)=0.50. In airfree media the substrate decomposition was negligible. Possible reaction mechanisms are presented. Further, the rate constant, k(OH+2,3-DHN)=2.14×10 10 L mol -1 s -1 was determined by competition reactions with PNDA.

  4. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  5. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  6. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Qualifications and Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of grazing preference...

  7. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  8. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  9. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  10. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  11. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  12. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND...

  13. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND...

  14. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND...

  15. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...

  16. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...

  17. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO...

  18. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO...

  19. Determination of 2,3-dibromopropanol in air.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G

    1987-09-01

    One of the starting materials for the preparation of TRIS-BP (tris-2,3-dibromopropanol phosphate), which is used in the treatment of fabrics and various materials to make them nonflammable, is 2,3-dibromopropanol. Because of the reported toxic nature of its parent phosphate compound, 2,3-dibromopropanol recently has been used by itself as a fire retardant. The manufacture and use of 2,3-dibromopropanol as a fire retardant, however, have been a matter of great concern in the workplace because of its mutagenic, carcinogenic and nephrotoxic nature. A sensitive air sampling and analytical method has been developed as part of a complete field survey protocol. This paper describes the development of an air sampling and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis procedure for 2,3-dibromopropanol. The detection limit for the method is 5 microg per sample and the relative standard deviation for the method is 5%.

  20. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  1. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth's Sedimentary Cycle.

    PubMed

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T; Galloway, Jennifer M; Bell, Kimberley M; Sulphur, Kyle C; Heaman, Larry M; Beranek, Luke P; Fallas, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon.

  2. Structure of the catalytic domain of the hepatitis C virus NS2-3 protease

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz,I.; Marcotrigiano, J.; Dentzer, T.; Rice, C.

    2006-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus is a major global health problem affecting an estimated 170 million people worldwide. Chronic infection is common and can lead to cirrhosis and liver cancer. There is no vaccine available and current therapies have met with limited success. The viral RNA genome encodes a polyprotein that includes two proteases essential for virus replication. The NS2-3 protease mediates a single cleavage at the NS2/NS3 junction, whereas the NS3-4A protease cleaves at four downstream sites in the polyprotein. NS3-4A is characterized as a serine protease with a chymotrypsin-like fold, but the enzymatic mechanism of the NS2-3 protease remains unresolved. Here we report the crystal structure of the catalytic domain of the NS2-3 protease at 2.3 Angstroms resolution. The structure reveals a dimeric cysteine protease with two composite active sites. For each active site, the catalytic histidine and glutamate residues are contributed by one monomer, and the nucleophilic cysteine by the other. The carboxy-terminal residues remain coordinated in the two active sites, predicting an inactive post-cleavage form. Proteolysis through formation of a composite active site occurs in the context of the viral polyprotein expressed in mammalian cells. These features offer unexpected insights into polyprotein processing by hepatitis C virus and new opportunities for antiviral drug design.

  3. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  4. Managing & Developing People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brain, Gill, Ed.

    This book presents ideas about and approaches to human resource management (HRM) in British further education (FE) colleges. Introductory material includes author biographies and a preface (Brain) on human resource issues in FE. "Investors in People" (Chambers) considers how working toward recognition as an Investor in People (a British…

  5. Synthesis of genistein 2,3-anhydroglycoconjugates -- potential antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Goj, Katarzyna; Rusin, Aleksandra; Szeja, Wiesław; Kitel, Radosław; Komor, Roman; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The title compounds, variously protected 2.3-anhydrosugars linked with genistein through an alkyl chain, were synthesized in a sequence of reactions. First step involved Ferrier rearragement of 3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-rhamnal with 3-bromopropanol to obtain 2,3-unsaturated bromoalkylglycosides. The next step was epoxidation with m-CPBA and finally these compounds were connected with genistein in reaction of 7-O-genistein tetra-butylamonium salt with 2,3-anhydro bromoalkylglycosides. Obtained glycoconjugates differ in orientation of an oxirane ring and the protecting group in a sugar moiety. All compounds were tested in vitro for antiproliferative potential in cancer cells.

  6. An ultraluminous quasar with a twelve-billion-solar-mass black hole at redshift 6.30.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Bing; Wang, Feige; Fan, Xiaohui; Yi, Weimin; Zuo, Wenwen; Bian, Fuyan; Jiang, Linhua; McGreer, Ian D; Wang, Ran; Yang, Jinyi; Yang, Qian; Thompson, David; Beletsky, Yuri

    2015-02-26

    So far, roughly 40 quasars with redshifts greater than z = 6 have been discovered. Each quasar contains a black hole with a mass of about one billion solar masses (10(9) M Sun symbol). The existence of such black holes when the Universe was less than one billion years old presents substantial challenges to theories of the formation and growth of black holes and the coevolution of black holes and galaxies. Here we report the discovery of an ultraluminous quasar, SDSS J010013.02+280225.8, at redshift z = 6.30. It has an optical and near-infrared luminosity a few times greater than those of previously known z > 6 quasars. On the basis of the deep absorption trough on the blue side of the Lyman-α emission line in the spectrum, we estimate the proper size of the ionized proximity zone associated with the quasar to be about 26 million light years, larger than found with other z > 6.1 quasars with lower luminosities. We estimate (on the basis of a near-infrared spectrum) that the black hole has a mass of ∼1.2 × 10(10) M Sun symbol, which is consistent with the 1.3 × 10(10) M Sun symbol derived by assuming an Eddington-limited accretion rate.

  7. Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis of sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Huang, Y.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2004-01-01

    Compound-specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis (CSCIA and CSHIA) has been increasingly used to study the source, transport, and bioremediation of organic contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons. In natural aquatic systems, dissolved contaminants represent the bioavailable fraction that generally is of the greatest toxicological significance. However, determining the isotopic ratios of waterborne hydrophobic contaminants in natural waters is very challenging because of their extremely low concentrations (often at sub-parts ber billion, or even lower). To acquire sufficient quantities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with 10 ng/L concentration for CSHIA, more than 1000 L of water must be extracted. Conventional liquid/liquid or solid-phase extraction is not suitable for such large volume extractions. We have developed a new approach that is capable of efficiently sampling sub-parts per billion level waterborne petroleum hydrocarbons for CSIA. We use semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) to accumulate hydrophobic contaminants from polluted waters and then recover the compounds in the laboratory for CSIA. In this study, we demonstrate, under a variety of experimental conditions (different concentrations, temperatures, and turbulence levels), that SPMD-associated processes do not induce C and H isotopic fractionations. The applicability of SPMD-CSIA technology to natural systems is further demonstrated by determining the ??13C and ??D values of petroleum hydrocarbons present in the Pawtuxet River, RI. Our results show that the combined SPMD-CSIA is an effective tool to investigate the source and fate of hydrophobic contaminants in the aquatic environments.

  8. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  9. An age difference of two billion years between a metal-rich and a metal-poor globular cluster.

    PubMed

    Hansen, B M S; Kalirai, J S; Anderson, J; Dotter, A; Richer, H B; Rich, R M; Shara, M M; Fahlman, G G; Hurley, J R; King, I R; Reitzel, D; Stetson, P B

    2013-08-01

    Globular clusters trace the formation history of the spheroidal components of our Galaxy and other galaxies, which represent the bulk of star formation over the history of the Universe. The clusters exhibit a range of metallicities (abundances of elements heavier than helium), with metal-poor clusters dominating the stellar halo of the Galaxy, and higher-metallicity clusters found within the inner Galaxy, associated with the stellar bulge, or the thick disk. Age differences between these clusters can indicate the sequence in which the components of the Galaxy formed, and in particular which clusters were formed outside the Galaxy and were later engulfed along with their original host galaxies, and which were formed within it. Here we report an absolute age of 9.9 ± 0.7 billion years (at 95 per cent confidence) for the metal-rich globular cluster 47 Tucanae, determined by modelling the properties of the cluster's white-dwarf cooling sequence. This is about two billion years younger than has been inferred for the metal-poor cluster NGC 6397 from the same models, and provides quantitative evidence that metal-rich clusters like 47 Tucanae formed later than metal-poor halo clusters like NGC 6397.

  10. Earth's air pressure 2.7 billion years ago constrained to less than half of modern levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Buick, Roger; Hagadorn, James W.; Blake, Tim S.; Perreault, John M.; Harnmeijer, Jelte P.; Catling, David C.

    2016-06-01

    How the Earth stayed warm several billion years ago when the Sun was considerably fainter is the long-standing problem of the `faint young Sun paradox'. Because of negligible O2 and only moderate CO2 levels in the Archaean atmosphere, methane has been invoked as an auxiliary greenhouse gas. Alternatively, pressure broadening in a thicker atmosphere with a N2 partial pressure around 1.6-2.4 bar could have enhanced the greenhouse effect. But fossilized raindrop imprints indicate that air pressure 2.7 billion years ago (Gyr) was below twice modern levels and probably below 1.1 bar, precluding such pressure enhancement. This result is supported by nitrogen and argon isotope studies of fluid inclusions in 3.0-3.5 Gyr rocks. Here, we calculate absolute Archaean barometric pressure using the size distribution of gas bubbles in basaltic lava flows that solidified at sea level ~2.7 Gyr in the Pilbara Craton, Australia. Our data indicate a surprisingly low surface atmospheric pressure of Patm = 0.23 +/- 0.23 (2σ) bar, and combined with previous studies suggests ~0.5 bar as an upper limit to late Archaean Patm. The result implies that the thin atmosphere was rich in auxiliary greenhouse gases and that Patm fluctuated over geologic time to a previously unrecognized extent.

  11. A spin-down clock for cool stars from observations of a 2.5-billion-year-old cluster.

    PubMed

    Meibom, Søren; Barnes, Sydney A; Platais, Imants; Gilliland, Ronald L; Latham, David W; Mathieu, Robert D

    2015-01-29

    The ages of the most common stars--low-mass (cool) stars like the Sun, and smaller--are difficult to derive because traditional dating methods use stellar properties that either change little as the stars age or are hard to measure. The rotation rates of all cool stars decrease substantially with time as the stars steadily lose their angular momenta. If properly calibrated, rotation therefore can act as a reliable determinant of their ages based on the method of gyrochronology. To calibrate gyrochronology, the relationship between rotation period and age must be determined for cool stars of different masses, which is best accomplished with rotation period measurements for stars in clusters with well-known ages. Hitherto, such measurements have been possible only in clusters with ages of less than about one billion years, and gyrochronology ages for older stars have been inferred from model predictions. Here we report rotation period measurements for 30 cool stars in the 2.5-billion-year-old cluster NGC 6819. The periods reveal a well-defined relationship between rotation period and stellar mass at the cluster age, suggesting that ages with a precision of order 10 per cent can be derived for large numbers of cool Galactic field stars.

  12. Internet relationships: people who meet people.

    PubMed

    McCown, J A; Fischer, D; Page, R; Homant, M

    2001-10-01

    Current research suggests that the Internet has become a popular medium for forming interpersonal relationships. Not only are many people developing cyberfriendships, but some move beyond virtual communication and interact more directly through telephone contact and face-to-face encounters. This pilot study examined the personality characteristics of 30 participants (17 men and 13 women) who were regular Internet users and who had used the Internet to meet people mainly through chat rooms. The findings of this study suggest that people who use the Internet meet others tend to be truthful in general in their interactions although both men and women often did not reveal their true names. Eighty percent of the subjects formed casual or friendly relationships, whereas 6% formed intimate or romantic relationships. Approximately one-third of the subjects made some form of offline contact, with 40% talking on the telephone and 33.3% meeting face-to-face. Furthermore, examination of personality styles indicated that cyberfriends tend to be socially skilled, have strong verbal skills, and demonstrate empathy for others. Most subjects were careful about protecting their anonymity, and none of the subjects who met face-to-face did so without first talking on the phone. This suggests that individuals who make friends via the Internet tend to take appropriate precautions and find this medium an effective and safe way to interact with others and to expand one's social system.

  13. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  14. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  15. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  16. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  17. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  18. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties;

  19. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties

  20. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  1. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  2. Nonlinear realizations of the W(2)3 algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Gribanov, V.; Krivonos, S.; Pashnev, A.

    1994-08-01

    In this Letter we consider the nonlinear realizations of the classical Polyakov's algebra W(2)3. The coset space method and the covariant reduction procedure allow us to deduce the Boussinesq equation with interchanged space and evolution coordinates. By adding one more space coordinate and introducing two copies of the W(2)3 algebra, the same method yields the sl(3, R) Toda lattice equations.

  3. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  4. Relationship of frontal D(2/3) binding potentials to cognition: a study of antipsychotic-naive schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Pinborg, Lars H; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Friberg, Lars; Baaré, William F C; Gade, Anders; Svarer, Claus; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2013-02-01

    Studies of in vivo dopamine receptors in schizophrenia have mostly focused on D(2) receptors in striatal areas or on D(1) receptors in cortex. No previous study has examined the correlation between cortical dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding potentials and cognition in schizophrenia patients. The objective was to examine this relation in the frontal cortex in first-episode, drug-naive schizophrenia patients. Based on preclinical and pharmacological evidence, we specifically expected to find a relation between D(2/3) receptor binding potentials and set shifting. This was a cross-sectional, case-control study using single-photon emission computerized tomography with the D(2/3)-receptor ligand [(123)I]epidepride, co-registered with structural magnetic resonance imaging and correlated to cognitive measures. Participants were 24 antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy controls matched for gender and age. For patients, a significant linear correlation between D(2/3) BP(ND) and set shifting was found, while significant quadratic associations were observed for verbal fluency, planning and attention. For controls, the only significant association with D(2/3) BP(ND) was a quadratic partial correlation for set shifting. The main findings indicated a relation between D(2/3) receptor binding in the frontal cortex and set shifting, planning and attention, but also support a differential involvement of cortical dopamine D(2/3) receptor binding in at least some cognitive functions, perhaps particularly attention, in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy people. The results suggest that cortical D(2/3) receptor function may be more involved in some cognitive functions (i.e. attention, fluency and planning) in patients with schizophrenia than in healthy people, suggesting that information processing in schizophrenia may be characterized by lower signal:noise ratios.

  5. People on the move.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Many people live away from their homes and communities. Worldwide, about 125 million people are migrant workers, immigrants, or refugees in search of education, employment, or safety, making them vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. Some practical approaches to HIV prevention with people on the move are delineated. These include: 1) the project in Niger describing its work with migrant peer educators; 2) a national program improving health services; 3) a program in India providing STI treatment and health information for truck drivers; 4) a South African HIV program, which includes activities within communities; and 5) HIV prevention programs for refugees in Tanzania and Mozambique.

  6. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  7. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  8. HIV among Transgender People

    MedlinePlus

    ... sex with multiple partners, and exchanging sex for drugs or money. Other factors that contribute to high rates of HIV among transgender people include drug and alcohol abuse, mental health disorders, incarceration, homelessness, ...

  9. People and Oceans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Discusses people's relationship with oceans, focusing on ocean pollution, use, and protective measures of the sea and its wildlife. Activities included are "Mythical Monsters"; "Globetrotters"; "Plastic in the Sea"; and "Sea of Many Uses." (RT)

  10. Rural People with Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... more information, please see the U.S. Department of Justice's Commonly Asked Questions About Child Care Centers and ... land grant universities and various nonprofit disability services organizations. Assistance is available to people working on small ...

  11. Healthy Water, Healthy People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etgen, John

    2002-01-01

    Describes a hands-on activity, Hitting the Mark, which is found in the "Healthy Water, Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" in terms of its objectives, materials, background, procedures, activities, and assessment. (KHR)

  12. Meet the Noodle People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kananen, Mary King

    1995-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity for children to build and take home a basic model of the human skeletal system. Describes how to make "noodle people" from ordinary materials including pasta, pipe cleaners, straws, and margarine tub lids. (NB)

  13. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    PubMed

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  14. Constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio 1.5 billion years after the big bang.

    PubMed

    Bagdonaite, J; Ubachs, W; Murphy, M T; Whitmore, J B

    2015-02-20

    A molecular hydrogen absorber at a lookback time of 12.4 billion years, corresponding to 10% of the age of the Universe today, is analyzed to put a constraint on a varying proton-electron mass ratio, μ. A high resolution spectrum of the J1443+2724 quasar, which was observed with the Very Large Telescope, is used to create an accurate model of 89 Lyman and Werner band transitions whose relative frequencies are sensitive to μ, yielding a limit on the relative deviation from the current laboratory value of Δμ/μ=(-9.5 ± 5.4(stat)± 5.3(syst))×10(-6).

  15. Taking out one billion tones of carbon: the magic of China's 11thFive-Year Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark D.; Fridley, David

    2007-05-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious targetfor energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country sgross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20 percent from 2005 to2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and bindingtarget has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift inChina's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energydevelopment. The 20 percent energy intensity target also translates intoan annual reduction of over one billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making theChinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in theworld today. While it is still too early to tell whether China willachieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend inenergy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options towardmeeting the 20 percent target using a detailed endues energymodel.

  16. Vaccine Assistance To Low- And Middle-Income Countries Increased To $3.6 Billion In 2014.

    PubMed

    Haakenstad, Annie; Birger, Maxwell; Singh, Lavanya; Liu, Patrick; Lim, Stephen; Ng, Marie; Dieleman, Joseph L

    2016-02-01

    In the 2012 Global Vaccine Action Plan, development assistance partners committed to providing sustainable financing for vaccines and expanding vaccination coverage to all children in low- and middle-income countries by 2020. To assess progress toward these goals, the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation produced estimates of development assistance for vaccinations. These estimates reveal major increases in the assistance provided since 2000. In 2014, $3.6 billion in development assistance for vaccinations was provided for low- and middle-income countries, up from $822 million in 2000. The funding increase was driven predominantly by the establishment of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the governments of the United States and United Kingdom. Despite stagnation in total development assistance for health from donors from 2010 onward, development assistance for vaccination has continued to grow.

  17. United States menhaden oil could save billions in U.S. health care costs and improve IQ in children.

    PubMed

    Bibus, Douglas M

    2016-02-01

    The United States menhaden oil annual production is sufficient to supply all of the recommended long chain Omega-3s for Americans over 55 with coronary heart disease (CHD) and pregnant and lactating women. According to a recent study, the utilization of preventable intake levels could potentially save up to $1.7 billion annually in hospital costs alone. In addition, the remaining oil could be used to support a culture of enough Atlantic salmon to provide every pregnant and lactating woman in the U.S. with 8-12 ounces of fish per week, as recommended by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), throughout the duration of pregnancy and lactation. Based on the FDA's quantitative assessment, this may result in a net increase of IQ by 5.5 points in children and improve their early age verbal development.

  18. The Archean Dongwanzi ophiolite complex, North China craton: 2.505-billion-year-old oceanic crust and mantle.

    PubMed

    Kusky, T M; Li, J H; Tucker, R D

    2001-05-11

    We report a thick, laterally extensive 2505 +/- 2.2-million-year-old (uranium-lead ratio in zircon) Archean ophiolite complex in the North China craton. Basal harzburgite tectonite is overlain by cumulate ultramafic rocks, a mafic-ultramafic transition zone of interlayered gabbro and ultramafic cumulates, compositionally layered olivine-gabbro and pyroxenite, and isotropic gabbro. A sheeted dike complex is rooted in the gabbro and overlain by a mixed dike-pillow lava section, chert, and banded iron formation. The documentation of a complete Archean ophiolite implies that mechanisms of oceanic crustal accretion similar to those of today were in operation by 2.5 billion years ago at divergent plate margins and that the temperature of the early mantle was not extremely elevated, as compared to the present-day temperature. Plate tectonic processes similar to those of the present must also have emplaced the ophiolite in a convergent margin setting.

  19. 1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth’s Sedimentary Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Hadlari, Thomas; Swindles, Graeme T.; Galloway, Jennifer M.; Bell, Kimberley M.; Sulphur, Kyle C.; Heaman, Larry M.; Beranek, Luke P.; Fallas, Karen M.

    2015-01-01

    Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance provides clear evidence for erosion of Carboniferous strata in the northern Cordillera as a sediment source for Upper Cretaceous strata. Our results help to calibrate Earth's sedimentary cycle by showing that recycling dominates sedimentary provenance for the refractory mineral zircon. PMID:26658165

  20. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Lin, Jiang; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark; Fridley, David

    2007-07-01

    China's 11th Five-Year Plan (FYP) sets an ambitious target for energy-efficiency improvement: energy intensity of the country's gross domestic product (GDP) should be reduced by 20% from 2005 to 2010 (NDRC, 2006). This is the first time that a quantitative and binding target has been set for energy efficiency, and signals a major shift in China's strategic thinking about its long-term economic and energy development. The 20% energy intensity target also translates into an annual reduction of over 1.5 billion tons of CO2 by 2010, making the Chinese effort one of most significant carbon mitigation effort in the world today. While it is still too early to tell whether China will achieve this target, this paper attempts to understand the trend in energy intensity in China and to explore a variety of options toward meeting the 20% target using a detailed end-use energy model.

  1. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -3 8 Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation G eo te ch ni ca l a nd...Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program ERDC/GSL TR-14-38 September 2014 AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation Timothy W. Rushing, Lyan...brickwork pattern. Therefore, the 3-4 alternate lay pattern was designed to allow Marines to use any mats on hand to fill in designated portions of the

  2. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established.

  3. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  4. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  5. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  6. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  7. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  8. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  9. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  10. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  11. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  15. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  16. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  17. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  18. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  19. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  20. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  2. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  3. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  4. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  5. CETA's $11 Billion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersher, Judy

    1978-01-01

    The Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) is now before Congress for review and reenactment. This article examines previous CETA program efforts and the new provisions intended to target jobs and training to the most disadvantaged in terms of income and length of unemployment. (Author/AM)

  6. Developing a Billion Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergen, Christopher; Rego, Lyndon; Wright, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Intentionally developing the leadership capacity of all students is a necessary requirement for schools around the world. The Center for Creative Leadership in Greensboro, N.C., has been at the center of this work and presents three schools as examples: Ravenscroft School in Raleigh, N.C., the African Leadership Academy in Johannesburg, South…

  7. People and the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John James William; Feiss, P. Geoffrey

    1998-03-01

    People and the Earth examines the numerous ways in which this planet enhances and limits our lifestyles. Written with wit and remarkable insight, and illustrated with numerous case histories, it provides a balanced view of the complex environmental issues facing our civilization. The authors look at the geologic restrictions on our ability to withdraw resources--food, water, energy, and minerals--from the earth, the effect human activity has on the earth, and the lingering damage caused by natural disasters. People and the Earth examines the basic components of our interaction with this planet, provides a lucid, scientific discussion of each issue, and speculates on what the future may hold. It provides the fundamental concepts that will enable us to make wise and conscientious choices on how to live our day-to-day lives. People and the Earth is an ideal introductory textbook and will also appeal to anyone concerned with our evolving relationship to the earth.

  8. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  9. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  10. A One Billion Year Martian Climate Model: The Importance of Seasonally Resolved Polar Caps and the Role of Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Leovy, C. B.; Quinn, T. R.; Haberle, R. M.; Schaeffer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Wind deflation and deposition are powerful agents of surface change in the present Mars climate regime. Recent studies indicate that, while the distribution of regions of potential deflation (or erosion) and deposition is remarkably insensitive to changes in orbital parameters (obliquity, timing of perihelion passage, etc.), rates of aeolian surface modification may be highly sensitive to these parameters even if the atmospheric mass remains constant. But previous work suggested the atmospheric mass is likely to be sensitive to obliquity, especially if a significant mass of carbon dioxide can be stored in the regolith or deposited in the form of massive polar caps. Deflation and erosion are highly sensitive to surface pressure, so feedback between orbit variations and surface pressure can greatly enhance the sensitivity of aeolian modification rates to orbital parameters. We used statistics derived from a 1 Gyr orbital integration of the spin axis of Mars, coupled with 3D general circulation models (GCMs) at a variety of orbital conditions and pressures, to explore this feedback. We also employed a seasonally resolved 1D energy balance model to illuminate the gross characteristics of the longterm atmospheric evolution, wind erosion and deposition over one billion years. We find that seasonal polar cycles have a critical influence on the ability for the regolith to release CO2 at high obliquities, and find that the atmospheric CO2 actually decreases at high obliquities due to the cooling effect of polar deposits at latitudes where seasonal caps form. At low obliquity, the formation of massive, permanent polar caps depends critically on the values of the frost albedo, A(sub frost), and frost emissivity, E(sub frost). Using our 1D model with values of A(sub frost) = 0.67 and E(sub frost) = 0.55, matched to the NASA Ames GCM results, we find that permanent caps only form at low obliquities (< 10 degrees). Thus, contrary to expectations, the Martian atmospheric pressure

  11. Early Indian People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doermann, Elisabeth

    1979-01-01

    Using bits and pieces of the past such as charred bits of wood from campfires, broken pieces of clay pots, stone spearpoints and arrowheads, and shell or copper ornaments, the archaeologist tries to put together the story of early Indian people in the Minnesota region. A short story, one of eight articles, re-creates the kill of an Itasca bison…

  12. Unipac: Why People Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    This booklet contains learning activities to assist students in understanding why people work and in choosing an occupation to match their career goals. Its eight unipacs (or units) require the students to (1) choose among alternative life styles, occupations, and goals and explain their preferences; (2) develop a system of personal value…

  13. Improving Young People's Concerts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felder, Harvey

    1998-01-01

    Stresses that symphony orchestras and other professional arts organizations need to improve young people's concerts by accounting for student learning and becoming partners with music educators. Provides an experience hierarchy that helps artists and arts organizations benefit from music teachers' knowledge and a list of five elements to consider…

  14. Sculptures of Ordinary People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the presence of ordinary people in art. Features four sculptors and examples of their work: (1) "Janitor" by Duane Hanson; (2) "The Red Light" by George Segal; (3) "The Sodbuster" by Luis A. Jimenez; and (4) "The Driller" by Mahonri Young. (CMK)

  15. People's Theatre in Amerika.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Karen Malpede

    A history of the people's theatre movement in this country from the early 1920s to the early 1970s, this book deals with the structural and thematic connections between the radical theatre of the twenties and thirties and current work of such revolutionary theatres as the Living Theatre, Open Theatre, Bread and Puppet Theatre, El Teatro Campesino,…

  16. Drugs and Young People

    MedlinePlus

    Drug abuse is a serious public health problem. It affects almost every community and family in some way. Drug abuse in children and teenagers may pose a ... of young people may be more susceptible to drug abuse and addiction than adult brains. Abused drugs ...

  17. People of the Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, George; And Others

    Suitable for use in middle school classes, this interdisciplinary resource book on the culture of Appalachia is divided into 15 units. Topics covered are: stereotyping, values, geography, coal, people, family, housing, biographies, literature, music, crafts, dance, religion, wisdom, and change. Through a variety of learning activities and…

  18. Healthy People 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Catherine M.

    2001-01-01

    Major Healthy People (HP) 2000 goals closely tied to prevention were not met nationally: physical activity did not improve; evidence that it actually decreased; obesity did not decrease but instead increased in all groups, actually doubling in children; and incidence of type 2 diabetes did not decrease, but instead evidence showed that it increased in all age groups.

  19. Other People's Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, E.; Murray, S. S.

    Why do we continually re-invent the astronomical software wheel? Why is it so difficult to use ``other people's software''? Leaving aside issues such as money, power, and control, we need to investigate practically how we can remove barriers to software sharing. This paper will offer a starting point for software cooperation, centered on the concept of ``minimal software buy-in''.

  20. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment.

  1. Click chemistry: 1,2,3-triazoles as pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Agalave, Sandip G; Maujan, Suleman R; Pore, Vandana S

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole-forming reaction between azides and terminal alkynes has become the gold standard of 'click chemistry' due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. Applications of click chemistry are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery; they range from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in vitro chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research by using bioconjugation reactions. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen-bonding and dipole interactions. The present review will focus mainly on the recent literature for applications of this reaction in the field of medicinal chemistry, in particular on use of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety as pharmacophore.

  2. 1,2,3-Triazolium-Based Peptoid Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Aliouat, Hafida; Caumes, Cécile; Roy, Olivier; Zouikri, Mohamed; Taillefumier, Claude; Faure, Sophie

    2017-02-22

    The cis-directing effect of the 1,2,3-triazolium-type side chain was studied on dimeric peptoid models with various patterns: αα, αβ, βα and ββ. Low influences of the sequence and of the solvent were observed, the cis conformation of the amide carrying the triazolium ranging from 83 to 94% in proportion. The synthesis of peptoid homooligomers with four or eight pendant 1,2,3-triazolium side chains is described. α-, β- and α,β-peptoids carrying propargyl groups were subjected to CuAAC reaction using alkyl azides, and the resulting triazoles were quaternized providing well-defined multitriazolium platforms. The influence of the counteranion (PF6(-), BF4(-) or I(-)) on the conformation was also studied.

  3. Health Risk Assessment Approach for 2,3,7,8 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects various organ systems and is probably carcinogenic as well. The report documents the methodologies utilized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its development of health risk assessment from exposure to TCDD. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects various organ systems and is probably carcinogenic as well.

  4. Leading clever people.

    PubMed

    Goffee, Rob; Jones, Gareth

    2007-03-01

    In an economy driven by ideas and intellectual know-how, top executives recognize the importance of employing smart, highly creative people. But if clever people have one defining characteristic, it's that they do not want to be led. So what is a leader to do? The authors conducted more than 100 interviews with leaders and their clever people at major organizations such as PricewaterhouseCoopers, Cisco Systems, Novartis, the BBC, and Roche. What they learned is that the psychological relationships effective leaders have with their clever people are very different from the ones they have with traditional followers. Those relationships can be shaped by seven characteristics that clever people share: They know their worth--and they know you have to employ them if you want their tacit skills. They are organizationally savvy and will seek the company context in which their interests are most generously funded. They ignore corporate hierarchy; although intellectual status is important to them, you can't lure them with promotions. They expect instant access to top management, and if they don't get it, they may think the organization doesn't take their work seriously. They are plugged into highly developed knowledge networks, which both increases their value and makes them more of a flight risk. They have a low boredom threshold, so you have to keep them challenged and committed. They won't thank you--even when you're leading them well. The trick is to act like a benevolent guardian: to grant them the respect and recognition they demand, protect them from organizational rules and politics, and give them room to pursue private efforts and even to fail. The payoff will be a flourishing crop of creative minds that will enrich your whole organization.

  5. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  6. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate and ATP dissociate erythrocyte membrane skeletons.

    PubMed

    Sheetz, M P; Casaly, J

    1980-10-25

    Since ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate cause an increase in the lateral mobility of integral membrane proteins in the erythrocyte (Schindler, M., Koppel, D., and Sheetz, M. P. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 1457-1461), we have studied their effects on the membrane skeletal complex or shell (composed of spectrin, actin, and bands 4.1 (78,000 daltons) and 4.9 (50,000 daltons)) and its interaction with the erythrocyte membrane. Both phosphate compounds dissociated the delipidated shell complex, with half-maximal dissociation at 2.5 mM 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and 8 mM ATP, whereas equivalent concentrations of EDTA did not. Concomitant with complex dissociation, spectrin was solubilized but band 4.1 and actin remained in a complexed or polymeric form. When proteins which were involved in linking spectrin to the membrane were present on the shell, higher concentrations of the phosphate compounds still dissociated the complex but less spectrin was solubilized. Treatment of erythrocyte membranes with the same phosphate compounds caused membrane vesiculation but no proteins were solubilized. We suggest that ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, at concentrations which are normally present in erythrocytes, can weaken associations in the shell but will not dissociate the complex from membrane attachment sites.

  7. A large population of galaxies 9 to 12 billion years back in the history of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Fèvre, O.; Paltani, S.; Arnouts, S.; Charlot, S.; Foucaud, S.; Ilbert, O.; McCracken, H. J.; Zamorani, G.; Bottini, D.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Maccagni, D.; Picat, J. P.; Scaramella, R.; Scodeggio, M.; Tresse, L.; Vettolani, G.; Zanichelli, A.; Adami, C.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Ciliegi, P.; Contini, T.; Franzetti, P.; Gavignaud, I.; Guzzo, L.; Iovino, A.; Marano, B.; Marinoni, C.; Mazure, A.; Meneux, B.; Merighi, R.; Pellò, R.; Pollo, A.; Pozzetti, L.; Radovich, M.; Zucca, E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Bondi, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Busarello, G.; Gregorini, L.; Lamareille, F.; Mathez, G.; Mellier, Y.; Merluzzi, P.; Ripepi, V.; Rizzo, D.

    2005-09-01

    To understand the evolution of galaxies, we need to know as accurately as possible how many galaxies were present in the Universe at different epochs. Galaxies in the young Universe have hitherto mainly been identified using their expected optical colours, but this leaves open the possibility that a significant population remains undetected because their colours are the result of a complex mix of stars, gas, dust or active galactic nuclei. Here we report the results of a flux-limited I-band survey of galaxies at look-back times of 9 to 12 billion years. We find 970 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.4 and 5. This population is 1.6 to 6.2 times larger than previous estimates, with the difference increasing towards brighter magnitudes. Strong ultraviolet continua (in the rest frame of the galaxies) indicate vigorous star formation rates of more than 10-100 solar masses per year. As a consequence, the cosmic star formation rate representing the volume-averaged production of stars is higher than previously measured at redshifts of 3 to 4.

  8. Organic-walled microfossils in 3.2-billion-year-old shallow-marine siliciclastic deposits.

    PubMed

    Javaux, Emmanuelle J; Marshall, Craig P; Bekker, Andrey

    2010-02-18

    Although the notion of an early origin and diversification of life on Earth during the Archaean eon has received increasing support in geochemical, sedimentological and palaeontological evidence, ambiguities and controversies persist regarding the biogenicity and syngeneity of the record older than Late Archaean. Non-biological processes are known to produce morphologies similar to some microfossils, and hydrothermal fluids have the potential to produce abiotic organic compounds with depleted carbon isotope values, making it difficult to establish unambiguous traces of life. Here we report the discovery of a population of large (up to about 300 mum in diameter) carbonaceous spheroidal microstructures in Mesoarchaean shales and siltstones of the Moodies Group, South Africa, the Earth's oldest siliciclastic alluvial to tidal-estuarine deposits. These microstructures are interpreted as organic-walled microfossils on the basis of petrographic and geochemical evidence for their endogenicity and syngeneity, their carbonaceous composition, cellular morphology and ultrastructure, occurrence in populations, taphonomic features of soft wall deformation, and the geological context plausible for life, as well as a lack of abiotic explanation falsifying a biological origin. These are the oldest and largest Archaean organic-walled spheroidal microfossils reported so far. Our observations suggest that relatively large microorganisms cohabited with earlier reported benthic microbial mats in the photic zone of marginal marine siliciclastic environments 3.2 billion years ago.

  9. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bontognali, Tomaso R R; Sessions, Alex L; Allwood, Abigail C; Fischer, Woodward W; Grotzinger, John P; Summons, Roger E; Eiler, John M

    2012-09-18

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ(33)S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ(33)S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H(2)S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ(33)S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities.

  10. Decimetre-scale multicellular eukaryotes from the 1.56-billion-year-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation in North China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shixing; Zhu, Maoyan; Knoll, Andrew H.; Yin, Zongjun; Zhao, Fangchen; Sun, Shufen; Qu, Yuangao; Shi, Min; Liu, Huan

    2016-01-01

    Fossils of macroscopic eukaryotes are rarely older than the Ediacaran Period (635–541 million years (Myr)), and their interpretation remains controversial. Here, we report the discovery of macroscopic fossils from the 1,560-Myr-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Yanshan area, North China, that exhibit both large size and regular morphology. Preserved as carbonaceous compressions, the Gaoyuzhuang fossils have statistically regular linear to lanceolate shapes up to 30 cm long and nearly 8 cm wide, suggesting that the Gaoyuzhuang fossils record benthic multicellular eukaryotes of unprecedentedly large size. Syngenetic fragments showing closely packed ∼10 μm cells arranged in a thick sheet further reinforce the interpretation. Comparisons with living thalloid organisms suggest that these organisms were photosynthetic, although their phylogenetic placement within the Eukarya remains uncertain. The new fossils provide the strongest evidence yet that multicellular eukaryotes with decimetric dimensions and a regular developmental program populated the marine biosphere at least a billion years before the Cambrian Explosion. PMID:27186667

  11. Mobile hydrocarbon microspheres from >2-billion-year-old carbon-bearing seams in the South African deep subsurface.

    PubMed

    Wanger, G; Moser, D; Hay, M; Myneni, S; Onstott, T C; Southam, G

    2012-11-01

    By ~2.9 Ga, the time of the deposition of the Witwatersrand Supergroup, life is believed to have been well established on Earth. Carbon remnants of the microbial biosphere from this time period are evident in sediments from around the world. In the Witwatersrand Supergroup, the carbonaceous material is often concentrated in seams, closely associated with the gold deposits and may have been a mobile phase 2 billion years ago. Whereas today the carbon in the Witwatersrand Supergroup is presumed to be immobile, hollow hydrocarbon spheres ranging in size from <1 μm to >50 μm were discovered emanating from a borehole drilled through the carbon-bearing seams suggesting that a portion of the carbon may still be mobile in the deep subsurface. ToF-SIMS and STXM analyses revealed that these spheres contain a suite of alkane, alkenes, and aromatic compounds consistent with the described organic-rich carbon seams within the Witwatersrand Supergroup's auriferous reef horizons. Analysis by electron microscopy and ToF-SIMS, however, revealed that these spheres, although most likely composed of biogenic carbon and resembling biological organisms, do not retain any true structural, that is, fossil, information and were formed by an abiogenic process.

  12. Decimetre-scale multicellular eukaryotes from the 1.56-billion-year-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation in North China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shixing; Zhu, Maoyan; Knoll, Andrew H; Yin, Zongjun; Zhao, Fangchen; Sun, Shufen; Qu, Yuangao; Shi, Min; Liu, Huan

    2016-05-17

    Fossils of macroscopic eukaryotes are rarely older than the Ediacaran Period (635-541 million years (Myr)), and their interpretation remains controversial. Here, we report the discovery of macroscopic fossils from the 1,560-Myr-old Gaoyuzhuang Formation, Yanshan area, North China, that exhibit both large size and regular morphology. Preserved as carbonaceous compressions, the Gaoyuzhuang fossils have statistically regular linear to lanceolate shapes up to 30 cm long and nearly 8 cm wide, suggesting that the Gaoyuzhuang fossils record benthic multicellular eukaryotes of unprecedentedly large size. Syngenetic fragments showing closely packed ∼10 μm cells arranged in a thick sheet further reinforce the interpretation. Comparisons with living thalloid organisms suggest that these organisms were photosynthetic, although their phylogenetic placement within the Eukarya remains uncertain. The new fossils provide the strongest evidence yet that multicellular eukaryotes with decimetric dimensions and a regular developmental program populated the marine biosphere at least a billion years before the Cambrian Explosion.

  13. Sulfur isotopes of organic matter preserved in 3.45-billion-year-old stromatolites reveal microbial metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Sessions, Alex L.; Allwood, Abigail C.; Fischer, Woodward W.; Grotzinger, John P.; Summons, Roger E.; Eiler, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The 3.45-billion-year-old Strelley Pool Formation of Western Australia preserves stromatolites that are considered among the oldest evidence for life on Earth. In places of exceptional preservation, these stromatolites contain laminae rich in organic carbon, interpreted as the fossil remains of ancient microbial mats. To better understand the biogeochemistry of these rocks, we performed microscale in situ sulfur isotope measurements of the preserved organic sulfur, including both Δ33S and . This approach allows us to tie physiological inference from isotope ratios directly to fossil biomass, providing a means to understand sulfur metabolism that is complimentary to, and independent from, inorganic proxies (e.g., pyrite). Δ33S values of the kerogen reveal mass-anomalous fractionations expected of the Archean sulfur cycle, whereas values show large fractionations at very small spatial scales, including values below -15‰. We interpret these isotopic patterns as recording the process of sulfurization of organic matter by H2S in heterogeneous mat pore-waters influenced by respiratory S metabolism. Positive Δ33S anomalies suggest that disproportionation of elemental sulfur would have been a prominent microbial process in these communities. PMID:22949693

  14. A large population of galaxies 9 to 12 billion years back in the history of the Universe.

    PubMed

    Le Fèvre, O; Paltani, S; Arnouts, S; Charlot, S; Foucaud, S; Ilbert, O; McCracken, H J; Zamorani, G; Bottini, D; Garilli, B; Le Brun, V; Maccagni, D; Picat, J P; Scaramella, R; Scodeggio, M; Tresse, L; Vettolani, G; Zanichelli, A; Adami, C; Bardelli, S; Bolzonella, M; Cappi, A; Ciliegi, P; Contini, T; Franzetti, P; Gavignaud, I; Guzzo, L; Iovino, A; Marano, B; Marinoni, C; Mazure, A; Meneux, B; Merighi, R; Pellò, R; Pollo, A; Pozzetti, L; Radovich, M; Zucca, E; Arnaboldi, M; Bondi, M; Bongiorno, A; Busarello, G; Gregorini, L; Lamareille, F; Mathez, G; Mellier, Y; Merluzzi, P; Ripepi, V; Rizzo, D

    2005-09-22

    To understand the evolution of galaxies, we need to know as accurately as possible how many galaxies were present in the Universe at different epochs. Galaxies in the young Universe have hitherto mainly been identified using their expected optical colours, but this leaves open the possibility that a significant population remains undetected because their colours are the result of a complex mix of stars, gas, dust or active galactic nuclei. Here we report the results of a flux-limited I-band survey of galaxies at look-back times of 9 to 12 billion years. We find 970 galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts between 1.4 and 5. This population is 1.6 to 6.2 times larger than previous estimates, with the difference increasing towards brighter magnitudes. Strong ultraviolet continua (in the rest frame of the galaxies) indicate vigorous star formation rates of more than 10-100 solar masses per year. As a consequence, the cosmic star formation rate representing the volume-averaged production of stars is higher than previously measured at redshifts of 3 to 4.

  15. Multi million-to-Billion Atom Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Cavitation-Induced Damage on a Silica Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, Adarsh; Nomura, Ken-Ichi; Kalia, Rajiv; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya

    2012-02-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse causes severe damage to materials. For example, cavitation erosion is a major threat to the safety of nuclear power plants. The cavitation bubbles may also be utilized for preventing stress corrosion cracking with water jet peening technology. We have performed multi million-to-billion atoms molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the shock-induced cavitation damage mechanism on an amorphous silica slab in water. The system consists of a 60nm thick silica slab immersed in water in an MD box of dimension 285 x 200 x 200 nm3. A nanobubble is created by removing water molecules within a sphere of radius 100 nm. To apply a planar shock, we assign a uniform particle velocity vp on the entire system towards a planar momentum mirror. We have performed the simulation with two kinds of bubbles, an empty bubble and a bubble filled with inert gas. The simulation results reveal nanojet formation during bubble collapse causing damage on the silica surface; however, the damage was significantly reduced in the case of the filled bubble. We will discuss the effect of the presence of inter gas inside the nanobubble on the pressure distribution, the extent of damage, and collapse behavior corresponding the shock front.

  16. Evidence from massive siderite beds for a CO2-rich atmosphere before approximately 1.8 billion years ago

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Yumiko; Kumazawa, Kazumasa

    2004-01-01

    It is generally thought that, in order to compensate for lower solar flux and maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth, methane must have been an important greenhouse gas before approximately 2.2 billion years (Gyr) ago. This is based upon a simple thermodynamic calculation that relates the absence of siderite (FeCO3) in some pre-2.2-Gyr palaeosols to atmospheric CO2 concentrations that would have been too low to have provided the necessary greenhouse effect. Using multi-dimensional thermodynamic analyses and geological evidence, we show here that the absence of siderite in palaeosols does not constrain atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Siderite is absent in many palaeosols (both pre- and post-2.2-Gyr in age) because the O2 concentrations and pH conditions in well-aerated soils have favoured the formation of ferric (Fe3+)-rich minerals, such as goethite, rather than siderite. Siderite, however, has formed throughout geological history in subsurface environments, such as euxinic seas, where anaerobic organisms created H2-rich conditions. The abundance of large, massive siderite-rich beds in pre-1.8-Gyr sedimentary sequences and their carbon isotope ratios indicate that the atmospheric CO2 concentration was more than 100 times greater than today, causing the rain and ocean waters to be more acidic than today. We therefore conclude that CO2 alone (without a significant contribution from methane) could have provided the necessary greenhouse effect to maintain liquid oceans on the early Earth.

  17. Impacts of a 32-billion-gallon bioenergy landscape on land and fossil fuel use in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudiburg, Tara W.; Wang, Weiwei; Khanna, Madhu; Long, Stephen P.; Dwivedi, Puneet; Parton, William J.; Hartman, Melannie; Delucia, Evan H.

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable transportation biofuels may require considerable changes in land use to meet mandated targets. Understanding the possible impact of different policies on land use and greenhouse gas emissions has typically proceeded by exploring either ecosystem or economic modelling. Here we integrate such models to assess the potential for the US Renewable Fuel Standard to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector through the use of cellulosic biofuels. We find that 2022 US emissions are decreased by 7.0 ± 2.5% largely through gasoline displacement and soil carbon storage by perennial grasses. If the Renewable Fuel Standard is accompanied by a cellulosic biofuel tax credit, these emissions could be reduced by 12.3 ± 3.4%. Our integrated approach indicates that transitioning to cellulosic biofuels can meet a 32-billion-gallon Renewable Fuel Standard target with negligible effects on food crop production, while reducing fossil fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions. However, emissions savings are lower than previous estimates that did not account for economic constraints.

  18. 77 FR 29458 - Supervisory Guidance on Stress Testing for Banking Organizations With More Than $10 Billion in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... for Regulatory Capital and Operational Risk, Large Bank Supervision (202) 874-4464, Akhtarur Siddique... ; Supervision and Regulation Letter SR 99-18, Assessing Capital Adequacy in Relation to Risk at Large Banking... the Comptroller of the Currency, Mailstop 2-3, Attention: 1557-NEW, 250 E Street SW., Washington,...

  19. GC-MS and GC-IRD analysis of 2-, 3- and 4-methylmethamphetamine and 2-, 3- and 4-methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sean; Blakey, Karen; Rands-Trevor, Karen

    2012-07-10

    4-Methylmethamphetamine has been detected in samples submitted for analysis in several states throughout Australia. Six ring substituted methyl isomers of methamphetamine and amphetamine were synthesised and analysed. As the regioisomeric 2-, 3- and 4-methylmethamphetamine and 2-, 3- and 4-methylamphetamine have virtually identical mass spectra, the use of MS is an ineffective technique to discriminate between these closely related compounds. We set out to determine whether the regioisomers could be differentiated by a combination of GC-MS, acetyl derivatisation and GC-IRD. We demonstrate that the three isomers of methylmethamphetamine and methylamphetamine can be separated by GC, and a combination of acetyl derivatisation and vapour phase IR can identify the specific ring substituted compound.

  20. Monsters are people too.

    PubMed

    Levy, J; Foulsham, T; Kingstone, A

    2013-02-23

    Animals, including dogs, dolphins, monkeys and man, follow gaze. What mediates this bias towards the eyes? One hypothesis is that primates possess a distinct neural module that is uniquely tuned for the eyes of others. An alternative explanation is that configural face processing drives fixations to the middle of peoples' faces, which is where the eyes happen to be located. We distinguish between these two accounts. Observers were presented with images of people, non-human creatures with eyes in the middle of their faces (`humanoids') or creatures with eyes positioned elsewhere (`monsters'). There was a profound and significant bias towards looking early and often at the eyes of humans and humanoids and also, critically, at the eyes of monsters. These findings demonstrate that the eyes, and not the middle of the head, are being targeted by the oculomotor system.

  1. Monsters are people too

    PubMed Central

    Levy, J.; Foulsham, T.; Kingstone, A.

    2013-01-01

    Animals, including dogs, dolphins, monkeys and man, follow gaze. What mediates this bias towards the eyes? One hypothesis is that primates possess a distinct neural module that is uniquely tuned for the eyes of others. An alternative explanation is that configural face processing drives fixations to the middle of peoples' faces, which is where the eyes happen to be located. We distinguish between these two accounts. Observers were presented with images of people, non-human creatures with eyes in the middle of their faces (`humanoids’) or creatures with eyes positioned elsewhere (`monsters’). There was a profound and significant bias towards looking early and often at the eyes of humans and humanoids and also, critically, at the eyes of monsters. These findings demonstrate that the eyes, and not the middle of the head, are being targeted by the oculomotor system. PMID:23118434

  2. Careers and people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Young scientists fly high Teenagers from Poland, Slovakia and the UK won first prizes at the annual European Union (EU) Contest for Young Scientists. Magdalena Bojarska's study of Hamiltonian cycles in generalized Halin graphs, Martin Tkác's insights on tilting bulk materials in railway cargo and Elisabeth Muller's project on lunar meteorites each garnered awards worth €7000 from the EU's Science in Society programme, which aims to encourage young people to pursue scientific careers.

  3. Do People "Pop Out"?

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Vuong, Quoc C; Thornton, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    The human body is a highly familiar and socially very important object. Does this mean that the human body has a special status with respect to visual attention? In the current paper we tested whether people in natural scenes attract attention and "pop out" or, alternatively, are at least searched for more efficiently than targets of another category (machines). Observers in our study searched a visual array for dynamic or static scenes containing humans amidst scenes containing machines and vice versa. The arrays consisted of 2, 4, 6 or 8 scenes arranged in a circular array, with targets being present or absent. Search times increased with set size for dynamic and static human and machine targets, arguing against pop out. However, search for human targets was more efficient than for machine targets as indicated by shallower search slopes for human targets. Eye tracking further revealed that observers made more first fixations to human than to machine targets and that their on-target fixation durations were shorter for human compared to machine targets. In summary, our results suggest that searching for people in natural scenes is more efficient than searching for other categories even though people do not pop out.

  4. Subjective experiences of watching stereoscopic Avatar and U2 3D in a cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pölönen, Monika; Salmimaa, Marja; Takatalo, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2012-01-01

    A stereoscopic 3-D version of the film Avatar was shown to 85 people who subsequently answered questions related to sickness, visual strain, stereoscopic image quality, and sense of presence. Viewing Avatar for 165 min induced some symptoms of visual strain and sickness, but the symptom levels remained low. A comparison between Avatar and previously published results for the film U2 3D showed that sickness and visual strain levels were similar despite the films' runtimes. The genre of the film had a significant effect on the viewers' opinions and sense of presence. Avatar, which has been described as a combination of action, adventure, and sci-fi genres, was experienced as more immersive and engaging than the music documentary U2 3D. However, participants in both studies were immersed, focused, and absorbed in watching the stereoscopic 3-D (S3-D) film and were pleased with the film environments. The results also showed that previous stereoscopic 3-D experience significantly reduced the amount of reported eye strain and complaints about the weight of the viewing glasses.

  5. The Partial Aminolysis of (NPF2)3 or 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    as (NPC1 2)3 ~ , with primary or secondary amines or with alkoxides or aryl - oxides have b:en studied in detail.2 Under suitable reaction conditions...reactions between II and n—butylamine carried out in the presence of lithium bromide gave products that were virtually identical to those fo rmed in...g, 0.006 ml) in 10 ml of TN! was added to a solution of sodium phenoxide (prepared from 11.04 g (0.48 aol) sodium and 58.7 g (0.62 aol) of phenol in

  6. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  7. Evaluation testing of a portable vapor detector for Part-Per-Billion (PPB) level UDMH and N2H4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Dan; Lueck, Dale E.

    1995-01-01

    Trace level detection of hydrazine (N2H4), monomethyl hydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) has been receiving increased attention over the past several years. In May 1995 the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) lowered their acceptable threshold limit value (TLV) from 100 parts-per-billion (ppb) to 10 ppb. Several types of ppb-level detectors are being developed by the United States Air Force (USAF) Space and Missile Systems Center (SMSC). A breadboard version of a portable, lightweight hydrazine detection sensor was developed and produced by Giner Corp. for the USAF. This sensor was designed for ppb level UDMH and N2H4 vapor detection in near real-time. This instrument employs electrochemical sensing, utilizing a three electrode cell with an anion-exchange polymer electrolyte membrane as the only electrolyte in the system. The sensing, counter and reference electrodes are bonded to the membrane forming a single component. The only liquid required to maintain the sensor is deionized water which hydrates the membrane. At the request of the USAF SMSC, independent testing and evaluation of the breadboard instrument was performed at NASA's Toxic Vapor Detection Laboratory (TVDL) for response to ppb-level N2H4 and UDMH and MMH. The TVDL, located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the unique ability to generate calibrated sample vapor streams of N2H4, UDMH, and MMH over a range from less than 10 ppb to thousands of parts per million (ppm) with full environmental control of relative humidity (0-90%) and temperature (0-50 C). The TVDL routinely performs these types of tests. Referenced sensors were subjected to extensive testing, including precision, linearity, response/recovery times, zero and span drift, humidity and temperature effects as well as ammonia interference. Results of these tests and general operation characteristics are reported.

  8. New Schools, Overcrowding Relief, and Achievement Gains in Los Angeles--Strong Returns from a $19.5 Billion Investment. Policy Brief 12-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, William; Coghlan, Erin; Fuller, Bruce; Dauter, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Aiming to relieve overcrowded schools operating on multiple tracks, the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) has invested more than $19 billion to build 130 new facilities over the past decade. District leaders asked researchers at Berkeley to estimate the achievement effects of this massive initiative--benefits that may stem from entering…

  9. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  10. ?`Caos en la Resonancia 2:3 con Urano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Nicotra, M. A.

    The 2:3 resonace with Uranus and 3:2 with Neptune define limits in the semi -major axis interval, where some objects like 7066 Nessus (semi-major axis 24.456 au) has been observed. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of a mass-less test particle near the critical value of the semi-major axis for each resonance. We analize the structure of the phase space in each case, using the restricted three-body planar approach, for different values of the Jacobi constant. Although this aproximation does not reflect the whole complexity of this region, it constitutes a good first solution, since there are not first or second order orbital resonances with the major planets. For the 2:3 resonance with Uranus, we find a smooth curve of quasi-periodical orbits surrounding the periodic orbit corresponding to the critical value of the semi-major axis. This region is also surrounded by chaotic orbits, probably due to the presence of other conmensurabilities of first or second order with Uranus. At the internal resonance 3:2 with Neptune, the structure of the section surfaces varies with the value of the C constant. In general, periodic orbits are found for the critical semi-major axis, but for other values of the Jacobi constant, which are obtained modifying the eccentricity of the particle orbit, the region is not closed anymore, so the test particle crosses the Neptune orbit, and escapes from this region.

  11. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  12. Charles Dickens' old people.

    PubMed

    Charles, D C; Charles, L A

    Charles Dickens, rare among authors of any period, presented a host of elderly and old characters in his novels and stories. More than 120 such characters were identified, distributed among four levels of involvement (protagonist to minor role) and six categories of behavior (warm and sympathetic to villainous and threatening). The two-thirds male, one-third female characters tended to be concentrated at the minor, rather than major, levels of involvement in plots, but they represented a great range of behavior. Dickens' old people were fully engaged in life and society and were not age-stereotyped.

  13. People and Places. Teacher's Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Priscilla H., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews teachers' resources related to people and places. Most of these focus on the identification of geographic locations and historical biographies of famous individuals or groups of people. Includes discussions of reference works, audio cassettes, activity kits, and fiction. (MJP)

  14. Molecules in focus: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas J C; Thomas, Shane R

    2007-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme enzyme that initiates the oxidative degradation of the least abundant, essential amino acid, l-tryptophan, along the kynurenine pathway. The local cellular depletion of l-tryptophan that results may enable the host to inhibit the growth of various infectious pathogens in vivo. However, over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that IDO also represents an important immune control enzyme. Thus, cells expressing IDO, seemingly paradoxically, are capable of suppressing local T cell responses to promote immune tolerance under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of medical importance, including infectious diseases, foetal rejection, organ transplantation, neuropathology, inflammatory and auto-immune disorders and cancer. In this review, we briefly outline the biochemical properties of IDO, its known and hypothetical functions and the medical implications for inhibition or induction of IDO and/or its downstream catabolites in health and disease.

  15. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  16. Elastic Behavior of Y-1-2-3/SILVER Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, S.; Reddy, R. Ravinder; Reddy, P. Venugopal; Mulay, V. N.

    A series of Y-1-2-3/Ag high Tc superconducting composites have been prepared using the sol-gel method by sintering at three different sintering temperatures, viz. 910°C, 945°C, and 975°C. After the usual characterization by XRD, electrical resistance, bulk density, and porosity measurements, the longitudinal (V1) and shear wave (Vs) velocities were measured by the pulse transmission technique. Using the experimental data, several elasticity parameters such as Young's modulus (E), rigidity modulus (G), etc. were evaluated. The variation of elastic constants with dopant concentration has been explained in terms of the binding forces between various atoms of the superconductor. A linear relationship between the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the Debye temperature (θD) has also been obtained.

  17. 1-Do-decyl-indoline-2,3-dione.

    PubMed

    Qachchachi, Fatima-Zahrae; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Misbahi, Houria; Bodensteiner, Michael; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-02-01

    The structure of the title compound, C20H29NO2, is isotypic to that of its homologue 1-octylindoline-2,3-dione. The indoline ring and the two carbonyl-group O atoms are approximately coplanar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.0760 (10) Å. The mean plane through the fused-ring system is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane passing through the 1-dodecyl chain [dihedral angle = 77.69 (5)°]. All C atoms of the dodecyl group are in an anti-periplanar arrangement. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  18. Metabolism of allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide and estragole 2',3'-oxide in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1995-02-01

    The metabolism of allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide, estragole 2',3'-oxide, allylbenzene and estragole was studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Formation of dihydrodiol and glutathione conjugate metabolites was detected for both epoxides and the presence of dihydrodiol metabolites after perfusion of allylbenzene or estragole indicated the formation of allylic epoxide intermediates in the intact liver. A comparison of elimination kinetics for parent compounds and epoxides indicated that epoxides were relatively rapidly detoxified and probably do not accumulate on formation in vivo. Acute toxicity of epoxides, measured as the release of alanine aminotransferase activity into the perfusate, or genetic toxicity, determined as covalent binding of radiolabeled epoxide to DNA, were not observed. It was concluded that both epoxide hydrolases and glutathione S-transferases can effectively detoxify the allylic epoxides derived from either allylbenzene or estragole and effectively prevent cellular or genetic toxicity of these reactive intermediates. Epoxide hydrolases appear to play the major role in the detoxication of these epoxides in vivo.

  19. Astronomical activities with disabled people

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Gil, Amelia; Blay, Pere; Gallego Calvente, A. Teresa; Gómez, Miquel; Guirado, José Carlos; Lanzara, Mariana; Martínez Núñez, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    As we celebrate the International Year of Astronomy, we have been working on four different projects with the goal of making astronomy more accessible to people with special needs. These projects are 1) an astronomy book and web site for blind people, 2) an open source software for people with motor disabilities, 3) a planetarium program for the visually impaired and 4) educational material for intellectually disabled people.

  20. Learning Opportunities for Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKeracher, Dorothy

    1980-01-01

    The author summarizes a conference on learning opportunities for older people by discussing six issues: (1) perspectives of older people and service providers; (2) categorization of older learners; (3) learning needs of older people; (4) participation rates; (5) government policies; and (6) curriculum concerns. (SK)

  1. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasability of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Perlack, R.D.

    2005-12-15

    land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country's present petroleum consumption--the goal set by the Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  2. Dipolar geomagnetic field and low orbital obliquity during the last two billion years: Evidence from paleomagnetism of evaporite basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, D. A.

    2006-05-01

    Paleomagnetism of climatically sensitive sedimentary rock types, such as glacial deposits and evaporites, can test the uniformitarianism of ancient geomagnetic fields and paleoclimatic zones. Precambrian glacial deposits laid down in near-equatorial paleomagnetic latitudes indicate a paleoclimatic paradox that can be explained either by Snowball Earth episodes, or high orbital obliquity, or dramatically non-uniformitarian geomagnetic fields. Here I present the first global paleomagnetic compilation of the Earth's entire basin-scale evaporite record. Evaporation exceeds precipitation in today's subtropical desert belts, generally within a zone of 15-35° from the equator. Assuming a geocentric axial dipole (GAD) magnetic field for Cenozoic- Mesozoic time, evaporite basins of the past 250 Myr have a volume-weighted mean paleolatitude of 23±4°, also squarely within the subtropics. Carboniferous-Permian evaporites have an indistinguishable weighted-mean paleolatitude of 22±4°, which does not change significantly when recently hypothesized octupolar field components are included in the calculations. Early Paleozoic (including late Ediacaran) evaporites are lower-latitude (weighted mean 10±5°), but detailed analyses of individual examples show this cannot be attributed solely to nondipolar field components or sedimentary inclination biases; the cause may be due to particular paleogeographic effects on regional tropical climates, or incomplete sampling by the paleomagnetic data. Proterozoic (pre-Ediacaran) evaporite basins have a volume- weighted mean inclination of 33±4°, which would correspond to a mean paleolatitude of 18±3° for a pure GAD field. This latter mean is indistinguishable, within error, from the Cenozoic-Mesozoic mean and demonstrates the success of the GAD model as a first-order description of the geomagnetic field for the last two billion years. Also, general circulation climate models of a high-obliquity Earth predict either no strong zonal

  3. How many people have ever lived on earth?

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1995-02-01

    An estimate of the total number of persons who have ever lived on earth depends on two factors: 1) the length of time humans have been on earth; and 2) the average size of human populations at different periods. According to the United Nations' "Determinants and Consequences of Population Trends," modern Homo sapiens appeared about 50,000 B.C. At the dawn of agriculture, about 8000 B.C., the world's population was around 5 million. By 1 A.D., the population had reached 300 million, which indicates a growth rate of 0.0512% per year. Life expectancy at birth averaged 10 years for most of human history. The birth rate would have to be about 80 per 1000 just for the species to survive. Infant mortality in the early days of human life would be high, probably 500 infant deaths per 1000. Children were probably economic liabilities in hunter-gatherer societies; this might have led to infanticide, which in turn would require a disproportionately high birth rate to maintain population growth. By 1650, the world's population had risen to 500 million, although the Black Plague, which began in 542 A.D. in western Asia and killed 50% of the Byzantine Empire in the sixth century (a total of 100 million deaths), had slowed the rate of growth. By 1800, the world's population passed 1 billion and continued to grow to its current total of 5.7 billion. Estimating the number of people ever born requires selecting population sizes for different points from antiquity to the present and applying assumed birth rates to each period. Assuming a constant growth rate and birth rates of 80 per 1000 through 1 A.D., 60 per 1000 from 2 A.D. to 1750, and the low 30s per 1000 by modern times, 105 billion people have lived on earth, of whom 5.5% are alive today. The assumption of constant population growth in the earliest period may have resulted in an underestimate, while an earlier date of the appearance of humans on earth would raise the number. A table of Population Reference Bureau statistics is

  4. Where people die.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, B P; Zdeb, M S; Therriault, G D

    1979-01-01

    Death certificates for 1977 filed with the New York State Department of Health were studied to determine where people died. Data were examined by the location and cause of death and by the age, sex, race, and marital status of the decedent. Comparisons were made with a similar study in which U.S. data were used for 1958 events. Approximately 60 percent of all the 1977 deaths in upstate New York occurred in hospitals; only 27 percent occurred outside an institution. The location of death varied by all the factors studied. Within all age categories, males had a higher percentage of hospital deaths. In those age categories in which nursing home deaths comprised a significant proportion of total deaths, females had a higher percentage of such deaths than males. Differences in the location of death according to its cause reflect the nature of the cause of death, for example, whether it was of sudden onset or the result of chronic disease. Most people do not consider in advance where they might die. The idea that age, sex, and marital status, as well as the more obvious cause, all play a part in the location may seem surprising. Yet all these factors were found to be associated withe location of deaths in upstate New York, and there is no reason to believe that this association does not hold true for the entire nation. More research, however, needs to be done based on more years and other geographic artal stutus may be instructive as to the present state of health resources. PMID:515338

  5. People who live in green houses.

    PubMed

    Stetson, M

    1991-01-01

    This article examines the struggle between developed and developing countries when it comes to reducing energy consumption and limit carbon emissions, necessary steps for averting global warming. Negotiators from across the world have begun discussing the issue, hoping to come to an agreement by next June, when the UN Conference on Environment and Development will meet in Brazil. Disagreement centers around the question of who is responsible for the greenhouse effect and who will pay to fix the problem. The report discusses energy consumption and its effects, the cost of producing energy, and possible ways of eliminating energy waste -- especially as it relates to the 3rd world. Currently, the industrialized world (along with the USSR and Eastern Europe) account for 70% of all carbon emissions from fossil fuel consumption. Experts predict, however, that by the year 2025, the 3rd World will surpass the industrialized world in fossil fuel consumption. The author emphasizes the difference in energy use between the 2 regions: while people in developing countries burn wood and biomass to take care of basic necessities, much of the consumption in the developed world to goes towards luxuries and amenities. Inefficient power plants waste much of the energy consumed in the 3rd World. Although hundreds of billions of dollars could be saved annually by introducing energy-saving devices, skewed international lending, underpriced electricity, and the vested interests of the 3rd World industries work against such measures. The author explains that the technology necessary to significantly reduced carbon emissions already exists. Furthermore, 3rd World countries and most industrialized nations (with the exception of the US and the USSR) have agreed on the need to reduce carbon emissions.

  6. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  7. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  8. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  9. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  10. a Billion Years of Steady-State Crustal Growth; the 1.9-0.9 GA Evolution of SW Fennoscandia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagstad, T.; Roberts, N. M.; Andersen, T.; Sauer, S.; Røhr, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    continent-continent collision, but has more recently been placed in the context of orogenesis within an accretionary orogen. Either way, the 1.02-0.98 Ga period was an extensive compressional phase that saw the final accretion and stabilization of all existing fragments of this margin. An extensional phase resumed after 0.96 Ga, and subduction either ceased altogether or jumped outboard again. This billion year period features steady-state crustal growth for much of it. Variations in trench-continent movement (tectonic switching) produce periods of more crustal reworking alternating with periods of greater juvenile addition; alternating compressional and extensional environments stabilize as well as produce arc-derived continental crust. The preserved record, however, is not representative of the crust produced; whereas the dominantly extensional period has produced a large expanse of crust that is partially preserved, a dominantly compressional environment removed crust to the mantle. Although a full continent-continent collision may not have occurred, the regional geodynamics, possibly related to Rodinia formation, have biased the preserved record of crustal growth. Our model supports the concept of steady-state crustal growth, and preservation bias that leaves an episodic record.

  11. Recrystallized Granite Surface Fissures Of The Wasatch Range, Produced Not Later Than 1/4 Billion Years Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.

    2000-05-01

    Our studies of numerous recrystallized fissures in 4 granite plutons of Wasatch Range, namely, Mount Tuscarora-Wolverine-Millicent,^1,6,7 Bonanza Peak-Midway,^2 Little Cottonwood Canyon and Ferguson Canyon plutons, all of which formed magma chambers reaching Earth-atmosphere interface, establish that they resulted from high thermal gradients rather than passages of earthquake waves. Magma chambers formed, solidified during Permo-Caroniferous Ice Age(roughly, 1/3...1/4 billion yr ago, a time interval preceding period of extrusion of Rocky Mountains, 10^8 yr ago), and while fluid, belched lava flows^5 extending over its reservoir walls to run hundred of meters. We have shown how the magma melts, dilutes and replaces overlying metamorphic rock^7 to reach Earth's surface so that a pluton containing large amounts of dross(Fe-ores, etc.) had a short fluid lifetime. We also described how offshoots from a long-running main fissure form acute angles with that fissure.^3 Such recrystallized fissures, reaching depths of perhaps 100 m, have initial fractures near time of solidification of their uppermost portion of magma chamber while still hot(<= 1600^oF), a time when max. stresses occur near granite surface due to high thermal gradients, owing to snow coverage, cold water contacts due to rain, stream flow over granite surface, partial coverage by ocean, etc., wherever heat sinks might occur, during P-C ice age--when region of Wasatch Range existed at sea level, Salt Lake Valley being covered entirely by ocean water and region east of Wasatch Bouleuard rising gently above Pacific Ocean to elevations of possibly 500-1000 ft, say, at a distance of 10-15 mi to east. This fact is implied by Chinese Wall of white limestone on Grandeur Peak, unequivocally, and similarly another in Neff's Canyon running e. from n. ridge of 9200 ft. saddle-summit, as well as a dozen other ancient calcified stream beds emptying into ocean to w., in Salt Lake Valley. This existed prior to regional

  12. Biomass as Feedstock for a Bioenergy and Bioproducts Industry: The Technical Feasibility of a Billion-Ton Annual Supply, April 2005

    SciTech Connect

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine whether the land resources of the United States are capable of producing a sustainable supply of biomass sufficient to displace 30 percent or more of the country’s present petroleum consumption – the goal set by the Biomass R&D Technical Advisory Committee in their vision for biomass technologies. Accomplishing this goal would require approximately 1 billion dry tons of biomass feedstock per year.

  13. Flood of April 2-3, 2005, Esopus Creek Basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.

    2007-01-01

    On April 2-3, 2005, heavy rain moved into southern New York and delivered rainfall amounts that ranged from about 2 in. to almost 6 in. within a 36-hour period. Significant flooding occurred on many small streams and tributaries in the area, and extensive flooding occurred on the Esopus and Roundout Creeks in Ulster and Greene Counties, New York. The flooding damaged many homes, caused millions of dollars worth of damage, and forced hundreds of residents to evacuate their homes. A total of 20 New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas. Disaster recovery assistance for those people affected stands at almost $35 million, according to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as more than 3,400 New Yorkers registered for Federal aid. U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Esopus Creek above the Ashokan Reservoir at Allaben, N.Y., and below the Ashokan Reservoir at Mount Marion, N.Y., each recorded a new record maximum water-surface elevation and discharge for the respective periods of record as a result of this storm. The peak water-surface elevation and discharge recorded during the April 2-3, 2005, storm at the U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging station on the Esopus Creek at Cold Brook, N.Y. were the third highest elevation and discharge since the station was put into operation in 1914. Most of the study sites along the Esopus Creek indicated water-surface elevations near the 50-year flood elevations, as documented in flood-insurance studies by the Federal Emergency Management Agency.

  14. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  15. Healthy Places for Healthy People

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the Healthy Places for Healthy People technical assistance program that helps communities create walkable, healthy, economically vibrant places by engaging with local health care facility partners

  16. The People Make the Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the etiology of organizational behavior, based on theory and research from interactional psychology, vocational psychology, industrial/organizational psychology, and organizational theory. Proposes that organizations are functions of the kinds of people they contain and that the people there are functions of…

  17. Effective Communication with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  18. What Do Happy People Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, John P.; Martin, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Little attention in the quality-of-life literature has been paid to data on the daily activity patterns of happy and less happy people. Using ratings-scale information from time-diary studies, this article examines the hypothesis that people who describe themselves as happier engage in certain activities more than those who describe themselves as…

  19. Young People and Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  20. Leading Work with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Roger, Ed.; Benjamin, Cathy, Ed.; Curran, Sheila, Ed.; Hunter, Rob, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Leading Work with Young People" provides a selection of writing from a complex and dynamic field of work. The editors bring together key readings and newly commissioned material to present a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives on leading and managing work with young people. The book will equip students with the knowledge, skills,…

  1. Racially Mixed People in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Root, Maria P. P., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive look at the social and psychological adjustment of multiracial people, models for identity development, contemporary immigration and marriage patterns, and methodological issues involved in conducting research with mixed-race people, all in the context of America's multiracial past and present. The following 26…

  2. Employment and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue offers six articles on employment of people with disabilities. "Employment and People with Disabilities: Challenges for the Nineties" (Frank Bowe) discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, issues in unemployment and under-education, earnings, and implications for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative…

  3. Information Technology and Indigenous People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Laurel, Ed.; Hendriks, Max, Ed.; Grant, Stephen, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    Information Technology and Indigenous People provides theoretical and empirical information related to the planning and execution of IT projects aimed at serving indigenous people. It explores many cultural concerns with IT implementation, including language issues and questions of cultural appropriateness, and brings together cutting-edge…

  4. People-Centered Community Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, John Michael; Angulo, Julio

    1990-01-01

    Criticisms of rational synoptic planning are that it is elitist, simplistic, and supportive of existing power relationships. An alternative, people-centered community planning, views the population to be studied as ideological and historical beings, uses knowledge of and by the people as a base, requires interpersonal as well as analytical skills,…

  5. Young Peoples' Ideas of Infinity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaghan, John

    2001-01-01

    Considers young peoples' views of infinity prior to instruction in the methods mathematicians use in addressing the subject of infinity. Presents a partially historical account of studies examining young peoples' ideas of infinity. Four sections address potential pitfalls for research in this area and the work of Piaget, issues concerning the…

  6. How People Really Detect Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hee Sun; Levine, Timothy R.; McCornack, Steven A.; Morrison, Kelly; Ferrara, Merissa

    2002-01-01

    Considers that participants in previous deception detection experiments may not have had access to the types of information people most often use to detect real-life lies. Suggests that people most often rely on information from third parties and physical evidence when detecting lies, and that the detection of a lie is a process that takes days,…

  7. How Do People Get AIDS?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness How Do People Get AIDS? KidsHealth > For Teens > How Do People Get AIDS? Print A A A en español ¿Cómo contrae alguien el SIDA? AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome , a disease that ...

  8. Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, Frances; Cavalazzi, Barbara; Lemelle, Laurence; Marrochhi, Yves; Rouzaud, Jean-Noel; Simionovici, Alexandre; Andreazza, Caroline; Foucher, Frédéric; Thiel, Volker; Hofmann, Axel

    2010-05-01

    Exceptional preservation of aragonite in a circa 3.3 billion year old microbial mat from the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa Frances Westall, Barbara Cavalazzi, Laurence Lemelle, Yves Marrocchi, Jean-Noël Rouzaud, Alexandre Simionovici, Murielle Salomé, Smail Mostefaoui, Caroline Andreazza, Frédéric Foucher, Jan Toporski, Andrea Jauss, Volker Thiel, Axel Hofmann, Anders Meibom, François Robert Aragonite occurs as a biologically-formed mineral precipitate within modern calcifying microbial mats. It is, however, rarely preserved in the geological record because, as one of the least stable polymorphs of calcium carbonate, it readily converts to calcite in present environmental conditions at the Earth's surface. In an in situ investigation at the micro- to nanometer-scale, we show that 5-10 nm sized nanocrystals of aragonite are preserved within the organic framework of a partially calcified microbial mat from the ~ 3.3 billion year-old Josefsdal Chert in the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa. Transformation of the aragonite to calcite was blocked by a combination of chemical inhibitors within the crystal lattice, organic molecules coating the nanocrystals and, in particular, to the precocious permeation of the mat by hydrothermal silica. Apart from its exceptional preservation for 3.3 billion years, the identification of aragonite in the Josefsdal microbial mat is the earliest evidence for in situ calcification of a microbial mat. Furthermore, the indications of associated sulphur-reducing bacteria (SRB) activity with calcification strongly support a photosynthetic origin for the mat. This is the most direct evidence for photosynthesis in early Archaean rocks.

  9. People hiring people they can trust. Selecting an architect.

    PubMed

    Luers, J

    1994-01-01

    Julie Luers, F.M.P., vice president, marketing director of Ellerbe Becket Construction Services, writes that hiring a consultant is essentially "buying" people and their skills. She offers tips on how to minimize risks.

  10. Spectroscopy of the helium 2 3S 2 3P transition above 0.01 Tesla application to optical pumping studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtade, E.; Marion, F.; Nacher, P. J.; Tastevin, G.; Dohnalik, T.; Kiersnowski, K.

    2000-08-01

    Optical pumping of helium makes use of the 2 3S-2 3P transition at 1083 nm. We report on a study of this transition in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. Based on these results, an optical method to measure nuclear polarisation in arbitrary field has been developed. Preliminary results on optical pumping at 0.1 T are presented.

  11. Visible light photoredox catalysis: synthesis of indazolo[2,3-a]quinolines from 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chung; Yang, Ding-Yah

    2013-09-20

    The synthesis of indazolo[2,3-a]quinoline derivatives in moderate to good yields from 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines via visible light photoredox catalysis is reported. The reaction involves a novel ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular formation of the N-N bond of the indazole ring.

  12. Anemia in People with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... very small. In some people, transfusion-related circulatory overload (TACO) can happen if blood is given too ... cancer. Help make it a reality. DONATE Cancer Information Cancer Prevention & Detection Cancer Basics Signs & Symptoms of ...

  13. Flu and People with Asthma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and People with Asthma Language: English Español ...

  14. Flu and People with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Video Medscape Podcasts Public Service Announcements (PSAs) Toolkits Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine/Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Flu and People with Diabetes Language: English Español ...

  15. Emojis help young people communicate.

    PubMed

    2016-10-26

    'The use of technology to support communication in therapy is an exciting development, particularly the use of mobile device emojis to help young people express, and practitioners to assess, their mental distress'.

  16. [Crisis intervention with elderly people].

    PubMed

    Etzersdorfer, E

    2008-02-01

    This paper gives an overview about the most important aspects of crisis intervention, with special emphasis on crisis intervention with elderly people. First a review of the development of crisis intervention is given, including of some of the major concepts, with particular emphasis on psychoanalytic aspects of crisis intervention. Then a clinical case example of a crisis intervention with an elderly woman following a suicide attempt is given and discussed. The focus lies on the description of the transference-countertransference relationship, with attempts of pressing the therapist to comply with superficial, denying and minimizing fantasies. Peculiarities of crisis intervention with elderly people are highlighted: it is necessary to emphasize that elderly people are underrepresented in most crisis services, whereby they represent the group with the highest suicide risk. Peculiarities of elderly people still are not sufficiently met and they are created by a particularly wide range of aspects.

  17. Animals: Disease Risks for People

    MedlinePlus

    ... borne diseases such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. People can also become infected with ... borne diseases such as ehrlichiosis, babesiosis, Lyme disease , Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever and others. The symptoms caused by these diseases ...

  18. Astronomical Activities with Disabled People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Amelia Ortiz

    With this contribution we would like to share our experiences in organizing astronomical activities addressed to people with disabilities. The goal is twofold: we would like to invite all those with similar experiences to contribute to the compilation of a document to guide other astronomers who might be interested in carrying out these kind of activities aimed at groups of people with special needs. We also want to persuade public outreach officers that working with disabled people is not as difficult as it may seem at first, as long as they are provided with adequate educational material and guidelines about how to do it. The final goal is to build a repository that can be used by educators and public outreach officers as a guide when working with disabled people, specially during the International Year of Astronomy.

  19. Fire fatalities in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Elder, A T; Squires, T; Busuttil, A

    1996-05-01

    Fatal dwelling-house fires account for 10% of all accidental deaths in the United Kingdom with one-quarter of the deaths being of elderly people. No study had described the characteristics of elderly individuals who die in fires. We report results from a retrospective review of all fatal dwelling-house fires in Scotland from 1980 to 1990. Of 1096 people dying in fires, 243 (23%) were aged over 75. When compared with patients under the age of 75, older patients were significantly less likely to be smokers. Significantly more fires killing elderly people were caused by faulty or misused electrical items in the house, particularly electric blankets. These differences between elderly and younger individuals dying in dwelling-house fires may suggest that preventive strategies for the elderly population require a different emphasis from those for younger people.

  20. Microbially Induced Sedimentary Structures Recording an Ancient Ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 Billion-Year-Old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago. Key Words: Archean—Biofilms—Microbial mats—Early Earth—Evolution. Astrobiology 13, 1103–1124. PMID:24205812

  1. Microbially induced sedimentary structures recording an ancient ecosystem in the ca. 3.48 billion-year-old Dresser Formation, Pilbara, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Noffke, Nora; Christian, Daniel; Wacey, David; Hazen, Robert M

    2013-12-01

    Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) result from the response of microbial mats to physical sediment dynamics. MISS are cosmopolitan and found in many modern environments, including shelves, tidal flats, lagoons, riverine shores, lakes, interdune areas, and sabkhas. The structures record highly diverse communities of microbial mats and have been reported from numerous intervals in the geological record up to 3.2 billion years (Ga) old. This contribution describes a suite of MISS from some of the oldest well-preserved sedimentary rocks in the geological record, the early Archean (ca. 3.48 Ga) Dresser Formation, Western Australia. Outcrop mapping at the meter to millimeter scale defined five sub-environments characteristic of an ancient coastal sabkha. These sub-environments contain associations of distinct macroscopic and microscopic MISS. Macroscopic MISS include polygonal oscillation cracks and gas domes, erosional remnants and pockets, and mat chips. Microscopic MISS comprise tufts, sinoidal structures, and laminae fabrics; the microscopic laminae are composed of primary carbonaceous matter, pyrite, and hematite, plus trapped and bound grains. Identical suites of MISS occur in equivalent environmental settings through the entire subsequent history of Earth including the present time. This work extends the geological record of MISS by almost 300 million years. Complex mat-forming microbial communities likely existed almost 3.5 billion years ago.

  2. An efficient and comprehensive method for drainage network extraction from DEM with billions of pixels using a size-balanced binary search tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Rui; Li, Tiejian; Huang, Yuefei; Li, Jiaye; Wang, Guangqian

    2015-06-01

    With the increasing resolution of digital elevation models (DEMs), computational efficiency problems have been encountered when extracting the drainage network of a large river basin at billion-pixel scales. The efficiency of the most time-consuming depression-filling pretreatment has been improved by using the O(NlogN) complexity least-cost path search method, but the complete extraction steps following this method have not been proposed and tested. In this paper, an improved O(NlogN) algorithm was proposed by introducing a size-balanced binary search tree (BST) to improve the efficiency of the depression-filling pretreatment further. The following extraction steps, including the flow direction determination and the upslope area accumulation, were also redesigned to benefit from this improvement. Therefore, an efficient and comprehensive method was developed. The method was tested to extract drainage networks of 31 river basins with areas greater than 500,000 km2 from the 30-m-resolution ASTER GDEM and two sub-basins with areas of approximately 1000 km2 from the 1-m-resolution airborne LiDAR DEM. Complete drainage networks with both vector features and topographic parameters were obtained with time consumptions in O(NlogN) complexity. The results indicate that the developed method can be used to extract entire drainage networks from DEMs with billions of pixels with high efficiency.

  3. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  4. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  5. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  6. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  15. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  16. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 45 CFR 2.3 - Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.3 Policy on Presentation...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  6. Microbial hydroxylation of o-bromophenylacetic acid: synthesis of 4-substituted-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Prashant P; Nanduri, Venkata B; Pullockaran, Annie; Christie, Hamish; Mueller, Richard H; Patel, Ramesh N

    2008-08-01

    Microbial hydroxylation of o-bromophenylacetic acid provided 2-bromo-5-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. This enabled a route to the key intermediate 4-bromo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran for synthesizing a melatonin receptor agonist and sodium hydrogen exchange compounds. Pd-mediated coupling reactions of 4-bromo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran provided easy access to the 4-substituted-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

  7. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  8. BIOACCUMULATION FACTORS AND INTAKE OF 2,3,7,8-POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS IN THE DOMESTIC CHICKEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most commercially valuable farm animals in the United States is the domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus). Rapidly reared in controlled, intensive environments, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated the production of these animals exceeded eight billion in ...

  9. Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-20

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.

  10. Valuing people: health visiting and people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Scott; Berry, Liz

    2006-02-01

    People with a learning disability have spent decades being excluded from mainstream society and remain almost invisible in our communities, workplaces and in family life. As a result, the health of people with a learning disability is significantly poorer than that of the general population. Despite the many reports and policy recommendations about how to improve the situation, little has been done to address the social exclusion of this group, and their health and wellbeing continue to decline. In a joint effort to challenge exclusion and address the agenda of 'Valuing People: A New Strategy for Learning Disability for the 21st Century', Warrington Primary Care Trust and Five Boroughs Partnership NHS Trust joined forces at a practical level. Two health visitors have developed a comprehensive programme of socially inclusive health care aimed at engaging people with learning disabilities more fully in their health care and their choices in leading healthy lives. The paper discusses Access All Areas--a comprehensive programme using a public health model of health care where people with learning disabilities are being supported to make healthy choices and, often for the first time, given information in accessible formats to support those choices. Led by health visitors, staff from all agencies involved in the care and support of people with learning disabilities are being trained and engaged in order to raise the standards across organisations and prioritise the health and wellbeing of this marginalised group. Health visitors are leading locally in the implementation of both health improvement and long-term condition strategies.

  11. ICT Interface Design for Ageing People and People with Dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Jonathan; Mulvenna, Maurice D.; Martin, Suzanne; Stephens, Sharon; Burns, William

    Ageing population trends, rising healthcare costs and social and digital inclusion are all factors in the background to the problem of older adults interacting with technology. Approaches to address "physical accessibility" and "access to technology" issues, as well as training for existing systems are evident, yet a usability issue still prevails. The primary aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the research and literature and discuss the differing contexts in which older people and people with dementia interact with computerised systems and their associated issues.

  12. Structural basis of Arp2/3 complex inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Olga S.; Chemeris, Angelina; Guo, Siyang; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Gandhi, Meghal; Padrick, Shae; Pechnikova, Evgeniya; David, Violaine; Gautreau, Alexis; Goode, Bruce L.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex plays a central role in nucleating the branched actin filament arrays that drive cell migration, endocytosis, and other processes. To better understand Arp2/3 complex regulation, we used single particle electron microscopy to compare the structures of Arp2/3 complex bound to three different inhibitory ligands: GMF, Coronin, and Arpin. Although the three inhibitors have distinct binding sites on Arp2/3 complex, they each induced an ‘open’ nucleation-inactive conformation. Coronin promoted a standard (previously described) open conformation of Arp2/3 complex, with the N-terminal β-propeller domain of Coronin positioned near the p35/ARPC2 subunit of Arp2/3 complex. GMF induced two distinct open conformations of Arp2/3 complex, which correlated with two suggested binding sites for GMF. Further, GMF synergized with Coronin in inhibiting actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. Arpin, which uses VCA-related acidic (A) motifs to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Further, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF. Together, these data suggest that Arp2/3 complex conformation is highly polymorphic and that its activities can be controlled combinatorially by different inhibitory ligands. PMID:27939292

  13. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Ye-Gi; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a work horse for production of valuable biofuels and biochemicals including 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), a platform chemical with wide industrial applications for synthetic rubber, biosolvents and food additives. Recently, a cutting-edge technology of metabolic engineering has enabled S. cerevisiae to produce 2,3-BDO with high yield and productivity. These include (i) amplification of the 2,3-BDO biosynthetic pathway, (ii) redirection of carbon flux from ethanol or glycerol toward 2,3-BDO, and (iii) 2,3-BDO production from sugars derived from renewable biomass. These breakthroughs enforced S. cerevisiae to become a promising microbial host for production of 2,3-BDO.

  14. Engineering Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2, 3-butanediol production through insertional inactivation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Du, Jun; Li, Shuang

    2010-02-01

    Ethanol was a major byproduct of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) fermentation by Klebsiella oxytoca ME-UD-3. In order to achieve a high efficiency of 2,3-BD production, K. oxytoca mutants deficient in ethanol formation were successfully constructed by replace the aldA gene coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase with a tetracycline resistance cassette. The results suggested that inactivation of aldA led to a significantly improved 2,3-BD production. The carbon flux to 2,3-BD was enhanced by eliminating the byproducing ethanol and at the same time reducing the accumulation of another byproduct acetoin. At last, by fed-batch culturing of the mutant, the final 2,3-BD titer up to 130 g/l with the productivity of 1.63 g/l.h and the 2,3-BD yield relative to glucose of 0.48 g/g was obtained.

  15. Condensed imidazo-1,2,4-azines. 15. Reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglenko, V.P.; Gnidets, V.P.; Klyuev, N.A.; Povstyanoi, M.V.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione in acetic acid gave a mixture of 2-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino (2,3-..cap alpha..)-benzimidazol-4H-3-one and 3-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazol-1H-2-one, the intramolecular cyclization of which gave isomeric 2-phenylfuro-(5,4-e)- and 2-phenylfuro(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazoles. Only the corresponding furo(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazole was isolated when the reaction was carried out in sulfuric acid. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a UR-20 spectrometer. The electronic absorption spectra of solutions in dioxane were obtained with a Specord UV-vis spectrophotometer. The mass spectra were recorded with a Varian MAT-311a spectrometer. The quantum-chemical calculations were made by the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) method with the standard parametrization.

  16. Mental health of deaf people.

    PubMed

    Fellinger, Johannes; Holzinger, Daniel; Pollard, Robert

    2012-03-17

    Deafness is a heterogeneous condition with far-reaching effects on social, emotional, and cognitive development. Onset before language has been established happens in about seven per 10,000 people. Increased rates of mental health problems are reported in deaf people. Many regard themselves as members of a cultural minority who use sign language. In this Review, we describe discrepancies between a high burden of common mental health disorders and barriers to health care. About a quarter of deaf individuals have additional disabilities and a high probability of complex mental health needs. Research into factors affecting mental health of deaf children shows that early access to effective communication with family members and peers is desirable. Improved access to health and mental health care can be achieved by provision of specialist services with professionals trained to directly communicate with deaf people and with sign-language interpreters.

  17. Naomi Shihab Nye: People! People! My Heart Cried Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schliesman, Megan

    1998-01-01

    Noted poet and anthologist Naomi Shihab Nye discusses her books of poetry for young people and her work with students to help them find their own poetic voices. Nye's poetry anthologies are appropriate for elementary, middle-school, and high-school students. Fundamental themes are crossing boundaries and making connections to help young readers…

  18. Growth of consumer-directed health plans to one-half of all employer-sponsored insurance could save $57 billion annually.

    PubMed

    Haviland, Amelia M; Marquis, M Susan; McDevitt, Roland D; Sood, Neeraj

    2012-05-01

    Enrollment is increasing in consumer-directed health insurance plans, which feature high deductibles and a personal health care savings account. We project that an increase in market share of these plans--from the current level of 13 percent of employer-sponsored insurance to 50 percent--could reduce annual health care spending by about $57 billion. That decrease would be the equivalent of a 4 percent decline in total health care spending for the nonelderly. However, such growth in consumer-directed plan enrollment also has the potential to reduce the use of recommended health care services, as well as to increase premiums for traditional health insurance plans, as healthier individuals drop traditional coverage and enroll in consumer-directed plans. In this article we explore options that policy makers and employers facing these challenges should consider, including more refined plan designs and decision support systems to promote recommended services.

  19. Six climate change-related events in the United States accounted for about $14 billion in lost lives and health costs.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, Kim; Rotkin-Ellman, Miriam; Geballe, Linda; Max, Wendy; Solomon, Gina M

    2011-11-01

    The future health costs associated with predicted climate change-related events such as hurricanes, heat waves, and floods are projected to be enormous. This article estimates the health costs associated with six climate change-related events that struck the United States between 2000 and 2009. The six case studies came from categories of climate change-related events projected to worsen with continued global warming-ozone pollution, heat waves, hurricanes, infectious disease outbreaks, river flooding, and wildfires. We estimate that the health costs exceeded $14 billion, with 95 percent due to the value of lives lost prematurely. Actual health care costs were an estimated $740 million. This reflects more than 760,000 encounters with the health care system. Our analysis provides scientists and policy makers with a methodology to use in estimating future health costs related to climate change and highlights the growing need for public health preparedness.

  20. Utilizing artificial neural networks in MATLAB to achieve parts-per-billion mass measurement accuracy with a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Williams, D Keith; Kovach, Alexander L; Muddiman, David C; Hanck, Kenneth W

    2009-07-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry has the ability to realize exceptional mass measurement accuracy (MMA); MMA is one of the most significant attributes of mass spectrometric measurements as it affords extraordinary molecular specificity. However, due to space-charge effects, the achievable MMA significantly depends on the total number of ions trapped in the ICR cell for a particular measurement, as well as relative ion abundance of a given species. Artificial neural network calibration in conjunction with automatic gain control (AGC) is utilized in these experiments to formally account for the differences in total ion population in the ICR cell between the external calibration spectra and experimental spectra. In addition, artificial neural network calibration is used to account for both differences in total ion population in the ICR cell as well as relative ion abundance of a given species, which also affords mean MMA values at the parts-per-billion level.

  1. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241. PMID:26753612

  2. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-12

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241.

  3. 2,3-butanediol production from cellobiose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hong; Seo, Seung-Oh; Oh, Eun Joong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2014-06-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass is a critical step towards energy sustainability and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Microbial cells have been engineered for producing chemicals from cellulosic sugars. Among these chemicals, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a compound of interest due to its diverse applications. While microbial production of 2,3-BDO with high yields and productivities has been reported, there are concerns associated with utilization of potential pathogenic bacteria and inefficient utilization of cellulosic sugars. To address these problems, we engineered 2,3-BDO production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially from cellobiose, a prevalent sugar in cellulosic hydrolysates. Specifically, we overexpressed alsS and alsD from Bacillus subtilis to convert pyruvate into 2,3-BDO via α-acetolactate and acetoin in an engineered cellobiose fermenting S. cerevisiae. Under oxygen-limited conditions, the resulting strain was able to produce 2,3-BDO. Still, major carbon flux went to ethanol, resulting in substantial amounts of ethanol produced as a byproduct. To enhance pyruvate flux to 2,3-BDO through elimination of the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction, we employed a deletion mutant of both PDC1 and PDC5 for producing 2,3-BDO. When a cellobiose utilization pathway, consisting of a cellobiose transporter and intracellular β-glucosidase, and the 2,3-BDO producing pathway were introduced in a pyruvate decarboxylase deletion mutant, the resulting strain produced 2,3-BDO without ethanol production from cellobiose under oxygen-limited conditions. A titer of 5.29 g/l 2,3-BDO with a productivity of 0.22 g/l h and yield of 0.29 g 2,3-BDO/g cellobiose was attained. These results suggest the possibility of producing 2,3-BDO safely and sustainably from cellulosic hydrolysates.

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-05-01

    INTERVIEW Interview: How Google conquered the sky Carol Christian and Alberto Conti work at the Space Telescope Science Institute (the home of Hubble) in Baltimore and co-created Sky in Google Earth. David Smith spoke to them between stage appearances at Astrofest

  5. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education ON THE MAP (160) Greenhead College: getting great A-level results Kerry Parker PERSONALITY (161) Physics, sex and politics Lynda Williams, the Physics Chanteuse TEACHING ANECDOTES (163) Yuri Gagarin

  6. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-09-01

    INTERVIEW Water equals life, or does it? Philippe Blondel works in remote sensing, sonar imaging and marine geology. He is currently a senior scientist at the University of Bath's Department of Physics. David Smith spoke to him about water and life on Mars.

  7. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    INTERVIEW Lightning strikes in Boston Michael Alexander, the director of public programs at the Boston Museum of Science, talks to David Smith about how to deal with issues and subjects that are difficult to present using more traditional museum methods.

  8. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    WORLD YEAR OF PHYSICS Around the world with physics Stuart Farmer; Leopold Mathelitsch; Rita Wodzinski and Michael Vollmer; Finn Ingebretsen; Mojca Cepic, Gorazd Planinsic and Mirko Cvahte; Ann-Marie Pendrill; Rajka Jurdana-Sepic INTERVIEW Close encounters of the cosmic kind David Smith talks to Frank Close BIOGRAPHIES Meet Physics Education’s family Steven Chapman and Andrea Pomroy

  9. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that takes me to where I am now in my first year at the Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute of the Open University in Milton Keynes. If everything goes according to plan, three years later I will be Dr Bentley and know a whole lot more about Mercury! So what am I now? A physicist at heart, but I guess 'planetary scientist' is more accurate... The great thing about studying the planets is that the field can be stretched to encompass just about any aspect of science you care to choose from biology, through engineering, to physics and more. Planetary science fits well with the modern 'trend' for multidisciplinary research as well as being on the leading edge of modern science, and one of the most international areas of study. In studying our solar system we aim to learn more about the processes that formed the planets and ultimately life itself. For the foreseeable future the nine major bodies and their associated moons are our only glimpse back in time to the early life of our corner of the Universe. Over the past few decades, a relatively short period of time, we have expanded our understanding of the planets by orders of magnitude. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have enabled more and more detailed images of both the near and far, whilst robotic space probes have extended scientists' senses to the far corners of the solar system. The two least studied planets lie at the two extreme ends of our system. Pluto sits at the outer edges of the solar system, a small icy ball that astronomers even argue about calling a planet. Mercury, messenger of the Gods, is a relative inferno, closer to the Sun than any other body. Mercury is not an easy target for spacecraft. Tucked deep in the Sun's gravitational well, any mission must lose about 60% of its orbital energy in order to match Mercury's orbit. The only spacecraft to visit Mercury to date was Mariner 10, a NASA mission flown in the mid-70s. It had far too much energy to enter orbit and could just make several quick passes, leaving an incomplete image of only half of the planet. This, and observations made from Earth, provide almost all of our knowledge of Mercury. Earth observations, however, are hampered by the planet's proximity to the Sun, making observations possible only at dawn and dusk. A mosaic of images of Mercury from the NASA Mariner 10 spacecraft. ©NASA In the mid-80s improved radar equipment allowed high resolution mapping of surface features from the Earth. Amongst the results were two tantalising mysteries: a large dome feature, similar in some ways to shield volcanoes seen on Mars, observed on the unimaged side of the planet and complex scattering of returned radar from distinct areas around the poles, suggesting that water ice may exist in craters there. Both NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA) are now planning missions to Mercury. The US team are using a newly discovered trajectory that will allow them to reach Mercury using traditional chemical propulsion, incorporating various planetary flybys so-called 'gravity assist' manoeuvres. The European team, on the other hand, has proposed a much more complex mission. In order to get to Mercury, ESA have adopted a novel technology knows as 'solar electric propulsion' (SEP). The basic principle is that electrical energy is produced using solar cells, and this is used to accelerate ions of gas, producing a continuous, if low thrust. The upshot is that the mission is much less constrained by the alignment of the planets and other trajectory concerns and can complete the journey in only two and a half years. BepiColombo, ESA's Mercury mission, will actually consist of three spacecraft! The planetary orbiter will stay close to Mercury and perform remote sensing and mapping of the surface environment. The magnetospheric orbiter, now going to be built by the Institute for Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in Japan, will fly in a highly eccentric orbit that takes it from within a few hundred kilometres of the surface to a distance of several planetary radii. This means it will fly in and out of the magnetosphere, the magnetic 'bubble' formed by interaction of the planetary magnetic field with the solar wind. The third and final element is termed the 'MSE' the Mercury Surface Element, or in plain terms a lander, and this is where my research comes in. There is only so much that remote observation can tell us about a planet. The only true way of verifying what we are seeing is to literally go and 'dig the dirt'. The lander on BepiColombo is designed to do just that, using inflated airbags to cushion its descent to the surface. This 'soft landing' will take place in the polar regions of Mercury, where the surface temperature is moderate—between -50 and +70 °C at the sub-solar point at Mercury's closest approach to the Sun the temperature can reach over 400 °C! It is the potential for making these surface measurements that forms my PhD research. There are a whole series of fundamental questions that scientists would like to answer about Mercury. For example: why is the planet much denser than the other 'terrestrial' bodies? And how has such a small planet got a magnetic field? The answers to these questions need data from several complementary sources. The first step is to identify the science goals, then look at what measurements could be made to resolve or constrain these questions, and finally consider the physics of obtaining this data. My project focuses on the surface and sub-surface material on the planet. The surface of Mercury, like the Moon, has been shaped by the impacts upon it and this is still very much in evidence from images of the planet. Craters of many different sizes are evident over most of the surface. These impacts also break up rocks on the surface and produce a finer distribution of particles, known as regolith. The stratigraphy of this material can therefore tell us something about the change in impact environment over time. A conceptual design of the BepiColombo Mercury Surface Element (lander) ©ESA. Conceptual image of the BepiColombo spacecraft at Mercury ©ESA. As well as being interesting in its own right, the regolith also interacts with almost all other aspects of the Mercurian environment. By analysing the regolith we will be able to find out about Mercury's thin atmosphere and also (because the magnetosphere affects the amount of solar wind hitting the planet's surface) changes in the magnetosphere. Planets like the Earth and Jupiter rely on an electrically conductive ionosphere to close the current systems generated by the magnetosphere. Some researchers believe that on Mercury these currents could flow through, or very close to, the surface itself! Designing and building instruments to work in an environment like the surface of Mercury is one of the major challenges I face. Not only must they be capable of surviving extremes of temperature and vibration they must also be small enough to fit into a total lander payload mass of just 7 kg and complete their investigations within the one week expected lifetime of the MSE. In order to take measurements in more than one place, the lander must be equipped with some limited form of mobility. A 'micro-rover' will be carried and deployed after landing, a miniature tracked vehicle that will carry instruments (probably an alpha x-ray spectrometer) to specific target rocks and areas around the lander. To keep things simple the rover will be physically and electronically connected to the lander by a flexible tether. The lander will also carry a 'mole', a slender cylinder (currently being developed for the Beagle-2 Mars lander) with an internal hammering mechanism. Once pushed into the top layer of soil the mole will be able to drive itself down, pushing aside or breaking small rocks, to a depth of several metres, taking measurements as it goes. Over the past few months we have been studying some of the instruments which could be carried by the mole. Concentrating on just one of these it is easy to see how quickly you run into problems! If the MSE lands near the poles, one of the most fascinating activities would be to look for evidence of water ice. In recent years researchers looking at life on the Earth have shown that if water is present, even in the most inhospitable of environments, life often finds a way to survive. The possibility of water on any planet is therefore an exciting prospect! One possible way to look for ice either at or near the surface is to extract a sample using the mole as it penetrates the regolith, heat it at a constant rate and record the amount of energy used to maintain that rate. This technique, differential scanning calorimetry, can observe phase changes in materials and so help to identify them. The technical challenges of performing even this simplistic analysis task are quite daunting. We have to design and build a sample acquisition mechanism that can withstand launch and landing and work at extreme temperatures, heat a sample down a borehole and reject excess heat and the electronics must fit into a 2 cm diameter by 50 cm long mole. So although BepiColombo will not launch until 2009 and will not arrive at Mercury until 2012, there's more than enough work to keep me busy until then!

  10. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-05-01

    Featuring relationships, personalities, interactions, environments and reputations involved in physics and education ON THE MAP (264) Kharkiv National University of Radioelectronics, Ukraine Kerry Parker STARTING OUT (265) Preparation, preparation, preparation Steven Chapman TEACHING ANECDOTES (266) Lise Meitner PERSONALITY (267) The Accidental Astronomer Kerry Parker talks to Marie Radbo, Astronomer

  11. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    INTERVIEW Dedicated to Galileo's legacy In 2009 the world will celebrate the International Year of Astronomy to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Galileo's use of a telescope to study the night sky. Galileo scholar Thomas B Settle, guest at the Institute and Museum of the History of Science in Florence, talks to David Smith about the Tuscan hero.

  12. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    How and why we teach An interview with Mick Nott conducted by David Sang Mick Nott teaches at Sheffield Hallam University. He is editor of School Science Review, and over the last three years he has been organizing a website, book and display for the ASE's Science Teacher Festival. Mick Nott You studied Logic with Physics as your undergraduate degree course, at Sussex, at the end of the 1960s. Wasn't this a rather unusual choice? At school, I loved chemistry, particularly physical chemistry. However, physical chemistry didn't love me when I studied it at university. I grew resentful of the demands made on me with the overcrowded morning lecture programme that was mainly a board-copying exercise and the afternoon hours of labs. I felt stifled; there didn't seem to be any space to express oneself. I wanted a course that allowed me some freedom of thought. So in the summer of 1969 I transferred to the Logic with Physics course. Alongside our 'straight' physics we studied the history of topics like atomic and quantum theory, thermodynamics, mechanics from the Greeks to the Newtonian synthesis and we also had a couple of units in the sociology of science. Amongst the set texts of our first class in the summer of 1969 was Thomas Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Now well worn with its cover repaired by sticky tape, it still rests on my bookshelves. Reading Kuhn, I understood why I had been dissatisfied with my chemistry course. If I wanted to make it in chemistry I was going to have to conform to thinking exactly like all the other chemists. That wasn't for me. What attracted you into teaching? And where did you teach? I think it was a vocation in that, from the age of 15, I could imagine myself in the role and it was a job I could 'see' myself doing. Now thinking back I suppose it was an obvious way in which a working class child could transcend class barriers. I did my postgraduate teacher training at Sussex because it was assessed by coursework and classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework for broad and balanced science for all to age 16. Did your undergraduate studies influence the way you taught science? I think they made me think critically about my teaching right from the start. Although there was much that I admired in the Nuffield approach, I felt that it was unrealistic to expect pupils to discover the whole of Physics for themselves in the time available! In 1973, 'Learning by discovery' was the slogan. My first lesson on my own was with a class of 32 children and 16 brightly illuminated ripple tanks in a dim laboratory. The pupils' task was to 'discover' that v = fλ. The familiar cry, 'What's supposed to happen, Sir?' arose around the room. At the end, as I removed the crocodile clips the pupils had stuck on my jacket, I had to tell them what the result should have been. Nowadays I am convinced that science has to be taught as well as it has to be learned. I don't go along with the teacher as solely a 'facilitator' of learning and the learning environment. Schooling is an enculturation into ways of thinking and important things to know. Teachers have a responsibility to set an agenda for their pupils, e.g. what is important for pupils to learn, why is it important and how does it contribute pupils' personal and social development as well as their potential development as a scientist. You played a big role in the Secondary Science Curriculum Review (SSCR) in the 1980s. What impact did that experience have on you? The SSCR started off as a democratic experiment, trying to 'hand' science curriculum development to class teachers. I worked for the project as an advisory teacher for a year developing problem-solving as a teaching strategy in lower secondary school science. I think the SSCR was crucial to the successful launching of broad and balanced science and the political battle to establish science as a core subject. Can you still discern the influence of the SSCR in today's National Curriculum? I don't think the present science curriculum is what the SSCR envisaged. However, many projects which were partly products of SSCR have had a profound impact (for example the CLIS project Suffolk Coordinated Science and NEAB Modular Science). I welcomed the inclusion of an attainment target on the nature of science (AT17) in the first version of the National Curriculum but it soon became weakened when the Science National Curriculum was revised. However, I think that some aspects have resurfaced in the new emphasis on ideas and evidence. I was involved in the writing of the Nuffield report, Beyond 2000: Science education for the future, and I think this has had an impact at the policy level, but its suggested strategies were not 'periphery to centre' which was the slogan of the SSCR. At Sheffield Hallam University, you have been involved in initial teacher training and you have also taught on undergraduate physics courses. What are your areas of interest in teaching and research today? I am interested in the history and culture of science education: Why do we teach science in the way we do? What are the roots of today's science curriculum? Knowing what we know about the past, how can we develop things in the future? You are now organizing the Science Teacher Festival, celebrating 100 years of the ASE and its forerunners. What made you think this was worth doing? There is an old saying that if we forget our history, we will be condemned to relive it, and I think it was Marx who said that there is no point in studying your past if you are not going to use it to change the future. Looking back through past decades of School Science Review, Physics Education and other journals, you can see the same arguments arising time and again - for example, can pupils learn their science through discovery/problem-solving/investigations? what methods of assessment match our science teaching objectives? should science be taught as general/integrated/separate sciences? These arguments have been with us throughout the past century and the 'winners' and 'losers' rise and fall! I think that to be a profession, we need to recognize our heritage and tradition. At the moment I get the impression that every year is Year Zero as some 'new' initiative starts. We can learn from the past, and next time we try an idea we should take it further, research it deeper and disseminate it wider than we did before.

  13. Reading Machines for Blind People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fender, Derek H.

    1983-01-01

    Ten stages of developing reading machines for blind people are analyzed: handling of text material; optics; electro-optics; pattern recognition; character recognition; storage; speech synthesizers; browsing and place finding; computer indexing; and other sources of input. Cost considerations of the final product are emphasized. (CL)

  14. Disabled People in Japanese Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kojima, Yoko, Ed.; And Others

    The volume is intended to give readers a glimpse of the day-to-day life of disabled people in Japan. Eight brief papers present life experiences of a mentally retarded preschooler, severely disabled children, a child with muscular dystrophy, a young girl with polio living in the community, visually disabled and recovering mentally ill people…

  15. Functional Literacy in People's Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabušicová, Milada; Oplatková, Pavla

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a qualitative study into the lives of people with inadequate functional literacy skills. The data were collected through a biographical interview with a respondent whose characteristics correspond to those of a hypothetical person likely to exhibit signs of low functional literacy. The characteristics, such as…

  16. Talking about Plants and People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Eden Project in Cornwall sets out to educate about the interdependence of plants and people. Its tropical and Mediterranean biomes are housed in the largest "greenhouses" in the world, which serve as a backdrop to plants that grow in the temperate zones of the world, grown in Eden's outdoor landscape. Eden has aroused worldwide…

  17. People and Places for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Peter C.

    1975-01-01

    There's not enough variety of personnel and activity, not enough movement in and out of schools, and not enough cross-fertilization of people and ideas between the schools and the communities of which they are supposed to be a part. (Author)

  18. Poor People as Environmental Hazards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douw, John

    1979-01-01

    In the United States Court of Appeals decision which ruled against New York City's plan to build 160 units of public housing in its West Side Urban Renewal Area, low income people were viewed as a threat to the environment in the same way as more familiar kinds of hazards protected against by federal environmental law. (Author/EB)

  19. Getting People Back to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Frances L.

    2003-01-01

    Getting people back to work has become a national concern. The nation's economy lost jobs as of July 2003 for six months in a row, dealing another blow to a slow reviving labor market. According to the Labor Department, 486,000 jobs disappeared from the economy. And, the Employment Development Department in California reported a decline of 21,800…

  20. Theme: Pharmacology and Older People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonson, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This theme issue discusses maximizing the benefits and minimizing the risks of drug therapy for older people. It includes articles on psychoactive drugs, drug-related problems, medication compliance, geriatric psychopharmacotherapy, consumer guidelines, and outpatient prescriptions drug coverage as it relates to health care reform. (JOW)

  1. Of people, particles and prejudice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Penny; Greene, Anne; Mears, Matt; Spacecadet1; Green, Christian; Hunt, Devin J.; Berglyd Olsen, Veronica K.; Ilya, Komarov; Pierpont, Elaine; Gillman, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    In reply to Louise Mayor's feature article “Where people and particles collide”, about the experiences of researchers at CERN who are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT), efforts to make LGBT CERN an officially recognized club, and incidents where posters advertising the club have been torn down or defaced (March pp31-36, http://ow.ly/YVP2Z).

  2. Communication Apprehension and People Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Bob

    Assuming that different programs for communication apprehensive/avoidant students attract different types of students according to their needs and apprehension types, a study examined the relationship between communication apprehension (CA) and general people orientations, as measured by the Personal Record of Communication Apprehension-24…

  3. Children's Views of Older People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Sally; Howatson-Jones, Lioba

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide demographic change means that the responsibility for an aging population will fall to younger generations. This narrative literature review comprises an international examination of what has been published about children's views of older people between 1980 and 2011. Sixty-nine academic articles were inductively analyzed, and the…

  4. People Who Work with Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to provide the primary student with an awareness of the numerous careers available to people who want to work with animals and to increase knowledge about and interest in animals. Specific occupational groups on which this unit focuses are those associated with commercial pet establishments, zoos,…

  5. Narratives and Understanding Other People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiski, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Presenting a story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of illness, as well as activating a narrative approach toward this person increased the probability in subjects of helping behaviour?in this case the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukaemia patients or willingness to spend time on soliciting money for other people's…

  6. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm.

  7. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine-triphosphate in cretins living at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Adams, W H

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in the red cells of cretins and normal controls living at 3,700 m in the Nepal Himalayas has shown that 2,3-DPG and ATP levels were higher in the cretins. A negative correlation between hemoglobin and 2.3-DPG level was found. Chronic hypoxia appears to have provided the additional stress required to differentiate the significance of thyroid hormone deficiency in producing anemia from its effect on 2,3-DPG levels. If thyroid hormone is in fact one regulator of 2,3-DPG, the anemia of hypothyroidism appears to be more significant. This also suggest that the anemia of hypothyroidism, is at least in part, "pathologic" as opposed to "adaptive".

  8. The people yet to come; avoiding the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Brown, L R

    1987-01-01

    The demographic trap is defined as the condition where a nation has passed through the process of lowering death rates, but has not been able to lower birth rates before ecological carrying capacity is exceeded. A minimal estimate predicts that by the year 2000, 63 countries, or 1.1 billion people, will be trapped by starvation, dependence on imported food, and resulting economic and political instability. Such a country that failed to complete the demographic transition will fall back to the original stage, of high death as well as birth rates. Most nations in Southeast Asia, Latin America, and Africa are at risk, notably Mexico, India, Nigeria, Ethiopia, because they already have falling living standards coupled with rapid growth rates. Most governments are unaware of the subtle signs that carrying capacity has been exceeded. Even those that are able to understand such events, often practice ineffective policies. For example, the U.S. has dropped U.N.F.P.A. support ostensibly because one nation, China, allowed forced abortions. On the other hand, some third world countries have initiated novel campaigns to reduce births, for example popular media campaigns in Mexico, free dissemination of birth control pills to all women in Brazil, and a separate family planning ministry in Zimbabwe.

  9. Synthesis, antitubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities of 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mojahidul; Siddiqui, Anees A; Rajesh, Ramadoss

    2008-01-01

    A series of 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-ones has been synthesized. An appropriate aromatic hydrocarbon reacts with succinic anhydride in presence of AlCl3 to yield beta-aroyl propionic acid. The corresponding acid was cyclized with hydrazine hydrate to give 6-(substituted aryl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-pyridazinone, which was heated on steam bath with phosphorus(V) oxychloride to yield 3-chloro 6-substituted phenyl pyridazine. This intermediate after reaction with hydrazine hydrate was converted into 3-hydrazino-6-substituted phenyl pyridazine. The resulting product was converted into 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one by reacting with substituted aroyl propionic acid. Spectral data (IR, NMR, mass spectra) confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro antitubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results indicated that the synthesized compounds have mild to potent activities with reference to their appropriate reference standards.

  10. Inhibitory effect of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides on infectivity, cytopathic effects, and replication of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Y; Nakashima, H; Matsui, T; Matsuda, A; Ueda, T; Yamamoto, N

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. In this report, we demonstrate the antiviral effect of nucleoside analogs 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (DHT) and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DHC) by using human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-carrying MT-4 cells, which are extremely susceptible to HIV infection. These agents efficiently inhibited the cytopathic effects and expression of HIV-specific antigens in MT-4 cells after infection of the virus. Both DHT and DHC also strongly blocked viral replication as determined by our quantitative bioassay system using a plaque-forming assay. These antiviral effects were obtained at concentrations at which the drugs produced little or no toxicity and were comparable to those with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. These findings warrant further investigation of the use of DHT and DHC for the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. PMID:3039911

  11. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, F.L.; Raymond, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to a compound of the formula given in the patent wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO[sub 3]H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes. No Drawings

  12. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  16. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  17. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L. [Martinez, CA; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  18. Process for preparing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  19. Social capital from carbon property: creating equity for indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lindsay S; Hanbury-Tenison, Robin; Swingland, Ian R

    2002-08-15

    New incentives for protection and in situ use of forests and the services they provide raise hopes for the reversal of tropical and temperate deforestation. Past management of forests appropriated the rights of forest communities, providing incentives to convert natural forest into financial capital through logging, while destroying the underlying physical property. Carbon trading aims to provide a means to convert the forest property into financial capital, while protecting the physical property of forests, thereby providing new incentives for in situ forest management. The potential for carbon-emission trading as a contributor to these new incentives is tempered by concerns that it is another tool for capitalists to exploit the indigenous communities of the developing world. Estimates of annual emission trading amounting to US $200 billion raise alarm bells about the effect of such trade in the developing world. People are right to be concerned, as the history of exploitation of indigenous people, the appropriation of their rights, the loss of forests and their benefits is well documented. This exploitation resulted in the exclusion of forest communities from the basic tenets for development created by the wealth generated by traded property. However, one virtue of trade is that it can be made subject to constraints. Through international treaties and agreements, trade can be constrained and national governments obliged to observe the rules of trade. The value of tradable carbon credits will be discounted or invalid if they do not meet these criteria, providing all parties with strong incentives to achieve the necessary performance standards relating to both processes and contracts. For carbon trading to develop social capital from natural capital requires the admission of forest communities into the polity and management of forest resources. In this paper we argue for responsible carbon-emission trading based on the clear and appropriate definition of carbon

  20. New insights into the regulation and cellular functions of the ARP2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Rotty, Jeremy D; Wu, Congying; Bear, James E

    2013-01-01

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (ARP2/3) complex nucleates branched actin filament networks, but requires nucleation promoting factors (NPFs) to stimulate this activity. NPFs include proteins such as Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP), neural WASP (NWASP), WASP family verprolin-homologous protein (WAVE; also known as SCAR) and the recently identified WASP and SCAR homologue (WASH) complex. The mechanisms underlying NPF-dependent regulation and the cellular functions of ARP2/3 are being unravelled using new chemical and genetic approaches. Of particular interest is the role of the ARP2/3 complex in vesicular trafficking and directional cell motility.