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Sample records for 2-3 mm thick

  1. A study on friction stir welding of 12mm thick aluminum alloy plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Deepati Anil; Biswas, Pankaj; Tikader, Sujoy; Mahapatra, M. M.; Mandal, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the investigations regarding friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloy plates have been limited to about 5 to 6 mm thick plates. In prior work conducted the various aspects concerning the process parameters and the FSW tool geometry were studied utilizing friction stir welding of 12 mm thick commercial grade aluminum alloy. Two different simple-to-manufacture tool geometries were used. The effect of varying welding parameters and dwell time of FSW tool on mechanical properties and weld quality was examined. It was observed that in order to achieve a defect free welding on such thick aluminum alloy plates, tool having trapezoidal pin geometry was suitable. Adequate tensile strength and ductility can be achieved utilizing a combination of high tool rotational speed of about 2000 r/min and low speed of welding around 28 mm/min. At very low and high dwell time the ductility of welded joints are reduced significantly.

  2. Analysis of stable tearing in a 7.6 mm thick aluminum plate alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Dawicke, D.S.; Piascik, R.S.; Newman, J.C. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of a 7.6 mm thick 2000 series aluminum plate alloy was investigated. Fracture tests were conducted on 304.8 mm and 101.6 mm wide M(T) specimens and 152.4 mm and 101.6 C(T) specimens. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional, elastic-plastic finite element simulations used the critical CTOA criterion to simulate the fracture behavior. A plane strain core was used in the two-dimensional analyses to approximate the three-dimensional constraint. The results from this study indicate: (A) The three-dimensional finite element analyses required a critical CTOA of 5.75{degree} to simulate the fracture behavior of the 101.6 mm and 304.8 mm wide M(T) specimen with side grooves. This angle was about the upper limit of the surface CTOA measurements. (B) The three-dimensional finite element analyses required a critical CTOA of 3.6{degree} to simulate the fracture behavior of the 101.6 mm C(T) specimen with side grooves. This angle was about the upper limit of the microtopography through-thickness CTOA measurements. (C) A plane strain core height of PSC = 4 mm was required for the two-dimensional analyses to match the fracture behavior obtained from the three-dimensional analyses. This height agreed with the distance that a three-dimensional analysis indicated was the start of plane strain like behavior. (D) For large M(T) specimens (W > 1,000 mm) the two-dimensional plane strain core analysis predicted a failure stress between the plane stress and plane strain conditions and provided a good approximation of the three-dimensional analyses. (E) The experimental measurements and analytical results show good agreement when the specimens sizes meet the uncracked ligament to thickness ratio (b/B > 4) determined by Newman et al. This indicates that there is a minimum size laboratory specimen that can be used to determine the material behavior needed to predict fracture in large specimens and structures.

  3. Characterization of a 2-mm thick, 16x16 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Pixel Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Richardson, Georgia; Mitchell, Shannon; Ramsey, Brian; Seller, Paul; Sharma, Dharma

    2003-01-01

    The detector under study is a 2-mm-thick, 16x16 Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride pixel array with a pixel pitch of 300 microns and inter-pixel gap of 50 microns. This detector is a precursor to that which will be used at the focal plane of the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) telescope currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. With a telescope focal length of 6 meters, the detector needs to have a spatial resolution of around 200 microns in order to take full advantage of the HERO angular resolution. We discuss to what degree charge sharing will degrade energy resolution but will improve our spatial resolution through position interpolation. In addition, we discuss electric field modeling for this specific detector geometry and the role this mapping will play in terms of charge sharing and charge loss in the detector.

  4. Holographic characteristics of a 1-mm-thick photopolymer to be used in holographic memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortun~O, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi; García, Celia; Neipp, Cristian; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2003-12-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol-acrylamide) photopolymers are materials of interest in the field of digital information storage (holographic memories). We analyzed the behavior of a 1-mm-thick photopolymer. Using a standard holographic setup, we recorded unslanted diffraction gratings. The material has high angular selectivity (0.4°), good sensitivity (88 mJ/cm2), and small losses caused by absorption and scattering of light. It also has a high maximum diffraction efficiency (70%). A significant induction period was seen in the material. The authors hypothesize that, during most of this induction period, polymerization does in fact take place but is not reflected in the appearance of the diffracted light until a certain threshold value of exposure is reached.

  5. Mechanical Properties of Laser Heat Treated 6 mm Thick UHSS-Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Jaervenpaeae, Antti; Maentyjaervi, Kari; Maeaettae, Antti; Hietala, Mikko; Merklein, Marion; Karjalainen, Jussi

    2011-05-04

    In this work abrasion resistant (AR) steel with a sheet thickness of 6 mm was heat treated by a 4 kW Nd:YAG and a 4 kW Yb:Yag-laser, followed by self-quenching. In the delivered condition, test material blank (B27S) is water quenched from 920 deg. C. In this condition, fully martensitic microstructure provides excellent hardness of over 500 HB. The test material is referred to AR500 from now onwards. Laser heat treatment was carried out only on top surface of the AR500 sheet: the achieved maximum temperature in the cross-section varies as a function of the depth. Consequently, the microstructure and mechanical properties differ between the surfaces and the centre of the cross-section (layered microstructure). For better understanding, all layers were tested in tensile tests. For a wide heat treatment track, the laser beam was moved by scanning. Temperatures were measured using thermographic camera and thermocouples. Laser heat treated AR500 samples were tested in hardness tests and by air bending using a press brake machine. Microstructures were studied using a light microscope and FE-SEM/SEM-EBSD. At least three kind of microstructure layers were observed: 1) Dual-Phase ferritic/martensitic (T = A{sub C1}-A{sub C3}), 2) ferritic (T{approx}A{sub C3}) and 3) bainitic/martensitic (T>A{sub C3}).

  6. Mechanical Properties of Laser Heat Treated 6 mm Thick UHSS-Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvenpää, Antti; Mäntyjärvi, Kari; Merklein, Marion; määttä, Antti; Hietala, Mikko; Karjalainen, Jussi

    2011-05-01

    In this work abrasion resistant (AR) steel with a sheet thickness of 6 mm was heat treated by a 4 kW Nd:YAG and a 4 kW Yb:Yag-laser, followed by self-quenching. In the delivered condition, test material blank (B27S) is water quenched from 920° C. In this condition, fully martensitic microstructure provides excellent hardness of over 500 HB. The test material is referred to AR500 from now onwards. Laser heat treatment was carried out only on top surface of the AR500 sheet: the achieved maximum temperature in the cross-section varies as a function of the depth. Consequently, the microstructure and mechanical properties differ between the surfaces and the centre of the cross-section (layered microstructure). For better understanding, all layers were tested in tensile tests. For a wide heat treatment track, the laser beam was moved by scanning. Temperatures were measured using thermographic camera and thermocouples. Laser heat treated AR500 samples were tested in hardness tests and by air bending using a press brake machine. Microstructures were studied using a light microscope and FE-SEM/SEM-EBSD. At least three kind of microstructure layers were observed: 1) Dual-Phase ferritic/martensitic (T = AC1-AC3), 2) ferritic (T˜AC3) and 3) bainitic/martensitic (T>AC3).

  7. Laser-Assisted Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick HSLA-65 Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Keith M.

    2002-12-01

    Laser-assisted stir welding is a hybrid process that combines energy from a laser with functional heating and mechanical energy to join materials in the solid state. The technology is an adaptation of friction stir welding which is particularly suited for joining thick plates. Aluminum plates up to 75 mm thick have been successfully joined using friction stir welding. Since joining occurs in the solid state, stir technology offers the capability for fabricating full penetration joints in thick plates with better mechanical properties and less weld distortion than is possible by fusion processes. Currently friction stir welding is being used in several industries to improve productivity, reduce weight, and increase the strength of welded structures. Examples include: (a) the aircraft/aerospace industry where stir technology is currently being used to fabricate the space shuttle's external tank as well as components of the Delta family of rockets; (b) the shipping industry where container manufacturers are using stir technology to produce lighter containers with more payload capacity; and (c) the oil industry where offshore platform manufactures are using automated stir welding plants to fabricate large panels and structures up to 16 meters long with widths as required. In all these cases, stir technology has been restricted to aluminum alloys; however, stainless and HSLA 65 steels have been recently stir welded with friction as the primary heat source. One of the difficulties in adapting stir welding to steel is tool wear aggravated by the high tool rubbing velocities needed to provide frictional heat input into the material. Early work showed that the tool shoulder reached temperatures above 1000 C and the weld seam behind the tool stayed within this temperature range for up to 25 mm behind the tool. Cross sections of stir welded samples showed that the heat-affected zone is relatively wide and follows the profile of the tool shoulder. Besides minimizing the tool

  8. Confronting simulations of optically thick gas in massive halos with observations at z = 2-3

    SciTech Connect

    Fumagalli, Michele; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Kasen, Daniel; Dekel, Avishai; Ceverino, Daniel; Primack, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations predict the physical state of baryons in the circumgalactic medium (CGM), which can be directly tested via quasar absorption line observations. We use high-resolution 'zoom-in' simulations of 21 galaxies to characterize the distribution of neutral hydrogen around halos in the mass range M {sub vir} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 11} to 4 × 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉} at z ∼ 2. We find that both the mass fraction of cool (T ≤ 3 × 10{sup 4} K) gas and the covering fraction of optically thick Lyman limit systems (LLSs) depend only weakly on halo mass, even around the critical value for the formation of stable virial shocks. The covering fraction of LLSs interior to the virial radius varies between f {sub c} ∼ 0.05-0.2, with significant scatter among halos. Our simulations of massive halos (M {sub vir} ≥ 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}) underpredict the covering fraction of optically thick gas observed in the quasar CGM by a large factor. The reason for this discrepancy is unclear, but several possibilities are discussed. In the lower mass halos (M {sub vir} ≥ 5 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}) hosting star-forming galaxies, the predicted covering factor agrees with observations; however, current samples of quasar-galaxy pairs are too small for a conclusive comparison. To overcome this limitation, we propose a new observable: the small-scale autocorrelation function of optically thick absorbers detected in the foreground of close quasar pairs. We show that this new observable can constrain the underlying dark halos hosting LLSs at z ∼ 2-3, as well as the characteristic size and covering factor of the CGM.

  9. The Complete Reaction Mechanism of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase as Revealed by QM/MM Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Capece, Luciana; Lewis-Ballester, Ariel; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Estrin, Dario A.; Marti, Marcelo A.

    2012-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan dioxygenase (TDO) are two heme-proteins that catalyze the oxidation reaction of tryptophan (Trp) to N-formylkynurenine (NFK). Human IDO (hIDO) has recently been recognized as a potent anti-cancer drug target, a fact that triggered intense research on the reaction and inhibition mechanisms of hIDO. Our recent studies revealed that the dioxygenase reaction catalyzed by hIDO and TDO is initiated by addition of the ferric iron-bound superoxide to the C2=C3 bond of Trp to form a ferryl and Trp-epoxide intermediate, via a 2-indolenylperoxo radical transition state. The data demonstrate that the two atoms of dioxygen are inserted into the substrate in a stepwise fashion, challenging the paradigm of heme-based dioxygenase chemistry. In the current study, we used QM/MM methods to decipher the mechanism by which the second ferryl oxygen is inserted into the Trp-epoxide to form the NFK product in hIDO. Our results show that the most energetically favored pathway involves proton transfer from Trp-NH3+ to the epoxide oxygen, triggering epoxide ring-opening and a concerted nucleophilic attack of the ferryl oxygen to the C2 of Trp that leads to a meta-stable reaction intermediate. This intermediate subsequently converts to NFK, following C2-C3 bond cleavage and the associated back proton transfer from the oxygen to the amino group of Trp. A comparative study with Xantomonas campestris TDO (xcTDO) indicates that the reaction follows a similar pathway, although subtle differences distinguishing the two enzyme reactions are evident. The results underscore the importance of the NH3+ group of Trp in the two-step ferryl-based mechanism of hIDO and xcTDO, by acting as an acid catalyst to facilitate the epoxide ring-opening reaction and ferryl oxygen addition to the indole ring. PMID:22196056

  10. Left Ventricular Aneurysm with 1- to 2-mm-Thick Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Liotta, Domingo; Del Río, Miguel; Gallo, Amelia; Frank, Luis; Tamashiro, Alberto; Schneider, Raúl

    1990-01-01

    From January 1983 to July 1985, 64 patients underwent left ventricular aneurysmectomy in our surgical unit. In 11 (17%) of these cases, the lesion was a variant of the true aneurysm that included an extremely thin (1- to 2-mm), well-defined area of myocardium. In 9 of the cases, the aneurysm was confirmed preoperatively by means of high-quality ventriculography (high resolution and many hues of gray). Surgical and pathologic criteria established the lesion's clinical significance. To the best of our knowledge, these aneurysms constitute a heretofore undescribed variant of the classic true left ventricular aneurysm, exhibiting certain gross characteristics of the false left ventricular aneurysm and sharing with false aneurysms their greater risk of rupture. While it is impossible to tell whether these aneurysms are progressing toward rupture, we believe that all such lesions should undergo urgent repair in the presence of cardiac symptoms. Following aneurysmectomy, ventriculoplasty or septoplasty using an elliptical woven Dacron patch helps to preserve the internal contour and surface anatomy of the ventricle. In our series, this procedure resulted in early and late postoperative mortality figures comparable to those associated with the surgical treatment of classic true left ventricular aneurysms. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:337-45) Images PMID:15227526

  11. Performance of a 6 mm thick CdTe detector for 166 keV gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, B. T. A.; Goetz, T.; Hazlett, T.; Forkert, L.

    1988-11-01

    In order to extend the utility of CdTe detectors to higher gamma ray energies, yet avoid increasing the charge collection problems of thick detectors, a 6 mm thick detector configuration has been developed consisting of three crystals 2 mm thick and of 16 mm diameter. The active volume is over 1.0 cm 3. The performance of this detector has been evaluated for gamma rays of 166 keV energy by measuring the pulse height spectra and determining the intrinsic peak and total efficiencies over a range of bias voltages and amplifier time constants. A maximum peak and total efficiency of 41% and 80% were obtained with 200 V bias and 2 μs amplifier time constant, although under these conditions the noise width was almost 40 keV FWHM. A Monte Carlo model was used to simulate the gamma ray and electron interaction in this 6 mm detector. Charge collection, including trapping effects, was incorporated into the model. The model pulse height spectra could be approximately matched to the measured data using hole and electron effective mobility values of 60 and 600 cm 2/V s, and hole and electron mean trapping times of 25 and 15 μs. Our findings indicate that detectors such as this will not be useful for high resolution spectroscopic applications, but the high gamma ray stopping power will be of interest for applications where the noise width is acceptable. Results from the modelling imply that in this detector shallow trapping sites (reducing the effective mobility) are more important than deep trapping sites in contributing to incomplete charge collection.

  12. Effect of laser incidence angle on cut quality of 4 mm thick stainless steel sheet using fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullick, Suvradip; Agrawal, Arpit Kumar; Nath, Ashish Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Fiber laser has potential to outperform the more traditionally used CO2 lasers in sheet metal cutting applications due to its higher efficiency, better beam quality, reliability and ease of beam delivery through optical fiber. It has been however, reported that the higher focusability and shorter wavelength are advantageous for cutting thin metal sheets up to about 2 mm only. Better focasability results in narrower kerf-width, which leads to an earlier flow separation in the flow of assist gas within the kerf, resulting in uncontrolled material removal and poor cut quality. However, the advarse effect of tight focusability can be taken care by shifting the focal point position towards the bottom surface of work-piece, which results in a wider kerf size. This results in a more stable flow within the kerf for a longer depth, which improves the cut quality. It has also been reported that fiber laser has an unfavourable angle of incidence during cutting of thick sections, resulting in poor absorption at the metal surface. Therefore, the effect of laser incidence angle, along with other process parameters, viz. cutting speed and assist gas pressure on the cut quality of 4 mm thick steel sheet has been investigated. The change in laser incidence angle has been incorporated by inclining the beam towards and away from the cut front, and the quality factors are taken as the ratio of kerf width and the striation depth. Besides the absorption of laser radiation, beam inclination is also expected to influence the gas flow characteristics inside the kerf, shear force phenomena on the molten pool, laser beam coupling and laser power distribution at the inclined cut surface. Design of experiment has been used by implementing response surface methodology (RSM) to study the parametric dependence of cut quality, as well as to find out the optimum cut quality. An improvement in quality has been observed for both the inclination due to the combined effect of multiple phenomena.

  13. Effect of Backing Plate Thermal Property on Friction Stir Welding of 25-mm-Thick AA6061

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Piyush; Reynolds, Anthony

    2014-04-01

    By using backing plates made out of materials with widely varying thermal diffusivity this work seeks to elucidate the effects of the root side thermal boundary condition on weld process variables and resulting joint properties. Welds were made in 25.4-mm-thick AA6061 using ceramic, titanium, steel, and aluminum as backing plate (BP) material. Welds were also made using a "composite backing plate" consisting of longitudinal narrow strip of low diffusivity material at the center and two side plates of high diffusivity aluminum. Stir zone temperature during the welding was measured using two thermocouples spot welded at the core of the probe: one at the midplane height and another near the tip of the probe corresponding to the root of the weld. Steady state midplane probe temperatures for all the BPs used were found to be very similar. Near root peak temperature, however, varied significantly among weld made with different BPs all other things being equal. Whereas the near root and midplane temperature were the same in the case of ceramic backing plate, the root peak temperature was 318 K (45 °C) less than the midplane temperature in the case of aluminum BP. The trends of nugget hardness and grain size in through thickness direction were in agreement with the measured probe temperatures. Hardness and tensile test results show that the use of composite BP results in stronger joint compared to monolithic steel BP.

  14. Rotational Augmentation on a 2.3 MW Rotor Blade with Thick Flatback Airfoil Cross-Sections: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, S.; Fingersh, L.; Siegel, K.; Singh, M.; Medina, P.

    2013-01-01

    Rotational augmentation was analyzed for a 2.3 MW wind turbine, which was equipped with thick flatback airfoils at inboard radial locations and extensively instrumented for acquisition of time varying surface pressures. Mean aerodynamic force and surface pressure data were extracted from an extensive field test database, subject to stringent criteria for wind inflow and turbine operating conditions. Analyses of these data showed pronounced amplification of aerodynamic forces and significant enhancements to surface pressures in response to rotational influences, relative to two-dimensional, stationary conditions. Rotational augmentation occurrence and intensity in the current effort was found to be consistent with that observed in previous research. Notably, elevated airfoil thickness and flatback design did not impede rotational augmentation.

  15. Optimization of a 1 mm thick PVA/acrylamide recording material to obtain holographic memories: method of preparation and holographic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, M.; Gallego, S.; García, C.; Neipp, C.; Beléndez, A.; Pascual, I.

    2003-07-01

    Information holographic storage is a very promising technique due to its high theoretical capacity. One of the key factors in developing holographic memories is the need for a suitable recording material which must have certain specific characteristics. In particular, in order to achieve a high storage density it is necessary to work with great thicknesses. One of the essential requirements for holographic memories to be competitive is that the material must have a thickness of 500 μm or more, but it is not easy to find such thicknesses with the photopolymers currently available. In this study, we develop a method of preparing layers of a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide based photopolymer approximately 1 mm thick. Optimization of this material makes it possible to obtain good results for the main holographic parameters; diffraction efficiency 70% and energetic sensitivity 50 mJ/cm2.

  16. Pc2-3 geomagnetic pulsations on the ground, in the ionosphere, and in the magnetosphere: MM100, CHAMP, and THEMIS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagova, N.; Heilig, B.; Fedorov, E.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze Pc2-3 pulsations recorded by the CHAMP (CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload) satellite in the F layer of the Earth's ionosphere, on the ground, and in the magnetosphere during quiet geomagnetic conditions. The spectra of Pc2-3 pulsations recorded in the F layer are enriched with frequencies above 50 mHz in comparison to the ground Pc2-3 spectra. These frequencies are higher than the fundamental harmonics of the field line resonances in the magnetosphere. High quality signals with dominant frequencies 70-200 mHz are a regular phenomenon in the F layer and in the magnetosphere. The mean latitude of the maximum Pc2-3 occurrence rate lies at L ≈ 3.5 in the F layer, i.e., inside the plasmasphere. Day-to-day variations of the L value of the CHAMP Pc2-3 occurrence rate maximum follow the plasmapause day-to-day variations. Polarization and amplitude of Pc2-3s in the magnetosphere, in the ionosphere, and on the ground allow us to suggest that they are generated as fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves in the outer magnetosphere and are partly converted into shear Alfven waves near the plasmapause. The observed ground-to-ionosphere amplitude ratio during the night is interpreted as a result of the Alfven wave transmission through the ionosphere. The problem of wave transmission through the ionosphere is solved theoretically by means of a numerical solution of the full-wave equation for the Alfven wave reflection from and transmission through a horizontally stratified ionosphere. The best agreement between the calculated and measured values of the ground-to-ionosphere amplitude ratio is found for k = 5 × 10-3 km-1, i.e., the observed ground-to-ionosphere amplitude ratio corresponds to a wave spatial scale which could provide a Doppler shift within a few percent of the apparent frequency of the Pc2-3 pulsations as recorded by a low-orbiting spacecraft.

  17. QM/MM investigation of the reaction rates of substrates of 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase: A catabolic protein isolated from Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Chotpatiwetchkul, Warot; Jongkon, Nathjanan; Hannongbua, Supa; Gleeson, M Paul

    2016-07-01

    Aspergillus niger is an industrially important microorganism used in the production of citric acid. It is a common cause of food spoilage and represents a health issue for patients with compromised immune systems. Recent studies on Aspergillus niger have revealed details on the isocitrate lyase (ICL) superfamily and its role in catabolism, including (2R, 3S)-dimethylmalate lyase (DMML). Members of this and related lyase super families are of considerable interest as potential treatments for bacterial and fungal infections, including Tuberculosis. In our efforts to better understand this class of protein, we investigate the catalytic mechanism of DMML, studying five different substrates and two different active site metals configurations using molecular dynamics (MD) and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations. We show that the predicted barriers to reaction for the substrates show good agreement with the experimental kcat values. This results help to confirm the validity of the proposed mechanism and open up the possibility of developing novel mechanism based inhibitors specifically for this target. PMID:27343740

  18. Bonding and magnetism in nanosized graphene molecules: Singlet states of zigzag edged hexangulenes C6m2H6m(m =2,3,…,10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philpott, Michael R.; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    A novel molecular phenomenon is predicted on the basis of trends identified in an ab initio density functional theory study of the electronic and geometric structure of the hexagonal shaped zigzag edged graphene hydrocarbon molecules C6m2H6m(m =2,…,10). Electrons in the interior organize to form a graphene core that grows with edge size m. Electrons in the highest occupied molecular orbital levels, localized primarily on the perimeter carbons, polarize the interior atoms with a intensity that decays rapidly with distance from the perimeter. Three distinctive bond length patterns emerge: (i) a central graphene core that grows with size m; (ii) shape-similar transverse and radial bond length patterns on interior rows close to the edges; and (iii) quinoidal bonds radiating from each apex that link adjacent edges. Concomitant with these changes are: (i) a monotonic decrease in atomic charge from center to perimeter and (ii) relegation of spin in diradical states to the outer atomic rows of the bipartite lattice.

  19. Bonding and magnetism in nanosized graphene molecules: Singlet states of zigzag edged hexangulenes C(6m(2) )H(6m)(m=2,3,...,10).

    PubMed

    Philpott, Michael R; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2009-12-01

    A novel molecular phenomenon is predicted on the basis of trends identified in an ab initio density functional theory study of the electronic and geometric structure of the hexagonal shaped zigzag edged graphene hydrocarbon molecules C(6m(2) )H(6m)(m=2,...,10). Electrons in the interior organize to form a graphene core that grows with edge size m. Electrons in the highest occupied molecular orbital levels, localized primarily on the perimeter carbons, polarize the interior atoms with a intensity that decays rapidly with distance from the perimeter. Three distinctive bond length patterns emerge: (i) a central graphene core that grows with size m; (ii) shape-similar transverse and radial bond length patterns on interior rows close to the edges; and (iii) quinoidal bonds radiating from each apex that link adjacent edges. Concomitant with these changes are: (i) a monotonic decrease in atomic charge from center to perimeter and (ii) relegation of spin in diradical states to the outer atomic rows of the bipartite lattice. PMID:19968359

  20. Influence of Temperature and Time of Post-weld Heat Treatment on Stress Relief in an 800-mm-Thick Steel Weldment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Abhishek; Siva Prasad, N.; Janaki Ram, G. D.

    2016-04-01

    Ferritic steel weldments are invariably post-weld heat treated for relieving the residual stresses. However, the long duration of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) required for very thick weldments can adversely affect the mechanical properties and fracture toughness. Thus, there is a need to establish the relative importance of temperature and time of PWHT with respect to stress relief. Accordingly, in the present work, the phenomenon of stress relief (due to PWHT) in an 800-mm-thick steel weldment was investigated using finite element analysis and the results were validated against experimental measurements. An analytical study was also carried out to determine the relative influence of temperature and time of PWHT on stress relief. It was found that time of PWHT plays a more significant role in case of relatively lower PWHT temperatures. It was also found that, for a given value of Hollomon parameter, different combinations of PWHT temperature and time can be employed to achieve the same level of stress relief. A mathematical relationship has been established between Hollomon parameter and magnitude of residual stress after PWHT. It has been shown that residual stress is a monotonically decreasing function of the Hollomon parameter.

  1. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of 10-mm-Thick Cast Martensitic Stainless Steel CA6NM: As-Welded Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh; Cao, Xinjin; Pham, Xuan-Tan; Wanjara, Priti; Fihey, Jean-Luc

    2016-07-01

    Cast CA6NM martensitic stainless steel plates, 10 mm in thickness, were welded using hybrid laser-arc welding. The effect of different welding speeds on the as-welded joint integrity was characterized in terms of the weld bead geometry, defects, microstructure, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact energy. Significant defects such as porosity, root humping, underfill, and excessive penetration were observed at a low welding speed (0.5 m/min). However, the underfill depth and excessive penetration in the joints manufactured at welding speeds above 0.75 m/min met the specifications of ISO 12932. Characterization of the as-welded microstructure revealed untempered martensite and residual delta ferrite dispersed at prior-austenite grain boundaries in the fusion zone. In addition, four different heat-affected zones in the weldments were differentiated through hardness mapping and inference from the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary phase diagram. The tensile fracture occurred in the base metal for all the samples and fractographic analysis showed that the crack path is within the martensite matrix, along primary delta ferrite-martensite interfaces and within the primary delta ferrite. Additionally, Charpy impact testing demonstrated slightly higher fracture energy values and deeper dimples on the fracture surface of the welds manufactured at higher welding speeds due to grain refinement and/or lower porosity.

  2. Tungsten Inert Gas and Friction Stir Welding Characteristics of 4-mm-Thick 2219-T87 Plates at Room Temperature and -196 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Xuefeng; Deng, Ying; Yin, Zhimin; Xu, Guofu

    2014-06-01

    2219-T87 aluminum alloy is widely used for fabricating liquid rocket propellant storage tank, due to its admirable cryogenic property. Welding is the dominant joining method in the manufacturing process of aerospace components. In this study, the tungsten inert gas welding and friction stir welding (FSW) characteristics of 4-mm-thick 2219-T87 alloy plate at room temperature (25 °C) and deep cryogenic temperature (-196 °C) were investigated by property measurements and microscopy methods. The studied 2219 base alloy exhibits a low strength plane anisotropy and excellent room temperature and cryogenic mechanical properties. The ultimate tensile strength values of TIG and FSW welding joints can reach 265 and 353 MPa at room temperature, and 342 and 438 MPa at -196 °C, respectively. The base metal consists of elongated deformed grains and many nano-scaled θ (Al2Cu) aging precipitates. Fusion zone and heat-affected zone (HAZ) of the TIG joint are characterized by coarsening dendritic grains and equiaxed recrystallized grains, respectively. The FSW-welded joint consists of the weld nugget zone, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and HAZ. In the weld nugget zone, a micro-scaled sub-grain structure is the main microstructure characteristic. The TMAZ and HAZ are both characterized by coarsened aging precipitates and elongated deformed grains. The excellent FSW welding properties are attributed to the preservation of the working structures and homogenous chemical compositions.

  3. High-contrast X-ray radiography using hybrid semiconductor pixel detectors with 1 mm thick Si sensor as a tool for monitoring liquids in natural building stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krejci, F.; Slavikova, M.; Zemlicka, J.; Jakubek, J.; Kotlik, P.

    2014-07-01

    For the preservation of buildings and other cultural heritage, the application of various conservation products such as consolidants or water repellents is often used. X-ray radiography utilizing semiconductor particle-counting detectors stands out as a promising tool in research of consolidants inside natural building stones. However, a clear visualization of consolidation products is often accomplished by doping with a contrast agent, which presents a limitation. This approach causes a higher attenuation for X-rays, but also alters the penetration ability of the original consolidation product. In this contribution, we focus on the application of Medipix type detectors newly equipped with a 1 mm thick Si sensor. This thicker sensor has enhanced detection efficiency leading to extraordinary sensitivity for monitoring consolidants and liquids in natural building stones even without any contrast agent. Consequently, methods for the direct monitoring of organosilicon consolidants and dynamic visualization of the water uptake in the Opuka stone using high-contrast X-ray radiography are demonstrated. The presented work demonstrates a significant improvement in the monitoring sensitivity of X-ray radiography in stone consolidation studies and also shows advantages of this detector configuration for X-ray radiography in general.

  4. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding of 10-mm-Thick Cast Martensitic Stainless Steel CA6NM: As-Welded Microstructure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirakhorli, Fatemeh; Cao, Xinjin; Pham, Xuan-Tan; Wanjara, Priti; Fihey, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    Cast CA6NM martensitic stainless steel plates, 10 mm in thickness, were welded using hybrid laser-arc welding. The effect of different welding speeds on the as-welded joint integrity was characterized in terms of the weld bead geometry, defects, microstructure, hardness, ultimate tensile strength, and impact energy. Significant defects such as porosity, root humping, underfill, and excessive penetration were observed at a low welding speed (0.5 m/min). However, the underfill depth and excessive penetration in the joints manufactured at welding speeds above 0.75 m/min met the specifications of ISO 12932. Characterization of the as-welded microstructure revealed untempered martensite and residual delta ferrite dispersed at prior-austenite grain boundaries in the fusion zone. In addition, four different heat-affected zones in the weldments were differentiated through hardness mapping and inference from the Fe-Cr-Ni ternary phase diagram. The tensile fracture occurred in the base metal for all the samples and fractographic analysis showed that the crack path is within the martensite matrix, along primary delta ferrite-martensite interfaces and within the primary delta ferrite. Additionally, Charpy impact testing demonstrated slightly higher fracture energy values and deeper dimples on the fracture surface of the welds manufactured at higher welding speeds due to grain refinement and/or lower porosity.

  5. Measurement of hydrogen permeation through SUS 316L for pressures from 0.8 to 2.0 bar and thicknesses from 1 to 3 mm at 800°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. K.; Noh, S. J.; In, S. R.

    2012-07-01

    A detailed understanding of the permeation of hydrogen isotopes through structural materials is an important issue concerning the reliability, safety, fuelling and environmental impact of fusion power reactors. The permeation of hydrogen through SUS 316L stainless steel, which will be used in various parts of fusion power reactors, was investigated at an elevated temperature of 800 °C. From experiments at different hydrogen feed pressures of 0.8, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 bar with a 3-mm-thick membrane coupon, the hydrogen pressure exponent was determined, and the rate-limiting step for the permeation was determined to be bulk diffusion. From experiments using membranes of various thicknesses of 1, 2, and 3 mm at 1 bar, the effect of the membrane thickness on the hydrogen permeation was studied and discussed in relation to the bulk diffusion process. The results and the discussions for the hydrogen permeation experiments are presented here.

  6. Imaging characteristics of an 8.8  mm long and 125  μm thick graded-index short multimode fiber probe.

    PubMed

    Sato, Manabu; Shouji, Kou; Saito, Daisuke; Nishidate, Izumi

    2016-04-20

    We demonstrated the feasibility of an ultrathin imaging probe with a 50-μm core diameter, a 125 μm total diameter, and an 8.8 mm length, which is a typical graded-index multimode fiber for optical communications. We used an ABCD matrix to analyze the imaging conditions and magnification, which corresponded closely to the measured results. The lateral resolution was calculated at 1.2 μm with a wavelength of 730 nm, which reflects the image test pattern where a period of 4.38 μm was measured with a wavelength of 730 nm. In the numerical aperture of the objective lens, we experimentally evaluated the tradeoff between the magnification and the coupling efficiency. At four wavelengths of 540 nm, 632 nm, 730 nm, and 852 nm, the contrast and signal intensity versus the wavelength were investigated to show that the contrast at 632 and 730 nm is relatively high. By using a thin random phase screen model, we explained that as the wavelength decreases the greater the decrease in the optical transfer function at higher spatial frequencies. Using a 635 nm LED light source, we imaged the surfaces of chicken tendons in contact and the surface roughness was visible. PMID:27140102

  7. Swept-source optical coherence tomography powered by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser enables 2.3-mm-deep brain imaging in mice in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo June; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-10-01

    We report noninvasive, in vivo optical imaging deep within a mouse brain by swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT), enabled by a 1.3-μm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL). VCSEL SS-OCT offers a constant signal sensitivity of 105 dB throughout an entire depth of 4.25 mm in air, ensuring an extended usable imaging depth range of more than 2 mm in turbid biological tissue. Using this approach, we show deep brain imaging in mice with an open-skull cranial window preparation, revealing intact mouse brain anatomy from the superficial cerebral cortex to the deep hippocampus. VCSEL SS-OCT would be applicable to small animal studies for the investigation of deep tissue compartments in living brains where diseases such as dementia and tumor can take their toll.

  8. Thickness-dependent structure variation and novel electronic properties of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 film on SrTiO3 (001) substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lina; Wang, Zhen; Kim, Jisun; Wang, Gaomin; Guo, Hangwen; Saghayezhiane, Mohammad; Plummer, Ward; Zhang, Jiandi; Tao, Jing; Zhu, Yimei

    In principle, La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) is a half metal, which exhibits colossal magnetoresistance. However, it has been observed that the transport properties of LSMO thin films depends on their thickness. By combining in-situ scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and low energy electron diffraction, as well as ex-situ scanning transmission electron microscopy, we have studied the structure-property relationship of LSMO on SrTiO3(001) as a function of film thickness and temperature. Studying the electronic properties by STS, we found that LSMO films have the novel zero current bias shifts at low temperature, further enhanced by photons, which can be related to the charging of dielectric layer near the interface and polar surface effect. To figure out it, STS thickness and temperature dependence were systematically studied. Furthermore, film thickness-dependent structure and stoichiometry variation were determined, and their effect to the zero current bias shifts will be discussed. Supported by U.S. DOE under Grant No. DOE DE-SC0002136.

  9. 8mm/16mm Movie-Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provisor, Henry

    The materials, techniques, and attitudes needed to make professional-quality movies using 8mm., super 8mm., and 16mm. amateur equipment are covered in this guide to movie-making. The pros and cons are discussed of the various makes and models of cameras and lenses. Other topics discussed are: exposure and lighting, choosing film, camera speed and…

  10. mm-wave antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, H. P.

    1985-07-01

    The present low profile seeker front end's slotted waveguide antenna was primarily developed to investigate the feasibility of the application of standard manufacturing techniques to mm-wave hardware. A dual plane monopulse comparator was constructed to mate with the antenna via integrated packaging techniques. The comparator was fabricated by CAD/CAM milling operations.

  11. Lipowitz metal shielding thickness for dose reduction of 6-20 MeV electrons.

    PubMed

    Purdy, J A; Choi, M C; Feldman, A

    1980-01-01

    The relative dose reduction by Lipowitz metal of 6 to 20 MeV electrons from a Varian Associates Clinac-20 linear accelerator has been measured using a parallel plate thin wall ionization chamber. Metal thickness required for a 5% attenuation level for a 10 X 10 cm2 field are as follows: 6 MeV-2.3 mm, 9 MeV-4.4 mm, 12 MeV-8.5 mm, 16 MeV--18.0 mm, 20 MeV-25.0 mm. PMID:7393151

  12. Resistance Spot Welding of AA5052 Sheet Metal of Dissimilar Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mat Din, N. A.; Zuhailawati, H.; Anasyida, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Resistance spot welding of dissimilar thickness of AA5052 aluminum alloy was performed in order to investigate the effect of metal thickness on the weldment strength. Resistance spot welding was done using a spot welder machine available in Coraza Systems Sdn Bhd using a hemispherical of chromium copper electrode tip with radius of 6.00 mm under 14 kA of current and 0.02 bar of pressure for all thickness combinations. Lap joint configuration was produced between 2.0 mm thick sheet and 1.2 - 3.2 mm thick sheet, respectively. Microstructure of joint showed asymmetrical nugget shape that was larger on the thicker side indicating larger molten metal volume. Joint 2.0 mm x 3.2 mm sheets has the lowest hardness in both transverse direction and through thickness direction because less heat left in the weld nugget. The microstructure shows that this joint has coarse grains of HAZ. As thickness of sheet metal increased, the failure load of the joints increased. However, there was no linear correlation established between joint strength and metal thickness due to different shape of fusion zone in dissimilar thickness sheet metal.

  13. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  14. SU-E-T-319: The Effect of Slice Thickness On IMRT Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, S; Das, I; Cheng, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The accuracy of volume estimated of a treatment planning system is investigated in this study. In addition, the effect of slice thickness on IMRT planning is also studied. Methods: The accuracy in volume determination was investigated using a water phantom containing various objects with known volumes ranging from 1–100cm{sup 3}. The phantom was scanned with different slice thickness (1–10 mm). The CT data sets were sent to Eclipse TPS for contour delineation and volume calculation. The effect of slice thickness on IMRT planning was studied using a commercial phantom containing four different shaped objects. The phantom was scanned with different slice thickness (1–5 mm). IMRT plans were generated for the different CT datasets to calculate TCP, homogeneity (HI) and conformity indices (CI). Results: The variability of volumes with CT slice thickness was significant especially for small volume structures. The minimum and maximum error in the volume estimation is in the range of −2.3% to 92%. On the other hand, with increasing slice thickness, the PTV mean dose and TCP values decreases. Maximum variation of ∼5% was observed in mean dose and ∼2% in TCP with slice thickness change from 1–5 mm. The relative decrease in target volume receiving 95% of prescribed dose is ∼5% slice thickness change from 1–5 mm. HI increases up to 163% and CI decreases by 4% between 1–5 mm slice thickness change, producing highly inhomogeneous and least conformal plan. Conclusion: Accuracy of volume estimation is dependent on CT slice thickness and the contouring algorithm in a TPS. During TPS commissioning and for all clinical protocols, evaluation of volume should be included to provide the limit of accuracy in DVH calculation. A smaller slice thickness provides superior dosimetry with improved TCP values. Thus, the smallest possible slice thickness should be used for IMRT planning.

  15. Papillae alterations around single-implant restorations in the anterior maxillae: thick versus thin mucosa.

    PubMed

    Si, Mi-Si; Zhuang, Long-Fei; Huang, Xin; Gu, Ying-Xin; Chou, Chung-Hao; Lai, Hong-Chang

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the papilla alterations around single-implant restorations in the anterior maxillae after crown attachment and to study the influence of soft tissue thickness on the papilla fill alteration. According to the inclusion criteria, 32 patients subjected to implant-supported single-tooth restorations in anterior maxillae were included. The patients were assigned to two groups according to the mucosal thickness: (i) group 1, 1.5 mm s mucosal thickness 3 mm; and (ii) group 2, 3 mmthickness 4.5 mm.Assessments of interproximal papillae at the time of crown placement (baseline) and at 6-month post loading (follow-up) were made by two prosthodontists using papilla fill index (PFI). The mean mucosal thickness was (2.49±_0.31) mm (group 1) and (3.81±_0.31) mm(group 2) for the two groups respectively. A significant difference in PFI between the groups was detected at the baseline (P<0.001).PFI improvements over time occurred after 6-month follow-up irrespective of the groups. When compared to group 1, the likelihood to obtain papilla fill was significantly higher for group 2 with an odds ratio of 6.05 (P<0.001). The interproximal papilla level around single-implant restorations could improve significantly over time after 6-month restoration according to PFI assessment. The thicker mucosa before implant placement implied a more favorable esthetic outcome in papilla alteration. PMID:22627613

  16. Vertical Lip Position and Thickness in Facial Reconstruction: A Validation of Commonly Used Methods for Predicting the Position and Size of Lips.

    PubMed

    Zednikova Mala, Pavla; Veleminska, Jana

    2016-07-01

    This study examined several methods used to estimate oral fissure position, lip margin position, and lip thickness recommended by Angel, George, Lebedinskaya, Taylor, Wilkinson et al., Balueva and Veselovskaya. A sample of 86 lateral head cephalograms of adult subjects from central Europe were measured and the actual and predicted dimensions were compared. The best estimation for oral fissure position was "opposite the lower ¾ mark of maxillary incisors" (error of 1.3 mm). Upper lip margin was predicted best by "upper ¼ mark of maxillary incisors" (error of 1.7 mm), and lower lip margin by "cementum-enamel junction of mandibular incisors" (error of 2.3 mm). The regression equations of Wilkinson et al. displayed least error (1.3 mm and 1.8 mm, respectively) for upper and lower lip thickness, and method of George (error of 3.4 mm) for total lip thickness. PMID:27364286

  17. Primeval galaxies in the sub-mm and mm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, J. Richard; Myers, Steven T.

    1993-01-01

    Although the results of COBE's FIRAS experiment 1 constrain the deviation in energy from the CMB blackbody in the 500-5000 micron range to be delta E/E, sub cmb less than 0.005, primeval galaxies can still lead to a brilliant sub-mm sky of non-Gaussian sources that are detectable at 10 inch resolution from planned arrays such as SCUBA on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope and, quite plausibly, at sub-arcsecond resolution in planned mm and sub-mm interferometers. Here, we apply our hierarchical peaks method to a CDM model to construct sub-mm and mm maps of bursting PG's appropriate for these instruments with minimum contours chosen to correspond to realistic observational parameters for them and which pass the FIRAS limits.

  18. Measurements of the Polarization Properties of Foam Materials Useful for mm-wave Polarimeters Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, G.; Marchetti, T.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    2016-08-01

    We have measured in the W-band, using a custom setup, the absorption and polarization properties in transmission of foam materials (elyfoamⓇ, styrodurⓇ, plastazoteⓇ, and propozoteⓇ) useful for windows of mm-wave photometers and polarimeters. The levels of the induced polarization degree and of the absorption are very small, and difficult to measure accurately. We find induced polarization degrees lower than 0.6 %, and transmissions higher than 97 % for few centimeter thicknesses of our samples. We describe the instrumental setup, the measurements, and the impact of our findings in the design of precision polarimeters for Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. All these materials, with the exception of black plastazoteⓇ, feature transmissions higher than 99 %, and induced polarizations lower than ˜1 % for sample thicknesses around 2-3 cm.

  19. Measurements of the Polarization Properties of Foam Materials Useful for mm-wave Polarimeters Windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, G.; Marchetti, T.; de Bernardis, P.; Masi, S.

    2016-04-01

    We have measured in the W-band, using a custom setup, the absorption and polarization properties in transmission of foam materials (elyfoamⓇ, styrodurⓇ, plastazoteⓇ, and propozoteⓇ) useful for windows of mm-wave photometers and polarimeters. The levels of the induced polarization degree and of the absorption are very small, and difficult to measure accurately. We find induced polarization degrees lower than 0.6 %, and transmissions higher than 97 % for few centimeter thicknesses of our samples. We describe the instrumental setup, the measurements, and the impact of our findings in the design of precision polarimeters for Cosmic Microwave Background measurements. All these materials, with the exception of black plastazoteⓇ, feature transmissions higher than 99 %, and induced polarizations lower than ˜1 % for sample thicknesses around 2-3 cm.

  20. OpenMM accelerated MMTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Kevin P.; Constable, Steve; Faruk, Nabil F.; Roy, Pierre-Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we provide an interface developed to link the Molecular Modelling toolkit (MMTK) with OpenMM in order to take advantage of the fast evaluation techniques of OpenMM. This interface allows MMTK scripts using the Langevin dynamics integrator, for both classical and path integral simulations, to be executed on a variety of hardware including graphical processing units via OpenMM. The interface has been developed using Python and Cython to take advantage of the high level abstraction thanks to the MMTK and OpenMM software packages. We have tested the interface on a number of systems to observe which systems benefit most from the acceleration libraries of OpenMM.

  1. Optimization of EUVL reticle thickness for image placement accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liang; Mikkelson, Andrew R.; Abdo, Amr Y.; Engelstad, Roxann L.; Lovell, Edward G.; White, Thomas J.

    2003-12-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is one of the leading candidates for next-generation lithography in the sub-65 nm regime. The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors proposes overlay error budgets of 18 nm and 13 nm for the 45 nm and 32 nm nodes, respectively. Full three-dimensional finite element (FE) models were developed to identify the optimal mask thickness to minimize image placement (IP) errors. Five thicknesses of the EUVL reticle have been investigated ranging from 2.3 mm to 9.0 mm. The mask fabrication process was simulated, as well as the e-beam mounting, pattern transfer, and exposure mounting, utilizing FE structural models. Out-of-plane distortions and in-plane distortions were tracked for each process step. Both electrostatic and 3-point mounts were considered for the e-beam tool and exposure tool. In this case, increasing the thickness of the reticle will reduce the magnitude of the distortions. The effect of varying the reticle thickness on chucking was also studied. FE models were utilized to predict how changing the reticle thickness would affect the overall clamping response. By decreasing the reticle thickness (and therefore the effective bending stiffness), the deformed reticle is easier to flatten during chucking. In addition, the thermomechanical response of the reticle during exposure was investigated for different reticle thicknesses. Since conduction to the chuck is the main heat dissipation mechanism, decreasing the reticle thickness results in more energy being conducted away from the reticle, which reduces the maximum temperature rise and the corresponding thermal distortion. The FE simulations illustrate the optimal thickness to keep IP errors within the allotted error budget as well as provide the necessary flatness during typical chucking procedures.

  2. SSC 40 mm cable results and 50 mm design discussions

    SciTech Connect

    Christopherson, D.; Capone, D.; Hannaford, R.; Remsbottom, R.; Jayakumar, R.; Snitchler, G. ); Scanlan, R.; Royet, J. )

    1990-09-01

    A summary of the cable produced for the 1990 40 mm Dipole Program is presented. The cable design parameters for the 50 mm Dipole Program are discussed, as well as portions of the SSC specification draft. Considerations leading to the final cable configuration and the results of preliminary trials are included. The first iteration of a strand mapping program to automate cable strand maps is introduced. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. REMOTE SENSING OF CO IN VEHICLE EXHAUSTS USING 2.3 MM DIODE LASERS. (R827123)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Final results of the EORTC 18871/DKG 80-1 randomised phase III trial. rIFN-alpha2b versus rIFN-gamma versus ISCADOR M versus observation after surgery in melanoma patients with either high-risk primary (thickness >3 mm) or regional lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kleeberg, U R; Suciu, S; Bröcker, E B; Ruiter, D J; Chartier, C; Liénard, D; Marsden, J; Schadendorf, D; Eggermont, A M M

    2004-02-01

    Between 1988 and 1996, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group (EORTC-MG) performed a prospective, randomised phase III adjuvant trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of low dose recombinant interferon-alpha 2 b (rIFN-alpha2b) (1 MU) or recombinant interferon gamma (rIFN-gamma), (0.2 mg) both given subcutaneously (s.c.), every other day (qod), for 12 months in comparison with an untreated control group. The German Cancer Society (DKG) added a fourth arm with Iscador M, a popular mistletoe extract. High-risk stage II patients (thickness >3 mm) and stage III patients (positive lymph nodes) without distant metastasis were randomised and followed until their first progression or death. An intention-to-treat analysis was performed. From 1988 to 1996, a total of 830 patients were randomised: 423 in the three-arm EORTC 18871 trial and 407 patients in the four-arm DKG 80-1 trial. The median follow-up was 8.2 years and a total of 537 relapses and 475 deaths were reported. At 8 years, the disease-free interval (DFI) rate was 32.4% and the overall survival (OS) rate was 40.0%. In terms of the DFI, the hazard ratio estimates (95% Confidence Intervals (CI)) were: 1.04 (0.84, 1.30) for the comparison of rIFN-alpha2b versus control, 0.96 (0.77, 1.20) for rIFN-gamma versus control, and 1.32 (0.93, 1.87) for Iscador M versus control. In terms of OS, the corresponding estimates (95% CI) for the 3 treatment comparisons were: for IFN-alpha2b 0.96 (0.76, 1.21), for rIFN-gamma 0.87 (0.69, 1.10) and for Iscador M 1.21 (0.84, 1.75), respectively. The results show no clinical benefit for adjuvant treatment with low dose rIFN-alpha2b or rIFN-gamma or with Iscador M in high-risk melanoma patients. PMID:14746858

  5. Thick Toenails

    MedlinePlus

    ... be seen in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis, and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. and or or and or or, browse by ...

  6. The GBT 4mm Receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frayer, David T.; White, S.; Watts, G.; Stennes, M.; Maddalena, R. J.; Simon, R.; Pospieszalski, M.; Bryerton, E.

    2013-01-01

    The new 4mm receiver (67--93 GHz) for the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) was built to take advantage of the improved surface accuracy of the dish. The low frequency end of the 3mm atmospheric window is not available with ALMA (<84 GHz), and the sensitivity of the GBT is better than any other facility within this band. We discuss the design and performance of this new receiver for the GBT, and highlight the science opportunities available with the instrument. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Accuracy and precision of cap thickness in small incision lenticule extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ozgurhan, Engin Bilge; Agca, Alper; Bozkurt, Ercument; Gencer, Baran; Celik, Ugur; Cankaya, Kadir Ilker; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Aims To report and compare the cap thickness predictability of small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and flap thickness of femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (femto-LASIK). Settings and design Beyoglu Eye Training and Research Hospital, Refractive Surgery Department, Istanbul, Turkey. Retrospective pilot study. Materials and methods Medical records of patients who had SMILE in one eye and femto-LASIK in the other eye were reviewed. Visante corneal Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) images at 1 week and 1 month post-surgery were analyzed. Both cap and flap thickness at the temporal edge and the nasal edge were measured and compared to each other. Statistical analyses used PAWS Statistics 18 and unpaired student t-test were used to compare the groups. Results The study included 66 eyes of 33 patients (24.7 ± 3.8 years, 20 females and 13 males). Mean flap thickness was 114.88 μm ± 4.96 μm, and mean cap thickness was 114.63 μm ± 5.18 μm. In group 1 (SMILE), cap thickness values were 115.84 μm ± 6.84 μm, 114.75 μm ± 7.36 μm, 113.66 μm ± 6.88 μm, and 114.27 μm ± 6.90 μm in measurement zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In group 2 (FemtoLASIK), flap corneal thickness values were 115.96 mmHg ± 7.01 mmHg, 114.72 mmHg ± 7.17 mmHg, 113.54 mmHg ± 6.45 mmHg, and 115.30 mmHg ± 6.64 mmHg in measurement zones 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In both groups, no statistically significant change within the measurement zones was observed. Conclusion The predictability of cap thickness in SMILE surgery does not differ from the femto-LASIK flaps created using the same femtosecond laser platform. PMID:23723683

  8. Thickness effect on flexural strength of natural stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellopede, Rossana; Marini, Paola; Castelletto, Eleonora

    2016-04-01

    Few scientific works deal with size effect on mechanical resistance in the case of stone, but for the concrete size effect has been widely verified. In fact, the stone size effect is not always ruled by well-known statistical laws as Weibull because of the intrinsic complex structure and features of the materials analysed. Previous studies on natural stone size effect have been made mainly taking into account compression strength. However, flexural strength test under concentrated load, according EN12372, is applied to assess the mechanical resistance of stone and it is well correlated with the petrographic properties of stone. For this reason, to further investigate the size effect on stone , this research analyses the variation of mechanical resistance in relation to thickness of the specimens, taking into account the petrographic characteristics (mineralogical composition, heterogeneity, anisotropy, porosity)of different kinds of rock. From previous studies on 15 different stones (Bellopede et al. 2015) it was observed a negligible values variation for different thickness and a data scattering caused by: intrinsic properties (porosity and structure), defects distribution (fractures, cracks, voids), heterogeneity characterizing each specimen. According to EN 12372:2006, the suggested dimensions for the determination of flexural strength under concentrated load are 50x50x300mm. Other dimensions are possible, but the following requirement need to be fulfilled. The thickness should be minimum 25mm and maximum 100 mm, the width should be within 50 mm and 3 times the thickness and the distance between the supporting rollers span should be 5 times the thickness. In this research, in order to further investigate the thickness effect even in relation with the stone structure and heterogeneity, eight different stones have been tested: four with anisotropic features and four homogeneous. The distance between the support knife was equal to 2/3 to specimens length. The

  9. Apollo 12 photography 70 mm, 16 mm, and 35 mm frame index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    For each 70-mm frame, the index presents information on: (1) the focal length of the camera, (2) the photo scale at the principal point of the frame, (3) the selenographic coordinates at the principal point of the frame, (4) the percentage of forward overlap of the frame, (5) the sun angle (medium, low, high), (6) the quality of the photography, (7) the approximate tilt (minimum and maximum) of the camera, and (8) the direction of tilt. A brief description of each frame is also included. The index to the 16-mm sequence photography includes information concerning the approximate surface coverage of the photographic sequence and a brief description of the principal features shown. A column of remarks is included to indicate: (1) if the sequence is plotted on the photographic index map and (2) the quality of the photography. The pictures taken using the lunar surface closeup stereoscopic camera (35 mm) are also described in this same index format.

  10. Variable Selection using MM Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, David R.; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    Variable selection is fundamental to high-dimensional statistical modeling. Many variable selection techniques may be implemented by maximum penalized likelihood using various penalty functions. Optimizing the penalized likelihood function is often challenging because it may be nondifferentiable and/or nonconcave. This article proposes a new class of algorithms for finding a maximizer of the penalized likelihood for a broad class of penalty functions. These algorithms operate by perturbing the penalty function slightly to render it differentiable, then optimizing this differentiable function using a minorize-maximize (MM) algorithm. MM algorithms are useful extensions of the well-known class of EM algorithms, a fact that allows us to analyze the local and global convergence of the proposed algorithm using some of the techniques employed for EM algorithms. In particular, we prove that when our MM algorithms converge, they must converge to a desirable point; we also discuss conditions under which this convergence may be guaranteed. We exploit the Newton-Raphson-like aspect of these algorithms to propose a sandwich estimator for the standard errors of the estimators. Our method performs well in numerical tests. PMID:19458786

  11. Effect of Sintering Process on Characteristics of Multilayer Piezoelectric Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 Ceramic Transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zupei; Chao, Xiaolian; Yang, Lili; Chen, Yaoqiang

    2007-10-01

    Multilayer piezoelectric transformers are fabricated as 2:2:1-type transformers with dimensions 30.0 mm length × 6.0 mm width × 3.4 mm thickness. Much attention has been focused on the characteristics and applications of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3-Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PMN-PZN-PZT)-based multilayer piezoelectric transformers (MPTs) formed at various calcining and sintering temperature. The characteristics of MPTs, including the step-up ratio, efficiency and temperature rise with input voltage and driving frequency, are systemically investigated. The results show that the piezoelectric transformers calcined at 800 °C and sintered at 1020 °C exhibit the favorable characteristics with a high step-up ratio, a favorable efficiency and a low temperature rise.

  12. Assessing change in mouthguard thickness according to the thickness of the original mouthguard sheet.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine changes in thickness and differences in rate of change of mouthguard thickness according to the thickness of the original sheet used to form the mouthguard. The material used in this study was Sports Mouthguard (3.0, 3.8, and 5.0 mm thicknesses, ethylene vinyl acetate sheet). The sheets were heated until they hung 15 mm from the baseline and were then vacuum formed. The thickness of the mouthguard was measured, and the rate of change of thickness was calculated. The differences in thickness and rate of change of thickness at the labial surface of the central incisor and buccal surface of the first molar according to the thickness of sheet were analyzed by one-way anova, and that of the occlusal surface of the first molar was analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that the thickness of mouthguard increased as the thickness of sheet increased (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The thickness of the sheet did not affect the rate of change of thickness at the central incisor and occlusal surface of the first molar. Adequate thickness could be obtained using the original sheet with a thickness >3.8 mm at the buccal surface of the first molar and >3.0 mm at the occlusal surface of the first molar. At the central incisor, the necessary thickness of the original sheet was calculated as 5.6 mm. These results would be useful for selecting the appropriate mouthguard sheet material. PMID:24890333

  13. Effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding.

    PubMed

    Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Sari, Tugrul; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The neodymium/yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd/YAG) laser has been suggested to repair broken prostheses in the mouth. This study investigated the effects of different dentin thicknesses and air cooling on pulpal temperature rise during laser welding. Three intact human maxillary molars were prepared for full-veneer crown. For each tooth, dentin thicknesses in mesiobuccal cusp was 2, 3, or 4 mm. Twenty dies were duplicated from each of the prepared teeth. For metal copings with 0.5-mm thickness, wax patterns were prepared with dip wax technique directly onto each of dies. All patterns were sprued and invested. The castings were made using a nickel-chromium alloy (Nicromed Premium, Neodontics). A hole with 0.5-mm diameter was prepared on the mesiobuccal cusp of each crown. The Nd/YAG laser (9.85 W; 1 Hz repetition rate; fluence, 1.230 J/cm(2); Fidelis Plus 3, Fotona) was used for welding with or without air cooling (n = 10). The temperature rise was measured in pulpal chamber with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Differences between start and highest temperature reading were taken, and temperature rise values were compared using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference tests (α = .05). Pulpal temperature rise varied significantly depending on the dentin thickness and air cooling (p < 0.05). The non-air cooling group induced significantly the highest temperature increases. There were no significant differences between 2- and 3-mm dentin thicknesses groups (p > 0.05); however, pulpal temperature rise was the lowest for 4-mm dentin thickness group (p < 0.05). The highest values of thermal increase were found in the pulp chamber (6.8°C) when no air cooling was used in 2-mm dentin thickness group. Laser welding on base metal castings with Nd/YAG laser can be applied with air cooling to avoid temperature rises known to adversely affect pulpal health when dentin thickness is 2 or 3 mm. PMID:22562450

  14. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  15. Apollo 12 70 mm photographic catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Proof prints of the 70-mm photography are presented, sorted by magazine and frame number. The 28 lunar surface panorama mosaics and a listing of the mosaics are included. The catalog is designed to be used in conjunction with the "Apollo 12 Photography: 70-mm, 16-mm, and 35-mm Frame Index', which makes it possible to locate the area covered by each frame.

  16. Effect of surface thickness on the wetting front velocity during jet impingement surface cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Chitranjan; Gotherwal, Deepesh; Singh, Chandradeep; Singh, Charan

    2016-06-01

    A hot stainless steel (SS-304) surface of 450 ± 10 °C initial temperature is cooled with a normally impinging round water jet. The experiments have been performed for the surface of different thickness e.g. 1, 2, 3 mm and jet Reynolds number in the range of Re = 26,500-48,000. The cooling performance of the hot test surface is evaluated on the basis of wetting front velocity. The wetting front velocity is determined for 10-40 mm downstream spatial locations away from the stagnation point. It has been observed that the wetting front velocity increase with the rise in jet flow rate, however, diminishes towards the downstream spatial location and with the rise in surface thickness. The proposed correlation for the dimensionless wetting front velocity predicts the experimental data well within the error band of ±30 %, whereas, 75 % of experimental data lies within the range of ±20 %.

  17. Corneal biomechanical properties changes after coaxial 2.2-mm microincision and standard 3.0-mm phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Hua; Dong, Hui; Wang, Li; Jia, Ya-Ding; Zhang, Su-Hua

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the changes in corneal biomechanics measured by ocular response analyzer (ORA) after 2.2-mm microincision cataract surgery and 3.0-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification. METHODS The prospective nonrandomized study comprised eyes with cataract that had 2.2-mm coaxial microincision or 3.0-mm standard incision phacoemulsification. The corneal hysteresis (CH), corneal resistance factor (CRF), corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc) and Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg) were measured by ORA preoperatively and at 1d, 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week postoperatively. Results were analyzed and compared between groups. RESULTS In both groups, CH decreased in the immediate postoperative period (P<0.05), returned to the preoperative level at one week (P=0.249) in the 2.2-mm group, and at two weeks in the 3.0-mm group (P=0.264); there was no significant change in CRF values. In 2.2-mm group, mean IOPcc and IOPg increased at 1d postoperatively (both P<0.05), and returned to preoperative level at one week (P=0.491 and P=0.923, respectively). In 3.0-mm group, mean IOPcc and IOPg increased at 1d and 1wk postoperatively (P=0.005 and P=0.029, respectively), and returned to preoperative level at 2wk (P=0.347 and P=0.887, respectively). CONCLUSION Significant differences between preoperative and postoperative corneal biomechanical values were found for CH, IOPcc and IOPg. But the recovery time courses were different between the two groups. The 2.2-mm coaxial microincision cataract surgery group seemed recovery faster compared to the 3.0-mm standard coaxial phacoemulsification group. PMID:26949640

  18. Influence of thickness and undercut of thermoplastic resin clasps on retentive force.

    PubMed

    Osada, Hidekazu; Shimpo, Hidemasa; Hayakawa, Tohru; Ohkubo, Chikahiro

    2013-01-01

    Thermoplastic resin clasps have been used for esthetic denture rehabilitation. However, details of the design of the clasps have never been thoroughly clarified. This study investigated the retentive forces of thermoplastic resin clasps for non-metal clasp dentures. The retentive forces of all thermoplastic resin clasps depended on the elastic modulus of each resin, undercuts, thickness, and widths of the tested. A clasp with more than 0.5 mm undercut and 1.0 mm thickness is needed for Valplast. Similarly, more than 0.25 mm undercut and 1.0 mm thickness and 0.5 mm undercut and 0.5 mm thickness are required for Estheshot and Reigning, respectively; thus, the recommended clasp arm thickness is 1.0 mm to 1.5 mm for Valplast and Estheshot and 0.5 mm to 1.0 mm for Reigning when the width of the retentive arm is 5.0 mm. PMID:23718997

  19. A comparable study of clinical and optical outcomes after 1.8, 2.0 mm microcoaxial and 3.0 mm coaxial cataract surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi-Bo; Zhu, Ya-Nan; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Yi-Dong; Yu, Yin-Hui; Yao, Ke

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the clinical and optical outcomes after clear corneal incision cataract surgery (CICS) with three different incision sizes (1.8, 2.0 and 3.0 mm). METHODS Eyes of 150 patients with age-related cataract scheduled for coaxial cataract surgery were randomized to three groups: 1.8, 2.0, or 3.0 mm CICS. Intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes including surgically induced astigmatism (SIA), the corneal incision thickness, wavefront aberrations and modulation transfer function (MTF) of cornea were obtained. RESULTS There were no significant differences among the three groups in demographic characteristics and intraoperative outcome. The 1.8 and 2.0 mm microincisions showed more satisfactory clinical outcomes than the 3.0 mm incision. The 1.8 mm incision showed significantly less SIA than the 2.0 mm incision until postoperative 1mo (P<0.05), but the difference was only 0.14-0.18 D. Combined with less increased incision thickness only at postoperative 1d (P=0.013), the 1.8 mm incision presented better uncorrected distance visual acuity (UCDVA) than the 2.0 mm incision only at 1d postoperatively (P=0.008). For higher-order aberrations and other Zernike coefficients, there were no significant differences between the 1.8 mm group and 2.0 mm group (P>0.05). CONCLUSION Converting from 3.0 mm CICS to 1.8 or 2.0 mm CICS result in better clinical and optical outcomes. However, when incision is 1.8 mm, the benefits from further reduction in size compared with 2.0 mm are limited. The necessity to reduce the incision size is to be deliberated. PMID:27158610

  20. Simulated lesion, human observer performance comparison between thin-section dedicated breast CT images versus computed thick-section simulated projection images of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Chen, L; Boone, JM; Abbey, CK; Hargreaves, J; Bateni, C; Lindfors, KK; Yang, K; Nosratieh, A; Hernandez, A; Gazi, P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the lesion detection performance of human observers between thin-section computed tomography images of the breast, with thick-section (>40 mm) simulated projection images of the breast. Methods Three radiologists and six physicists each executed a two alterative force choice (2AFC) study involving simulated spherical lesions placed mathematically into breast images produced on a prototype dedicated breast CT scanner. The breast image data sets from 88 patients were used to create 352 pairs of image data. Spherical lesions with diameters of 1, 2, 3, 5, and 11 mm were simulated and adaptively positioned into 3D breast CT image data sets; the native thin section (0.33 mm) images were averaged to produce images with different slice thicknesses; average section thicknesses of 0.33 mm, 0.71 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2.9 mm were representative of breast CT; the average 43 mm slice thickness served to simulate simulated projection images of the breast. Results The percent correct of the human observer’s responses were evaluated in the 2AFC experiments. Radiologists lesion detection performance was significantly (p<0.05) better in the case of thin-section images, compared to thick section images similar to mammography, for all but the 1 mm lesion diameter lesions. For example, the average of three radiologist’s performance for 3 mm diameter lesions was 92 % correct for thin section breast CT images while it was 67 % for the simulated projection images. A gradual reduction in observer performance was observed as the section thickness increased beyond about 1 mm. While a performance difference based on breast density was seen in both breast CT and the projection image results, the average radiologist performance using breast CT images in dense breasts outperformed the performance using simulated projection images in fatty breasts for all lesion diameters except 11 mm. The average radiologist performance outperformed that of the

  1. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in childhood.

    PubMed

    Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the thickness of the invivo peripapillary choroid have been documented in a range of ocular conditions in adults; however, choroidal thickness in the peripapillary region of children has not been examined in detail. This study therefore aimed to investigate the thickness of the peripapillary choroid and the overlying retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in a population of normal children with a range of refractive errors. Ninety-three children (37 myopes and 56 non-myopes) aged between 11 and 16 years, had measurements of peripapillary choroidal and RNFL thickness derived from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images (EDI-OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis). The average thickness was determined in a series of five 0.25 mm width concentric annuli (each divided into 8 equal sized 45° sectors) centred on the optic nerve head boundary, accounting for individual ocular magnification factors and the disc-fovea angle. Significant variations in peripapillary choroidal thickness were found to occur with both annulus location (p < 0.001) and sector position (p < 0.001) in this population of children. The innermost annulus (closest to the edge of the optic disc) exhibited the thinnest choroid (mean 77 ± 16 μm) and the outermost annulus, the thickest choroid (191 ± 52 μm). The choroid was thinnest inferior to the optic nerve head (139 ± 38 μm) and was thickest in the superior temporal sector (157 ± 40 μm). Significant differences in the distribution of choroidal thickness were also associated with myopia, with myopic children having significantly thinner choroids in the inner and outer annuli of the nasal and temporal sectors respectively (p < 0.001). RNFL thickness also varied significantly with annulus location and sector (p < 0.001), and showed differences in thickness distribution associated with refractive error. This study establishes the normal variations in the thickness of the peripapillary choroid with radial distance and azimuthal angle

  2. Transport Studies on Nanometer Thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ Multilayers Using Y0.4Pr0.6Cu3O7 and PrBa2(Cu0.8Ga0.2)3O7 as Buffer Layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ke; Tipparach, Udom.; Chen, Tar-Pin; Li, Qi; Zeng, X. H.; Wert, E.; Wagner, John. L.; Chen, Quark Y.; Wang, J. T.; Yang, Hong-Chang; Horng, Herng-Er

    We have fabricated PrBa2[Cu1-xGax]3O7 (PBGCO) ceramic samples for x = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20. The electrical resistivities of these samples are many orders of magnitude higher than that of PrBa2Cu3O7 (Pr123) while the other physical properties remain much the same. PBGCO therefore may be a possible buffer layer for YBa2Cu3O7-δ (Y123) superlattices/multilayers. For this reason YBa2Cu3O7-δ/PrBa2(Cu0.8Ga0.2)3O7 (Y123/PBCGO) and YBa2Cu3O7-δ/Y0.4Pr0.6Ba2Cu3O7 (Y123/YPBCO) superlattices were fabricated and their transport properties were studied. It is found that although PBGCO is better for insulating Y123 films in trilayers, inter-Y123 layer coupling exists between separated Y123 layer.

  3. Application of MM wave therapy in radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, R.S.; Gasparyan, L.V.

    1995-12-31

    The authors studied the effects of MM wave electromagnetic radiation influence on patients, affected by X-ray radiation during the reparation works after Chernobyl nuclear power plant exposure. They compared results of treatment of two groups of patients: (1) control group patients received only basis therapy; (2) testing group, 10 patients received basis therapy and MM wave influence. The authors used the wide band noise generator `Artsakh - 2` for local irradiation on the acupuncture points. Their data proved that low intensity MM waves have immunocorrective, antioxidant effects, and MM wave therapy is a perspective method for treatment of patients with radiological pathology.

  4. EVA mouthguards: how thick should they be?

    PubMed

    Westerman, Bill; Stringfellow, Peter M; Eccleston, John A

    2002-02-01

    A major consideration in the performance of mouthguards is their ability to absorb energy and reduce transmitted forces when impacted. This is especially important to participants in contact sports such as hockey or football. The thickness of mouthguard materials is directly related to energy absorption and inversely related to transmitted forces when impacted. However, wearer comfort is also an important factor in their use. Thicker mouthguards are not user-friendly. While thickness of material over incisal edges and cusps of teeth is critical, just how thick should a mouthguard be and especially in these two areas? Transmitted forces through different thicknesses of the most commonly used mouthguard material, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) (Shore A Hardness of 80) were compared when impacted with identical forces which were capable of damaging the oro-facial complex. The constant impact force used in the tests was produced by a pendulum and had an energy of 4.4 joules and a velocity of 3 meters per second. Improvements in energy absorption and reductions in transmitted forces were observed with increasing thickness. However, these improvements lessened when the mouthguard material thickness was greater than 4 mm. The results show that the optimal thickness for EVA mouthguard material with a Shore A Hardness of 80 is around 4 mm. Increased thickness, while improving performance marginally, results in less wearer comfort and acceptance. PMID:11841462

  5. A POTENTIAL REMOTE SENSING OF CO IN VEHICLE EXHAUSTS USING 2.3 MM DIODE LASERS. (R827123)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. IN SITU COMBUSTION MEASUREMENTS OF CO USING DIODE-LASER ABSORPTION NEAR 2.3 MM. (R827123)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Multimedia contents production system (MM-CPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roser, Miguel; Villegas, Paulo; Simon, Maria; Hernandez-Gil, J. F.; Aguado, Isidro

    1996-01-01

    A present characterized by deep worldwide changes, and a future where social relations and behaviors are going to undergo a substantial change need new telecommunications services in order to allow people to get closer, facilitate their daily tasks and place at their disposal multimedia information to be accessed anywhere and at any time. These new services are very dependent on the contents to be included in the applications. The purpose of this paper is to describe an universal MM contents production system (MM-CPS), which allows the generation of coded data files suitable to be included in MM-servers.

  8. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua

    2014-02-01

    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates. PMID:24634545

  9. MM Algorithms for Geometric and Signomial Programming

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Kenneth; Zhou, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This paper derives new algorithms for signomial programming, a generalization of geometric programming. The algorithms are based on a generic principle for optimization called the MM algorithm. In this setting, one can apply the geometric-arithmetic mean inequality and a supporting hyperplane inequality to create a surrogate function with parameters separated. Thus, unconstrained signomial programming reduces to a sequence of one-dimensional minimization problems. Simple examples demonstrate that the MM algorithm derived can converge to a boundary point or to one point of a continuum of minimum points. Conditions under which the minimum point is unique or occurs in the interior of parameter space are proved for geometric programming. Convergence to an interior point occurs at a linear rate. Finally, the MM framework easily accommodates equality and inequality constraints of signomial type. For the most important special case, constrained quadratic programming, the MM algorithm involves very simple updates. PMID:24634545

  10. QM/MM Calculations on Proteins.

    PubMed

    Ryde, U

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, I discuss combined quantum mechanics (QM) and molecular mechanics (MM; QM/MM) calculations for proteins. In QM/MM, a small but interesting part of the protein is treated by accurate QM methods, whereas the remainder is treated by faster MM methods. The prime problems with QM/MM calculations are bonds between the QM and MM systems, the selection of the QM system, and the local-minima problem. The two first problems can be solved by the big-QM approach, including in the QM calculation all groups within 4.5-6Å of the active site and all buried charges in the protein. The third problem can be solved by calculating free energies. It is important to study QM/MM energy components to ensure that the results are stable and reliable. They can also be used to understand the reaction and the effect of the surroundings, eg, by dividing the catalytic effect into bonded, van der Waals, electrostatic, and geometric components and to deduce which parts of the protein contribute most to the catalysis. It should be ensured that the QM calculations are reliable and converged by extending the basis set to quadruple-zeta quality, including a proper treatment of dispersion, as well as years experience and method development calculations with both pure and hybrid density functional theory methods. If the latter give differing results, calibration with high-level QM methods is needed. Reactions that change the net charge should be avoided. QM/MM calculations can be combined with experimental methods. PMID:27498637

  11. Improvement in thickness uniformity of thick SOI by numerically controlled local wet etching.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Kazuya; Ueda, Kazuaki; Hosoda, Mao; Zettsu, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers are promising semiconductor materials for high-speed LSIs, low-power-consumption electric devices and micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS). The thickness distribution of an SOI causes the variation of threshold voltage in electronic devices manufactured on the SOI wafer. The thickness distribution of a thin SOI, which is manufactured by applying a smart cut technique, is comparatively uniform. On the other hand, a thick SOI has a large thickness distribution because a bonded wafer is thinned by conventional grinding and polishing. For a thick SOI wafer with a thickness of 1 microm, it is required that the tolerance of thickness variation is less than 50 nm. However, improving the thickness uniformity of a thick SOI layer to a tolerance of +/- 5% is difficult by conventional machining because of the fundamental limitations of these techniques. We have developed numerically controlled local wet etching (NC-LWE) technique as a novel deterministic subaperture figuring and finishing technique, which utilizes a localized chemical reaction between the etchant and the surface of the workpiece. We demonstrated an improvement in the thickness distribution of a thick SOI by NC-LWE using an HF/HNO3 mixture, and thickness variation improved from 480 nm to 200 nm within a diameter of 170 mm. PMID:21776652

  12. Performance evaluation of 4.75-mm NMAS superpave mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Farhana

    A Superpave asphalt mixture with 4.75-mm nominal maximum aggregate size (NMAS) is a promising, low-cost pavement preservation treatment for agencies such as the Kansas Department of Transportation (KDOT). The objective of this research study is to develop an optimized 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in Kansas. In addition, the study evaluated the residual tack coat application rate for the 4.75-mm NMAS mix overlay. Two, hot-in-place recycling (HIPR) projects in Kansas, on US-160 and K-25, were overlaid with a 15- to 19-mm thick layer of 4.75-mm NMAS Superpave mixture in 2007. The field tack coat application rate was measured during construction. Cores were collected from each test section for Hamburg wheel tracking device (HWTD) and laboratory bond tests performed after construction and after one year in service. Test results showed no significant effect of the tack coat application rate on the rutting performance of rehabilitated pavements. The number of wheel passes to rutting failure observed during the HWTD test was dependent on the aggregate source as well as on in-place density of the cores. Laboratory pull-off tests showed that most cores were fully bonded at the interface of the 4.75-mm NMAS overlay and the HIPR layer, regardless of the tack application rate. The failure mode during pull-off tests at the HMA interface was highly dependent on the aggregate source and mix design of the existing layer material. This study also confirmed that overlay construction with a high tack coat application rate may result in bond failure at the HMA interface. Twelve different 4.75-mm NMAS mix designs were developed using materials from the aforementioned but two binder grades and three different percentages of natural (river) sand. Laboratory performance tests were conducted to assess mixture performance. Results show that rutting and moisture damage potential in the laboratory depend on aggregate type irrespective of binder grade. Anti-stripping agent affects moisture

  13. An Automatic Method for Measurements of Arterial Intima-Media Thickness Using Ultrasonic B-Mode Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cinthio, Magnus; Ahlgren, Åsa Rydén; Jansson, Tomas; Nilsson, Tobias; Lindström, Kjell; Persson, Hans W.

    We have previously developed algorithms that use B-mode cineloops for simultaneous measurements of arterial diameter change and longitudinal movement of the arterial wall. In this study the lumen diameter algorithm was extended to also measure arterial intima-media thickness of the far wall. To optimize the algorithm the influence of the lateral width of the region-of-interest (1 pixel, 0.1 mm, 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2.5 mm and 5 mm) was evaluated. The algorithm estimated intima-media thickness at diastole automatically by measuring the distance between the two positions where the laterally averaged B-mode intensity envelope crosses a threshold value relative to the maximum amplitudes of the intimal and adventitial echoes, respectively. The sub-pixel resolution is achieved by solving the equation of a straight line between the two samples on either side of the threshold value. The measurements were performed on 20 healthy normotensive volunteers (age 25-57 years) on the common carotid artery 2-3 cm proximal to the bifurcation. For the 2.5-mm width, which was considered the best, the intima-media thickness was mean 646 μm (SD 66) for men and 613 μm (SD 68) for women. The systematic difference was -5 μm and the random difference was 31 μm. The CV was 4.9%. The study indicates that the reproducibility is sufficient for in vivo studies when the width of the region-of-interest is 1.0 mm or wider.

  14. Dark filaments observed at 8.3mm and 3.1mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiel, E.; Ishiguro, M.; Kosugi, T.; Shibasaki, K.

    1986-01-01

    Mapping of the sun was made at 3.1mm (98 GHz) and 8.3mm (36 GHz) wavelengths with a 45m dish radio telescope at the Nobeyama Cosmic Radio Observatory. The depressions associated with large H alpha filaments are derived to be -0.2 at 8.3mm and -0.05 at 3.1mm, which are darker than the values inferred by Raoult et al. (1979)

  15. 11 CFR 2.3 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part. (b) Except as provided in 11 CFR 2.4, every portion of every Commission meeting shall be... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules. 2.3 Section 2.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.3 General rules. (a)...

  16. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  17. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  18. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  19. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  20. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  1. 43 CFR 5511.2-3 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits. 5511.2-3 Section 5511.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-3 Permits. (a) Application for permit. Before timber...

  2. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  6. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  7. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Mm of... - General Provisions Applicability to Subpart MM

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....860. 63.1(b)(2) Title V operating permit—see 40 CFR part 70 Yes All major affected sources are... Subpart MM 1 Table 1 to Subpart MM of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Combustion Sources at Kraft, Soda, Sulfite, and Stand-Alone Semichemical Pulp Mills Pt. 63, Subpt. MM,...

  8. Holographic recording in acrylamide photopolymers: thickness limitations.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Mohammad Sultan; Naydenova, Izabela; Pandey, Nitesh; Babeva, Tzwetanka; Jallapuram, Raghavendra; Martin, Suzanne; Toal, Vincent

    2009-05-10

    Holographic recording in thick photopolymer layers is important for application in holographic data storage, volume holographic filters, and correlators. Here, we studied the characteristics of acrylamide-based photopolymer layers ranging in thickness from 250 microm to 1 mm. For each thickness, samples with three different values of absorbance were studied. By measuring the diffraction efficiency growth of holographically recorded gratings and studying the diffraction patterns obtained, the influence of scattering on the diffraction efficiency of thick volume holographic gratings was analyzed. It was found that, above a particular thickness and absorbance, the diffraction efficiency significantly decreased because of increased holographic scattering. From the diffraction efficiency dependence on absorbance and thickness it is possible to choose photopolymer layer properties that are suitable for a particular holographic application. This study was carried out to determine the highest layer thickness that could be used for phase code multiplexed holographic data storage utilizing thick photopolymer layers as a recording medium. Based on our studies to date we believe that the layer to be used for phase coded reference beam recording with 0.1 absorbance at 532 nm can have a thickness up to 450 microm. The potential use of thicker layers characterized by low scattering losses is part of our continuing research. PMID:19424384

  9. Computed tomography evaluation of residual root thickness after pre-flaring using gates Glidden drills: The sequence effect

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Nahid M; Naghdi, Amirali; Bajgiran, Laleh Mohammadian; Behrooz, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the residual root thickness in mesiolingual (ML) canals of mandibular molars after pre-flaring using different sequences of Gates-Glidden (GG) drills. Materials and Methods: Computed tomography (CT) scans of the ML canals of 60 mandibular first molars were provided from areas within 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of the furcation area and minimum initial root thickness (MIRT) of concave areas was measured at each level. The samples were divided into two groups (G1 and G2) which were prepared by the step-back and crown-down techniques, respectively. In both groups, anti-curvature filing was used. On secondary CT images of the samples in the same position, the minimum residual root thickness (MRRT) and the amount of removed dentin were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA. Results: There was no significant difference for MIRT between the two groups. The MRRT was greater in the G2 group in all the sections, with no significant difference between them. The average of MRRT was not <0.5 mm in any of the groups or sections. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study when the appropriate root thickness is present initially, GG drills used in any sequence may be suitable, safe and cost effective for pre-flaring of mesial canals of mandibular first molars with preserving the root thickness of furcation areas. PMID:24778510

  10. Lateral eyelid rotation flap: a novel technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect.

    PubMed

    Pushker, Neelam; Batra, Jyoti; Meel, Rachna; Bajaj, Mandeep S; Chawla, Bhavna; Ghose, Supriyo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to study anatomical, functional, and cosmetic outcomes of a novel technique, 'Lateral Eyelid Rotation Flap' for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defect. In this prospective interventional study, 10 patients with full thickness eyelid defect measuring 1/2-2/3rd of eyelid width were included. Eyelid reconstruction was performed by single surgeon, using lateral eyelid rotation flap. Anatomic outcome was assessed by analyzing horizontal and vertical palpebral apertures (HPA and VPA), eyelid contour, and lateral canthus. Functional outcome was assessed by measuring tear film break-up time (TBUT) and Schirmer's test in both the eyes. Cosmetic outcome was evaluated by patients. Median age of patients was 56 years. Nine cases had full thickness defect following the excision of eyelid malignancy. The mean horizontal defect size was 17 ± 4.2 mm. HPA did not change significantly after surgery. VPA was statistically comparable to contralateral eye at 1-month follow-up. Lateral canthus angle recovered by 3rd month after surgery. TBUT and Schirmer's tests were comparable to contralateral eye. Eight patients graded cosmetic outcome as good to excellent. This is a new, single-stage technique for reconstruction of full thickness eyelid defects, with full thickness eyelid tissue including margin. PMID:25673519

  11. Fabrication of thick structures by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazaroff, J. M.; Mcclanahan, E. D.; Busch, R.; Moss, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    Deposit, 5500-gram of Cu-0.15 wt % Zr alloy, sputtered onto copper cylinder to average thickness of 12.29 mm. Structure was achieved with high-rate sputter deposition for about 100 hours total sputtering time. Material had twice the strength of unsputtered material at temperatures to 723 K and equivalent strength at nearly 873 K.

  12. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Peng, Z; Kronberger, L; Pfeifer, J; Salehi, B

    1998-10-01

    Today, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the method of choice for treatment of symptomatic gallbladder disorders. It minimizes effects of the operation that are independent of the gallbladder, such as trauma to the abdominal wall and other soft tissue. The surgical wounds were even smaller when 2-mm trocars were used. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy using 2-mm instruments was performed in a consecutive series of 14 patients with symptomatic gallstones. The procedure was completed in 12 cases, with conversion to open surgery in two cases. Intraoperative cholangiography was always performed. The postoperative course was always uneventful. The cosmetic effect was highly satisfactory. The procedure using 2-mm instruments could be indicated in selected patients with uncomplicated gallstone disease. PMID:9820716

  13. Microeconomics of 300-mm process module control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Chatterjee, Arun K.; Falessi, Georges; Levy, Ady; Stoller, Meryl D.

    2001-08-01

    Simple microeconomic models that directly link metrology, yield, and profitability are rare or non-existent. In this work, we validate and apply such a model. Using a small number of input parameters, we explain current yield management practices in 200 mm factories. The model is then used to extrapolate requirements for 300 mm factories, including the impact of simultaneous technology transitions to 130nm lithography and integrated metrology. To support our conclusions, we use examples relevant to factory-wide photo module control.

  14. Central Corneal Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the central corneal thickness (CCT) in healthy white, African-American, and Hispanic children from birth to 17 years of age. Design Prospective observational multicenter study. Central corneal thickness was measured with a hand-held contact pachymeter. Results Two thousand seventy-nine children were included in the study, with ages ranging from day of birth to 17 years. Included were 807 white, 494 Hispanic, and 474 African-American individuals, in addition to Asian, unknown and mixed race individuals. African-American children had thinner corneas on average than that of both white (p< .001) and Hispanic children (p< .001) by approximately 20 micrometers. Thicker median CCT was observed with each successive year of age from age 1 to 11 years, with year-to-year differences steadily decreasing and reaching a plateau after age 11 at 573 micrometers in white and Hispanic children and 551 micrometers in African-American children. For every 100 micrometers of thicker CCT measured, the intraocular pressure was 1.5 mmHg higher on average (p< 0.001). For every diopter of increased myopic refractive error (p< 0.001) CCT was 1 micrometer thinner on average. Conclusions Median CCT increases with age from 1 to 11 years with the greatest increase present in the youngest age groups. African-American children on average have thinner central corneas than white and Hispanic children, while white and Hispanic children demonstrate similar central corneal thickness. PMID:21911662

  15. Optimizing digital 8mm drive performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schadegg, Gerry

    1993-01-01

    The experience of attaching over 350,000 digital 8mm drives to 85-plus system platforms has uncovered many factors which can reduce cartridge capacity or drive throughput, reduce reliability, affect cartridge archivability and actually shorten drive life. Some are unique to an installation. Others result from how the system is set up to talk to the drive. Many stem from how applications use the drive, the work load that's present, the kind of media used and, very important, the kind of cleaning program in place. Digital 8mm drives record data at densities that rival those of disk technology. Even with technology this advanced, they are extremely robust and, given proper usage, care and media, should reward the user with a long productive life. The 8mm drive will give its best performance using high-quality 'data grade' media. Even though it costs more, good 'data grade' media can sustain the reliability and rigorous needs of a data storage environment and, with proper care, give users an archival life of 30 years or more. Various factors, taken individually, may not necessarily produce performance or reliability problems. Taken in combination, their effects can compound, resulting in rapid reductions in a drive's serviceable life, cartridge capacity, or drive performance. The key to managing media is determining the importance one places upon their recorded data and, subsequently, setting media usage guidelines that can deliver data reliability. Various options one can implement to optimize digital 8mm drive performance are explored.

  16. MM-122: High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demarest, Bill; Anders, Kurt; Manchec, John; Yang, Eric; Overgaard, Dan; Kalkwarf, Mike

    1992-01-01

    The rapidly expanding Pacific Rim market along with other growing markets indicates that the future market potential for a high speed civil transport is great indeed. The MM-122 is the answer to the international market desire for a state of the art, long range, high speed civil transport. It will carry 250 passengers a distance of 5200 nm at over twice the speed of sound. The MM-122 is designed to incorporate the latest technologies in the areas of control systems, propulsions, aerodynamics, and materials. The MM-122 will accomplish these goals using the following design parameters. First, a double delta wing planform with highly swept canards and an appropriately area ruled fuselage will be incorporated to accomplish desired aerodynamic characteristics. Propulsion will be provided by four low bypass variable cycle turbofan engines. A quad-redundant fly-by-wire flight control system will be incorporated to provide appropriate static stability and level 1 handling qualities. Finally, the latest in conventional metallic and modern composite materials will be used to provide desired weight and performance characteristics. The MM-122 incorporates the latest in technology and cost minimization techniques to provide a viable solution to this future market potential.

  17. CCM3 to MM5 Data Conversion

    2007-03-02

    The accompanying script (which uses the NCAR Command Language) ready output from the Community Climate Model Code, version 3 (CCM3) and converts it to input format for the Mesoscale Model, version 5 (MM5) code. The script utilizes a Fortran binary write routine.

  18. Mm-wave power meter mount

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, D. L.; Oltmans, D. A.; Stelzried, C. T.

    1968-01-01

    E-band thermistor mount and a technique for adjusting a temperature compensating thermistor to provide an electrically balanced bridge are used for measuring RF power in the mm-wavelength. The mount is relatively insensitive to temperature effects that cause measurement errors in single ended circuits.

  19. Corneal thickness in glaucoma.

    PubMed

    De Cevallos, E; Dohlman, C H; Reinhart, W J

    1976-02-01

    The central corneal stromal thickness of patients with open angle glaucoma, secondary glaucoma (the majority aphakic), or a history of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma were measured and compared with the stromal thickness of a group of normal patients. In open angle glaucoma, there was a small but significant increase in the average stromal thickness. This thickness increase was, in all likelihood, due to an abnormal function of the endothelium in this disease since the level of the intraocular pressure did not seem to be a factor. There was no correlation between stromal thickness and duration of the glaucoma or type of anti-glaucomatous medication. Most cases of secondary glaucome, controlled medically or not, had markedly increased corneal thickness, again, most likely, due to endothelial damage rather than to level of intraocular pressure. After an angle closure attack, permanent damage to the cornea was found to be rare. PMID:1247273

  20. Thickness characterisation of oil spills using active microwave sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Michael; Shuchman, Robert A.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.; Johannessen, Johnny A.; Digranes, Gunar; Berg, Sverre; Dalland, Kjell

    1994-12-01

    Oil thickness is a crucial parameter in the characterization of oil spills for environmental impact. The feasibility of using active microwave sensors to measure thickness was addressed in a series of microwave scatterometer experiments performed by Simrad Marine A/S in a wave tank at the Nansen Environmental Remote Sensing Center. The thickness of the oil layer was maintained at levels similar to the thick part of an oil spill (0.1 - 1 mm). The measurements showed the capability of active microwave sensors to measure oil spill thickness when the oil type is known. In addition to thickness characterization, the experiment studied the effects of oil viscosity, incidence angle, wind speed, wind angle, microwave frequency, and polarization. The backscatter contrast was observed to be greater for lower incidence angles which indicates that the ERS-1 viewing geometry is optimum for the detection and measurement of thick oil slicks. A thickness-dependent backscatter model was developed which included the effects of oil viscosity, composite surface effects, and oil-water reflectivities. The model viscous effects saturated when the oil thickness was greater than the viscous boundary layer thickness. This explained the observed C-VV backscatter contrast saturation for low viscosity diesel oil at thicknesses greater than 0.15 mm. The model predicted contrast saturation at greater thicknesses for the higher viscosity oils. The data showed this trend but the measurements did not extend to thicknesses which tested the model completely.

  1. Lead Thickness Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

    1998-02-16

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in{sup 3}, an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  2. A New Laboratory for MM-/Sub-MM-Wave Characterization of Cosmic Dust Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birsa, Samuel; Do, Huy; Williams, Frederick; Liu, Lunjun; Schonert, Ryan; Perera, Thushara

    2015-01-01

    Most studies conducted with observatories such as ALMA, SOFIA, PLANCK, and Herschel will benefit from knowledge of (1) the predominant cosmic dust species in various environments, in terms of composition and structure and (2) mm/sub-mm optical properties of cosmic dusts, including the temperature dependent-emissivity and spectral index. A new laboratory has been established for producing and characterizing (in the mm/sub-mm) various silicate/carbonaceous dust candidates. In particular, the optical measurement setup was custom designed, specifically for laboratory studies of dusts, using techniques borrowed from observational cosmology. It features novel designs for a compact Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) and a cold sample holder/exchanger. Construction of this apparatus is now complete; we are currently testing the system. Here, we present the mm/sub-mm measurement scheme and highlight its innovative and aspects.

  3. Comparison between 28 mm and 32 mm ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Lee, Y K; Ha, Y C; Koo, K H

    2014-11-01

    Large femoral heads have become popular in total hip replacement (THR) as a method of reducing the risk of dislocation. However, if large heads are used in ceramic-on-ceramic THR, the liner must be thinner, which may increase the risk of fracture. To compare the rates of ceramic fracture and dislocation between 28 mm and 32 mm ceramic heads, 120 hips in 109 patients (51 men and 58 women, mean age 49.2 years) were randomised to THR with either a 28 mm or a 32 mm ceramic articulation. A total of 57/60 hips assigned to the 28 mm group and 55/60 hips assigned to the 32 mm group were followed for at least five years. No ceramic component fractures occured in any patient in either group. There was one dislocation in the 32 mm group and none in the 28 mm group (p = 0.464). No hip had detectable wear, focal osteolysis or prosthetic loosening. In our small study the 32 mm ceramic articulation appeared to be safe in terms of ceramic liner fracture. PMID:25371457

  4. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  5. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Hoffheins, B.S.; Lauf, R.J.

    1995-09-19

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors. 8 figs.

  6. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  7. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  8. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  9. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  10. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  11. Development of mini-tablets with 1mm and 2mm diameter.

    PubMed

    Tissen, Corinna; Woertz, Katharina; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2011-09-15

    The feasibility of formulating mini-tablets with 1mm diameter on a rotary-die press in comparison to mini-tablets of 2mm was investigated. To gain insight into the production of 1mm mini-tablets, three model drugs of different compression characteristics were chosen, namely quinine hydrochloride, ibuprofen and spray-dried gentian extract. A high drug load in combination with robust and reproducible mechanical properties was requested. Depending on the individual drug substance, mini-tablets were produced by direct compression or after roll-compaction/dry granulation. The tensile strength, mass, and their variation coefficients were determined to assess the mechanical properties of the tablets. The content uniformity and the dissolution behavior of selected batches were analyzed. For the first time 1mm mini-tablets could be successfully produced by direct compression (90% quinine hydrochloride; 90% dried gentian extract) and after roll compaction (70% ibuprofen). Depending on the applied compression pressure, 1mm mini-tablets with quinine hydrochloride exhibited robust mechanical properties (e.g. median tensile strength of 2.02N/mm(2)) with equal or lower variance of distribution compared to the 2mm compacts. With respect to content uniformity of dosage forms, 1mm mini-tablets containing 80% quinine hydrochloride met the requirements of the European Pharmacopeia (AV=6.8). PMID:21726616

  12. Accelerating Thick Aluminum Liners Using Pulsed Power

    SciTech Connect

    Kyrala, G.A.; Hammerburg, J.E.; Bowers, D.; Stokes, J.; Morgan, D.V.; Anderson, W.E.; Cochrane, J.C.

    1999-06-28

    The authors have investigated the acceleration of very thick cylindrical aluminum liners using the Pegasus II capacitory bank. These accelerated solid liners will be used to impact other objects at velocities below 1.5 km/sec, allowing one to generate and sustain shocks of a few 100 kilobar for a few microseconds. A cylindrical shell of 1100 series aluminum with an initial inner radius of 23.61 mm, an initial thickness of 3.0 mm, and a height of 20 mm, was accelerated using a current pulse of 7.15 MA peak current and a 7.4 microsecond quarter cycle time. The aluminum shell was imploded within confining copper glide planes with decreasing separation with an inward slope of 8 degrees. At impact with a cylindrical target of diameter 3-cm, the liner was moving at 1.4 km/sec and its thickness increased to 4.5 mm. Radial X-ray radiograms of the liner showed both the liner and the glide plane interface. The curvature of the inner surface of the liner was measured before impact with the 15-mm radius target. The radiograms also showed that the copper glide planes distorted as the liner radius decreased and that some axial stress is induced in the liner. The axial stresses did not affect the inner curvature significantly. Post-shot calculations of the liner behavior indicated that the thickness of the glide plane played a significant role in the distortion of the interface between the liner and the glide plane.

  13. DEFLECTION MEASUREMENTS OF 25 mm ALUMINUM COLLARS

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, C.

    1984-10-01

    This report is a summary of mechanical load-deflection tests performed on prototype collars. The individual collar plates were N.C. machined from 0.125 inch thick 7075-T6 aluminum alloy plate. Inside corners were finished by EDM and outside corners and keyways were finished with an end milling operation. The last step was done with all the individual collar plates (98 pieces) assembled on pins to form the cross section shown in Fig. 1. Figure 1 also shows some of the basic collar dimensions.

  14. Resonant biaxial 7-mm MEMS mirror for omnidirectional scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, U.; Aikio, M.; Janes, J.; Senger, F.; Stenchly, V.; Weiss, M.; Quenzer, H.-J.; Wagner, B.; Benecke, W.

    2013-03-01

    Low-cost automotive laser scanners for environment perception are needed to enable the integration of advanced driver assistant systems (ADAS) into all automotive vehicle segments, a key to reducing the number of traffic accidents on roads. An omnidirectional 360 degree laser scanning concept has been developed based on combination of an omnidirectional lens and a biaxial large aperture MEMS mirror. This omnidirectional scanning concept is the core of a small sized low-cost time-of-flight based range sensor development. This paper describes concept, design, fabrication and first measurement results of a resonant biaxial 7mm gimbal-less MEMS mirror that is electrostatically actuated by stacked vertical comb drives. Identical frequencies of the two resonant axes are necessary to enable the required circle scanning capability. A tripod suspension was chosen since it allows minimizing the frequency splitting of the two resonant axes. Low mirror curvature is achieved by a thickness of the mirror of more than 500 μm. Hermetic wafer level vacuum packaging of such large mirrors based on multiple wafer bonding has been developed to enable to achieve a large mechanical tilt angle of +/- 6.5 degrees in each axis. The 7mm-MEMS mirror demonstrates large angle circular scanning at 1.5kHz.

  15. Rotman lens for mm-wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Leonard T.; Hansen, Hedley J.; Abbott, Derek

    2002-11-01

    The 77 GHz band has been reserved for intelligent cruise control in luxury cars and some public transport services in America and the United Kingdom. The Rotman lens offers a cheap and compact means to extend the single beam systems generally used, to fully functional beam staring arrangements. Rotman lenses have been built for microwave frequencies with limited success. The flexibility of microstrip transmission lines and the advent of fast accurate simulation packages allow practical Rotman lenses to be designed at mm-wavelengths. This paper discusses the limitations of the conventional design approach and predicts the performance of a new Rotman lens designed at 77 GHz.

  16. The impact of transcatheter aortic valve implantation on left ventricular performance and wall thickness – single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Piotr; Dąbrowski, Maciej; Zakrzewski, Dariusz; Michałek, Piotr; Orłowska-Baranowska, Ewa; El-Hassan, Kamal; Chmielak, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Adam; Hryniewiecki, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is a treatment alternative for the elderly population with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) at high risk for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Aim To assess the impact of TAVI on echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) performance and wall thickness in patients subjected to the procedure in a single-centre between 2009 and 2013. Material and methods The initial group consisted of 170 consecutive patients with severe AS unsuitable for SAVR. Logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) was 21.73 ±12.42% and mean age was 79.9 ±7.5 years. Results The TAVI was performed in 167 (98.2%) patients. Mean aortic gradient decreased significantly more rapidly after the procedure (from 58.6 ±16.7 mm Hg to 11.9 ±4.9 mm Hg, p < 0.001). The LV ejection fraction (LVEF) significantly increased in both short-term and long-term follow-up (57 ±14% vs. 59 ±13%, p < 0.001 and 56 ±14% vs. 60 ±12%, p < 0.001, respectively). Significant regression of interventricular septum diameter at end-diastole (IVSDD) and end-diastolic posterior wall thickness (EDPWth) was noted in early (15.0 ±2.4 mm vs. 14.5 ±2.3 mm, p < 0.001 and 12.7 ±2.1 mm vs. 12.4 ±1.9 mm, p < 0.028, respectively) and late post-TAVI period (15.1 ±2.5 mm to 14.3 ±2.5 mm, p < 0.001 and 12.8 ±2.0 mm to 12.4 ±1.9 mm, p < 0.007, respectively). Significant paravalvular leak (PL) was noted in 21 (13.1%) patients immediately after TAVI and in 13 (9.6%) patients in follow-up (p < 0.001). Moderate or severe mitral regurgitation (msMR) was seen in 24 (14.9%) patients from the initial group and in 19 (11.8%) patients after TAVI (p < 0.001). Conclusions The TAVI had an immediate beneficial effect on LVEF, LV walls thickness, and the incidence of msMR. The results of the procedure are comparable with those described in other centres. PMID:25848369

  17. Electromagnetic imaging through thick metallic enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrer, Brendan J.; Watson, Joseph C.; Bartlett, Paul A.; Renzoni, Ferruccio

    2015-08-01

    The ability to image through metallic enclosures is an important goal of any scanning technology for security applications. Previous work demonstrated the penetrating power of electromagnetic imaging through thin metallic enclosures, thus validating the technique for security applications such as cargo screening. In this work we study the limits of electromagnetic imaging through metallic enclosures, considering the performance of the imaging for different thicknesses of the enclosure. Our results show, that our system can image a Copper disk, even when enclosed within a 20 mm thick Aluminum box. The potential for imaging through enclosures of other materials, such as Lead, Copper, and Iron, is discussed.

  18. Origami of thick panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2015-07-01

    Origami patterns, including the rigid origami patterns in which flat inflexible sheets are joined by creases, are primarily created for zero-thickness sheets. In order to apply them to fold structures such as roofs, solar panels, and space mirrors, for which thickness cannot be disregarded, various methods have been suggested. However, they generally involve adding materials to or offsetting panels away from the idealized sheet without altering the kinematic model used to simulate folding. We develop a comprehensive kinematic synthesis for rigid origami of thick panels that differs from the existing kinematic model but is capable of reproducing motions identical to that of zero-thickness origami. The approach, proven to be effective for typical origami, can be readily applied to fold real engineering structures.

  19. Measuring coal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, C.; Blaine, J.; Geller, G.; Robinson, R.; Summers, D.; Tyler, J.

    1980-01-01

    Laboratory tested concept, for measuring thickness of overhead coal using noncontacting sensor system coupled to controller and high pressure water jet, allows mining machines to remove virtually all coal from mine roofs without danger of cutting into overlying rock.

  20. Importance of Corneal Thickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section The Importance of Corneal Thickness email Send this article to ... is important because it can mask an accurate reading of eye pressure, causing doctors to treat you ...

  1. United States crustal thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allenby, R. J.; Schnetzler, C. C.

    1983-01-01

    The thickness of the crust, the thickness of the basal (intermediate or lower) crustal layer, and the average velocity at the top of the mantle have been mapped using all available deep-penetrating seismic-refraction profiles in the conterminous United States and surrounding border areas. These profiles are indexed to their literature data sources. The more significant long wavelength anomalies on the three maps are briefly discussed and analyzed. An attempt to use Bouguer gravity to validate mantle structure was inconclusive.

  2. The Effect of Nozzle Trailing Edge Thickness on Jet Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Brenda; Kinzie, Kevin; Haskin, Henry

    2004-01-01

    The effect of nozzle trailing edge thickness on broadband acoustic radiation and the production of tones is investigated for coannular nozzles. Experiments were performed for a core nozzle trailing edge thickness between 0.38 mm and 3.17 mm. The on-set of discrete tones was found to be predominantly affected by the velocity ratio, the ratio of the fan velocity to the core velocity, although some dependency on trailing edge thickness was also noted. For a core nozzle trailing edge thickness greater than or equal to 0.89 mm, tones were produced for velocity ratios between 0.91 and 1.61. For a constant nozzle trailing edge thickness, the frequency varied almost linearly with the core velocity. The Strouhal number based on the core velocity changed with nozzle trailing edge thickness and varied between 0.16 and 0.2 for the core nozzles used in the experiments. Increases in broadband noise with increasing trailing edge thickness were observed for tone producing and non-tone producing conditions. A variable thickness trailing edge (crenellated) nozzle resulted in no tonal production and a reduction of the broadband trailing edge noise relative to that of the corresponding constant thickness trailing edge.

  3. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  4. A positron tomograph with 600 BGO crystals and 2. 6 mm resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1988-02-01

    The authors describe the imaging performance of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, a single 60 cm diam ring of 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled individually to 14 mm phototubes. With a pulse height threshold of 200 keV and a slice thickness of 5 mm, the sensitivity is 7024 events/sec per ..mu..Ci/ml in a 20 cm cylinder of water. The measured rates for 18 ..mu..Ci/ml are 95,000 trues/sec plus 20,000 random/sec. A 0.3 mm diam /sup 22/Na line source near the center of the tomograph has a circular point spread function (PSF) with a full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 2.6 mm. At 5 cm from the center the PSF is elliptical with a fwhm of 2.7 mm tangential x 3.2 mm radial. At 10 cm the PSF has a fwhm of 2.8 mm tangential x 4.8 mm radial. Attenuation data are accumulated with a 20 mCi /sup 68/Ge orbiting transmission source and 100 million coincident events are collected in 200 sec.

  5. A positron tomograph with 600 BGO (bismuth germanate) crystals and 2. 6 mm resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, S.E.; Huesman, R.H.; Cahoon, J.L.; Geyer, A.B.; Moses, W.W.; Uber, D.C.; Vuletich, T.; Budinger, T.F.

    1987-10-01

    We describe the imaging performance of the Donner 600-Crystal Positron Tomograph, a single 600 cm diam ring of 3 mm wide bismuth germanate (BGO) crystals coupled individually to 14 mm phototubes. With a pulse height threshold of 200 keV and a slice thickness of 5 mm, the sensitivity is 7024 eventssec per ..mu..Ciml in a 20 cm cyliner of water. The measured rates for 18 ..mu..Ciml are 95,000 truessec plus 20,000 randomsec. A 0.3 mm diam /sup 22/Na line source near the center of the tomograph has a circular point spread function (PSF) with a full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) of 2.6 mm. At 5 cm from the center the PSF is elliptical with a fwhm of 2.7 mm tangential )times) 3.2 mm radial. At 10 cm the PSF has a fwhm of 2.8 mm tangential )times) 4.8 mm radial. Attenuation data are accumulated with a 20 mCi /sup 68/Ge orbiting transmission source and 100 million coincident events are collected in 200 sec. 20 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs

  6. Fracture strength of ceramic monolithic crown systems of different thickness.

    PubMed

    Nordahl, Niklas; Vult von Steyern, Per; Larsson, Christel

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fracture strength of high-translucent (HTZ) and low-translucent (LTZ) zirconia and glass-ceramic (LDS) crowns. HTZ and LTZ crowns were made with thicknesses of; 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm; and LDS crowns of 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm thicknesses. Each group consisted of 10 crowns. All crowns underwent artificial aging before loading until fracture. Mean fracture strengths varied from 450 N to 3,248 N in the LTZ group, 438 N to 3,487 N in the HTZ group, and 1,030 N to 1,431 N in the LDS group. The load at fracture of HTZ and LTZ crowns was equal. The load at fracture of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystals crowns was significantly greater than LDS crowns (P = 0.000). Two types of fractures were recorded; complete and partial crack-like fracture. The crack type fracture occurred most frequently in all groups except in the thicker LTZ groups (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm). According to this study, there is no difference in strength between crowns made of high-translucent or low-translucent zirconia. At equal thickness, the strength of zirconia crowns was significantly greater than that of lithium-disilicate glass-ceramic. PMID:26369491

  7. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Eric; Rosales, Anthony R; Tutkowski, Brandon; Norrby, Per-Ola; Wiest, Olaf

    2016-05-17

    The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This "trial and error" process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand screens on a range of

  8. The new 800mm reflecting telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teske, Hans-Joachim

    The design and capabilities of the 800-mm Ritchey-Chretien system are described. The optical system of the telescope has an aperture ratio of 1:8; is suitable for photography in a 1.5 deg field with photoplates of 16 x 16 cm; and consists of primary and secondary hyperbolically deformed mirrors. The attachment of the mirrors, position rotator, and offset guider to the tube, which is a truss structure, is examined. The mount for the telescope is an equatorial fork type. The electronic control system is a 16-bit microcomputer system; the functions of the control system are discussed. The 8-m polyester dome of the telescope consists of a supporting steel structure carrying shell elements of glass fiber-reinforced polyester resins. Consideration is given to the auxiliary devices of the telescope.

  9. Prediction of Stereochemistry using Q2MM

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The standard method of screening ligands for selectivity in asymmetric, transition metal-catalyzed reactions requires experimental testing of hundreds of ligands from ligand libraries. This “trial and error” process is costly in terms of time as well as resources and, in general, is scientifically and intellectually unsatisfying as it reveals little about the underlying mechanism behind the selectivity. The accurate computational prediction of stereoselectivity in enantioselective catalysis requires adequate conformational sampling of the selectivity-determining transition state but has to be fast enough to compete with experimental screening techniques to be useful for the synthetic chemist. Although electronic structure calculations are accurate and general, they are too slow to allow for sampling or fast screening of ligand libraries. The combined requirements can be fulfilled by using appropriately fitted transition state force fields (TSFFs) that represent the transition state as a minimum and allow fast conformational sampling using Monte Carlo. Quantum-guided molecular mechanics (Q2MM) is an automated force field parametrization method that generates accurate, reaction-specific TSFFs by fitting the functional form of an arbitrary force field using only electronic structure calculations by minimization of an objective function. A key feature that distinguishes the Q2MM method from many other automated parametrization procedures is the use of the Hessian matrix in addition to geometric parameters and relative energies. This alleviates the known problems of overfitting of TSFFs. After validation of the TSFF by comparison to electronic structure results for a test set and available experimental data, the stereoselectivity of a reaction can be calculated by summation over the Boltzman-averaged relative energies of the conformations leading to the different stereoisomers. The Q2MM method has been applied successfully to perform virtual ligand

  10. mm-wave solid state amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfert, P. H.; Crowley, J. D.; Fank, F. B.

    The development of mm-wave amplifiers using InP Gunn diodes is reviewed including a low-noise eight-stage amplifier for replacement of a Ka-band TWTA and a three-stage amplifier for the 42.5 to 44.5 range with an output power of 100 mW and 20 dB associated gain. A detailed description of a three-stage amplifier for the 54 to 58 GHz range is given with 100 mW output power and 15 dB associated gain, a small signal gain of 30 dB and an N.F. of 15.5 to 16.5 dB. The design of a broad band, low-loss V-band circulator, which was used in the amplifier, is described.

  11. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  12. Comparison of Failure Thickness and Critical Diameter of Nitromethane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petel, Oren E.; Higgins, Andrew J.

    2006-07-01

    The critical diameter and failure thickness of both neat liquid nitromethane and a 65% nitromethane/35% nitroethane blend confined by aluminum are determined experimentally. A comparison of these two parameters provides insight into the failure mechanism of detonation in these explosives. If the failure of detonation in a critical charge diameter (or thickness) experiment is due to reaction quenching resulting from expansion losses (wave curvature), then it is expected that the failure thickness should be half the value of the critical diameter. The critical diameter and failure thickness of neat nitromethane confined in aluminum are found to be 2.5 mm and 0.75 mm respectively for a temperature range of 26 ± 1°C. The critical diameter and failure thickness of the 65NM/35NE blend confined in aluminum are found to be 6.2 mm and 1.7 mm respectively for a temperature range of 28 ± 1°C. The ratio of critical diameter to failure thickness for these experiments is found to lie between 3:1 and 4:1 rather than 2:1 as expected from wave curvature theory. By comparing the experimentally determined values of critical diameter and thickness for the test explosives and examining the failure patterns recovered on witness plates, a mechanism of propagation in thin rectangular channels is proposed based on complex wave interactions.

  13. The Integration of 3-D Cell-Printing and Mesoscopic Fluorescence Molecular Tomography of Vascular Constructs within Thick Hydrogel Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lingling; Lee, Vivian K.; Yoo, Seung-Schik; Dai, Guohao; Intes, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Developing methods that provide adequate vascular perfusion is an important step toward engineering large functional tissues. Meanwhile, an imaging modality to assess the three-dimensional (3-D) structures and functions of the vascular channels is lacking for thick matrices (>2~3mm). Herein, we report on an original approach to construct and image 3-D dynamically perfused vascular structures in thick hydrogel scaffolds. In this work, we integrated a robotic 3-D cell-printing technology with a mesoscopic fluorescence molecular tomography imaging system, and demonstrated the capability of the platform to construct perfused collagen scaffolds with endothelial lining and to image both the fluid flow and fluorescent-labeled living endothelial cells at high-frame rates, with high sensitivity and accuracy. These results establish the potential of integrating both 3-D cell-printing and fluorescence mesoscopic imaging for functional and molecular studies in complex tissue engineered tissues. PMID:22531221

  14. Liquid thickness gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are developed to measure the thickness of a liquid on a surface independent of liquid conductivity. Two pairs of round, corrosion resistant wires are mounted in an insulating material such that the cross-sectional area of each wire is flush with and normal to the surface. The resistance between each pair of wires is measured using two ac resistance measuring circuits, in which the ratio of the outputs of the two resistance measuring circuits is indicative of the thickness of the liquid on the surface.

  15. Low-Friction Minilaparoscopy Outperforms Regular 5-mm and 3-mm Instruments for Precise Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Firme, Wood A.; Lima, Diego L.; de Paula Lopes, Vladmir Goldstein; Montandon, Isabelle D.; Filho, Flavio Santos; Shadduck, Phillip P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Therapeutic laparoscopy was incorporated into surgical practice more than 25 y ago. Several modifications have since been developed to further minimize surgical trauma and improve results. Minilaparoscopy, performed with 2- to 3-mm instruments was introduced in the mid 1990s but failed to attain mainstream use, mostly because of the limitations of the early devices. Buoyed by a renewed interest, new generations of mini instruments are being developed with improved functionality and durability. This study is an objective evaluation of a new set of mini instruments with a novel low-friction design. Method: Twenty-two medical students and 22 surgical residents served as study participants. Three designs of laparoscopic instruments were evaluated: conventional 5 mm, traditional 3 mm, and low-friction 3 mm. The instruments were evaluated with a standard surgical simulator, emulating 4 exercises of various complexities, testing grasping, precise 2-handed movements, and suturing. The metric measured was time to task completion, with 5 replicates for every combination of instrument–exercise–participant. Results: For all 4 tasks, the instrument design that performed the best was the same in both the medical student and surgical resident groups. For the gross-grasping task, the 5-mm conventional instruments performed best, followed by the low-friction mini instruments. For the 3 more complex and precise tasks, the low-friction mini instruments outperformed both of the other instrument designs. Conclusion: In standard surgical simulator exercises, low-friction minilaparoscopic instruments outperformed both conventional 3- and 5-mm laparoscopic instruments for precise tasks. PMID:26390530

  16. A comparison of 9-inch, 70mm, and 35mm cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, R. H.; Scherz, J. P.

    1975-01-01

    Successful aerial photography depends on aerial cameras that provide acceptable photographs within the cost restrictions of the job. For topographic mapping where ultimate accuracy is required, only large-format mapping cameras will suffice. For mapping environmental patterns of vegetation, soils, or water pollution, 9-inch cameras often exceed accuracy and cost requirements, and small formats may be an overall better choice. In choosing the best camera for environmental mapping, relative capabilities and costs must be understood. This study compares resolution, photo interpretation potential, metric accuracy, and cost of 9-inch, 70 mm, and 35 mm cameras for obtaining simultaneous color and color-infrared photography for environmental mapping purposes.

  17. Ultrasonic metal sheet thickness measurement without prior wave speed calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, S.; Petcher, P. A.; Fan, Y.; Maisey, D.; Nickolds, P.

    2013-11-01

    Conventional ultrasonic mensuration of sample thickness from one side only requires the bulk wave reverberation time and a calibration speed. This speed changes with temperature, stress, and microstructure, limiting thickness measurement accuracy. Often, only one side of a sample is accessible, making in situ calibration impossible. Non-contact ultrasound can generate multiple shear horizontal guided wave modes on one side of a metal plate. Measuring propagation times of each mode at different transducer separations, allows sheet thickness to be calculated to better than 1% accuracy for sheets of at least 1.5 mm thickness, without any calibration.

  18. Thick Film Interference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trefil, James

    1983-01-01

    Discusses why interference effects cannot be seen with a thick film, starting with a review of the origin of interference patterns in thin films. Considers properties of materials in films, properties of the light source, and the nature of light. (JN)

  19. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  20. 2,3-Dihydrobiflavone from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, M; Sowiński, P

    1999-06-01

    From the yellow leaves of Ginkgo biloba 2,3-dihydrosciadopitysin (5,5'',7''-trihydroxy-7,4',4'''-trimethoxy-3',8''-flavanone/flavone) was isolated as a mixture of two diastereomers. Its structure was elucidated employing 2D NMR techniques. PMID:17260276

  1. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  2. Validation of cartilage thickness calculations using indentation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koff, Matthew F; Chong, Le Roy; Virtue, Patrick; Chen, Dan; Wang, Xioanan; Wright, Timothy; Potter, Hollis G

    2010-04-01

    Different methods have been used to cross-validate cartilage thickness measurements from magnetic resonance images (MRIs); however, a majority of these methods rely on interpolated data points, regional mean and/or maximal thickness, or surface mean thickness for data analysis. Furthermore, the accuracy of MRI cartilage thickness measurements from commercially available software packages has not necessarily been validated and may lead to an under- or overestimation of cartilage thickness. The goal of this study was to perform a matching point-to-point validation of indirect cartilage thickness calculations using a magnetic resonance (MR) image data set with direct cartilage thickness measurements using biomechanical indentation testing at the same anatomical locations. Seven bovine distal femoral condyles were prepared and a novel phantom filled with dilute gadolinium solution was rigidly attached to each specimen. High resolution MR images were acquired, and thickness indentation analysis of the cartilage was performed immediately after scanning. Segmentation of the MR data and cartilage thickness calculation was performed using semi-automated software. Registration of MR and indentation data was performed using the fluid filled phantom. The inter- and intra-examiner differences of the measurements were also determined. A total of 105 paired MRI-indentation thickness data points were analyzed, and a significant correlation between them was found (r=0.88, p<0.0001). The mean difference (+/-std. dev.) between measurement techniques was 0.00+/-0.23 mm, with Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 0.45 mm and -0.46 mm. The intra- and inter-examiner measurement differences were 0.03+/-0.22 mm and 0.05+/-0.24 mm, respectively. This study validated cartilage thickness measurements from MR images with thickness measurements from indentation by using a novel phantom to register the image-based and laboratory-based data sets. The accuracy of the measurements was comparable to

  3. A novel Si micromachined moving-coil induction actuated mm-sized resonant scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. C. M.; Barbaroto, P. R.; Ferreira, L. O. S.; Doi, I.

    2006-01-01

    A novel silicon micromachined moving-coil scanner with electromagnetic induction actuation principle is presented. It was manufactured by the Si-LIG process, silicon-lithography-electroforming (Galvanoformung, from German), where its mechanical structure was made by bulk silicon micromachining of 200 µm thick (1 0 0) silicon substrate, and its armature was patterned by deep UV lithography and Au electroplating. The monolithic mechanical structure is a 12 × 24 mm2 rectangular frame connected by 4.5 mm long torsion bars to a 4 × 10 mm2 rectangular rotor. On one face of the rotor is the armature, a 70 µm thick, single turn, electroplated Au coil with 3.3 mΩ electrical resistance. The other face of the rotor was mirrored by a 1480 Å thick Al film. An external magnetic circuit generated a constant 0.115 T magnetic field parallel to the coil plane and a 0.01 T (peak value) field normal to the coil plane. A maximum mechanical deflection angle of 9.0° pp at the 1311.5 Hz resonance frequency was measured, and a quality factor, Q, of 347 was achieved in air. A mathematical model for the device was derived and a dimensioning procedure was developed. The results show that electromagnetic induction actuation is adequate for mm-sized systems and capable of producing resonant scanners with performance compatible with applications such as bar code readers.

  4. MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Christopher; Walsh, Andrew; Voronkov, Maxim; Ellingsen, Simon

    2013-07-01

    MALT-45: The Galactic plane in 7mm MALT-45 is an untargeted Galactic plane survey searching for tracers of high mass star formation (HMSF) at 7mm. With the recent upgrades to the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have been able to push the limits on observational efficiency to obtain a very sensitive blind survey in a short amount of time. Specifically, MALT-45 uses a fast on-the-fly mapping with 6 seconds per pointing, which results in a quarter-square-degree region being mapped in approximately 14 hours. Each region is Nyquist sampled and collects data in 12 spectral lines. The primary spectral lines of MALT-45 include: CS (1-0) - a high density gas tracer, which contrasts well with NH3 (1,1) from the similar HOPS survey; 44 GHz Class I methanol masers - the brightest of the Class I lines, it is poorly understood, and MALT-45 is one of the first surveys to thoroughly search for these masers; SiO (1-0) v=1,2,3 - typically associated with evolved stars, there have been rare associations with HMSF, and MALT-45 offers the potential to detect more. Other lines include thermal SiO (1-0) v=0, thermal methanol, C34S, OCS, and radio recombination lines H51a and H53a. Perhaps the most significant and innovative aspect of MALT-45 is the usage of ATCA autocorrelations. Each antenna of the ATCA is similar to Mopra, and by using all 6 antennae simultaneously, have a 6 fold increase in sensitivity per unit observation time. The autocorrelation data was only recently made available by the ATCA upgrade with the Compact Array Broadband Backend, and tools have been developed to allow this data processing. We present the first 5 square-degrees (l = 330 - 335, b = -0.5 - +0.5) of the Galactic plane mapped by MALT-45.

  5. Novel spin-coating technology for 248-nm/193-nm DUV lithography and low-k spin on dielectrics of 200-mm/300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurer, Emir; Zhong, Tom X.; Lewellen, John W.; Lee, Ed C.

    2000-06-01

    An alternative coating technology was developed for 248 nm/193 nm DUV lithography and low-k spin on dielectric (SOD) materials used in the interconnect area. This is a 300 mm enabling technology which overcomes turbulent flow limitations above 2000 rpm and it prevents 40 - 60% reduction on the process latitudes of evaporation-related variables, common to 300 mm conventional coaters. Our new coating technology is fully enclosed and it is capable of controlling the solvent concentration above the resist film dynamically in the gas phase. This feature allows a direct control of the evaporation mass transfer which determines the quality of the final resist profiles. Following process advantages are reported in this paper: (1) Demonstrated that final resist film thickness can be routinely varied by 4000 angstrom at a fixed drying spin speed, thus minimizing the impact of turbulence wall for 300 mm wafers. (2) Evaporation control allows wider range of useful thickness from a fixed viscosity material. (3) Latitudes of evaporation-related process variables is about 40% larger than that of a conventional coater. (4) Highly uniform films of 0.05% were obtained for 8800 angstrom target thickness with tighter wafer-wafer profile control because of the enclosed nature of the technology. (5) Dynamic evaporation control facilitates resist consumption minimization. Preliminary results indicate feasibility of a 0.4 cc process of record (POR) for a 200 mm substrate. (6) Lower COO due to demonstrated relative insensitivity to environmental variables, robust resist consumption minimization and superior process capabilities. (7) Improved planarization and gap fill properties for the new generation photoresist/low-k SOD materials deposited using this enclosed coating technology.

  6. Thickness scalability of large volume cadmium zinc telluride high resolution radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awadalla, S. A.; Chen, H.; Mackenzie, J.; Lu, P.; Iniewski, K.; Marthandam, P.; Redden, R.; Bindley, G.; He, Z.; Zhang, F.

    2009-06-01

    This work focuses on the thickness scalability of traveling heater method (THM) grown CdZnTe crystals to produce large volume detectors with optimized spectroscopic performance. To meet this challenge, we have tuned both our THM growth process, to grow 75 mm diameter ingots, and our postgrowth annealing process. We have increased the thickness of our sliced wafers from 6 to 12 and 18 mm allowing the production of 10 and 15 mm thick detectors. As the detectors' thickness is scaled up, the energy resolution of both types, as pseudo-Frisch grid and pixelated monolithic detectors showed no degradation indicating improved materials uniformity and transport properties.

  7. Demonstration of Hybrid Multilayer Insulation for Fixed Thickness Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. L.; Fesmire, J. E.; Heckle, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Cryogenic multilayer insulation (MLI) systems provide both conductive and radiative thermal insulation performance. The use of radiation shields with low conductivity spacers in between are required. By varying the distance and types of the spacers between the radiation shields, the relative radiation and conduction heat transfers can be manipulated. However, in most systems, there is a fixed thickness or volume allocated to the insulation. To understand how various combinations of different multilayer insulation (MLI) systems work together and to further validate thermal models of hybrid MLI systems, test data are needed. The MLI systems include combinations of Load-Bearing MLI (LB-MLI) and traditional MLI (tMLI). To further simulate the space launch vehicle case wherein both ambient pressure and vacuum environments are addressed, different cold-side thermal insulation substrates were included for select tests. The basic hybrid construction consists of some number of layers of LB-MLI on the cold side of the insulation system followed by layers of tMLI on the warm side of the system. The advantages of LB-MLI on the cold side of the insulation blanket are that its low layer density (0.5 - 0.6 layer/mm) is better suited for lower temperature applications and is a structural component to support heat interception shields that may be placed within the blanket. The advantage of tMLI systems on the warm side is that radiation is more dominant than conduction at warmer temperatures, so that a higher layer density is desired (2 - 3 layer/mm) and less effort need be put into minimizing conduction heat transfer. Liquid nitrogen boiloff test data using a cylindrical calorimeter are presented along with analysis for spacecraft tank applications.

  8. Effect of Slag Thickness on Macrosegregation and Transition Zone Width of Electroslag Remelting Dual Alloy Ingot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiang; Yan, Hongguang; Ren, Neng; Li, Baokuan

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the slag thickness on macrosegregation and transition zone (TZ) width of electroslag remelting (ESR) dual alloy ingot was investigated. To produce a dual alloy ingot, an electrode, constituted by a CrMoV bar and a NiCrMoV alloy bar, was remelted by using the ESR process. The slag thickness ranged from 50 mm to 70 mm. The results indicate that the slag temperature and melt rate first increase and then decrease with the increasing of the slag thickness. The metal sump depth, however, monotonically decreases. The most pronounced macrosegregation is found when the slag thickness is 50 mm and is alleviated with a thicker slag. The minimal TZ width appears when the slag thickness is 60 mm. Processing the ESR dual alloy ingot with a 60-mm slag layer is the best choice for reducing the TZ width and macrosegregation in the present work.

  9. Experimental validation of an eddy current probe for defect detection in thick conducting specimen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahesh Raja, P.; Arunachalam, Kavitha; Balasubramanian, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling and experimental measurements of eddy current (EC) probe for detecting subsurface defects in 10 mm to 15 mm thick conducting specimen. Measurements are presented for a pancake air core coil to detect subsurface defect in 10 mm thick aluminum slab. EC coil parameters namely inner radius(r1), and outer radius(r2), and operating frequency (f) are optimized for deeper penetration in the conducting plate (35 MS/m) for a given coil height(h), and lift off distance (d). Preliminary simulation results are presented for a subsurface defect in 15 mm thick aluminium plate for the optimized EC coil parameters.

  10. Dust emissivity in the star-forming filament OMC 2/3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadavoy, S. I.; Stutz, A. M.; Schnee, S.; Mason, B. S.; Di Francesco, J.; Friesen, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    We present new measurements of the dust emissivity index, β, for the high-mass, star-forming OMC 2/3 filament. We combined 160-500 μm data from Herschel with long-wavelength observations at 2 mm and fit the spectral energy distributions across a ≃2 pc long, continuous section of OMC 2/3 at 15 000 AU (0.08 pc) resolution. With these data, we measured β and reconstructed simultaneously the filtered-out large-scale emission at 2 mm. We implemented both variable and fixed values of β, finding that β = 1.7-1.8 provides the best fit across most of OMC 2/3. These β values are consistent with a similar analysis carried out with filtered Herschel data. Thus, we show that β values derived from spatial filtered emission maps agree well with those values from unfiltered data at the same resolution. Our results contradict the very low β values (~0.9) previously measured in OMC 2/3 between 1.2 mm and 3.3 mm data, which we attribute to elevated fluxes in the 3.3 mm observations. Therefore, we find no evidence of rapid, extensive dust grain growth in OMC 2/3. Future studies with Herschel data and complementary ground-based long-wavelength data can apply our technique to obtain reliable determinations of β in nearby cold molecular clouds. A FITS image for the GISMO 2 mm observations is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A30

  11. Model-based cartilage thickness measurement in the submillimeter range

    SciTech Connect

    Streekstra, G. J.; Strackee, S. D.; Maas, M.; Wee, R. ter; Venema, H. W.

    2007-09-15

    Current methods of image-based thickness measurement in thin sheet structures utilize second derivative zero crossings to locate the layer boundaries. It is generally acknowledged that the nonzero width of the point spread function (PSF) limits the accuracy of this measurement procedure. We propose a model-based method that strongly reduces PSF-induced bias by incorporating the PSF into the thickness estimation method. We estimated the bias in thickness measurements in simulated thin sheet images as obtained from second derivative zero crossings. To gain insight into the range of sheet thickness where our method is expected to yield improved results, sheet thickness was varied between 0.15 and 1.2 mm with an assumed PSF as present in the high-resolution modes of current computed tomography (CT) scanners [full width at half maximum (FWHM) 0.5-0.8 mm]. Our model-based method was evaluated in practice by measuring layer thickness from CT images of a phantom mimicking two parallel cartilage layers in an arthrography procedure. CT arthrography images of cadaver wrists were also evaluated, and thickness estimates were compared to those obtained from high-resolution anatomical sections that served as a reference. The thickness estimates from the simulated images reveal that the method based on second derivative zero crossings shows considerable bias for layers in the submillimeter range. This bias is negligible for sheet thickness larger than 1 mm, where the size of the sheet is more than twice the FWHM of the PSF but can be as large as 0.2 mm for a 0.5 mm sheet. The results of the phantom experiments show that the bias is effectively reduced by our method. The deviations from the true thickness, due to random fluctuations induced by quantum noise in the CT images, are of the order of 3% for a standard wrist imaging protocol. In the wrist the submillimeter thickness estimates from the CT arthrography images correspond within 10% to those estimated from the anatomical

  12. Laser Ultrasonic Thickness Measurements of Very Thick Walls at High Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, S. E.; Lord, M.; Monchalin, J.-P.

    2006-03-06

    Laser-ultrasonics presents many advantages compared to conventional ultrasonics, but is, generally, considered as less sensitive. As a consequence, laser-ultrasonics should not be adequate for ultrasonic measurements in coarse microstructure materials or measurements of large thicknesses. However, since the generated waves extend to very low frequencies, measurements in such conditions can be successfully performed if a photorefractive interferometer sensitive also to these low frequencies and properly balanced is used for detection. This is demonstrated by measurements of thicknesses up to 100 mm (4'') for various steel grades and at temperatures up to 1250 deg. C.

  13. Thick film ink chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehman, R. W.

    1982-03-01

    Twenty-six thick film inks from two vendors were proved for hybrid microcircuit production use. A data base of chemical information was established for all the inks to aid in future diagnostic and failure analysis activities. Efforts included both organic chemical analysis of printing vehicles and binders and inorganic chemical analysis of glass frits and electrically active phases. Analytical methods included infrared spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, gas chromatography, X-ray fluorescence, emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and wet chemical techniques.

  14. Suspected melanoma only when the lesion is greater than 6mm may harm patients

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Renato Santos; de Oliveira, Daniel Arcuschin; Souza, Murilo Costa; da Silva, Mariane; Brandão, Mireille Darc Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the distribution of larger diameter in the pathological report of cutaneous melanoma patients. Methods Data were obtained from patients seen from 1994 to 2015. Date, sex, age, maximum diameter, histological subtype, primary site, microscopic thickness, mitoses, ulceration, vertical growth phase, and regression were the variables studied. This study was approved by the National Ethics Committee - Brazil Platform. Patients were grouped into smaller diameter (≤6mm) and larger diameter (>6mm). The statistical analysis used the χ2 test (p<0.05). Results Of the 292 patients analyzed, 123 were seen between 1994 and 2004, and 169 between 2005 and 2015; in that, 151 women and 141 men, mean age of 52 years. The diameters ranged from 2 to 76mm (mean of 14mm), 81 patients with smaller diameter (≤6mm) and 211 with larger diameter (>6mm). Out of 81 patients with smaller diameter, 29 had invasive melanoma, while 179 of the 211 with larger diameter were invasive. A difference was observed in frequency of vertical growth phase. Conclusion Pigmented skin lesions with diameter smaller than 6mm should not be an excluding factor for biopsies, especially when patients present risk of developing skin cancer. PMID:26761547

  15. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme. Remarkably, we discovered IDO-specific T cells that can influence adaptive immune reactions in patients with cancer. Further, a recent phase I clinical trial demonstrated long-lasting disease stabilization without toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were vaccinated with an IDO-derived HLA-A2-restricted epitope. PMID:25949864

  16. Planetary brightness temperature measurements at 8.6 mm and 3.1 mm wavelengths.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Cogdell, J. R.; Davis, J. H.

    1973-01-01

    New measurements of the sun, moon, Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn at 3.1- and 8.6-mm wavelengths are given. The temperatures reported for the planets at 3.1-mm wavelength are higher than previous measurements in this wavelength range and change the interpretation of some planetary spectra. For Mercury, it is found that the mean brightness temperature is independent of wavelength and that a temperature-dependent thermal conductivity is not required to match the observations. In the case of Mars, the spectrum is shown to rise in the millimeter region, as simple models predict. For Jupiter, the need to recalculate the spectrum with recent models is demonstrated. The flux density scale proposed by Dent (1972) has been revised according to a more accurate determination of the millimeter brightness temperature of Jupiter.

  17. Ionization Measurements of SuperCDMS SNOLAB 100 mm Diameter Germanium Crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Chagani, H.; Bauer, D.A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P.L.; Cabrera, B.; Cherry, M.; Silva, E.Do Couto e; Godfrey, G.G.; Hall, J.; Hansen, S.; Hasi, J.; Kelsey, M.; Kenney, C.J.; Mandic, V.; Nagasawa, D.; Novak, L.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Partridge, R.; Radpour, R.; Resch, R.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley /Stanford U. /SLAC /Stanford U. /Santa Clara U. /Minnesota U.

    2012-06-12

    Scaling cryogenic Germanium-based dark matter detectors to probe smaller WIMP-nucleon cross-sections poses significant challenges in the forms of increased labor, cold hardware, warm electronics and heat load. The development of larger crystals alleviates these issues. The results of ionization tests with two 100 mm diameter, 33 mm thick cylindrical detector-grade Germanium crystals are presented here. Through these results the potential of using such crystals in the Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (SuperCDMS) SNOLAB experiment is demonstrated.

  18. Effect of mechanical restraint on weldability of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel thick plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serizawa, Hisashi; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Tanaka, Manabu; Kawahito, Yousuke; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu; Katayama, Seiji

    2011-10-01

    As one of the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, the weldability of thick F82H plate was experimentally examined using new heat sources in order to minimize the total heat input energy in comparison with TIG welding. A full penetration of 32 mm thick plate could be produced as a combination of a 12 mm deep first layer generated by a 10 kW fiber laser beam and upper layers deposited by a plasma MIG hybrid welding with Ar + 2%O shielding gas. Also, the effect of mechanical restraint on the weldability under EB welding of thick F82H plate was studied by using FEM to select an appropriate specimen size for the basic test. The appropriate and minimum size for the basic test of weldability under EB welding of 90 mm thick plate might be 200 mm in length and 400 mm in width where the welding length should be about 180 mm.

  19. System performance advances of 18-mm and 16-mm subminiature image intensifier sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nils I.

    2000-11-01

    Night vision system design has been centered aroudn the An/AVS-6 and AN/PVS-7 night vision goggle systems for the past 20 years. Goggle performance has improved during this time through increased performance of the image intensifier sensor, primarily the Omni IV sensor from ITT Industries Night Vision. Most of this improvement has been at the optimal light level (1E-3 fc scene illumination). Recent advances in image sensor performance from the filmless Generation (Gen) IV sensors has increased the low light level performance of night vision devices from 0.3 cy/mr to 0.7 cy/mr. In addition, sensor packaging design requirements have forced night vision sensor manufactures to design light weight, small volume sensors. ITT recently has designed such a sensor in a 16-mm format. This sensor if 50% lighter, up to 50% shorter, and has design features that simplify the objective lens design. New night vision goggles have been, and are being, designed which reduce the perceived head-supported weight. This paper presents signal-to-noise ratio, halo, and other film-less sensor data and similar 16-mm subminiature sensor data. The resulting system performance data will be described. Finally, the system design improvements and relationships with the subminiature 16-mm subminiature sensor will be given.

  20. Photolysis of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on soils: Production of 2,3,7,8-tcdd

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.C.; Hebert, V.R.; Miille, M.J.; Mitzel, R.; Zepp, R.G.

    1989-01-01

    Photolysis of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) on soils results in production of the lower chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, notably 2,3,7,7-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8-PCDD) and three hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin isomers substituted at the 2,3,7,8-positions. Photodechlorination is favored at the lateral positions for the H6CDD and P5CDD congeners, based on the relative yields of the various isomers produced. The mean depth of photolysis of OCDD in the two soils examined varied between 0.06 and 0.13 mm.

  1. The effect of embryonic development on the thickness of the eggshells of the coturnix quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreitzer, J.F.

    1972-01-01

    The average thickness of the shells from 75 unincubated coturnix quail eggs was found to be 0.193 mm. This was 7.3 percent greater than the average thickness (0.179 mm.) of the shells from 60 fully incubated eggs from the same hens. The two sets of eggs were collected simultaneously. This thickness difference was statistically significant (t-test:p< 0.005).

  2. Two-dimensional Kerr-Fourier imaging of translucent phantoms in thick turbid media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, X.; Wang, L.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

    1995-06-01

    Translucent scattering phantoms hidden inside a 5.5-cm-thick Intralipid solution were imaged as a function of phantom scattering coefficients by the use of a picosecond time-and space-gated Kerr-Fourier imaging system. A 2-mm-thick translucent phantom with a 0.1% concentration (scattering coefficient) difference from the 55-mm-thick surrounding scattering host can be distinguished at a signal level of approximately 10-10 of the incidence illumination intensity.

  3. The Effect of Mortar Grade and Thickness on the Impact Resistance of Ferrocement Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Syamsir, Agusril; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Sulleman, Sorefan; Beddu, Salmia; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Ismail, Firas B.; Usman, Fathoni; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Ashraful Alam, Md; Birima, Ahmed H.; Itam, Zarina; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigate the effect of the thickness and mesh spacing on the impact of ferrocement for the concrete slab of 300mm × 300mm size reinforced subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at height of 150 mm, 350mm, and 500mm has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the relationship of impact resistance of ferrocement against the mortar grade and slab thickness. There is a good linear correlation between impact resistance of ferrocement against the mortar grade and the thickness of ferrocement slab. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance of mortar grade 43 (for 40 mm thick slab with mesh reinforcement) are 1.60 times and 1.53 times respectively against the mortar grade 17 slab (of same thickness with mesh reinforcement). The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm thick slab (mortar grade 43 with mesh reinforcement) are 3.55 times and 4.49 times respectively against the 20 mm thick slab (of same mortar grade with mesh reinforcement).

  4. Self-heating forecasting for thick laminate specimens in fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahuerta, F.; Westphal, T.; Nijssen, R. P. L.

    2014-12-01

    Thick laminate sections can be found from the tip to the root in most common wind turbine blade designs. Obtaining accurate and reliable design data for thick laminates is subject of investigations, which include experiments on thick laminate coupons. Due to the poor thermal conductivity properties of composites and the material self-heating that occurs during the fatigue loading, high temperature gradients may appear through the laminate thickness. In the case of thick laminates in high load regimes, the core temperature might influence the mechanical properties, leading to premature failures. In the present work a method to forecast the self-heating of thick laminates in fatigue loading is presented. The mechanical loading is related with the laminate self-heating, via the cyclic strain energy and the energy loss ratio. Based on this internal volumetric heat load a thermal model is built and solved to obtain the temperature distribution in the transient state. Based on experimental measurements of the energy loss factor for 10mm thick coupons, the method is described and the resulting predictions are compared with experimental surface temperature measurements on 10 and 30mm UD thick laminate specimens.

  5. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  6. GDx-MM: An imaging Mueller matrix retinal polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twietmeyer, Karen Marie

    2007-12-01

    Retinal diseases are a major cause of blindness worldwide. Although widely studied, disease mechanisms are not completely understood, and diagnostic tests may not detect disease early enough for timely intervention. The goal of this research is to contribute to research for more sensitive diagnostic tests that might use the interaction of polarized light with retinal tissue to detect subtle changes in the microstructure. This dissertation describes the GDx-MM, a scanning laser polarimeter which measures a complete 16-element Mueller matrix image of the retina. This full polarization signature may provide new comparative information on the structure of healthy and diseased retinal tissue by highlighting depolarizing structures as well as structures with varying magnitudes and orientations of retardance and diattenuation. The three major components of this dissertation are: (1) Development of methods for polarimeter optimization and error analysis; (2) Design, optimization, assembly, calibration, and validation of the GDx-MM polarimeter; and (3) Analysis of data for several human subjects. Development involved modifications to a Laser Diagnostics GDx, a commercially available scanning laser ophthalmoscope with incomplete polarization capability. Modifications included installation of polarization components, development of a data acquisition system, and implementation of algorithms to convert raw data into polarization parameter images. Optimization involved visualization of polarimeter state trajectories on the Poincare sphere and a condition number analysis of the instrument matrix. Retinal images are collected non-invasively at 20 mum resolution over a 15° visual field in four seconds. Validation of the polarimeter demonstrates a polarimetric measurement accuracy of approximately +/- 5%. Retinal polarization data was collected on normal human subjects at the University of Arizona and at Indiana University School of Optometry. Calculated polarization parameter

  7. Is midsole thickness a key parameter for the running pattern?

    PubMed

    Chambon, Nicolas; Delattre, Nicolas; Guéguen, Nils; Berton, Eric; Rao, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted differences in foot strike pattern comparing habitually shod runners who ran barefoot and with running shoes. Barefoot running results in a flatter foot landing and in a decreased vertical ground reaction force compared to shod running. The aim of this study was to investigate one possible parameter influencing running pattern: the midsole thickness. Fifteen participants ran overground at 3.3 ms(-1) barefoot and with five shoes of different midsole thickness (0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm, 8 mm, 16 mm) with no difference of height between rearfoot and forefoot. Impact magnitude was evaluated using transient peak of vertical ground reaction force, loading rate, tibial acceleration peak and rate. Hip, knee and ankle flexion angles were computed at touch-down and during stance phase (range of motion and maximum values). External net joint moments and stiffness for hip, knee and ankle joints were also observed as well as global leg stiffness. No significant effect of midsole thickness was observed on ground reaction force and tibial acceleration. However, the contact time increased with midsole thickness. Barefoot running compared to shod running induced ankle in plantar flexion at touch-down, higher ankle dorsiflexion and lower knee flexion during stance phase. These adjustments are suspected to explain the absence of difference on ground reaction force and tibial acceleration. This study showed that the presence of very thin footwear upper and sole was sufficient to significantly influence the running pattern. PMID:24636223

  8. Fetal nuchal translucency thickness.

    PubMed

    Witters, I; Fryns, J R

    2007-01-01

    In the early 1990s Nicolaides introduced screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency thickness measurement with ultrasound between 11-13(+6) weeks. Already in 1866 L. Down noted that common features of patients with trisomy 21 are a skin being too large for the body and a flat face with a small nose. While detection rates for trisomy 21, given an invasive testing rate of 5%, were only 30% for screening by maternal age and 65% for screening by maternal serum triple test, the detection rate for screening by nuchal translucency combined with maternal age was 75% and this could be increased to 90% in combination with maternal serum screening (serum B-human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A) at 11-13(+6) weeks. The additional soft markers in the first trimester are the fetal nasal bone, the Doppler velocity waveform in the ductus venosus and tricuspid regurgitation and these markers can be used to further increase the detection rate of trisomy 21. In addition increased nuchal translucency thickness can also identify other chromosomal defects (mainly trisomy 13 and 18 and monosomy X) and major congenital malformations (mainly cardiac defects) and genetic syndromes. PMID:17515296

  9. Changes in Bladder Wall Thickness and Detrusor Wall Thickness After Surgical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Enlargement in Patients With Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hakmin; Choo, Minsoo; Kim, Myong; Cho, Sung Yong; Lee, Seung Bae; Jeong, Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the perioperative changes in bladder wall thickness and detrusor wall thickness after transurethral prostatectomy. Materials and Methods Fifty-one men who were treated for benign prostatic hyperplasia/lower urinary tract symptoms with transurethral prostatectomy were prospectively analyzed from May 2012 to July 2013. Prostate size, detrusor wall thickness, and bladder wall thickness were assessed by transrectal and transabdominal ultrasonography perioperatively. All postoperative evaluations were performed 1 month after the surgery. Results The patients' mean age was 69.0 years, the mean prostate-specific antigen concentration was 8.1 ng/mL, and the mean prostate volume was 63.2 mL. The mean bladder wall thickness was 5.1 mm (standard deviation [SD], ±1.6), 5.1 mm (SD, ±1.6), and 5.0 mm (SD, ±1.4) preoperatively and 4.5 mm (SD, ±1.5), 4.5 mm (SD, ±1.3), and 4.6 mm (SD, ±1.2) postoperatively in the anterior wall, dome, and trigone, respectively (p=0.178, p=0.086, and p=0.339, respectively). The mean detrusor wall thickness was 0.9 mm (SD, ±0.4) preoperatively and 0.7 mm (SD, ±0.3) postoperatively (p=0.001). A subgroup analysis stratifying patients into a large prostate group (weight, ≥45 g) and a high Abrams-Griffiths number group (>30) showed a significant decrease in detrusor wall thickness (p=0.002, p=0.018). Conclusions There was a decrease in detrusor wall thickness after transurethral prostatectomy. The large prostate group and the high Abrams-Griffiths number group showed a significant decrease in detrusor wall thickness after surgery. PMID:24466397

  10. The LLAMA 12 m mm/sub-mm radiotelescope in the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, Jacques; Edemundo Arnal, Marcelo; de Graauw, Thijs; Abraham, Zulema; Gimenez de Castro, Guillermo; de Gouveia Dal Pino, Elisabete; Morras, Ricardo; Larrarte, Juan; Viramontes, José; Finger, Ricardo; Kooi, Jacob; Reeves, Rodrigo; Beaklini, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    LLAMA (Large Latin American Millimetric Array) is a joint Argentinean-Brazilian project of a 12m mm/sub-mm radio telescope similar to the APEX antenna, to be installed at a site at 4800 m altitude near San Antonio de Los Cobres in the Salta Province in Argentine, at 150 km from ALMA. The scientific cases for single dish and VLBI observations include black holes and accretion disks, the molecular evolution of interstellar clouds, the structure of the Galaxy, the formation of galaxies, and much more. The antenna was ordered to the company Vertex Antennentechnik in June 2014, and the construction is progressing quickly; it will be installed at the site in 2016. The radio telescope will be equipped with up to six receivers covering bands similar to those of ALMA. Cryostats with room for 3 cartridges, constructed by NAOJ (Tokyo,Japan), will be installed in each of the two Nasmyth cabins. Among the first receivers we will have an ALMA band 9 provided by NOVA (Groningen, Holland) and a band 5 from the Chalmers University (Sweden). Other receivers are still being discussed at the time of submission of this abstract,At high frequencies, VLBI observations at high frequencies could be made with ALMA, APEX and ASTE, and Northern radiotelescopes. In this way, LLAMA will be a seed for a Latin-American VLBI network.

  11. The Effect of Thickness and Mesh Spacing on the Impact Resistance of Ferrocement Slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Muda, Zakaria; Ashraful Alam, Md; Syamsir, Agusril; Sulleman, Sorefan; Beddu, Salmia; Nasharuddin Mustapha, Kamal; Thiruchelvam, Sivadass; Ismail, Firas B.; Usman, Fathoni; Liyana Mohd Kamal, Nur; Birima, Ahmed H.; Itam, Zarina; Zaroog, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the thickness and mesh spacing on the impact of ferrocement for the concrete slab of 300mm x 300mm size reinforced subjected to low impact projectile test. A self-fabricated drop-weight impact test rig with a steel ball weight of 1.236 kg drop at height of 150 mm, 350mm, and 500mm has been used in this research work. The objective of this research is to study the relationship of impact resistance of ferrocement against slab thickness and mesh reinforcement spacing. There is a good linear correlation between impact resistance of ferrocement against slab thickness and its mesh spacing. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm slab are 2.00 times and 1.84 times respectively against the 20 mm slab with the same mesh spacing. The first and ultimate crack impact resistance for 40 mm slab with 20 mm mesh spacing are 2.24 times and 3.70 times respectively against 50 mm mesh spacing with the same slab thickness. The mesh with higher content of reinforcement provides more contribution to the slab resistance as compare with the thickness.

  12. Development of a centrifugal pump with thick blades.

    PubMed

    Kim, W G; Chung, C H; Yang, W S; Park, Y N; Kim, H I; Kim, H C; Kang, S H

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a centrifugal blood pump with thick impeller blades (60% of pitch) to obtain a small tip clearance. An unshrouded impeller with 6 backward curved thick blades was used to reduce the dead zone between the shroud and upper casing. A streamline angle in volute was uniform in circumferential direction by continuity and angular momentum conservation. To prove the effectiveness of small tip clearance, performance and hemolysis tests were conducted on pumps with a tip clearance of 0.5, 1.5, and 2.0 mm at exit with the blade thickness of 60% of pitch, and with that of 1.0, 2.0, and 2.5 mm at exit with the thickness of 40% of pitch. The results showed that the smaller the tip clearance, the better the hydrodynamic and hemolytic performance. The best result was seen in the pump with tip clearance of 0.5 mm with a blade thickness of 60% of pitch. These results suggest that a centrifugal pump with thick blades and a small tip clearance can be a promising alternative as a cardiopulmonary bypass pump. PMID:10718771

  13. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper. PMID:18205250

  14. Thick beryllium coatings by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, H; Nikroo, A; Youngblood, K; Moreno, K; Wu, D; Fuller, T; Alford, C; Hayes, J; Detor, A; Wong, M; Hamza, A; van Buuren, T; Chason, E

    2011-04-14

    Thick (>150 {micro}m) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). As an added complication, the coatings are deposited on mm-scale spherical substrates, as opposed to flats. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. We used ultra small angle x-ray spectroscopy (USAXS) to characterize the void fraction and distribution along the spherical surface. We investigated the void structure using a combination focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), along with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results show a few volume percent of voids and a typical void diameter of less than two hundred nanometers. Understanding how the stresses in the deposited material develop with thickness is important so that we can minimize film cracking and delamination. To that end, an in-situ multiple optical beam stress sensor (MOSS) was used to measure the stress behavior of thick Beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited. We will show how the film stress saturates with thickness and changes with pressure.

  15. Skin thickness effects on in vivo LXRF

    SciTech Connect

    Preiss, I.L.; Washington, W. II

    1995-12-31

    The analysis of lead concentration in bone utilizing LXRF can be adversely effected by overlying issue. A quantitative measure of the attenuation of the 10.5 keV Pb L a x-ray signal by skin and skin equivalent plastic has been conducted. Concentration ranges in plaster of Paris and goat bone from 7 to 90 ppm with attenuators of Lucite{reg_sign} and pig skin were examined. It is concluded that no quantitative or semi quantitative analysis can be achieved if overlying sue thickness exceeds 3 mm for Ph concentrations of less than 30 porn Ph in bone.

  16. Teaching Evolutionary Mechanisms: Genetic Drift and M&M's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staub, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a classroom activity that teaches the mechanism of genetic drift to undergraduates. Illustrates a number of concepts that are critical in developing evolution literacy by sampling M&M milk chocolate candies. (MM)

  17. Ultrasonic Inspection Of Thick Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friant, C. L.; Djordjevic, B. B.; O'Keefe, C. V.; Ferrell, W.; Klutz, T.

    1993-01-01

    Ultrasonics used to inspect large, relatively thick vessels for hidden defects. Report based on experiments in through-the-thickness transmission of ultrasonic waves in both steel and filament-wound composite cases of solid-fuel rocket motors.

  18. Effects of Antimony and Wall Thickness on Graphite Morphology in Ductile Iron Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavas, Zoran; Strkalj, Anita; Maldini, Kresimir

    2016-05-01

    Effects of Sb additions on the graphite morphology of ductile iron castings in different wall thicknesses (3, 12, 25, 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm) were analyzed in this paper. In the wall thicknesses of 3, 12, and 25 mm, low contents of rare earth (RE) elements showed a beneficial effect on nodule count and nodularity. Nodularity >80 pct and a high nodule count were achieved without the addition of Sb. In the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm, nodularity >80 pct was not achieved without the use of the chill or proper content of Sb. Excess of RE elements was neutralized with the addition of proper amount of Sb to the wall thickness. Addition of 0.01 wt pct Sb (ratio of RE/Sb = 0.34, ratio of RE/SE = 0.105) was sufficient to achieve nodularity >80 pct in the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm.

  19. Effects of Antimony and Wall Thickness on Graphite Morphology in Ductile Iron Castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavas, Zoran; Strkalj, Anita; Maldini, Kresimir

    2016-08-01

    Effects of Sb additions on the graphite morphology of ductile iron castings in different wall thicknesses (3, 12, 25, 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm) were analyzed in this paper. In the wall thicknesses of 3, 12, and 25 mm, low contents of rare earth (RE) elements showed a beneficial effect on nodule count and nodularity. Nodularity >80 pct and a high nodule count were achieved without the addition of Sb. In the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm, nodularity >80 pct was not achieved without the use of the chill or proper content of Sb. Excess of RE elements was neutralized with the addition of proper amount of Sb to the wall thickness. Addition of 0.01 wt pct Sb (ratio of RE/Sb = 0.34, ratio of RE/SE = 0.105) was sufficient to achieve nodularity >80 pct in the wall thicknesses of 38, 50, 75, and 100 mm.

  20. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease MM1+2C and MM1 are Identical in Transmission Properties.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Atsushi; Matsuura, Yuichi; Iwaki, Toru; Iwasaki, Yasushi; Yoshida, Mari; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Murayama, Shigeo; Takao, Masaki; Kato, Shinsuke; Yamada, Masahito; Mohri, Shirou; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The genotype (methionine, M or valine, V) at polymorphic codon 129 of the PRNP gene and the type (1 or 2) of abnormal prion protein in the brain are the major determinants of the clinicopathological features of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), thus providing molecular basis for classification of sporadic CJD, that is, MM1, MM2, MV1, MV2, VV1 or VV2. In addition to these "pure" cases, "mixed" cases presenting mixed neuropathological and biochemical features have also been recognized. The most frequently observed mixed form is the co-occurrence of MM1 and MM2, namely MM1+2. However, it has remained elusive whether MM1+2 could be a causative origin of dura mater graft-associated CJD (dCJD), one of the largest subgroups of iatrogenic CJD. To test this possibility, we performed transmission experiments of MM1+2 prions and a systematic neuropathological examination of dCJD patients in the present study. The transmission properties of the MM1+2 prions were identical to those of MM1 prions because MM2 prions lacked transmissibility. In addition, the neuropathological characteristics of MM2 were totally absent in dCJD patients examined. These results suggest that MM1+2 can be a causative origin of dCJD and causes neuropathological phenotype similar to that of MM1. PMID:25851836

  1. The hidden quasar nucleus of a WISE-selected, hyperluminous, dust-obscured galaxy at z ~ 2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Vignali, C.; Bianchi, S.; Zappacosta, L.; Fritz, J.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miniutti, G.; Bongiorno, A.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Maiolino, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first X-ray spectrum of a hot dust-obscured galaxy (DOG), namely W1835+4355 at z ~ 2.3. Hot DOGs represent a very rare population of hyperluminous (≥1047 erg s-1), dust-enshrouded objects at z ≥ 2 recently discovered in the WISE All Sky Survey. The 40 ks XMM-Newton spectrum reveals a continuum as flat (Γ ~ 0.8) as typically seen in heavily obscured AGN. This, along with the presence of strong Fe Kα emission, clearly suggests a reflection-dominated spectrum due to Compton-thick absorption. In this scenario, the observed luminosity of L2-10~ 2 × 1044 erg s-1 is a fraction (<10%) of the intrinsic one, which is estimated to be ≳ 5 × 1045 erg s-1 by using several proxies. The Herschel data allow us to constrain the SED up to the sub-mm band, providing a reliable estimate of the quasar contribution (~75%) to the IR luminosity as well as the amount of star formation (~2100 M⊙ yr-1). Our results thus provide additional pieces of evidence that associate Hot DOGs with an exceptionally dusty phase during which luminous quasars and massive galaxies co-evolve and a very efficient and powerful AGN-driven feedback mechanism is predicted by models.

  2. Effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty on macular thickness

    PubMed Central

    Koc, Mustafa; Durukan, Irfan; Koban, Yaran; Ceran, Basak Bastanci; Ayar, Orhan; Ekinci, Metin; Yilmazbas, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    Background To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on macular thickness change. Methods Forty eyes of 40 consecutive patients with uncontrolled primary open-angle glaucoma with medical treatment were included in this prospective study. SLT was performed to the inferior 180°, and macular thickness was measured. Data were collected before SLT, and 1 week and 1 month after SLT. Macular thickness evaluation was performed in five quadrants, the central 1 mm quadrant (fovea = F), the nasal 3 mm quadrant surrounding F (NQ), temporal quadrant, superior quadrant (SQ), and inferior quadrant (IQ). The preoperative and postoperative thicknesses were compared. Results There was an increase in macular thickness in the NQ, IQ, and SQ on the first week after SLT compared to preoperative measurements. On the other hand, there was no significant increase in the F and temporal quadrant. On the first month after SLT, thickness in the NQ, IQ, and SQ was back to preoperative measurements, and there was no significant change between the preoperative measurements in any quadrant. Conclusion There was no significant increase in macular thickness shortly after SLT in our study. PMID:26719665

  3. Amputee socks: how does sock ply relate to sock thickness?

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Joan E; Cagle, John C; Harrison, Daniel S; Karchin, Ari

    2015-01-01

    Background The term “sock ply” may be a source of confusion in prosthetics practice, because there may not be a consistent relationship between sock ply and sock thickness. Objectives The purpose of this study was to characterize how sock ply related to sock thickness for different sock materials commonly used in limb prosthetics. We also evaluated how sock thickness changed under loading conditions experienced while wearing a lower-limb prosthesis compared with unstressed. Study Design Experimental. Mechanical assessment. Methods Seven sock materials of varying ply were tested using a custom instrument. Sock thickness under eight different compressive stress conditions and two different in-plane tensile strain conditions were measured. Results For socks woven from a single material, thickness under walking stance phase conditions averaged 0.7, 1.2, and 1.5 mm for 1, 3, and 5-ply, respectively. For socks woven from several materials, the corresponding results were 0.4, 0.7, and 0.8 mm, respectively. Sock ply did not sum, e.g. a 3-ply sock was not three times the thickness of a 1-ply sock. Conclusions Sock thickness and compressive stiffness are strongly dependent upon sock material and interface pressure. Clinical Relevance Data may be useful towards selecting socks during fitting and towards understanding volume changes induced by adding socks. PMID:22228614

  4. Use of ground-penetrating radar for asphalt thickness determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choubane, Bouzid; Fernando, Emmanuel; Ross, Stephen C.; Dietrich, Bruce T.

    2003-07-01

    A computer program, called TERRA (Thickness Evaluation of Roads by RAdar) was recently developed for estimating pavement layer thicknesses from ground penetrating radar (GPR) data. This program incorporates decision criteria for automated detection of layer interfaces, computation of layer thicknesses and a segmentation algorithm for delineating segments based on layer thicknesses. The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) initiated the present field study for an initial assessment of TERRA. Radar and core data were collected from several flexible pavement sections of Florida's roadway system. These sites were selected to represent the present Florida in-place mixes (Superpave and Marshall mixtures) and different asphalt layer thicknesses, which varied from approximately 50 to 300 mm (2 to 12 in). Radar data were collected at both highway speeds and in stationary mode. This paper presents a description of the data collection effort as well as the subsequent analysis and findings.

  5. Characterization of thick and thin film SiCN for pressure sensing at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Leo, Alfin; Andronenko, Sergey; Stiharu, Ion; Bhat, Rama B

    2010-01-01

    Pressure measurement in high temperature environments is important in many applications to provide valuable information for performance studies. Information on pressure patterns is highly desirable for improving performance, condition monitoring and accurate prediction of the remaining life of systems that operate in extremely high temperature environments, such as gas turbine engines. A number of technologies have been recently investigated, however these technologies target specific applications and they are limited by the maximum operating temperature. Thick and thin films of SiCN can withstand high temperatures. SiCN is a polymer-derived ceramic with liquid phase polymer as its starting material. This provides the advantage that it can be molded to any shape. CERASET™ also yields itself for photolithography, with the addition of photo initiator 2, 2-Dimethoxy-2-phenyl-acetophenone (DMPA), thereby enabling photolithographical patterning of the pre-ceramic polymer using UV lithography. SiCN fabrication includes thermosetting, crosslinking and pyrolysis. The technology is still under investigation for stability and improved performance. This work presents the preparation of SiCN films to be used as the body of a sensor for pressure measurements in high temperature environments. The sensor employs the phenomenon of drag effect. The pressure sensor consists of a slender sensitive element and a thick blocking element. The dimensions and thickness of the films depend on the intended application of the sensors. Fabrication methods of SiCN ceramics both as thin (about 40-60 μm) and thick (about 2-3 mm) films for high temperature applications are discussed. In addition, the influence of thermosetting and annealing processes on mechanical properties is investigated. PMID:22205871

  6. Process simulations for manufacturing of thick composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempner, Evan A.

    The availability of manufacturing simulations for composites can significantly reduce the costs associated with process development. Simulations provide a tool for evaluating the effect of processing conditions on the quality of parts produced without requiring numerous experiments. This is especially significant in parts that have troublesome features such as large thickness. The development of simulations for thick walled composites has been approached by examining the mechanics of resin flow and fiber deformation during processing, applying these evaluations to develop simulations, and evaluating the simulation with experimental results. A unified analysis is developed to describe the three-dimensional resin flow and fiber preform deformation during processing regardless of the manufacturing process used. It is shown how the generic governing evaluations in the unified analysis can be applied to autoclave molding, compression molding, pultrusion, filament winding, and resin transfer molding. A comparison is provided with earlier models derived individually for these processes. The evaluations described for autoclave curing were used to produce a one-dimensional cure simulation for autoclave curing of thick composites. The simulation consists of an analysis for heat transfer and resin flow in the composite as well as bleeder plies used to absorb resin removed from the part. Experiments were performed in a hot press to approximate curing in an autoclave. Graphite/epoxy laminates of 3 cm and 5 cm thickness were cured while monitoring temperatures at several points inside the laminate and thickness. The simulation predicted temperatures fairly closely, but difficulties were encountered in correlation of thickness results. This simulation was also used to study the effects of prepreg aging on processing of thick composites. An investigation was also performed on filament winding with prepreg tow. Cylinders were wound of approximately 12 mm thickness with pressure

  7. Waterway Ice Thickness Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The ship on the opposite page is a U. S. Steel Corporation tanker cruising through the ice-covered waters of the Great Lakes in the dead of winter. The ship's crew is able to navigate safely by plotting courses through open water or thin ice, a technique made possible by a multi-agency technology demonstration program in which NASA is a leading participant. Traditionally, the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Seaway System is closed to shipping for more than three months of winter season because of ice blockage, particularly fluctuations in the thickness and location of ice cover due to storms, wind, currents and variable temperatures. Shippers have long sought a system of navigation that would allow year-round operation on the Lakes and produce enormous economic and fuel conservation benefits. Interrupted operations require that industrial firms stockpile materials to carry them through the impassable months, which is costly. Alternatively, they must haul cargos by more expensive overland transportation. Studies estimate the economic benefits of year-round Great Lakes shipping in the hundreds of millions of dollars annually and fuel consumption savings in the tens of millions of gallons. Under Project Icewarn, NASA, the U.S. Coast Guard and the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration collaborated in development and demonstration of a system that permits safe year-round operations. It employs airborne radars, satellite communications relay and facsimile transmission to provide shippers and ships' masters up-to-date ice charts. Lewis Research Center contributed an accurate methods of measuring ice thickness by means of a special "short-pulse" type of radar. In a three-year demonstration program, Coast Guard aircraft equipped with Side-Looking Airborne Radar (SLAR) flew over the Great Lakes three or four times a week. The SLAR, which can penetrate clouds, provided large area readings of the type and distribution of ice cover. The information was supplemented by short

  8. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  9. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  10. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  11. 40 CFR Table Mm-1 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 MM Table MM-1 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment... Factors for Petroleum Products and Natural Gas Liquids 1 2 Products Column A: density(metric tons/bbl... Natural Gas Liquids Aviation Gasoline 0.1120 85.00 0.3490 Special Naphthas 0.1222 84.76 0.3798...

  12. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  13. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  14. 40 CFR Table Mm-2 to Subpart Mm of... - Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Default Factors for Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass MM Table MM-2 to Subpart MM of Part 98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Biomass-Based Fuels and Biomass Biomass-based fuel and biomass Column A:Density (metric tons/bbl) Column...

  15. A λ = 1.3 mm and 2 mm molecular line survey towards M 82

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aladro, R.; Martín, S.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Mauersberger, R.; Henkel, C.; Ocaña Flaquer, B.; Amo-Baladrón, M. A.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We study the chemical complexity towards the central parts of the starburst galaxy M 82, and investigate the role of certain molecules as tracers of the physical processes in the galaxy circumnuclear region. Methods: We carried out a spectral line survey with the IRAM-30 m telescope towards the northeastern molecular lobe of M 82. It covers the frequency range between 129.8 GHz and 175.0 GHz in the 2 mm atmospheric window, and between 241.0 GHz and 260.0 GHz in the 1.3 mm atmospheric window. Results: Sixty-nine spectral features corresponding to 18 different molecular species are identified. In addition, three hydrogen recombination lines are detected. The species NO, H2S, H2CS, NH2CN, and CH3CN are detected for the first time in this galaxy. Assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium, we determine the column densities of all the detected molecules. We also calculate upper limits to the column densities of fourteen other important, but undetected, molecules, such as SiO, HNCO, or OCS. We compare the chemical composition of the two starburst galaxies M 82 and NGC 253. This comparison enables us to establish the chemical differences between the products of the strong photon-dominated regions driving the heating in M 82, and the large-scale shocks that influence the properties of the molecular clouds in the nucleus of NGC 253. Conclusions: Overall, both sources have different chemical compositions. Some key molecules highlight the different physical processes dominating both central regions. Examples include CH3CCH, c-C3H2, or CO+, the abundances of which are clearly higher in M 82 than in NGC 253, pointing at photodissociating regions. On the other hand, species such as CH2NH, NS, SiO, and HOCO+ have abundances of up to one order of magnitude higher in NGC 253 than in M 82. Appendix is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Gastric Wall Thickness in Sleeve Gastrectomy Patients: Thickness Variation of the Gastric Wall.

    PubMed

    van Rutte, Pim W J; Naagen, Bertus J; Spek, Marinus; Jakimowicz, Jack J; Nienhuijs, Simon W

    2015-11-01

    The sleeve gastrectomy has been accepted as a primary bariatric procedure. One of the most feared complications is staple line leakage. It is important to use the right staple sizes to minimize the risk of leak. Knowledge of gastric thickness is important. The goal of this study was to measure the thickness of the gastric wall after elimination of the gastric folds in the mucosa. An electronic thickness gauge was developed that measured the anterior and posterior wall of the fresh stomach specimen together at 5 points at a pressure based on the finger pressure necessary to flatten the gastric folds. Thirty-three fresh specimens were measured. The mean compression pressure was 714 grams, and no difference was found between the 5 measure points. There was a significant difference in stomach wall thickness. The gastric antrum was more than 1 mm thicker than the fundus. No difference was found between BMI groups <40 Kg/m2, 40-50 Kg/m2, or >50 Kg/m2. No bleeding occurred, leakage occurred in 1 case. There is a significant difference in thickness of the stomach wall between the gastric fundus and the antrum. A pressure 2.5 times lower than applied in prior studies was necessary to achieve full tissue compression. Choosing thinner staple sizes for the gastric fundus might be the optimal technique for compression. However, there are several additional factors that influence the risk of staple line leaks. PMID:26680415

  17. How thick do consumers' want their meat and how thick do they get it? The case of deep-fried breaded beef.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Daniela C; Libertino, Luciano M; Rodríguez, Graciela L; Hough, Guillermo E

    2013-08-01

    The main objective was to estimate the optimum thickness of meat from a consumers' perspective. Breaded beef (known as "milanesa" in Spanish speaking countries and as "schnitzels" in Austria) is a food product prepared with a slice of meat that is dipped in beaten egg to then be covered in bread crumbs; thus prepared it is fried. This product was used as a case study. Breaded beef was evaluated in three different stages: raw slice of meat, appearance of meat after frying, and during mastication. Breaded beef prepared with meat of varying thicknesses were presented to consumers who evaluated if the thicknesses were too thin, ok or too thick. Survival analysis statistics were used to estimate the optimum thicknesses. Results for each stage were: raw slice of meat = 6.7 ± 0.2 mm, appearance of the cut fried breaded beef = 8.4 ± 0.3 mm and during mastication = 7.6 ± 0.3 mm. The average thickness of the meat cut by butchers for breaded beef was 5.9 mm, not too far from the optimum. However, the average thickness of the meat in the breaded beef ready for frying sold by the same butchers 3.7 mm, clearly thinner than the optimum. PMID:23524882

  18. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing. PMID:606833

  19. Variation in mouthguard thickness due to different heating conditions during fabrication: part 2.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Mizuhashi, Fumi

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the thickness of mouthguard sheets under different heating conditions during fabrication. Mouthguards were fabricated with polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS) and olefin co-polymer (OL) sheets (4.0-mm thick) utilizing a vacuum-forming machine under the following three conditions: (A) the sheet was moulded when it sagged 15 mm below the sheet frame (i.e. the normally used position); (B) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 30 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm; and (C) the sheet frame was lowered to and heated at 50 mm below the top of the post and moulded when it sagged by 15 mm. The working model was trimmed to a height of 20 mm at the incisor and 15 mm at the first molar. Post-moulding thickness was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp, central groove and buccal surface). Dimensions were measured, and differences in the change in thickness due to heating condition were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Under condition C, OS and OL decreased in thickness from 0.36-0.54 mm to 0.26-0.30 mm, respectively, at the incisal portion and from 0.34-0.66 mm to 0.17-0.47 mm, respectively, at the molar portion. It may be clinically useful when moulding a mouthguard to maintain the thickness of the incisal and molar portions by adjusting the height of the sheet frame. PMID:25039434

  20. Measurement of compressed breast thickness by optical stereoscopic photogrammetry

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, Albert H.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Yaffe, Martin J.

    2009-02-15

    The determination of volumetric breast density (VBD) from mammograms requires accurate knowledge of the thickness of the compressed breast. In attempting to accurately determine VBD from images obtained on conventional mammography systems, the authors found that the thickness reported by a number of mammography systems in the field varied by as much as 15 mm when compressing the same breast or phantom. In order to evaluate the behavior of mammographic compression systems and to be able to predict the thickness at different locations in the breast on patients, they have developed a method for measuring the local thickness of the breast at all points of contact with the compression paddle using optical stereoscopic photogrammetry. On both flat (solid) and compressible phantoms, the measurements were accurate to better than 1 mm with a precision of 0.2 mm. In a pilot study, this method was used to measure thickness on 108 volunteers who were undergoing mammography examination. This measurement tool will allow us to characterize paddle surface deformations, deflections and calibration offsets for mammographic units.

  1. 2,3-Dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    James Bound, D; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. Their MIC and MFC values indicated that the 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol and thymol exhibited more fungicidal activity than the other compounds. Further, the 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of carvacrol and thymol, exhibited antitoxigenic effects against A. ochraceus and A. flavus and inhibited the production of ochratoxin and aflatoxin-B2. Propidium iodide influx assay demonstrated the lysis of C. albicans cells by carvacrol and its 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside and the loss of the membrane integrity. These new 2,3-dideoxyglucosides can be useful as antifungal agents and condiments in foods. PMID:27211660

  2. Development of the Ariane 4 interstage 2-3 in CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaas, C.

    1986-02-01

    For the Ariane 4 interstage 2/3, stiffened skin panels of CFRP were developed. The panels are 1.0 m wide and 2.7 m long. Each panel has 15 blade-type stiffeners with a height of 25 mm on a pitch of 68 mm. The material used is Fiberite 976-T300 in laying sequences of 45 and 0 deg. The total mass reduction of the structure compared to the aluminum version is greater than 20%. In the design of the structure, classical laminate theory and the numerical programs BOSOR 4, NASTRAN and SINDA were used.

  3. A λ 3 mm and 1 mm line survey toward the yellow hypergiant IRC +10420⋆

    PubMed Central

    Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Agúndez, M.; Cernicharo, J.; Bujarrabal, V.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Alcolea, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Our knowledge of the chemical properties of the circumstellar ejecta of the most massive evolved stars is particularly poor. We aim to study the chemical characteristics of the prototypical yellow hypergiant star, IRC +10420. For this purpose, we obtained full line surveys at 1 and 3 mm atmospheric windows. Methods We have identified 106 molecular emission lines from 22 molecular species. Approximately half of the molecules detected are N-bearing species, in particular HCN, HNC, CN, NO, NS, PN, and N2H+. We used rotational diagrams to derive the density and rotational temperature of the different molecular species detected. We introduced an iterative method that allows us to take moderate line opacities into account. Results We have found that IRC +10420 presents high abundances of the N-bearing molecules compared with O-rich evolved stars. This result supports the presence of a N-rich chemistry, expected for massive stars. Our analysis also suggests a decrease of the 12C/13C ratio from ≳ 7 to ~ 3.7 in the last 3800 years, which can be directly related to the nitrogen enrichment observed. In addition, we found that SiO emission presents a significant intensity decrease for high-J lines when compared with older observations. Radiative transfer modeling shows that this variation can be explained by a decrease in the infrared (IR) flux of the dust. The origin of this decrease might be an expansion of the dust shell or a lower stellar temperature due to the pulsation of the star. PMID:27458319

  4. Corneal Optical Quality Following Sub 1.8 mm Micro-Incision Cataract Surgery vs. 2.2 mm Mini-Incision Coaxial Phacoemulsification

    PubMed Central

    Alió, Jorge L.; Elkady, Bassam; Ortiz, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To study and compare the effects of the micro-incision cataract surgery (MICS-sub 1.8 mm) and miniincision coaxial phacoemulsification (2.2 mm) on the optical quality of the cornea characterized in terms of corneal aberrations. Materials and Methods: Fifty eyes underwent MICS and 50 mini-incision phacoemulsification, by the same surgeon. Both types of cataract surgery were performed using low ultrasound power and through a clear corneal incision, placed on the steepest corneal meridian ranging from 1.6 to 1.8 in MICS (Group I) and from 2.12 to 2.3 mm in mini-incision coaxial phacoemulsification (Group II). Seidel and Zernike aberration coefficients and RMS values were obtained for a 6-mm pupil preoperatively and one month after surgery. Results: The corneal astigmatism did not show statistically significant changes in either of the two groups: (MICS: –0.73 ± 0.63, –0.65 ± 0.53 D, P = 0.25), (mini-incision phacoemulsification; –1.21 ± 1.52, –1.00 ± 1.19 D, P = 0.12). The total RMS remained unchanged after MICS (1.77 ± 1.7, 1.65 ± 1.3 μm, P = 0.18) and mini-incision phacoemulsification (2.00 ± 1.87, 2.09 ± 1.8 μm, P = 0.41). Statistically significant changes were found for coma (P = 0.004) and higher-order aberrations (P < 0.001), showing MICS significantly less changes in cornea. Conclusions: Both MICS and mini-incision phacoemulsification do not degrade the optical quality of the cornea. Both surgeries do not induce a modification of the corneal astigmatism, even in the axis. It seems that 2 mm is the limit around which no optical changes are induced by cataract surgery in the human cornea. PMID:20543945

  5. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, A. R.; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M. S. Abdul

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding.

  6. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-08-01

    Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness.From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm < CL < 2 mm, III: CL ≥ 2 mm). Compression ratio (CR) was defined as pancreas thickness/CL. Distribution of pancreatic thickness was used to find the cut-off point of thickness which predicts POPF according to stapler groups.POPF developed in 130 (59.9%) patients (Grade A; n = 86 [66.1%], B; n = 44 [33.8%]). The numbers in each stapler group were 46, 101, and 70, respectively. Mean thickness was higher in POPF cases (15.2 mm vs 13.5 mm, P = 0.002). High body mass index (P = 0.003), thick pancreas (P = 0.011), and high CR (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for POPF in multivariate analysis. Pancreatic thickness was grouped into <12 mm, 12 to 17 mm, and >17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035).The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases. PMID:27583852

  7. Optimal stapler cartridge selection according to the thickness of the pancreas in distal pancreatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hongbeom; Jang, Jin-Young; Son, Donghee; Lee, Seungyeoun; Han, Youngmin; Shin, Yong Chan; Kim, Jae Ri; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stapling is a popular method for stump closure in distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, research on which cartridges are suitable for different pancreatic thickness is lacking. To identify the optimal stapler cartridge choice in DP according to pancreatic thickness. From November 2011 to April 2015, data were prospectively collected from 217 consecutive patients who underwent DP with 3-layer endoscopic staple closure in Seoul National University Hospital, Korea. Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) was graded according to International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula definitions. Staplers were grouped based on closed length (CL) (Group I: CL ≤ 1.5 mm, II: 1.5 mm < CL < 2 mm, III: CL ≥ 2 mm). Compression ratio (CR) was defined as pancreas thickness/CL. Distribution of pancreatic thickness was used to find the cut-off point of thickness which predicts POPF according to stapler groups. POPF developed in 130 (59.9%) patients (Grade A; n = 86 [66.1%], B; n = 44 [33.8%]). The numbers in each stapler group were 46, 101, and 70, respectively. Mean thickness was higher in POPF cases (15.2 mm vs 13.5 mm, P = 0.002). High body mass index (P = 0.003), thick pancreas (P = 0.011), and high CR (P = 0.024) were independent risk factors for POPF in multivariate analysis. Pancreatic thickness was grouped into <12 mm, 12 to 17 mm, and >17 mm. With pancreatic thickness <12 mm, the POPF rate was lowest with Group II (I: 50%, II: 27.6%, III: 69.2%, P = 0.035). The optimal stapler cartridges with pancreatic thickness <12 mm were those in Group II (Gold, CL: 1.8 mm). There was no suitable cartridge for thicker pancreases. Further studies are necessary to reduce POPF in thick pancreases. PMID:27583852

  8. [Investigation of Region of Interest (ROI) for measurement of slice thickness in Computed Tomography (CT)].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Shinobu; Kawata, Hidemichi; Nanbu, Ryosuke; Ohkura, Sunao; Hayashida, Kazuya; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-03-20

    We evaluated an appropriate region of interest (ROI) size for the measurement of full width at half maximum (FWHM) in the bead method (0.1 mm and 0.5 mm diameter; lead) and the microdisk method (0.05 mm thickness and 1.0 mm diameter; tungsten) using multislice computed tomography (CT). The FWHM of preset slice thicknesses 0.625 mm, 1.25 mm, 5.0 mm and 7.5 mm were measured by varying helical pitch, location of measurement [center and off-center of scan field of view (SFOV)] and ROI size, and they were compared with the tolerance stated in the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS). It was conlcuded that the appropriate ROI size was influenced by preset slice thickness in this study. At the center of SFOV, measurements of FWHM were enabled within the tolerance of the JIS with small variations in all preset slice thicknesses if the ROI sizes were set between 0.4 times and equal to the size of the bead or microdisk indicating the maximum CT value in the series of CT images. At the off-center of SFOV, the tendency of increasing FWHM was confirmed, but it was shown that variations of the off-center in thicker slice thickness were larger regardless of helical pitch when the orbital synchronized helical scan technique was not used. PMID:20379062

  9. Behaviour study of thick laminated composites: Experimentation and finite element analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchaine, Francois

    In today's industries, it is common practice to utilize composite materials in very large and thick structures like bridge decks, high pressure vessels, wind turbine blades and aircraft parts to mention a few. Composite materials are highly favoured due to their physical characteristics: low weight, low cost, adaptable mechanical properties, high specific strength and stiffness. The use of composite materials for large structures has however raised several concerns in the prediction of the behaviour of thick laminated composite parts. A lack of knowledge and experience in the use of composite materials during the design, sizing and manufacturing of thick composite parts can lead to catastrophic events. In this thesis, it was supposed that the elastic material properties may vary with the laminate thickness. In order to measure the influence of the thickness on nine orthotropic elastic material properties (E1, E2, E3, nu12, nu 13, nu23, G12, G13 and G23), three categories of thickness have been defined using a comparison between the classical lamination theory (CLT), different beam theories and a numerical 3D solid finite element analysis (FEA) model. The defined categories are: thin laminates for thicknesses below 6 mm (0.236"), moderately thick laminates for thicknesses up to 16 mm (0.630") and thick laminates for thicknesses above 16 mm (0.630"). For three different thicknesses (thin -- 1.5 mm, moderately thick -- 10 mm and thick -- 20 mm), the influence of the thickness on the orthotropic elastic material properties of unidirectional (UD) fibreglass/epoxy laminates has been measured. A torsion test on rectangular bar is also proposed to measure the influence of the thickness on G13 and G23. The nine elastic material properties, in function of the thickness, have been used in CLT and 3D solid FEA model in order to predict the axial Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios of cross-ply and quasi-isotropic laminates. Experimental results have also been obtained for

  10. Measurement of palladium crust thickness on catalyst by EPMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorbier, L.; Gay, A.-S.; Fécant, A.; Moreaud, M.; Brodusch, N.

    2012-03-01

    Selective hydrogenation is a key process in petrochemistry to obtain good feedstock for polymers synthesis. Common catalysts for this process consist in metallic palladium deposited with an eggshell distribution on porous alumina. For this system, the catalytic activity is known to be in strong relation with the thickness of the palladium crust. Typical catalyst consists of 2 - 4 mm diameter spherical beads having a 200 - 400 μm thick palladium crust and a total palladium amount of about 0.3 to 0.5 wt%. The palladium distribution in the catalyst bead can be easily characterized by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using polished cross-sections of the beads trough their diameter. By measuring the local concentration of palladium on several points along the bead diameter we obtain the distribution profile of palladium in the bead. Two strategies are proposed to measure this palladium crust thickness by EPMA. First the crust thickness is defined by the distance to the catalyst bead surface containing a fixed amount of total palladium (for example 95 % or 98 %). Second, the palladium profile is modelled by a parameterized analytical function from which a crust thickness can be extracted. Catalytic tests on four samples having different palladium crust thicknesses confirm the strong relation between activity and crust thickness. However the crust thickness containing 98 % of the palladium content shows the best correlation with activity.

  11. Radar Interferometric Possibilities for Determining Sea Ice Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, S.; Holt, B.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Steward, J.; Oveisgharan, S.; Moller, D.; Mahoney, A. R.; Reis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Sea ice thickness is a primary indicator of climate change in the polar oceans, as the thickness is a time-integrated result of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes. The large-scale ocean and atmospheric forcing acts on the fine-scale (a few to 10s of meters) opening and closing of the sea ice cover along fractures. The mean thickness and variance of sea thickness at km scales (50 cm uncertainty) are derived from recent spaceborne observations from the ICESat lidar and in the Arctic from sporadic upward looking sonar measurements. However, accurate measurements of sea ice thickness at the fine-scales at which the forcing is occurring are virtually non-existent. In this paper we explore two potential radar interferometric means of obtaining sea ice thickness. One method uses high frequency Ka-band (8.5 mm wavelength) to infer sea ice thickness by measuring elevations to the surface of the ice and to the ocean surface in nearby open leads. Data from the NASA Glistin radar is used to illustrate this methodology. Alternatively, we consider the use of dual frequency X-band and P-band (3 cm and 85 cm wavelengths) to exploit the differential penetration of longer versus shorter wavelength to estimate sea ice thickness. This technique is illustrated with data collected by the Furgo Earthdata GeoSAR system. Portions of this research were conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. 1,2,3-Triazoles as inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Caldelari, Daniela; Dilek, Nahzli; Reichenbach, Patrick; Ascencao, Kelly; Irving, Melita; Coukos, George; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays. Our approach yielded low molecular weight inhibitors of IDO2, the most active displaying an IC50 value of 51μM for mIDO2, and twofold selectivity over hIDO1. These compounds could be useful as molecular probes to investigate the biological role of IDO2, and could inspire the design of new IDO2 inhibitors. PMID:27469130

  13. Fracture behavior of thick, laminated graphite/epoxy composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, C. E.; Morris, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of laminate thickness on the fracture behavior of laminated graphite epoxy (T300/5208) composites was studied. The predominantly experimental research program included the study of the 0/+ or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates with thickness of 8, 32, 64, 96 and 120 plies and the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate with thickness of 6, 30, 60, 90 and 120 plies. The research concentrated on the measurement of fracture toughness utilizing the center-cracked tension, compact tension and three point bend specimen configurations. The development of subcritical damage at the crack tip was studied nondestructively using enhanced X-ray radiography and destructively using the laminate deply technique. The test results showed fracture toughness to be a function of laminate thickness. The fracture toughness of the 0 + or - 45/90 sub ns and 0/90 sub ns laminates decreased with increasing thickness and asymptotically approached lower bound values of 30 ksi square root of in. (1043 MPa square root of mm and 25 ksi square root of in (869 MPa square root of mm respectively. In contrast to the other two laminates, the fracture toughness of the 0/+ or - 45 sub ns laminate increased sharply with increasing thickness but reached an upper plateau value of 40 ksi square root of in (1390 MPa square root of mm) at 30 plies. Fracture toughness was independent of crack size for both thin and thick laminates for all three laminate types except for the 0/90 sub 2s laminate which spilt extensively. The center cracked tension, three point bend and compact tension specimens gave comparable results.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effect of Core Thickness and Fabrication Stages on the Marginal Accuracy of an All-Ceramic System

    PubMed Central

    Farid, F.; Hajimiragha, H.; Jelodar, R.; Mostafavi, A. S.; Nokhbatolfoghahaie, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of core thickness and fabrication stages on the marginal accuracy of IPS e.max Press crowns. Materials and Methods: Twenty IPS e.max Press crowns, 1.5mm thick, were fabricated on metal dies. The crowns had two different core thicknesses, 0.8mm for group A and 1mm for group B, ten for each group. Marginal gap was measured after each stage of core fabrication, veneering and glaze firing. The specimens were not cemented and the measurements were made at four points on metal dies using a stereomicroscope (×120). Data were analyzed by SPSS software and independent t-test. Results: Mean marginal gaps measured after each stage for group A were 13.5 (±1.4) μm, 33.9 (±2.3) μm and 40.5(±1.7) μm, and for group B these figures were 14.9(±2.0) μm, 35.5(±2.2) μm and 41.3(±2.0) μm. There were no statistically significant differences in marginal gap values between the two groups (p>0.1). Significant increase in gap was observed after the veneering stage in both groups (p<0.05). After glazing, no significant increase in gap was detected. Conclusion: IPS e.max Press crowns have an acceptable marginal fit. Increasing thickness of core does not increase marginal fitness. PMID:23119127

  15. Effect of resin thickness, and curing time on the micro-hardness of bulk-fill resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Nagi, Shaymaa M.; Moharam, Lamiaa M.; Zaazou, Mohamed H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Bulk-fill resin composite has been introduced, their manufacturers claimed that they can be applied in bulks of 4mm, without necessitating a prolonged curing time, or a light curing unit with increased irradiance. Thus this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of resin thickness, and curing time on the micro-hardness of two bulk -fill resin composites; Tetric Evo-Ceram [TE], and X-trafil [XF]. Material and Methods 120 cylindrical specimens were prepared, and divided into 24 groups (n=5/group), representing the two bulk-fill resin composites, three different material thicknesses (2, 3 and 4 mm) and the four curing times used in the study (10, 20, 40, and 60 seconds). The specimens were light-cured from the top surface only. Specimens were stored in light proof containers in complete darkness at 37°C for 24 hours. Micro-hardness test was conducted on both top and bottom surfaces using Vickers micro-hardness tester with 500 g load and a dwell time of 15 seconds. Data were statistically analyzed by Four-way ANOVA of Variance. The significance level was set at P ≤ 0.05. Pearson Correlation used to determine significant correlations between mean micro-hardness (top) and (bottom) surfaces. Results Four way-ANOVA shows that different tested materials produce a statistically significant effect on mean micro-hardness (VHN) at p≤0.001, while thickness, curing time, and surface revealed statistically non significant effect on mean micro-hardness (VHN) at p≥0.05. [XF] (92.01±3.15 VHN) showed statistically significant higher mean micro-hardness than [TE] (54.13±4.96 VHN). Pearson Correlation revealed that there was a significant direct correlation between micro-hardness (bottom) and mean micro-hardness (top) (mm), r = 0.985, p (2-tailed) ≤0.001. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, the bulk-fill resin composites used in this study can be placed and cured properly in the 4 mm bulk. Key words:Bulk-fill resin composite, micro

  16. Porous thin film barrier layers from 2,3-dicarboxylic acid cellulose nanofibrils for membrane structures.

    PubMed

    Visanko, Miikka; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Sirviö, Juho Antti; Haapala, Antti; Sliz, Rafal; Niinimäki, Jouko; Hormi, Osmo

    2014-02-15

    To fabricate a strong hydrophilic barrier layer for ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, 2,3-dicarboxylic acid cellulose nanofibrils with high anionic surface charge density (1.2 mekv/g at pH 7) and a width of 22 ± 4 nm were used. A simple vacuum filtration method combined with a solvent exchange procedure resulted in a porous layer with a thickness of ∼ 0.85 μm. The fabricated membranes reached high rejection efficiencies (74-80%) when aqueous dextrans up to 35-45 kDa were filtrated to evaluate the molecular weight cut-offs (MWCO). A linear correlation between the barrier layer thickness and the flux rate was observed in all tested cases. Further optimization of the barrier layer thickness can lead to an even more effective structure. PMID:24507322

  17. Central corneal thickness and intraocular pressure in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous population

    PubMed Central

    Eballe, André Omgbwa; Koki, Godefroy; Ellong, Augustin; Owono, Didier; Epée, Emilienne; Bella, Lucienne Assumpta; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Kouam, Jeanne Mayouego

    2010-01-01

    Aim: We performed a prospective, analytical study from 01 January to 31 March 2009 in the Ophthalmology Unit of the Gyneco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital of Yaounde, aiming to determine the profile of central corneal thickness (CCT) in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population and its relationship with intraocular pressure (IOP). Results and discussion: Four hundred and eighty-five patients (970 eyes) meeting our inclusion criteria were selected for this study. The average CCT was 529.29 ± 35.9 μm in the right eye (95% confidence interval [CI]: 526.09–532.49), 528.19 ± 35.9 μm in the left eye (95% CI: 524.99–531.40) and 528.74 ± 35.89 μm in both eyes (95% CI: 526.48–531.00), range 440 to 670 μm. The average IOP was 13.01 ± 2.97 mmHg in both eyes (95% CI: 12.82–13.19). A rise in CCT by 100 μm was followed by an increase in IOP of about 2.8 mmHg (95% CI: 2.3–3.6) for both eyes taken together. Linear regression analysis showed that corneal thickness was negatively correlated with age and IOP was positively related with age. Conclusion: CCT in the Cameroonian nonglaucomatous black population was found to be lower compared with CCT values in Caucasian and Asian populations. On the basis of reference values ranging between 527 and 560 μm, an adjustment of IOP values by a correction factor is required for many Cameroonian patients. This will improve the diagnosis and follow-up of glaucoma by helping to detect true ocular hypertension. PMID:20689788

  18. Is smaller better? Comparison of 3-mm and 5-mm leaf size for stereotactic radiosurgery: A dosimetric study

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, Shyh-shi . E-mail: Richard.Chern@hci.utah.edu; Leavitt, Dennis D.; Jensen, Randy L.; Shrieve, Dennis C.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To perform a dosimetric comparison of a minimal 3-mm leaf width multileaf collimator (MLC) and a minimal 5-mm MLC in dynamic conformal arc stereotactic radiosurgery for treatment of intracranial lesions. Methods and Materials: The treatment plans of 23 patients previously treated for intracranial lesions in our institution were redone using the BrainSCAN, version 5.3, stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning system (BrainLAB). For each case, two dynamic conformal arc plans were generated: one using a minimal 3-mm micro-MLC (BrainLAB, Novalis) and one using a minimal 5-mm MLC (Varian Millennium). All arc parameters were the same in each of the two plans, except for the collimator angle settings. The collimator angle settings were optimized for each arc in each plan. A peritumoral rind structure (1 cm) was created to evaluate normal tissue sparing immediately adjacent to the target volume. Conformity indexes (CIs) were calculated for each plan. The dependence of normal tissue sparing and target conformity on target volume (TV) was determined. Results: The TV was 0.14-36.32 cm{sup 3} (median, 5.90). The CI was 1.22-2.60 (median, 1.51) for the 3-mm micro-MLC and 1.23-2.69 (median, 1.60) for the 5-mm MLC. Despite this small difference, it was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.0001) for the 5-mm MLC compared with the 3-mm micro-MLC. Improved normal tissue sparing was demonstrated using the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC by examining the peritumoral rind volumes (PRVs) receiving 50% (PRV{sub 5}), 80% (PRV{sub 8}), and 90% (PRV{sub 9}) of the prescription dose. The reduction in the PRV{sub 5}, PRV{sub 8}, and PRV{sub 9} for the 3-mm micro-MLC compared with the 5-mm MLC was 13.5%, 12.9%, and 11.5%, respectively. The CI decreased with a larger TV, as did the difference in the CIs between the 3-mm micro-MLC and 5-mm MLC. A reduction in the PRV increased with larger TVs. Conclusion: The 3-mm micro-MLC provided better target conformity and

  19. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion cartridges, and…

  20. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    Research at the National Information Center for Educational Media (NICEM) has shown that the 8mm motion cartridge with optical and magnetic sound seems to meet the basic tenets of a prime educational criterion for an educational medium--that it be available to the learner at his convenience. This is a bibliographical source for 8mm motion…

  1. Do Noncontingent Interviewer Mm-hmms Facilitate Interviewee Productivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegman, Aron Wolfe

    1976-01-01

    Two studies investigated the hypothesis that noncontingent interviewer "mm-hmms" facilitate interviewee verbal productivity. Within- and between-subjects comparisons failed to support the hypothesis, although interviewees' ratings indicate that the mm-hmms were perceived as the social reinforcers they were intended to be. (Author)

  2. Development of high-resolution gamma detector using sub-mm GAGG crystals coupled to TSV-MPPC array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovec, A.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.

    2016-03-01

    In this study a high-resolution gamma detector based on an array of sub-millimeter Ce:GAGG (Cerium doped Gd3Al2Ga3O12) crystals read out by an array of surface-mount type of TSV-MPPC was developed. MPPC sensor from Hamamatsu which has a 26 by 26 mm2 detector area with 64 channels was used. One channel has a 3 by 3 mm2 photosensitive area with 50 μ m pitch micro cells. MPPC sensor provides 576 mm2 sensing area and was used to decode 48 by 48 array with 0.4 by 0.4 by 20 mm3 Ce:GAGG crystals of 500 μ m pitch. The base of the detector with the crystal module was mounted to a read out board which consists of charge division circuit, thus allowing for a read out of four channels to identify the position of the incident event on the board. The read out signals were amplified using charge sensitive amplifiers. The four amplified signals were digitized and analyzed to produce a position sensitive event. For the performance analysis a 137Cs source was used. The produced events were used for flood histogram and energy analysis. The effects of the glass thickness between the Ce:GAGG and MPPC were analyzed using the experimental flood diagrams and Geant4 simulations. The glass between the scintillator and the detector allows the spread of the light over different channels and is necessary if the channel's sensitive area is bigger than the scintillator's area. The initial results demonstrate that this detector module is promising and could be used for applications requiring compact and high-resolution detectors. Experimental results show that the detectors precision increases using glass guide thickness of 1.35 mm and 1.85 mm; however the precision using 2.5 mm are practically the same as if using 0.8 mm or 1.0 mm glass guide thicknesses. In addition, simulations using Geant4 indicate that the light becomes scarcer if thicker glass is used, thus reducing the ability to indicate which crystal was targeted. When 2.5 mm glass thickness is used, the scarce light effect becomes

  3. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-05-20

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 {mu}m measurements can be recorded with less than {+-}5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  4. Experimental optimisation of the gas-assisted laser cutting of thick steel sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Malikov, A G; Orishich, Anatolii M; Shulyat'ev, Viktor B

    2009-06-30

    We report on the experimental optimisation of the oxygen-assisted CO{sub 2} laser cutting of low-carbon sheet steel 5 to 25 mm in thickness. It is shown that the cut edge roughness is minimal when the energy input per unit volume of the material removed and the incident beam power per unit sheet thickness remain constant at {approx}20 J mm{sup -3} and {approx}200 W mm{sup -1}, respectively, over the entire range of sheet thicknesses examined. The corresponding Peclet number is Pe = 0.5. These results can be used to determine the optimal beam power and cutting speed for a particular sheet thickness. At sufficiently large thicknesses, the conditions that ensure the minimum roughness can be written in the form of relations between nondimensional parameters. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  5. Thales Angenieux: 42 years of cine 35 mm zoom leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debize, Jacques

    2004-02-01

    Since the early years of zoom optics, Angenieux has been involved in cine 8 mm, 16 mm and 35 mm. Among more than twenty different zoom lenses, four of them have been milestones in this field, technical progresses being sanctified by two Oscars in 1964 and 1990. From 1960 to 2002 Angenieux has created first the 4 x 35 LA2, the first four times mechanically compensated zoom lens for cine 35 mm in the world, secondary the 10 x 25 T2, the first ten times mechanically compensated zoom lens for cine 35 mm in the world, then the 10 x 25 HR, the top level of quality for its category and finally the 12 x 24 Optimo with all characteristics and performances greatly increased. This leadership has been reached thanks to computers and in-house softwares but also thanks to new manufacturing processes.

  6. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  7. Methodological aspects of QM/MM calculations: A case study on matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Vasilevskaya, Tatiana; Khrenova, Maria G; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Thiel, Walter

    2016-07-15

    We address methodological issues in quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) calculations on a zinc-dependent enzyme. We focus on the first stage of peptide bond cleavage by matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), that is, the nucleophilic attack of the zinc-coordinating water molecule on the carbonyl carbon atom of the scissile fragment of the substrate. This step is accompanied by significant charge redistribution around the zinc cation, bond cleavage, and bond formation. We vary the size and initial geometry of the model system as well as the computational protocol to demonstrate the influence of these choices on the results obtained. We present QM/MM potential energy profiles for a set of snapshots randomly selected from QM/MM-based molecular dynamics simulations and analyze the differences in the computed profiles in structural terms. Since the substrate in MMP-2 is located on the protein surface, we investigate the influence of the thickness of the water layer around the enzyme on the QM/MM energy profile. Thin water layers (0-2 Å) give unrealistic results because of structural reorganizations in the active-site region at the protein surface. A 12 Å water layer appears to be sufficient to capture the effect of the solvent; the corresponding QM/MM energy profile is very close to that obtained from QM/MM/SMBP calculations using the solvent macromolecular boundary potential (SMBP). We apply the optimized computational protocol to explain the origin of the different catalytic activity of the Glu116Asp mutant: the energy barrier for the first step is higher, which is rationalized on structural grounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27140531

  8. Project: Micromachined High-Frequency Circuits For Sub-mm-wave Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papapolymerou, Ioannis John

    2004-01-01

    A novel micromachined resonator at 45 GHz based on a defect in a periodic electromagnetic bandgap structure (EBG) and a two-pole Tchebysbev filter with 1.4% 0.15 dB equiripple bandwidth and 2.3 dB loss employing this resonator are presented in this letter. The periodic bandgap structure is realized on a 400 micron thick high-resistivity silicon wafer using deep reactive ion etching techniques. The resonator and filter can be accessed via coplanar waveguide feeds.

  9. Thickness-dependent bending modulus of hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Bando, Yoshio; Zhi, Chunyi; Huang, Yang; Golberg, Dmitri

    2009-09-01

    Bending modulus of exfoliation-made single-crystalline hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs) with thicknesses of 25-300 nm and sizes of 1.2-3.0 µm were measured using three-point bending tests in an atomic force microscope. BNNSs suspended on an SiO2 trench were clamped by a metal film via microfabrication based on electron beam lithography. Calculated by the plate theory of a doubly clamped plate under a concentrated load, the bending modulus of BNNSs was found to increase with the decrease of sheet thickness and approach the theoretical C33 value of a hexagonal BN single crystal in thinner sheets (thickness<50 nm). The thickness-dependent bending modulus was suggested to be due to the layer distribution of stacking faults which were also thought to be responsible for the layer-by-layer BNNS exfoliation.

  10. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  11. Reductions in Red Blood Cell 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Concentration during Continuous Renal Replacment Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin’s (Hgb’s) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Results Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (P<0.001). Mean hemoglobin saturation P50 levels decreased from 29.7±4.4 mmHg to 26.7±4.0 mmHg (P<0.001). No significant change was seen in the reference group. 2,3-DPG levels after 2 days of CRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; P<0.001). Greater reductions in 2,3-DPG were associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.88; P=0.01). Conclusions CRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2,3

  12. Amplitude modulation drive to rectangular-plate linear ultrasonic motors with vibrators dimensions 8 mm x 2.16 mm X 1 mm.

    PubMed

    Ming, Yang; Hanson, Ben; Levesley, Martin C; Walker, Peter G; Watterson, Kevin G

    2006-12-01

    In this paper, to exploit the contribution from not only the stators but also from other parts of miniature ultrasonic motors, an amplitude modulation drive is proposed to drive a miniature linear ultrasonic motor consisting of two rectangular piezoelectric ceramic plates. Using finite-element software, the first longitudinal and second lateral-bending frequencies of the vibrator are shown to be very close when its dimensions are 8 mm x 2.16 mm x 1 mm. So one single frequency power should be able to drive the motor. However, in practice the motor is found to be hard to move with a single frequency power because of its small vibration amplitudes and big frequency difference between its longitudinal and bending resonance, which is induced by the boundary condition variation. To drive the motor effectively, an amplitude modulation drive is used by superimposing two signals with nearly the same frequencies, around the resonant frequency of the vibrators of the linear motor. When the amplitude modulation frequency is close to the resonant frequency of the vibrator's surroundings, experimental results show that the linear motor can move back and forward with a maximum thrust force (over 0.016 N) and a maximum velocity (over 50 mm/s). PMID:17186925

  13. Leakage of four root canal sealers at different thickness.

    PubMed

    Wu, M K; De Gee, A J; Wesselink, P R

    1994-11-01

    Sealers play a key role in sealing the root canal system. Fluid transport under a headspace pressure of 50 kPa (0.5 atm) through four sealers, AH26, Ketac-Endo, Sealapex and Tubli-Seal at a thickness of 0.05, 0.25 or 3 mm, was determined using 240 standard bovine root sections which were obturated with either sealer only or sealer combined with standard gutta-percha cylinders. AH26 and Sealapex sealed more tightly than Ketac-Endo or Tubli-Seal when used without gutta-percha; AH26, Ketac-Endo, and Sealapex sealed more tightly than Tubli-Seal when the sealer layer was 0.25 mm thick, while Ketac-Endo sealed more tightly than the other three sealers when the sealer layer was 0.05 mm thick. These findings indicate that the thickness of the sealer layer influences the sealing ability of a root canal filling. PMID:7751063

  14. Japanese Science Films; a Descriptive and Evaluative Catalog of: 16mm Motion Pictures, 8mm Cartridges, and Video Tapes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newren, Edward F., Ed.

    One hundred and eighty Japanese 16mm motion pictures, 8mm cartridges, and video tapes produced and judged appropriate for a variety of audience levels are listed in alphabetical order by title with descriptive and evaluative information. A subject heading list and a subject index to the film titles are included, as well as a sample of the…

  15. The effect of slice thickness on quantitation of in vivo renal volume with cine computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Lerman, L.O.; Bentley, M.D.; Bell, M.R.; Rumberger, J.A.; Romero, J.C. )

    1990-02-26

    The development of fast computed tomography (CT) scanners allows the accurate quantitations of the volume (V) of the in-vivo kidney (K) and its component tissues, using 3 mm thick slices. Utilizing thicker slices may potentially enable the use of shorter scan times with less exposure to contrast media. To determine the relative accuracy of such scans, the right Ks of 14 anesthetized dogs were first scanned, using 3mm thick slices, after a venous bolus injection of iohexol (0.5 cc/kg). The images were then averaged to produce 6 and 10 mm thick slices, and the Vs of the Ks, and their cortical and medullary Vs, determined after boundary identification. Following the scans, the Ks were excised and their Vs determined post-mortem by fluid displacement. The whole K Vs obtained with the 6 and 10 mm thick slices correlated well with those obtained with the 3 mm thick slices. The difference between the in vivo and the post-mortem renal and medullary Vs was consistent with the blood, filtrate and urine contents of the in vivo kidney. In conclusion, the use of 6 and 10 mm thick slices resulted in an overestimation of the in vivo cortical V due to a partial volume effect, which was reflected in a consistent overestimation of KV.

  16. Choroidal thickness in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ru; Kuang, Guo-Ping; Luo, Di-Xian; Lu, Xiao-He

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate choroidal thickness in pregnant women and compare the measurements with those of normal nonpregnant women. METHODS Using enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT), choroidal thickness was measured at the fovea and at 1 mm and 3 mm superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal to the fovea in both healthy pregnant women and nonpregnant women. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between subfoveal choroidal thickness (SFCT) and the demographic and ocular parameters. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using fixed-effects model when Meta-analyses were conducted. RESULTS Comparison of choroidal thickness between the groups showed that it was significantly greater in healthy pregnant women's eyes than in normal nonpregnant women's eyes at all locations except at 3 mm superior and 3 mm temporal from the fovea (P<0.05). The mean SFCT was 344.13±50.94 µm in healthy pregnant women's eyes and 315.03±60.57 µm in normal nonpregnant women's eyes, with a statistically significant difference (P=0.008). Pearson correlation analysis showed that age and axial length were significantly related to SFCT in healthy pregnant women, normal nonpregnant women, and all subjects. The results of our cross-sectional study were consistent with the results of the further Meta-analysis, with a pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) of 33.66 µm (95% CI: 26.16 to 41.15) for SFCT. CONCLUSION Our results, along with the comprehensive Meta-analysis, suggest that choroidal thickness in healthy pregnant women is greater than that in normal nonpregnant women. PMID:27588276

  17. Replacing 16 mm film cameras with high definition digital cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  18. The 19 mm data recorders similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1992-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced as we enter the world of high performance computing. This paper addresses the following: the differences between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179 and DD-2; what the proper machine is for various applications; how the machine can be integrated into an environment; and any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders. DD-2 and 19 mm instrumentation recorders have missions for which each is well designed. While the differences may appear subtle, understanding the difference between the two is the key to picking the right recorder for a particular application.

  19. Fragmentation pathways of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane cations in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kirk, Benjamin B; Ellis-Steinborner, Simon; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) is an explosive taggant added to plastic explosives during manufacture making them more susceptible to vapour-phase detection systems. In this study, the formation and detection of gas-phase [M+H](+), [M+Li](+), [M+NH(4)](+) and [M+Na](+) adducts of DMNB was achieved using electrospray ionisation on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The [M+H](+) ion abundance was found to have a strong dependence on ion source temperature, decreasing markedly at source temperatures above 50 degrees C. In contrast, the [M+Na](+) ion demonstrated increasing ion abundance at source temperatures up to 105 degrees C. The relative susceptibility of DMNB adduct ions toward dissociation was investigated by collision-induced dissociation. Probable structures of product ions and mechanisms for unimolecular dissociation have been inferred based on fragmentation patterns from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of source-formed ions of normal and isotopically labelled DMNB, and quantum chemical calculations. Both thermal and collisional activation studies suggest that the [M+Na](+) adduct ions are significantly more stable toward dissociation than their protonated analogues and, as a consequence, the former provide attractive targets for detection by contemporary rapid screening methods such as desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PMID:19670345

  20. Reliability of Intra-Retinal Layer Thickness Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Oberwahrenbrock, Timm; Weinhold, Maria; Mikolajczak, Janine; Zimmermann, Hanna; Paul, Friedemann; Beckers, Ingeborg; Brandt, Alexander U.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measurement of intra-retinal layer thickness using optical coherence tomography (OCT) has become increasingly prominent in multiple sclerosis (MS) research. Nevertheless, the approaches used for determining the mean layer thicknesses vary greatly. Insufficient data exist on the reliability of different thickness estimates, which is crucial for their application in clinical studies. This study addresses this lack by evaluating the repeatability of different thickness estimates. Methods Studies that used intra-retinal layer segmentation of macular OCT scans in patients with MS were retrieved from PubMed. To investigate the repeatability of previously applied layer estimation approaches, we generated datasets of repeating measurements of 15 healthy subjects and 13 multiple sclerosis patients using two OCT devices (Cirrus HD-OCT and Spectralis SD-OCT). We calculated each thickness estimate in each repeated session and analyzed repeatability using intra-class correlation coefficients and coefficients of repeatability. Results We identified 27 articles, eleven of them used the Spectralis SD-OCT, nine Cirrus HD-OCT, two studies used both devices and two studies applied RTVue-100. Topcon OCT-1000, Stratus OCT and a research device were used in one study each. In the studies that used the Spectralis, ten different thickness estimates were identified, while thickness estimates of the Cirrus OCT were based on two different scan settings. In the simulation dataset, thickness estimates averaging larger areas showed an excellent repeatability for all retinal layers except the outer plexiform layer (OPL). Conclusions Given the good reliability, the thickness estimate of the 6mm-diameter area around the fovea should be favored when OCT is used in clinical research. Assessment of the OPL was weak in general and needs further investigation before OPL thickness can be used as a reliable parameter. PMID:26349053

  1. A New Electromagnetic Instrument for Thickness Gauging of Conductive Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulton, J. P.; Wincheski, B.; Nath, S.; Reilly, J.; Namkung, M.

    1994-01-01

    Eddy current techniques are widely used to measure the thickness of electrically conducting materials. The approach, however, requires an extensive set of calibration standards and can be quite time consuming to set up and perform. Recently, an electromagnetic sensor was developed which eliminates the need for impedance measurements. The ability to monitor the magnitude of a voltage output independent of the phase enables the use of extremely simple instrumentation. Using this new sensor a portable hand-held instrument was developed. The device makes single point measurements of the thickness of nonferromagnetic conductive materials. The technique utilized by this instrument requires calibration with two samples of known thicknesses that are representative of the upper and lower thickness values to be measured. The accuracy of the instrument depends upon the calibration range, with a larger range giving a larger error. The measured thicknesses are typically within 2-3% of the calibration range (the difference between the thin and thick sample) of their actual values. In this paper the design, operational and performance characteristics of the instrument along with a detailed description of the thickness gauging algorithm used in the device are presented.

  2. Shape from equal thickness contours

    SciTech Connect

    Cong, G.; Parvin, B.

    1998-05-10

    A unique imaging modality based on Equal Thickness Contours (ETC) has introduced a new opportunity for 3D shape reconstruction from multiple views. We present a computational framework for representing each view of an object in terms of its object thickness, and then integrating these representations into a 3D surface by algebraic reconstruction. The object thickness is inferred by grouping curve segments that correspond to points of second derivative maxima. At each step of the process, we use some form of regularization to ensure closeness to the original features, as well as neighborhood continuity. We apply our approach to images of a sub-micron crystal structure obtained through a holographic process.

  3. Laser detection of material thickness

    DOEpatents

    Early, James W.

    2002-01-01

    There is provided a method for measuring material thickness comprising: (a) contacting a surface of a material to be measured with a high intensity short duration laser pulse at a light wavelength which heats the area of contact with the material, thereby creating an acoustical pulse within the material: (b) timing the intervals between deflections in the contacted surface caused by the reverberation of acoustical pulses between the contacted surface and the opposite surface of the material: and (c) determining the thickness of the material by calculating the proportion of the thickness of the material to the measured time intervals between deflections of the contacted surface.

  4. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  5. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  7. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  8. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  9. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  10. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  11. 22 CFR 2.3 - Notification of foreign officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of foreign officials. 2.3 Section 2.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER OFFICIAL PERSONNEL § 2.3 Notification of foreign officials. (a) Any notification of a foreign official...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  14. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  17. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  18. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  19. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  20. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  1. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  2. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  3. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  4. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  5. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  6. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  7. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  8. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  9. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  10. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  11. Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens Travis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northeast, 210mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  12. Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 909, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. Building 908 at extreme right for context. - Travis Air Force Base, Handling Crew Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  13. Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  14. Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 904, oblique view to northwest, 135 mm lens - Travis Air Force Base, Base Spares Warehouse No. 1, Dixon Avenue & W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  15. Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to east, 90 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  16. Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to southeast, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  17. Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 1204, oblique view to west, 135 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Squadron Operations & Readiness Crew Facility, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  18. Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 931, oblique view to northwest, 210 mm lens. - Travis Air Force Base, Central Battery Charging Building, North of W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  19. Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Building 932, oblique view to northwest, 90 mm lens. Building 933-935 at extreme left. - Travis Air Force Base, Nuclear Weapons Assembly Plant 5, W Street, Armed Forces Special Weapons Project Q Area, Fairfield, Solano County, CA

  20. OpenMM: A Hardware Independent Framework for Molecular Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Eastman, Peter; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    The wide diversity of computer architectures today requires a new approach to software development. OpenMM is a framework for molecular mechanics simulations, allowing a single program to run efficiently on a variety of hardware platforms. PMID:26146490

  1. 35 mm PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN PRIOR TO DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURE. SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35 mm PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN PRIOR TO DEMOLITION OF STRUCTURE. SOUTH (SIDE) AND EAST (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF BUILDING. VIEW TO NORTHWEST - Plattsburgh Air Force Base, Gas Station, New York Road, Plattsburgh, Clinton County, NY

  2. The 19 mm date recorders: Similarities and differences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, Steve

    1991-01-01

    Confusion over the use of non-video 19 mm data recorders is becoming more pronounced in the world of high performance computing. The following issues are addressed: (1) the difference between ID-1, ID-2, MIL-STD-2179, and DD-2; (2) the proper machine for the necessary application; and (3) integrating the machine into an existing environment. Also, an attempt is made to clear up any misconceptions there might be about 19 mm tape recorders.

  3. Monolithic mm-wave ICs for smart weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffield, T. L.

    1988-04-01

    An approach to developing a low-cost mm-wave transceiver with application to a broad range of smart weapons systems is described. The proposed transceiver technology consists of monolithic mm-wave integrated circuits on GaAs substrates. The relevant transceiver configurations, FET material, and electron beam lithography are discussed. The types of devices to which the approach is applicable are addressed, emphasizing the use of three-terminal devices for all active elements.

  4. QM/MM investigations of organic chemistry oriented questions.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas C; Paasche, Alexander; Grebner, Christoph; Ansorg, Kay; Becker, Johannes; Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    About 35 years after its first suggestion, QM/MM became the standard theoretical approach to investigate enzymatic structures and processes. The success is due to the ability of QM/MM to provide an accurate atomistic picture of enzymes and related processes. This picture can even be turned into a movie if nuclei-dynamics is taken into account to describe enzymatic processes. In the field of organic chemistry, QM/MM methods are used to a much lesser extent although almost all relevant processes happen in condensed matter or are influenced by complicated interactions between substrate and catalyst. There is less importance for theoretical organic chemistry since the influence of nonpolar solvents is rather weak and the effect of polar solvents can often be accurately described by continuum approaches. Catalytic processes (homogeneous and heterogeneous) can often be reduced to truncated model systems, which are so small that pure quantum-mechanical approaches can be employed. However, since QM/MM becomes more and more efficient due to the success in software and hardware developments, it is more and more used in theoretical organic chemistry to study effects which result from the molecular nature of the environment. It is shown by many examples discussed in this review that the influence can be tremendous, even for nonpolar reactions. The importance of environmental effects in theoretical spectroscopy was already known. Due to its benefits, QM/MM can be expected to experience ongoing growth for the next decade.In the present chapter we give an overview of QM/MM developments and their importance in theoretical organic chemistry, and review applications which give impressions of the possibilities and the importance of the relevant effects. Since there is already a bunch of excellent reviews dealing with QM/MM, we will discuss fundamental ingredients and developments of QM/MM very briefly with a focus on very recent progress. For the applications we follow a similar

  5. Effect of Smoked Foil Thickness and Location on Detonation Initiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, K. M.; Wen, C. S.

    Smoked foil has been employed to visualize triple point pattern (or cell width), indicating detonation phenomena. However, the aluminum sheet also corresponds to sudden contraction in a smooth tube. It might induce early trigger on detonation initiation and result in a reduction in deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) run-up distance. Test results showed the thickness of aluminum sheet of less than 1.3 mm is required to eliminate the effect of smoked foil. A reduction in Xdtt is observed when the thickness of aluminum sheet increases.

  6. Effect of Temperature Gradient on Thick Film Selective Emitter Emittance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Good, Brian S.; Clark, Eric B.; Chen, Zheng

    1997-01-01

    A temperature gradient across a thick (greater than or equal to .1 mm) film selective emitter will produce a significant reduction in the spectral emittance from the no temperature gradient case. Thick film selective emitters of rare earth doped host materials such as yttrium-aluminum-garnet (YAG) are examples where temperature gradient effects are important. In this paper a model is developed for the spectral emittance assuming a linear temperature gradient across the film. Results of the model indicate that temperature gradients will result in reductions the order of 20% or more in the spectral emittance.

  7. Association between tumor size and Breslow's thickness in malignant melanoma: a cross-sectional, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ramírez, David; Ojeda-Vila, Teresa; Ríos-Martín, Juan J; Nieto-García, Adoración; Ferrándiz, Lara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential role of tumor diameter in explaining variations in tumoral invasion and in the initial prognosis for patients with malignant melanoma (MM). This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study that recruited between 2000 and 2009 patients with primary in-situ MM (Tis) and invasive cutaneous MM. Tis and MMs with a Breslow's thickness less than 1 mm (T1) were grouped (Tis-T1) and tumors with a Breslow's thickness 1 mm or more were also analyzed in combination (T2-T4). The tumor size was measured after routine formalin tissue fixation. Primary outcomes were the correlation between Breslow's thickness and tumor size, and the role of tumor size in explaining variations in Breslow's thickness, as assessed by the Pearson correlation test and logistic binary regression with calculation of the odds ratios. A total of 1610 MM patients were included and analyzed. The Pearson correlation between tumor size and Breslow's thickness was 0.42, with a determination coefficient of R2=0.18 (P>0.01). Correlations between tumor size and thickness were stronger in patients aged 30-60 years (r=0.42, R2=0.1764, P<0.001) and in tumors arising on the upper limbs (r=0.55, R2=0.3025). The odds ratio of identifying a T2-T4 stage MM in patients with tumors larger than 1 cm in size was 2.76 (95% confidence interval 2.25-3.39, P<0.001). Even though a direct, positive, and strong association between tumoral size and Breslow's thickness might be expected in melanoma cases, the strength of this association has been moderate. Tumor size explains a low burden of the variation observed in the Breslow's thickness. PMID:26237766

  8. Spectral Line Survey toward the Young Massive Protostar NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4 mm, 3 mm, and 0.8 mm Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Sakai, Nami; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Furuya, Ryuta; Sakai, Takeshi; Hirota, Tomoya; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Su, Yu-Nung; Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2015-08-01

    Spectral line survey observations are conducted toward the high-mass protostar candidate NGC 2264 CMM3 in the 4, 3, and 0.8 mm bands with the Nobeyama 45 m telescope and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope. In total, 265 emission lines are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands, and 74 emission lines in the 0.8 mm band. As a result, 36 molecular species and 30 isotopologues are identified. In addition to the fundamental molecular species, many emission lines of carbon-chain molecules such as HC5N, C4H, CCS, and C3S are detected in the 4 and 3 mm bands. Deuterated molecular species are also detected with relatively strong intensities. On the other hand, emission lines of complex organic molecules such as HCOOCH3 and CH3OCH3 are found to be weak. For the molecules for which multiple transitions are detected, rotation temperatures are derived to be 7-33 K except for CH3OH. Emission lines with high upper-state energies (Eu > 150 K) are detected for CH3OH, indicating the existence of a hot core. In comparison with the chemical composition of the Orion KL, carbon-chain molecules and deuterated molecules are found to be abundant in NGC 2264 CMM3, while sulfur-bearing species and complex organic molecules are deficient. These characteristics indicate the chemical youth of NGC 2264 CMM3 in spite of its location at the center of the cluster forming core, NGC 2264 C.

  9. Improved Coal-Thickness Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, T. A.

    1984-01-01

    Summed signals and dielectric-filled antenna improve measurement. Improved FM radar for measuring thickness of coal seam eliminates spectrum splitting and reduces magnitude of echo from front coal surface.

  10. Metal thickness measurements using radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achrekar, P. M.

    1986-04-01

    The present invention relates broadly to a radiographic inspection technique, and in particular to a metal thickness measurement method using radiography. The localized areas wherein the effective metal thickness is less than the minimum that is required for radiation shielding and which can render a shielding enclosure functionless, is readily determined. The invention comprises a process for assuring metal thickness in small regions. The actual metal thickness of small regions can be verified by comparing the optical densities of sections of the metal i.e., stepwedge. A comparator microphotometer, which compares optical densities of spectrum lines from spectrophotometers, compares the optical density of spectrum lines on an exposed spectrum plate (metal under test) with a standard plate (stepwedge).

  11. Edge-on thick discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasparova, A.; Katkov, I.; Chilingarian, I.; Silchenko, O.; Moiseev, A.; Borisov, S.

    2016-06-01

    Although thick stellar discs are detected in nearly all edge-on disc galaxies, their formation scenarios still remain a matter of debate. Due to observational difficulties, there is a lack of information about their stellar populations. Using the Russian 6-m telescope BTA we collected deep spectra of thick discs in three edge-on early-type disc galaxies located in different environments: NGC4111 in a dense group, NGC4710 in the Virgo cluster, and NGC5422 in a sparse group. We see intermediate age (4 ‑ 5 Gyr) metal rich ([Fe/H] ~ ‑0.2 ‑ 0.0 dex) stellar populations in NGC4111 and NGC4710. On the other hand, NGC5422 does not harbour young stars, its only disc is thick and old (10 Gyr) and its α-element abundance suggests a long formation epoch implying its formation at high redshift. Our results prove the diversity of thick disc formation scenarios.

  12. Light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness and microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia

    PubMed Central

    Egilmez, Ferhan; Ergun, Gulfem; Kaya, Bekir M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare microhardness of resin cements under different thicknesses of zirconia and the light transmittance of zirconia as a function of thickness. Study design: A total of 126 disc-shaped specimens (2 mm in height and 5 mm in diameter) were prepared from dual-cured resin cements (RelyX Unicem, Panavia F and Clearfil SA cement). Photoactivation was performed by using quartz tungsten halogen and light emitting diode light curing units under different thicknesses of zirconia. Then the specimens (n=7/per group) were stored in dry conditions in total dark at 37°C for 24 h. The Vicker’s hardness test was performed on the resin cement layer with a microhardness tester. Statistical significance was determined using multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) (alpha=.05). Light transmittance of different thicknesses of zirconia (0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 mm) was measured using a hand-held radiometer (Demetron, Kerr). Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). Results: ANOVA revealed that resin cement and light curing unit had significant effects on microhardness (p < 0.001). Additionally, greater zirconia thickness resulted in lower transmittance. There was no correlation between the amount of light transmitted and microhardness of dual-cured resin cements (r = 0.073, p = 0.295). Conclusion: Although different zirconia thicknesses might result in insufficient light transmission, dual-cured resin cements under zirconia restorations could have adequate microhardness. Key words:Zirconia, microhardness, light transmittance, resin cement. PMID:23385497

  13. Lunar Brightness Variations with Phase at 4.3-MM Wave Length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, Robert J.

    1961-01-01

    The lunar radio observations and interpretations of Piddington and Minnett (1949) and Gibson (1958) show that the lunar brightness variation with phase at millimeter wave lengths can be used to determine the physical properties of the lunar surface. They found that the millimeter-wave brightness lagged the optical phase, and their interpretation was that the millimeter radiation originates below a surface layer that is a very good thermal insulator. The thickness of this layer could not be determined from observations at one frequency. Observations at different frequencies give different results because of the wave-length dependence of the radio absorption by the surface material. The attenuation in the material increases with decreasing wave length, and therefore it is possible, in principle, to determine surface layer thickness from radio observations at several wave lengths. For this reason, observations of lunar radiation were started at the Naval Research Laboratory at a wave length of 4.3 mm. This is half the wave length used by Gibson (1958) in his earlier studies. The radio telescope used for these observations has been described in detail in a previous publication (Coates 1958). The antenna is a parabolic reflector 10 feet in diameter, and it has a beam width of 6.7 minutes of arc at the wave length of 4.3 mm. This is about one-fifth the diameter of the moon. The receiver was a Dicke-type radiometer.

  14. The minimum residual root thickness after using ProTaper, RaCe and Gates-Glidden drills: A cone beam computerized tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Akhlaghi, Nahid Mohammadzadeh; Bajgiran, Laleh Mohammadian; Naghdi, Amirali; Behrooz, Elaheh; Khalilak, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum residual root thickness (MRRT) of the danger zone after preflaring of the mesio-buccal (MB) canal of mandibular first molars using ProTaper, RaCe and Gates-Glidden (GG) drills as coronal shapers by cone beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, the initial CBCT scans of 75 MB canals of mandibular first molars were provided within 1, 2, 3 and 4 mm of the furcation level. The samples were divided into three groups. The samples of ProTaper and RaCe groups were prepared up to F2 and #25.04 as the master apical file (MAF), respectively. The coronal preparation of the samples in the GG group was done using GG drills #2, #3 and #4 and canals were prepared till MAF # 25. After obtaining the postinstrumentation images, the MRRT and the amount of removed dentin were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA statistical analyses. Results: The GG drills removed significantly more dentin than RaCe at all the sections (P < 0.05) and more than ProTaper at 3 mm from the furcation. Statistically there was no significant difference between ProTaper and RaCe groups (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in MRRT between the groups (P > 0.05). The mean MRRT was not < 0.75 mm at all sections. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, when an appropriate root thickness is initially present, all of the instruments that were investigated may safely be used as coronal shapers in MB canals of mandibular first molars. PMID:26038655

  15. Macular Microcysts in Mitochondrial Optic Neuropathies: Prevalence and Retinal Layer Thickness Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Carbonelli, Michele; La Morgia, Chiara; Savini, Giacomo; Cascavilla, Maria Lucia; Borrelli, Enrico; Chicani, Filipe; do V. F. Ramos, Carolina; Salomao, Solange R.; Parisi, Vincenzo; Sebag, Jerry; Bandello, Francesco; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Carelli, Valerio; Barboni, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the thickness of the retinal layers and to assess the prevalence of macular microcysts (MM) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) of patients with mitochondrial optic neuropathies (MON). Methods All patients with molecularly confirmed MON, i.e. Leber’s Hereditary Optic Neuropathy (LHON) and Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA), referred between 2010 and 2012 were enrolled. Eight patients with MM were compared with two control groups: MON patients without MM matched by age, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and visual acuity, as well as age-matched controls. Retinal segmentation was performed using specific Optical coherence tomography (OCT) software (Carl Zeiss Meditec). Macular segmentation thickness values of the three groups were compared by one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc corrections. Results MM were identified in 5/90 (5.6%) patients with LHON and 3/58 (5.2%) with DOA. The INL was thicker in patients with MON compared to controls regardless of the presence of MM [133.1±7μm vs 122.3±9μm in MM patients (p<0.01) and 128.5±8μm vs. 122.3±9μm in no-MM patients (p<0.05)], however the outer nuclear layer (ONL) was thicker in patients with MM (101.4±1mμ) compared to patients without MM [77.5±8mμ (p<0.001)] and controls [78.4±7mμ (p<0.001)]. ONL thickness did not significantly differ between patients without MM and controls. Conclusion The prevalence of MM in MON is low (5-6%), but associated with ONL thickening. We speculate that in MON patients with MM, vitreo-retinal traction contributes to the thickening of ONL as well as to the production of cystic spaces. PMID:26047507

  16. Anatomical characterization of central, apical and minimal corneal thickness

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-Frances, Federico; Bermúdez-Vallecilla, Martha Cecilia; Borrego-Sanz, Lara; Jañez, Luis; Martinez-de-la-Casa, José María; Morales-Fernandez, Laura; Santos-Bueso, Enrique; Garcia-Sanchez, Julián; Garcia-Feijoo, Julián

    2014-01-01

    AIM To anatomically locate the points of minimum corneal thickness and central corneal thickness (pupil center) in relation to the corneal apex. METHODS Observational, cross-sectional study, 299 healthy volunteers. Thickness at the corneal apex (AT), minimum corneal thickness (MT) and corneal thickness at the pupil center (PT) were determined using the pentacam. Distances from the corneal apex to MT (MD) and PT (PD) were calculated and their quadrant position (taking the corneal apex as the reference) determined: point of minimum thickness (MC) and point of central thickness (PC) depending on the quadrant position. Two multivariate linear regression models were constructed to examine the influence of age, gender, power of the flattest and steepest corneal axes, position of the flattest axis, corneal volume (determined using the Pentacam) and PT on MD and PD. The effects of these variables on MC and PC were also determined in two multinomial regression models. RESULTS MT was located at a mean distance of 0.909 mm from the apex (79.4% in the inferior-temporal quadrant). PT was located at a mean distance of 0.156 mm from the apex. The linear regression model for MD indicated it was significantly influenced by corneal volume (B=-0.024; 95%CI: -0.043 to -0.004). No significant relations were identified in the linear regression model for PD or the multinomial logistic regressions for MC and PC. CONCLUSION MT was typically located at the inferior-temporal quadrant of the cornea and its distance to the corneal apex tended to decrease with the increment of corneal volume. PMID:25161940

  17. CdZnTe position-sensitive drift detectors with thicknesses up to 5 cm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Chen, E.; Cheng, S.; Cui, Y.; Gul, R.; Gallagher, R.; Dedic, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Ocampo Giraldo, L.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; MacKenzie, J. M.; Sellin, P.; Taherion, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; El-hanany, U.; James, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the feasibility of long-drift-time CdZnTe (CZT) gamma-ray detectors, fabricated from CZT material produced by Redlen Technologies. CZT crystals with cross-section areas of 5 × 5 mm2 and 6 × 6 mm2 and thicknesses of 20-, 30-, 40-, and 50-mm were configured as 3D position-sensitive drift detectors and were read out using a front-end ASIC. By correcting the electron charge losses caused by defects in the crystals, we demonstrated high performance for relatively thick detectors fabricated from unselected CZT material.

  18. QM/MM calculations with deMon2k.

    PubMed

    Salahub, Dennis R; Noskov, Sergei Yu; Lev, Bogdan; Zhang, Rui; Ngo, Van; Goursot, Annick; Calaminici, Patrizia; Köster, Andreas M; Alvarez-Ibarra, Aurelio; Mejía-Rodríguez, Daniel; Řezáč, Jan; Cailliez, Fabien; de la Lande, Aurélien

    2015-01-01

    The density functional code deMon2k employs a fitted density throughout (Auxiliary Density Functional Theory), which offers a great speed advantage without sacrificing necessary accuracy. Powerful Quantum Mechanical/Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) approaches are reviewed. Following an overview of the basic features of deMon2k that make it efficient while retaining accuracy, three QM/MM implementations are compared and contrasted. In the first, deMon2k is interfaced with the CHARMM MM code (CHARMM-deMon2k); in the second MM is coded directly within the deMon2k software; and in the third the Chemistry in Ruby (Cuby) wrapper is used to drive the calculations. Cuby is also used in the context of constrained-DFT/MM calculations. Each of these implementations is described briefly; pros and cons are discussed and a few recent applications are described briefly. Applications include solvated ions and biomolecules, polyglutamine peptides important in polyQ neurodegenerative diseases, copper monooxygenases and ultra-rapid electron transfer in cryptochromes. PMID:25786164

  19. The same-source parallel MM{sub 5}.

    SciTech Connect

    Michalakes, J.

    1999-08-23

    The set of architectures available to users of the Penn State/NCAR MM5 has been expanded to included distributed-memory parallel computers, providing cost-effective scalable performance and memory capacity for large problem sizes. The same-source approach uses high-level parallel library and source-translation technology for adapting MM5, simplifying maintenance and allowing new physics modules to be incorporated without modification. The approach facilitates maintenance of the DM-parallel option to MM5 as an option within the official version, rather than as a separate stand-alone version. As a result, the DM-parallel option to MM5 (now at Version 3.1) has been a part of six subsequent model releases since MM5 Version 2.8 in March 1998. The same-source approach is applicable to other, similarly constructed codes when there is a need or desire to develop the code for distributed memory parallel machines without impacting the pre-existing source code. The approach is also compatible with pre-existing loop-level multithreading directives so that the code will run in distributed-memory/shared-memory mode on SMP clusters.

  20. CMOS mm-wave transceivers for Gbps wireless communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baoyong, Chi; Zheng, Song; Lixue, Kuang; Haikun, Jia; Xiangyu, Meng; Zhihua, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The challenges in the design of CMOS millimeter-wave (mm-wave) transceiver for Gbps wireless communication are discussed. To support the Gbps data rate, the link bandwidth of the receiver/transmitter must be wide enough, which puts a lot of pressure on the mm-wave front-end as well as on the baseband circuit. This paper discusses the effects of the limited link bandwidth on the transceiver system performance and overviews the bandwidth expansion techniques for mm-wave amplifiers and IF programmable gain amplifier. Furthermore, dual-mode power amplifier (PA) and self-healing technique are introduced to improve the PA's average efficiency and to deal with the process, voltage, and temperature variation issue, respectively. Several fully-integrated CMOS mm-wave transceivers are also presented to give a short overview on the state-of-the-art mm-wave transceivers. Project supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61331003).

  1. The brightness temperature of Mercury at mm-wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greve, A.; Thum, C.; Moreno, R.; Yan, N.

    2009-02-01

    We present observations of Mercury made with the IRAM 30-m telescope at 3, 2 and 1.3 mm wavelength (90, 150 and 230 GHz) during the years 1985-2005; we derive from these data the disk-averaged brightness temperatures. The observations at 3 mm combined with those by Epstein & Andrew allow a separation of the data into 40° wide longitude intervals and by this an investigation of the disk-averaged brightness temperature with Mercury's longitude. From the new mm-wavelength data, and data taken from the literature, we derive the disk-averaged brightness temperature as a function of wavelength. On Mercury's night side a significant decrease in brightness temperature occurs towards shorter wavelengths. We use the three surface models (A,B,C) discussed by Mitchell & de Pater and calculate for the cool and hot surface region the corrresponding diurnal variation of the disk-averaged brightness temperature at 90 GHz. For the same models we calculate the variation of the disk-averaged brightness temperature with wavelength between 1.3 mm and 37 mm, on Mercury's midnight side and noon side. Although the scatter in the observations is large, there seems to be a marginally better agreement with model B and A.

  2. Leidenfrost point and estimate of the vapour layer thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianino, Concetto

    2008-11-01

    In this article I describe an experiment involving the Leidenfrost phenomenon, which is the long lifetime of a water drop when it is deposited on a metal that is much hotter than the boiling point of water. The experiment was carried out with high-school students. The Leidenfrost point is measured and the heat laws are used to estimate the thickness of the vapour layer, d≈0.06 mm, which prevents the drop from touching the hotplate.

  3. Engineering Strong Interactions Between mm-wave and Optical Photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Mark; Suleymanzade, Aziza; Estes, Jeremy; Eustice, Scott; Schuster, David; Simon, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We propose an atomic interface of Rydberg atoms as a means of engineering effective strong interactions between single mm-wave and optical photons. The atomic sample resides at the intersection of a high-finesse optical cavity and a superconducting mm-wave cavity, where it can coherently interact with photons of both regimes. The use of mm-wave (100 GHz) frequencies allows strong coupling at higher temperatures and with less sensitivity to stray electric fields. A hybrid cryogenic vacuum chamber at 4 Kelvin enables access to superconductivity as well as a UHV environment with optical access necessary for cold atom experiments. Strong interactions between these separate quantum degrees of freedom has important applications in quantum computing as well as simulation of many-body interacting systems.

  4. QM/MM X-ray Refinement of Zinc Metalloenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue; Hayik, Seth A.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    Zinc metalloenzymes play an important role in biology. However, due to the limitation of molecular force field energy restraints used in X-ray refinement at medium or low resolutions, the precise geometry of the zinc coordination environment can be difficult to distinguish from ambiguous electron density maps. Due to the difficulties involved in defining accurate force fields for metal ions, the QM/MM (Quantum-Mechanical /Molecular-Mechanical) method provides an attractive and more general alternative for the study and refinement of metalloprotein active sites. Herein we present three examples that indicate that QM/MM based refinement yields a superior description of the crystal structure based on R and Rfree values and on the inspection of the zinc coordination environment. It is concluded that QM/MM refinement is a useful general tool for the improvement of the metal coordination sphere in metalloenzyme active sites. PMID:20116858

  5. Near-infrared imaging equipment that detects small organic substances in thick foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phetchalern, Souphaphone; Tashima, Hiroto; Ishii, Yuya; Ishiyama, Takeshi; Arai, Shinichi; Fukuda, Mitsuo

    2014-09-01

    We have developed near-infrared imaging equipment that can detect small organic substances in foodstuffs with thicknesses of more than 1 mm. The equipment is composed of a high output laser diode and a CMOS camera. The irradiated light power distribution was highly uniform with a maximum optical density of 1.3 W/cm2. A 0.3-mmdiameter wooden stick covered with a 2-mm-thick layer of ham can easily be distinguished in the images. The bones in fish and in chicken wing sticks could also be distinguished. The thicknesses of the fish and the chicken wing sticks were approximately 30 mm and 20 mm, respectively. We eliminated the low spatial frequency components from the images to improve the image contrast.

  6. Laparoscopic 5-mm Trocar Site Herniation and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Minikel, Laura; Zaritsky, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the evidence for fascial closure of 5-mm laparoscopic trocar sites. Methods: We conducted electronic database searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library for articles published between November 2008 and December 2010. We used the keywords trocar hernia, trocar-site hernia, laparoscopic hernia, trocar port-site hernia, laparoscopic port-site hernia. Prospective and retrospective case series, randomized trials, literature reviews, and randomized animal studies of trocar hernias on abdominal wall defects from gynecologic, urologic, and general surgery literature were reviewed. The Cochrane Database was reviewed for pertinent studies. Metaanalysis was not possible due to the significant heterogeneity between studies and lack of randomized trials large enough to assess the incidence of this rare complication. Results: Trocar-site hernias are a rare but known complication of laparoscopic surgery. Trocar size ≥10mm is associated with an increased rate of hernia development. Currently, the accepted gynecologic surgical practice is closure of fascial incisions ≥10mm, while incisions <10mm do not require closure. However, large prospective and retrospective case series reports from general surgery and urology literature support nonclosure of blunt or radially dilating trocars in paramedian sites. Expert opinion and small case reports suggest that in cases of prolonged manipulation of 5-mm trocar sites the surgeon should consider fascial closure, because extension of the initial incision may have occurred. Conclusion: There is no evidence to recommend routine closure of 5-mm trocar incisions; the choice should continue to be left to the discretion of the individual surgeon. PMID:21902958

  7. 450mm wafer patterning with jet and flash imprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Ecron; Hellebrekers, Paul; Hofemann, Paul; LaBrake, Dwayne L.; Resnick, Douglas J.; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2013-09-01

    The next step in the evolution of wafer size is 450mm. Any transition in sizing is an enormous task that must account for fabrication space, environmental health and safety concerns, wafer standards, metrology capability, individual process module development and device integration. For 450mm, an aggressive goal of 2018 has been set, with pilot line operation as early as 2016. To address these goals, consortiums have been formed to establish the infrastructure necessary to the transition, with a focus on the development of both process and metrology tools. Central to any process module development, which includes deposition, etch and chemical mechanical polishing is the lithography tool. In order to address the need for early learning and advance process module development, Molecular Imprints Inc. has provided the industry with the first advanced lithography platform, the Imprio® 450, capable of patterning a full 450mm wafer. The Imprio 450 was accepted by Intel at the end of 2012 and is now being used to support the 450mm wafer process development demands as part of a multi-year wafer services contract to facilitate the semiconductor industry's transition to lower cost 450mm wafer production. The Imprio 450 uses a Jet and Flash Imprint Lithography (J-FILTM) process that employs drop dispensing of UV curable resists to assist high resolution patterning for subsequent dry etch pattern transfer. The technology is actively being used to develop solutions for markets including NAND Flash memory, patterned media for hard disk drives and displays. This paper reviews the recent performance of the J-FIL technology (including overlay, throughput and defectivity), mask development improvements provided by Dai Nippon Printing, and the application of the technology to a 450mm lithography platform.

  8. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, Paul R.

    1987-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and circumference by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  9. Tube wall thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Lagasse, P.R.

    1985-06-21

    An apparatus for measuring the thickness of a tube's wall for the tube's entire length and radius by determining the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the known thickness of a selected standard item. The apparatus comprises a base and a first support member having first and second ends. The first end is connected to the base and the second end is connected to a spherical element. A second support member is connected to the base and spaced apart from the first support member. A positioning element is connected to and movable relative to the second support member. An indicator is connected to the positioning element and is movable to a location proximate the spherical element. The indicator includes a contact ball for first contacting the selected standard item and holding it against the spherical element. The contact ball then contacts the tube when the tube is disposed about the spherical element. The indicator includes a dial having a rotatable needle for indicating the deviation of the tube wall thickness from the thickness of the selected standard item.

  10. System for measuring film thickness

    DOEpatents

    Batishko, Charles R.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Rasmussen, Donald E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  11. Absolute brightness temperature measurements at 2.1-mm wavelength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulich, B. L.

    1974-01-01

    Absolute measurements of the brightness temperatures of the Sun, new Moon, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus, and of the flux density of DR21 at 2.1-mm wavelength are reported. Relative measurements at 3.5-mm wavelength are also preented which resolve the absolute calibration discrepancy between The University of Texas 16-ft radio telescope and the Aerospace Corporation 15-ft antenna. The use of the bright planets and DR21 as absolute calibration sources at millimeter wavelengths is discussed in the light of recent observations.

  12. Full-mesh optical backplane with standard MM fiber ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrario, M.; Coviello, D.; Boffi, P.; Martinelli, M.; Basile, V.; Fassi, I.; Falcucci, M.; Renghini, C.; Scalmati, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    A new optical backplane solution is proposed for high-capacity ICT apparatus. A modular, scalable and full-mesh bandwidth-upgradable optical interconnection between optoelectronic boards is guaranteed thanks to an optimized layout of standard MM 12-fiber ribbons which divides the overall backplane into several independent optical sub-circuits. The novel automated assembly procedure of fiber ribbons inside sub-circuits with a robotic work-cell is described. System validation of the optical backplane performed with commercially available MM 12-fiber transceivers @10Gb/s proved the feasibility of the proposed solution for future optical interconnections with terabit overall capacity.

  13. Novel Processing of 81-mm Cu Shaped Charge Liners

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, A; Korzekwa, D

    2002-01-16

    A seven-step procedure was developed for producing shaped charge liner blanks by back extrusion at liquid nitrogen temperatures. Starting with a 38.1-mm diameter, 101.6-mm long cylinder at 77K, three forging steps with a flat-top die are required to produce the solid cone while maintaining low temperature. The solid cone is forged in four individual back extrusions at 77K to produce the rough liner blank. This procedure is capable of being run in batch processes to improve the time efficiency.

  14. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  15. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  16. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  17. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public...

  18. New long-zoom lens for 4K super 35mm digital cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, Laurence J.; Usui, Fumiaki; Kamata, Ryuhei

    2015-05-01

    The world of television production is beginning to adopt 4K Super 35 mm (S35) image capture for a widening range of program genres that seek both the unique imaging properties of that large image format and the protection of their program assets in a world anticipating future 4K services. Documentary and natural history production in particular are transitioning to this form of production. The nature of their shooting demands long zoom lenses. In their traditional world of 2/3-inch digital HDTV cameras they have a broad choice in portable lenses - with zoom ranges as high as 40:1. In the world of Super 35mm the longest zoom lens is limited to 12:1 offering a telephoto of 400mm. Canon was requested to consider a significantly longer focal range lens while severely curtailing its size and weight. Extensive computer simulation explored countless combinations of optical and optomechanical systems in a quest to ensure that all operational requests and full 4K performance could be met. The final lens design is anticipated to have applications beyond entertainment production, including a variety of security systems.

  19. Fermion localization on thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Tempo, Jose David

    2006-02-15

    We consider chiral fermion confinement in scalar thick branes, which are known to localize gravity, coupled through a Yukawa term. The conditions for the confinement and their behavior in the thin-wall limit are found for various different BPS branes, including double walls and branes interpolating between different AdS{sub 5} spacetimes. We show that only one massless chiral mode is localized in all these walls, whenever the wall thickness is keep finite. We also show that, independently of wall's thickness, chiral fermionic modes cannot be localized in dS{sub 4} walls embedded in a M{sub 5} spacetime. Finally, massive fermions in double wall spacetimes are also investigated. We find that, besides the massless chiral mode localization, these double walls support quasilocalized massive modes of both chiralities.

  20. LTCC Thick Film Process Characterization

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Girardi, M. A.; Peterson, K. A.; Vianco, P. T.

    2016-05-01

    Low temperature cofired ceramic (LTCC) technology has proven itself in military/space electronics, wireless communication, microsystems, medical and automotive electronics, and sensors. The use of LTCC for high frequency applications is appealing due to its low losses, design flexibility and packaging and integration capability. Moreover, we summarize the LTCC thick film process including some unconventional process steps such as feature machining in the unfired state and thin film definition of outer layer conductors. The LTCC thick film process was characterized to optimize process yields by focusing on these factors: 1) Print location, 2) Print thickness, 3) Drying of tapes and panels,more » 4) Shrinkage upon firing, and 5) Via topography. Statistical methods were used to analyze critical process and product characteristics in the determination towards that optimization goal.« less

  1. Applications of film thickness equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.

    1983-01-01

    A number of applications of elastohydrodynamic film thickness expressions were considered. The motion of a steel ball over steel surfaces presenting varying degrees of conformity was examined. The equation for minimum film thickness in elliptical conjunctions under elastohydrodynamic conditions was applied to roller and ball bearings. An involute gear was also introduced, it was again found that the elliptical conjunction expression yielded a conservative estimate of the minimum film thickness. Continuously variable-speed drives like the Perbury gear, which present truly elliptical elastohydrodynamic conjunctions, are favored increasingly in mobile and static machinery. A representative elastohydrodynamic condition for this class of machinery is considered for power transmission equipment. The possibility of elastohydrodynamic films of water or oil forming between locomotive wheels and rails is examined. The important subject of traction on the railways is attracting considerable attention in various countries at the present time. The final example of a synovial joint introduced the equation developed for isoviscous-elastic regimes of lubrication.

  2. Macular thickness and macular volume measurements using spectral domain optical coherence tomography in normal Nepalese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Amrit; Shrestha, Gauri Shankar; Shrestha, Jyoti Baba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To record the normative values for macular thickness and macular volume in normal Nepalese eyes. Methods In all, 126 eyes of 63 emmetropic subjects (mean age: 21.17±6.76 years; range: 10–37 years) were assessed for macular thickness and macular volume, using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography over 6×6 mm2 in the posterior pole. A fast macular thickness protocol was employed. Statistics such as the mean, median, standard deviation, percentiles, and range were used, while a P-value was set at 0.05 to test significance. Results Average macular thickness and total macular volume were larger in males compared to females. With each year of increasing age, these variables decreased by 0.556 μm and 0.0156 mm3 for average macular thickness and total macular volume, respectively. The macular thickness was greatest in the inner superior section and lowest at the center of the fovea. The volume was greatest in the outer nasal section and thinnest in the fovea. The central subfield thickness (r=−0.243, P=0.055) and foveal volume (r=0.216, P=0.09) did not correlate with age. Conclusion Males and females differ significantly with regard to macular thickness and macular volume measurements. Reports by other studies that the increase in axial length reduced thickness and volume, were negated by this study which found a positive correlation among axial length, thickness, and volume. PMID:27041990

  3. A unique approach to accurately measure thickness in thick multilayers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bing; Hiller, Jon M; Liu, Yuzi; Liu, Chian; Qian, Jun; Gades, Lisa; Wieczorek, Michael J; Marander, Albert T; Maser, Jorg; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2012-05-01

    X-ray optics called multilayer Laue lenses (MLLs) provide a promising path to focusing hard X-rays with high focusing efficiency at a resolution between 5 nm and 20 nm. MLLs consist of thousands of depth-graded thin layers. The thickness of each layer obeys the linear zone plate law. X-ray beamline tests have been performed on magnetron sputter-deposited WSi(2)/Si MLLs at the Advanced Photon Source/Center for Nanoscale Materials 26-ID nanoprobe beamline. However, it is still very challenging to accurately grow each layer at the designed thickness during deposition; errors introduced during thickness measurements of thousands of layers lead to inaccurate MLL structures. Here, a new metrology approach that can accurately measure thickness by introducing regular marks on the cross section of thousands of layers using a focused ion beam is reported. This new measurement method is compared with a previous method. More accurate results are obtained using the new measurement approach. PMID:22514179

  4. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklósi, L.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, M. S.; Escher, J. E.; Sleaford, B. W.

    2015-11-01

    A procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ -ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ -ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thickness until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation, thus, provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.

  5. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, M. S.; Escher, J. E.; Sleaford, B. W.

    2015-09-14

    Our procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ-ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ-ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thickness until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.

  6. IMPLEMENTATION OF AN URBAN CANOPY PARAMETERIZATION IN MM5

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pennsylvania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5) (Grell et al. 1994) has been modified to include an urban canopy parameterization (UCP) for fine-scale urban simulations (~1-km horizontal grid spacing). The UCP accounts for drag ...

  7. Security architecture of the M&M mobile agent framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Paulo J.; Santos, Nuno F.; Silva, Luis; Silva, Joao G.

    2001-07-01

    In the Mobile Agent programming model, small threads of execution migrate from machine to machine, performing their operations locally. For being able to deploy such a model into real world applications, security is a vital concern. In the M&M project we have developed a system that departures from the traditional platform-based execution model for mobile agents. In M&M there are no agent platforms. Instead there is a component framework that allows the applications to become able of sending and receiving agents by themselves in a straightforward manner. In this paper we examine the security mechanisms available in M&M, and how integration with existing applications is done. One difficult aspect of this work is that all the features must work with the security mechanisms that already exist on the applications. This is so because the components are integrated from within into the applications, which already have security mechanisms in place. Currently, M&M provides features like fine-grain security permissions, encryption of agents and data, certificate distribution using LDAP and cryptographic primitives for agents. For validating the approach and solutions found, we have integrated the framework into several off-the-shelf web servers, having the security mechanisms running, with no problems.

  8. Guide to Free-Loan Sports Films (16mm).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1974

    This catalog provides information on free 16 mm films dealing with a wide variety of individual and team sports, such as football, golf, water sports, snow sports, racing, and baseball, as well as on general sports competition and safety. Unless otherwise noted, the films are in color and with sound. Titles are listed alphabetically under their…

  9. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Negroes. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Over 740 films (16 mm.) concerning the lives, culture, history, and problems of Black people in the United States and in Africa are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. Each entry includes the running time, a synopsis of the film's content, and a source code and tells whether the film is in black-and-white or in color. The guide includes…

  10. Herschel FIR Spectroscopic Observations of L1448-MM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jinhee; Lee, J.; DIGIT Team

    2012-01-01

    We present the FIR (continuum and line) maps and spectra of L1448-MM at 55 to 210 micron observed with the range scan mode of PACS on the Herschel Space Observatory, as part of the DIGIT key program. L1448-MM was previously known as an embedded Class 0 and prominent outflow source, and a secondary YSO was claimed by the Spitzer images and confirmed by submm interferometric observations. The PACS detected various CO, OH, H2O, and OI lines. The PACS line and continuum maps show that the emission at shorter wavelengths peaks at the central spatial pixel (the primary YSO position) although the line emission of low energy levels distributes along the outflow direction. According to our excitation analysis, the CO gas has two temperature components (warm and hot) that are tentatively attributed to PDR and shock, respectively. However, the H2O gas with the rotational temperature of 200 K seems to trace the shock. Interestingly, the relative strength of OH transitions suggests the IR pumping process dominates in L1448-MM. The gas along the outflow cavities in L1448-MM seems to be heated mainly by shock and UV photons, and relative line luminosities indicate that H2O and CO are the main coolants of this gas, although cooling by OI and OH cannot be ignored.

  11. RF and mm-Wave Photonics at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Vawter, G.A.; Sullivan, C.

    1999-07-08

    RF and mm-wave photonic devices and circuits have been developed at Sandia National Laboratories for applications ranging from RF optical data links to optical generation of mm-wave frequencies. This talk will explore recent high-speed photonics technology developments at Sandia including: (1) A monolithic optical integrated circuit for all-optical generation of mm-waves. Using integrated mode-locked diode lasers, amplifiers, and detectors, frequencies between 30 GHz and 90 GHz are generated by a single monolithic (Al,Ga)As optical circuit less than 2mm in its largest dimension. (2) Development of polarization-maintaining, low-insertion-loss, low v-pi, Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) modulators with DC-to-potentially-K-band modulation bandwidth. New low-loss polarization-maintaining waveguide designs using binary alloys have been shown to reduce polarization crosstalk in undoped (Al,Ga)As waveguides, yielding high extinction ratio (>40dB) and low on-chip loss (<6dB) in Mach-Zehnder interferometers. RF drive voltage is reduced through use of 45rnrn-active length devices with modulator sensitivity, v-pi, less than 3V.

  12. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Ecology, Adaptation and Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    Synopses of 350 films (16 mm.) on ecology, adaptation of plants and animals to their environment, and environmental pollution are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. It specifies whether the film is black-and-white or color, its running time, and its source. An abbreviated subject index and a directory of sources are also provided. The…

  13. Index to 8mm Motion Cartridges. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southern California, Los Angeles. National Information Center for Educational Media.

    This index to 8mm motion cartridges contains almost 10,000 entries, arranged alphabetically both by individual title and by series title in the main section of the book. Individual title entries include title with subtitle, size and physical description, length of film, stock or color code, description of contents, series title reference when…

  14. Advisory List of Instructional Media--16MM Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Educational Media.

    These two advisory lists include information on 16mm films appropriate for the K-12 instructional program. In both bibliographies films are listed in the following categories: communication skills; guidance; health, physical education, safety, and sports; science; and social studies. The list for the 1982-1983 school year also includes categories…

  15. Operation and Maintenance of the 16mm Sound Film Projector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampino, Tony; Schexnaydre, Linda

    This manual presents information in seven sections: (1) parts of a 16mm film projector--film transport, threading, control, film projection, and sound system, and film projection correction devices, (2) threading procedures, (3) projection screens, (4) typical operating problems, (5) minor maintenance and repair techniques, (6) hints for the film…

  16. Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Analysis Model Report

    SciTech Connect

    C. Lum

    2002-02-12

    The purpose of this report is to document the Mineralogic Model (MM), Version 3.0 (MM3.0) with regard to data input, modeling methods, assumptions, uncertainties, limitations and validation of the model results, qualification status of the model, and the differences between Version 3.0 and previous versions. A three-dimensional (3-D) Mineralogic Model was developed for Yucca Mountain to support the analyses of hydrologic properties, radionuclide transport, mineral health hazards, repository performance, and repository design. Version 3.0 of the MM was developed from mineralogic data obtained from borehole samples. It consists of matrix mineral abundances as a function of x (easting), y (northing), and z (elevation), referenced to the stratigraphic framework defined in Version 3.1 of the Geologic Framework Model (GFM). The MM was developed specifically for incorporation into the 3-D Integrated Site Model (ISM). The MM enables project personnel to obtain calculated mineral abundances at any position, within any region, or within any stratigraphic unit in the model area. The significance of the MM for key aspects of site characterization and performance assessment is explained in the following subsections. This work was conducted in accordance with the Development Plan for the MM (CRWMS M&O 2000). The planning document for this Rev. 00, ICN 02 of this AMR is Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01 (CRWMS M&O 2000). The purpose of this ICN is to record changes in the classification of input status by the resolution of the use of TBV software and data in this report. Constraints and limitations of the MM are discussed in the appropriate sections that follow. The MM is one component of the ISM, which has been developed to provide a consistent volumetric portrayal of the rock layers, rock properties, and mineralogy of the Yucca Mountain site. The ISM consists of three components: (1

  17. MM 55266 and MM 55268, glycopeptide antibiotics produced by a new strain of Amycolatopsis. Isolation, purification and structure determination.

    PubMed

    Box, S J; Coates, N J; Davis, C J; Gilpin, M L; Houge-Frydrych, C S; Milner, P H

    1991-08-01

    Two novel glycopeptide antibiotics MM 55266 and MM 55268 containing fatty acid acyl functions, and of molecular formula C86H89N8O35Cl5 and C87H91N8O35Cl5, respectively, have been isolated and identified from a complex produced by Amycolatopsis sp. NCIB 40089. Fermentation conditions for their production, and methods for their isolation are described. Structures have been deduced by use of COSY and NOE NMR techniques and supported by chemical degradation studies. Both glycopeptides possessed good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive organisms. PMID:1917694

  18. Charpy impact test results on five materials and NIST verification specimens using instrumented 2-mm and 8-mm strikers

    SciTech Connect

    Nanstad, R.K.; Sokolov, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    The Heavy-Section Steel Irradiation Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved in two cooperative projects, with international participants, both of which involve Charpy V-notch impact tests with instrumented strikers of 2mm and 8mm radii. Two heats of A 533 grade B class I pressure vessel steel and a low upper-shelf (LUS) submerged-arc (SA) weld were tested on the same Charpy machine, while one heat of a Russian Cr-Mo-V forging steel and a high upper-shelf (HUS) SA weld were tested on two different machines. The number of replicate tests at any one temperature ranged from 2 to 46 specimens. Prior to testing with each striker, verification specimens at the low, high, and super high energy levels from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) were tested. In the two series of verification tests, the tests with the 2mm striker met the requirements at the low and high energy levels but not at the super high energy. For one plate, the 2mm striker showed somewhat higher average absorbed energies than those for the 8-mm striker at all three test temperatures. For the second plate and the LUS weld, however, the 2mm striker showed somewhat lower energies at both test temperatures. For the Russian forging steel and the HUS weld, tests were conducted over a range of temperatures with tests at one laboratory using the 8mm striker and tests at a second laboratory using the 2mm striker. Lateral expansion was measured for all specimens and the results are compared with the absorbed energy results. The overall results showed generally good agreement (within one standard deviation) in energy measurements by the two strikers. Load-time traces from the instrumented strikers were also compared and used to estimate shear fracture percentage. Four different formulas from the European Structural Integrity Society draft standard for instrumented Charpy test are compared and a new formula is proposed for estimation of percent shear from the force-time trace.

  19. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraya, S.; Azman, M. D.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Jaafar, A. A.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed.

  20. Wear versus Thickness and Other Features of 5-Mrad Crosslinked UHMWPE Acetabular Liners

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Fu-Wen; Lu, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    Background The low wear rates of crosslinked polyethylenes provide the potential to use larger diameters to resist dislocation. However, this requires the use of thinner liners in the acetabular component, with concern that higher contact stresses will increase wear, offsetting the benefits of the crosslinking. Questions/purposes We asked the following questions: Is the wear of conventional and crosslinked polyethylene liners affected by ball diameter, rigidity of backing, and liner thickness? Are the stresses in the liner affected by thickness? Methods Wear rates were measured in a hip simulator and stresses were calculated using finite element modeling. Results Without crosslinking, the wear rate was 4% to 10% greater with a 36-mm diameter than a 28-mm diameter. With crosslinking, wear was 9% lower with a 36-mm diameter without metal backing and 4% greater with metal backing. Reducing the thickness from 6 mm to 3 mm increased the contact stress by 46%, but the wear rate decreased by 19%. Conclusions The reduction in wear with 5 Mrad of crosslinking was not offset by increasing the diameter from 28 mm to 36 mm or by using a liner as thin as 3 mm. Clinical Relevance The results indicate, for a properly positioned 5-Mrad crosslinked acetabular component and within the range of dimensions evaluated, neither wear nor stresses in the polyethylene are limiting factors in the use of larger-diameter, thinner cups to resist dislocation. PMID:20848244

  1. Absolute thickness metrology with submicrometer accuracy using a low-coherence distance measuring interferometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Schmidt, Greg; Moore, Duncan T; Ellis, Jonathan D

    2015-09-01

    Absolute physical thickness across the sample aperture is critical in determining the index of a refraction profile from the optical path length profile for gradient index (GRIN) materials, which have a designed inhomogeneous refractive index. Motivated by this application, instrumentation was established to measure the absolute thickness of samples with nominally plane-parallel surfaces up to 50 mm thick. The current system is capable of measuring absolute thickness with 120 nm (1σ) repeatability and submicrometer expanded measurement uncertainty. Beside GRIN materials, this method is also capable of measuring other inhomogeneous and opaque materials. PMID:26368894

  2. Thickness microscopy based on photothermal radiometry for the measurement of thin films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Prekel, Helmut; Liu, Hengbiao; Deng, Yanzhuo; Hu, Jiming; Goch, Gert

    2009-03-01

    The photothermal detection technique is an innovative and non-contact method to investigate the properties of films on workpieces. This paper describes a novel experimental set-up for thickness microscopy based on photothermal radiometry. The correlation between the thermal wave signal and the film thickness is deduced and evaluated to determine the film thickness with a lateral resolution of less than 1mm. Results indicate that the thickness microscopy is a useful method to characterize thin films and has the potential to be applied in-process. PMID:19046925

  3. Masking technique for coating thickness control on large and strongly curved aspherical optics.

    PubMed

    Sassolas, B; Flaminio, R; Franc, J; Michel, C; Montorio, J-L; Morgado, N; Pinard, L

    2009-07-01

    We discuss a method to control the coating thickness deposited onto large and strongly curved optics by ion beam sputtering. The technique uses an original design of the mask used to screen part of the sputtered materials. A first multielement mask is calculated from the measured two-dimensional coating thickness distribution. Then, by means of an iterative process, the final mask is designed. By using such a technique, it has been possible to deposit layers of tantalum pentoxide having a high thickness gradient onto a curved substrate 500 mm in diameter. Residual errors in the coating thickness profile are below 0.7%. PMID:19571934

  4. Eddy current thickness measurement apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Rosen, Gary J.; Sinclair, Frank; Soskov, Alexander; Buff, James S.

    2015-06-16

    A sheet of a material is disposed in a melt of the material. The sheet is formed using a cooling plate in one instance. An exciting coil and sensing coil are positioned downstream of the cooling plate. The exciting coil and sensing coil use eddy currents to determine a thickness of the solid sheet on top of the melt.

  5. 43 CFR 3712.2-3 - Contents of published notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of published notice. 3712.2-3 Section 3712.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23,...

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  7. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  8. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  9. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3... NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  10. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3 Section 3453.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  11. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  12. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  13. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  14. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  15. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  16. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  17. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 grants. 35.909 Section 35.909 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority. The Regional...

  18. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of...

  19. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G.

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  20. Predicting hydration free energies with a hybrid QM/MM approach

    PubMed Central

    König, Gerhard; Pickard, Frank C.; Mei, Ye; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    The correct representation of solute-water interactions is essential for the accurate simulation of most biological phenomena. Several highly accurate quantum methods are available to deal with solvation by using both implicit and explicit solvents. So far, however, most evaluations of those methods were based on a single conformation, which neglects solute entropy. Here, we present the first test of a novel approach to determine hydration free energies that uses molecular mechanics (MM) to sample phase space and quantum mechanics (QM) to evaluate the potential energies. Free energies are determined by using re-weighting with the Non-Boltzmann Bennett (NBB) method. In this context, the method is referred to as QM-NBB. Based on snapshots from MM sampling and accounting for their correct Boltzmann weight, it is possible to obtain hydration free energies that incorporate the effect of solute entropy. We evaluate the performance of several QM implicit solvent models, as well as explicit solvent QM/MM for the blind subset of the SAMPL4 hydration free energy challenge. While classical free energy simulations with molecular dynamics give root mean square deviations (RMSD) of 2.8 and 2.3 kcal/mol, the hybrid approach yields an improved RMSD of 1.6 kcal/mol. By selecting an appropriate functional and basis set, the RMSD can be reduced to 1 kcal/mol for calculations based on a single conformation. Results for a selected set of challenging molecules imply that this RMSD can be further reduced by using NBB to reweight MM trajectories with the SMD implicit solvent model. PMID:24504703

  1. Influence of light curing unit and ceramic thickness on temperature rise during resin cement photo-activation.

    PubMed

    Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Consani, Simonides; Mastrofrancisco, Sarina; Consani, Rafael Leonardo Xediek; Sinhoreti, Mario Alexandre Coelho; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different ceramic thickness on heat generation during resin cement photo-activation by QTH (quartz-tungsten-halogen), LED (light emitting diode), and PAC (plasma arc-curing) LCUs (light curing units). The resin cement used was Rely X ARC (3M-ESPE), and the ceramic was IPS Empress Esthetic (Ivoclar-Vivadent), of which 0.7-, 1.4- and 2.0-mm thick disks, 0.8 mm in diameter were made. Temperature increase was recorded with a type-K thermocouple connected to a digital thermometer (Iopetherm 46). An acrylic resin base was built to guide the thermocouple and support the 1.0-mm thick dentin disk. A 0.1-mm thick black adhesive paper matrix with a perforation 6 mm in diameter was placed on the dentin to contain the resin cement and support the ceramic disks of different thicknesses. Three LCUs were used: QTH, LED and PAC. Nine groups were formed (n=10) according to the interaction: 3 ceramic thicknesses, 1 resin cement and 3 photo-activation methods. Temperature increase data were submitted to Tukey's test (5%). For all ceramic thicknesses, a statistically significant difference in temperature increase was observed among the LCUs, with the highest mean value for the QTH LCU (p<0.05). For all the LCUs, a thickness of 0.7 mm produced the highest temperatures (1.4 and 2.0mm, p<0.05). There was no difference in temperature values between the latter two thicknesses (p>0.05). The interaction of higher energy density with smaller ceramic thickness showed higher temperature increase values. PMID:19420877

  2. Thick resist for MEMS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Joe; Hamel, Clifford

    2001-11-01

    The need for technical innovation is always present in today's economy. Microfabrication methods have evolved in support of the demand for smaller and faster integrated circuits with price performance improvements always in the scope of the manufacturing design engineer. The dispersion of processing technology spans well beyond IC fabrication today with batch fabrication and wafer scale processing lending advantages to MEMES applications from biotechnology to consumer electronics from oil exploration to aerospace. Today the demand for innovative processing techniques that enable technology is apparent where only a few years ago appeared too costly or not reliable. In high volume applications where yield and cost improvements are measured in fractions of a percent it is imperative to have process technologies that produce consistent results. Only a few years ago thick resist coatings were limited to thickness less than 20 microns. Factors such as uniformity, edge bead and multiple coatings made high volume production impossible. New developments in photoresist formulation combined with advanced coating equipment techniques that closely controls process parameters have enable thick photoresist coatings of 70 microns with acceptable uniformity and edge bead in one pass. Packaging of microelectronic and micromechanical devices is often a significant cost factor and a reliability issue for high volume low cost production. Technologies such as flip- chip assembly provide a solution for cost and reliability improvements over wire bond techniques. The processing for such technology demands dimensional control and presents a significant cost savings if it were compatible with mainstream technologies. Thick photoresist layers, with good sidewall control would allow wafer-bumping technologies to penetrate the barriers to yield and production where costs for technology are the overriding issue. Single pass processing is paramount to the manufacturability of packaging

  3. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  4. Novice performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement: standard 38-mm transducer vs 25-mm hockey stick transducer.

    PubMed

    Davies, T; Townsley, P; Jlala, H; Dowling, M; Bedforth, N; Hardman, J G; McCahon, R A

    2012-08-01

    The optimal method to develop expertise in ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is unknown. Studies of laryngoscopic expertise in novices demonstrate that the choice of laryngoscope affects performance. In this study, we aimed to compare the effect of two different linear array transducers (38-mm standard vs 25-mm hockey stick) on novice performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement. Following randomisation, participants watched a video model of expert performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement. Recruits performed the modelled task on a turkey breast model. The median (IQR [range]) composite error score was statistically significantly larger for participants in the hockey stick transducer group compared with the standard transducer group; 10.0 (7.3-14.3 [2.5-29.0]) vs 7.5 (4.5-10.0 [2.0-28.0]) respectively, (p = 0.01). This study has demonstrated that performance of ultrasound-guided needle advancement by novice operators after simple video instruction is better (as assessed using a composite error score) with a standard 38-mm transducer than with a 25-mm hockey stick transducer. PMID:22506607

  5. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E

    2015-02-24

    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl(-) conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the α(+)/β(-) interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family. PMID:25675485

  6. MmTX1 and MmTX2 from coral snake venom potently modulate GABAA receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Rosso, Jean-Pierre; Schwarz, Jürgen R.; Diaz-Bustamante, Marcelo; Céard, Brigitte; Gutiérrez, José M.; Kneussel, Matthias; Pongs, Olaf; Bosmans, Frank; Bougis, Pierre E.

    2015-01-01

    GABAA receptors shape synaptic transmission by modulating Cl− conductance across the cell membrane. Remarkably, animal toxins that specifically target GABAA receptors have not been identified. Here, we report the discovery of micrurotoxin1 (MmTX1) and MmTX2, two toxins present in Costa Rican coral snake venom that tightly bind to GABAA receptors at subnanomolar concentrations. Studies with recombinant and synthetic toxin variants on hippocampal neurons and cells expressing common receptor compositions suggest that MmTX1 and MmTX2 allosterically increase GABAA receptor susceptibility to agonist, thereby potentiating receptor opening as well as desensitization, possibly by interacting with the α+/β− interface. Moreover, hippocampal neuron excitability measurements reveal toxin-induced transitory network inhibition, followed by an increase in spontaneous activity. In concert, toxin injections into mouse brain result in reduced basal activity between intense seizures. Altogether, we characterized two animal toxins that enhance GABAA receptor sensitivity to agonist, thereby establishing a previously unidentified class of tools to study this receptor family. PMID:25675485

  7. A DEEP 1.2 mm MAP OF THE LOCKMAN HOLE NORTH FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Lindner, R. R.; Baker, A. J.; Omont, A.; Fiolet, N. E-mail: ajbaker@physics.rutgers.edu E-mail: fiolet@iap.fr

    2011-08-20

    We present deep 1.2 mm continuum mapping of a 566 arcmin{sup 2} area within the Lockman Hole North (LHN) field, previously a target of the Spitzer Wide-Area Infrared Extragalactic survey and extremely deep 20 cm mapping with the Very Large Array, which we have obtained using the Max-Planck millimeter bolometer (MAMBO) array on the IRAM 30 m telescope. After filtering, our full map has an rms sensitivity ranging from 0.45 to 1.5 mJy beam{sup -1}, with an average of 0.75 mJy beam{sup -1}. Using the pixel flux distribution (PFD) in a map made from our best data, we determine the shape, normalization, and approximate flux density cutoff for 1.2 mm number counts well below our nominal sensitivity and confusion limits. After validating our full data set through comparison with this map, we successfully detect 41 1.2 mm sources with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 4.0 and S{sub 1.2{sub mm}} {approx_equal} 2-5 mJy. We use the most significant of these detections to directly determine the integral number counts down to 1.8 mJy, which are consistent with the results of the PFD analysis. Ninety-three percent of our 41 individual detections have 20 cm counterparts, 49% have Spitzer/MIPS 24 {mu}m counterparts, and one may have a significant Chandra X-ray counterpart. We resolve {approx_equal} 3% of the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.2 mm into significant detections and directly estimate a 0.05 mJy faint-end cutoff for the counts that is consistent with the full intensity of the 1.2 mm CIB. The median redshift of our 17 detections with spectroscopic or robust photometric redshifts is z{sub median} = 2.3, and rises to z{sub median} = 2.9 when we include redshifts estimated from the radio/far-infrared spectral index. By using a nearest neighbor and angular correlation function analysis, we find evidence that our S/N > 4.0 detections are clustered at the 95% confidence level.

  8. Effect of ceramic thickness and composite bases on stress distribution of inlays--a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Durand, Letícia Brandão; Guimarães, Jackeline Coutinho; Monteiro Junior, Sylvio; Baratieri, Luiz Narciso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of cavity depth, ceramic thickness, and resin bases with different elastic modulus on von Mises stress patterns of ceramic inlays. Tridimensional geometric models were developed with SolidWorks image software. The differences between the models were: depth of pulpal wall, ceramic thickness, and presence of composite bases with different thickness and elastic modulus. The geometric models were constrained at the proximal surfaces and base of maxillary bone. A load of 100 N was applied. The stress distribution pattern was analyzed with von Mises stress diagrams. The maximum von Mises stress values ranged from 176 MPa to 263 MPa and varied among the 3D-models. The highest von Mises stress value was found on models with 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay. Intermediate values (249-250 MPa) occurred on models with 2-mm-thick composite resin base and 1-mm-thick ceramic inlay and 1-mm-thick composite resin base and 2-mm-thick ceramic inlay. The lowest values were observed on models restored exclusively with ceramic inlay (176 MPa to 182 MPa). It was found that thicker inlays distribute stress more favorably and bases with low elastic modulus increase stress concentrations on the internal surface of the ceramic inlay. The increase of ceramic thickness tends to present more favorable stress distribution, especially when bonded directly onto the cavity without the use of supporting materials. When the use of a composite base is required, composite resin with high elastic modulus and reduced thickness should be preferred. PMID:25831105

  9. Effect of the amount of thickness reduction on color and translucency of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jai-Bong

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This study investigated the effect of amount of thickness reduction on color and translucency of dental monolithic zirconia ceramics. MATERIALS AND METHODS One-hundred sixty-five monolithic zirconia specimens (16.3 mm × 16.3 mm × 2.0 mm) were divided into 5 groups (Group I to V) according to the number of A2-coloring liquid applications. Each group was then divided into 11 subgroups by reducing the thickness up to 1.0 mm in 0.1-mm increments (Subgroup 0 to 10, n=3). Colors and spectral distributions were measured according to CIELAB on a reflection spectrophotometer. All measurements were performed on five different areas of each specimen. Color difference (ΔE*ab) and translucency parameter (TP) were calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison Scheffé test (α=.05). RESULTS There were significant differences in CIE L* between Subgroup 0 and other subgroups in all groups. CIE a* increased (0.52thickness reduction. Perceptible color differences (ΔE* ab>3.7) were obtained between Subgroup 0 and other subgroups. TP values generally increased as the thickness reduction increased in all groups (R2>0.89, P<.001). CONCLUSION Increasing thickness reduction reduces lightness and increases a reddish, bluish appearance, and translucency of monolithic zirconia ceramics. PMID:26949486

  10. Six-mm, plane-wave shock driver

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, A.M.; Chau, H.H.

    1993-06-14

    A 6-mm-diameter, plane-wave shock generation system has been developed and characterized as a laboratory bench driver for small scale experiments. The driver is based on an exploding-foil-driven slapper used either directly or to initiate an HE pellet. The slapper is driven by a low-inductance fireset with burst currents on the order of 30 kA and burst times of about 250ns, with a time-to-burst jitter under 10ns. Both the slapper impact and the detonation breakout of the pellet have been measured to be flat to within 10ns over a 6-mm diameter. Fabry-Perot velocimetry of impacts with LiF crystals were used to characterize shock pressures and durations. Attenuator plates and flyers driven by the HE were also measured, which provided a variety of available pulse shapes and data for modeling efforts.

  11. A 300-nm compact mm-wave linac FEL design

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Kang, Y.W.

    1995-12-31

    Microfabrication technology offers an alternative method for fabricating precision, miniature-size components suitable for use in accelerator physics and commercial applications. The original R&D work at Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago, has produced encouraging results in the area of rf accelerating structure design, optical and x-ray masks production, deep x-ray lithography (LIGA exposures), and precision structural alignments. In this paper we will present a design study for a compact single pass mm-linac FEL to produce short wavelength radiation. This system will consists of a photocathode rf gun operated at 30 GHz, a 50-MeV superconducting constant gradient structure operated at 60 GHz, and a microundulator with 1-mm period. Initial experimental results on a scale model rf gun and microundulator will be presented.

  12. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  13. A 10-mm MR-Conditional Unidirectional Pneumatic Stepper Motor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yue; Mershon, Christopher D.; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) conditional robotic devices facilitate accurate interventional procedures under MR imaging (MRI) guidance. For this purpose, a compact (10-mm diameter) MR-conditional stepper motor is presented. The device features seven key components, which contribute to a dense and easy to fabricate design. Alternating bursts of pressurized air and vacuum can drive the motor in 60° per step to achieve a maximum torque of 2.4 mNm. The relationship between torque and angular speed was investigated to demonstrate motor performance under different loading conditions. The stepper motor was tested in a GE 3T MRI scanner to verify its MR-compatibility. A maximum artifact width of 3 mm was measured in MRI images and a maximum signal-to-noise ratio reduction of 2.49% was recorded. PMID:25419104

  14. Thickness and fit of mouthguards adjusted by notching thermoplastic sheets under different heating conditions.

    PubMed

    Mizuhashi, Fumi; Koide, Kaoru; Takahashi, Mutsumi

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the thickness and fit of mouthguards by notching thermoplastic copolymer ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) sheets and then heating them to various degrees. The material used was a 3.8-mm-thick sports mouthguard. Notches with a length of 90 and 80 mm were cut into an EVA sheet 20 mm from the anterior and posterior margins and 15 mm from the right and left margins, respectively, and the sheet was compared with the original. The sheets were formed using a vacuum former when the sheets were heated until they hung 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 cm from the baseline. We measured the thickness and fit of the mouthguard at the central incisor and first molar. Differences in thickness and fit according to the measurement parts, sheet type, and heating conditions were analyzed by three-way anova. The measurement parts and sheet type significantly differed (P < 0.01), and the notched sheet maintained the required thickness. Fit differed among the measurement parts and by heating conditions (P < 0.01), but was not affected by the notching. The mouthguard fit was optimal when the sheets were heated to a hanging distance of 3.0 cm. These results suggest that the thickness and fit of the EVA sheet could be maintained by notching and heating the sheet to a hanging distance of 3.0 cm. These findings could be useful for fabricating appropriate mouthguards. PMID:25358687

  15. Augmented approach to desirability function based on MM estimator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midi, Habshah; Mustafa, Mohd Shafie; Fitrianto, Anuar

    2013-04-01

    The desirability function approach is commonly used in industry to tackle multiple response optimization problems. The shortcoming of this approach is that the variability in each predicted response is ignored. It is now evident that the actual response may fall outside the acceptable region even though the predicted response at the optimal solution has a high overall desirability score. An augmented approach to the desirability function (AADF) is put forward to rectify this problem. Nevertheless the AADF is easily affected by outliers since the AADF is constructed based on the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimate which is not resistant to outliers. As an alternative, we propose a robust MM-estimator to estimate the parameters of the Response Surface Model (RSM) and incorporated the estimated parameters in the augmented approach framework. A numerical example is presented to assess the performance of the AADF-MM based method. The numerical results signify that the AADF-MM based is more efficient than the AADF-OLS based method.

  16. Projected Hybrid Orbitals: A General QM/MM Method

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A projected hybrid orbital (PHO) method was described to model the covalent boundary in a hybrid quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) system. The PHO approach can be used in ab initio wave function theory and in density functional theory with any basis set without introducing system-dependent parameters. In this method, a secondary basis set on the boundary atom is introduced to formulate a set of hybrid atomic orbtials. The primary basis set on the boundary atom used for the QM subsystem is projected onto the secondary basis to yield a representation that provides a good approximation to the electron-withdrawing power of the primary basis set to balance electronic interactions between QM and MM subsystems. The PHO method has been tested on a range of molecules and properties. Comparison with results obtained from QM calculations on the entire system shows that the present PHO method is a robust and balanced QM/MM scheme that preserves the structural and electronic properties of the QM region. PMID:25317748

  17. Enhancing Paradynamics for QM/MM Sampling of Enzymatic Reactions.

    PubMed

    Lameira, Jerônimo; Kupchencko, Ilya; Warshel, Arieh

    2016-03-10

    Despite the enormous increase in computer power, it is still extremely challenging to obtain computationally converging sampling of ab initio QM/MM (QM(ai)/MM) free energy surfaces in condensed phases. The sampling problem can be significantly reduced by the use of the reference potential paradynamics (PD) approach, but even this approach still requires major computer time in studies of enzymatic reactions. To further reduce the sampling problem we developed here a new PD version where we use an empirical valence bond reference potential that has a minimum rather than a maximum at the transition state region of the target potential (this is accomplished conveniently by shifting the EVB of the product state). Hence, we can map the TS region in a more efficient way. Here, we introduce and validate the inverted EVB PD approach. The validation involves the study of the S(N)2 step of the reaction catalyzed by haloakene dehalogenase (DhlA) and the GTP hydrolysis in the RasGAP system. In addition, we have also studied the corresponding reaction in water for each of the systems described here and the reaction involving trimethylsulfonium and dimethylamine in solution. The results are encouraging and the new strategy appears to provide a powerful way of evaluating QM(ai)/MM activation free energies. PMID:26866994

  18. Feasibility studies of a compact mm-wave linac FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Nassiri, A.; Kustom, R.L.; Kang, Y.W.; Song, J.

    1995-12-31

    Short wavelength FELs impose stringent requirements on the quality of the electron beams. The key factor in obtaining a single-pass UV or x-ray FEL is the generation of small emittance electron beams with ultra-high brightness. The pioneering work at Los Alamos National Laboratory in the last decade has resulted in a dramatic improvement in the production of high electron beam brightness and small beam emittance using rf photocathode gun. The lower bound on the emittance of a 1-nC bunch without any emittance compensation is on the order of 3 {pi} mm-mrad. This is well within the emittance requirement being considered here. Although the original R&D work at Argonne, in collaboration with the University of Illinois at Chicago and University of Wisconsin-Madison, has produced encouraging results in the area of rf structure design, x-ray mask fabrication, and LIGA processing (Lithography, Electroforming, and Molding), the goal to prove feasibility has not yet been achieved. In this paper, we will present feasibility studies for a compact single-pass mm-linac FEL based on LIGA technology. This system will consist of a photocathode rf gun operated at 30 GHz, a 50-MeV superconducting constant gradient structure operated at 60 GHz, and a microundulator with 1-mm period.

  19. High Rate Proton Irradiation of 15mm Muon Drifttubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibell, A.; Biebel, O.; Hertenberger, R.; Ruschke, A.; Schmitt, Ch.; Kroha, H.; Bittner, B.; Schwegler, P.; Dubbert, J.; Ott, S.

    2012-08-01

    Future LHC luminosity upgrades will significantly increase the amount of background hits from photons, neutrons 11.11d protons in the detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. At the proposed LHC peak luminosity of 5\\cdot 1034(1)/(cm2s), background hit rates of more than 10(kHz)/(cm2) are expected in the innermost forward region, leading to a loss of performance of the current tracking chambers. Based on the ATLAS Monitored Drift Tube chambers, a new high rate capable drift tube detecor using tubes with a reduced diameter of 15mm was developed. To test the response to highly ionizing particles, a prototype chamber of 46 15mm drift tubes was irradiated with a 20 MeV proton beam at the tandem accelerator at the Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory, Munich. Three tubes in a planar layer were irradiated while all other tubes were used for reconstruction of cosmic muon tracks through irradiated and nonirradiated parts of the chamber. To determine the rate capability of the 15mm drifttubes we investigated the effect of the proton hit rate on pulse height, efficiency and spatial resolution of the cosmic muon signals.

  20. Quantitative materials analysis of micro devices using absorption-based thickness measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, L. M.; Wog, B. S.; Spowage, A. C.

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary work in designing an X-ray inspection machine with the capability of providing quantitative thickness analysis based on absorption measurements has been demonstrated. This study attempts to use the gray levels data to investigate the nature and thickness of occluded features and materials within devices. The investigation focused on metallic materials essential to semiconductor and MEMS technologies such as tin, aluminium, copper, silver, iron and zinc. The materials were arranged to simulate different feature thicknesses and sample geometries. The X-ray parameters were varied in-order to modify the X-ray energy spectrum with the aim of optimising the measurement conditions for each sample. The capability of the method to resolve differences in thicknesses was found to be highly dependent on the material. The thickness resolution with aluminium was the poorest due to its low radiographic density. The thickness resolutions achievable for silver and tin were significantly better and of the order of 0.015 mm and 0.025 mm respectively. From the linear relationship between the X-ray attenuation and sample thickness established, the energy dependent linear attenuation coefficient for each material was determined for a series of specific energy spectra. A decrease in the linear attenuation coefficient was observed as the applied voltage and thickness of the material increased. The results provide a platform for the development of a novel absorption-based thickness measurement system that can be optimised for a range of industrial applications.

  1. High thickness acrylamide photopolymer for peristrophic multiplexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortuño, M.; Fernández, E.; Márquez, A.; Gallego, S.; Neipp, C.; Pascual, I.

    2006-05-01

    The acrylamide photolymers are considered interesting materials for holographic media. They have high diffraction efficiency (ratio of the intensities of the diffracted and the incident beams), an intermediate energetic sensitivity among other materials and post-processing steps are not necessary, therefore the media is not altered. The layers of these materials, about 1 mm thick, are a suitable media for recording many diffraction gratings in the same volume of photopolymer using peristrophic multiplexing technique, with great practical importance in the field of holographic memories type WORM (write once read many). In this work we study the recording of diffraction gratings by peristrophic multiplexing with axis of rotation perpendicular to the recording media. The photopolymer is composed of acrylamide as the polymerizable monomer, triethanolamine as radical generator, yellowish eosin as sensitizer and a binder of polyvinyl alcohol. We analyze the holographic behaviour of the material during recording and reconstruction of diffraction gratings using a continuous Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) at an intensity of 5 mW/cm2 as recording laser. The response of the material is monitored after recording with an He-Ne laser. We study the recording process of unslanted diffraction gratings of 1125 lines/mm. The diffraction efficiency of each hologram is seen to decrease as the number of holograms recorded increases, due to consumption of the available dynamic range, in a constant exposure scheduling. It can be seen that the photopolymer works well with high energy levels, without excessive dispersion of light by noise gratings. In order to homogenize the diffraction efficiency of each hologram we use the method proposed by Pu. This method is designed to share all or part of the avaliable dynamic range of the recording material among the holograms to be multiplexed. Using exposure schedules derived from this method we have used 3 scheduling recordings from the algorithm used

  2. Wrong melanoma thickness measurement: check it or leave it?

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Philipov, S; Cardoso, J C; Zanardelli, M; Lotti, T

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, accounting for about 90% of deaths from cutaneous neoplasms, and its incidence has increased significantly in recent years. According to the 2012 European criteria for diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma, diagnosis should be based on the combination of clinical features, dermoscopic data and histological examination, preferably after excisional biopsy. Tumour thickness and other parameters for local staging according to the AJCC classification should be included in the pathology report. Although many factors influence the prognosis and course of the disease, it has been established in a number of studies that tumour thickness is the most important parameter. Therapy of malignant melanoma in its initial stages mostly consists of wide local excision with 1 to 2 cm margins, and sentinel lymph node biopsy that is usually performed in cases of tumours with a thickness greater than 1 mm. We present the case of a 58-year-old Bulgarian male with cutaneous superficial spreading malignant melanoma, in which, after complete excision, histological examination established an inaccurate tumour thickness (0.7 mm), with consequent inadequate staging and further management. After reassessment of the results in another institution (as well as their confirmation by two additional independent histopathology laboratories in our country – 1.92 mm), in the National Oncological Hospital where the patient was initially evaluated, sentinel lymph node biopsy was not performed, contrary to the generally accepted European and World standards. With the present case we raise some current issues regarding diagnosis and therapy of Bulgarian patients (not only in the case presented) with malignant melanoma in the 21st century, and discuss the urgent need for external quality control procedures and standardization of the histopathologic reporting, which is of paramount importance in the staging and

  3. Nicotinic acid metabolism. 2,3-Dimethylmalate lyase.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, P; Lill, U; Eggerer, H

    1979-12-01

    1) A new enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, was purified from Clostridium barkeri to about 80% homogeneity. Some of the properties of the enzyme are described. 2) It is shown that the 2,3-dimethylmalic acid (m.p. 143 degrees C) described in the literature represents only one racemic pair. This pair is not attacked by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 3) The isolation of both racemic pairs of 2,3-dimethylmalic acid is described. Half of one pair, m.p. 104-106 degrees C, was converted to propionate and pyruvate by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 4) In combination with earlier work performed by E.R. Stadtman and coworkers the results given under points 1--3 establish 2,3-dimethylmalate as an intermediate in the degradation of nicotinic acid by C. barkeri. 5) Experimental evidence indicates the 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase is no acyl-S-enzyme and that it is different in this respect as well as in quaternary structure from the apparently related enzymes citrate lyase and citramalate lyase. PMID:527937

  4. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  5. Near independence of OLED operating voltage on transport layer thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Swensen, James S.; Wang, Liang; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.

    2013-01-01

    We report organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) with weak drive voltage dependence on the thickness of the hole transport layer (HTL) for thicknesses up to 1150 Å using the N,N′-Bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N′-bis(phenyl)-benzidine (α-NPD) and N,N'-bis(3-methyl phenyl)-N,N'-diphenyl-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4,4'diamine (TPD), both of which have hole mobilities in the range of 2 × 10-3 cm2V-1s-1. Lower mobility HTL materials show larger operating voltage dependence on thickness. The near independence of the operating voltage for high mobility transport material thickness was only observed when the energy barrier for charge injection into the transport material was minimized. To ensure low injection barriers, a thin film of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluorotetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Adl) was cast from solution onto the ITO surface. These results indicate that thick transport layers can be integrated into OLED stacks without the need for bulk conductivity doping.

  6. The Effect of Braze Interlayer Thickness on the Mechanical Strength of Alumina Brazed with Ag-CuO Braze Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Erskine, Kevin M.; Meier, Alan; Joshi, Vineet V.; Pilgrim, Steven M.

    2014-12-01

    The effect of braze interlayer thickness on the strength of alumina brazed with silver-copper oxide reactive air braze (RAB) alloys was evaluated using a four point bend test configuration. The brazed samples had an average fracture strength of 180 MPa or approximately 60 percent of the average monolithic alumina strength. The joint strength values obtained exceeded the yield strength and ultimate tensile strength of the silver interlayer indicating strong ceramic to metal adhesion and the development of a triaxial stress state in the braze interlayer. The average fracture strength was relatively constant (190 ± 60 MPa) in the thickness range of 0.030 mm to 0.230 mm for all test conditions. The braze fracture strength then decreased down to 100 ± 30 MPa as the braze thickness increased from 0.230 mm to 0.430 mm indicating a loss of triaxial constraint with increasing interlayer thickness. In addition, four different fracture modes were observed.

  7. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Shapter, Joseph G.; Gibson, Christopher T.

    2016-03-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1-1.3 nm to 0.1-0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials.

  8. Preparation of thick molybdenum targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thick natural molybdenum deposits on nickel plated copper substrates were prepared by thermal decomposition of molybdenum hexacarbonyl vapors on a heated surface in an inert gas atmosphere. The molybdenum metal atoms are firmly bonded to the substrate atoms, thus providing an excellent thermal contact across the junction. Molybdenum targets thus prepared should be useful for internal bombardment in a cyclotron where thermal energy inputs can exceed 10 kW.

  9. Reducing shield thickness and backscattered radiation using a multilayered shield for 6–10 MeV electron beams.

    PubMed

    Butson, Martin; Chen, Tom; Rattanavoang, Somkhit; Hellyer, James; Gray, Alison; Nelson, Vinod; Short, Richard; Rajapakse, Satya; Lee, James; Fogarty, Gerald; Izard, Michael; Hill, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Intraoral and external electron shields used in radiotherapy are designed to minimize radiation exposure to non-treatment tissue. Sites where shields are used include but are not limited to, the treatment of lips, cheeks and ears whilst shielding the underlying oral cavity, tongue, gingival or temporal region. A commonly known and published effect, concerns the enhancement in dose that can occur on the beam side on an electron shield caused by an increase in electron backscatter radiation. In this work a lead shield has been designed incorporating copper, aluminium and wax in a step down filter arrangement to minimise backscatter whilst minimizing overall shield thickness for better clinical setup and ease of use. For electron beams ranging from 6 to 10 MeV, a standard shield design of 4 mm lead, 0.6 mm copper, 1.0 mm aluminium and 1.5 mm wax (3.1 mm added filtration, 7.1 mm total thickness) provided adequate backscatter and transmission reduction to match a standard 4.5 mm lead and 10 mm wax (total thickness 14.5 mm) electron shield. Dose enhancement values of no more than 10 % were measured utilising this shield design with a 50 % reduction in shield thickness. The thinner shield will not only allow easier patient set up but should be tolerated better by patients when mucosal reactions occur as they place less physical pressure on these sites during treatment due to their smaller size. PMID:26482529

  10. Epitaxial piezoelectric thick film heterostructures on silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Min

    The significantly higher dielectric permittivity, piezoelectric coefficients and electromechanical coupling coefficients of single crystal relaxor ferroelectrics make them very attractive for medical ultrasound transducers and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) applications. The potential impact of thin-film relaxor ferroelectrics in integrated actuators and sensor on silicon has stimulated research on the growth and characterization of epitaxial piezoelectric thin films. We have fabricated heterostructures by (1) synthesizing optimally-oriented, epitaxial thin films of Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO 3 (PMN-PT) on miscut (001) Si wafers with epitaxial (001) SrTiO 3 template layers, where the single crystal form is known to have the giant piezoelectric response, and (2) nano-structuring to reduce the constraint imposed by the underlying silicon substrate. Up to now, the longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33) values of PMN and PMN-PT thin films range from 50 to 200 pC/N have been reported, which are far inferior to the properties of bulk single crystals value (d33 ˜ 2000 pC/N). These might be attributed to substrate constraints, pyrochlore phases and other effects. Here, we have realized the giant d33 values by fabricating epitaxial PMN-PT thick films on silicon. When the PMN-PT film was subdivided into ˜1 mum2 capacitors by focused ion beam processing, a 4 mum thick film shows a low-field d33 of 800 pm/V that increases to over 1200 pm/V under bias, which is the highest d33 value ever realized on silicon substrates. These high piezo-reponse PMN-PT epitaxial heterostructures can be used for multilayered MEMS devices which function with low driving voltage, high frequency ultrasound transducer arrays for medical imaging, and capacitors for charge and energy storage. Since these PMN-PT films are epitaxially integrated with the silicon, they can make use of the well-developed fabrication process for patterning and micromachining of this large-area, cost

  11. Soliton models for thick branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w^2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schrödinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ ^4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ ^6 branes.

  12. Thickness of western mare basalts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    An isopach map of the basalt thickness in the western mare basins is constructed from measurements of the exposed external rim height of partially buried craters. The data, although numerically sparse, is sufficiently distributed to yield gross thickness variations. The average basalt thickness in Oceanus Procellarum and adjacent regions is 400 m with local lenses in excess of 1500 m in the circular maria. The total volume of basalt in the western maria is estimated to be in the range of 1.5 x 10 to the 6th power cu km. The chief distinction between the eastern and western maria appears to be one of basalt volumes erupted to the surface. Maximum volumes of basalt are deposited west of the central highlands and flood subjacent terrain to a greater extent than on the east. The surface structures of the western maria reflect the probability of a greater degree of isostatic response to a larger surface loading by the greater accumulation of mare basalt.

  13. Measuring Metal Thickness With an Electric Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shumka, A.

    1986-01-01

    Thickness of metal parts measured from one side with aid of Kelvin probe. Method developed for measuring thickness of end plate on sealed metal bellows from outside. Suitable for thicknesses of few thousandth's of inch (few hundred micrometers). Method also used to determine thickness of metal coatings applied by sputtering, electroplating, and flame spraying.

  14. Measuring Rind Thickness on Polyurethane Foam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, C.; Miller, J.; Brown, H.

    1985-01-01

    Nondestructive test determines rind thickness of polyurethane foam. Surface harness of foam measured by Shore durometer method: hardness on Shore D scale correlates well with rind thickness. Shore D hardness of 20, for example, indicates rind thickness of 0.04 inch (1 millimeter). New hardness test makes it easy to determine rind thickness of sample nondestructively and to adjust fabrication variables accordingly.

  15. The minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Niloofar; Kandi, Saeideh Gorji; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Shoul, Maryam Azizi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although studies have shown that porcelain veneers are very efficient for treating discolored teeth, they did not address in particular the minimum thickness of a multilayer IPS e.max Press (IvoclarVivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) restoration required to mask discolored tooth. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration required for masking severe tooth discoloration. Materials and Methods: A total of 24 disk-shaped multilayer specimens were prepared from IPS e.max Press with the diameter of 13 mm and four different thicknesses (core/veneer: 0.4/0.4 mm, 0.5/0.5 mm, 0.6/0.6 mm and 0.8/0.7 mm). Two backgrounds, C4-shade body porcelain and an opaque background from the selected IPS e.max ceramic itself were fabricated to mimic a discolored or stained natural tooth structure and to determine the masking ability. After applying the resin cement layer (Panavia F2.0) with 0.01 mm thickness on each background, all specimens were measured on both background using a spectrophotometer and values of L*, a* and b* were calculated to determine the color differences (ΔE*ab). One-way ANOVA and post-hoc tests of specimen average one-to-one comparison (Tukey HSD) were conducted and P ≤ 0.05 was set as the level of significance. Results: ΔE*ab of all groups were within the range of the clinically acceptable color difference (ΔE≤3.3), thus all the groups could mask the C4 background even group 1 with only 0.8 mm thickness. A trend was shown in the results as by increasing the thickness, ΔE*ab is was decreased. The mean ΔE*1*a*b between different thicknesses were statistically significant (P < 0.05) only between group 4 with groups 1 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, all studied thicknesses could mask the C4 background. However, the minimum thickness of a multilayer porcelain restoration (IPS e.max Press) required for masking severe tooth discoloration was 0.8 mm. PMID

  16. Calculation of water equivalent thickness of materials of arbitrary density, elemental composition and thickness in proton beam irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2009-03-21

    In proton therapy, the radiological thickness of a material is commonly expressed in terms of water equivalent thickness (WET) or water equivalent ratio (WER). However, the WET calculations required either iterative numerical methods or approximate methods of unknown accuracy. The objective of this study was to develop a simple deterministic formula to calculate WET values with an accuracy of 1 mm for materials commonly used in proton radiation therapy. Several alternative formulas were derived in which the energy loss was calculated based on the Bragg-Kleeman rule (BK), the Bethe-Bloch equation (BB) or an empirical version of the Bethe-Bloch equation (EBB). Alternative approaches were developed for targets that were 'radiologically thin' or 'thick'. The accuracy of these methods was assessed by comparison to values from an iterative numerical method that utilized evaluated stopping power tables. In addition, we also tested the approximate formula given in the International Atomic Energy Agency's dosimetry code of practice (Technical Report Series No 398, 2000, IAEA, Vienna) and stopping power ratio approximation. The results of these comparisons revealed that most methods were accurate for cases involving thin or low-Z targets. However, only the thick-target formulas provided accurate WET values for targets that were radiologically thick and contained high-Z material. PMID:19218739

  17. Calculation of water equivalent thickness of materials of arbitrary density, elemental composition and thickness in proton beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Newhauser, Wayne D.

    2009-03-01

    In proton therapy, the radiological thickness of a material is commonly expressed in terms of water equivalent thickness (WET) or water equivalent ratio (WER). However, the WET calculations required either iterative numerical methods or approximate methods of unknown accuracy. The objective of this study was to develop a simple deterministic formula to calculate WET values with an accuracy of 1 mm for materials commonly used in proton radiation therapy. Several alternative formulas were derived in which the energy loss was calculated based on the Bragg-Kleeman rule (BK), the Bethe-Bloch equation (BB) or an empirical version of the Bethe-Bloch equation (EBB). Alternative approaches were developed for targets that were 'radiologically thin' or 'thick'. The accuracy of these methods was assessed by comparison to values from an iterative numerical method that utilized evaluated stopping power tables. In addition, we also tested the approximate formula given in the International Atomic Energy Agency's dosimetry code of practice (Technical Report Series No 398, 2000, IAEA, Vienna) and stopping power ratio approximation. The results of these comparisons revealed that most methods were accurate for cases involving thin or low-Z targets. However, only the thick-target formulas provided accurate WET values for targets that were radiologically thick and contained high-Z material.

  18. Ferromagnetism in Cu 3-thiosemicarbazone- 2,3-dioxoindole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentková, M.; Kováč, J.; Zentko, A.; Košturiak, A.

    1991-12-01

    We report evidence for ferromagnetic ordering in Cu-chelates of 3-thiosemicarbazone-2,3-dioxoindole (isatine). It has been found that the Curie temperature is 16.8 K and is independent of the Cu content.

  19. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  20. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  1. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  2. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  3. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  4. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  5. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Wittig [2,3]-Rearrangement of Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Ošeka, Maksim; Kimm, Mariliis; Kaabel, Sandra; Järving, Ivar; Rissanen, Kari; Kanger, Tõnis

    2016-03-18

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic [2,3]-rearrangement of oxindole derivatives is presented. The reaction was catalyzed by squaramide, and this provides access to 3-hydroxy 3-substituted oxindoles in high enantiomeric purities. PMID:26937554

  6. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan; Müller, Volker

    2015-07-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD(+)-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  7. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  8. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, EAST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  9. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM NORTH SHORE OF RIVER (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), FACING SOUTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  10. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  12. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, WEST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  13. Evaluation of Palatal Plate Thickness of Maxillary Prosthesis on Phonation- A Comparative Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    B, Sreedevi; Anne, Gopinadh; Manne, Prakash; Bindu O, Swetha Hima; Atla, Jyothi; Deepthi, Sneha; Chaitanya A, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prosthodontic treatment involves clinical procedures which influence speech performance directly or indirectly. Prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth with partial or complete maxillary removable dentures influences the individual voice characteristics like Phonation, resonance etc. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Acrylic palatal plate thickness (1mm-3mm) of maxillary prosthesis on phonation. Materials and Methods: Twelve subjects were selected randomly between the age group of 20-25 years who have full complement of teeth and have no speech problems. Speech evaluation was done under four experimental conditions i.e. Without any experimental acrylic palatal plate (control), with experimental acrylic palatal plates of thickness 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm respectively. The speech material for phonation test consisted of Vowels sounds /a/, /i/, and /o/. Speech analysis to assess phonation was done using digital acoustic analysis (PRAAT software). The obtained results were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple post-hoc for comparison of four experimental conditions with respect to different vowel sounds. Results: Mean harmonics to noise ratio (HNR) values obtained for all the Experimental conditions did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, an increase in the thickness of the acrylic palatal plate of maxillary prosthesis for about 1 mm - 3mm in complete or partial maxillary removable dentures resulted in no significant effect on phonation of vowel sounds /a/, /i/ and /o/. Conclusion: Increasing the thickness of the palatal plate from 1 mm to 3 mm has not shown any significant effect on the phonation. PMID:24959508

  14. Formation of asteroids from mm-cm sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrera, D.; Johansen, A.; Davies, M. B.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Asteroids and comets are intricately connected to life in the universe. Asteroids are the building blocks of terrestrial planets; water-rich asteroids and comets are likely to be the primary source of water for Earth's oceans and other volatiles (Morbidelli et al. 2000; Hartogh et al. 2011); and they may play role in mass extinctions. Yet, the formation of these objects is poorly understood. There is mounting evidence that the traditional picture of the formation of asteroids must be revised. The size distribution of asteroids is hard to reconcile with a traditional bottomup formation scenario. Instead, asteroids may form top-down, with large 100 - 1000 km sized objects forming first by the gravitational collapse of dense clumps of small particles. Experiments and simulations suggest that dust grains cannot grow to sizes larger than mm-cm in protoplanetary disks (Zsom et al. 2010). Also, primitive meteorites from the asteroid belt contain a large mass fraction in chondrules of sizes from 0.1 mm to a few mm. Hence, it is desirable to find a model for asteroid formation from mm-sized particles. Aims. In this work, we model the dynamics of mm-cm sized grains in dust-enriched inner regions of protoplanetary disks. We model the dust-gas interaction to determine whether dust grains of this size can form dense, self-gravitating clouds that can collapse to form asteroids. Methods. We perform shearing box simulations of the inner disk using the Pencil Code (Brandenburg & Dobler 2002). The simulations start with a Solar-type solids-to-gas ratio of 0.01 and we gradually increase the particle concentration. In a real protoplanetary disk, solid particles are expected to migrate from the outer regions and concentrate in the inner disk. Results. Our simulations show that mm-sized particles can form very dense clumps, driven by a run-away convergence in the radial-drift flow of these particles - this dynamic is known as the streaming instability (Youdin & Goodman 2005

  15. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  16. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  17. 2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the comtents:

  18. Investigation of MM-PBSA rescoring of docking poses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David C; Humblet, Christine; Joseph-McCarthy, Diane

    2008-05-01

    Target-based virtual screening is increasingly used to generate leads for targets for which high quality three-dimensional (3D) structures are available. To allow large molecular databases to be screened rapidly, a tiered scoring scheme is often employed whereby a simple scoring function is used as a fast filter of the entire database and a more rigorous and time-consuming scoring function is used to rescore the top hits to produce the final list of ranked compounds. Molecular mechanics Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) approaches are currently thought to be quite effective at incorporating implicit solvation into the estimation of ligand binding free energies. In this paper, the ability of a high-throughput MM-PBSA rescoring function to discriminate between correct and incorrect docking poses is investigated in detail. Various initial scoring functions are used to generate docked poses for a subset of the CCDC/Astex test set and to dock one set of actives/inactives from the DUD data set. The effectiveness of each of these initial scoring functions is discussed. Overall, the ability of the MM-PBSA rescoring function to (i) regenerate the set of X-ray complexes when docking the bound conformation of the ligand, (ii) regenerate the X-ray complexes when docking conformationally expanded databases for each ligand which include "conformation decoys" of the ligand, and (iii) enrich known actives in a virtual screen for the mineralocorticoid receptor in the presence of "ligand decoys" is assessed. While a pharmacophore-based molecular docking approach, PhDock, is used to carry out the docking, the results are expected to be general to use with any docking method. PMID:18465849

  19. End design of the SSC 58 mm High Gradient Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1992-06-10

    The end'' design of the High Gradient Quad. was done with consideration to the integrated field harmonics, the iron contribution, and the maximum field at the conductor. Magnetic analysis was done on the return end only, however the physical dimension of the lead end were determined as well. Using the cross-section of the windings and Cook's program BEND, we generated the physical end windings around the return end. Placing a single wire at the center of each turn the integrated gradient was computed and iterating on the end block spacers the integrated harmonics minimized. The final geometry was then used for more, extensive calculations, such as the field at the conductor and the 3D field harmonics. For this detailed calculation we have placed a single line current at the center of each strand and included the iron contribution ({mu} = {infinity}), see Appendix C. With the termination of the iron serving as a reference, the maximum length of the inner and outer layers are 182 mm and 215 mm respectively. The magnetic length of the end was computed from the gradient function A{sub 2} and was found to be 142 mm. In reality we expect the physical length of the end to be somewhat larger, however this should have little or no effect on the magnetic length. The gradient in the straight section is 212.44 T/m at 7000 A and the integrated value of the gradient is -3.01665 E5 (G) in the end region marked by the magnetic length of the end. The respective integrated harmonics for the end 12 pole and 20 pole are -10.6658 (G/CM{sup 4}) and 0.7279 (G/cm{sup 8}) corresponding to b{sub 6} = 0.351 , b{sub 10} = -0.024 units. The above was computed from the values of A{sub 2}, A{sub 6}, and A{sub 10}.

  20. End design of the SSC 58 mm High Gradient Quadrupole

    SciTech Connect

    Caspi, S.

    1992-06-10

    The ``end`` design of the High Gradient Quad. was done with consideration to the integrated field harmonics, the iron contribution, and the maximum field at the conductor. Magnetic analysis was done on the return end only, however the physical dimension of the lead end were determined as well. Using the cross-section of the windings and Cook`s program BEND, we generated the physical end windings around the return end. Placing a single wire at the center of each turn the integrated gradient was computed and iterating on the end block spacers the integrated harmonics minimized. The final geometry was then used for more, extensive calculations, such as the field at the conductor and the 3D field harmonics. For this detailed calculation we have placed a single line current at the center of each strand and included the iron contribution ({mu} = {infinity}), see Appendix C. With the termination of the iron serving as a reference, the maximum length of the inner and outer layers are 182 mm and 215 mm respectively. The magnetic length of the end was computed from the gradient function A{sub 2} and was found to be 142 mm. In reality we expect the physical length of the end to be somewhat larger, however this should have little or no effect on the magnetic length. The gradient in the straight section is 212.44 T/m at 7000 A and the integrated value of the gradient is -3.01665 E5 (G) in the end region marked by the magnetic length of the end. The respective integrated harmonics for the end 12 pole and 20 pole are -10.6658 (G/CM{sup 4}) and 0.7279 (G/cm{sup 8}) corresponding to b{sub 6} = 0.351 , b{sub 10} = -0.024 units. The above was computed from the values of A{sub 2}, A{sub 6}, and A{sub 10}.

  1. Zinclipscombite, ZnFe{2/3+}(PO4)2(OH)2, a new mineral species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chukanov, N. V.; Pekov, I. V.; Möckel, S.; Zadov, A. E.; Dubinchuk, V. T.

    2007-12-01

    Zinclipscombite, a new mineral species, has been found together with apophyllite, quartz, barite, jarosite, plumbojarosite, turquoise, and calcite at the Silver Coin mine, Edna Mountains, Valmy, Humboldt County, Nevada, United States. The new mineral forms spheroidal, fibrous segregations; the thickness of the fibers, which extend along the c axis, reaches 20 μm, and the diameter of spherulites is up to 2.5 mm. The color is dark green to brown with a light green to beige streak and a vitreous luster. The mineral is translucent. The Mohs hardness is 5. Zinclipscombite is brittle; cleavage is not observed; fracture is uneven. The density is 3.65(4) g/cm3 measured by hydrostatic weighing and 3.727 g/cm3 calculated from X-ray powder data. The frequencies of absorption bands in the infrared spectrum of zinclipscombite are (cm-1; the frequencies of the strongest bands are underlined; sh, shoulder; w, weak band) 3535, 3330sh, 3260, 1625w, 1530w, 1068, 1047, 1022, 970sh, 768w, 684w, 609, 502, and 460. The Mössbauer spectrum of zinclipscombite contains only a doublet corresponding to Fe3+ with sixfold coordination and a quadrupole splitting of 0.562 mm/s; Fe2+ is absent. The mineral is optically uniaxial and positive, ω = 1.755(5), ɛ = 1.795(5). Zinclipscombite is pleochroic, from bright green to blue-green on X and light greenish brown on Z ( X > Z). Chemical composition (electron microprobe, average of five point analyses, wt %): CaO 0.30, ZnO 15.90, Al2O3 4.77, Fe2O3 35.14, P2O5 33.86, As2O5 4.05, H2O (determined by the Penfield method) 4.94, total 98.96. The empirical formula calculated on the basis of (PO4,AsO4)2 is (Zn0.76Ca0.02)Σ0.78(Fe{1.72/3+} Al0.36)Σ2.08[(PO4)1.86(AsO4)0.14]Σ2.00(OH)1. 80 · 0.17H2O. The simplified formula is ZnFe{2/3+} (PO4)2(OH)2. Zinclipscombite is tetragonal, space group P43212 or P41212; a = 7.242(2) Å, c = 13.125(5) Å, V = 688.4(5) Å3, Z = 4. The strongest reflections in the X-ray powder diffraction pattern ( d, ( I, %) (( hkl

  2. Planetary observations at a wavelength of 1. 32 mm

    SciTech Connect

    Ulich, B.L.; Dickel, J.R.; De Pater, I.

    1984-12-01

    Observations at a wavelength of 1.32 mm have been made of the Jovian planets, Ceres, the satellites Callisto and Ganymede, and the HII region DR 21. The observed brightness temperatures are presented. Those of the Jovian planets agree with the values expected from model atmosphere calculations, except that of Jupiter, which is lower than expected. Ceres and the satellites do not have atmospheres so their emission arised in their subsurface layers. The observed brightness temperatures are intermediate between those measured at infrared and centimeter wavelengths. 30 references.

  3. Living with Omniback and the 8mm drive

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Apollo's OmniBack backup system provides a convenient and effective way of storing network backup information on 8mm tape. In addition it has a journaling facility to write extensive log files, recording the backup process in almost any degree of detail desired. The directory structure and file names used are logical and well-defined. Summary files announce the degree of success of the backup as specified in the work file. The system will run unattended under the UNIX cron command, allowing the backup to be performed during the night when user demands on the network are small and most user files are free.

  4. Slow Slip Events on a 760 mm Long Granite Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mclaskey, G.; Yamashita, F.

    2015-12-01

    We describe slow slip events and dynamic rupture events generated on a newly constructed large-scale biaxial friction apparatus at Cornell University that provide insights into the mechanisms of aseismic and seismic slip. We find that, under nominally similar experimental conditions, the 760 mm long granite sample sometimes slips in dynamic stick-slip events and sometimes relieves accumulated shear stress through slow slip events. To provide insights into this curious behavior and the underlying mechanisms, fault slip and shear stress are each measured at 8 locations along the 760 mm long fault. This allows us to map slow slip fronts and the nucleation and propagation of dynamic fault rupture. The granite sample is also instrumented with an array of piezoelectric sensors that are the laboratory equivalent of a seismic network. When the sample is loaded relatively slowly, at 0.03 MPa/s, slow slip occurs on large sections of the fault and the slow slipping region soon expands to the sample boundary. In this case, stress is released in a slow slip event with peak slip velocities < 2 mm/s. Alternatively, when one end of the sample is loaded rapidly (4 MPa/s), or the sample is allowed to heal in stationary contact for a few minutes, slow slip initiates near the load point and accelerates to slip velocities exceeding 200 mm/s before the slow slipping region expands all the way to the sample boundary. This produces a dynamic slip event (stick-slip). The dynamic slip events radiate seismic waves equivalent to a M = -2.5 earthquake. In contrast, the laboratory-generated slow slip events are predominantly aseismic and produce only bursts of tiny and discrete seismic events (M = -6) reminiscent of swarms of microseismicity. The experiments illustrate how a single fault can slide slowly and aseismically or rapidly and dynamically depending on stress state and loading conditions. We compare the behavior observed on this Cornell apparatus to the behavior of other large

  5. Herschel and Planck: surprises in the sub-mm band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Nuevo González, J.

    2015-05-01

    This paper focused on three of the most spectacular and almost unexpected results obtained from the observations in the sub-mm band coming from the ESA's Herschel and Planck missions: the detection of hundred of strongly lensed galaxies, the identification of high-z proto-clusters, and the study of the weak lensing signal through the cross-correlation analysis. Although, there were theoretical works that anticipate them, none of these interesting results appeared in the original scientific programs of both mission. For this reason we have called them ``surprises''.

  6. Gas Analysis by Fourier Transform Mm-Wave Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Brent J.; Steber, Amanda L.; Lehmann, Kevin K.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2013-06-01

    Molecular rotational spectroscopy of low pressure, room temperature gases offers high chemical selectivity and sensitivity with the potential for a wide range of applications in gas analysis. A strength of the technique is the potential to identify molecules that have not been previously studied by rotational spectroscopy by comparing experimental results to predictions of the spectroscopic parameters from quantum chemistry -6 so called library-free detection. The development of Fourier transform mm-wave spectrometers using high peak power (30 mW) active multiplier chain mm-wave sources brings new measurement capabilities to the analysis of complex gas mixtures. Strategies for gas analysis based on high-throughput mm-wave spectroscopy and arbitrary waveform generator driven mm-wave sources are described. Several new measurement capabilities come from the intrinsic time-domain measurement technique. High-sensitivity double-resonance measurements can be performed to speed the analysis of a complex gas sample containing several species. This technique uses a "pi-pulse" to selectively invert the population of two selected rotational energy levels and the effect of this excitation pulse on all other transitions in the spectrometer operating range is monitored using segmented chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy. This method can lead to automated determination of the molecular rotational constants. Rapid pulse duration scan experiments can be used to estimate the magnitude and direction of the dipole moment of the molecule from an unknown spectrum. Coherent pulse echo experiments, using the traditional Hahn sequence or two-color population recovery methods, can be used to determine the collisional relaxation rate of the unknown molecule. This rate determination improves the ability to estimate the mass of the unknown molecule from the determination of the Doppler dephasing rate. By performing a suite of automated, high-throughput measurements, there is the

  7. Synergies with ALMA and mm/submm facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, H.; McNamara, B.; Fabian, A.

    2016-06-01

    New sub-mm facilities, such as ALMA, have opened up exciting new areas of astrophysics. I will review some of ALMA's exciting discoveries from the first five years of science including observations of massive molecular gas flows at the centres of nearby galaxies. Feedback from a central active galactic nucleus is thought to regulate the growth of massive galaxies by suppressing gas cooling and star formation. I will also focus on the potential contribution that XMM-Newton observations could make to these fields over the next decade.

  8. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of {open_quotes}rough-handling{close_quotes}-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  9. Dynamic impact analysis of the M1 105mm projectile

    SciTech Connect

    Walls, J.C.; Webb, D.S.

    1993-06-01

    Evaluation of the effects of [open quotes]rough-handling[close quotes]-induced stresses in the nose region of a 105mm artillery projectile was performed to determine if these stresses could have contributed to the premature explosion of a projectile during a Desert Shield training mission of the 101st Army Airborne in Saudi Arabia. The rough-handling evaluations were simulated by dynamic impact analysis. It was concluded that the combined residual stress and dynamic impact-induced stress would not be of sufficient magnitude to cause cracking of the projectile in the nose region.

  10. Foveal Thickness Alterations in Patients with Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Cem; Tecellioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the alterations in foveal retinal thickness (FT) values in patients with migraine and to reveal the correlations between FT and clinical characteristics of migraine disease. Methods: This study included sixty-eight eyes of 34 migraine patients [twenty-eight eyes of 14 patients with aura (group 1), and forty eyes of 20 patients without aura (group 2)] and forty eyes of 20 healthy volunteer who served as the control group (group 3). FT values were measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in each group. Results: Mean age of patients in group 1, 2, and 3 was 34.0± 6.82, 35.2±10.12, and 35.1± 6.85 years, respectively (p=0.84). Mean FT was 211.07±7.36, 220.0±12.01, and 221.85±12.27 in groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There was statistically significance among the group 1-2 and 1-3 (p=0.002 and p< 0.001). There was no statistically significance between group 2-3 (p=0.88). Conclusion: This study suggests that in particular migraine with aura may lead to a reduction in FT values. This finding can be explained by the blood flow decrease theory in migraine; however larger studies seem mandatory. PMID:27147787

  11. Colour stability of temporary restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Silame, F D J; Tonani, R; Alandia-Roman, C C; Chinelatti, M; Panzeri, H; Pires-de-Souza, F C P

    2013-12-01

    This study evaluated the colour stability of temporary prosthetic restorations with different thicknesses submitted to artificial accelerated aging. The occlusal surfaces of 40 molars were grinded to obtain flat enamel surfaces. Twenty acrylic resin specimens [Polymethyl methacrylate (Duralay) and Bis-methyl acrylate (Luxatemp)] were made with two different thicknesses, 0.5 mm and 1.0 mm. Temporary restorations were fixed on enamel and CIE L*a*b* colour parameters of each specimen were assessed before and after artificial accelerated aging. All groups showed colour alterations above the clinically acceptable limit. Luxatemp showed the lowest colour alteration regardless its thickness and Duralay showed the greatest alteration with 0.5 mm. PMID:24479216

  12. Determination of the effective sample thickness via radiative capture

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hurst, A. M.; Summers, N. C.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, M. S.; Escher, J. E.; Sleaford, B. W.

    2015-09-14

    Our procedure for determining the effective thickness of non-uniform irregular-shaped samples via radiative capture is described. In this technique, partial γ-ray production cross sections of a compound nucleus produced in a neutron-capture reaction are measured using Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis and compared to their corresponding standardized absolute values. For the low-energy transitions, the measured cross sections are lower than their standard values due to significant photoelectric absorption of the γ rays within the bulk-sample volume itself. Using standard theoretical techniques, the amount of γ-ray self absorption and neutron self shielding can then be calculated by iteratively varying the sample thicknessmore » until the observed cross sections converge with the known standards. The overall attenuation provides a measure of the effective sample thickness illuminated by the neutron beam. This procedure is illustrated through radiative neutron capture using powdered oxide samples comprising enriched 186W and 182W from which their tungsten-equivalent effective thicknesses are deduced to be 0.077(3) mm and 0.042(8) mm, respectively.« less

  13. Mechanical property anisotropy in ultra-thick copper electrodeposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overman, N. R.; Overman, C. T.; Edwards, D. J.; Hoppe, E. W.

    2015-09-01

    Electroplating was used as a purification method and produced thick (3.2-12.2 mm) copper deposits of ultra-high radiopurity. Due to the extreme thickness of these electrodeposits compared to traditional electroplating, characterization is necessary to prevent costly failures and ensure device reliability. The deposition rate was carefully controlled to maintain a uniform growth front and required plating for a continuous 8 months in order to produce the 12.2-mm-thick copper specimen. Tensile testing shows the electroplated copper to exhibit significant strain hardening as would be expected with face-centered cubic materials, indicating that the material is free of significant defects and voids. Testing of eight tensile samples machined according to ASTM-E8 specifications exhibited yield strengths of 95 ± 4 MPa. Hardness was measured to be 79.8 ± 5.3 HV using a 200-gf load. Microstructure and deformation showed the grains to be highly aligned with respect to the growth direction, and electron backscatter diffraction showed the development of a (110) texture.

  14. Inspection of thick welded joints using laser-ultrasonic SAFT.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, D; Asaumi, Y; Lord, M; Bescond, C; Hatanaka, H; Tagami, M; Monchalin, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The detection of defects in thick butt joints in the early phase of multi-pass arc welding would be very valuable to reduce cost and time in the necessity of reworking. As a non-contact method, the laser-ultrasonic technique (LUT) has the potential for the automated inspection of welds, ultimately online during manufacturing. In this study, testing has been carried out using LUT combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) on 25 and 50mm thick butt welded joints of steel both completed and partially welded. EDM slits of 2 or 3mm height were inserted at different depths in the multi-pass welding process to simulate a lack of fusion. Line scans transverse to the weld are performed with the generation and detection laser spots superimposed directly on the surface of the weld bead. A CCD line camera is used to simultaneously acquire the surface profile for correction in the SAFT processing. All artificial defects but also real defects are visualized in the investigated thick butt weld specimens, either completed or partially welded after a given number of passes. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the LUT with SAFT for the automated inspection of arc welds or hybrid laser-arc welds during manufacturing. PMID:27062646

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Activities of 2,3-Diarylsubstituted Quinoxaline Derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Kaplum, Vanessa; Cogo, Juliana; Sangi, Diego Pereira; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Corrêa, Arlene Gonçalves; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2016-06-01

    Leishmaniasis is endemic in 98 countries and territories worldwide. The therapies available for leishmaniasis have serious side effects, thus prompting the search for new therapies. The present study investigated the antileishmanial activities of 2,3-diarylsubstituted quinoxaline derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis The antiproliferative activities of 6,7-dichloro-2,3-diphenylquinoxaline (LSPN329) and 2,3-di-(4-methoxyphenyl)-quinoxaline (LSPN331) against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes were assessed, and the cytotoxicities of LSPN329 and LSPN331 were determined. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations were examined by electron microscopy, and biochemical alterations, reflected by the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), mitochondrial superoxide anion (O2·(-)) concentration, the intracellular ATP concentration, cell volume, the level of phosphatidylserine exposure on the cell membrane, cell membrane integrity, and lipid inclusions, were evaluated. In vivo antileishmanial activity was evaluated in a murine cutaneous leishmaniasis model. Compounds LSPN329 and LSPN331 showed significant selectivity for promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes and low cytotoxicity. In promastigotes, ultrastructural alterations were observed, including an increase in lipid inclusions, concentric membranes, and intense mitochondrial swelling, which were associated with hyperpolarization of ΔΨm, an increase in the O2·(-) concentration, decreased intracellular ATP levels, and a decrease in cell volume. Phosphatidylserine exposure and DNA fragmentation were not observed. The cellular membrane remained intact after treatment. Thus, the multifactorial response that was responsible for the cellular collapse of promastigotes was based on intense mitochondrial alterations. BALB/c mice treated with LSPN329 or LSPN331 showed a significant decrease in lesion thickness in the infected footpad. Therefore, the antileishmanial activity and mitochondrial mechanism of

  16. Mm-size bistable zipping dielectric elastomer actuators for integrated microfluidics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffli, Luc; Rosset, Samuel; Shea, Herbert R.

    2013-04-01

    We report on a new structure of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) called zipping DEAs, which have a set of unique characteristics that are a good match for the requirements of electrically-powered integrated microfluidic pumping and/or valving units as well as Braille displays. The zipping DEAs operate by pulling electrostatically an elastomer membrane in contact with the rigid sidewalls of a sloped chamber. In this work, we report on fully functional mm-size zipping DEAs that demonstrate a complete sealing of the chamber sidewalls and a tunable bistable behavior, and compare the measurements with an analytical model. Compared to our first generation of devices, we are able vary the sidewall angle and benefit therefore from more flexibility to study the requirements to make fully functional actuators. In particular, we show that with Nusil CF19 as membrane material (1.2 MPa Young's modulus), it is possible to zip completely 2.3 mm diameter chambers with 15° and 21° sidewalls angle equibiaxially prestretched to λ0=1.12 and 15° chambers with λ0=1.27.

  17. Association between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in eyes with narrow or open-angle

    PubMed Central

    Li, Song-Feng; Wu, Ge-Wei; Chen, Chang-Xi; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Zhi-Bao; Gao, Fei; Wang, Ning-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between choroidal thickness and anterior chamber segment in subjects with eyes with narrow or open-angle. METHODS The subfoveal choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth-imaging optical coherence tomography and anterior chamber parameters were measured with ultrasound biomicroscopy in one eye of 23 subjects with open-angle eyes and 38 subjects with narrow-angle eyes. The mean age was 59.52±7.04y for narrow-angle subjects and 60.76±7.23y for open-angle subjects (P=0.514). Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between choroidal thickness and narrow-angle parameters. RESULTS There were no differences in subfoveal choroidal thickness between open- and narrow-angle subjects (P=0.231). Anterior chamber parameters, including central anterior chamber depth, trabecular iris angle, iris thickness 500 µm from the scleral spur (IT500), and ciliary body thickness at 1 mm and 2 mm from the scleral spur (CBT1, CBT2) showed significant differences between the two groups (P<0.05). Subfoveal choroidal thickness showed negative correlation (β=-0.496, P=0.016) only with anterior chamber depth in the open-angle group and with age (β=-0.442, P=0.003) and IT500 (β=-0.399, P=0.008) in the narrow-angle group. However, subfoveal choroidal thickness was not correlated with trabecular iris angle, anterior chamber depth, ciliary body thickness, or central corneal thickness in the narrow-angle group. CONCLUSION Choroidal thickness does not differ in the two groups and has not correlated with anterior chamber parameters in narrow-angle subjects, suggesting a lack of relationship between choroidal thickness and primary angle-closure glaucoma. PMID:27588269

  18. QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Studies of Metal Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Vidossich, Pietro; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Mixed quantum-classical (quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM)) simulations have strongly contributed to providing insights into the understanding of several structural and mechanistic aspects of biological molecules. They played a particularly important role in metal binding proteins, where the electronic effects of transition metals have to be explicitly taken into account for the correct representation of the underlying biochemical process. In this review, after a brief description of the basic concepts of the QM/MM method, we provide an overview of its capabilities using selected examples taken from our work. Specifically, we will focus on heme peroxidases, metallo-β-lactamases, α-synuclein and ligase ribozymes to show how this approach is capable of describing the catalytic and/or structural role played by transition (Fe, Zn or Cu) and main group (Mg) metals. Applications will reveal how metal ions influence the formation and reduction of high redox intermediates in catalytic cycles and enhance drug metabolism, amyloidogenic aggregate formation and nucleic acid synthesis. In turn, it will become manifest that the protein frame directs and modulates the properties and reactivity of the metal ions. PMID:25006697

  19. Stress relaxation in SSC 50mm dipole coils

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, D.; Markley, F.

    1992-04-01

    We are measuring the stress relaxation of SSC 50mm outer coils with the goal of predicting how much of the coil prestress will be lost while the coils are warehoused between manufacture and cooldown. We manufacture 3 inch (76.2mm) long segments of coil with the same materials and techniques that have been used for prototype coils. We are running four simultaneous tests in an attempt to separate the contributions of the different coil materials. Test one is a completely insulated coil section where the insulation is the all polyamide system being tested at Brookhaven; test two is a wire stack insulated only with the normal Kapton overwrap; test three is a stack of bare cable; and test four is a completely insulated normal coil section. All, except for the bare cable, include the ground insulation. The insulated coil sections are carefully dried before loading and testing in order to eliminate stress changes due to varying moisture content. The temperature dependence of the stress relaxation is being studied separately. Three companion papers presented at this conference will be: (1) Temperature dependence of the viscoelastic properties of SSC coil insulation'' (2) Measurement of the elastic modulus of Kapton perpendicular to the plane of the film at room and cryogenic temperatures'' (3) Theoretical methods for creep and stress relaxation studies of SSC coil.''

  20. Using 70-mm aerial photography to identify rangeland sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everitt, J. H.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Alaniz, M. A.; Bowen, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A south Texas rangeland area was used as a study site to test the use of microdensitometry on 70-mm color-infrared and black-and-white photographs (scale 1:19,000) for distinguishing among 11 range sites (two brushland, seven grassland, two barren land) during the winter (February), spring (May), and summer (August) of 1976. Color-infrared photographs were also taken at a scale of 1:42,000 for the summer date. Film optical density readings were made on one color-infrared film with white light only. The best separations among density readings for all range sites were obtained using white light exposed on color-infrared film in the summer when vegetation was at peak foliage development. Results from this study indicate that 70-mm aerial color-infrared photography at a scale of 1:19,000 or 1:42,000 has good potential for identifying range sites in large and inaccessible areas, and could be a useful tool for range management.

  1. Experimental demonstration of a 120-mm ram accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruczynski, David L.

    1992-10-01

    Ram acceleration is an emerging propulsion technology in which a projectile similar in shape to the centerbody of a ramjet aircraft engine is injected at high speed into a tube filled with a combustible gaseous mixture. As the projectile moves into the tube, under supersonic conditions, shocks occur on and around the projectile. If the gases are then ignited either by the energy in the shock system or an external mechanism, the combustion around or behind the projectile can be self-sustaining. The net effect is to generate a localized high pressure region around and/or behind the projectile which produces acceleration. Work at the University of Washington, Seattle, has demonstrated velocities in excess of 2.6 km/s in 38-mm caliber, while theory predicts velocities above 7 km/s may be obtainable. A program was initiated at the Weapons Technology Directorate of the US Army Research Laboratory (formerly Ballistic Research Laboratory) to examine the scaling potential of ram acceleration for use as a high velocity, high mass, (i.e., high kinetic energy) launcher. Data from initial gas mixing tests and first firings through a 120-mm bore diameter ram accelerator with both inert and live fuel gases are presented. Initial comparisons with ram accelerators of smaller scale are made. Discussions of scaling parameters as currently understood will be presented.

  2. Surface microhardness of three thicknesses of mineral trioxide aggregate in different setting conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jafargholizadeh, Leila; Khoshkhounejad, Mehrfam; Nekoofar, Mohammad Hossein; Raoof, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to compare the surface microhardness of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) samples having different thicknesses and exposed to human blood from one side and with or without a moist cotton pellet on the other side. Materials and Methods Ninety cylindrical molds with three heights of 2, 4, and 6 mm were fabricated. In group 1 (dry condition), molds with heights of 2, 4, and 6 mm (10 molds of each) were filled with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental), and the upper surface of the material was not exposed to any additional moisture. In groups 2 and 3, a distilled water- or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-moistened cotton pellet was placed on the upper side of MTA, respectively. The lower side of the molds in all the groups was in contact with human blood-wetted foams. After 4 day, the Vickers microhardness of the upper surface of MTA was measured. Results In the dry condition, the 4 and 6 mm-thick MTA samples showed significantly lower microhardness than the 2 mm-thick samples (p = 0.003 and p = 0.001, respectively). However, when a distilled water- or PBS-moistened cotton pellet was placed over the MTA, no significant difference was found between the surface microhardness of samples having the abovementioned three thicknesses of the material (p = 0.210 and p = 0.112, respectively). Conclusions It could be concluded that a moist cotton pellet must be placed over the 4 to 6 mm-thick MTA for better hydration of the material. However, this might not be necessary when 2 mm-thick MTA is used. PMID:25383342

  3. Translucency and Masking Ability of Various Composite Resins at Different Thicknesses

    PubMed Central

    Darabi, Farideh; Radafshar, Golpar; Tavangar, Maryam; Davaloo, Reza; Khosravian, Aref; Mirfarhadi, Nastaran

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Optical properties of the composite resins, concerning their translucency and thickness, are affected by discolored tooth structure or inherent darkness of the oral cavity. Purpose: This study aimed to compare the translucency parameter (TP) of five different composite resins in different thicknesses and to evaluate their masking ability in black backgrounds. Materials and Method: Five brands of composite resins; Gradia (GC) and Crystalline (Confi-dental) in opaque A2 (OA2), Vit-l-escence (Ultradent) in opaque snow (OS), Herculite XRV (Kerr) and Opallis (FGM) in dentin A2 (DA2) shades were selected to enroll the study. Color coordinates of each composite were determined at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm thicknesses on a white backing, the backing of material itself and a black backing were calculated by using a spectrophotometer to evaluate the translucency parameter (TP) of the study materials. The masking ability was also calculated from the specimens on the material itself and on black backing. The values under 2 were estimated as imperceptible. One-way ANOVA, T-test and Tukey HSD were employed for statistical analysis. Results: The masking ability values, recorded for the 1.5 mm-thick specimens, were in the range of imperceptible except for the Herculite. There was no difference in TP values of the materials at 1.5 mm thickness. Opaque snow shade of Vit-l-escence and opaque A2 shade of Gradia showed lower TP values in comparison with the other 1 and 0.5 mm-thick materials and this difference was statistically significant (p< 0.05). Conclusion: In relatively thin thicknesses (≤1mm), these opaque/dentin shade composite resins could not mask the black background color. PMID:25191660

  4. Influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of piezoelectric bimorph mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.

  5. Instrumentation of the patellar osteotomy in total knee arthroplasty. The relationship of patellar thickness and lateral retinacular release.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, M A; Insall, J N; Case, G C; Kelly, M A

    1996-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of patellar thickness in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with routine patellar resurfacing on the rate of lateral retinacular release. A study group comprised of 121 TKAs using surgical instrumentation allowing a measured resection of the patella was compared with a control group comprised of 100 TKAs using an "eye-ball" technique for patellar resurfacing without particular attention to patellar thickness. A composite without patellar thickness equal to or slightly less than the original patella was attempted in the study group. The average thickness difference of the patella in the study group was -1.58 mm. Lateral retinacular release for patellar maltracking was performed in 12.4% of knees in the study group compared with 55% of knees in the control group. The variation in patellar thickness in this series often led to a residual bone thickness < 15 mm. No clinical problems have been observed to date. PMID:8836354

  6. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  7. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  8. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate phosphatase activity of phosphoglycerate mutase: stimulation by vanadate and phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Stankiewicz, P.J.; Gresser, M.J.; Tracey, A.S.; Hass, L.F.

    1987-03-10

    The binding of inorganic vanadate (V/sub i/) to rabbit muscle phosphoglycerate mutase (PGM), studied by using /sup 51/V nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, shows a sigmoidal dependence on vanadate concentration with a stoichiometry of four vanadium atoms per PGM molecule at saturating (V/sub i/). The data are consistent with binding of one divanadate ion to each of the two subunits of PGM in a noncooperative manner with an intrinsic dissociation constant of 4 x 10/sup -6/ M. The relevance of this result to other studies which have shown that the V/sub i/-stimulated 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) phosphatase activity of PGM has a sigmoidal dependence on (V/sub i/) with a Hill coefficient of 2.0 is discussed. At pH 7.0, inorganic phosphate has little effect on the 2,3-DPG phosphatase activity of PGM, even at concentrations as high as 50 mM. Similarly, 25 ..mu..M V/sub i/ has little effect on the phosphatase activity. However, in the presence of 25 ..mu..M V/sub i/, a phosphate concentration of 20 mM increases the phosphatase activity by more than 3-fold. This behavior is rationalized in terms of activation of the phosphatase activity by a phosphate/vanadate mixed anhydride. This interpretation is supported by the observation of strong activation of the phosphatase activity by inorganic pyrophosphate. A molecular mechanism for the observed effects of vanadate is proposed, and the relevance of this study to the possible use of vanadate as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of sickle cell anemia is discussed.

  9. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  10. Effects of exposing rats to 100% oxygen at 450 and 600 mm Hg on in vitro liver and adipose tissue lipid synthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feller, D. D.; Neville, E. D.; Talarico, K. S.

    1972-01-01

    Male rats (260-285 gm) were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 or 600 mm Hg for 1 to 4 days. Rats maintained at 450 mm Hg ate 92% the amount of food eaten by ad libitum controls maintained at sea level conditions. At 600 mm Hg, the food intake was 77% of the ad libitum controls. No difference was found in the plasma level of glucose, free fatty acids, and corticosterone between oxygen exposed rats and their respective pair-fed controls. The in vitro conversion of acetate into fatty acids by adipose tissue from rats exposed at 450 mm Hg for 2, 3, or 4 days was significantly increased above pair-fed controls and ad libitum controls. Increasing the oxygen pressure to 600 mm Hg abolished this increase, and in fact, reversed the increased synthesis to a significant decrease for the 4-day exposure.

  11. Constraining the thick disc formation scenario of the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robin, A. C.; Reylé, C.; Fliri, J.; Czekaj, M.; Robert, C. P.; Martins, A. M. M.

    2014-09-01

    Aims: More than 30 years after its discovery, the thick disc of the Milky Way is not fully explored. We examine the shape of the thick disc in order to gain insight into the process of its formation. Methods: The shape of the thick disc is studied in detail using photometric data at high and intermediate latitudes from SDSS and 2MASS surveys. We adopted the population synthesis approach using an approximate Bayesian computation - Markov chain Monte Carlo (ABC-MCMC) method to determine the potential degeneracies in the parameters that can be caused by the mixing with the halo and the thin disc. We characterised the thick-disc shape, scale height, scale length, local density, and flare, and we investigated the extent of the thick-disc formation period by simulating several formation episodes. Results: We find that the vertical variation in density is not exponential, but much closer to a hyperbolic secant squared. Assuming a single formation epoch, the thick disc is better fitted with a sech2 scale height of 470 pc and a scale length of 2.3 kpc. However, if one simulates two successive formation episodes, which mimicks an extended formation period, the older episode has a higher scale height and a longer scale length than the younger episode, which indicates a contraction during the collapse phase. The scale height decreases from 800 pc to 340 pc, the scale length from 3.2 kpc to 2 kpc. The likelihood is much higher when the thick disc formation extends over a longer period. We also show that star formation increases from the old episode to the young and that there is no flare in the outskirt of the thick disc during the main episode. We compare our results with formation scenarios of the thick disc. During the fitting process, the halo parameters are determined as well. If a power-law density is assumed, it has an exponent of 3.3 and an axis ratio of 0.7. Alternatively, a Hernquist shape would have an exponent of 2.76, an axis ratio of 0.77, and a core radius of 2

  12. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of new 1,2,3-selenadiazoles.

    PubMed

    Al-Smadi, Mousa; Al-Momani, Fouad

    2008-01-01

    The commercially available aromatic polyketones 1a-d were utilized for the synthesis of the multi-arm1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives 3a-d. The preparation starts with the reaction between compounds 1a-d and p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide to give the corresponding tosylhydrazones 2a-d. Subsequent reaction with selenium dioxide leads to regiospecific ring closure of the tosylhydrazones to give the target multi-arm 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives in high yield. A 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivative 3e containing an epoxide ring was also prepared. The structures of all the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of spectral and analytical data. The compounds were screened in vitro for their antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacterial and Candida strains obtained from King Abdullah Hospital in Irbid -Jordan. Compounds 3a, 3c and 3e were found to be highly active against all the selected pathogens. Compound 3e showed an inhibition zone of 13 mm against the highly resistant P. aruginosa. PMID:18985951

  13. Eddy Current Testing and Sizing of Deep Cracks in a Thick Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.; Endo, H.; Uchimoto, T.; Takagi, T.; Nishimizu, A.; Koike, M.; Matsui, T.

    2004-02-26

    Due to the skin effect of eddy current testing, target of ECT restricts to thin structure such as steam generator tubes with 1.27mm thickness. Detecting and sizing of a deep crack in a thick structure remains a problem. In this paper, an ECT probe is presented to solve this problem with the help of numerical analysis. The parameters such as frequency, coil size etc. are discussed. The inverse problem of crack sizing is solved by applying a fast simulator of ECT based on an edge based finite element method and steepest descent method, and reconstructed results of 5, 10 and 15mm depth cracks from experimental signals are shown.

  14. Quantifying bone thickness, light transmission, and contrast interrelationships in transcranial photoacoustic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lediju Bell, Muyinatu A.; Ostrowski, Anastasia K.; Li, Ke; Kaanzides, Peter; Boctor, Emad

    2015-03-01

    We previously introduced photoacoustic imaging to detect blood vessels surrounded by bone and thereby eliminate the deadly risk of carotid artery injury during endonasal, transsphenoidal surgeries. Light would be transmitted through an optical fiber attached to the surgical drill, while a transcranial probe placed on the temporal region of the skull receives photoacoustic signals. This work quantifies changes in photoacoustic image contrast as the sphenoid bone is drilled. Frontal bone from a human adult cadaver skull was cut into seven 3 cm x 3 cm chips and sanded to thicknesses ranging 1-4 mm. For 700-940 nm wavelengths, the average optical transmission through these specimens increased from 19% to 44% as bone thickness decreased, with measurements agreeing with Monte Carlo simulations within 5%. These skull specimens were individually placed in the optical pathway of a 3.5 mm diameter, cylindrical, vessel-mimicking photoacoustic target, as the laser wavelength was varied between 700-940 nm. The mean optical insertion loss and photoacoustic image contrast loss due to the bone specimens were 56-80% and 46-79%, respectively, with the majority of change observed when the bone was <=2 mm thick. The decrease in contrast is directly proportional to insertion loss over this thickness range by factors of 0.8-1.1 when multiple wavelengths are considered. Results suggest that this proportional relationship may be used to determine the amount of bone that remains to be drilled when the thickness is 2 mm or less.

  15. Evaluation of the possibility to use thick slabs of reconstructed outer breast tomosynthesis slice images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersson, Hannie; Dustler, Magnus; Tingberg, Anders; Timberg, Pontus

    2016-03-01

    The large image volumes in breast tomosynthesis (BT) have led to large amounts of data and a heavy workload for breast radiologists. The number of slice images can be decreased by combining adjacent image planes (slabbing) but the decrease in depth resolution can considerably affect the detection of lesions. The aim of this work was to assess if thicker slabbing of the outer slice images (where lesions seldom are present) could be a viable alternative in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes. The suggested slabbing (an image volume with thick outer slabs and thin slices between) were evaluated in two steps. Firstly, a survey of the depth of 65 cancer lesions within the breast was performed to estimate how many lesions would be affected by outer slabs of different thicknesses. Secondly, a selection of 24 lesions was reconstructed with 2, 6 and 10 mm slab thickness to evaluate how the appearance of lesions located in the thicker slabs would be affected. The results show that few malignant breast lesions are located at a depth less than 10 mm from the surface (especially for breast thicknesses of 50 mm and above). Reconstruction of BT volumes with 6 mm slab thickness yields an image quality that is sufficient for lesion detection for a majority of the investigated cases. Together, this indicates that thicker slabbing of the outer slice images is a promising option in order to reduce the number of slice images in BT image volumes.

  16. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    We present number counts and clustering properties of millimeter-bright galaxies uncovered by the AzTEC camera mounted on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We surveyed the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA22 fields with an area of ~0.25 deg2 each with an rms noise level of ~0.4-1.0 mJy. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z~2-3. The average mass of dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources was calculated to be 1013-1014 Msolar. Comparison of correlation lengths of 1.1 mm sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the 1.1 mm sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

  17. Thickness of mouthguard sheets after vacuum-pressure formation: influence of mouthguard sheet material.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mutsumi; Koide, Kaoru; Iwasaki, Shin-Ichi

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the thickness of mouthguard sheet after vacuum-pressure formation based on the mouthguard sheet material. Three mouthguard sheet materials (4.0 mm thick) were compared: ethylene-vinyl acetate co-polymer (EVA), olefin co-polymer (OL), and polyolefin-polystyrene co-polymer (OS). The working model was made by hard gypsum that was trimmed to the height of 20 mm at the cutting edge of the maxillary central incisor and 15 mm at the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar. Where the center of the softened sheet sagged 15 mm lower than the clamp, the sheet was pressed against the working model, followed by vacuum forming for 10 s and compression molding for 2 min. The thickness of mouthguard sheets after fabrication was determined for the incisal portion (incisal edge and labial surface) and molar portion (cusp and buccal surface), and dimensional measurements were obtained using a measuring device. Differences in the change in thickness due to sheet materials were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (anova) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests. The OL sheet was thickest at all measurement points. At the incisal edge and cusp, thickness after formation was highest for OL, then EVA and finally OS. At the labial surface and buccal surface, the thickness after formation was highest for OL, then OS and finally EVA. This study suggested that post-fabrication mouthguard thickness differed according to sheet material, with the olefin co-polymer sheet having the smallest thickness reduction. PMID:26446242

  18. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  19. Helical magneto-cumulative generator 280 mm in diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, V. A.; Kazakov, S. A.; Boriskin, A. S.; Vlasov, Yu. V.; Yanenko, V. A.; Nikolaev, N. I.; Volodchenkov, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Several possibilities of preamplifier energy and power increasing are considered: using a more powerful (HMX-based) conical HE-charge in the central tube of the magneto-cumulative generator, using a magnetic flux finish pressing out device with axial initiation of the HE charge, and increasing the inner diameter of the helix. A magneto-cumulative generator (MCG) with a helix 280 mm in diameter (MCG-280) is developed. The new preamplifier has a power of ≈400 GW and is able to power a ten-element DMCG480 with an initial inductance of ≈0.2 µH by a current of ≈10 MA with a characteristic current rise time (by a factor of e at the final stage of its operation) τ e = 32 µs.

  20. Coil and iron design for SSC 50 mm magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Morgan, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we present the design of the two dimensional coil and iron cross section, referred to as DSX201/W6733, for the 50 mm aperture dipole magnet being built at the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). The computed values of the allowed field harmonics as a function of current, the quench performance predictions, the stored energy calculations, the effect of random errors on the coil placement and the Lorentz forces on the coil will be presented. The yoke has been optimized to reduce iron saturation effects on the field harmonics. We shall present the summary of this design which will include the expected overall performance of this cross section. 4 refs., 8 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Coupling MM5 with ISOLSM: Development, testing, and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.J.; Cooley, H.S.; He, Y.; Torn, M.S.

    2003-06-10

    Surface water and energy fluxes are tightly coupled with CO2 exchanges between the ecosystem and atmosphere. Other surface-to-atmosphere trace-gas exchanges of interest in climate change research (e.g., N2O, CH4, C18OO, and H218O) are also strongly impacted by surface energy exchanges. Further, land-use change has large effects on the surface energy balance and therefore the exchanges of these trace gases. To investigate these issues at the regional scale we have coupled MM5 (Grell et al. 1995) with ISOLSM (Riley et al. 2002, Riley et al. 2003), a land-surface model based on LSM1 (Bonan 1995).

  2. The Apollo 15 coarse fines (4-10 mm)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Sherman, Sarah Bean

    1989-01-01

    A new catalog of the Apollo 15 coarse fines particles is presented. Powell's macroscopic descriptions, resulting from his 1972 particle by particle binocular examination of all of the Apollo 15 4 to 10 mm fines samples, are retained. His groupings are also retained, but petrographic, chemical, and other data from later analyses are incorporated into this catalog to better characterize individual particles and describe the groups. A large number of particles have no characterization beyond that done by Powell. Complete descriptions of the particles and all known references are provided. The catalog is intended for anyone interested in the rock types collected by Dave Scott and Jim Irwin in the Hadley-Appenine region, and particularly for researchers requiring sample allocations.

  3. 120-mm supercondcting quadrupole for interaction regions of hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, A.V.; Kashikhin, V.V.; Mokhov, N.V.; Novitski, I.; /Fermilab

    2010-05-01

    Magnetic and mechanical designs of a Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet with 120-mm aperture suitable for interaction regions of hadron colliders are presented. The magnet is based on a two-layer shell-type coil and a cold iron yoke. Special spacers made of a low-Z material are implemented in the coil mid-planes to reduce the level of radiation heat deposition and radiation dose in the coil. The quadrupole mechanical structure is based on aluminum collars supported by an iron yoke and a stainless steel skin. Magnet parameters including maximum field gradient and field harmonics, Nb3Sn coil pre-stress and protection at the operating temperatures of 4.5 and 1.9 K are reported. The level and distribution of radiation heat deposition in the coil and other magnet components are discussed.

  4. Quantum Phase Slips in 6 mm Long Niobium Nanowire.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiwei; Liu, Xin; Chan, M H W

    2016-02-10

    Transport measurements were made to study the superconducting transition of four 6 mm long niobium nanowires with different cross-sectional dimensions. A low-temperature residual resistance tail measured with an excitation current of 5 nA is found in the thinnest wire down to 50 mK or 7.7% of Tc of Nb. The functional form of the residual resistance is consistent with quantum phase slip (QPS) processes. Resistance measured at high bias excitation current switches among many discrete values that are well below the normal state resistance. These discrete resistance values as a function of temperature fall into several parallel curves all showing QPS-like decay in the low temperature limit similar to that found at low current. The coexistence of QPS-like resistance tails and resistance jumps found in the same wire unifies results from previous experiments where these two distinct sets of evidence for QPS are exclusive of each other. PMID:26788964

  5. A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III

    1989-01-01

    IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

  6. A densitometric analysis of commercial 35mm films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Ruffin, Christopher, III

    IIaO films have been subjected to various sensitometric tests. The have included thermal and aging effects and reciprocity failure studies. In order to compare the special IIaO film with popular brands of 35 mm films and their possible use in astrophotography, Agfa, Fuji and Kodak print and slide formats, as well as black and white and color formats, were subjected to sensitometric, as well as densitometric analysis. A scanning electron microscope was used to analyze grain structure size, and shape as a function of both speed and brand. Preliminary analysis of the grain structure using an ISI-SS40 scanning electron microscope indicates that the grain sizes for darker densities are much larger than the grain size for lighter densities. Researchers analyze the scanning electron microscope findings of the various grains versus densities as well as enhancement of the grains, using the IP-8500 Digital Image Processor.

  7. Calibration of a HTS Based LOX 400 mm Level Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunanithi, R.; Jacob, S.; Nadig, D. S.; Prasad, M. V. N.; Gour, Abhay S.; Pankaj, S.; Gowthaman, M.; Sudharshan, H.

    The measurement of the cryogen level in a cryostage of space crafts is crucial. At the same time the weight of the sensor should be small as it affects the payload fraction of the space craft. An attempt to develop a HTS based level sensor of 400 mm for Liquid Oxygen (LOX) measurement was made. In the initial phase of testing, loss of superconductivity of HTS wire in LOX inside a cryostat was noticed. Thus, a new four wall cryostat was designed to have a stable LOX level to provide thermal stability to the HTS based LOX sensor. The calibration of the developed sensor was carried out against capacitance level sensor which was pre calibrated using diode array to verify its linearity and performance for different current excitation levels. The calibrations were carried out without heater wires. The automatic data logging was accomplished using a program developed in LabVIEW 11.0.

  8. Generation of mm- and Sub mm-wave Bessel Beams Using DOE's Designed by BOR-FDTD Method and MGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. Z.; Dou, W. B.

    2009-02-01

    A new way for generating Bessel beams at mm and sub mm-wavelengths is presented in this paper, in which diffractive optical elements (DOE’s) are designed for converting incident Gaussian beams into Bessel beams. In order to reduce the computational burden and therefore improve the design efficiency, two measures are adopted in our design. One is a body-of-revolution finite-difference time-domain (BOR-FDTD) method that uses a two-dimensional (2-D) solution space instead of a full 3-D space and thereby saves tremendous computational resources, and that is utilized to calculate the fields diffracted by the DOE’s. The other is a microgenetic algorithm (MGA) that has been proved to be more effective than the conventional GA, and that is employed for accelerative optimization. The utility of the present design tool, which combines a MGA with a BOR-FDTD method, is demonstrated by three examples. Numerical simulation results indicate that the designed DOE’s can not only flexibly generate zero- or higher- order Bessel beams when compared with axicons, but also have higher diffraction efficiencies when compared with amplitude holograms.

  9. Comparison of less lethal 40 mm sponge projectile and the 37 mm projectile for injury assessment on human thorax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nsiampa, N.; Robbe, C.; Oukara, A.; Papy, A.

    2012-08-01

    Since there is an increasing interest in avoiding human body injury in diverse situations like crowd control or peacekeeping missions, less lethal ammunition are more and more used. In this study we focus only on kinetic energy non-lethal (KENLW) projectiles. Their desired effects on human body are the temporary incapacitation through blunt trauma. There are different types of KENLW projectiles ranging from rigid to deformable projectiles. Unfortunately, the effects of such projectiles are not really well known as it is difficult to measure the force transmitted to the human body or the related deformation. Because the potential of injury excludes human living tests, tests are performed on cadavers, animals or human tissue surrogates. Besides these tests, numerical simulations are more and more used to gain more understanding, to assess or to predict the effects of this kind of projectile on human body. In this paper a comparison based on the viscous criterion between the 37 mm rigid projectile and the 40 mm sponge projectile was made.

  10. Modelling and performance of Nb SIS mixers in the 1.3 mm and 0.8 mm bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpov, A.; Carter, M.; Lazareff, B.; Billon-Pierron, D.; Gundlach, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the modeling and subsequent improvements of SIS waveguide mixers for the 200-270 and 330-370 GHz bands (Blundell, Carter, and Gundlach 1988, Carter et al 1991). These mixers are constructed for use in receivers on IRAM radiotelescopes on Pico Veleta (Spain, Sierra Nevada) and Plateau de Bure (French Alps), and must meet specific requirements. The standard reduced height waveguide structure with suspended stripline is first analyzed and a model is validated through comparison with scale model and working scale measurements. In the first step, the intrinsic limitations of the standard mixer structure are identified, and the parameters are optimized bearing in mind the radioastronomical applications. In the second step, inductive tuning of the junctions is introduced and optimized for minimum noise and maximum bandwidth. In the 1.3 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 110 K (minimum 80 K) is measured from 180 through 260 GHz. In the 0.8 mm band, a DSB receiver temperature of less than 250 K (minimum 175 K) is obtained between 325 and 355 GHz. All these results are obtained with room-temperature optics and a 4 GHz IF chain having a 500 MHz bandwidth and a noise temperature of 14 K.

  11. Reconstruction of an Acetogenic 2,3-Butanediol Pathway Involving a Novel NADPH-Dependent Primary-Secondary Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L.; Maddock, Danielle J.; Mueller, Alexander P.; Liew, FungMin

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 μM h−1 optical density unit−1), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  12. Reconstruction of an acetogenic 2,3-butanediol pathway involving a novel NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Köpke, Michael; Gerth, Monica L; Maddock, Danielle J; Mueller, Alexander P; Liew, FungMin; Simpson, Séan D; Patrick, Wayne M

    2014-06-01

    Acetogenic bacteria use CO and/or CO2 plus H2 as their sole carbon and energy sources. Fermentation processes with these organisms hold promise for producing chemicals and biofuels from abundant waste gas feedstocks while simultaneously reducing industrial greenhouse gas emissions. The acetogen Clostridium autoethanogenum is known to synthesize the pyruvate-derived metabolites lactate and 2,3-butanediol during gas fermentation. Industrially, 2,3-butanediol is valuable for chemical production. Here we identify and characterize the C. autoethanogenum enzymes for lactate and 2,3-butanediol biosynthesis. The putative C. autoethanogenum lactate dehydrogenase was active when expressed in Escherichia coli. The 2,3-butanediol pathway was reconstituted in E. coli by cloning and expressing the candidate genes for acetolactate synthase, acetolactate decarboxylase, and 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase. Under anaerobic conditions, the resulting E. coli strain produced 1.1 ± 0.2 mM 2R,3R-butanediol (23 μM h(-1) optical density unit(-1)), which is comparable to the level produced by C. autoethanogenum during growth on CO-containing waste gases. In addition to the 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase, we identified a strictly NADPH-dependent primary-secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (CaADH) that could reduce acetoin to 2,3-butanediol. Detailed kinetic analysis revealed that CaADH accepts a range of 2-, 3-, and 4-carbon substrates, including the nonphysiological ketones acetone and butanone. The high activity of CaADH toward acetone led us to predict, and confirm experimentally, that C. autoethanogenum can act as a whole-cell biocatalyst for converting exogenous acetone to isopropanol. Together, our results functionally validate the 2,3-butanediol pathway from C. autoethanogenum, identify CaADH as a target for further engineering, and demonstrate the potential of C. autoethanogenum as a platform for sustainable chemical production. PMID:24657865

  13. Error Growth Rate in the MM5 Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, S.; Palamarchuk, J.

    2006-12-01

    The goal of this work is to estimate model error growth rates in simulations of the atmospheric circulation by the MM5 model all the way from the short range to the medium range and beyond. The major topics are addressed to: (i) search the optimal set of parameterization schemes; (ii) evaluate the spatial structure and scales of the model error for various atmospheric fields; (iii) determine geographical regions where model errors are largest; (iv) define particular atmospheric patterns contributing to the fast and significant model error growth. Results are presented for geopotential, temperature, relative humidity and horizontal wind components fields on standard surfaces over the Atlantic-European region during winter 2002. Various combinations of parameterization schemes for cumulus, PBL, moisture and radiation are used to identify which one provides a lesser difference between the model state and analysis. The comparison of the model fields is carried out versus ERA-40 reanalysis of the ECMWF. Results show that the rate, at which the model error grows as well as its magnitude, varies depending on the forecast range, atmospheric variable and level. The typical spatial scale and structure of the model error also depends on the particular atmospheric variable. The distribution of the model error over the domain can be separated in two parts: the steady and transient. The first part is associated with a few high mountain regions including Greenland, where model error is larger. The transient model error mainly moves along with areas of high gradients in the atmospheric flow. Acknowledgement: This study has been supported by NATO Science for Peace grant #981044. The MM5 modelling system used in this study has been provided by UCAR. ERA-40 re-analysis data have been obtained from the ECMWF data server.

  14. 300mm pilot line DSA contact hole process stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argoud, M.; Servin, I.; Gharbi, A.; Pimenta Barros, P.; Jullian, K.; Sanche, M.; Chamiot-Maitral, G.; Barnola, S.; Tiron, R.; Navarro, C.; Chevalier, X.; Nicolet, C.; Fleury, G.; Hadziioannou, G.; Asai, M.; Pieczulewski, C.

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is today a credible alternative lithographic technology for semiconductor industry [1]. In the coming years, DSA integration could be a standard complementary step with other lithographic techniques (193nm immersion, e-beam, extreme ultraviolet). Its main advantages are a high pattern resolution (down to 10nm), a capability to decrease an initial pattern edge roughness [2], an absorption of pattern guide size variation, no requirement of a high-resolution mask and can use standard fab-equipment (tracks and etch tools). The potential of DSA must next be confirmed viable for high volume manufacturing. Developments are necessary to transfer this technology on 300mm wafers in order to demonstrate semiconductor fab-compatibility [3-7]. The challenges concern especially the stability, both uniformity and defectivity, of the entire process, including tools and Blok Co-Polymer (BCP) materials. To investigate the DSA process stability, a 300mm pilot line with DSA dedicated track (SOKUDO DUO) is used at CEALeti. BCP morphologies with PMMA cylinders in a PS matrix are investigated (about 35nm natural period). BCP selfassembly in unpatterned surface and patterned surface (graphoepitaxy) configurations are considered in this study. Unpatterned configuration will initially be used for process optimization and fix a process of record. Secondly, this process of record will be monitored with a follow-up in order to validate its stability. Steps optimization will be applied to patterned surface configurations (graphoepitaxy) for contact hole patterning application. A process window of contact hole shrink process will be defined. Process stability (CD uniformity and defectivity related to BCP lithography) will be investigated.

  15. Thickness of the Ligamentum Flavum: Correlation with Age and Its Asymmetry-An Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Khambatta, Seema; Ambiye, Medha Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective radiological study of the ligamentum flavum (LF). Purpose This study is an attempt to measure and compare the thickening of the LF on both the sides with the use of magnetic resonance imaging, to investigate if there is a predominant tendency to thicken a specific side and also to determine if a correlation between the thickening of the LF and increasing age exists. Overview of Literature Even though many studies measured the thickness of the LF, very few have compared it on each side, or determined its correlation with age. Methods The thickness of LF was measured at the L3-4, L4-5, L5-S1 levels on both sides using the magnetic resonance images of 200 patients (n=1,200). The sample population was divided into three groups: 21-40 years, 41-60 years, and 61-80 years. The data was analyzed statistically, comparing the thickness of LF on both sides and in various age-groups. Results The thickness of the LF was found to increase with age; however, there were several younger instances with thicknesses >4 mm. The mean thickness of the right LF at different spinal levels was measured (L3-L4=3.38±0.94 mm, L4-L5=3.70±1.16 mm, and L5-S1=3.65±1.16 mm) while the mean thickness of the left LF was higher (L3-L4=3.52±0.99 mm, L4-L5=3.84±1.12 mm, and L5-S1=3.78±1.24 mm). Conclusions The LF thickness does not appear to have any side dominance; however, it tends to thicken with increasing age. PMID:25901237

  16. Effect of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome on corneal thickness.

    PubMed

    Koseoglu, Handan Inonu; Kanbay, Asiye; Ortak, Huseyin; Karadağ, Remzi; Demir, Osman; Demir, Selim; Gunes, Alper; Doruk, Sibel

    2016-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) might be a risk factor for the development of eye disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of OSAS on central corneal thickness (CCT). A total of 195 patients were enrolled in the study, and underwent polysomnography. Patients were divided according to their apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) scores into control group (AHI < 5), mild (AHI, 5-15), moderate (AHI, 15-30), and severe OSAS (AHI > 30) groups. In ophthalmological examinations, CCT, auto refractometer measurement, tear break-up time, and Schrimer's test results were evaluated. Central corneal thickness was significantly decreased in patients with OSAS compared to the control group (542.14 ± 31.21 vs. 569.92 ± 13.46, p < 0.001). As the severity of OSAS increased, CCT decreased (mild OSAS = 567.48 ± 23 mm, moderate OSAS = 530.21 ± 30.2 mm, and severe OSAS = 557.97 ± 16.52 mm, respectively, p < 0.001). The mean values of auto refractometer, tear break-up time, and Schrimer's test were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). CCT was negatively correlated with AHI, oxygen desaturation index, desaturation percentages, and positively correlated with minimum oxygen saturation values (p < 0.05). This study showed that central corneal thickness is inversely correlated with the severity of OSAS. OSAS affects all organ systems particularly cardiovascular and neurological mechanisms. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the effect of OSAS treatment on CCT. PMID:26292644

  17. High resolution video monitoring of coating thickness during plasma spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to monitoring the thickness of plasma sprayed coatings during application is described. The method employs a high resolution video camera and width analyzer to accurately measure the dimensions of samples having simple geometries. This approach is best suited for cylindrical or flat substrates but it may also work for selected locations on more complex geometries. Measurement accuracy is a function of specimen dimensions and extent of magnification. Tolerances of plus or minus 0.5 mil (0.13 mm) on final coating thickness can be achieved. Additionally, the plot of cumulative coating thickess versus the number of passes has proven to be a useful diagnostic tool. While the ideal plot is linear, strong deviations from linearity - indicating the need for corrective action - may be observed.

  18. Multilayer injection moulding of thick-walled optical plastics parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuss, A.; Weber, M.; Walach, P.

    2014-05-01

    Optical components are often thick-walled. The cycle time of precise polymer optics with a wall thickness of more than 20 mm exceeds several minutes. The multilayer injection moulding or compression moulding lowers the cycle time and increases the quality of the moulded parts. For the production of multilayer moulded lenses the mould design plays an important role. An innovative mould concept is presented with the possiblity to produce double or triple layer lenses. To ensure the quality and the endurance of multilayer moulded optical components in their applications, the cohesion in the interface is important. Tensile shear tests show the ability of multilayer moulded parts with high cohesion values for optical applications.

  19. Slime thickness evaluation of bored piles by electrical resistivity probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Ok-Hyun; Yoon, Hyung-Koo; Park, Min-Chul; Lee, Jong-Sub

    2014-09-01

    The bottoms of bored piles are generally stacked with soil particles, both while boreholes are being drilled, and afterward. The stacked soils are called slime, and when loads are applied on the pile, increase the pile settlement. Thus to guarantee the end bearing capacity of bored piles, the slime thickness should be precisely detected. The objective of this study is to suggest a new method for evaluating the slime thickness, using temperature compensated electrical resistivity. Laboratory studies are performed in advance, to estimate and compare the resolution of the electrical resistivity probe (ERP) and time domain reflectometry (TDR). The electrical properties of the ERP and TDR are measured using coaxial type electrodes and parallel type two-wire electrodes, respectively. Penetration tests, conducted in the fully saturated sand-clay mixtures, demonstrate that the ERP produces a better resolution of layer detection than TDR. Thus, field application tests using the ERP with a diameter of 35.7 mm are conducted for the investigation of slime thickness in large diameter bored piles. Field tests show that the slime layers are clearly identified by the ERP: the electrical resistivity dramatically increases at the interface between the slurry and slime layer. The electrical resistivity in the slurry layer inversely correlates with the amount of circulated water. This study suggests that the new electrical resistivity method may be a useful method for the investigation of the slime thickness in bored piles.

  20. Computerised system for measurement of muscle thickness based on ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Wong, Alexander; Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Callaghan, Jack P

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a computerised system for measuring muscle thicknesses of the transverse abdominus (TrA), internal oblique and external oblique muscles based on ultrasonography is presented. The system is designed to allow for quantitative analysis of changes in muscle recruitment and activity, which facilitates the study of such changes and its relationship with low back pain. The abdominal muscle area was localised and imaged under different standing conditions using B-mode ultrasonography. To account for issues such as misalignments due to probe and subject motion as well as speckle noise inherent to ultrasonography, automatic ensemble registration is performed on the acquired images using a sequential quadratic programming approach based on a novel log-Rayleigh likelihood function. Regions of interest are then automatically identified based on the medial border of the TrA for the purpose of quantitative muscle thickness measurements. Experimental results show that the proposed system achieves registration errors of under 0.4 mm when compared with ground-truth measurements, as well as allow for the measurement of muscle thickness changes in the millimetre range. The proposed system is currently in operational use as an analysis tool for studying the relationship between abdominal muscle thickness changes and postural changes. PMID:22372597

  1. Monte Carlo investigations of megavoltage cone-beam CT using thick, segmented scintillating detectors for soft tissue visualization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Antonuk, Larry E; El-Mohri, Youcef; Zhao, Qihua; Sawant, Amit; Du, Hong

    2010-01-01

    Megavoltage cone-beam computed tomography (MY CBCT) is a highly promising technique for providing volumetric patient position information in the radiation treatment room. Such information has the potential to greatly assist in registering the patient to the planned treatment position, helping to ensure accurate delivery of the high energy therapy beam to the tumor volume while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. Presently, CBCT systems using conventional MV active matrix flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs), which are commonly used in portal imaging, require a relatively large amount of dose to create images that are clinically useful. This is due to the fact that the phosphor screen detector employed in conventional MV AMFPIs utilizes only ~2% of the incident radiation (for a 6 MV x-ray spectrum). Fortunately, thick, segmented scintillating detectors can overcome this limitation, and the first prototype imager has demonstrated highly promising performance for projection imaging at low doses. It is therefore of definite interest to examine the potential performance of such thick, segmented scintillating detectors for MV CBCT. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations of radiation energy deposition were used to examine reconstructed images of cylindrical CT contrast phantoms, embedded with tissue-equivalent objects. The phantoms were scanned at 6 MV using segmented detectors having various design parameters (i.e., detector thickness, as well as scintillator and septal wall materials). Due to constraints imposed by the nature of this study, the size of the phantoms was limited to ~6 cm. For such phantoms, the simulation results suggest that a 40 mm thick, segmented CsI detector with low density septal walls can delineate electron density differences of ~2.3% and 1.3% at doses of 1.54 and 3.08 cGy, respectively. In addition, it was found that segmented detectors with greater thickness, higher density scintillator material, or lower density septal walls exhibit higher contrast

  2. A thick Anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, W. R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T. A.

    1985-01-01

    The NaI(Tl) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical gamma-ray sources. Here laboratory measurements are presented of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(Tl) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. A position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at 122 keV and 6.3 mm FWHM at 662 keV. The energy resolution was 7 percent FWHM at 662 keV. The ability of the detector to resolve the depth of the gamma-ray interaction and the use of this depth resolution to reduce back-incident and internal background is discussed.

  3. A thick anger camera for gamma-ray astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, W.R.; Finger, M.; Prince, T.A.

    1985-02-01

    The NaI(T1) Anger camera is a natural candidate for a position sensitive detector in imaging of astrophysical ..gamma..-ray sources. Here we present laboratory measurements of the response of a relatively thick (5.1 cm) NaI(T1) Anger camera designed for coded aperture imaging in the 50 keV to 2 MeV energy range. We obtained a position resolution of 10.5 mm FWHM at 122 keV and 6.3 mm FWHM at 662 keV. The energy resolution was 7% FWHM at 662 keV. We discuss the ability of the detector to resolve the depth of the ..gamma..-ray interaction and the use of this depth resolution to reduce back-incident and internal background.

  4. Compression behaviour of thick vertically aligned carbon nanotube blocks.

    PubMed

    Pavese, Matteo; Musso, Simone; Pugno, Nicola M

    2010-07-01

    Blocks of vertically aligned multiwall carbon nanotubes were prepared by thermal chemical vapor deposition starting from camphor and ferrocene precursors. The blocks, having a thickness of approximately 2 mm and composed of nanotubes with diameter ranging between 30 and 80 nm, were submitted to compression tests. The results were analyzed accordingly with a simple model consisting in a parallel array of nanotubes under compression and bending suffering microscopic instability and compaction. The model mostly fits the experimental stress-strain curves, with a small deviation attributed to dissipative phenomena, such as frictional forces and nanotube wall breakage. PMID:21128406

  5. Assessment of the cortical bone thickness using ultrasonic guided waves: modelling and in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Moilanen, Petro; Nicholson, Patrick H F; Kilappa, Vantte; Cheng, Sulin; Timonen, Jussi

    2007-02-01

    Determination of cortical bone thickness is warranted, e.g., for assessing the level of endosteal resorption in osteoporosis or other bone pathologies. We have shown previously that the velocity of the fundamental antisymmetric (or flexural) guided wave, measured for bone phantoms and bones in vitro, correlates with the cortical thickness significantly better than those by other axial ultrasound methods. In addition, we have introduced an inversion scheme based on guided wave theory, group velocity filtering and 2-D fast Fourier transform, for determination of cortical thickness from the measured velocity of guided waves. In this study, the method was validated for tubular structures by using numerical simulations and experimental measurements on tube samples. In addition, 40 fresh human radius specimens were measured. For tubes with a thin wall, plate theory could be used to determine the wall thickness with a precision of 4%. For tubes with a wall thicker than 1/5 of the outer radius, tube theory provided the wall thickness with similar accuracy. For the radius bone specimens, tube theory was used and the ultrasonically-determined cortical thickness was found to be U-Th = 2.47 mm +/- 0.66 mm. It correlated strongly (r(2) = 0.73, p < 0.001) with the average cortical thickness, C-Th = 2.68 +/- 0.53 mm, and the local cortical thickness (r(2) = 0.81, p < 0.001), measured using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. We can conclude that the guided-wave inversion scheme introduced here is a feasible method for assessing cortical bone thickness. PMID:17306696

  6. Evaluation of choroidal thickness changes after phacoemulsification surgery

    PubMed Central

    Aslan Bayhan, Seray; Bayhan, Hasan Ali; Muhafiz, Ersin; Kırboğa, Kadir; Gürdal, Canan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of uneventful phacoemulsification surgery on choroidal thickness (CT) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods In this prospective study, 38 eyes of 38 patients having phacoemulsification surgery were included. All patients underwent detailed ophthalmologic examination, including preoperative axial length (AXL) measurement with optical biometry and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. The CT was measured perpendicularly at the fovea and 1.5 mm temporal, 3.0 mm temporal, 1.5 mm nasal, and 3.0 mm nasal using SD-OCT preoperatively and 1 month postoperatively. Changes in the CT after surgery and correlation of this change with age, AXL, preoperative IOP, and IOP change were evaluated. Results There was a statistically significant increase in the CT at all regions evaluated. This increment was more prominent in the nasal and subfoveal regions. The IOP decreased significantly 1 month after surgery (16.14±4.94 mmHg vs 13.91±4.86 mmHg; P<0.001). The change in IOP was correlated with the CT changes at all regions, whereas age, AXL, and preoperative IOP had no significant correlations with the changes in CT. Conclusion Phacoemulsification surgery may cause significant increase in CT, which is correlated with surgery-induced IOP change in the short term. Long-term follow-up of eyes having phacoemulsification surgery may provide further insight into the effects of cataract surgery on the choroid. PMID:27307699

  7. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established. PMID:8141821

  8. Structural and optical properties of 200 mm germanium-on-insulator (GeOI) substrates for silicon photonics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboud, Vincent; Widiez, Julie; Hartmann, Jean Michel; Osvaldo Dias, Guilherme; Fowler, Daivid; Chelnokov, Alexei; Gassenq, Alban; Guilloy, Kevin; Pauc, Nicolas; Calvo, Vincent; Geiger, Richard; Zabel, T.; Faist, Jérôme; Sigg, Hans

    2015-02-01

    Integrated laser sources compatible with microelectronics represent currently one of the main challenges for silicon photonics. Using the Smart CutTM technology, we have fabricated for the first time 200 mm optical Germanium-On-Insulator (GeOI) substrates which consist of a thick layer of germanium (typically greater than 500 nm) on top of a thick buried oxide layer (around 1 µm). From this, we fabricated suspended microbridges with efficient Bragg mirror cavities. The high crystalline quality of the Ge layer should help to avoid mechanical failure when fabricating suspended membranes with amounts of tensile strain high enough to transform Ge into a direct bandgap material. Optical GeOI process feasibility has successfully been demonstrated, opening the way to waferscale fabrication of new light emitting devices based on highly-tensely strained (thanks to suspended membranes) and/or doped germanium.

  9. THz and mm-Wave Sensing of Corneal Tissue Water Content: In Vivo Sensing and Imaging Results

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Zachary D.; Garritano, James; Sung, Shijun; Bajwa, Neha; Bennett, David B.; Nowroozi, Bryan; Tewari, Priyamvada; Sayre, James W.; Hubschman, Jean-Pierre; Deng, Sophie X.; Brown, Elliott R.; Grundfest, Warren S.

    2015-01-01

    A pulsed terahertz (THz) imaging system and millimeter-wave reflectometer were used to acquire images and point measurements, respectively, of five rabbit cornea in vivo. These imaging results are the first ever produced of in vivo cornea. A modified version of a standard protocol using a gentle stream of air and a Mylar window was employed to slightly dehydrate healthy cornea. The sensor data and companion central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements were acquired every 10–15 min over the course of two hours using ultrasound pachymmetry.. Statistically significant positive correlations were established between CCT measurements and millimeter wave reflectivity. Local shifts in reflectivity contrast were observed in the THz imagery; however, the THz reflectivity did not display a significant correlation with thickness in the region probed by the 100 GHz and CCT measurements. This is explained in part by a thickness sensitivity at least 10× higher in the mm-wave than the THz systems. Stratified media and effective media modeling suggest that the protocol perturbed the thickness and not the corneal tissue water content (CTWC). To further explore possible etalon effects, an additional rabbit was euthanized and millimeter wave measurements were obtained during death induced edema. These observations represent the first time that the uncoupled sensing of CTWC and CCT have been achieved in vivo. PMID:26161292

  10. Calculation of water equivalent thickness of materials of arbitrary density, elemental composition and thickness in proton beam irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2014-01-01

    In proton therapy, the radiological thickness of a material is commonly expressed in terms of water equivalent thickness (WET) or water equivalent ratio (WER). However, the WET calculations required either iterative numerical methods or approximate methods of unknown accuracy. The objective of this study was to develop a simple deterministic formula to calculate WET values with an accuracy of 1 mm for materials commonly used in proton radiation therapy. Several alternative formulas were derived in which the energy loss was calculated based on the Bragg–Kleeman rule (BK), the Bethe–Bloch equation (BB) or an empirical version of the Bethe–Bloch equation (EBB). Alternative approaches were developed for targets that were ‘radiologically thin’ or ‘thick’. The accuracy of these methods was assessed by comparison to values from an iterative numerical method that utilized evaluated stopping power tables. In addition, we also tested the approximate formula given in the International Atomic Energy Agency's dosimetry code of practice (Technical Report Series No 398, 2000, IAEA, Vienna) and stopping power ratio approximation. The results of these comparisons revealed that most methods were accurate for cases involving thin or low-Z targets. However, only the thick-target formulas provided accurate WET values for targets that were radiologically thick and contained high-Z material. PMID:19218739

  11. Improved mm-wave photometry for kinetic inductance detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, M.; Roesch, M.; Désert, F.-X.; Monfardini, A.; Benoit, A.; Mauskopf, P.; Ade, P.; Boudou, N.; Bourrion, O.; Camus, P.; Cruciani, A.; Doyle, S.; Hoffmann, C.; Leclercq, S.; Macias-Perez, J. F.; Ponthieu, N.; Schuster, K. F.; Tucker, C.; Vescovi, C.

    2013-03-01

    Context. We have developed a dual-band (140 and 220 GHz) mm-wave imaging camera based on superconducting kinetic inductance detector (KID) arrays. Each array contains 132 superconducting resonators whose resonant frequencies are shifted by mm-wave photons absorption. The read out is achieved with a single electronics chain per band, taking advantage of the intrinsic KID frequency-domain multiplexability. The arrays are easily scalable and well adapted for future large format focal plane instruments. NIKA (formerly Néel IRAM KID Array, now New IRAM KID Array) has been specifically designed for the IRAM 30 m telescope at Pico Veleta, and is one of the first instruments using KIDs to have made measurements of astronomical sources. Aims: In this Letter we describe the solutions adopted to improve the calibration accuracy and the sensitivity of the instrument, and we report on the outcome of the 3rd NIKA observing run of October, 2011. Methods: We use a fast electronic modulation of the readout tone for each KID pixel in order to linearize the instrument calibration, which we track with measurements of planets. We also adopt a new design of the KIDs, sensitive to both polarizations, to increase the amount of radiation absorbed and thus the optical efficiency of the system. Results: We measured an average sensitivity on the sky of 21 mJys0.5 per beam at 140 GHz and 140 mJys0.5 at 220 GHz in the best observing conditions (τ220 ≃ 0.2) after atmospheric noise decorrelation. The sensitivity at 220 GHz was limited by the atmospheric attenuation and loading as well as a reduction in the spectral bandwidth due to a misplaced filter. We found the repeatability in the photometry over the entire observing run to be better than 10% in both bands, thus demonstrating a significant improvement over the previous runs. We also find good agreement between NIKA measurements of faint astronomical sources and previous measurements of the same sources.

  12. PULSED EDDY CURRENT THICKNESS MEASUREMENT OF SELECTIVE PHASE CORROSION ON NICKEL ALUMINUM BRONZE VALVES

    SciTech Connect

    Krause, T. W.; Harlley, D.; Babbar, V. K.; Wannamaker, K.

    2010-02-22

    Nickel Aluminum Bronze (NAB) is a material with marine environment applications that under certain conditions can undergo selective phase corrosion (SPC). SPC involves the removal of minority elements while leaving behind a copper matrix. Pulsed eddy current (PEC) was evaluated for determination of SPC thickness on a NAB valve section with access from the surface corroded side. A primarily linear response of PEC amplitude, up to the maximum available SPC thickness of 4 mm was observed. The combination of reduced conductivity and permeability in the SPC phase relative to the base NAB was used to explain the observed sensitivity of PEC to SPC thickness variations.

  13. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  14. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  15. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  16. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  17. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  18. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  19. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  20. Welcome to Lotus 1-2-3. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains 11 self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a 36-hour course of study for Lotus 1-2-3 at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion and performance standards, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications of the…