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Sample records for 2-3 times faster

  1. Faster and cleaner real-time pure shift NMR experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauhart, Johannes; Glanzer, Simon; Sakhaii, Peyman; Bermel, Wolfgang; Zangger, Klaus

    2015-10-01

    Real-time pure shift experiments provide highly resolved proton NMR spectra which do not require any special processing. Although being more sensitive than their pseudo 2D counterparts, their signal intensities per unit time are still far below regular NMR spectra. In addition, scalar coupling evolution during the individual data chunks produces decoupling sidebands. Here we show that faster and cleaner real-time pure shift spectra can be obtained through the implementation of two parameter alterations. Variation of the FID chunk lengths between individual transients significantly suppresses decoupling sidebands for any kind of real-time pure shift spectra and thus allows for example the analysis of minor components in compound mixtures. Shifting the excitation frequency between individual scans of real-time slice-selective pure shift spectra increases their sensitivity obtainable in unit time by allowing faster repetitions of acquisitions.

  2. Improved design provides faster response time in photomultiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Dynamic Crossed-Field Electron Multiplying /DCFEM/ light demodulator avoids the normal response time limitations inherent in static field devices by using time varying crossed electric and static magnetic fields. This eliminates the transit time spread that affects electrons as they proceed along the secondary emission stages of the tube.

  3. Characterization of a faster resorbing polymer after real time aging.

    PubMed

    McManus, Anastasia J; Moser, Rodney C; Thomas, Kevin A

    2006-08-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro strength retention and polymer characteristics of specimens made from commercially available 85:15 poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide). Test samples included dogbone tensile specimens with a nominal thickness of either 0.75 and 1.0 mm, which were machined from compression-molded sheets, and screws with a major diameter of 2.71 mm and minor diameter of 2.14 mm, which were manufactured by injection molding. All samples were sterilized by e-beam irradiation prior to in vitro aging following a standard methodology. Mechanical testing and polymer analysis were performed at time zero and weekly up to 15 weeks of real time aging. The time zero maximum tensile strength of the 0.75 mm dogbone specimens averaged 55.86 +/- 0.72 MPa. The 1.0-mm dogbone specimens tested at time zero had an average maximum tensile strength of 34.55 +/- 0.36 MPa. The 0.75-mm and 1.0-mm thick dogbone specimens exhibited a controlled decrease in their tensile strength. The initial shear strength of the injection-molded screws was 32.86 +/- 4.15 MPa. After 3 weeks of real time in vitro aging, the screws maintained approximately 70% of their initial (time zero) strength. The inherent viscosity and molecular weight (Mw) at time zero averaged approximately 0.9 dL/g and 98,000 g/mol respectively, and decreased at similar rates for both dogbones and screws. These results demonstrate a controlled, rapid degradation in the mechanical properties of 85:15 poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) material, with sufficient strength for pediatric craniofacial applications.

  4. More Symmetrical Children Have Faster and More Consistent Choice Reaction Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hope, David; Bates, Timothy C.; Dykiert, Dominika; Der, Geoff; Deary, Ian J.

    2015-01-01

    Greater cognitive ability in childhood is associated with increased longevity, and speedier reaction time (RT) might account for much of this linkage. Greater bodily symmetry is linked to both higher cognitive test scores and faster RTs. It is possible, then, that differences in bodily system integrity indexed by symmetry may underlie the…

  5. Faster-than-real-time robot simulation for plan development and robot safety

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.D. III; Dalton, R.; Ogles, J.; Tulenko, J.S.; Zhou, X. )

    1990-06-01

    The University of Florida, in cooperation with the Universities of Texas, Tennessee, and Michigan and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), is developing an advanced robotic system for the US Department of Energy under the University Program for Robotics for Advanced Reactors. As part of this program, the University of Florida has been pursuing the development of a faster-than-real-time robotic simulation program for planning and control of mobile robotic operations to ensure the efficient and safe operation of mobile robots in nuclear power plants and other hazardous environments.

  6. A Novel View of Space-Time Permitting Faster-Than-Light Travel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meholic, Gregory

    2000-04-01

    The mathematically symmetrical nature of general relativity suggests that for a given absolute energy state, a particle of real mass must be moving either slower or faster than the speed of light. Relativistic symmetry implies that the sub and superluminal realms can therefore be construed as separate space-times with a common, unattainable boundary condition (the luminal plane), and both can contain particles with real and quantifiable properties. Although mass energy can only exist in one space-time and distort the luminal plane to create gravity, the disturbance can be observed in the other space as an equal gravitational distortion with no associated mass. The postulated characteristics of superluminal space, its resident particles, and their similarity to entities in subluminal space reveal a possible connection between the space-times which lies deep within the quantum-mechanical events observed thus far. Quarks may hold the key to these events and seem capable of existing and jumping between sub and superluminal spaces. If a subluminal mass were converted at the quark-level of matter to exist in superluminal space, traveling faster than light would be possible without violating causality and relativity.

  7. Faster Synthesis of Beta-Diketonate Ternary Europium Complexes: Elapsed Times & Reaction Yields.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathalia B D; Silva, Anderson I S; Gerson, P C; Gonçalves, Simone M C; Simas, Alfredo M

    2015-01-01

    β-diketonates are customary bidentate ligands in highly luminescent ternary europium complexes, such as Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2, where L stands for a nonionic ligand. Usually, the syntheses of these complexes start by adding, to an europium salt such as EuCl3(H2O)6, three equivalents of β-diketonate ligands to form the complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2. The nonionic ligands are subsequently added to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. However, the Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 intermediates are frequently both difficult and slow to purify by recrystallization, a step which usually takes a long time, varying from days to several weeks, depending on the chosen β-diketonate. In this article, we advance a novel synthetic technique which does not use Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 as an intermediate. Instead, we start by adding 4 equivalents of a monodentate nonionic ligand L straight to EuCl3(H2O)6 to form a new intermediate: EuCl3(L)4(H2O)n, with n being either 3 or 4. The advantage is that these intermediates can now be easily, quickly, and efficiently purified. The β-diketonates are then carefully added to this intermediate to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. For the cases studied, the 20-day average elapsed time reduced to 10 days for the faster synthesis, together with an improvement in the overall yield from 42% to 69%.

  8. Faster Synthesis of Beta-Diketonate Ternary Europium Complexes: Elapsed Times & Reaction Yields

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Nathalia B. D.; Silva, Anderson I. S.; Gerson, P. C.; Gonçalves, Simone M. C.; Simas, Alfredo M.

    2015-01-01

    β-diketonates are customary bidentate ligands in highly luminescent ternary europium complexes, such as Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2, where L stands for a nonionic ligand. Usually, the syntheses of these complexes start by adding, to an europium salt such as EuCl3(H2O)6, three equivalents of β-diketonate ligands to form the complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2. The nonionic ligands are subsequently added to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. However, the Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 intermediates are frequently both difficult and slow to purify by recrystallization, a step which usually takes a long time, varying from days to several weeks, depending on the chosen β-diketonate. In this article, we advance a novel synthetic technique which does not use Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 as an intermediate. Instead, we start by adding 4 equivalents of a monodentate nonionic ligand L straight to EuCl3(H2O)6 to form a new intermediate: EuCl3(L)4(H2O)n, with n being either 3 or 4. The advantage is that these intermediates can now be easily, quickly, and efficiently purified. The β-diketonates are then carefully added to this intermediate to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. For the cases studied, the 20-day average elapsed time reduced to 10 days for the faster synthesis, together with an improvement in the overall yield from 42% to 69%. PMID:26710103

  9. Faster Synthesis of Beta-Diketonate Ternary Europium Complexes: Elapsed Times & Reaction Yields.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathalia B D; Silva, Anderson I S; Gerson, P C; Gonçalves, Simone M C; Simas, Alfredo M

    2015-01-01

    β-diketonates are customary bidentate ligands in highly luminescent ternary europium complexes, such as Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2, where L stands for a nonionic ligand. Usually, the syntheses of these complexes start by adding, to an europium salt such as EuCl3(H2O)6, three equivalents of β-diketonate ligands to form the complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2. The nonionic ligands are subsequently added to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. However, the Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 intermediates are frequently both difficult and slow to purify by recrystallization, a step which usually takes a long time, varying from days to several weeks, depending on the chosen β-diketonate. In this article, we advance a novel synthetic technique which does not use Eu(β-diketonate)3(H2O)2 as an intermediate. Instead, we start by adding 4 equivalents of a monodentate nonionic ligand L straight to EuCl3(H2O)6 to form a new intermediate: EuCl3(L)4(H2O)n, with n being either 3 or 4. The advantage is that these intermediates can now be easily, quickly, and efficiently purified. The β-diketonates are then carefully added to this intermediate to form the target complexes Eu(β-diketonate)3(L)2. For the cases studied, the 20-day average elapsed time reduced to 10 days for the faster synthesis, together with an improvement in the overall yield from 42% to 69%. PMID:26710103

  10. Real-time diagnosis of H. pylori infection during endoscopy: Accuracy of an innovative tool (EndoFaster)

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Guido; Zullo, Angelo; Bizzotto, Alessandra; Hassan, Cesare; Riccioni, Maria Elena; Marmo, Clelia; Strangio, Giuseppe; Di Rienzo, Teresa Antonella; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Repici, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Background EndoFaster is novel device able to perform real-time ammonium measurement in gastric juice allowing H. pylori diagnosis during endoscopy. This large study aimed to validate the accuracy of EndoFaster for real-time H. pylori detection. Methods Consecutive patients who underwent upper endoscopy in two centres were prospectively enrolled. During endoscopy, 4 ml of gastric juice were aspirated to perform automatic analysis by EndoFaster within 90 seconds, and H. pylori was considered present (>62 ppm/ml) or absent (≤62 ppm/ml). Accuracy was measured by using histology as gold standard, and 13C-urea breath test (UBT) in discordant cases. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results Overall, 189 patients were enrolled, but in seven (3.4%) the aspirated gastric juice amount was insufficient to perform the test. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 87.4%, 90.3%, 85.5%, 80.2%, 93.1%, respectively, and 92.6%, 97.1%, 89.7%, 85.9%, 98.0%, respectively, when H. pylori status was reclassified according to the UBT result in discordant cases. Conclusions This study found a high accuracy/feasibility of EndoFaster for real-time H. pylori diagnosis. Use of EndoFaster may allow selecting those patients in whom routine gastric biopsies could be avoided. PMID:27403299

  11. It Keeps Getting Faster: Changing Patterns of Time in Families. Contemporary Family Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, Kerry

    This paper addresses the perceived shortage of time experienced by families today. Following an introduction about the hurried pace of family life, the paper discusses: (1) forces that have shaped the accelerated pace of change (changed families, effects of technology, intensification of work); (2) broadening the conceptualization of time…

  12. Natural fast speech is perceived as faster than linearly time-compressed speech.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Eva

    2016-05-01

    Listeners compensate for variation in speaking rate: In a fast context, a given sound is interpreted as longer than in a slow context. Experimental rate manipulations have been achieved either through linear compression or by using natural fast speech. However, in natural fast speech, segments are subject to processes such as reduction or deletion. If speaking rate is then defined as the number of segments per unit time, the question arises as to what impact such processes have on listeners' normalization for speaking rate. The present study tested the effect of sentence duration and fast-speech processes on rate normalization for a German vowel duration contrast. Results showed that a naturally produced short sentence containing segmental reductions and deletions led to the most "long" vowel responses whereas the long sentence with clearly articulated segments led to the fewest. This suggests that speaking rate is not merely calculated as the number of segments realized per unit time. Rather, listeners associate properties of natural fast speech with a higher speaking rate. This contrasts with earlier results and a second experiment in which perceived speaking rate was measured in an explicit task. Models of speech comprehension are evaluated with regard to the present findings. PMID:26860711

  13. Considering Time in Orthophotography Production: from a General Workflow to a Shortened Workflow for a Faster Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, G.

    2015-08-01

    This article overall deals with production time with orthophoto imagery with medium size digital frame camera. The workflow examination follows two main parts: data acquisition and post-processing. The objectives of the research are fourfold: 1/ gathering time references for the most important steps of orthophoto production (it turned out that literature is missing on this topic); these figures are used later for total production time estimation; 2/ identifying levers for reducing orthophoto production time; 3/ building a simplified production workflow for emergency response: less exigent with accuracy and faster; and compare it to a classical workflow; 4/ providing methodical elements for the estimation of production time with a custom project. In the data acquisition part a comprehensive review lists and describes all the factors that may affect the acquisition efficiency. Using a simulation with different variables (average line length, time of the turns, flight speed) their effect on acquisition efficiency is quantitatively examined. Regarding post-processing, the time references figures were collected from the processing of a 1000 frames case study with 15 cm GSD covering a rectangular area of 447 km2; the time required to achieve each step during the production is written down. When several technical options are possible, each one is tested and time documented so as all alternatives are available. Based on a technical choice with the workflow and using the compiled time reference of the elementary steps, a total time is calculated for the post-processing of the 1000 frames. Two scenarios are compared as regards to time and accuracy. The first one follows the "normal" practices, comprising triangulation, orthorectification and advanced mosaicking methods (feature detection, seam line editing and seam applicator); the second is simplified and make compromise over positional accuracy (using direct geo-referencing) and seamlines preparation in order to achieve

  14. High Carbohydrate Diet Induces Faster Final Sprint and Overall 10,000-m Times of Young Runners.

    PubMed

    Couto, Patricia Guimaraes; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Souza, Carla Caroline; Lima, Hessel Marani; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin; de-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    This study analyzed the pacing employed by young runners in 10,000 m time-trials under 3 dietary regimens of different carbohydrate (CHO) intakes. Nineteen boys (13-18 years) ate either their normal CHO diet (56% CHO), high (70% CHO), or low (25% CHO) CHO diets for 48 hr; the boys then performed a 10,000 m run (crossover design). The high CHO diet led to faster final sprint (14.4 ± 2.2 km·h⁻¹) and a better performance (50.0 ± 7.0 min) compared with the low CHO diet (13.3 ± 2.4 km·h⁻¹ and 51.9 ± 8.3 min, respectively, p < .05). However, the final sprint and performance time in the high CHO or low CHO diets were statistically not significantly different from the normal CHO diet (13.8 ± 2.2 km·h⁻¹ and 50.9 ± 7.4 min; p > .05). CHO oxidation rate during the constant load exercise at 65% of VO2max was elevated in high CHO diet (1.05 ± 0.38 g·min⁻¹) compared with low CHO diet (0.63 ± 0.36 g·min⁻¹). The rating of perceived exertion increased linearly throughout the trial, independently of the dietary regimen. In conclusion, the high CHO diet induced higher CHO oxidation rates, increased running speed in the final 400 m and enhanced overall running performance, compared with low CHO.

  15. High Carbohydrate Diet Induces Faster Final Sprint and Overall 10,000-m Times of Young Runners.

    PubMed

    Couto, Patricia Guimaraes; Bertuzzi, Romulo; de Souza, Carla Caroline; Lima, Hessel Marani; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin; de-Oliveira, Fernando Roberto; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo

    2015-08-01

    This study analyzed the pacing employed by young runners in 10,000 m time-trials under 3 dietary regimens of different carbohydrate (CHO) intakes. Nineteen boys (13-18 years) ate either their normal CHO diet (56% CHO), high (70% CHO), or low (25% CHO) CHO diets for 48 hr; the boys then performed a 10,000 m run (crossover design). The high CHO diet led to faster final sprint (14.4 ± 2.2 km·h⁻¹) and a better performance (50.0 ± 7.0 min) compared with the low CHO diet (13.3 ± 2.4 km·h⁻¹ and 51.9 ± 8.3 min, respectively, p < .05). However, the final sprint and performance time in the high CHO or low CHO diets were statistically not significantly different from the normal CHO diet (13.8 ± 2.2 km·h⁻¹ and 50.9 ± 7.4 min; p > .05). CHO oxidation rate during the constant load exercise at 65% of VO2max was elevated in high CHO diet (1.05 ± 0.38 g·min⁻¹) compared with low CHO diet (0.63 ± 0.36 g·min⁻¹). The rating of perceived exertion increased linearly throughout the trial, independently of the dietary regimen. In conclusion, the high CHO diet induced higher CHO oxidation rates, increased running speed in the final 400 m and enhanced overall running performance, compared with low CHO. PMID:25902552

  16. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  17. Faster simulation plots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fowell, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Most simulation plots are heavily oversampled. Ignoring unnecessary data points dramatically reduces plot time with imperceptible effect on quality. The technique is suited to most plot devices. The departments laser printer's speed was tripled for large simulation plots by data thinning. This reduced printer delays without the expense of a faster laser printer. Surpisingly, it saved computer time as well. All plot data are now thinned, including PostScript and terminal plots. The problem, solution, and conclusions are described. The thinning algorithm is described and performance studies are presented. To obtain FORTRAN 77 or C source listings, mail a SASE to the author.

  18. Model-Based Clustering of Regression Time Series Data via APECM -- An AECM Algorithm Sung to an Even Faster Beat

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Maitra, Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    We propose a model-based approach for clustering time series regression data in an unsupervised machine learning framework to identify groups under the assumption that each mixture component follows a Gaussian autoregressive regression model of order p. Given the number of groups, the traditional maximum likelihood approach of estimating the parameters using the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm can be employed, although it is computationally demanding. The somewhat fast tune to the EM folk song provided by the Alternating Expectation Conditional Maximization (AECM) algorithm can alleviate the problem to some extent. In this article, we develop an alternative partial expectation conditional maximization algorithm (APECM) that uses an additional data augmentation storage step to efficiently implement AECM for finite mixture models. Results on our simulation experiments show improved performance in both fewer numbers of iterations and computation time. The methodology is applied to the problem of clustering mutual funds data on the basis of their average annual per cent returns and in the presence of economic indicators.

  19. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  20. A Faster Triphosphorylation Ribozyme

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Gregory F.; Akoopie, Arvin; Müller, Ulrich F.

    2015-01-01

    In support of the RNA world hypothesis, previous studies identified trimetaphosphate (Tmp) as a plausible energy source for RNA world organisms. In one of these studies, catalytic RNAs (ribozymes) that catalyze the triphosphorylation of RNA 5'-hydroxyl groups using Tmp were obtained by in vitro selection. One ribozyme (TPR1) was analyzed in more detail. TPR1 catalyzes the triphosphorylation reaction to a rate of 0.013 min-1 under selection conditions (50 mM Tmp, 100 mM MgCl2, 22°C). To identify a triphosphorylation ribozyme that catalyzes faster triphosphorylation, and possibly learn about its secondary structure TPR1 was subjected to a doped selection. The resulting ribozyme, TPR1e, contains seven mutations relative to TPR1, displays a previously unidentified duplex that constrains the ribozyme's structure, and reacts at a 24-fold faster rate than the parent ribozyme. Under optimal conditions (150 mM Tmp, 650 mM MgCl2, 40°C), the triphosphorylation rate of TRP1e reaches 6.8 min-1. PMID:26545116

  1. 73X Faster Than a Speeding Bullet

    NASA Video Gallery

    On Nov. 17, 2011, a NASA camera in Tullahoma, Tenn., saw a Leonid meteor -- moving 73 times faster than a bullet fired from an M-16 rifle -- as it burned up 71 miles above Nolensville, Tenn., at an...

  2. New faster CHARMM molecular dynamics engine

    PubMed Central

    Hynninen, Antti-Pekka; Crowley, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a new faster molecular dynamics (MD) engine into the CHARMM software package. The new MD engine is faster both in serial (i.e., single CPU core) and parallel execution. Serial performance is approximately two times higher than in the previous version of CHARMM. The newly programmed parallelization method allows the MD engine to parallelize up to hundreds of CPU cores. PMID:24302199

  3. Racehorses are getting faster.

    PubMed

    Sharman, Patrick; Wilson, Alastair J

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have concluded that thoroughbred racehorse speed is improving very slowly, if at all, despite heritable variation for performance and putatively intensive selective breeding. This has led to the suggestion that racehorses have reached a selection limit. However, previous studies have been limited, focusing only on the winning times of a few elite races run over middle and long distances, and failing to account for potentially confounding factors. Using a much larger dataset covering the full range of race distances and accounting for variation in factors such as ground softness, we show that improvement is, in fact, ongoing for the population as a whole, but driven largely by increasing speed in sprint races. In contrast, speed over middle and long distances, at least at the elite level, appears to be reaching an asymptote. Whether this reflects a selection limit to speed over middle and long distances or a shift in breeding practices to target sprint performances remains to be determined. PMID:26109614

  4. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  5. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.

  6. Tracking the time course of multi-word noun phrase production with ERPs or on when (and why) cat is faster than the big cat

    PubMed Central

    Bürki, Audrey; Laganaro, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Words are rarely produced in isolation. Yet, our understanding of multi-word production, and especially its time course, is still rather poor. In this research, we use event-related potentials to examine the production of multi-word noun phrases in the context of overt picture naming. We track the processing costs associated with the production of these noun phrases as compared with the production of bare nouns, from picture onset to articulation. Behavioral results revealed longer naming latencies for French noun phrases with determiners and pre-nominal adjectives (D-A-N, the big cat) than for noun phrases with a determiner (D-N, the cat), or bare nouns (N, cat). The spatio-temporal analysis of the ERPs revealed differences in the duration of stable global electrophysiological patterns as a function of utterance format in two time windows, from ~190 to 300 ms after picture onset, and from ~530 ms after picture onset to 100 ms before articulation. These findings can be accommodated in the following model. During grammatical encoding (here from ~190 to 300 ms), the noun and adjective lemmas are accessed in parallel, followed by the selection of the gender-agreeing determiner. Phonological encoding (after ~530 ms) operates sequentially. As a consequence, the phonological encoding process is longer for longer utterances. In addition, when determiners are repeated across trials, their phonological encoding can be anticipated or primed, resulting in a shortened encoding process. PMID:25071615

  7. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  8. Compressing bitmap indexes for faster search operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Kesheng; Otoo, Ekow J.; Shoshani, Arie

    2002-04-25

    In this paper, we study the effects of compression on bitmap indexes. The main operations on the bitmaps during query processing are bitwise logical operations such as AND, OR, NOT, etc. Using the general purpose compression schemes, such as gzip, the logical operations on the compressed bitmaps are much slower than on the uncompressed bitmaps. Specialized compression schemes, like the byte-aligned bitmap code(BBC), are usually faster in performing logical operations than the general purpose schemes, but in many cases they are still orders of magnitude slower than the uncompressed scheme. To make the compressed bitmap indexes operate more efficiently, we designed a CPU-friendly scheme which we refer to as the word-aligned hybrid code (WAH). Tests on both synthetic and real application data show that the new scheme significantly outperforms well-known compression schemes at a modest increase in storage space. Compared to BBC, a scheme well-known for its operational efficiency, WAH performs logical operations about 12 times faster and uses only 60 percent more space. Compared to the uncompressed scheme, in most test cases WAH is faster while still using less space. We further verified with additional tests that the improvement in logical operation speed translates to similar improvement in query processing speed.

  9. Faster unfolding of communities: Speeding up the Louvain algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traag, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    Many complex networks exhibit a modular structure of densely connected groups of nodes. Usually, such a modular structure is uncovered by the optimization of some quality function. Although flawed, modularity remains one of the most popular quality functions. The Louvain algorithm was originally developed for optimizing modularity, but has been applied to a variety of methods. As such, speeding up the Louvain algorithm enables the analysis of larger graphs in a shorter time for various methods. We here suggest to consider moving nodes to a random neighbor community, instead of the best neighbor community. Although incredibly simple, it reduces the theoretical runtime complexity from O (m ) to O (n log) in networks with a clear community structure. In benchmark networks, it speeds up the algorithm roughly 2-3 times, while in some real networks it even reaches 10 times faster runtimes. This improvement is due to two factors: (1) a random neighbor is likely to be in a "good" community and (2) random neighbors are likely to be hubs, helping the convergence. Finally, the performance gain only slightly diminishes the quality, especially for modularity, thus providing a good quality-performance ratio. However, these gains are less pronounced, or even disappear, for some other measures such as significance or surprise.

  10. Faster than Hermitian Quantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Brody, Dorje C.; Jones, Hugh F.; Meister, Bernhard K.

    2007-01-26

    Given an initial quantum state vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> and a final quantum state vertical bar {psi}{sub F}>, there exist Hamiltonians H under which vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> evolves into vertical bar {psi}{sub F}>. Consider the following quantum brachistochrone problem: subject to the constraint that the difference between the largest and smallest eigenvalues of H is held fixed, which H achieves this transformation in the least time {tau}? For Hermitian Hamiltonians {tau} has a nonzero lower bound. However, among non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Hamiltonians satisfying the same energy constraint, {tau} can be made arbitrarily small without violating the time-energy uncertainty principle. This is because for such Hamiltonians the path from vertical bar {psi}{sub I}> to vertical bar {psi}{sub F}> can be made short. The mechanism described here is similar to that in general relativity in which the distance between two space-time points can be made small if they are connected by a wormhole. This result may have applications in quantum computing.

  11. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  12. Better, Cheaper, Faster Molecular Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Recent, revolutionary progress in genomics and structural, molecular and cellular biology has created new opportunities for molecular-level computer simulations of biological systems by providing vast amounts of data that require interpretation. These opportunities are further enhanced by the increasing availability of massively parallel computers. For many problems, the method of choice is classical molecular dynamics (iterative solving of Newton's equations of motion). It focuses on two main objectives. One is to calculate the relative stability of different states of the system. A typical problem that has' such an objective is computer-aided drug design. Another common objective is to describe evolution of the system towards a low energy (possibly the global minimum energy), "native" state. Perhaps the best example of such a problem is protein folding. Both types of problems share the same difficulty. Often, different states of the system are separated by high energy barriers, which implies that transitions between these states are rare events. This, in turn, can greatly impede exploration of phase space. In some instances this can lead to "quasi non-ergodicity", whereby a part of phase space is inaccessible on time scales of the simulation. To overcome this difficulty and to extend molecular dynamics to "biological" time scales (millisecond or longer) new physical formulations and new algorithmic developments are required. To be efficient they should account for natural limitations of multi-processor computer architecture. I will present work along these lines done in my group. In particular, I will focus on a new approach to calculating the free energies (stability) of different states and to overcoming "the curse of rare events". I will also discuss algorithmic improvements to multiple time step methods and to the treatment of slowly decaying, log-ranged, electrostatic effects.

  13. How to drill horizontal sections faster

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffin, M. )

    1991-12-01

    This paper reports that fewer trips, reduced slide time and lower drag during sliding have resulted from the application of downhole-adjustable stabilizers to horizontal drilling. Faster drilling times mean lower measurement while drilling (MWD) cost, and less wear on downhole equipment, motors and bits. These advantages combined with reduced drilling shocks have increased drilling rates and efficiency. Applying existing technology in new situations is an important way of reducing the cost of finding, exploring for and developing reserves. Engineers are responsible for using current technology to its fullest and developing new technology to reduce drilling expenses. Horizontal drilling was used in its early stages to develop the Austin chalk formation in Pearsall oil field more effectively. As procedures were generated to drill horizontal wells, Oryx drilling engineers began to develop new technology and investigate ways for existing technology to be used or altered to fit horizontal drilling programs. The new technology of downhole-adjustable stabilizers has been used successfully to further improve horizontal drilling efficiency.

  14. Can Helical Peptides Unwind One Turn at a Time? - Controlled Conformational Transitions in α,β(2,3)-Hybrid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Dhayalan; Muraleedharan, Kannoth M

    2015-06-22

    Unfolding of helical trans-β(2,3) -hybrid peptides with (α-β)n α composition, when executed by increasing solvent polarity or temperature, proceeded in a systematic manner with the turns unwinding sequentially; C-terminal region of these peptides were first to unwind and the process propagated towards N terminus with more and more β residues equilibrating from the gauche to the anti rotameric state across Cα-Cβ . This is evidenced by clear change in their Cβ H signal splitting, (3)JCαH-CβH values, and sequential disappearance of i,i+2 NOEs.

  15. Delivering Faster Congestion Feedback with the Mark-Front Strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Chunlei; Jain, Raj

    2001-01-01

    Computer networks use congestion feedback from the routers and destinations to control the transmission load. Delivering timely congestion feedback is essential to the performance of networks. Reaction to the congestion can be more effective if faster feedback is provided. Current TCP/IP networks use timeout, duplicate Acknowledgement Packets (ACKs) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) to deliver the congestion feedback, each provides a faster feedback than the previous method. In this paper, we propose a markfront strategy that delivers an even faster congestion feedback. With analytical and simulation results, we show that mark-front strategy reduces buffer size requirement, improves link efficiency and provides better fairness among users. Keywords: Explicit Congestion Notification, mark-front, congestion control, buffer size requirement, fairness.

  16. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  17. Relativistic kinematics for motion faster than light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of conformal coordinates in relativistic kinematics is illustrated and a simple extension of the theory of motions faster than light is provided. An object traveling at a speed greater than light discloses its presence by appearing suddenly at a point, splitting into two apparent objects which then recede from each other at sublight velocities. According to the present theory motion at speeds faster than light would not benefit a space traveler, since the twin paradox becomes inverted at such speeds. In Einstein's theory travel at the velocity of light in an intertial system is equivalent to infinite velocity for the traveler. In the present theory the converse is also true; travel at infinite velocity is equivalent to the velocity of light for the traveler.

  18. Multiple object tracking using the shortest path faster association algorithm.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zhenghao; Liu, Heping; Liu, Huaping; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    To solve the persistently multiple object tracking in cluttered environments, this paper presents a novel tracking association approach based on the shortest path faster algorithm. First, the multiple object tracking is formulated as an integer programming problem of the flow network. Then we relax the integer programming to a standard linear programming problem. Therefore, the global optimum can be quickly obtained using the shortest path faster algorithm. The proposed method avoids the difficulties of integer programming, and it has a lower worst-case complexity than competing methods but better robustness and tracking accuracy in complex environments. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm takes less time than other state-of-the-art methods and can operate in real time.

  19. Boundary conditions on faster-than-light transportation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Knowles, H. B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to be consistent with current physical theories, any proposal of a faster-than light (FTL) transportation system must satisfy several critical conditions. It must predict the mass, space, and time dimensional changes predicted by relativity physics when velocity falls below the speed of light. It must also not violate causality, and remain consistent with quantum physics in the limit of microscopic systems. It is also essential that the proposal conserve energy.

  20. Incidence of restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty: a time-related phenomenon. A quantitative angiographic study in 342 consecutive patients at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serruys, P W; Luijten, H E; Beatt, K J; Geuskens, R; de Feyter, P J; van den Brand, M; Reiber, J H; ten Katen, H J; van Es, G A; Hugenholtz, P G

    1988-02-01

    Data from experimental, clinical, and pathologic studies have suggested that the process of restenosis begins very early after coronary angioplasty. The present study was performed to determine prospectively the incidence of restenosis with use of the four National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the 50% or greater diameter stenosis criteria, as well as a criterion based on a decrease of 0.72 mm or more in minimal luminal diameter. Patients were recatheterized at 30, 60, 90, or 120 days after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After PTCA all patients received 10 mg nifedipine three to six times a day and aspirin once a day until repeat angiography. Of 400 consecutive patients in whom PTCA was successful (less than 50% diameter stenosis), 342 underwent quantitative angiographic follow-up (86%) by use of an automated edge-detection technique. A wide variation in the incidence of restenosis was found dependent on the criterion applied. The incidence of restenosis proved to be progressive to at least the third month for all except NHLBI criterion II. At 4 months a further increase in the incidence of restenosis was observed when defined as a decrease of 0.72 mm or more in minimal luminal diameter, whereas the criteria based on percentage diameter stenosis showed a variable response. The lack of overlap between the different restenosis criteria applied affirms the arbitrary nature of angiographic definitions currently in use. Restenosis should be assessed by repeat angiography, and preferably ascertained according to the change in absolute quantitative measurements of the luminal diameter.

  1. Mycobacterial virulence. Virulent strains of Mycobacteria tuberculosis have faster in vivo doubling times and are better equipped to resist growth-inhibiting functions of macrophages in the presence and absence of specific immunity.

    PubMed

    North, R J; Izzo, A A

    1993-06-01

    The kinetics of growth of two virulent strains of mycobacteria (M. tuberculosis Erdman and M. tuberculosis H37Rv) and two attenuated strains (M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin [BCG]) were studied in the lungs, livers, spleens, and kidneys of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and of their coisogenic CB-17 immunocompetent counterparts. It was found, in keeping with the findings of earlier investigators (Pierce, C. H., R. J. Dubos, and W. B. Schaefer. 1953. J. Exp. Med. 97:189.), that in immunocompetent mice, virulent organisms grew progressively only in the lungs, whereas the growth of attenuated organisms was controlled in all organs. In SCID mice, in contrast, virulent mycobacteria grew rapidly and progressively in all organs, as did BCG, although at a slower rate. However, H37Ra failed to grow progressively in any organs of SCID mice, unless the mice were treated with hydrocortisone. In fact, hydrocortisone treatment enabled virulent, as well as attenuated, organisms to grow strikingly more rapidly in all organs of SCID mice and in all organs of CB-17 mice. A histological study showed that in SCID mice, multiplication of mycobacteria in the liver occurs in the cytoplasm of macrophages in granulomas and presumably in macrophages in other organs. It is suggested, therefore, that the macrophages of SCID mice possess a glucocorticoid-sensitive mycobacterial mechanism that prevents virulent and avirulent mycobacteria from expressing their true minimal doubling times. In the absence of this mechanism in the lungs of hydrocortisone-treated SCID mice, the doubling times of Erdman, H37Rv, BCG, and H37Ra were 17.7, 17.4, 44.6, and 98.6 h, respectively. The possible importance of a rapid multiplication rate for mycobacterial virulence is discussed. PMID:8496688

  2. Harnessing Light for Faster Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Looking for a faster computer? How about an optical computer that processes data streams simultaneously and works with the speed of light? In space, NASA researchers have formed optical thin-film. By turning these thin-films into very fast optical computer components, scientists could improve computer tasks, such as pattern recognition. Dr. Hossin Abdeldayem, physicist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Al, is working with lasers as part of an optical system for pattern recognition. These systems can be used for automated fingerprinting, photographic scarning and the development of sophisticated artificial intelligence systems that can learn and evolve. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  3. Development of the FASTER Wheeled Bevameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, L.; Eder, V.; Hoheneder, W.; Imhof, B.; Lewinger, W.; Ransom, S.; Saaj, C.; Weclewski, P.; Waclavicek, R.,

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the development of a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) within the FASTER project (Forward Acquisition of Soil and Terrain Data for Exploration Rovers), funded by the European Union's FP7 programme. In FASTER, novel and innovative concepts for in situ forward sensing of soil properties and terrain conditions in the planned path of a planetary rover are developed. Terrain strength measurements for assessment of the mobility of crosscountry vehicles have decades of heritage on Earth, but typically trafficability of terrains is only gauged by human operators ahead of vehicle operations rather than in-line by probes deployed from the vehicle itself, as is intended for FASTER. For FASTER, a Wheeled Bevameter (WB) has been selected as the terrain sensing instrument for the vehicle. Wheeled Bevameters are suitable for terrain measurements while driving but traditionally have mostly been employed on terrestrial vehicles to evaluate particular wheel designs. The WB as conceived in FASTER uses a dedicated, passive-rolling test wheel (‚test wheel') placed on the terrain as the loading device to enable to determine bearing strength, compressive strength and shear strength of the terrain immediately ahead of the vehicle, as well as rover-terrain interaction parameters used in semi-empirical vehicle-terrain traction models. The WB includes a placement mechanism for the test wheel. The test wheel would remain lowered onto the ground during nominal rover motion, including when climbing and descending slopes. During normal operations, the placement mechanism assumes the function of a passive suspension of the wheel, allowing it to follow the terrain contour. Quantities measured with the WB are: test wheel sinkage (through a laser sensor), test wheel vertical load, test wheel horizontal reaction force, and test wheel rotation rate. Measurements are performed while the rover is in motion. Measured test wheel rotation rate (with appropriate corrections for slight skid) can

  4. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect. PMID:26728113

  5. Darks are processed faster than lights.

    PubMed

    Komban, Stanley Jose; Alonso, Jose-Manuel; Zaidi, Qasim

    2011-06-01

    Recent physiological studies claim that dark stimuli have access to greater neuronal resources than light stimuli in early visual pathway. We used two sets of novel stimuli to examine the functional consequences of this dark dominance in human observers. We show that increment and decrement thresholds are equal when controlled for adaptation and eye movements. However, measurements for salience differences at high contrasts show that darks are detected pronouncedly faster and more accurately than lights when presented against uniform binary noise. In addition, the salience advantage for darks is abolished when the background distribution is adjusted to control for the irradiation illusion. The threshold equality suggests that the highest sensitivities of neurons in the ON and OFF channels are similar, whereas the salience difference is consistent with a population advantage for the OFF system. PMID:21653869

  6. Pigeons home faster through polluted air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongqiu; Courchamp, Franck; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution, especially haze pollution, is creating health issues for both humans and other animals. However, remarkably little is known about how animals behaviourally respond to air pollution. We used multiple linear regression to analyse 415 pigeon races in the North China Plain, an area with considerable air pollution, and found that while the proportion of pigeons successfully homed was not influenced by air pollution, pigeons homed faster when the air was especially polluted. Our results may be explained by an enhanced homing motivation and possibly an enriched olfactory environment that facilitates homing. Our study provides a unique example of animals’ response to haze pollution; future studies are needed to identify proposed mechanisms underlying this effect.

  7. Microbial communities evolve faster in extreme environments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng-Jin; Hua, Zheng-Shuang; Huang, Li-Nan; Li, Jie; Shi, Su-Hua; Chen, Lin-Xing; Kuang, Jia-Liang; Liu, Jun; Hu, Min; Shu, Wen-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary analysis of microbes at the community level represents a new research avenue linking ecological patterns to evolutionary processes, but remains insufficiently studied. Here we report a relative evolutionary rates (rERs) analysis of microbial communities from six diverse natural environments based on 40 metagenomic samples. We show that the rERs of microbial communities are mainly shaped by environmental conditions, and the microbes inhabiting extreme habitats (acid mine drainage, saline lake and hot spring) evolve faster than those populating benign environments (surface ocean, fresh water and soil). These findings were supported by the observation of more relaxed purifying selection and potentially frequent horizontal gene transfers in communities from extreme habitats. The mechanism of high rERs was proposed as high mutation rates imposed by stressful conditions during the evolutionary processes. This study brings us one stage closer to an understanding of the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the adaptation of microbes to extreme environments. PMID:25158668

  8. Why are halo coronal mass ejections faster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qing-Min; Guo, Yang; Chen, Peng-Fei; Ding, Ming-De; Fang, Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been to be significantly faster than normal CMEs, which is a long-standing puzzle. In order to solve the puzzle, we first investigate the observed properties of 31 limb CMEs that clearly display loop-shaped frontal loops. The observational results show a strong tendency that slower CMEs are weaker in white-light intensity. Then, we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of 20000 artificial limb CMEs that have an average velocity of ~523 km s-1. The Thomson scattering of these events is calculated when they are assumed to be observed as limb and halo events, respectively. It is found that the white-light intensity of many slow CMEs becomes remarkably reduced when they turn from being viewed as a limb event to being viewed as a halo event. When the intensity is below the background solar wind fluctuation, it is assumed that they would be missed by coronagraphs. The average velocity of “detectable" halo CMEs is ~922 km s-1 very close to the observed value. This also indicates that wider events are more likely to be recorded. The results soundly suggest that the higher average velocity of halo CMEs is due to that a majority of slow events and some of narrow fast events carrying less material are so faint that they are blended with the solar wind fluctuations, and therefore are not observed.

  9. Fast Physics Testbed for the FASTER Project

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, W.; Liu, Y.; Hogan, R.; Neggers, R.; Jensen, M.; Fridlind, A.; Lin, Y.; Wolf, A.

    2010-03-15

    This poster describes the Fast Physics Testbed for the new FAst-physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project. The overall objective is to provide a convenient and comprehensive platform for fast turn-around model evaluation against ARM observations and to facilitate development of parameterizations for cloud-related fast processes represented in global climate models. The testbed features three major components: a single column model (SCM) testbed, an NWP-Testbed, and high-resolution modeling (HRM). The web-based SCM-Testbed features multiple SCMs from major climate modeling centers and aims to maximize the potential of SCM approach to enhance and accelerate the evaluation and improvement of fast physics parameterizations through continuous evaluation of existing and evolving models against historical as well as new/improved ARM and other complementary measurements. The NWP-Testbed aims to capitalize on the large pool of operational numerical weather prediction products. Continuous evaluations of NWP forecasts against observations at ARM sites are carried out to systematically identify the biases and skills of physical parameterizations under all weather conditions. The highresolution modeling (HRM) activities aim to simulate the fast processes at high resolution to aid in the understanding of the fast processes and their parameterizations. A four-tier HRM framework is established to augment the SCM- and NWP-Testbeds towards eventual improvement of the parameterizations.

  10. Faster and More Accurate Transport Procedures for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Badavi, Francis F.

    2010-01-01

    Several aspects of code verification are examined for HZETRN. First, a detailed derivation of the numerical marching algorithms is given. Next, a new numerical method for light particle transport is presented, and improvements to the heavy ion transport algorithm are discussed. A summary of various coding errors is also given, and the impact of these errors on exposure quantities is shown. Finally, a coupled convergence study is conducted. From this study, it is shown that past efforts in quantifying the numerical error in HZETRN were hindered by single precision calculations and computational resources. It is also determined that almost all of the discretization error in HZETRN is caused by charged target fragments below 50 AMeV. Total discretization errors are given for the old and new algorithms, and the improved accuracy of the new numerical methods is demonstrated. Run time comparisons are given for three applications in which HZETRN is commonly used. The new algorithms are found to be almost 100 times faster for solar particle event simulations and almost 10 times faster for galactic cosmic ray simulations.

  11. Neuromuscular strategies contributing to faster multidirectional agility performance.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to first determine differences in neuromuscular strategy between a faster and slower agility performance, and second compare differences in muscle activation strategy employed when performing two closely executed agility movements. Participants recruited from an elite female basketball team completed an ultrasound to determine quadriceps muscle-cross sectional area; reactive isometric mid-thigh pull to determine the rate of muscle activation, rate of force development, pre-motor time and motor time; and multidirectional agility tests completing two directional changes in response to a visual stimulus. Peak and average relative muscle activation of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus and gastrocnemius were measured 100ms prior to heel strike (pre-heel strike) and across stance phase for both directional changes. Faster agility performance was characterized by greater pre-heel strike muscle activity and greater anterior muscle activation during stance phase resulting in greater hip and knee extension increasing propulsive impulse. Differences between directional changes appear to result from processing speed, where a greater delay in refractory times during the second directional change resulted in greater anterior muscle activation, decelerating the body while movement direction was determined.

  12. Faster Reading--One Hundred Years after Javal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ray

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the origins of the interest in faster reading, oculomotor activity in reading in relation to eye movement and eye span, misapplication of eye movement data in courses designed to promote faster reading, and objections to some of the more common mechanical devices used in faster reading courses. (GT)

  13. Electronic Structure Engineering of Elpasolites for Brighter and Faster Scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Mao-Hua; Biswas, Koushik

    2013-03-01

    Utilization of scintillator materials is one of the primary methods for radiation detection. Elpasolites are a large family of quaternary halides that have attracted considerable interest for their potential applications as γ-ray and neutron scintillators. However, many elpasolite scintillator materials currently under development suffer from low light yield and long scintillation decay time. The low light yield is partially due to a large band gap while the long scintillation decay time is a result of slow carrier transport to Ce dopants, where electrons and holes recombine to emit photons. We suggest that these problems may be mitigated by optimizing the band gap and carrier mobility by selecting constituent elements of proper electronegativity. For example, cations with lower electronegativity may lower the conduction band and increase the conduction band dispersion simultaneously, resulting in higher light yield and faster scintillation. First-principles calculations of electronic structure, small polarons, and Ce dopants in Cs2LiYCl6 and Cs2AgYCl6 compounds show that the strategy of manipulating electronegativity can lead to brighter and faster elpasolite-based scintillators. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nonproliferation Research and Development NA22.

  14. Faster SEQUEST Searching for Peptide Identification from Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Diament, Benjamin; Noble, William Stafford

    2011-01-01

    Computational analysis of mass spectra remains the bottleneck in many proteomics experiments. SEQUEST was one of the earliest software packages to identify peptides from mass spectra by searching a database of known peptides. Though still popular, SEQUEST performs slowly. Crux and TurboSEQUEST have successfully sped up SEQUEST by adding a precomputed index to the search, but the demand for ever-faster peptide identification software continues to grow. Tide, introduced here, is a software program that implements the SEQUEST algorithm for peptide identification and that achieves a dramatic speedup over Crux and SEQUEST. The optimization strategies detailed here employ a combination of algorithmic and software engineering techniques to achieve speeds up to 170 times faster than a recent version of SEQUEST that uses indexing. For example, on a single Xeon CPU, Tide searches 10,000 spectra against a tryptic database of 27,499 C. elegans proteins at a rate of 1,550 spectra per second, which compares favorably with a rate of 8.8 spectra per second for a recent version of SEQUEST with index running on the same hardware. PMID:21761931

  15. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  16. Solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, cyclohexanone, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and water at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C has been determined. The concentration of DMNB was measured by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The relative standard deviation of the measurements was between about 1% and 7%.

  17. Faster and more accurate transport procedures for HZETRN

    SciTech Connect

    Slaba, T.C.; Blattnig, S.R.; Badavi, F.F.

    2010-12-10

    The deterministic transport code HZETRN was developed for research scientists and design engineers studying the effects of space radiation on astronauts and instrumentation protected by various shielding materials and structures. In this work, several aspects of code verification are examined. First, a detailed derivation of the light particle (A {<=} 4) and heavy ion (A > 4) numerical marching algorithms used in HZETRN is given. References are given for components of the derivation that already exist in the literature, and discussions are given for details that may have been absent in the past. The present paper provides a complete description of the numerical methods currently used in the code and is identified as a key component of the verification process. Next, a new numerical method for light particle transport is presented, and improvements to the heavy ion transport algorithm are discussed. A summary of round-off error is also given, and the impact of this error on previously predicted exposure quantities is shown. Finally, a coupled convergence study is conducted by refining the discretization parameters (step-size and energy grid-size). From this study, it is shown that past efforts in quantifying the numerical error in HZETRN were hindered by single precision calculations and computational resources. It is determined that almost all of the discretization error in HZETRN is caused by the use of discretization parameters that violate a numerical convergence criterion related to charged target fragments below 50 AMeV. Total discretization errors are given for the old and new algorithms to 100 g/cm{sup 2} in aluminum and water, and the improved accuracy of the new numerical methods is demonstrated. Run time comparisons between the old and new algorithms are given for one, two, and three layer slabs of 100 g/cm{sup 2} of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. The new algorithms are found to be almost 100 times faster for solar particle event simulations and

  18. Faster and more accurate transport procedures for HZETRN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slaba, T. C.; Blattnig, S. R.; Badavi, F. F.

    2010-12-01

    The deterministic transport code HZETRN was developed for research scientists and design engineers studying the effects of space radiation on astronauts and instrumentation protected by various shielding materials and structures. In this work, several aspects of code verification are examined. First, a detailed derivation of the light particle ( A ⩽ 4) and heavy ion ( A > 4) numerical marching algorithms used in HZETRN is given. References are given for components of the derivation that already exist in the literature, and discussions are given for details that may have been absent in the past. The present paper provides a complete description of the numerical methods currently used in the code and is identified as a key component of the verification process. Next, a new numerical method for light particle transport is presented, and improvements to the heavy ion transport algorithm are discussed. A summary of round-off error is also given, and the impact of this error on previously predicted exposure quantities is shown. Finally, a coupled convergence study is conducted by refining the discretization parameters (step-size and energy grid-size). From this study, it is shown that past efforts in quantifying the numerical error in HZETRN were hindered by single precision calculations and computational resources. It is determined that almost all of the discretization error in HZETRN is caused by the use of discretization parameters that violate a numerical convergence criterion related to charged target fragments below 50 AMeV. Total discretization errors are given for the old and new algorithms to 100 g/cm 2 in aluminum and water, and the improved accuracy of the new numerical methods is demonstrated. Run time comparisons between the old and new algorithms are given for one, two, and three layer slabs of 100 g/cm 2 of aluminum, polyethylene, and water. The new algorithms are found to be almost 100 times faster for solar particle event simulations and almost 10

  19. The Flynn Effect: Smarter Not Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettelbeck, Ted; Wilson, Carlene

    2004-01-01

    Inspection time (IT) and Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) scores from 75 school children aged 6-13 years in 2001 were compared with the performances of 70 children aged 6-13 years who had attended the same primary school in 1981 ["J. Exp. Child Psychol." 40 (1985) 1.]. ITs for the 2001 sample were measured with the same four-field…

  20. Further We Travel the Faster We Go

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  1. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  2. Faster Parameterized Algorithms for Minor Containment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, Isolde; Dorn, Frederic; Fomin, Fedor V.; Sau, Ignasi; Thilikos, Dimitrios M.

    The theory of Graph Minors by Robertson and Seymour is one of the deepest and significant theories in modern Combinatorics. This theory has also a strong impact on the recent development of Algorithms, and several areas, like Parameterized Complexity, have roots in Graph Minors. Until very recently it was a common belief that Graph Minors Theory is mainly of theoretical importance. However, it appears that many deep results from Robertson and Seymour's theory can be also used in the design of practical algorithms. Minor containment testing is one of algorithmically most important and technical parts of the theory, and minor containment in graphs of bounded branchwidth is a basic ingredient of this algorithm. In order to implement minor containment testing on graphs of bounded branchwidth, Hicks [NETWORKS 04] described an algorithm, that in time O(3^{k^2}\\cdot (h+k-1)!\\cdot m) decides if a graph G with m edges and branchwidth k, contains a fixed graph H on h vertices as a minor. That algorithm follows the ideas introduced by Robertson and Seymour in [J'CTSB 95]. In this work we improve the dependence on k of Hicks' result by showing that checking if H is a minor of G can be done in time O(2^{(2k +1 )\\cdot log k} \\cdot h^{2k} \\cdot 2^{2h^2} \\cdot m). Our approach is based on a combinatorial object called rooted packing, which captures the properties of the potential models of subgraphs of H that we seek in our dynamic programming algorithm. This formulation with rooted packings allows us to speed up the algorithm when G is embedded in a fixed surface, obtaining the first single-exponential algorithm for minor containment testing. Namely, it runs in time 2^{O(k)} \\cdot h^{2k} \\cdot 2^{O(h)} \\cdot n, with n = |V(G)|. Finally, we show that slight modifications of our algorithm permit to solve some related problems within the same time bounds, like induced minor or contraction minor containment.

  3. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles.

  4. Further We Travel the Faster We Go.

    PubMed

    Varga, Levente; Kovács, András; Tóth, Géza; Papp, István; Néda, Zoltán

    2016-01-01

    The average travelling speed increases in a nontrivial manner with the travel distance. This leads to scaling-like relations on quite extended spatial scales, for all mobility modes taken together and also for a given mobility mode in part. We offer a wide range of experimental results, investigating and quantifying this universal effect and its measurable causes. The increasing travelling speed with the travel distance arises from the combined effects of: choosing the most appropriate travelling mode; the structure of the travel networks; the travel times lost in the main hubs, starting or target cities; and the speed limit of roads and vehicles. PMID:26863605

  5. Faster-X evolution of gene expression in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Richard P; Malone, John H; Clark, Andrew G

    2012-01-01

    DNA sequences on X chromosomes often have a faster rate of evolution when compared to similar loci on the autosomes, and well articulated models provide reasons why the X-linked mode of inheritance may be responsible for the faster evolution of X-linked genes. We analyzed microarray and RNA-seq data collected from females and males of six Drosophila species and found that the expression levels of X-linked genes also diverge faster than autosomal gene expression, similar to the "faster-X" effect often observed in DNA sequence evolution. Faster-X evolution of gene expression was recently described in mammals, but it was limited to the evolutionary lineages shortly following the creation of the therian X chromosome. In contrast, we detect a faster-X effect along both deep lineages and those on the tips of the Drosophila phylogeny. In Drosophila males, the dosage compensation complex (DCC) binds the X chromosome, creating a unique chromatin environment that promotes the hyper-expression of X-linked genes. We find that DCC binding, chromatin environment, and breadth of expression are all predictive of the rate of gene expression evolution. In addition, estimates of the intraspecific genetic polymorphism underlying gene expression variation suggest that X-linked expression levels are not under relaxed selective constraints. We therefore hypothesize that the faster-X evolution of gene expression is the result of the adaptive fixation of beneficial mutations at X-linked loci that change expression level in cis. This adaptive faster-X evolution of gene expression is limited to genes that are narrowly expressed in a single tissue, suggesting that relaxed pleiotropic constraints permit a faster response to selection. Finally, we present a conceptional framework to explain faster-X expression evolution, and we use this framework to examine differences in the faster-X effect between Drosophila and mammals.

  6. Faster Evolution of More Multifunctional Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian; Zebulum, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    A modification in a method of automated evolutionary synthesis of voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits makes it possible to synthesize more circuits in less time. Prior to the modification, the computations for synthesizing a four-function logic circuit by this method took about 10 hours. Using the method as modified, it is possible to synthesize a six-function circuit in less than half an hour. The concepts of automated evolutionary synthesis and voltage-controlled multifunctional logic circuits were described in a number of prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. To recapitulate: A circuit is designed to perform one of several different logic functions, depending on the value of an applied control voltage. The circuit design is synthesized following an automated evolutionary approach that is so named because it is modeled partly after the repetitive trial-and-error process of biological evolution. In this process, random populations of integer strings that encode electronic circuits play a role analogous to that of chromosomes. An evolved circuit is tested by computational simulation (prior to testing in real hardware to verify a final design). Then, in a fitness-evaluation step, responses of the circuit are compared with specifications of target responses and circuits are ranked according to how close they come to satisfying specifications. The results of the evaluation provide guidance for refining designs through further iteration.

  7. Digital Camera Control for Faster Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Katharine; Siekierski, James D.; Mangieri, Mark L.; Dekome, Kent; Cobarruvias, John; Piplani, Perry J.; Busa, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Digital Camera Control Software (DCCS) is a computer program for controlling a boom and a boom-mounted camera used to inspect the external surface of a space shuttle in orbit around the Earth. Running in a laptop computer in the space-shuttle crew cabin, DCCS commands integrated displays and controls. By means of a simple one-button command, a crewmember can view low- resolution images to quickly spot problem areas and can then cause a rapid transition to high- resolution images. The crewmember can command that camera settings apply to a specific small area of interest within the field of view of the camera so as to maximize image quality within that area. DCCS also provides critical high-resolution images to a ground screening team, which analyzes the images to assess damage (if any); in so doing, DCCS enables the team to clear initially suspect areas more quickly than would otherwise be possible and further saves time by minimizing the probability of re-imaging of areas already inspected. On the basis of experience with a previous version (2.0) of the software, the present version (3.0) incorporates a number of advanced imaging features that optimize crewmember capability and efficiency.

  8. Faster permutation inference in brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Anderson M; Ridgway, Gerard R; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Nichols, Thomas E; Smith, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Permutation tests are increasingly being used as a reliable method for inference in neuroimaging analysis. However, they are computationally intensive. For small, non-imaging datasets, recomputing a model thousands of times is seldom a problem, but for large, complex models this can be prohibitively slow, even with the availability of inexpensive computing power. Here we exploit properties of statistics used with the general linear model (GLM) and their distributions to obtain accelerations irrespective of generic software or hardware improvements. We compare the following approaches: (i) performing a small number of permutations; (ii) estimating the p-value as a parameter of a negative binomial distribution; (iii) fitting a generalised Pareto distribution to the tail of the permutation distribution; (iv) computing p-values based on the expected moments of the permutation distribution, approximated from a gamma distribution; (v) direct fitting of a gamma distribution to the empirical permutation distribution; and (vi) permuting a reduced number of voxels, with completion of the remainder using low rank matrix theory. Using synthetic data we assessed the different methods in terms of their error rates, power, agreement with a reference result, and the risk of taking a different decision regarding the rejection of the null hypotheses (known as the resampling risk). We also conducted a re-analysis of a voxel-based morphometry study as a real-data example. All methods yielded exact error rates. Likewise, power was similar across methods. Resampling risk was higher for methods (i), (iii) and (v). For comparable resampling risks, the method in which no permutations are done (iv) was the absolute fastest. All methods produced visually similar maps for the real data, with stronger effects being detected in the family-wise error rate corrected maps by (iii) and (v), and generally similar to the results seen in the reference set. Overall, for uncorrected p-values, method (iv

  9. Hexagonal Undersampling for Faster MR Imaging near Metallic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Sveinsson, Bragi; Worters, Pauline W; Gold, Garry E; Hargreaves, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC) acquires a 3D image of each excited slice with view-angle tilting to reduce slice and readout direction artifacts respectively, but requires additional imaging time. The purpose of this study is to provide a technique for faster imaging around metallic implants by undersampling k-space. Methods Assuming that areas of slice distortion are localized, hexagonal sampling can reduce imaging time by 50% compared with conventional scans. This work demonstrates this technique by comparisons of fully sampled images with undersampled images, either from simulations from fully acquired data or from data actually undersampled during acquisition, in patients and phantoms. Hexagonal sampling is also shown to be compatible with parallel imaging and partial Fourier acquisitions. Image quality was evaluated using a structural similarity index (SSIM). Results Images acquired with hexagonal undersampling had no visible difference in artifact suppression from fully sampled images. The SSIM index indicated high similarity to fully sampled images in all cases. Conclusion The study demonstrates the ability to reduce scan time by undersampling without compromising image quality. PMID:24549782

  10. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  11. Innovations for competitiveness: European views on "better-faster-cheaper"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atzei, A.; Groepper, P.; Novara, M.; Pseiner, K.

    1999-09-01

    The paper elaborates on " lessons learned" from two recent ESA workshops, one focussing on the role of Innovation in the competitiveness of the space sector and the second on technology and engineering aspects conducive to better, faster and cheaper space programmes. The paper focuses primarily on four major aspects, namely: a) the adaptations of industrial and public organisations to the global market needs; b) the understanding of the bottleneck factors limiting competitiveness; c) the trends toward new system architectures and new engineering and production methods; d) the understanding of the role of new technology in the future applications. Under the pressure of market forces and the influence of many global and regional players, applications of space systems and technology are becoming more and more competitive. It is well recognised that without major effort for innovation in industrial practices, organisations, R&D, marketing and financial approaches the European space sector will stagnate and loose its competence as well as its competitiveness. It is also recognised that a programme run according to the "better, faster, cheaper" philosophy relies on much closer integration of system design, development and verification, and draws heavily on a robust and comprehensive programme of technology development, which must run in parallel and off-line with respect to flight programmes. A company's innovation capabilities will determine its future competitive advantage (in time, cost, performance or value) and overall growth potential. Innovation must be a process that can be counted on to provide repetitive, sustainable, long-term performance improvements. As such, it needs not depend on great breakthroughs in technology and concepts (which are accidental and rare). Rather, it could be based on bold evolution through the establishment of know-how, application of best practices, process effectiveness and high standards, performance measurement, and attention to

  12. Value of Faster Computation for Power Grid Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-09-30

    As a result of the grid evolution meeting the information revolution, the power grid is becoming far more complex than it used to be. How to feed data in, perform analysis, and extract information in a real-time manner is a fundamental challenge in today’s power grid operation, not to mention the significantly increased complexity in the smart grid environment. Therefore, high performance computing (HPC) becomes one of the advanced technologies used to meet the requirement of real-time operation. This paper presents benefit case studies to show the value of fast computation for operation. Two fundamental operation functions, state estimation (SE) and contingency analysis (CA), are used as examples. In contrast with today’s tools, fast SE can estimate system status in a few seconds—comparable to measurement cycles. Fast CA can solve more contingencies in a shorter period, reducing the possibility of missing critical contingencies. The benefit case study results clearly show the value of faster computation for increasing the reliability and efficiency of power system operation.

  13. FASTER THALAMOCORTICAL PROCESSING FOR DARK THAN LIGHT VISUAL TARGETS

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jianzhong; Wang, Yushi; Lashgari, Reza; Swadlow, Harvey A.; Alonso, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    ON and OFF visual pathways originate in the retina at the synapse between photoreceptor and bipolar cells. OFF bipolar cells are shorter in length and use receptors with faster kinetics than ON bipolar cells and, therefore, process information faster. Here, we demonstrate that this temporal advantage is maintained through thalamocortical processing, with OFF visual responses reaching cortex ~ 3–6 milliseconds before ON visual responses. Faster OFF visual responses could be demonstrated in recordings from large populations of cat thalamic neurons representing the center of vision (both X and Y) and from subpopulations making connection with the same cortical orientation column. While the OFF temporal advantage diminished as visual responses reached their peak, the integral of the impulse response was greater in OFF than ON neurons. Given the stimulus preferences from OFF and ON channels, our results indicate that darks are processed faster than lights in the thalamocortical pathway. PMID:22131408

  14. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... please turn Javascript on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast ...

  15. Faster-X effects in two Drosophila lineages.

    PubMed

    Avila, Victoria; Marion de Procé, Sophie; Campos, José L; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Brian; Betancourt, Andrea J

    2014-10-01

    Under certain circumstances, X-linked loci are expected to experience more adaptive substitutions than similar autosomal loci. To look for evidence of faster-X evolution, we analyzed the evolutionary rates of coding sequences in two sets of Drosophila species, the melanogaster and pseudoobscura clades, using whole-genome sequences. One of these, the pseudoobscura clade, contains a centric fusion between the ancestral X chromosome and the autosomal arm homologous to 3L in D. melanogaster. This offers an opportunity to study the same loci in both an X-linked and an autosomal context, and to compare these loci with those that are only X-linked or only autosomal. We therefore investigated these clades for evidence of faster-X evolution with respect to nonsynonymous substitutions, finding mixed results. Overall, there was consistent evidence for a faster-X effect in the melanogaster clade, but not in the pseudoobscura clade, except for the comparison between D. pseudoobscura and its close relative, Drosophila persimilis. An analysis of polymorphism data on a set of genes from D. pseudoobscura that evolve rapidly with respect to their protein sequences revealed no evidence for a faster-X effect with respect to adaptive protein sequence evolution; their rapid evolution is instead largely attributable to lower selective constraints. Faster-X evolution in the melanogaster clade was not related to male-biased gene expression; surprisingly, however, female-biased genes showed evidence for faster-X effects, perhaps due to their sexually antagonistic effects in males.

  16. Positive selection drives faster-Z evolution in silkmoths.

    PubMed

    Sackton, Timothy B; Corbett-Detig, Russell B; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Vaishna, Lakshmi; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Hartl, Daniel L

    2014-08-01

    Genes linked to X or Z chromosomes, which are hemizygous in the heterogametic sex, are predicted to evolve at different rates than those on autosomes. This "faster-X effect" can arise either as a consequence of hemizygosity, which leads to more efficient selection for recessive beneficial mutations in the heterogametic sex, or as a consequence of reduced effective population size of the hemizygous chromosome, which leads to increased fixation of weakly deleterious mutations due to genetic drift. Empirical results to date suggest that, while the overall pattern across taxa is complicated, systems with male heterogamy show a faster-X effect attributable to more efficient selection, whereas the faster-Z effect in female-heterogametic taxa is attributable to increased drift. To test the generality of the faster-Z pattern seen in birds and snakes, we sequenced the genome of the lepidopteran silkmoth Bombyx huttoni. We show that silkmoths experience faster-Z evolution, but unlike in birds and snakes, the faster-Z effect appears to be attributable to more efficient positive selection. These results suggest that female heterogamy alone is unlikely to explain the reduced efficacy of selection on vertebrate Z chromosomes. It is likely that many factors, including differences in overall effective population size, influence Z chromosome evolution.

  17. Faster-X Effects in Two Drosophila Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Ávila, Victoria; Marion de Procé, Sophie; Campos, José L.; Borthwick, Helen; Charlesworth, Brian; Betancourt, Andrea J.

    2014-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, X-linked loci are expected to experience more adaptive substitutions than similar autosomal loci. To look for evidence of faster-X evolution, we analyzed the evolutionary rates of coding sequences in two sets of Drosophila species, the melanogaster and pseudoobscura clades, using whole-genome sequences. One of these, the pseudoobscura clade, contains a centric fusion between the ancestral X chromosome and the autosomal arm homologous to 3L in D. melanogaster. This offers an opportunity to study the same loci in both an X-linked and an autosomal context, and to compare these loci with those that are only X-linked or only autosomal. We therefore investigated these clades for evidence of faster-X evolution with respect to nonsynonymous substitutions, finding mixed results. Overall, there was consistent evidence for a faster-X effect in the melanogaster clade, but not in the pseudoobscura clade, except for the comparison between D. pseudoobscura and its close relative, Drosophila persimilis. An analysis of polymorphism data on a set of genes from D. pseudoobscura that evolve rapidly with respect to their protein sequences revealed no evidence for a faster-X effect with respect to adaptive protein sequence evolution; their rapid evolution is instead largely attributable to lower selective constraints. Faster-X evolution in the melanogaster clade was not related to male-biased gene expression; surprisingly, however, female-biased genes showed evidence for faster-X effects, perhaps due to their sexually antagonistic effects in males. PMID:25323954

  18. Advanced Ultrasonic Diagnosis of Extremity Trauma: The Faster Exam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulchavsky, S. A.; Henry, S. E.; Moed, B. R.; Diebel, L. N.; Marshburn, T.; Hamilton, D. R.; Logan, J.; Kirkpatrick, A. W.; Williams, D. R.

    2002-01-01

    Ultrasound is of prO)len accuracy in abdominal and thoracic trauma and may be useful to diagnose extremity injury in situations where radiography is not available such as military and space applications. We prospectively evaluated the utility of extremity , ultrasound performed by trained, non-physician personnel in patients with extremity trauma, to simulate remote aerospace or military applications . Methods: Patients with extremity trauma were identified by history, physical examination, and radiographic studies. Ultrasound examination was performed bilaterally by nonphysician personnel with a portable ultrasound device using a 10-5 MHz linear probe, Images were video-recorded for later analysis against radiography by Fisher's exact test. The average time of examination was 4 minutes. Ultrasound accurately diagnosed extremity, injury in 94% of patients with no false positive exams; accuracy was greater in mid-shaft locations and least in the metacarpa/metatarsals. Soft tissue/tendon injury was readily visualized . Extremity ultrasound can be performed quickly and accurately by nonphysician personnel with excellent accuracy. Blinded verification of the utility of ultrasound in patients with extremity injury should be done to determine if Extremity and Respiratory evaluation should be added to the FAST examination (the FASTER exam) and verify the technique in remote locations such as military and aerospace applications.

  19. Lower serum oestrogen concentrations associated with faster intestinal transit.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S. J.; Heaton, K. W.; Oakey, R. E.; McGarrigle, H. H.

    1997-01-01

    Increased fibre intake has been shown to reduce serum oestrogen concentrations. We hypothesized that fibre exerts this effect by decreasing the time available for reabsorption of oestrogens in the colon. We tested this in volunteers by measuring changes in serum oestrogen levels in response to manipulation of intestinal transit times with senna and loperamide, then comparing the results with changes caused by wheat bran. Forty healthy premenopausal volunteers were placed at random into one of three groups. The first group took senna for two menstrual cycles then, after a washout period, took wheat bran, again for two menstrual cycles. The second group did the reverse. The third group took loperamide for two menstrual cycles. At the beginning and end of each intervention a 4-day dietary record was kept and whole-gut transit time was measured; stools were taken for measurement of pH and beta-glucuronidase activity and blood for measurement of oestrone and oestradiol and their non-protein-bound fractions and of oestrone sulphate. Senna and loperamide caused the intended alterations in intestinal transit, whereas on wheat bran supplements there was a trend towards faster transit. Serum oestrone sulphate fell with wheat bran (mean intake 19.8 g day(-1)) and with senna; total- and non-protein-bound oestrone fell with senna. No significant changes in serum oestrogens were seen with loperamide. No significant changes were seen in faecal beta-glucuronidase activity. Stool pH changed only with senna, in which case it fell. In conclusion, speeding up intestinal transit can lower serum oestrogen concentrations. PMID:9252210

  20. Higher Sensitivity Dopamine Measurements with Faster-Scan Cyclic Voltammetry

    PubMed Central

    Keithley, Richard B.; Takmakov, Pavel; Bucher, Elizabeth S.; Belle, Anna M.; Owesson-White, Catarina A.; Park, Jinwoo; Wightman, R. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon-fiber microelectrodes has been successfully used to detect catecholamine release in vivo. Generally, waveforms with anodic voltage limits of 1.0 V or 1.3 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) are used for detection. The 1.0 V excursion provides good temporal resolution, but suffers from a lack of sensitivity. The 1.3 V excursion increases sensitivity, but also increases response time which can blur the detection of neurochemical events. Here, the scan rate was increased to improve the sensitivity of the 1.0 V excursion while maintaining the rapid temporal response. However, increasing scan rate increases both the desired faradaic current response and the already large charging current associated with the voltage sweep. Analog background subtraction was used to prevent the analog-to-digital converter from saturating from the high currents generated with increasing scan rate by neutralizing some of the charging current. In vitro results with the 1.0 V waveform showed approximately a four-fold increase in signal to noise ratio with maintenance of the desired faster response time by increasing scan rate up to 2400 V/s. In vivo, stable stimulated release was detected with an approximate four-fold increase in peak current. The scan rate of the 1.3 V waveform was also increased, but the signal was unstable with time in vitro and in vivo. Adapting the 1.3 V triangular wave into a sawhorse design prevented signal decay and increased the faradaic response. The use of the 1.3 V sawhorse waveform decreased the detection limit of dopamine with FSCV to 0.96 ± 0.08 nM in vitro and showed improved performance in vivo without affecting the neuronal environment. Electron microscopy showed dopamine sensitivity is in a quasi-steady state with carbon-fiber microelectrodes scanned to potentials above 1.0 V. PMID:21473572

  1. Exploiting hydrophobic borohydride-rich ionic liquids as faster-igniting rocket fuels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tianlin; Qi, Xiujuan; Huang, Shi; Jiang, Linhai; Li, Jianling; Tang, Chenglong; Zhang, Qinghua

    2016-02-01

    A family of hydrophobic borohydride-rich ionic liquids was developed, which exhibited the shortest ignition delay times of 1.7 milliseconds and the lowest viscosity (10 mPa s) of hypergolic ionic fluids, demonstrating their great potential as faster-igniting rocket fuels to replace toxic hydrazine derivatives in liquid bipropellant formulations.

  2. Faster-than-natural spacecraft circumnavigation via way points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Trevor; Schaub, Hanspeter; Roscoe, Christopher W. T.

    2016-06-01

    Circumnavigation relative motion is considered for applications such as inspecting a space object for damage, or characterizing space debris before engaging a remediation operation. Faster-than-natural circumnavigation is a guidance method in which the deputy spacecraft is advanced ahead of the natural Keplerian relative motion. A state transition matrix method of generating a discrete way point guidance solution is proposed for faster-than natural circumnavigation. The state transition matrix methodology is applied to both circular and elliptical chief orbits. For the circular chief case, natural relative trajectories are planar in nature. With the faster-than-natural circumnavigation, this work illustrates how the required relative trajectories become three-dimensional curves. This methodology allows for closed-form impulsive control solutions and the associated fuel cost. Numerical simulations illustrate and validate the proposed method.

  3. Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

  4. Hidden Covariation Detection Produces Faster, Not Slower, Social Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Lynne A.; Andrade, Jackie

    2006-01-01

    In P. Lewicki's (1986b) demonstration of hidden covariation detection (HCD), responses of participants were slower to faces that corresponded with a covariation encountered previously than to faces with novel covariations. This slowing contrasts with the typical finding that priming leads to faster responding and suggests that HCD is a unique type…

  5. Custom data support for the FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Toto, T.; Jensen, M.; Vogelmann, A.; Wagener, R.; Liu, Y.; Lin, W.

    2010-03-15

    The multi-institution FAst -physics System Testbed and Research (FASTER) project, funded by the DOE Earth System Modeling program, aims to evaluate and improve the parameterizations of fast processes (those involving clouds, precipitation and aerosols) in global climate models, using a combination of numerical prediction models, single column models, cloud resolving models, large-eddy simulations, full global climate model output and ARM active and passive remote sensing and in-situ data. This poster presents the Custom Data Support effort for the FASTER project. The effort will provide tailored datasets, statistics, best estimates and quality control data, as needed and defined by FASTER participants, for use in evaluating and improving parameterizations of fast processes in GCMs. The data support will include custom gridding and averaging, for the model of interest, using high time resolution and pixel level data from continuous ARM observations and complementary datasets. In addition to the FASTER team, these datasets will be made available to the ARM Science Team. Initial efforts with respect to data product development, priorities, availability and distribution are summarized here with an emphasis on cloud, atmospheric state and aerosol properties as observed during the Spring 2000 Cloud IOP and the Spring 2003 Aerosol IOP at the ARM Southern Great Plains site.

  6. Faster than g, revisited with high-speed imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2012-09-01

    The introduction of modern high-speed cameras in physics teaching provides a tool not only for easy visualization, but also for quantitative analysis of many simple though fast occurring phenomena. As an example, we present a very well-known demonstration experiment—sometimes also discussed in the context of falling chimneys—which is commonly described as faster than gravity, faster than g, free fall paradox or simply falling stick. So far, only a few experimental investigations have utilized photography with a maximum of 41 frames s-1. In this work, high-speed imaging with 1000 fps was used to verify theoretical predictions for the classical experiment. In addition, a modified experiment was performed to better distinguish various theoretical outcomes and also visualize the underlying physics. The topic is well suited for student projects in undergraduate courses which combine experimental laboratory work with computer modelling.

  7. Faster Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullender, Craig C.; Johnson, Daniel D.; Walker, Daniel D.

    1993-01-01

    Current-measuring circuit operates on Hall-effect-sensing and magnetic-field-nulling principles similar to those described in article, "Nulling Hall-Effect Current-Measuring Circuit" (LEW-15023), but simpler and responds faster. Designed without feedback loop, and analog pulse-width-modulated output indicates measured current. Circuit measures current at frequency higher than bandwidth of its Hall-effect sensor.

  8. Kinematics of Faster Acceleration Performance of the Quick Single in Experienced Cricketers.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Samuel J; Lockie, Robert G; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-09-01

    The introduction of the shorter match formats for cricket (i.e., Twenty20) requires batsmen to be proficient in sprint acceleration to increase run scoring potential. Therefore, the study aim was to identify the kinematics of faster acceleration performance of nonstriking batsmen when completing a quick single. Eighteen experienced male cricketers currently playing cricket in a regional competition in Australia completed 17.68-m sprints using a match-specific start (walking start, bat dragged through crease, leg guards worn). Timing gates recorded the 0-5 and 0-17.68 m time. Joint and step kinematics were analyzed through the first and second steps through 3-dimensional motion analysis. Subjects were split into faster and slower groups according to 0- to 5-m time, and a 1-way analysis of variance determined significant (p ≤ 0.05) between-group differences. Effect sizes and Pearson's correlations (r) were also calculated. The faster group was significantly quicker for the 0-5 and 0-17.68 m intervals and had a 10% longer first, and 11% longer second, step. Second step swing leg hip adduction was 23% greater in the faster group. A significant negative correlation (r = -0.647) was found between second step drive leg extension and 0- to 5-m time. Batsmen should cover the initial 5 m of a quick single in the shortest time possible to increase the likelihood of a successful run. This is aided by longer first and second steps and increased hip adduction to transition into normal sprint technique. Step length development should be a key consideration for coaches attempting to improve quick single performance.

  9. An experimental study of the "faster-is-slower" effect using mice under panic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Peng; Ma, Jian; Liu, Tianyang; Ran, Tong; Si, Youliang; Li, Tao

    2016-06-01

    A number of crowd accidents in last decades have attracted the interests of scientists in the study of self-organized behavior of crowd under extreme conditions. The faster-is-slower effect is one of the most referenced behaviors in pedestrian dynamics. However, this behavior has not been experimentally verified yet. A series of experiments with mice under panic were conducted in a bi-dimensional space. The mice were trained to be familiar with the way of escape. A varying number of joss sticks were used to produce different levels of stimulus to drive the mice to escape. The evacuation process was video-recorded for further analysis. The experiment found that the escape times significantly increased with the levels of stimulus due to the stronger competition of selfish mice in panic condition. The faster-is-slower effect was experimentally verified. The probability distributions of time intervals showed a power law and the burst sizes exhibited an exponential behavior.

  10. Investigating the Mpemba Effect: When Hot Water Freezes Faster than Cold Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibekwe, R. T.; Cullerne, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Under certain conditions a body of hot liquid may cool faster and freeze before a body of colder liquid, a phenomenon known as the Mpemba Effect. An initial difference in temperature of 3.2 °C enabled warmer water to reach 0 °C in 14% less time than colder water. Convection currents in the liquid generate a temperature gradient that causes more…

  11. 25 CFR 2.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability. 2.3 Section 2.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.3... administrative appeal procedure applicable to a specific type of decision....

  12. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  13. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  14. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  15. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  16. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  17. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization.

  18. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization. PMID:23356996

  19. The boundary conditions for Bohr's law: when is reacting faster than acting?

    PubMed

    Pinto, Yaïr; Otten, Marte; Cohen, Michael A; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Horowitz, Todd S

    2011-02-01

    In gunfights in Western movies, the hero typically wins, even though the villain draws first. Niels Bohr (Gamow, The great physicists from Galileo to Einstein. Chapter: The law of quantum, 1988) suggested that this reflected a psychophysical law, rather than a dramatic conceit. He hypothesized that reacting is faster than acting. Welchman, Stanley, Schomers, Miall, and Bülthoff (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 277, 1667-1674, 2010) provided empirical evidence supporting "Bohr's law," showing that the time to complete simple manual actions was shorter when reacting than when initiating an action. Here we probe the limits of this effect. In three experiments, participants performed a simple manual action, which could either be self-initiated or executed following an external visual trigger. Inter-button time was reliably faster when the action was externally triggered. However, the effect disappeared for the second step in a two-step action. Furthermore, the effect reversed when a choice between two actions had to be made. Reacting is faster than acting, but only for simple, ballistic actions.

  20. Oral autopsy: A simple, faster procedure for total visualization of oral cavity

    PubMed Central

    Charan Gowda, Boregowda Kadaiah; Mohan, C. V.; Hemavathi

    2016-01-01

    Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster. To establish a simple, faster and time saving procedure for Postmortem dental identification in mass disaster. In this article, we present a simpler and faster method, which helps in gaining access into the oral cavity that helps in the recording of postmortem oral findings where required. PMID:27555728

  1. Oral autopsy: A simple, faster procedure for total visualization of oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Charan Gowda, Boregowda Kadaiah; Mohan, C V; Hemavathi

    2016-01-01

    Identification of humans, especially in mass disaster is a challenging aspect for team members of the disaster victim identification (DVI) unit. Identification is necessary for humanitarian and emotional reasons and for many legal issues, particularly for family members. In the modern day, all possible methods have been applied for establishing the identification of deceased individuals. The DVI team comprises specialists from different disciplines. The forensic dentist plays a major role in the identification of victims in disaster. To establish a simple, faster and time saving procedure for Postmortem dental identification in mass disaster. In this article, we present a simpler and faster method, which helps in gaining access into the oral cavity that helps in the recording of postmortem oral findings where required. PMID:27555728

  2. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  3. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  4. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  5. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  6. Faster embryonic segmentation through elevated Delta-Notch signalling

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Bo-Kai; Jörg, David J.; Oates, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    An important step in understanding biological rhythms is the control of period. A multicellular, rhythmic patterning system termed the segmentation clock is thought to govern the sequential production of the vertebrate embryo's body segments, the somites. Several genetic loss-of-function conditions, including the Delta-Notch intercellular signalling mutants, result in slower segmentation. Here, we generate DeltaD transgenic zebrafish lines with a range of copy numbers and correspondingly increased signalling levels, and observe faster segmentation. The highest-expressing line shows an altered oscillating gene expression wave pattern and shortened segmentation period, producing embryos with more, shorter body segments. Our results reveal surprising differences in how Notch signalling strength is quantitatively interpreted in different organ systems, and suggest a role for intercellular communication in regulating the output period of the segmentation clock by altering its spatial pattern. PMID:27302627

  7. A faster aggregation for 3D fast evanescent wave solvers using rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaert, Ignace Pissoort, Davy; Olyslager, Femke

    2007-11-10

    A novel technique to accelerate the aggregation and disaggregation stages in evanescent plane wave methods is presented. The new method calculates the six plane wave radiation patterns from a multipole expansion (aggregation) and calculates the multipole expansion of an incoming field from the six plane wave incoming field patterns. It is faster than the direct approach for multipole orders larger than one, and becomes six times faster for large multipole orders. The method relies on a connection between the discretizations of the six integral representations, and on the fact that the Wigner D-matrices become diagonal for rotations around the z-axis. The proposed technique can also be extended to the vectorial case in two different ways, one of which is very similar to the scalar case. The other method relies on a Beltrami decomposition of the fields and is faster than the direct approach for any multipole order. This decomposition is also not limited to evanescent wave solvers, but can be used in any vectorial multilevel fast multipole algorithm.

  8. GaAs-based photorefractive time-integrating correlator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Duncan T. H.; Luke, Keung L.; Cheng, Li-Jen

    1992-01-01

    A potential application of the photorefractive time-integrating correlator is the real-time radar jamming interference rejection system, using the adaptive filter method; a fast photorefractive crystal is needed for adapting a rapidly changing jamming signal. An effort is presently made to demonstrate and characterize a GaAs-based photorefractive time-integrating correlator, since GaAs crystals are 2-3 orders of magnitude faster than most other alternatives.

  9. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  10. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  11. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  12. Is starting with the feet out of the water faster in backstroke swimming?

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Cecilia; Bradshaw, Elizabeth J; Pease, David; Wilson, Cameron

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to determine if starting with the feet above the water (FAW) in male backstroke swimming resulted in faster start times (15-m time) than when the feet were underwater (FUW). It was hypothesised that setting higher on the wall would generate increased horizontal force and velocity, resulting in quicker starts. Twelve high-level male backstrokers performed three trials of the FAW and FUW techniques. A biomechanical swimming testing system comprising one force plate (1,000 Hz), four lateral-view (100Hz), and five overhead (50Hz) video cameras captured the swimmers' performance. Data for each participant's fastest trial for each technique were collated, grouped, and statistically analysed. Analysis included Wilcoxon, Spearman Rho correlation, and regression analysis. Wilcoxon results revealed a significantly faster start time for the FAW technique (p < 0.01). Peak horizontal force was significantly smaller for FAW (p = 0.02), while take-off horizontal velocity was significantly greater (p = 0.01). Regression analysis indicated take-off horizontal velocity to be a good predictor of start time for both techniques, and the horizontal displacement of the centre of mass for the FAW start. PMID:25123000

  13. Faster-Than-Light Space Warps, Status and Next Steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, E. W.

    Implementation of faster-than-light (FTL) interstellar travel via traversable wormholes or warp drives requires the engineering of spacetime into very specialized local geometries. The analysis of these via Einstein's General Theory of Relativity demonstrates that such geometries require the use of ``exotic'' matter. One can appeal to quantum field theory to find both natural and phenomenological sources of exotic matter. Such quantum fields are disturbed by the curved spacetime geometry they produce, so their energy-momentum tensor can be used to probe the back-reaction of the field effects upon the dynamics of the FTL spacetime, which has implications on the construction and control of FTL spacetimes. Also, the production, detection, and deployment of natural exotic quantum fields are seen to be key technical challenges in which basic first steps can be taken to experimentally probe their properties. FTL spacetimes also possess features that challenge the notions of momentum conservation and causality. The status of these important issues is addressed in this report, and recommended next steps for further theoretical investigations are identified in an effort to clear up a number of technical uncertainties in order to progress the present state-of-the-art in FTL spacetime physics.

  14. Experimental Evolution of Trichoderma citrinoviride for Faster Deconstruction of Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui; Travisano, Michael; Kazlauskas, Romas J.

    2016-01-01

    Engineering faster cellulose deconstruction is difficult because it is a complex, cooperative, multi-enzyme process. Here we use experimental evolution to select for populations of Trichoderma citrinoviride that deconstruct up to five-fold more cellulose. Ten replicate populations of T. citrinoviride were selected for growth on filter paper by serial culture. After 125 periods of growth and transfer to fresh media, the filter paper deconstruction increased an average of 2.5 fold. Two populations were examined in more detail. The activity of the secreted cellulase mixtures increased more than two-fold relative to the ancestor and the largest increase was in the extracellular β-glucosidase activity. qPCR showed at least 16-fold more transcribed RNA for egl4 (endoglucanase IV gene), cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase I gene) and bgl1 (extracellular β-glucosidase I gene) in selected populations as compared to the ancestor, and earlier peak expressions of these genes. Deep sequencing shows that the regulatory strategies used to alter cellulase secretion differ in the two strains. The improvements in cellulose deconstruction come from earlier expression of all cellulases and increased relative amount of β-glucosidase, but with small increases in the total secreted protein and therefore little increase in metabolic cost. PMID:26820897

  15. Experimental Evolution of Trichoderma citrinoviride for Faster Deconstruction of Cellulose.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui; Travisano, Michael; Kazlauskas, Romas J

    2016-01-01

    Engineering faster cellulose deconstruction is difficult because it is a complex, cooperative, multi-enzyme process. Here we use experimental evolution to select for populations of Trichoderma citrinoviride that deconstruct up to five-fold more cellulose. Ten replicate populations of T. citrinoviride were selected for growth on filter paper by serial culture. After 125 periods of growth and transfer to fresh media, the filter paper deconstruction increased an average of 2.5 fold. Two populations were examined in more detail. The activity of the secreted cellulase mixtures increased more than two-fold relative to the ancestor and the largest increase was in the extracellular β-glucosidase activity. qPCR showed at least 16-fold more transcribed RNA for egl4 (endoglucanase IV gene), cbh1 (cellobiohydrolase I gene) and bgl1 (extracellular β-glucosidase I gene) in selected populations as compared to the ancestor, and earlier peak expressions of these genes. Deep sequencing shows that the regulatory strategies used to alter cellulase secretion differ in the two strains. The improvements in cellulose deconstruction come from earlier expression of all cellulases and increased relative amount of β-glucosidase, but with small increases in the total secreted protein and therefore little increase in metabolic cost. PMID:26820897

  16. Evaluating Zeolite-Modified Sensors: towards a faster set of chemical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berna, A. Z.; Vergara, A.; Trincavelli, M.; Huerta, R.; Afonja, A.; Parkin, I. P.; Binions, R.; Trowell, S.

    2011-09-01

    The responses of zeolite-modified sensors, prepared by screen printing layers of chromium titanium oxide (CTO), were compared to unmodified tin oxide sensors using amplitude and transient responses. For transient responses we used a family of features, derived from the exponential moving average (EMA), to characterize chemo-resistive responses. All sensors were tested simultaneously against 20 individual volatile compounds from four chemical groups. The responses of the two types of sensors showed some independence. The zeolite-modified CTO sensors discriminated compounds better using either amplitude response or EMA features and CTO-modified sensors also responded three times faster.

  17. A faster algorithm for smoothed particle hydrodynamics with radiative transfer in the flux-limited diffusion approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Stuart C.; Bate, Matthew R.; Monaghan, Joe J.

    2005-12-01

    We describe a new, faster implicit algorithm for solving the radiation hydrodynamics equations in the flux-limited diffusion approximation for smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This improves on the method elucidated in Whitehouse and Bate by using a Gauss-Seidel iterative method rather than iterating over the exchange of energy between pairs of particles. The new algorithm is typically many thousands of times faster than the old one, which will enable more complex problems to be solved. The new algorithm is tested using the same tests performed by Turner and Stone for ZEUS-2D, and repeated by Whitehouse and Bate.

  18. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C‑1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  19. Are hourly precipitation extremes increasing faster than daily precipitation extremes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbero, Renaud; Fowler, Hayley; Blenkinsop, Stephen; Lenderink, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Extreme precipitation events appear to be increasing with climate change in many regions of the world, including the United States. These extreme events have large societal impacts, as seen during the recent Texas-Oklahoma flooding in May 2015 which caused several billion in damages and left 47 deaths in its path. Better understanding of past changes in the characteristics of extreme rainfall events is thus critical for reliable projections of future changes. Although it has been documented in several studies that daily precipitation extremes are increasing across parts of the contiguous United States, very few studies have looked at hourly extremes. However, this is of primary importance as recent studies on the temperature scaling of extreme precipitation have shown that increases above the Clausius-Clapeyron (~ 7% °C-1) are possible for hourly precipitation. In this study, we used hourly precipitation data (HPD) from the National Climatic Data Center and extracted more than 1,000 stations across the US with more than 40 years of data spanning the period 1950-2010. As hourly measurements are often associated with a range of issues, the data underwent multiple quality control processes to exclude erroneous data. While no significant changes were found in annual maximum precipitation using both hourly and daily resolution datasets, significant increasing trends in terms of frequency of episodes exceeding present-day 95th percentiles of wet hourly/daily precipitation were observed across a significant portion of the US. The fraction of stations with significant increasing trends falls outside the confidence interval range during all seasons but the summer. While less than 12% of stations exhibit significant trends at the daily scale in the wintertime, more than 45% of stations, mostly clustered in central and Northern United States, show significant increasing trends at the hourly scale. This suggests that short-duration storms have increased faster than daily

  20. Faster Rate of Cognitive Decline in Essential Tremor Cases than Controls: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Elan D.; Benito-León, Julián; Vega-Quiroga, Saturio; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2010-01-01

    Background Mild cognitive deficits have been reported in essential tremor (ET); however, these cognitive deficits have been assessed in cross-sectional rather than longitudinal analyses. Objective To determine whether decline in cognitive test scores occurs at a faster rate in ET cases than controls. Methods In a population-based study of older people (≥65 years) in central Spain (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain, NEDICES), non-demented ET cases and controls were followed prospectively. Participants with baseline or incident Parkinson’s disease or dementia were excluded, as were participants who developed incident ET. At baseline (1994–1995) and at follow-up (1997–1998), a 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (37-MMSE) was administered. Results 2,319 participants (72.4 ± 5.8 years) included 135 prevalent ET cases and 2,184 controls. At baseline, the mean 37-MMSE in cases was 28.8 ± 5.8 vs. 30.2 ± 4.8 in controls (p = 0.02). During the three year follow-up period, the 37-MMSE declined by 0.70 ± 3.2 points in cases vs. 0.11 ± 3.8 points in controls (p = 0.03). In analyses that adjusted for age, education and other potential confounders, the case-control difference remained robust. Discussion In this population-based, prospective study of non-demented elders, baseline cognitive test scores were lower in ET cases than controls; moreover, during the three-year follow-up period, these scores declined at a rate that was seven-times faster in ET cases. This study provides evidence that cognitive deficits in ET are not static and they appear to be progressing at a faster rate than in elders without this disease. PMID:20561042

  1. Operation regimes and slower-is-faster effect in the control of traffic intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, D.; Mazloumian, A.

    2009-07-01

    The efficiency of traffic flows in urban areas is known to crucially depend on signal operation. Here, elements of signal control are discussed, based on the minimization of overall travel times or vehicle queues. Interestingly, we find different operation regimes, some of which involve a “slower-is-faster effect”, where a delayed switching reduces the average travel times. These operation regimes characterize different ways of organizing traffic flows in urban road networks. Besides the optimize-one-phase approach, we discuss the procedure and advantages of optimizing multiple phases as well. To improve the service of vehicle platoons and support the self-organization of “green waves”, it is proposed to consider the price of stopping newly arriving vehicles.

  2. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  3. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  4. Faces in commonly experienced configurations enter awareness faster due to their curvature relative to fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which perceptually suppressed face stimuli are still processed has been extensively studied using the continuous flash suppression paradigm (CFS). Studies that rely on breaking CFS (b-CFS), in which the time it takes for an initially suppressed stimulus to become detectable is measured, have provided evidence for relatively complex processing of invisible face stimuli. In contrast, adaptation and neuroimaging studies have shown that perceptually suppressed faces are only processed for a limited set of features, such as its general shape. In this study, we asked whether perceptually suppressed face stimuli presented in their commonly experienced configuration would break suppression faster than when presented in an uncommonly experienced configuration. This study was motivated by a recent neuroimaging study showing that commonly experienced face configurations are more strongly represented in the fusiform face area. Our findings revealed that faces presented in commonly experienced configurations indeed broke suppression faster, yet this effect did not interact with face inversion suggesting that, in a b-CFS context, perceptually suppressed faces are potentially not processed by specialized (high-level) face processing mechanisms. Rather, our pattern of results is consistent with an interpretation based on the processing of more basic visual properties such as convexity. PMID:26839746

  5. Smaller, faster stomata: scaling of stomatal size, rate of response, and stomatal conductance

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Maximum and minimum stomatal conductance, as well as stomatal size and rate of response, are known to vary widely across plant species, but the functional relationship between these static and dynamic stomatal properties is unknown. The objective of this study was to test three hypotheses: (i) operating stomatal conductance under standard conditions (g op) correlates with minimum stomatal conductance prior to morning light [g min(dawn)]; (ii) stomatal size (S) is negatively correlated with g op and the maximum rate of stomatal opening in response to light, (dg/dt)max; and (iii) g op correlates negatively with instantaneous water-use efficiency (WUE) despite positive correlations with maximum rate of carboxylation (Vc max) and light-saturated rate of electron transport (J max). Using five closely related species of the genus Banksia, the above variables were measured, and it was found that all three hypotheses were supported by the results. Overall, this indicates that leaves built for higher rates of gas exchange have smaller stomata and faster dynamic characteristics. With the aid of a stomatal control model, it is demonstrated that higher g op can potentially expose plants to larger tissue water potential gradients, and that faster stomatal response times can help offset this risk. PMID:23264516

  6. Faster Proton dynamics of water on SnO2 compared to TiO2.

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul R; Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the iso-structural TiO2 rutile (110) and SnO2 cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates. 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3509386

  7. General strength and kinetics: fundamental to sprinting faster in cross country skiing?

    PubMed

    Stöggl, T; Müller, E; Ainegren, M; Holmberg, H-C

    2011-12-01

    To determine relationships between general strength, maximal skiing speed (V(max)), pole and leg kinetics and kinematics, 16 male elite skiers underwent three V(max) tests in double poling, diagonal stride and V2 on a treadmill. The analyzed skiing speeds and leg and arm kinetics were among the highest ever recorded. Relationships between general strength exercises and V(max) were technique dependent. Power output in bench press and bench pull were related to V(max) in DP and diagonal stride, whereas each 1 repetition maximum was related to V2. Isometric squats were not associated with V(max) in all three techniques, whereas jump height and rate of force development during squat jump were. Analysis of kinetics and kinematics revealed that it was not exclusively the magnitude of applied forces during skiing, but the timing and proper instant of force application were major factors discriminating between faster and slower skiers. For all techniques, the faster skiers used different skiing strategies when approaching V(max) when compared with the slower skiers. General strength and power per se seem not to be major determinants of performance in elite skiers, whereas coordination of these capacities within the different and complex skiing movements seems to be the discriminating factor.

  8. Faster in-plane switching and reduced rotational viscosity characteristics in a graphene-nematic suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Rajratan; Kinnamon, Daniel; Skaggs, Nicole; Womack, James

    2016-05-01

    The in-plane switching (IPS) for a nematic liquid crystal (LC) was found to be considerably faster when the LC was doped with dilute concentrations of monolayer graphene flakes. Additional studies revealed that the presence of graphene reduced the rotational viscosity of the LC, permitting the nematic director to respond quicker in IPS mode on turning the electric field on. The studies were carried out with several graphene concentrations in the LC, and the experimental results coherently suggest that there exists an optimal concentration of graphene, allowing a reduction in the IPS response time and rotational viscosity in the LC. Above this optimal graphene concentration, the rotational viscosity was found to increase, and consequently, the LC no longer switched faster in IPS mode. The presence of graphene suspension was also found to decrease the LC's pretilt angle significantly due to the π-π electron stacking between the LC molecules and graphene flakes. To understand the π-π stacking interaction, the anchoring mechanism of the LC on a CVD grown monolayer graphene film on copper substrate was studied by reflected crossed polarized microscopy. Optical microphotographs revealed that the LC alignment direction depended on monolayer graphene's hexagonal crystal structure and its orientation.

  9. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Versus CT in Lung Ablation Procedure: Which is Faster?

    SciTech Connect

    Cazzato, Roberto Luigi Battistuzzi, Jean-Benoit Catena, Vittorio; Grasso, Rosario Francesco Zobel, Bruno Beomonte; Schena, Emiliano; Buy, Xavier Palussiere, Jean

    2015-10-15

    AimTo compare cone-beam CT (CBCT) versus computed tomography (CT) guidance in terms of time needed to target and place the radiofrequency ablation (RFA) electrode on lung tumours.Materials and MethodsPatients at our institution who received CBCT- or CT-guided RFA for primary or metastatic lung tumours were retrospectively included. Time required to target and place the RFA electrode within the lesion was registered and compared across the two groups. Lesions were stratified into three groups according to their size (<10, 10–20, >20 mm). Occurrences of electrode repositioning, repositioning time, RFA complications, and local recurrence after RFA were also reported.ResultsForty tumours (22 under CT, 18 under CBCT guidance) were treated in 27 patients (19 male, 8 female, median age 67.25 ± 9.13 years). Thirty RFA sessions (16 under CBCT and 14 under CT guidance) were performed. Multivariable linear regression analysis showed that CBCT was faster than CT to target and place the electrode within the tumour independently from its size (β = −9.45, t = −3.09, p = 0.004). Electrode repositioning was required in 10/22 (45.4 %) tumours under CT guidance and 5/18 (27.8 %) tumours under CBCT guidance. Pneumothoraces occurred in 6/14 (42.8 %) sessions under CT guidance and in 6/16 (37.5 %) sessions under CBCT guidance. Two recurrences were noted for tumours receiving CBCT-guided RFA (2/17, 11.7 %) and three after CT-guided RFA (3/19, 15.8 %).ConclusionCBCT with live 3D needle guidance is a useful technique for percutaneous lung ablation. Despite lesion size, CBCT allows faster lung RFA than CT.

  10. Faster response of NO₂ sensing in graphene-WO₃ nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shubhda; Jain, Kiran; Singh, V N; Singh, Sukhvir; Vijayan, N; Dilawar, Nita; Gupta, Govind; Senguttuvan, T D

    2012-05-25

    Graphene-based nanocomposites have proven to be very promising materials for gas sensing applications. In this paper, we present a general approach for the preparation of graphene-WO(3) nanocomposites. Graphene-WO(3) nanocomposite thin-layer sensors were prepared by drop coating the dispersed solution onto the alumina substrate. These nanocomposites were used for the detection of NO(2) for the first time. TEM micrographs revealed that WO(3) nanoparticles were well distributed on graphene nanosheets. Three different compositions (0.2, 0.5 and 0.1 wt%) of graphene with WO(3) were used for the gas sensing measurements. It was observed that the sensor response to NO(2) increased nearly three times in the case of graphene-WO(3) nanocomposite layer as compared to a pure WO(3) layer at room temperature. The best response of the graphene-WO(3) nanocomposite was obtained at 250 °C. PMID:22543228

  11. Velocity of detectable information in faster-than-light pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrah, Ahmed H.; Mojahedi, Mo

    2014-09-01

    The velocity of detectable information (signal velocity) in a medium capable of supporting abnormal (superluminal or negative) group velocities is calculated. This is carried out by tracking the time instant at which the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the detector output reaches a predetermined threshold while considering the total classical and quantum noise of the channel in addition to the detector noise. Furthermore, the method of steepest descent is incorporated to systematically study various forms of pulse reshaping associated with superluminal propagation and its effect on SNR. By studying the behavior of SNR as a function of both space and time, the present analysis predicts the existence of a cutoff distance beyond which signal velocity of a superluminal pulse is delayed as compared to a companion pulse traveling the same distance in vacuum. Finally, the interplay between the relative strength of the medium-generated noise and the detector noise and its effect on signal velocity is discussed.

  12. Hole Cooling Is Much Faster than Electron Cooling in PbSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Frank C M; Kunneman, Lucas T; Evers, Wiel H; Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2016-01-26

    In semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), charge carrier cooling is in direct competition with processes such as carrier multiplication or hot charge extraction that may improve the light conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Understanding charge carrier cooling is therefore of great interest. We investigate high-energy optical transitions in PbSe QDs using hyperspectral transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe bleaching of optical transitions involving higher valence and conduction bands upon band edge excitation. The kinetics of rise of the bleach of these transitions after a pump laser pulse allow us to monitor, for the first time, cooling of hot electrons and hot holes separately. Our results show that holes cool significantly faster than electrons in PbSe QDs. This is in contrast to the common assumption that electrons and holes behave similarly in Pb chalcogenide QDs and has important implications for the utilization of hot charge carriers in photovoltaic devices.

  13. Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions.

    PubMed

    Pastor, José M; Garcimartín, Angel; Gago, Paula A; Peralta, Juan P; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-12-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.

  14. Hole Cooling Is Much Faster than Electron Cooling in PbSe Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Spoor, Frank C M; Kunneman, Lucas T; Evers, Wiel H; Renaud, Nicolas; Grozema, Ferdinand C; Houtepen, Arjan J; Siebbeles, Laurens D A

    2016-01-26

    In semiconductor quantum dots (QDs), charge carrier cooling is in direct competition with processes such as carrier multiplication or hot charge extraction that may improve the light conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices. Understanding charge carrier cooling is therefore of great interest. We investigate high-energy optical transitions in PbSe QDs using hyperspectral transient absorption spectroscopy. We observe bleaching of optical transitions involving higher valence and conduction bands upon band edge excitation. The kinetics of rise of the bleach of these transitions after a pump laser pulse allow us to monitor, for the first time, cooling of hot electrons and hot holes separately. Our results show that holes cool significantly faster than electrons in PbSe QDs. This is in contrast to the common assumption that electrons and holes behave similarly in Pb chalcogenide QDs and has important implications for the utilization of hot charge carriers in photovoltaic devices. PMID:26654878

  15. Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, José M.; Garcimartín, Angel; Gago, Paula A.; Peralta, Juan P.; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M.; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R.; Pugnaloni, Luis A.; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-12-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000), 10.1038/35035023]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing.

  16. Experimental proof of faster-is-slower in systems of frictional particles flowing through constrictions.

    PubMed

    Pastor, José M; Garcimartín, Angel; Gago, Paula A; Peralta, Juan P; Martín-Gómez, César; Ferrer, Luis M; Maza, Diego; Parisi, Daniel R; Pugnaloni, Luis A; Zuriguel, Iker

    2015-12-01

    The "faster-is-slower" (FIS) effect was first predicted by computer simulations of the egress of pedestrians through a narrow exit [D. Helbing, I. J. Farkas, and T. Vicsek, Nature (London) 407, 487 (2000)]. FIS refers to the finding that, under certain conditions, an excess of the individuals' vigor in the attempt to exit causes a decrease in the flow rate. In general, this effect is identified by the appearance of a minimum when plotting the total evacuation time of a crowd as a function of the pedestrian desired velocity. Here, we experimentally show that the FIS effect indeed occurs in three different systems of discrete particles flowing through a constriction: (a) humans evacuating a room, (b) a herd of sheep entering a barn, and (c) grains flowing out a 2D hopper over a vibrated incline. This finding suggests that FIS is a universal phenomenon for active matter passing through a narrowing. PMID:26764754

  17. Making a Reliable Actuator Faster and More Affordable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Before any rocket is allowed to fly and be used for a manned mission, it is first test-fired on a static test stand to verify its flight readiness. NASA s Stennis Space Center provides testing of Space Shuttle Main Engines, rocket propulsion systems, and related components with several test facilities. It has been NASA s test-launch site since 1961. The testing stations age with time and repeated use; and with aging comes maintenance; and with maintenance comes expense. NASA has been seeking ways to lower the cost of maintaining the stations, and has aided in the development of an improved reliable linear actuator that arrives onsite quickly and costs less money than other actuators. In general terms, a linear actuator is a servomechanism that supplies a measured amount of energy for the operation of another mechanical system. Accuracy, reliability, and speed of the actuator are critical to performance of the entire system, and these actuators are critical components of the engine test stands. Partnership An actuator was developed as part of a Dual-Use Cooperative Agreement between BAFCO, Inc., of Warminister, Pennsylvania, and Stennis. BAFCO identified four suppliers that manufactured actuator components that met the rigorous testing standards imposed by the Space Agency and then modified these components for application on the rocket test stands. In partnership with BAFCO, the existing commercial products size and weight were reworked, reducing cost and delivery time. Previously, these parts would cost between $20,000 and $22,000, but with the new process, they now run between $11,000 and $13,000, a substantial savings, considering NASA has already purchased over 120 of the units. Delivery time of the cost-saving actuators has also been cut from over 20 to 22 weeks to within 8 to 10 weeks. The redesigned actuator is commercially available, and the company is successfully supplying them to customers other than NASA.

  18. Effective participation of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in the dehydrogenation pathway of the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH composite.

    PubMed

    Amica, G; Cova, F; Arneodo Larochette, P; Gennari, F C

    2016-07-21

    Lithium fast-ion conductors have shown positive effects on the hydrogen storage properties of the Li-Mg-N-H system. In the present work, Li4(NH2)3BH4 doped Mg(NH2)2-2LiH was formed by milling the 2LiNH2-MgH2-0.2LiBH4 composite and posterior annealing under hydrogen pressure to reduce the kinetic barrier of the Li-Mg-N-H system. The effect of repetitive dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation cycles on the kinetic and thermodynamic performance was evaluated. The dehydrogenation rate in the doped composite was twice that in the un-doped sample at 200 °C, while hydrogenation was 20 times faster. The activation energy decreases by 9% due to the presence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 compared to the un-doped composite, evidencing its catalytic role. The presence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in the composite stabilized the hydrogen storage capacity after successive sorption cycles. Thermodynamic studies revealed a variation in the pressure composition isotherm curves between the first dehydrogenation cycle and the subsequent. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 doped composite showed a sloped plateau region at higher equilibrium pressure in regard to the flat plateau of the un-doped composite. Detailed structural investigations revealed the effective influence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in different reactions: the irreversible dehydrogenation in the presence of MgH2 and the reversible hydrogen release when it reacts with Li2Mg2(NH)3. The role of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in improving the dehydrogenation kinetics is associated with the weakening of the N-H bond and the mobile small ion mass transfer enhancement. PMID:27328012

  19. On the relative roles of faster-X evolution and dominance in the establishment of intrinsic postzygotic isolating barriers.

    PubMed

    Naveira, Horacio F

    2003-05-01

    The modern theory of speciation assigns a prominent role to the recessivity of genetic incompatibilities in the two rules of speciation, namely Haldane's rule and the 'large X effect', and considers that the contribution of faster evolution of the X versus the autosomes to those patterns is generally of relatively minor importance. By extending Turelli and Orr's previous analysis of the model of two-locus Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities, I first show that when the X and the autosomes evolve at the same rate, the two dominance parameters involved in that model are not equally important for the declaration of a large X effect, but that the degree of recessivity of homozygous-homozygous incompatibilities is the major determinant for such a declaration. When the X evolves faster than the autosomes, the model obviously predicts that the importance of both dominance parameters will progressively vanish. It is then of importance to obtain estimates of the relative evolutionary rate of X-linked incompatibility loci. Several different procedures to obtain such estimates from the perspective of the large X effect are suggested. The application of the appropriate test to the only suitable data from Drosophila hybridizations so far available leads to the conclusion that the X actually evolves at least 2.5 times faster than the autosomes, as far as hybrid male sterility determinants are concerned, thus making dominance considerations absolutely irrelevant. Notwithstanding the necessity of further tests, the relative roles currently assigned to faster-X evolution and dominance in the theory of speciation should be revised, giving due prominence to faster-X evolution, at least for hybrid male sterility in the genus Drosophila.

  20. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  1. Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

    PubMed

    Blake, Isobel M; Chenoweth, Paul; Okayasu, Hiro; Donnelly, Christl A; Aylward, R Bruce; Grassly, Nicholas C

    2016-03-01

    As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, testing for AFP clusters would have resulted in an outbreak warning 39 and 11 days, respectively, before official confirmation of large outbreaks. This method has relatively high specificity and could be integrated into the current polio information system to support rapid outbreak response activities.

  2. Quicker, faster, darker: Changes in Hollywood film over 75 years

    PubMed Central

    Cutting, James E; Brunick, Kaitlin L; DeLong, Jordan E; Iricinschi, Catalina; Candan, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    We measured 160 English-language films released from 1935 to 2010 and found four changes. First, shot lengths have gotten shorter, a trend also reported by others. Second, contemporary films have more motion and movement than earlier films. Third, in contemporary films shorter shots also have proportionately more motion than longer shots, whereas there is no such relation in older films. And finally films have gotten darker. That is, the mean luminance value of frames across the length of a film has decreased over time. We discuss psychological effects associated with these four changes and suggest that all four linear trends have a single cause: Filmmakers have incrementally tried to exercise more control over the attention of filmgoers. We suggest these changes are signatures of the evolution of popular film; they do not reflect changes in film style. PMID:23145246

  3. Nonstraight nanochannels transfer water faster than straight nanochannels.

    PubMed

    Qiu, T; Meng, X W; Huang, J P

    2015-01-29

    Understanding the flow of liquids and particularly water in nanochannels is important for scientific and technological applications, such as for filtration and drug delivery. Here we perform molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the transfer of single-file water molecules across straight or nonstraight single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). In contrast with the macroscopic scenario, the nonstraight nanostructure can increase the water permeation. Remarkably, compared with the straight SWCNT, the nonstraight SWCNT with the minimal bending angle of 35° in the simulations can enhance the water transport up to 3.5 times. This enhancement mainly originates from the Lennard-Jones interaction between water molecules and nonstraight nanostructures. Our work offers an additional freedom to design high-flux nanochannels by choosing nonstraight nanostructures and provides an insight into water flow across biological water nanochannels, which are often nonstraight since they are composed of integral membrane proteins.

  4. New, faster blood test may make blood supply safer.

    PubMed

    1999-11-01

    Major blood suppliers in the United States are investigating a new HIV test that could move the country closer to a zero percent transmission rate. The Milwaukee Blood Center was the first in the nation to use the test, which identifies HIV infection two weeks earlier than standard tests. The test reduces the time period during which HIV infection is undetectable from 22 days to 10. The new test called nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was developed by Roche Molecular Systems and Chiron Corp. It identifies HIV genetic material circulating in the blood stream. America's Blood Centers has been testing NAT in 16 facilities. The procedure was initially developed to reduce the risk of transmitting hepatitis C, and a single sample can be used for testing both hepatitis C and HIV. The cost of using the new test would be an additional $5 to $7 per blood donation. NAT has not yet been licensed by the Food and Drug Administration.

  5. Faster Array Training and Rapid Analysis for a Sensor Array Intended for an Event Monitor in Air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Margie L.; Shevade, A. V.; Fonollosa, J.; Huerta, R.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental monitoring, in particular, air monitoring, is a critical need for human space flight. Both monitoring and life support systems have needs for closed loop process feedback and quality control for environmental factors. Monitoring protects the air environment and water supply for the astronaut crew and different sensors help ensure that the habitat falls within acceptable limits, and that the life support system is functioning properly and efficiently. The longer the flight duration and the farther the destination, the more critical it becomes to have carefully monitored and automated control systems for life support. There is an acknowledged need for an event monitor which samples the air continuously and provides near real-time information on changes in the air. Past experiments with the JPL ENose have demonstrated a lifetime of the sensor array, with the software, of around 18 months. We are working on a sensor array and new algorithms that will incorporate transient sensor responses in the analysis. Preliminary work has already showed more rapid quantification and identification of analytes and the potential for faster training time of the array. We will look at some of the factors that contribute to demonstrating faster training time for the array. Faster training will decrease the integrated sensor exposure to training analytes, which will also help extend sensor lifetime.

  6. Use of shock-wave heating for faster and safer ablation of tissue volumes in high intensity focused ultrasound therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhlova, V.; Yuldashev, P.; Sinilshchikov, I.; Partanen, A.; Khokhlova, T.; Farr, N.; Kreider, W.; Maxwell, A.; Sapozhnikov, O.

    2015-10-01

    Simulation of enhanced heating of clinically relevant tissue volumes using nonlinear ultrasound waves generated by a multi-element HIFU phased array were conducted based on the combined Westervelt and bio-heat equations. A spatial spectral approach using the fast Fourier transform algorithm and a corresponding analytic solution to the bioheat equation were used to optimize temperature modeling in tissue. Localized shock-wave heating within a much larger treated tissue volume and short, single HIFU pulses within a much longer overall exposure time were accounted for in the algorithm. Separation of processes with different time and spatial scales made the calculations faster and more accurate. With the proposed method it was shown that for the same time-average power, the use of high peak power pulsing schemes that produce high-amplitude shocks at the focus result in faster tissue heating compared to harmonic, continuous-wave sonications. Nonlinear effects can significantly accelerate volumetric heating while also permitting greater spatial control to reduce the impact on surrounding tissues. Such studies can be further used to test and optimize various steering trajectories of shock-wave sonications for faster and more controlled treatment of tissue volumes.

  7. Comparing compressed sequences for faster nucleotide BLAST searches.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Michael; Williams, Hugh E

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biologists, geneticists, and other life scientists use the BLAST homology search package as their first step for discovery of information about unknown or poorly annotated genomic sequences. There are two main variants of BLAST: BLASTP for searching protein collections and BLASTN for nucleotide collections. Surprisingly, BLASTN has had very little attention; for example, the algorithms it uses do not follow those described in the 1997 BLAST paper and no exact description has been published. It is important that BLASTN is state-of-the-art: Nucleotide collections such as GenBank dwarf the protein collections in size, they double in size almost yearly, and they take many minutes to search on modern general purpose workstations. This paper proposes significant improvements to the BLASTN algorithms. Each of our schemes is based on compressed bytepacked formats that allow queries and collection sequences to be compared four bases at a time, permitting very fast query evaluation using lookup tables and numeric comparisons. Our most significant innovations are two new, fast gapped alignment schemes that allow accurate sequence alignment without decompression of the collection sequences. Overall, our innovations more than double the speed of BLASTN with no effect on accuracy and have been integrated into our new version of BLAST that is freely available for download from http://www.fsa-blast.org/. PMID:17666756

  8. Comparing compressed sequences for faster nucleotide BLAST searches.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Michael; Williams, Hugh E

    2007-01-01

    Molecular biologists, geneticists, and other life scientists use the BLAST homology search package as their first step for discovery of information about unknown or poorly annotated genomic sequences. There are two main variants of BLAST: BLASTP for searching protein collections and BLASTN for nucleotide collections. Surprisingly, BLASTN has had very little attention; for example, the algorithms it uses do not follow those described in the 1997 BLAST paper and no exact description has been published. It is important that BLASTN is state-of-the-art: Nucleotide collections such as GenBank dwarf the protein collections in size, they double in size almost yearly, and they take many minutes to search on modern general purpose workstations. This paper proposes significant improvements to the BLASTN algorithms. Each of our schemes is based on compressed bytepacked formats that allow queries and collection sequences to be compared four bases at a time, permitting very fast query evaluation using lookup tables and numeric comparisons. Our most significant innovations are two new, fast gapped alignment schemes that allow accurate sequence alignment without decompression of the collection sequences. Overall, our innovations more than double the speed of BLASTN with no effect on accuracy and have been integrated into our new version of BLAST that is freely available for download from http://www.fsa-blast.org/.

  9. Flight loss linked to faster molecular evolution in insects.

    PubMed

    Mitterboeck, T Fatima; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2013-09-22

    The loss of flight ability has occurred thousands of times independently during insect evolution. Flight loss may be linked to higher molecular evolutionary rates because of reductions in effective population sizes (Ne) and relaxed selective constraints. Reduced dispersal ability increases population subdivision, may decrease geographical range size and increases (sub)population extinction risk, thus leading to an expected reduction in Ne. Additionally, flight loss in birds has been linked to higher molecular rates of energy-related genes, probably owing to relaxed selective constraints on energy metabolism. We tested for an association between insect flight loss and molecular rates through comparative analysis in 49 phylogenetically independent transitions spanning multiple taxa, including moths, flies, beetles, mayflies, stick insects, stoneflies, scorpionflies and caddisflies, using available nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding DNA sequences. We estimated the rate of molecular evolution of flightless (FL) and related flight-capable lineages by ratios of non-synonymous-to-synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) and overall substitution rates (OSRs). Across multiple instances of flight loss, we show a significant pattern of higher dN/dS ratios and OSRs in FL lineages in mitochondrial but not nuclear genes. These patterns may be explained by relaxed selective constraints in FL ectotherms relating to energy metabolism, possibly in combination with reduced Ne.

  10. Cooling fermions in optical lattices by faster entropy redistribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teles, Rafael P.; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Paiva, Thereza; Scalettar, Richard T.; Natu, Stefan S.; Hulet, Randall G.; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2016-05-01

    Lower entropy for fermions in optical lattices would unlock new quantum phases, including antiferromagnetism and potentially superconductivity. We propose a method to cool these systems at temperatures where conventional methods fail: slowly turning on a tightly focused optical potential transports entropy from the Mott insulator to a metallic entropy reservoir formed along the beam. Our scheme places the entropy reservoir close to the targeted cooling region, which allows entropy redistribution to be effective at lower temperatures than in prior proposals. Furthermore we require only a straightforwardly-applied Gaussian potential. We compute the temperatures achieved with this scheme using an analytic T >> t approximation and, for low T, determinantal quantum Monte Carlo. We optimize the waist and depth of the focused beam, and we find that repulsive potentials cool better than attractive ones. We estimate that the time required for entropy transport under nearly adiabatic conditions at these low temperatures is compatible with the system lifetime. Finally, we explore further improvements to cooling enabled by sophisticated potential engineering, e.g. using a spatial light modulator. Work supported by CNPq.

  11. CLARREO Pathfinder Mission: Enabling Faster Observation of Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielicki, B. A.; Baize, R. R.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Thome, K.; Lukashin, C.; Revercomb, H. E.; Pilewskie, P.; Kopp, G.

    2015-12-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is a Decadal Survey Tier 1 mission designed to accelerate the observation of global climate change by increasing the accuracy of reflected solar and infrared instruments by a factor of 5 to 10 over current instruments in space. The CLARREO mission has also been requested by the WMO GSICS (Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System) to serve as its reference calibration source. CLARREO will provide an in-orbit high spectral resolution SI transfer standard for up to 40 orbiting sensors across the entire infrared and reflected solar spectrum. These instruments include VIIRS, CrIS, IASI, CERES, Landsat, Sentinel MSI and other land imagers, as well as the constellation of geostationary imagers and sounders. A CLARREO Pathfinder mission on the International Space Station is included in the Presidents FY2016 budget for launch in late 2019 or 2020. The presentation will update the Pathfinder mission status including advances in understanding instrument accuracy requirements and reference intercalibration using the ISS orbit sampling. The presentation will also demonstrate the ability of more accurate observations to shorten the time required to observe anthropogenic climate change, thereby narrowing uncertainties in future climate change and allowing more efficient societal response planning.

  12. Why is earthquake prediction research not progressing faster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, Max

    2001-08-01

    As a physical phenomenon, earthquakes must be predictable to a certain degree. However, the problem is difficult, because the source volume inside the earth is inaccessible to direct observation and because the most important parameter, the stress level, cannot be measured directly. Also, seismology is such a young science that the cause of earthquakes was discovered in the 1960s only. Advanced seismograph networks as well as modern techniques to measure crustal deformations, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry technique (InSAR), have come on line only recently, and only in Japan are they deployed with the densities necessary for significant advances in the understanding of the rupture initiation process. In addition, no real program for earthquake prediction research exists in the United States, largely because funding agencies and peer reviewers shy away from a field in which unprofessional, but motivated individuals are active. Although claims of successful predictions are often not justified, a few correct predictions have been made. Most of these had time-windows of years, but some were accurate to days and allowed preparatory actions. To make significant progress, we must learn how to conduct rigorous science in a field where amateurs cannot be discouraged to venture. Leadership is necessary to raise the funding to an adequate level and to involve the best minds in this promising, potentially extremely rewarding, but controversial research topic.

  13. Faster quantum searching with almost any diffusion operator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulsi, Avatar

    2015-05-01

    Grover's search algorithm drives a quantum system from an initial state |s > to a desired final state |t > by using selective phase inversions of these two states. Earlier, we studied a generalization of Grover's algorithm that relaxes the assumption of the efficient implementation of Is, the selective phase inversion of the initial state, also known as a diffusion operator. This assumption is known to become a serious handicap in cases of physical interest. Our general search algorithm works with almost any diffusion operator Ds with the only restriction of having |s > as one of its eigenstates. The price that we pay for using any operator is an increase in the number of oracle queries by a factor of O (B ) , where B is a characteristic of the eigenspectrum of Ds and can be large in some situations. Here we show that by using a quantum Fourier transform, we can regain the optimal query complexity of Grover's algorithm without losing the freedom of using any diffusion operator for quantum searching. However, the total number of operators required by the algorithm is still O (B ) times more than that of Grover's algorithm. So our algorithm offers an advantage only if the oracle operator is computationally more expensive than the diffusion operator, which is true in most search problems.

  14. Dynamic Programming Algorithm vs. Genetic Algorithm: Which is Faster?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petković, Dušan

    The article compares two different approaches for the optimization problem of large join queries (LJQs). Almost all commercial database systems use a form of the dynamic programming algorithm to solve the ordering of join operations for large join queries, i.e. joins with more than dozen join operations. The property of the dynamic programming algorithm is that the execution time increases significantly in the case, where the number of join operations in a query is large. Genetic algorithms (GAs), as a data mining technique, have been shown as a promising technique in solving the ordering of join operations in LJQs. Using the existing implementation of GA, we compare the dynamic programming algorithm implemented in commercial database systems with the corresponding GA module. Our results show that the use of a genetic algorithm is a better solution for optimization of large join queries, i.e., that such a technique outperforms the implementations of the dynamic programming algorithm in conventional query optimization components for very large join queries.

  15. Do faster swimmers spend longer underwater than slower swimmers at World Championships?

    PubMed

    Veiga, Santiago; Roig, Andreu; Gómez-Ruano, Miguel A

    2016-11-01

    The main objectives of the present research were (1) to examine the relationships between the distances travelled underwater during the start and turn segments with swimming race performance at the elite level and (2) to determine if the individualised-distance start and turn parameters affect the overall race performance. The race parameters of the 100 and 200 m events during 2013 World Championships were measured by an innovative image-processing system (InThePool(®) 2.0). Overall, 100 m race times were largely related to faster start velocities in men's breaststroke and freestyle events. Conversely, overall, 200 m race times were largely related to longer starting distances in the women's butterfly events, to longer turn distances in men's and women's backstroke and women's butterfly events and to shorter turn distances in women's freestyle events. Changes on the start or turn velocities could represent moderate time improvements in most of the 100 m events, whereas modifications on the start or turn distances (especially in the last turn) could provide elite swimmers with time improvements of practical importance on the 200 m events. The evaluation of races by individualised-distance parameters should be provided to elite swimmers in order to decide the most appropriate race segment configuration for each event.

  16. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements.

    PubMed

    Weyand, P G; Sternlight, D B; Bellizzi, M J; Wright, S

    2000-11-01

    We twice tested the hypothesis that top running speeds are determined by the amount of force applied to the ground rather than how rapidly limbs are repositioned in the air. First, we compared the mechanics of 33 subjects of different sprinting abilities running at their top speeds on a level treadmill. Second, we compared the mechanics of declined (-6 degrees ) and inclined (+9 degrees ) top-speed treadmill running in five subjects. For both tests, we used a treadmill-mounted force plate to measure the time between stance periods of the same foot (swing time, t(sw)) and the force applied to the running surface at top speed. To obtain the force relevant for speed, the force applied normal to the ground was divided by the weight of the body (W(b)) and averaged over the period of foot-ground contact (F(avge)/W(b)). The top speeds of the 33 subjects who completed the level treadmill protocol spanned a 1.8-fold range from 6.2 to 11.1 m/s. Among these subjects, the regression of F(avge)/W(b) on top speed indicated that this force was 1.26 times greater for a runner with a top speed of 11.1 vs. 6.2 m/s. In contrast, the time taken to swing the limb into position for the next step (t(sw)) did not vary (P = 0.18). Declined and inclined top speeds differed by 1.4-fold (9.96+/-0.3 vs. 7.10+/-0.3 m/s, respectively), with the faster declined top speeds being achieved with mass-specific support forces that were 1.3 times greater (2.30+/- 0.06 vs. 1.76+/-0.04 F(avge)/ W(b)) and minimum t(sw) that were similar (+8%). We conclude that human runners reach faster top speeds not by repositioning their limbs more rapidly in the air, but by applying greater support forces to the ground. PMID:11053354

  17. Materials at 200 mph: Making NASCAR Faster and Safer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2008-03-01

    You cannot win a NASCAR race without understanding science.ootnotetextDiandra Leslie-Pelecky, The Physics of NASCAR (Dutton, New York City, 2008). Materials play important roles in improving performance, as well as ensuring safety. On the performance side, NASCAR limits the materials race car scientists and engineers can use to limit ownership costs. `Exotic metals' are not allowed, so controlling microstructure and nanostructure are important tools. Compacted Graphite Iron, a cast iron in which magnesium additions produce interlocking microscale graphite reinforcements, makes engine blocks stronger and lighter. NASCAR's new car design employs a composite called Tegris^TM that has 70 percent of the strength of carbon fiber composites at about 10 percent of the cost. The most important role of materials in racing is safety. Drivers wear firesuits made of polymers that carbonize (providing thermal protection) and expand (reducing oxygen access) when heated. Catalytic materials originally developed for space-based CO2 lasers filter air for drivers during races. Although materials help cars go fast, they also help cars slow down safely---important because the kinetic energy of a race car going 180 mph is nine times greater than that of a passenger car going 60 mph. Energy-absorbing foams in the cars and on the tracks control energy dissipation during accidents. To say that most NASCAR fans (and there are estimated to be 75 million of them) are passionate about their sport is an understatement. NASCAR fans understand that science and engineering are integral to keeping their drivers safe and helping their teams win. Their passion for racing gives us a great opportunity to share our passion for science with them. NASCAR^ is a registered trademark of the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. Tegris^TM is a trademark of Milliken & Company.

  18. Tn5-Induced and Spontaneous Switching of Sinorhizobium meliloti to Faster-Swarming Behavior†

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xueming; Bauer, Wolfgang D.

    1999-01-01

    Tn5 mutants of Sinorhizobium meliloti RMB7201 which swarmed 1.5 to 2.5 times faster than the parental strain in semisolid agar, moist sand, and viscous liquid were identified. These faster-swarming (FS) mutants outgrew the wild type 30- to 40-fold within 2 days in mixed swarm colonies. The FS mutants survived and grew as well as or better than the wild type under all of the circumstances tested, except in a soil matrix subjected to air drying. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis was reduced in each of the FS mutants when they were grown on defined succinate-nitrate medium, but the extent of reduction was different for each. It appears that FS behavior likely results from a modest, general derepression of motility involving an increased proportion of motile and flagellated cells and an increased average number of flagella per cell and increased average flagellar length. Spontaneous FS variants of RMB7201 were obtained at a frequency of about 1 per 10,000 to 20,000 cells by either enrichment from the periphery of swarm colonies or screening of colonies for reduced EPS synthesis on succinate-nitrate plates. The spontaneous FS variants and Tn5 FS mutants were symbiotically effective and competitive in alfalfa nodulation. Reversion of FS variants to wild-type behavior was sporadic, indicating that reversion is affected by unidentified environmental factors. Based on phenotypic and molecular differences between individual FS variants and mutants, it appears that there may be multiple genetic configurations that result in FS behavior in RMB7201. The facile isolation of spontaneous FS variants of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates that switching to FS behavior may be fairly common among bacterial species. The substantial growth advantage of FS mutants and variants wherever nutrient gradients exist suggests that switching to FS forms may be an important behavioral adaptation in natural environments. PMID:10049888

  19. Toward faster OPC convergence: advanced analysis for OPC iterations and simulation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahnas, Mohamed; Al-Imam, Mohamed; Tawfik, Tamer

    2008-10-01

    Achieving faster Turn-Around-Time (TAT) is one of the most attractive objectives for the silicon wafer manufacturers despite the technology node they are processing. This is valid for all the active technology nodes from 130nm till the cutting edge technologies. There have been several approaches adopted to cut down the OPC simulation runtime without sacrificing the OPC output quality, among them is using stronger CPU power and Hardware acceleration which is a good usage for the advancing powerful processing technology. Another favorable approach for cutting down the runtime is to look deeper inside the used OPC algorithm and the implemented OPC recipe. The OPC algorithm includes the convergence iterations and simulation sites distribution, and the OPC recipe is in definition how to smartly tune the OPC knobs to efficiently use the implemented algorithm. Many previous works were exposed to monitoring the OPC convergence through iterations and analyze the size of the shift per iteration, similarly several works tried to calculate the amount of simulation capacity needed for all these iterations and how to optimize it for less amount. The scope of the work presented here is an attempt to decrease the number of optical simulations by reducing the number of control points per site and without affecting OPC accuracy. The concept is proved by many simulation results and analysis. Implementing this flow illustrated the achievable simulation runtime reduction which is reflected in faster TAT. For its application, it is not just runtime optimization, additionally it puts some more intelligence in the sparse OPC engine by eliminating the headache of specifying the optimum simulation site length.

  20. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper.

  1. Validating SMAP L2/3 Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Bindlish, R.; Chan, S.; Das, N. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Kim, S.; Chen, F.; Crow, W. T.; Burgin, M. S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A. A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Pacheco, A. M.; Su, Z.; Thibeault, M.; Walker, J. P.; Njoku, E. G.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission entered its one year calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. This began with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and has now evolved to the geophysical products that include three different spatial resolutions of Level 2/3 surface soil moisture (36, 9, and 3 km) and freeze-thaw state. The goal is to provide validated products by May, 2016. SMAP utilizes five methodologies in soil moisture cal/val: core validation sites, sparse networks of in situ sensors, inter-comparisons with products from other satellite programs, inter-comparisons with model-based products, and field campaigns. Each methodology has a role in the process. Examples of each methodology will be presented including recent field campaigns. The evaluation of the beta version will the explained and plans for the providing the validated products presented.

  2. Faster Finances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    TRW has applied the Apollo checkout procedures to retail-store and bank-transaction systems, as well as to control systems for electric power transmission grids -- reducing the chance of power blackouts. Automatic checkout equipment for Apollo Spacecraft is one of the most complex computer systems in the world. Used to integrate extensive Apollo checkout procedures from manufacture to launch, it has spawned major advances in computer systems technology. Store and bank credit system has caused significant improvement in speed and accuracy of transactions, credit authorization, and inventory control. A similar computer service called "Validata" is used nationwide by airlines, airline ticket offices, car rental agencies, and hotels.

  3. Reading Faster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the visual nature of the reading process as it relates to reading speed. It points out that there is a physical limit on normal reading speed and beyond this limit the reading process will be different from normal reading where almost every word is attended to. The article describes a range of activities for developing…

  4. Expression of the ARPC4 Subunit of Human Arp2/3 Severely Affects Mycobacterium tuberculosis Growth and Suppresses Immunogenic Response in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anamika; Samuchiwal, Sachin K.; Bhalla, Kuhulika; Tharad, Megha; Kumar, Sushil; Prakash, Prem; Kumar, Purnima; Das, Gobardhan; Ranganathan, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Background The search for molecules against Mycobacterium tuberculosis is urgent. The mechanisms facilitating the intra-macrophage survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are as yet not entirely understood. However, there is evidence showing the involvement of host cell cytoskeleton in every step of establishment and persistence of mycobacterial infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that expression of ARPC4, a subunit of the Actin related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) protein complex, severely affects the pathogen’s growth. TEM studies display shedding of the mycobacterial outer-coat. Furthermore, in infected macrophages, mycobacteria expressing ARPC4 were cleared off at a much faster rate, and were unable to mount a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. The translocation of ARPC4-expressing mycobacteria to the lysosome of the infected macrophage was also impaired. Additionally, the ARPC4 subunit was shown to interact with Rv1626, an essential secretory mycobacterial protein. Real-time PCR analysis showed that upon expression of ARPC4 in mycobacteria, Rv1626 expression is downregulated as much as six-fold. Rv1626 was found to also interact with mammalian cytoskeleton protein, Arp2/3, and enhance the rate of actin polymerization. Conclusions/Significance With crystal structures for Rv1626 and ARPC4 subunit already known, our finding lays out the effect of a novel molecule on mycobacteria, and represents a viable starting point for developing potent peptidomimetics. PMID:23894563

  5. 45 CFR 1220.2-3 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other serious consequences to the volunteer or the retention of an attorney prior to arraignment is... become payable to the volunteer. In the case of a grassroots sponsor of full-time volunteers which is not... office shall notify the General Counsel, giving all facts and circumstances at that time known to...

  6. Glucose Sensing in the Peritoneal Space Offers Faster Kinetics Than Sensing in the Subcutaneous Space

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Daniel R.; Huyett, Lauren M.; Zisser, Howard C.; Doyle, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    The paramount goal in the treatment of type 1 diabetes is the maintenance of normoglycemia. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technologies enable frequent sensing of glucose to inform exogenous insulin delivery timing and dosages. The most commonly available CGMs are limited by the physiology of the subcutaneous space in which they reside. The very same advantages of this minimally invasive approach are disadvantages with respect to speed. Because subcutaneous blood flow is sensitive to local fluctuations (e.g., temperature, mechanical pressure), subcutaneous sensing can be slow and variable. We propose the use of a more central, physiologically stable body space for CGM: the intraperitoneal space. We compared the temporal response characteristics of simultaneously placed subcutaneous and intraperitoneal sensors during intravenous glucose tolerance tests in eight swine. Using compartmental modeling based on simultaneous intravenous sensing, blood draws, and intraarterial sensing, we found that intraperitoneal kinetics were more than twice as fast as subcutaneous kinetics (mean time constant of 5.6 min for intraperitoneal vs. 12.4 min for subcutaneous). Combined with the known faster kinetics of intraperitoneal insulin delivery over subcutaneous delivery, our findings suggest that artificial pancreas technologies may be optimized by sensing glucose and delivering insulin in the intraperitoneal space. PMID:24622798

  7. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results.

    PubMed

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  8. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging.

  9. Hippocampal Brain Volume Is Associated with Faster Facial Emotion Identification in Older Adults: Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Szymkowicz, Sarah M.; Persson, Jonas; Lin, Tian; Fischer, Håkan; Ebner, Natalie C.

    2016-01-01

    Quick correct identification of facial emotions is highly relevant for successful social interactions. Research suggests that older, compared to young, adults experience increased difficulty with face and emotion processing skills. While functional neuroimaging studies suggest age differences in neural processing of faces and emotions, evidence about age-associated structural brain changes and their involvement in face and emotion processing is scarce. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), this study investigated the extent to which volumes of frontal and temporal brain structures were related to reaction time in accurate identification of facial emotions in 30 young and 30 older adults. Volumetric segmentation was performed using FreeSurfer and gray matter volumes from frontal and temporal regions were extracted. Analysis of covariances (ANCOVAs) models with response time (RT) as the dependent variable and age group and regional volume, and their interaction, as independent variables were conducted, controlling for total intracranial volume (ICV). Results indicated that, in older adults, larger hippocampal volumes were associated with faster correct facial emotion identification. These preliminary observations suggest that greater volume in brain regions associated with face and emotion processing contributes to improved facial emotion identification performance in aging. PMID:27610082

  10. Faster than classical quantum algorithm for dense formulas of exact satisfiability and occupation problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrà, Salvatore; Giacomo Guerreschi, Gian; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2016-07-01

    We present an exact quantum algorithm for solving the Exact Satisfiability problem, which belongs to the important NP-complete complexity class. The algorithm is based on an intuitive approach that can be divided into two parts: the first step consists in the identification and efficient characterization of a restricted subspace that contains all the valid assignments of the Exact Satisfiability; while the second part performs a quantum search in such restricted subspace. The quantum algorithm can be used either to find a valid assignment (or to certify that no solution exists) or to count the total number of valid assignments. The query complexities for the worst-case are respectively bounded by O(\\sqrt{{2}n-{M\\prime }}) and O({2}n-{M\\prime }), where n is the number of variables and {M}\\prime the number of linearly independent clauses. Remarkably, the proposed quantum algorithm results to be faster than any known exact classical algorithm to solve dense formulas of Exact Satisfiability. As a concrete application, we provide the worst-case complexity for the Hamiltonian cycle problem obtained after mapping it to a suitable Occupation problem. Specifically, we show that the time complexity for the proposed quantum algorithm is bounded by O({2}n/4) for 3-regular undirected graphs, where n is the number of nodes. The same worst-case complexity holds for (3,3)-regular bipartite graphs. As a reference, the current best classical algorithm has a (worst-case) running time bounded by O({2}31n/96). Finally, when compared to heuristic techniques for Exact Satisfiability problems, the proposed quantum algorithm is faster than the classical WalkSAT and Adiabatic Quantum Optimization for random instances with a density of constraints close to the satisfiability threshold, the regime in which instances are typically the hardest to solve. The proposed quantum algorithm can be straightforwardly extended to the generalized version of the Exact Satisfiability known as Occupation

  11. Green-lighting green fluorescent protein: Faster and more efficient folding by eliminating a cis–trans peptide isomerization event

    PubMed Central

    Rosenman, David J; Huang, Yao-ming; Xia, Ke; Fraser, Keith; Jones, Victoria E; Lamberson, Colleen M; Van Roey, Patrick; Colón, Wilfredo; Bystroff, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Wild-type green fluorescent protein (GFP) folds on a time scale of minutes. The slow step in folding is a cis–trans peptide bond isomerization. The only conserved cis-peptide bond in the native GFP structure, at P89, was remodeled by the insertion of two residues, followed by iterative energy minimization and side chain design. The engineered GFP was synthesized and found to fold faster and more efficiently than its template protein, recovering 50% more of its fluorescence upon refolding. The slow phase of folding is faster and smaller in amplitude, and hysteresis in refolding has been eliminated. The elimination of a previously reported kinetically trapped state in refolding suggests that X-P89 is trans in the trapped state. A 2.55 Å resolution crystal structure revealed that the new variant contains only trans-peptide bonds, as designed. This is the first instance of a computationally remodeled fluorescent protein that folds faster and more efficiently than wild type. PMID:24408076

  12. Gait parameter adjustments for walking on a treadmill at preferred, slower, and faster speeds in older adults with down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Beth A; Kubo, Masayoshi; Ulrich, Beverly D

    2012-01-01

    The combined effects of ligamentous laxity, hypotonia, and decrements associated with aging lead to stability-enhancing foot placement adaptations during routine overground walking at a younger age in adults with Down syndrome (DS) compared to their peers with typical development (TD). Our purpose here was to examine real-time adaptations in older adults with DS by testing their responses to walking on a treadmill at their preferred speed and at speeds slower and faster than preferred. We found that older adults with DS were able to adapt their gait to slower and faster than preferred treadmill speeds; however, they maintained their stability-enhancing foot placements at all speeds compared to their peers with TD. All adults adapted their gait patterns similarly in response to faster and slower than preferred treadmill-walking speeds. They increased stride frequency and stride length, maintained step width, and decreased percent stance as treadmill speed increased. Older adults with DS, however, adjusted their stride frequencies significantly less than their peers with TD. Our results show that older adults with DS have the capacity to adapt their gait parameters in response to different walking speeds while also supporting the need for intervention to increase gait stability.

  13. *A FASTER METHOD OF MEASURING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY FOR BETTER PROTECTION OF SWIMMER'S HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously reported that a faster method (< 2 hours) of measuring fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), based on Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR), was predictive of swimming associated gastrointestinal illness. Using data from two additional beaches, we examined the re...

  14. Questions Students Ask: How Can a Downhill Skier Move Faster than a Sky Diver?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armenti, Angelo, Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of gravity, coefficient of friction, surface area, and Newton's second law to explain the physics involved in downhill skiers being able to move faster than sky divers in free fall. (JM)

  15. Rapid transformation of 1,2,3,4-TCDD by Pd/Fe catalysts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyuan; Huang, Weilin; Peng, Ping'an; Fennell, Donna E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4-TCDD) in the presence of Pd/Fe, Cu/Fe and Ni/Fe bimetallic catalysts or zero-valent iron (ZVI) under aqueous and ambient temperature conditions. It was found that the Pd/Fe catalyst can rapidly transform 1,2,3,4-TCDD to chlorine-free dibenzo-p-dioxin (DD) with >95% of conversion and half lives on the order of 5h, whereas Cu/Fe, Ni/Fe and ZVI were not reactive over 10d. The dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD in the Pd/Fe systems was found to be stepwise, with 1,2,3-tri (TrCDD), 1,2-di (DCDD), and mono-(MCDD) chlorodibenzo-p-dioxins as the three intermediate products at low concentrations and DD as the final and dominant product. The reaction rate of 1,2,3,4-TCDD dechlorination appeared to decrease as the coverage of palladium on iron particle surface increases from 0.0060 mol% to 0.0228 mol%. Compared to our prior study of reductive dechlorination of 1,2,3,4-TCDD with zero valent zinc (ZVZ) as the reductant, the reactions with Pd/Fe bimetallic materials were relatively slower for TCDD, but much faster for TrCDDs and DCDDs, yielding DD as the major product. The study suggested that Pd/Fe bimetallic catalyst-based reactions may be suitable for rapid decontamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) polluted soils and sediments.

  16. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  17. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: people who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others.

  18. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Hayward, Adam D; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of 'stressful' birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans.

  19. Size does matter: women mentally rotate large objects faster than men.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Bernt Ivar; Laeng, Bruno; Kristiansen, Kari-Ann; Hartvigsen, Gunnar

    2013-06-01

    Performance in a computerized "mental rotation" task was measured in groups of males and females while they rotated Shepard-Metzler-like cube assemblies on either a standard laptop screen (size = 36 cm) or on a large display wall (584 cm) where the stimuli appeared at considerably larger sizes and within a much wider field of view than that typically used in most spatial tasks. Males and females did not differ significantly in performance in the standard size condition with regards to response time but females performed faster than males in the large display condition. Males were also found to be significantly more accurate than females, regardless of display. We found no sign of trading accuracy for speed for either of the sexes or screen size conditions. We surmise that such an effect may be due to differences in task-solving strategies between the sexes, where a holistic strategy--which may be preferred by males--is negatively affected by large object sizes, whereas a piecemeal approach, that may be preferred by females, is virtually unaffected by display size.

  20. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Hannah S.; Mar, Khyne U.; Hayward, Adam D.; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of ‘stressful’ birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans. PMID:26365592

  1. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline. PMID:26296609

  2. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: people who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others. PMID:26903929

  3. "Feeling younger, walking faster": subjective age and walking speed in older adults.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Walking speed is a key vital sign in older people. Given the implications of slower gait speed, a large literature has identified health-related, behavioral, cognitive, and biological factors that moderate age-related decline in mobility. The present study aims to contribute to existing knowledge by examining whether subjective age, how old or young individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, contributes to walking speed. Participants were drawn from the 2008 and 2012 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS, N = 2970) and the 2011 and 2013 waves of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS, N = 5423). In both the HRS and the NHATS, linear regression analysis revealed that a younger subjective age was associated with faster walking speed at baseline and with less decline over time, controlling for age, sex, education, and race. These associations were partly accounted for by depressive symptoms, disease burden, physical activity, cognition, body mass index, and smoking. Additional analysis revealed that feeling younger than one's age was associated with a reduced risk of walking slower than the frailty-related threshold of 0.6 m/s at follow-up in the HRS. The present study provides novel and consistent evidence across two large prospective studies for an association between the subjective experience of age and walking speed of older adults. Subjective age may help identify individuals at risk for mobility limitations in old age and may be a target for interventions designed to mitigate functional decline.

  4. Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Hannah S; Mar, Khyne U; Hayward, Adam D; Htut, Win; Htut-Aung, Ye; Lummaa, Virpi

    2015-01-01

    Senescent declines in reproduction and survival are found across the tree of life, but little is known of the factors causing individual variation in reproductive ageing rates. One contributor may be variation in early developmental conditions, but only a few studies quantify the effects of early environment on reproductive ageing and none concern comparably long-lived species to humans. We determine the effects of 'stressful' birth conditions on lifetime reproduction in a large semi-captive population of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). We categorise birth month into stressful vs. not-stressful periods based on longitudinal measures of glucocorticoid metabolites in reproductive-aged females, which peak during heavy workload and the start of the monsoon in June-August. Females born in these months exhibit faster reproductive senescence in adulthood and have significantly reduced lifetime reproductive success than their counterparts born at other times of year. Improving developmental conditions could therefore delay reproductive ageing in species as long-lived as humans. PMID:26365592

  5. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others.

    PubMed

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; Van Lange, Paul A M

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: people who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others. PMID:26903929

  6. Antibiotic-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Spread Faster with More Treatment, Not More Sexual Partners

    PubMed Central

    Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L.

    2016-01-01

    The sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antibiotic classes that have been used for treatment and strains resistant to multiple antibiotic classes have evolved. In many countries, there is only one antibiotic remaining for empirical N. gonorrhoeae treatment, and antibiotic management to counteract resistance spread is urgently needed. Understanding dynamics and drivers of resistance spread can provide an improved rationale for antibiotic management. In our study, we first used antibiotic resistance surveillance data to estimate the rates at which antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread in two host populations, heterosexual men (HetM) and men who have sex with men (MSM). We found higher rates of spread for MSM (0.86 to 2.38 y−1, mean doubling time: 6 months) compared to HetM (0.24 to 0.86 y−1, mean doubling time: 16 months). We then developed a dynamic transmission model to reproduce the observed dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae transmission in populations of heterosexual men and women (HMW) and MSM. We parameterized the model using sexual behavior data and calibrated it to N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and incidence data. In the model, antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread with a median rate of 0.88 y−1 in HMW and 3.12 y−1 in MSM. These rates correspond to median doubling times of 9 (HMW) and 3 (MSM) months. Assuming no fitness costs, the model shows the difference in the host population’s treatment rate rather than the difference in the number of sexual partners explains the differential spread of resistance. As higher treatment rates result in faster spread of antibiotic resistance, treatment recommendations for N. gonorrhoeae should carefully balance prevention of infection and avoidance of resistance spread. PMID:27196299

  7. Antibiotic-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Spread Faster with More Treatment, Not More Sexual Partners.

    PubMed

    Fingerhuth, Stephanie M; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L

    2016-05-01

    The sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antibiotic classes that have been used for treatment and strains resistant to multiple antibiotic classes have evolved. In many countries, there is only one antibiotic remaining for empirical N. gonorrhoeae treatment, and antibiotic management to counteract resistance spread is urgently needed. Understanding dynamics and drivers of resistance spread can provide an improved rationale for antibiotic management. In our study, we first used antibiotic resistance surveillance data to estimate the rates at which antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread in two host populations, heterosexual men (HetM) and men who have sex with men (MSM). We found higher rates of spread for MSM (0.86 to 2.38 y-1, mean doubling time: 6 months) compared to HetM (0.24 to 0.86 y-1, mean doubling time: 16 months). We then developed a dynamic transmission model to reproduce the observed dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae transmission in populations of heterosexual men and women (HMW) and MSM. We parameterized the model using sexual behavior data and calibrated it to N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and incidence data. In the model, antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread with a median rate of 0.88 y-1 in HMW and 3.12 y-1 in MSM. These rates correspond to median doubling times of 9 (HMW) and 3 (MSM) months. Assuming no fitness costs, the model shows the difference in the host population's treatment rate rather than the difference in the number of sexual partners explains the differential spread of resistance. As higher treatment rates result in faster spread of antibiotic resistance, treatment recommendations for N. gonorrhoeae should carefully balance prevention of infection and avoidance of resistance spread.

  8. Antibiotic-Resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae Spread Faster with More Treatment, Not More Sexual Partners.

    PubMed

    Fingerhuth, Stephanie M; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Low, Nicola; Althaus, Christian L

    2016-05-01

    The sexually transmitted bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to all antibiotic classes that have been used for treatment and strains resistant to multiple antibiotic classes have evolved. In many countries, there is only one antibiotic remaining for empirical N. gonorrhoeae treatment, and antibiotic management to counteract resistance spread is urgently needed. Understanding dynamics and drivers of resistance spread can provide an improved rationale for antibiotic management. In our study, we first used antibiotic resistance surveillance data to estimate the rates at which antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread in two host populations, heterosexual men (HetM) and men who have sex with men (MSM). We found higher rates of spread for MSM (0.86 to 2.38 y-1, mean doubling time: 6 months) compared to HetM (0.24 to 0.86 y-1, mean doubling time: 16 months). We then developed a dynamic transmission model to reproduce the observed dynamics of N. gonorrhoeae transmission in populations of heterosexual men and women (HMW) and MSM. We parameterized the model using sexual behavior data and calibrated it to N. gonorrhoeae prevalence and incidence data. In the model, antibiotic-resistant N. gonorrhoeae spread with a median rate of 0.88 y-1 in HMW and 3.12 y-1 in MSM. These rates correspond to median doubling times of 9 (HMW) and 3 (MSM) months. Assuming no fitness costs, the model shows the difference in the host population's treatment rate rather than the difference in the number of sexual partners explains the differential spread of resistance. As higher treatment rates result in faster spread of antibiotic resistance, treatment recommendations for N. gonorrhoeae should carefully balance prevention of infection and avoidance of resistance spread. PMID:27196299

  9. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation on the nature of the electronic transitions involved in the nonlinear optical response of [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Sgamelotti, Antonio; Cariati, Franco; Roberto, Dominique; Tessore, Francesca; Ugo, Renato

    2006-02-14

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations on the nature and role of the absorption bands involved in the nonlinear optical response of the complexes [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = T1, T2; T1 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, T2 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NMe2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine). Geometry optimizations, performed without any symmetry constraints, confirm a twisting of the -C6H4-p-NBu2 moiety with respect to the plane of the chelated terpyridine. Despite this lack of strong pi interaction, TDDFT excited states calculations of the electronic spectrum in solution provide evidence of a relevant role of the NBu2 donor group in the low-energy LMCT band at 911 nm. Calculations also show that the two bands at higher energy (508 and 455 nm) are not attributable only to LMCT and ILCT transitions but to a mixing of ILCT/MLCT and ILCT/pi-pi* transitions, respectively. The 911 nm LMCT band, appearing at lower wavelength of the second harmonic (670 nm) of the EFISH experiment, controls the negative value of the second-order NLO response. This is confirmed by our calculations of the static component beta0(zzz) of the quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor, showing a large positive value. In addition we have found that the increase of the dipole moment upon excitation occurs, in all the characterized transitions, along the dipole moment axis, thus explaining why the EFISH and solvatochromic experimental values of the quadratic hyperpolarizability agree as sign and value. PMID:16437181

  10. Patterns of evolutionary conservation of microsatellites (SSRs) suggest a faster rate of genome evolution in Hymenoptera than in Diptera.

    PubMed

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H; Moritz, Robin F A

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution.

  11. Patterns of Evolutionary Conservation of Microsatellites (SSRs) Suggest a Faster Rate of Genome Evolution in Hymenoptera Than in Diptera

    PubMed Central

    Stolle, Eckart; Kidner, Jonathan H.; Moritz, Robin F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are common and widespread DNA elements in genomes of many organisms. However, their dynamics in genome evolution is unclear, whereby they are thought to evolve neutrally. More available genome sequences along with dated phylogenies allowed for studying the evolution of these repetitive DNA elements along evolutionary time scales. This could be used to compare rates of genome evolution. We show that SSRs in insects can be retained for several hundred million years. Different types of microsatellites seem to be retained longer than others. By comparing Dipteran with Hymenopteran species, we found very similar patterns of SSR loss during their evolution, but both taxa differ profoundly in the rate. Relative to divergence time, Diptera lost SSRs twice as fast as Hymenoptera. The loss of SSRs on the Drosophila melanogaster X-chromosome was higher than on the other chromosomes. However, accounting for generation time, the Diptera show an 8.5-fold slower rate of SSR loss than the Hymenoptera, which, in contrast to previous studies, suggests a faster genome evolution in the latter. This shows that generation time differences can have a profound effect. A faster genome evolution in these insects could be facilitated by several factors very different to Diptera, which is discussed in light of our results on the haplodiploid D. melanogaster X-chromosome. Furthermore, large numbers of SSRs can be found to be in synteny and thus could be exploited as a tool to investigate genome structure and evolution. PMID:23292136

  12. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  13. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  14. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs. PMID:26779075

  15. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis.

    PubMed

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J; Heekeren, Hauke R; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2015-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs.

  16. Soy isoflavone aglycones are absorbed faster and in higher amounts than their glucosides in humans.

    PubMed

    Izumi, T; Piskula, M K; Osawa, S; Obata, A; Tobe, K; Saito, M; Kataoka, S; Kubota, Y; Kikuchi, M

    2000-07-01

    Isoflavones are contained in soybean or soy foods in two chemical forms, i.e., aglycones and glucosides. We investigated the difference in the absorption of soy isoflavone aglycones and glucosides in humans. After a single, low dose intake (0.11 mmol), the highest isoflavone concentrations in plasma were reached 2 and 4 h after ingestion of aglycones and glucosides, respectively; subjects were four men (41 y old) and four women (45 y old). The highest plasma concentration after aglycone intake was more than two times greater than that after glucoside ingestion. In a similar manner, we then compared the plasma isoflavone concentration profiles after intake of a single, high dose of isoflavones (1.7 mmol) in eight subjects (four men, 40 y old; four women, 47 y old) and found the highest plasma concentration after aglycone intake was more than five times higher than that after glucoside intake. In both high and low dose intake tests, the plasma concentration of genistein was significantly higher than that of daidzein despite the similar levels of intake. After long-term (4 wk) intakes (0.30 mmol/d), we also measured the plasma concentration of isoflavones (eight men, 45 y old). After 2 and 4 wk, these concentrations remained >100% higher after ingestion of aglycones than of glucosides. The isoflavone aglycones were absorbed faster and in greater amounts than their glucosides in humans. Isoflavone aglycone-rich products may be more effective than glucoside-rich products in preventing chronic disease such as coronary heart disease.

  17. Recovery from myocardial stunning is faster with desflurane compared with propofol in chronically instrumented dogs.

    PubMed

    Meissner, A; Weber, T P; Van Aken, H; Zbieranek, K; Rolf, N

    2000-12-01

    Volatile anesthetics exert a protective role in myocardial ischemia. An increase in sympathetic tone might exert deleterious effects on the ischemic myocardium. The use of the volatile anesthetic desflurane in myocardial ischemia is controversial because of its sympathetic activation. We compared propofol and desflurane on myocardial stunning in chronically instrumented dogs. Mongrel dogs (n = 8) were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic, and left ventricular pressure, rate of rise of left ventricular pressure, and myocardial wall-thickening fraction (WTF). An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed the induction of reversible LAD-ischemia. Two experiments were performed in a cross-over fashion on separate days: 1) Induction of 10 min of LAD-ischemia during desflurane anesthesia and 2) Induction of 10 min of LAD-ischemia during propofol anesthesia. Both anesthetics were discontinued immediately after completion of ischemia. WTF was measured at predetermined time points until complete recovery from ischemic dysfunction occurred. Both anesthetics caused a significant decrease of WTF in the LAD-perfused myocardium. LAD-ischemia led to a further significant decrease of LAD-WTF in both groups. During the first 3 h of reperfusion, WTF was significantly larger in the desflurane group. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were greater during ischemia and the first 10 min of reperfusion in the desflurane group compared with the propofol group. Recovery from myocardial stunning in dogs was faster when desflurane was used at the time of ischemia as compared with propofol anesthesia. The mechanism for this difference is unclear, but sympathetic activation by desflurane was not a limiting factor for ischemic tolerance in chronically instrumented dogs. PMID:11093975

  18. Correlated changes in life history traits in response to selection for faster pre-adult development in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Pankaj; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2014-02-15

    Insects including the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are under intense pressure to develop rapidly because they inhabit ephemeral habitats. We have previously shown that when selection for faster development was artificially imposed on D. melanogaster in the laboratory, reduction of pre-adult development time and shortening of the clock period occurs, suggesting a role for circadian clocks in the regulation of life history traits. Circadian clocks in D. melanogaster have also been implicated in the control of metabolic pathways, ageing processes, oxidative stress and defense responses to exogenous stressors. In order to rigorously examine correlations between pre-adult development time and other life history traits, we assayed pre-adult survivorship, starvation and desiccation resistance, body size and body weight, fecundity and adult lifespan in faster developing populations of D. melanogaster. The results revealed that selection for faster pre-adult development significantly reduced several adult fitness traits in the faster developing flies without affecting pre-adult survivorship. Although overall fecundity of faster developing flies was reduced, their egg output per unit body weight was significantly higher than that of controls, indicating that reduction in adult lifespan might be due to disproportionate investment in reproduction. Thus our results suggest that selection for faster pre-adult development in D. melanogaster yields flies with higher reproductive fitness. Because these flies also have shorter clock periods, our results can be taken to suggest that pre-adult development time and circadian clock period are correlated with various adult life history traits in D. melanogaster, implying that circadian clocks may have adaptive significance.

  19. Tube thoracostomy training with a medical simulator is associated with faster, more successful performance of the procedure

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; You, Je Sung; Chung, Hyun Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Tube thoracostomy (TT) is a commonly performed intensive care procedure. Simulator training may be a good alternative method for TT training, compared with conventional methods such as apprenticeship and animal skills laboratory. However, there is insufficient evidence supporting use of a simulator. The aim of this study is to determine whether training with medical simulator is associated with faster TT process, compared to conventional training without simulator. Methods This is a simulation study. Eligible participants were emergency medicine residents with very few (≤3 times) TT experience. Participants were randomized to two groups: the conventional training group, and the simulator training group. While the simulator training group used the simulator to train TT, the conventional training group watched the instructor performing TT on a cadaver. After training, all participants performed a TT on a cadaver. The performance quality was measured as correct placement and time delay. Subjects were graded if they had difficulty on process. Results Estimated median procedure time was 228 seconds in the conventional training group and 75 seconds in the simulator training group, with statistical significance (P=0.040). The difficulty grading did not show any significant difference among groups (overall performance scale, 2 vs. 3; P=0.094). Conclusion Tube thoracostomy training with a medical simulator, when compared to no simulator training, is associated with a significantly faster procedure, when performed on a human cadaver.

  20. No evidence for faster male hybrid sterility in population crosses of an intertidal copepod (Tigriopus californicus).

    PubMed

    Willett, Christopher S

    2008-06-01

    Two different forces are thought to contribute to the rapid accumulation of hybrid male sterility that has been observed in many inter-specific crosses, namely the faster male and the dominance theories. For male heterogametic taxa, both faster male and dominance would work in the same direction to cause the rapid evolution of male sterility; however, for taxa lacking differentiated sex chromosomes only the faster male theory would explain the rapid evolution of male hybrid sterility. It is currently unknown what causes the faster evolution of male sterility, but increased sexual selection on males and the sensitivity of genes involved in male reproduction are two hypotheses that could explain the observation. Here, patterns of hybrid sterility in crosses of genetically divergent copepod populations are examined to test potential mechanisms of faster male evolution. The study species, Tigriopus californicus, lacks differentiated, hemizygous sex chromosomes and appears to have low levels of divergence caused by sexual selection acting upon males. Hybrid sterility does not accumulate more rapidly in males than females in these crosses suggesting that in this taxon male reproductive genes are not inherently more prone to disruption in hybrids.

  1. Faster Growth of Road Transportation CO2 Emissions in Asia Pacific Economies: Exploring Differences in Trends of the Rapidly Developing and Developed Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcotullio, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Researchers have identified how in some rapidly developing countries, road and aviation transportation CO2 emissions are rising faster (over time) when compared to the experiences of the USA at similar levels of economic development. While suggestive of how experiences of the rapidly developing Asia are different from those of the developed world…

  2. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  3. Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s.

    PubMed

    Oseki, Yosuke; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Hara, Michihiro; Cai, Xichen; Ie, Yutaka; Aso, Yoshio; Majima, Tetsuro

    2005-06-01

    Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s (nTE, n denotes the number of thiophene rings, n = 2, 3) in benzene were investigated using steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies. For 2TE, generation of the radiative S2 and nonradiative S1 states was confirmed. Upon excitation, the S2 state was initially generated and deactivated to the S1 state within 10 ps. The S1 state exhibited the transient absorption band at 470 nm, of which the lifetime was estimated to be 5.3 ns. In the case of 3TE, on the other hand, it was revealed that the radiative S1 state with a transient absorption peak at 650 nm was generated upon excitation. The T1 states of nTE were generated from the S1 states. The quantum yields were estimated to be 0.52 and 0.54 for 2TE and 3TE, respectively. Extremely fast reactions in the higher triplet excited state were indicated for both 2TE and 3TE.

  4. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities.

  5. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H

    2015-08-18

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a "double-edged sword," facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects' peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a "skin-deep" phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291

  6. Why are large cities faster? Universal scaling and self-similarity in urban organization and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A.; Lobo, J.; West, G. B.

    2008-06-01

    Cities have existed since the beginning of civilization and have always been intimately connected with humanity's cultural and technological development. Much about the human and social dynamics that takes place is cities is intuitively recognizable across time, space and culture; yet we still do not have a clear cut answer as to why cities exist or to what factors are critical to make them thrive or collapse. Here, we construct an extensive quantitative characterization of the variation of many urban indicators with city size, using large data sets for American, European and Chinese cities. We show that social and economic quantities, characterizing the creation of wealth and new ideas, show increasing returns to population scale, which appear quantitatively as a power law of city size with an exponent β≃ 1.15 > 1. Concurrently, quantities characterizing material infrastructure typically show economies of scale, namely β≃ 0.8 < 1. The existence of pervasive scaling relations across city size suggests a universal social dynamics common to all cities within an urban system. We sketch some of their general ingredients, which include the acceleration of social life and a restructuring of individual social networks as cities grow larger. We also build simple dynamical models to show that increasing returns in wealth and innovation can fuel faster than exponential growth, which inexorably lead to crises of urban organization. To avoid them we show that growth may proceed in cycles, separated by major urban adaptations, with the unintended consequence that the duration of such cycles decreases with larger urban population size and is now estimated to be shorter than a human lifetime.

  7. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Piccoli, Valentina; Sommacal, Elena; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee’s peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus) was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status) in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee. PMID:27351978

  8. Faster but Less Careful Prehension in Presence of High, Rather than Low, Social Status Attendees.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Carlo; Rigutti, Sara; Piccoli, Valentina; Sommacal, Elena; Carnaghi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Ample evidence attests that social intention, elicited through gestures explicitly signaling a request of communicative intention, affects the patterning of hand movement kinematics. The current study goes beyond the effect of social intention and addresses whether the same action of reaching to grasp an object for placing it in an end target position within or without a monitoring attendee's peripersonal space, can be moulded by pure social factors in general, and by social facilitation in particular. A motion tracking system (Optotrak Certus) was used to record motor acts. We carefully avoided the usage of communicative intention by keeping constant both the visual information and the positional uncertainty of the end target position, while we systematically varied the social status of the attendee (a high, or a low social status) in separated blocks. Only thirty acts performed in the presence of a different social status attendee, revealed a significant change of kinematic parameterization of hand movement, independently of the attendee's distance. The amplitude of peak velocity reached by the hand during the reach-to-grasp and the lift-to-place phase of the movement was larger in the high rather than in the low social status condition. By contrast, the deceleration time of the reach-to-grasp phase and the maximum grasp aperture was smaller in the high rather than in the low social status condition. These results indicated that the hand movement was faster but less carefully shaped in presence of a high, but not of a low social status attendee. This kinematic patterning suggests that being monitored by a high rather than a low social status attendee might lead participants to experience evaluation apprehension that informs the control of motor execution. Motor execution would rely more on feedforward motor control in the presence of a high social status human attendee, vs. feedback motor control, in the presence of a low social status attendee. PMID:27351978

  9. Self-control forecasts better psychosocial outcomes but faster epigenetic aging in low-SES youth

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Edith; Brody, Gene H.

    2015-01-01

    There are persistent socioeconomic disparities in many aspects of child development in America. Relative to their affluent peers, children of low socioeconomic status (SES) complete fewer years of education, have a higher prevalence of health problems, and are convicted of more criminal offenses. Based on research indicating that low self-control underlies some of these disparities, policymakers have begun incorporating character-skills training into school curricula and social services. However, emerging data suggest that for low-SES youth, self-control may act as a “double-edged sword,” facilitating academic success and psychosocial adjustment, while at the same time undermining physical health. Here, we examine this hypothesis in a five-wave study of 292 African American teenagers from rural Georgia. From ages 17 to 20 y, we assessed SES and self-control annually, along with depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems. At age 22 y, we obtained DNA methylation profiles of subjects’ peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data were used to measure epigenetic aging, a methylation-derived biomarker reflecting the disparity between biological and chronological aging. Among high-SES youth, better mid-adolescent self-control presaged favorable psychological and methylation outcomes. However, among low-SES youth, self-control had divergent associations with these outcomes. Self-control forecasted lower rates of depressive symptoms, substance use, aggressive behavior, and internalizing problems but faster epigenetic aging. These patterns suggest that for low-SES youth, resilience is a “skin-deep” phenomenon, wherein outward indicators of success can mask emerging problems with health. These findings have conceptual implications for models of resilience, and practical implications for interventions aimed at ameliorating social and racial disparities. PMID:26170291

  10. Engineered epidermal growth factor mutants with faster binding on-rates correlate with enhanced receptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Lahti, Jennifer L.; Lui, Bertrand H.; Beck, Stayce E.; Lee, Stephen S.; Ly, Daphne P.; Longaker, Michael T.; Yang, George P.; Cochran, Jennifer R.

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate critical cell signaling pathways, yet the properties of their cognate ligands that influence receptor activation are not fully understood. There is great interest in parsing these complex ligand-receptor relationships using engineered proteins with altered binding properties. Here we focus on the interaction between two engineered epidermal growth factor (EGF) mutants and the EGF receptor (EGFR), a model member of the RTK superfamily. We found that EGF mutants with faster kinetic on-rates stimulate increased EGFR activation compared to wild-type EGF. These findings support previous predictions that faster association rates correlate with enhanced receptor activity. PMID:21439278

  11. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joe

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes, in viewgraph form, the faster, better, cheaper approach to space missions. The topics include: 1) What drives "Faster, Better, Cheaper"? 2) Why Space Programs are Costly; 3) Background; 4) Aerospace Project Management (Old Culture); 5) Aerospace Project Management (New Culture); 6) Scope of Analysis Limited to Engineering Management Culture; 7) Qualitative Analysis; 8) Some Basic Principles of the New Culture; 9) Cause and Effect; 10) "New Ways of Doing Business" Survey Results; 11) Quantitative Analysis; 12) Recent Space System Cost Trends; 13) Spacecraft Dry Weight Trend; 14) Complexity Factor Trends; 15) Cost Normalization; 16) Cost Normalization Algorithm; 17) Unnormalized Cost vs. Normalized Cost; and 18) Concluding Observations.

  12. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  13. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  14. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  15. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  16. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  19. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  20. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  6. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  7. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  8. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and use. In developed camping and...

  9. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  10. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  11. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  12. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  13. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  14. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  15. The hard-won benefits of familiarity in visual search: naturally familiar brand logos are found faster.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xiaoyan Angela; Koutstaal, Wilma; Engel, Stephen A

    2014-05-01

    Familiar items are found faster than unfamiliar ones in visual search tasks. This effect has important implications for cognitive theory, because it may reveal how mental representations of commonly encountered items are changed by experience to optimize performance. It remains unknown, however, whether everyday items with moderate levels of exposure would show benefits in visual search, and if so, what kind of experience would be required to produce them. Here, we tested whether familiar product logos were searched for faster than unfamiliar ones, and also familiarized subjects with previously unfamiliar logos. Subjects searched for preexperimentally familiar and unfamiliar logos, half of which were familiarized in the laboratory, amongst other, unfamiliar distractor logos. In three experiments, we used an N-back-like familiarization task, and in four others we used a task that asked detailed questions about the perceptual aspects of the logos. The number of familiarization exposures ranged from 30 to 84 per logo across experiments, with two experiments involving across-day familiarization. Preexperimentally familiar target logos were searched for faster than were unfamiliar, nonfamiliarized logos, by 8 % on average. This difference was reliable in all seven experiments. However, familiarization had little or no effect on search speeds; its average effect was to improve search times by 0.7 %, and its effect was significant in only one of the seven experiments. If priming, mere exposure, episodic memory, or relatively modest familiarity were responsible for familiarity's effects on search, then performance should have improved following familiarization. Our results suggest that the search-related advantage of familiar logos does not develop easily or rapidly.

  16. Greater Sedentary Hours and Slower Walking Speed Outside the Home Predict Faster Declines in Functioning and Adverse Calf Muscle Changes in Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Tian, Lu; Guralnik, Jack M.; Liao, Yihua; Criqui, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In participants with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), we determined whether more sedentary behavior and slower outdoor walking speed were associated with faster functional decline and more adverse changes in calf muscle characteristics over time. Background Modifiable behaviors associated with faster functional decline in lower-extremity PAD are understudied. Methods Participants were 384 men and women with an ankle brachial index <0.90 followed for a median of 47 months. At baseline, participants reported the number of hours they spent sitting per day and their walking speeds outside their homes. Participants underwent baseline and annual measures of objective functional performance. Calf muscle characteristics were measured with computed tomography at baseline and every 2 years subsequently. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, comorbidities, ankle brachial index, and other confounders. Results Slower walking speed outside the home was associated with faster annual decline in calf muscle density (brisk/ striding pace −0.32 g/cm3, average pace −0.46 g/cm3, casual strolling −1.03 g/cm3, no walking at all −1.43 g/cm3, p trend <0.001). Greater hours sitting per day were associated with faster decline in 6-min walk (<4 h: −35.8 feet/year; 4 to <7 h: −41.1 feet/year; 8 to <11 h: −68.7 feet; ≥12 h: −78.0 feet; p trend = 0.008). Similar associations were observed for greater hours sitting per day and faster declines in fast-paced (p trend = 0.018) and usual-paced (p trend < 0.001) 4-m walking velocity. Conclusions Greater sedentary hours per day and slower outdoor walking speed are modifiable behaviors that are associated with faster functional decline and greater decline in calf muscle density, respectively, in patients with PAD. PMID:21636037

  17. Variation in promiscuity and sexual selection drives avian rate of Faster-Z evolution.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alison E; Harrison, Peter W; Zimmer, Fabian; Montgomery, Stephen H; Pointer, Marie A; Mank, Judith E

    2015-03-01

    Higher rates of coding sequence evolution have been observed on the Z chromosome relative to the autosomes across a wide range of species. However, despite a considerable body of theory, we lack empirical evidence explaining variation in the strength of the Faster-Z Effect. To assess the magnitude and drivers of Faster-Z Evolution, we assembled six de novo transcriptomes, spanning 90 million years of avian evolution. Our analysis combines expression, sequence and polymorphism data with measures of sperm competition and promiscuity. In doing so, we present the first empirical evidence demonstrating the positive relationship between Faster-Z Effect and measures of promiscuity, and therefore variance in male mating success. Our results from multiple lines of evidence indicate that selection is less effective on the Z chromosome, particularly in promiscuous species, and that Faster-Z Evolution in birds is due primarily to genetic drift. Our results reveal the power of mating system and sexual selection in shaping broad patterns in genome evolution.

  18. A FASTER METHOD OF MEASURING RECREATIONAL WATER QUALITY FOR BETTER PROTECTION OF SWIMMER'S HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) are used to monitor recreational water quality worldwide. Current methods of measuring FIB require at least 24-hours for visible bacterial colonies to grow. We previously reported that a faster method (< 2 hours) of measuring FI...

  19. Computational Models Predict Larger Muscle Tissue Strains at Faster Sprinting Speeds

    PubMed Central

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Rehorn, Michael R; Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Thelen, Darryl G; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Proximal biceps femoris musculotendon strain injury has been well established as a common injury among athletes participating in sports that require sprinting near or at maximum speed; however, little is known about the mechanisms that make this muscle tissue more susceptible to injury at faster speeds. Purpose: Quantify localized tissue strain during sprinting at a range of speeds. Methods: Biceps femoris long head (BFlh) musculotendon dimensions of 14 athletes were measured on magnetic resonance (MR) images and used to generate a finite element computational model. The model was first validated through comparison with previous dynamic MR experiments. After validation, muscle activation and muscle-tendon unit length change were derived from forward dynamic simulations of sprinting at 70%, 85% and 100% maximum speed and used as input to the computational model simulations. Simulations ran from mid-swing to foot contact. Results: The model predictions of local muscle tissue strain magnitude compared favorably with in vivo tissue strain measurements determined from dynamic MR experiments of the BFlh. For simulations of sprinting, local fiber strain was non-uniform at all speeds, with the highest muscle tissue strain where injury is often observed (proximal myotendinous junction). At faster sprinting speeds, increases were observed in fiber strain non-uniformity and peak local fiber strain (0.56, 0.67 and 0.72, for sprinting at 70%, 85% and 100% maximum speed). A histogram of local fiber strains showed that more of the BFlh reached larger local fiber strains at faster speeds. Conclusions: At faster sprinting speeds, peak local fiber strain, fiber strain non-uniformity and the amount of muscle undergoing larger strains are predicted to increase, likely contributing to the BFlh muscle’s higher injury susceptibility at faster speeds. PMID:24145724

  20. New safe medicines faster: A proposal for a key action within the European union's 6th framework programme.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum, O J

    2000-01-01

    The global competitiveness of the European pharmaceutical industry is under threat. Technology currently available for the development of new medicines is unable to match the pace of drug discovery and design; and the ever-growing demand for safety, efficacy and quality documentation has increased the cost and time involved in getting new medicines on the market. Although the pharmaceutical industry is one of the strongest in Europe in terms of research, innovation, exports and employment, there are severe restrictions on its ability to create wealth and launch safe drugs for the treatment of common and rare afflictions. The present situation should not be allowed to continue. For this reason, the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) has proposed a key action under the title "New safe medicines faster" for the forthcoming EU 6th RTD framework programme. The key action has three main objectives: to seek new technologies capable of more effective selection of potential drug candidates for innovative medicines while accommodating safety demands; to use such technologies to speed up the pharmaceutical development process and eliminate bottlenecks created by initial exploratory drug research; and to cultivate a pan-European interdisciplinary network that bridges the gap between industry, academia and regulatory authorities. By involving regulatory authorities early on and fuelling research and innovation with EU money it should be possible to create a new set of recognised European standards whereby new safe medicines can be brought onto the market faster and cheaper. PMID:10905750

  1. Evolved Populations of Shigella flexneri Phage Sf6 Acquire Large Deletions, Altered Genomic Architecture, and Faster Life Cycles.

    PubMed

    Dover, John A; Burmeister, Alita R; Molineux, Ian J; Parent, Kristin N

    2016-01-01

    Genomic architecture is the framework within which genes and regulatory elements evolve and where specific constructs may constrain or potentiate particular adaptations. One such construct is evident in phages that use a headful packaging strategy that results in progeny phage heads packaged with DNA until full rather than encapsidating a simple unit-length genome. Here, we investigate the evolution of the headful packaging phage Sf6 in response to barriers that impede efficient phage adsorption to the host cell. Ten replicate populations evolved faster Sf6 life cycles by parallel mutations found in a phage lysis gene and/or by large, 1.2- to 4.0-kb deletions that remove a mobile genetic IS911 element present in the ancestral phage genome. The fastest life cycles were found in phages that acquired both mutations. No mutations were found in genes encoding phage structural proteins, which were a priori expected from the experimental design that imposed a challenge for phage adsorption by using a Shigella flexneri host lacking receptors preferred by Sf6. We used DNA sequencing, molecular approaches, and physiological experiments on 82 clonal isolates taken from all 10 populations to reveal the genetic basis of the faster Sf6 life cycle. The majority of our isolates acquired deletions in the phage genome. Our results suggest that deletions are adaptive and can influence the duration of the phage life cycle while acting in conjunction with other lysis time-determining point mutations. PMID:27497318

  2. Faster Proton Transfer Dynamics of Water on SnO2 Compared to TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Nitin; Kent, Paul R; Bandura, Andrei V.; Kubicki, James D.; Wesolowski, David J; Cole, David R; Sofo, Jorge O.

    2011-01-01

    Proton jump processes in the hydration layer on the isostructural TiO2 rutile (110) and SnO2 cassiterite (110) surfaces were studied with density functional theory molecular dynamics. We find that the proton jump rate is more than three times faster on cassiterite compared with rutile. A local analysis based on the correlation between the stretching band of the O-H vibrations and the strength of H-bonds indicates that the faster proton jump activity on cassiterite is produced by a stronger H-bond formation between the surface and the hydration layer above the surface. The origin of the increased H-bond strength on cassiterite is a combined effect of stronger covalent bonding and stronger electrostatic interactions due to differences of its electronic structure. The bridging oxygens form the strongest H-bonds between the surface and the hydration layer. This higher proton jump rate is likely to affect reactivity and catalytic activity on the surface. A better understanding of its origins will enable methods to control these rates.

  3. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or other part...

  4. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  5. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  6. National health expenditure projections, 2013-23: faster growth expected with expanded coverage and improving economy.

    PubMed

    Sisko, Andrea M; Keehan, Sean P; Cuckler, Gigi A; Madison, Andrew J; Smith, Sheila D; Wolfe, Christian J; Stone, Devin A; Lizonitz, Joseph M; Poisal, John A

    2014-10-01

    In 2013 health spending growth is expected to have remained slow, at 3.6 percent, as a result of the sluggish economic recovery, the effects of sequestration, and continued increases in private health insurance cost-sharing requirements. The combined effects of the Affordable Care Act's coverage expansions, faster economic growth, and population aging are expected to fuel health spending growth this year and thereafter (5.6 percent in 2014 and 6.0 percent per year for 2015-23). However, the average rate of increase through 2023 is projected to be slower than the 7.2 percent average growth experienced during 1990-2008. Because health spending is projected to grow 1.1 percentage points faster than the average economic growth during 2013-23, the health share of the gross domestic product is expected to rise from 17.2 percent in 2012 to 19.3 percent in 2023.

  7. Faster acquisition of conditioned fear to fear-relevant than to nonfear-relevant conditional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yiling; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2014-08-01

    Prepared learning theory posits that prepared associations are acquired rapidly and resist extinction. Although it has been shown repeatedly that prepared associations resist extinction, there is currently little evidence to support the proposal of faster acquisition. The current study provides such evidence using a within-subjects conditioning procedure with a 50% reinforcement schedule. Participants were presented with pictures of four animals, two fear-relevant (snake, spider) and two nonfear-relevant (fish, bird), one of each paired with an unpleasant electrotactile stimulus on 50% of the trials during acquisition. Differential electrodermal responding was observed within the first two blocks of acquisition for fear-relevant but not for nonfear-relevant conditional stimuli, confirming the prediction that prepared associations are acquired faster than nonprepared associations.

  8. Faster acquisition of conditioned fear to fear-relevant than to nonfear-relevant conditional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yiling; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2014-08-01

    Prepared learning theory posits that prepared associations are acquired rapidly and resist extinction. Although it has been shown repeatedly that prepared associations resist extinction, there is currently little evidence to support the proposal of faster acquisition. The current study provides such evidence using a within-subjects conditioning procedure with a 50% reinforcement schedule. Participants were presented with pictures of four animals, two fear-relevant (snake, spider) and two nonfear-relevant (fish, bird), one of each paired with an unpleasant electrotactile stimulus on 50% of the trials during acquisition. Differential electrodermal responding was observed within the first two blocks of acquisition for fear-relevant but not for nonfear-relevant conditional stimuli, confirming the prediction that prepared associations are acquired faster than nonprepared associations. PMID:24725116

  9. Bigger brains cycle faster before neurogenesis begins: a comparison of brain development between chickens and bobwhite quail.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2010-11-22

    The chicken brain is more than twice as big as the bobwhite quail brain in adulthood. To determine how this species difference in brain size emerges during development, we examined whether differences in neurogenesis timing or cell cycle rates account for the disparity in brain size between chickens and quail. Specifically, we examined the timing of neural events (e.g. neurogenesis onset) from Nissl-stained sections of chicken and quail embryos. We estimated brain cell cycle rates using cumulative bromodeoxyuridine labelling in chickens and quail at embryonic day (ED) 2 and at ED5. We report that the timing of neural events is highly conserved between chickens and quail, once time is expressed as a percentage of overall incubation period. In absolute time, neurogenesis begins earlier in chickens than in quail. Therefore, neural event timing cannot account for the expansion of the chicken brain relative to the quail brain. Cell cycle rates are also similar between the two species at ED5. However, at ED2, before neurogenesis onset, brain cells cycle faster in chickens than in quail. These data indicate that chickens have a larger brain than bobwhite quail mainly because of species differences in cell cycle rates during early stages of embryonic development.

  10. The Trans-Gompertz Function: An Alternative to the Logistic Growth Function with Faster Growth.

    PubMed

    Kozusko, F; Bourdeau, M

    2015-12-01

    The growth characteristics of the recently derived Trans-Gompertz function are compared to those of the Generalized Logistic function. Both functions are defined by one shaping parameter and one rate parameter. The functions are matched at a specified point on the growth curve by equating both the first and second derivatives. Analysis shows that the matched Trans-Gompertz function will have grown at a faster rate with a larger inflection point ratio.

  11. A simpler and faster capillary electrophoresis method for determination of mianserin enantiomers in human serum.

    PubMed

    Grodner, Błazej; Pachecka, Jan

    2006-01-01

    A stereospecific sample stacking capillary zone electrophoresis method is described for determination of S(+) and R(-) enantiomers of mianserin (1,2,3,4,10,14b-hexahydro-2-methyldibenzo[c,f]pyrazino[1,2-a]azepine) in human serum. The enantiomers of mianserin were extracted from human serum in one step extraction procedure using the mixture n-heptane:ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v). After separation of layers and freezing at -28 degrees C the organic layer was decanted and evaporated under a stream of nitrogen. The sample was dissolved in the mixture: water:methanol:acetonitrile (2:1:1, v/v/v). Separation was conducted in an aqueous solution of phosphoric acid (0.075M) adjusted to pH = 3.0 with concentrated triethylamine, and 2 mmole/L of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin. The analytes were measured by ultraviolet detection at 214 nm after separation on a Fused-Silica eCAP capillary. Clozapine was used as an internal standard. Recovery of the enantiomers from serum ranged from 82.94 to 90.37%. Total time of analysis was 49 minutes, whereas the other methods needed up to 100 minutes.

  12. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-08-01

    The 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (3',5'-cAMP→5'-AMP→adenosine) and the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP→2'-AMP/3'-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway to the 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP, 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 3',5'-cAMP, and 5'-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2',3'-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2'-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2',3'-cAMP to 3'-AMP or 3',5'-cAMP to either 3'-AMP or 5'-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2',3'-cAMP and 2'-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2',3'-cAMP and extracellular 2'-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway but do have a 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2'-AMP formation rather than 3'-AMP, and because the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2'-AMP. Accumulation of 2'-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:25998049

  13. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...) Before initiating procurement action for the building of the project, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  14. 10 CFR 960.4-2-3 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.4-2-3 Section 960.4-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... environment and (2) the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60.113 for radionuclide releases from the...

  15. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... governing the mineral leasing of Indian lands are found in 25 CFR Chapter I Subchapter I. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-3 Lands in Indian reservations. All lands...

  16. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  17. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  18. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  19. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  20. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  1. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  2. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  3. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  4. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  5. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  7. Esophageal Acid Clearance During Random Swallowing Is Faster in Patients with Barrett’s Esophagus Than in Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Lottrup, Christian; Krarup, Anne L; Gregersen, Hans; Ejstrud, Per; Drewes, Asbjørn M

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Impaired esophageal acid clearance may be a contributing factor in the pathogenesis of Barrett’s esophagus. However, few studies have measured acid clearance as such in these patients. In this explorative, cross-sectional study, we aimed to compare esophageal acid clearance and swallowing rate in patients with Barrett’s esophagus to that in healthy controls. Methods A total of 26 patients with histology-confirmed Barrett’s esophagus and 12 healthy controls underwent (1) upper endoscopy, (2) an acid clearance test using a pH-impedance probe under controlled conditions including controlled and random swallowing, and (3) an ambulatory pH-impedance measurement. Results Compared with controls and when swallowing randomly, patients cleared acid 46% faster (P = 0.008). Furthermore, patients swallowed 60% more frequently (mean swallows/minute: 1.90 ± 0.74 vs 1.19 ± 0.58; P = 0.005), and acid clearance time decreased with greater random swallowing rate (P < 0.001). Swallowing rate increased with lower distal esophageal baseline impedance (P = 0.014). Ambulatory acid exposure was greater in patients (P = 0.033), but clearance times assessed from the ambulatory pH-measurement and acid clearance test were not correlated (all P > 0.3). Conclusions More frequent swallowing and thus faster acid clearance in Barrett’s esophagus may constitute a protective reflex due to impaired mucosal integrity and possibly acid hypersensitivity. Despite these reinforced mechanisms, acid clearance ability seems to be overthrown by repeated, retrograde acid reflux, thus resulting in increased esophageal acid exposure and consequently mucosal changes. PMID:27557545

  8. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-06-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. A task queue and a thread pool are used to distribute the computation to several processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Elements than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster and on graphics processors, using OpenCL, more than 2.5 times faster, as compared to the original code. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach.

  9. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  10. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]dichloropropene in rats after inhalation.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A; Medinsky, M A; Dutcher, J S; Henderson, R F; Cheng, Y S; Mewhinney, J A; Birnbaum, L S

    1985-03-30

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. Human exposure potential exists during manufacture of the chemicals or during bulk handling activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-[14C]DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25 degrees C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of 14C (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of 14C in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (means +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of 14C feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (means +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-[14C]DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-[14C]DCP or 14CO2, respectively. Concentrations of 14C in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of 14C were seen. 14C was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-[14C]DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of 14C immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the 14C in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of 14C from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted.

  11. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)dichloropropene in rats after inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Henderson, R.F.; Cheng, Y.S.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-( UC)DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of UC (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of UC in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (anti x +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of UC feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (anti x +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-( UC)DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-( UC)DCP or UCO2, respectively. Concentrations of UC in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of UC were seen. UC was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-( UC)DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of UC immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the UC in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of UC from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted. 21 references. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  12. The Faster, Better, Cheaper Approach to Space Missions: An Engineering Management Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph W.

    1999-01-01

    NASA was chartered as an independent civilian space agency in 1958 following the Soviet Union's dramatic launch of the Sputnik 1 (1957). In his state of the union address in May of 1961, President Kennedy issued to the fledging organization his famous challenge for a manned lunar mission by the end of the decade. The Mercury, Gemini and Apollo programs that followed put the utmost value on high quality, low risk (as low as possible within the context of space flight), quick results, all with little regard for cost. These circumstances essentially melded NASAs culture as an organization capable of great technological achievement but at extremely high cost. The Space Shuttle project, the next major agency endeavor, was put under severe annual budget constraints in the 1970's. NASAs response was to hold to the high quality standards, low risk and annual cost and let schedule suffer. The result was a significant delay in the introduction of the Shuttle as well as overall total cost growth. By the early 1990's, because NASA's budget was declining, the number of projects was also declining. Holding the same cost and schedule productivity levels as before was essentially causing NASA to price itself out of business. In 1992, the helm of NASA was turned over to a new Administrator. Dan Goldin's mantra was "faster, better, cheaper" and his enthusiasm and determination to change the NASA culture was not to be ignored. This research paper documents the various implementations of "faster, better, cheaper" that have been attempted, analyzes their impact and compares the cost performance of these new projects to previous NASA benchmarks. Fundamentally, many elements of "faster, better, cheaper" are found to be working well, especially on smaller projects. Some of the initiatives are found to apply only to smaller or experimental projects however, so that extrapolation to "flagship" projects may be problematic.

  13. PHASTER: a better, faster version of the PHAST phage search tool.

    PubMed

    Arndt, David; Grant, Jason R; Marcu, Ana; Sajed, Tanvir; Pon, Allison; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David S

    2016-07-01

    PHASTER (PHAge Search Tool - Enhanced Release) is a significant upgrade to the popular PHAST web server for the rapid identification and annotation of prophage sequences within bacterial genomes and plasmids. Although the steps in the phage identification pipeline in PHASTER remain largely the same as in the original PHAST, numerous software improvements and significant hardware enhancements have now made PHASTER faster, more efficient, more visually appealing and much more user friendly. In particular, PHASTER is now 4.3× faster than PHAST when analyzing a typical bacterial genome. More specifically, software optimizations have made the backend of PHASTER 2.7X faster than PHAST, while the addition of 80 CPUs to the PHASTER compute cluster are responsible for the remaining speed-up. PHASTER can now process a typical bacterial genome in 3 min from the raw sequence alone, or in 1.5 min when given a pre-annotated GenBank file. A number of other optimizations have also been implemented, including automated algorithms to reduce the size and redundancy of PHASTER's databases, improvements in handling multiple (metagenomic) queries and higher user traffic, along with the ability to perform automated look-ups against 14 000 previously PHAST/PHASTER annotated bacterial genomes (which can lead to complete phage annotations in seconds as opposed to minutes). PHASTER's web interface has also been entirely rewritten. A new graphical genome browser has been added, gene/genome visualization tools have been improved, and the graphical interface is now more modern, robust and user-friendly. PHASTER is available online at www.phaster.ca. PMID:27141966

  14. PHASTER: a better, faster version of the PHAST phage search tool

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, David; Grant, Jason R.; Marcu, Ana; Sajed, Tanvir; Pon, Allison; Liang, Yongjie; Wishart, David S.

    2016-01-01

    PHASTER (PHAge Search Tool – Enhanced Release) is a significant upgrade to the popular PHAST web server for the rapid identification and annotation of prophage sequences within bacterial genomes and plasmids. Although the steps in the phage identification pipeline in PHASTER remain largely the same as in the original PHAST, numerous software improvements and significant hardware enhancements have now made PHASTER faster, more efficient, more visually appealing and much more user friendly. In particular, PHASTER is now 4.3× faster than PHAST when analyzing a typical bacterial genome. More specifically, software optimizations have made the backend of PHASTER 2.7X faster than PHAST, while the addition of 80 CPUs to the PHASTER compute cluster are responsible for the remaining speed-up. PHASTER can now process a typical bacterial genome in 3 min from the raw sequence alone, or in 1.5 min when given a pre-annotated GenBank file. A number of other optimizations have also been implemented, including automated algorithms to reduce the size and redundancy of PHASTER's databases, improvements in handling multiple (metagenomic) queries and higher user traffic, along with the ability to perform automated look-ups against 14 000 previously PHAST/PHASTER annotated bacterial genomes (which can lead to complete phage annotations in seconds as opposed to minutes). PHASTER's web interface has also been entirely rewritten. A new graphical genome browser has been added, gene/genome visualization tools have been improved, and the graphical interface is now more modern, robust and user-friendly. PHASTER is available online at www.phaster.ca. PMID:27141966

  15. Women With Peripheral Arterial Disease Experience Faster Functional Decline Than Men With Peripheral Arterial Disease

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Mary M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Liu, Kiang; Guralnik, Jack M.; Tian, Lu; Kibbe, Melina; Liao, Yihua; Tao, Huimin; Criqui, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that women with lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) would have greater mobility loss and faster functional decline than men with PAD. Background Whether rates of mobility loss or functional decline differ between men and women with PAD is currently unknown. Methods Three hundred eighty men and women with PAD completed the 6-min walk, were assessed for mobility disability, and underwent measures of 4-m walking velocity at baseline and annually for up to 4 years. Computed tomography-assessed calf muscle characteristics were measured biannually. Outcomes included becoming unable to walk for 6 min continuously among participants who walked continuously for 6 min at baseline. Mobility loss was defined as becoming unable to walk for a quarter mile or to walk up and down 1 flight of stairs without assistance among those without baseline mobility disability. Results were adjusted for age, race, body mass index, physical activity, the ankle brachial index, comorbidities, and other confounders. Results At 4 years of follow-up, women were more likely to become unable to walk for 6 min continuously (hazard ratio: 2.30, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 4.06, p = 0.004), more likely to develop mobility disability (hazard ratio: 1.79, 95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 3.03, p = 0.030), and had faster declines in walking velocity (p = 0.022) and the distance achieved in the 6-min walk (p = 0.041) compared with men. Sex differences in functional decline were attenuated after additional adjustment for baseline sex differences in calf muscle area. Conclusions Women with PAD have faster functional decline and greater mobility loss than men with PAD. These sex differences may be attributable to smaller baseline calf muscle area among women with PAD. PMID:21292130

  16. Enhancing the CDF's B physics program with a faster data acquisition system.

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Petar Maksimovic

    2011-03-02

    The physics program of Run II at the Tevatron includes precision electroweak measurements such as the determination of the top quark and W boson masses; bottom and charm physics including the determination of the B{sub s} and D{sup 0} mixing parameters; studies of the strong interaction; and searches for the Higgs particle, supersymmetric particles, hidden space-time dimensions and quark substructure. All of these measurements benefit from a high-resolution tracking detector. Most of them rely heavily on the efficient identification of heavy flavored B hadrons by detection of displaced secondary vertices, and are enhanced by the capability to trigger on tracks not coming from the primary vertex. This is uniquely provided by CDF's finely-segmented silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. Thus CDF experiment's physics potential critically depends on the performance of its silicon detectors. The CDF silicon detectors were designed to operate up to 2-3 fb{sup -1} of accumulated pji collisions, with an upgrade planned thereafter. However, the upgrade project was canceled in 2003 and Run II has been extended through 2011, with an expected total delivered integrated luminosity of 12 fb{sup -1} or more. Several preventive measures were taken to keep the original detector operational and maintain its performance. The most important of these are the decrease in the operating temperature of the detector, which reduces the impact of radiation exposure, and measures to minimize damage due to integrated radiation dose, thermal cycles, and wire bond resonance conditions. Despite these measures the detectors operating conditions continue to change with issues arising from radiation damage to the sensors, aging infrastructure and electronics. These, together with the basic challenges posed by the inaccessibility of the detector volume and large number (about 750 thousand) of readout channels, make the silicon detector operations the single most complex and high

  17. Two-ply channels for faster wicking in paper-based microfluidic devices.

    PubMed

    Camplisson, Conor K; Schilling, Kevin M; Pedrotti, William L; Stone, Howard A; Martinez, Andres W

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of porous two-ply channels for paper-based microfluidic devices that wick fluids significantly faster than conventional, porous, single-ply channels. The two-ply channels were made by stacking two single-ply channels on top of each other and were fabricated entirely out of paper, wax and toner using two commercially available printers, a convection oven and a thermal laminator. The wicking in paper-based channels was studied and modeled using a modified Lucas-Washburn equation to account for the effect of evaporation, and a paper-based titration device incorporating two-ply channels was demonstrated.

  18. Bound state eigenfunctions need to vanish faster than | x{| }^{-3/2}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Zafar

    2016-07-01

    In quantum mechanics, students are taught to practice that the eigenfunction of a physical bound state must be continuous and vanishing asymptotically so that it is normalizable in x\\in (-∞ ,∞ ). Here we caution that such states may also give rise to infinite uncertainty in the position ({{Δ }}x=∞ ), whereas {{Δ }}p remains finite. Such states may be called loosely bound and spatially extended states, and may be avoided by an additional condition that the eigenfunction vanishes asymptotically faster than | x{| }-3/2.

  19. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  20. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  1. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  2. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  3. Corrigendum to "Imaginary time propagation code for large-scale two-dimensional eigenvalue problems in magnetic fields" [Comput. Phys. Comm. 184(3) (2013) 769-776

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luukko, P. J. J.; Räsänen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Our original publication [1] contains an error in the terminology regarding different orthonormalization algorithms. Section 2.2 of the original publication describes the orthonormalization algorithm we have used, which is the subspace orthonormalization algorithm (SO). This algorithm has also been used in previous imaginary time propagation implementations, and shown to cause faster convergence compared to a traditional Gram-Schmidt process [2,3].

  4. Domain Organization in Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin Type E is Unique: Its Implication in Faster Translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, D.; Eswaramoorthy, S; Furey, W; Navaza, J; Sax, M; Swaminathan, S

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium botulinum produces seven antigenically distinct neurotoxins [C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) A-G] sharing a significant sequence homology. Based on sequence and functional similarity, it was believed that their three-dimensional structures will also be similar. Indeed, the crystal structures of BoNTs A and B exhibit similar fold and domain association where the translocation domain is flanked on either side by binding and catalytic domains. Here, we report the crystal structure of BoNT E holotoxin and show that the domain association is different and unique, although the individual domains are similar to those of BoNTs A and B. In BoNT E, both the binding domain and the catalytic domain are on the same side of the translocation domain, and all three have mutual interfaces. This unique association may have an effect on the rate of translocation, with the molecule strategically positioned in the vesicle for quick entry into cytosol. Botulism, the disease caused by BoNT E, sets in faster than any other serotype because of its speedy internalization and translocation, and the present structure offers a credible explanation. We propose that the translocation domain in other BoNTs follows a two-step process to attain translocation-competent conformation as in BoNT E. We also suggest that this translocation-competent conformation in BoNT E is a probable reason for its faster toxic rate compared to BoNT A. However, this needs further experimental elucidation.

  5. Better, Faster, Cheaper: Getting the Most Out of High-Throughput Screening with Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    The field of toxicology is undergoing a vast change with high-throughput (HT) approaches that rapidly query huge swaths of chemico-structural space for bioactivity and hazard potential. Its practicality is due in large part to switching from high-cost, low-throughput mammalian models to faster and cheaper alternatives. We believe this is an improved approach because the immense breadth of the resulting data sets a foundation for predictive structure-activity-based toxicology. Moreover, rapidly uncovering structure-related bioactivity drives better decisions about where to commit resources to drill down to a mechanism, or pursue commercial leads. While hundreds of different in vitro toxicology assays can collectively serve as an alternative to mammalian animal model testing, far greater efficiency and ultimately more relevant data are obtained from the whole animal. The developmental zebrafish, with its well-documented advantages over many animal models, is now emerging as a true biosensor of chemical activity. Herein, we draw on nearly a decade of experience developing high-throughput toxicology screens in the developmental zebrafish to summarize the best practices in fulfilling the better, faster, cheaper goals. We include optimization and harmonization of dosing volume, exposure paradigms, chemical solubility, chorion status, experimental duration, endpoint definitions, and statistical analysis.

  6. Faster recovery of a diatom from UV damage under ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaping; Campbell, Douglas A; Gao, Kunshan

    2014-11-01

    Diatoms are the most important group of primary producers in marine ecosystems. As oceanic pH declines and increased stratification leads to the upper mixing layer becoming shallower, diatoms are interactively affected by both lower pH and higher average exposures to solar ultraviolet radiation. The photochemical yields of a model diatom, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, were inhibited by ultraviolet radiation under both growth and excess light levels, while the functional absorbance cross sections of the remaining photosystem II increased. Cells grown under ocean acidification (OA) were less affected during UV exposure. The recovery of PSII under low photosynthetically active radiation was much faster than in the dark, indicating that photosynthetic processes were essential for the full recovery of photosystem II. This light dependent recovery required de novo synthesized protein. Cells grown under ocean acidification recovered faster, possibly attributable to higher CO₂ availability for the Calvin cycle producing more resources for repair. The lower UV inhibition combined with higher recovery rate under ocean acidification could benefit species such as P.tricornutum, and change their competitiveness in the future ocean.

  7. They all like it hot: faster cleanup of contaminated soil and groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Newmark, R., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Clean up a greasy kitchen spill with cold water and the going is slow. Us hot water instead and progress improves markedly. So it makes sense that cleanup of greasy underground contaminants such as gasoline might go faster if hot water or steam were somehow added to the process. The Environmental Protection Agency named hundreds of sites to the Superfund list - sites that have been contaminated with petroleum products or petroleum products or solvents. Elsewhere across the country, thousands of properties not identified on federal cleanup lists are contaminated as well. Given that under current regulations, underground accumulations of solvent and hydrocarbon contaminants (the most serious cause of groundwater pollution) must be cleaned up, finding a rapid and effective method of removing them is imperative. In the early 1990`s, in collaboration with the School of Engineering at the University of California at Berkeley, Lawrence Livermore developed dynamic underground stripping. This method for treating underground contaminants with heat is much faster and more effective than traditional treatment methods.

  8. National Health Spending In 2014: Faster Growth Driven By Coverage Expansion And Prescription Drug Spending.

    PubMed

    Martin, Anne B; Hartman, Micah; Benson, Joseph; Catlin, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    US health care spending increased 5.3 percent to $3.0 trillion in 2014. On a per capita basis, health spending was $9,523 in 2014, an increase of 4.5 percent from 2013. The share of gross domestic product devoted to health care spending was 17.5 percent, up from 17.3 percent in 2013. The faster growth in 2014 that followed five consecutive years of historically low growth was primarily due to the major coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act, particularly for Medicaid and private health insurance, which contributed to an increase in the insured share of the population. Additionally, the introduction of new hepatitis C drugs contributed to rapid growth in retail prescription drug expenditures, which increased by 12.2 percent in 2014. Spending by the federal government grew at a faster rate in 2014 than spending by other sponsors of health care, leading to a 2-percentage-point increase in its share of total health care spending between 2013 and 2014.

  9. Better, Faster, Cheaper: Getting the Most Out of High-Throughput Screening with Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Truong, Lisa; Simonich, Michael T; Tanguay, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    The field of toxicology is undergoing a vast change with high-throughput (HT) approaches that rapidly query huge swaths of chemico-structural space for bioactivity and hazard potential. Its practicality is due in large part to switching from high-cost, low-throughput mammalian models to faster and cheaper alternatives. We believe this is an improved approach because the immense breadth of the resulting data sets a foundation for predictive structure-activity-based toxicology. Moreover, rapidly uncovering structure-related bioactivity drives better decisions about where to commit resources to drill down to a mechanism, or pursue commercial leads. While hundreds of different in vitro toxicology assays can collectively serve as an alternative to mammalian animal model testing, far greater efficiency and ultimately more relevant data are obtained from the whole animal. The developmental zebrafish, with its well-documented advantages over many animal models, is now emerging as a true biosensor of chemical activity. Herein, we draw on nearly a decade of experience developing high-throughput toxicology screens in the developmental zebrafish to summarize the best practices in fulfilling the better, faster, cheaper goals. We include optimization and harmonization of dosing volume, exposure paradigms, chemical solubility, chorion status, experimental duration, endpoint definitions, and statistical analysis. PMID:27518627

  10. Zeading and reazing: which is faster? The position of the diverging letter in a pseudoword determines reading time.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Peressotti, Francesca; Job, Remo

    2007-07-01

    We present evidence that (a) at least some components of the reading process are serial and (b) pseudoword reading is affected by lexical knowledge, even in a transparent orthographic system like Italian. Pseudowords deriving from five-letter words by changing either the first or the fourth letter were presented for reading aloud. Results showed an effect of the position of the diverging letter: Early diverging pseudowords were read more slowly than late diverging pseudowords. The dual-route cascaded (DRC) model (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) successfully simulated the behavioural data.

  11. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  12. Faster growth of the major prokaryotic versus eukaryotic CO2 fixers in the oligotrophic ocean.

    PubMed

    Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2014-04-29

    Because maintenance of non-scalable cellular components--membranes and chromosomes--requires an increasing fraction of energy as cell size decreases, miniaturization comes at a considerable energetic cost for a phytoplanktonic cell. Consequently, if eukaryotes can use their superior energetic resources to acquire nutrients with more or even similar efficiency compared with prokaryotes, larger unicellular eukaryotes should be able to achieve higher growth rates than smaller cyanobacteria. Here, to test this hypothesis, we directly compare the intrinsic growth rates of phototrophic prokaryotes and eukaryotes from the equatorial to temperate South Atlantic using an original flow cytometric (14)CO2-tracer approach. At the ocean basin scale, cyanobacteria double their biomass twice as frequently as the picoeukaryotes indicating that the prokaryotes are faster growing CO2 fixers, better adapted to phototrophic living in the oligotrophic open ocean-the most extensive biome on Earth.

  13. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  14. The Mpemba effect: When can hot water freeze faster than cold?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Monwhea

    2006-06-01

    We review the Mpemba effect, where initially hot water freezes faster than initially cold water. Although the effect might appear impossible, it has been observed in numerous experiments and was discussed by Aristotle, Francis Bacon, Roger Bacon, and Descartes. It has a rich and fascinating history, including the story of the secondary school student, Erasto Mpemba, who reintroduced the effect to the twentieth century scientific community. The phenomenon is simple to describe and illustrates numerous important issues about the scientific method: the role of skepticism in scientific inquiry, the influence of theory on experiment and observation, the need for precision in the statement of a scientific hypothesis, and the nature of falsifiability. Proposed theoretical mechanisms for the Mpemba effect and the results of contemporary experiments on the phenomenon are surveyed. The observation that hot water pipes are more likely to burst than cold water pipes is also discussed.

  15. Structure emerges faster during cultural transmission in children than in adults.

    PubMed

    Kempe, Vera; Gauvrit, Nicolas; Forsyth, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    How does children's limited processing capacity affect cultural transmission of complex information? We show that over the course of iterated reproduction of two-dimensional random dot patterns transmission accuracy increased to a similar extent in 5- to 8-year-old children and adults whereas algorithmic complexity decreased faster in children. Thus, children require more structure to render complex inputs learnable. In line with the Less-Is-More hypothesis, we interpret this as evidence that children's processing limitations affecting working memory capacity and executive control constrain the ability to represent and generate complexity, which, in turn, facilitates emergence of structure. This underscores the importance of investigating the role of children in the transmission of complex cultural traits.

  16. Faster growth of the major prokaryotic versus eukaryotic CO2 fixers in the oligotrophic ocean

    PubMed Central

    Zubkov, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    Because maintenance of non-scalable cellular components—membranes and chromosomes—requires an increasing fraction of energy as cell size decreases, miniaturization comes at a considerable energetic cost for a phytoplanktonic cell. Consequently, if eukaryotes can use their superior energetic resources to acquire nutrients with more or even similar efficiency compared with prokaryotes, larger unicellular eukaryotes should be able to achieve higher growth rates than smaller cyanobacteria. Here, to test this hypothesis, we directly compare the intrinsic growth rates of phototrophic prokaryotes and eukaryotes from the equatorial to temperate South Atlantic using an original flow cytometric 14CO2-tracer approach. At the ocean basin scale, cyanobacteria double their biomass twice as frequently as the picoeukaryotes indicating that the prokaryotes are faster growing CO2 fixers, better adapted to phototrophic living in the oligotrophic open ocean—the most extensive biome on Earth. PMID:24777140

  17. Driving the Mineral out Faster: Simple Modifications of the Decalcification Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kapila, Supriya Nikita; Boaz, Karen; Pandya, Jay Ashokkumar; Yinti, Shanmukha Raviteja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Quicker decalcification is essential for faster diagnosis of hard tissue pathology. Heat and mechanical agitation are known to hasten decalcification. Aim To compare the rate of decalcification, cellular and staining characteristics of decalcified specimens of bone and teeth by using the conventional method (10% formal formic acid), heating to 45oC and by physical agitation with magnetic stirrer. Materials and Methods Weight-matched samples of caprine-origin bone (n=15) and teeth (n=15) were decalcified using three methods namely: a) Gooding and Stewart’s fluid; b) Gooding and Stewart’s fluid heated to 45oC for 6 hours daily; and c) Gooding and Stewart’s fluid agitated using a magnetic stirrer for 6 hours daily. Non-lesional skin tissue samples were placed along with each specimen. End point of decalcification (chemical test) was noted; 4 micron sections were taken and stained with H&E. Statistical analysis Differences in rate of decalcification and staining characteristics were assessed by Kruskal Wallis test and chi-square test respectively. Results Hard tissues decalcified faster with stirring and heating methods. The amount of osteocyte retraction noted in bone was significantly reduced in the stirring method. In tooth specimens, modified techniques resulted in poorer nuclear-cytoplasmic contrast of pulp cells. Heating affected the odontoblast layer. Soft tissues exhibited higher eosinophilia in stirring and conventional methods, whereas nuclear-cytoplasmic contrast and chromatin staining was poorest in heating and conventional methods. Conclusion Physical agitation of decalcifying fluid may be recommended while maintaining satisfactory quality of tissue morphology and staining. PMID:26501022

  18. Ground Data System Risk Mitigation Techniques for Faster, Better, Cheaper Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catena, John J.; Saylor, Rick; Casasanta, Ralph; Weikel, Craig; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    With the advent of faster, cheaper, and better missions, NASA Projects acknowledged that a higher level of risk was inherent and accepted with this approach. It was incumbent however upon each component of the Project whether spacecraft, payload, launch vehicle, or ground data system to ensure that the mission would nevertheless be an unqualified success. The Small Explorer (SMEX) program's ground data system (GDS) team developed risk mitigation techniques to achieve these goals starting in 1989. These techniques have evolved through the SMEX series of missions and are practiced today under the Triana program. These techniques are: (1) Mission Team Organization--empowerment of a closeknit ground data system team comprising system engineering, software engineering, testing, and flight operations personnel; (2) Common Spacecraft Test and Operational Control System--utilization of the pre-launch spacecraft integration system as the post-launch ground data system on-orbit command and control system; (3) Utilization of operations personnel in pre-launch testing--making the flight operations team an integrated member of the spacecraft testing activities at the beginning of the spacecraft fabrication phase; (4) Consolidated Test Team--combined system, mission readiness and operations testing to optimize test opportunities with the ground system and spacecraft; and (5). Reuse of Spacecraft, Systems and People--reuse of people, software and on-orbit spacecraft throughout the SMEX mission series. The SMEX ground system development approach for faster, cheaper, better missions has been very successful. This paper will discuss these risk management techniques in the areas of ground data system design, implementation, test, and operational readiness.

  19. Faster cognitive decline in elders without dementia and decreased risk of cancer mortality

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Juan Pablo; Louis, Elan D.; Bermejo-Pareja, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess whether faster cognitive decline in elders without dementia is associated with decreased risk of cancer mortality. Methods: In this population-based, prospective study of 2,627 people without dementia aged 65 years and older (Neurological Disorders in Central Spain), a 37-item version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (37-MMSE) was administered at 2 visits (baseline and follow-up, approximately 3 years later). We divided change in 37-MMSE into tertiles (lower tertile ≥2 point improvement in score, higher tertile ≥2 point decline in score). Community-dwelling elders were followed for a median of 12.9 years, after which the death certificates of those who died were examined. Results: A total of 1,003 (38.2%) died, including 339 (33.8%) deaths among participants who were in the higher tertile of 37-MMSE change and 664 (66.2%) deaths among those in the remaining tertiles. Cancer was reported significantly less often in those in the higher tertile of MMSE change (20.6%) than in those in the remaining tertiles (28.6%): in an unadjusted Cox model, hazard ratio for cancer mortality in participants within the higher tertile = 0.75 (p = 0.04) compared with the participants within the remaining tertiles. In a Cox model that adjusted for a variety of demographic factors and comorbidities, hazard ratio for cancer mortality in participants within the higher tertile = 0.70 (p = 0.01). Conclusion: In this population-based, prospective study of community-dwelling elders without dementia, faster cognitive decline was associated with a decreased risk of cancer mortality. Further studies are required to elucidate this inverse association in elders without dementia. PMID:24719490

  20. Faster Movement Speed Results in Greater Tendon Strain during the Loaded Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Jacob E.; Newton, Robert U.; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Methods: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Results: Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10–14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61–70 and 76–83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Conclusions: Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds. PMID:27630574

  1. The Development of Functional Overreaching Is Associated with a Faster Heart Rate Recovery in Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Aubry, Anaël; Hausswirth, Christophe; Louis, Julien; Coutts, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate whether heart rate recovery (HRR) may represent an effective marker of functional overreaching (f-OR) in endurance athletes. Methods and Results Thirty-one experienced male triathletes were tested (10 control and 21 overload subjects) before (Pre), and immediately after an overload training period (Mid) and after a 2-week taper (Post). Physiological responses were assessed during an incremental cycling protocol to exhaustion, including heart rate, catecholamine release and blood lactate concentration. Ten participants from the overload group developed signs of f-OR at Mid (i.e. -2.1 ± 0.8% change in performance associated with concomitant high perceived fatigue). Additionally, only the f-OR group demonstrated a 99% chance of increase in HRR during the overload period (+8 ± 5 bpm, large effect size). Concomitantly, this group also revealed a >80% chance of decreasing blood lactate (-11 ± 14%, large), plasma norepinephrine (-12 ± 37%, small) and plasma epinephrine peak concentrations (-51 ± 22%, moderate). These blood measures returned to baseline levels at Post. HRR change was negatively correlated to changes in performance, peak HR and peak blood metabolites concentrations. Conclusion These findings suggest that i) a faster HRR is not systematically associated with improved physical performance, ii) changes in HRR should be interpreted in the context of the specific training phase, the athletes perceived level of fatigue and the performance response; and, iii) the faster HRR associated with f-OR may be induced by a decreased central command and by a lower chemoreflex activity. PMID:26488766

  2. Slow axonemal dynein e facilitates the motility of faster dynein c.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Youské; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kojima, Hiroaki; Oiwa, Kazuhiro

    2014-05-20

    We highly purified the Chlamydomonas inner-arm dyneins e and c, considered to be single-headed subspecies. These two dyneins reside side-by-side along the peripheral doublet microtubules of the flagellum. Electron microscopic observations and single particle analysis showed that the head domains of these two dyneins were similar, whereas the tail domain of dynein e was short and bent in contrast to the straight tail of dynein c. The ATPase activities, both basal and microtubule-stimulated, of dynein e (kcat = 0.27 s(-1) and kcat,MT = 1.09 s(-1), respectively) were lower than those of dynein c (kcat = 1.75 s(-1) and kcat,MT = 2.03 s(-1), respectively). From in vitro motility assays, the apparent velocity of microtubule translocation by dynein e was found to be slow (Vap = 1.2 ± 0.1 μm/s) and appeared independent of the surface density of the motors, whereas dynein c was very fast (Vmax = 15.8 ± 1.5 μm/s) and highly sensitive to decreases in the surface density (Vmin = 2.2 ± 0.7 μm/s). Dynein e was expected to be a processive motor, since the relationship between the microtubule landing rate and the surface density of dynein e fitted well with first-power dependence. To obtain insight into the in vivo roles of dynein e, we measured the sliding velocity of microtubules driven by a mixture of dynein e and c at various ratios. The microtubule translocation by the fast dynein c became even faster in the presence of the slow dynein e, which could be explained by assuming that dynein e does not retard motility of faster dyneins. In flagella, dynein e likely acts as a facilitator by holding adjacent microtubules to aid dynein c's power stroke.

  3. Faster Movement Speed Results in Greater Tendon Strain during the Loaded Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Earp, Jacob E.; Newton, Robert U.; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Tendon dynamics influence movement performance and provide the stimulus for long-term tendon adaptation. As tendon strain increases with load magnitude and decreases with loading rate, changes in movement speed during exercise should influence tendon strain. Methods: Ten resistance-trained men [squat one repetition maximum (1RM) to body mass ratio: 1.65 ± 0.12] performed parallel-depth back squat lifts with 60% of 1RM load at three different speeds: slow fixed-tempo (TS: 2-s eccentric, 1-s pause, 2-s concentric), volitional-speed without a pause (VS) and maximum-speed jump (JS). In each condition joint kinetics, quadriceps tendon length (LT), patellar tendon force (FT), and rate of force development (RFDT) were estimated using integrated ultrasonography, motion-capture, and force platform recordings. Results: Peak LT, FT, and RFDT were greater in JS than TS (p < 0.05), however no differences were observed between VS and TS. Thus, moving at faster speeds resulted in both greater tendon stress and strain despite an increased RFDT, as would be predicted of an elastic, but not a viscous, structure. Temporal comparisons showed that LT was greater in TS than JS during the early eccentric phase (10–14% movement duration) where peak RFDT occurred, demonstrating that the tendon's viscous properties predominated during initial eccentric loading. However, during the concentric phase (61–70 and 76–83% movement duration) differing FT and similar RFDT between conditions allowed for the tendon's elastic properties to predominate such that peak tendon strain was greater in JS than TS. Conclusions: Based on our current understanding, there may be an additional mechanical stimulus for tendon adaptation when performing large range-of-motion isoinertial exercises at faster movement speeds.

  4. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  5. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  6. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  7. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  8. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL... or less according to the most recent U.S. Census; (b) The total Step 3 building cost is estimated...

  9. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  11. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  12. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  13. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  15. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  16. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  17. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  18. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  19. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  20. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  1. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  2. 43 CFR 3436.2-3 - Exchange procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2-3 Exchange procedures. (a) Any person meeting the... owner of the coal deposit underlying an alluvial valley floor identify Federal coal deposits that are... deposit underlying or near an alluvial valley floor, the Secretary shall proceed as though there were...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  7. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  9. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  10. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  11. Application of a liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method to the biodistribution and excretion studies of novel 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo (2', 3': 2, 3) betulinic acid (DRF-4012) in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gautam; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Awasthi, Anshumali; Singh, Anu T; Jaggi, Manu; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-06-01

    Novel betulinic acid derivative 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo [2', 3': 2, 3] betulinic acid (DRF-4012) is a new effective lupane type triterpenes with greater anticancer activity and efficacy than betulinic acid and currently under advanced preclinical investigation phase. In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method has been developed for the determination of DRF-4012 in tumour-bearing mice plasma, urine, feces and tissues (liver, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, stomach, thigh muscle, kidneys, urinary bladder, small intestine and tumour). Biodistribution and excretion studies were performed for DRF-4012 nanoparticle (30 mg/kg body weight) after intravenous (i.v.) injection in tumour-bearing mice. DRF-4012 rapidly distributed throughout the body. After 0.5 h, tumour showed the second highest concentration, which was nearly half of the liver. After 4 and 24 h, the highest concentration of DRF-4012 was found in tumour indicating its retention in tumour site for a longer time. Excretion studies revealed that very low amount of unchanged DRF-4012 was observed in urine and primarily excreted through fecal route. This study may be useful to explain the manner in which DRF-4012 can inhibit tumour growth without apparent toxicity and preclinical/clinical evaluation of this potential antitumour agent.

  12. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide. PMID:27606819

  13. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zheguang; Page, Paul; Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide.

  14. Go East for Better Honey Bee Health: Apis cerana Is Faster at Hygienic Behavior than A. mellifera.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zheguang; Page, Paul; Li, Li; Qin, Yao; Zhang, Yingying; Hu, Fuliang; Neumann, Peter; Zheng, Huoqing; Dietemann, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The poor health status of the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, compared to its Eastern counterpart, Apis cerana, is remarkable. This has been attributed to lower pathogen prevalence in A. cerana colonies and to their ability to survive infestations with the ectoparasitic mite, Varroa destructor. These properties have been linked to an enhanced removal of dead or unhealthy immature bees by adult workers in this species. Although such hygienic behavior is known to contribute to honey bee colony health, comparative data of A. mellifera and A. cerana in performing this task are scarce. Here, we compare for the first time the removal of freeze-killed brood in one population of each species and over two seasons in China. Our results show that A. cerana was significantly faster than A. mellifera at both opening cell caps and removing freeze-killed brood. The fast detection and removal of diseased brood is likely to limit the proliferation of pathogenic agents. Given our results can be generalized to the species level, a rapid hygienic response could contribute to the better health of A. cerana. Promoting the fast detection and removal of worker brood through adapted breeding programs could further improve the social immunity of A. mellifera colonies and contribute to a better health status of the Western honey bee worldwide. PMID:27606819

  15. RF Pre-Ionization to Create Faster, Hotter MHD-Driven Jets and Studies of Plasma Expansion Into a Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, Vernon; Bellan, Paul

    2013-10-01

    We are studying MHD-driven jets relevant to astrophysical jets and fusion plasmas. Previous experiments at Caltech have focused on plasmas created by breaking down neutral gas using high voltage. The Paschen breakdown criterion governing this process sets an undesirable lower limit for the jet density. To overcome this constraint, we have developed a pre-ionization system powered by a pulsed, battery-powered, 3 kW 13.56 MHz RF amplifier. Pre-ionization of plasma in a tube behind the jet experiment's center electrode is expected to enable the formation of lower density, hotter, faster jets. Thus far, argon jets have been created with v >30 km/s, twice as fast as was previously achievable. The expansion of the RF plasma into the chamber prior to the discharge of the main capacitor bank involves surprisingly complex dynamics. There are two phases: initially plasma expansion along the background magnetic field is inhibited and the primary source of emission away from the RF antenna appears to be neutral atoms excited by fast electrons or photons from the RF source. At a later time, either before or after RF turn-off depending on the magnetic field configuration, a relatively high density (ne >1018 m-3) , cold (Te < 0.5 eV) cloud of plasma emerges from the source tube.

  16. Order-of-magnitude faster isosurface rendering in software on a PC than using dedicated general-purpose rendering hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevera, George J.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to compare the speed of isosurface rendering in software with that using dedicated hardware. Input data consists of 10 different objects form various parts of the body and various modalities with a variety of surface sizes and shapes. The software rendering technique consists of a particular method of voxel-based surface rendering, called shell rendering. The hardware method is OpenGL-based and uses the surfaces constructed from our implementation of the 'Marching Cubes' algorithm. The hardware environment consists of a variety of platforms including a Sun Ultra I with a Creator3D graphics card and a Silicon Graphics Reality Engine II, both with polygon rendering hardware, and a 300Mhz Pentium PC. The results indicate that the software method was 18 to 31 times faster than any hardware rendering methods. This work demonstrates that a software implementation of a particular rendering algorithm can outperform dedicated hardware. We conclude that for medical surface visualization, expensive dedicated hardware engines are not required. More importantly, available software algorithms on a 300Mhz Pentium PC outperform the speed of rendering via hardware engines by a factor of 18 to 31.

  17. Compounding slow-release capsules: a comprehensive review and an Excel spreadsheet for faster calculations of excipients.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2013-01-01

    Compounding pharmacists throughout the world are compounding a special type of capsule called "slow-release." This type of capsule is a compounding pharmacy application of the commercial hydrophilic matrix tablets. It is a relatively simple system that allows formulating a robust, reliable, and consistent drug system based on 30% w/w to 40% w/w of specific types of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. The main purpose of these capsules is to attenuate the drug release when there is a clinical need and no commercial medication exists. Five in vitro trials verified and proved this kind of preparation can be compounded by specialized pharmacists achieving substantial attenuation of drug release that resembles the pharmacokinetic profiles of commercial slow-release medications. An in-depth explanation of the mechanism of action of the slow-release capsules is provided. Since the pharmaceutical calculations needed to compound this preparation are time consuming, a suggestion of a faster way to perform these calculations by using a special Excel spreadsheet is provided. The article demonstrates a special table with a comparison between the specifications, results, and conclusions of the five in vitro trials that evaluated the pharmacokinetic rates of compounded slow-release capsules. The regulatory aspect of compounding slow-release capsules is also discussed.

  18. Degradation of 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP): hydrolysis, elimination, and reduction by iron and zinc.

    PubMed

    Sarathy, Vaishnavi; Salter, Alexandra J; Nurmi, James T; O'Brien Johnson, Graham; Johnson, Richard L; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2010-01-15

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP) is an emerging contaminant because of increased recognition of its occurrence in groundwater, potential carcinogenicity, and resistance to natural attenuation. The physical and chemical properties of TCP make it difficult to remediate, with all conventional options being relatively slow or inefficient. Treatments that result in alkaline conditions (e.g., permeable reactive barriers containing zerovalent iron) favor base-catalyzed hydrolysis of TCP, but high temperature (e.g., conditions of in situ thermal remediation) is necessary for this reaction to be significant. Common reductants (sulfide, ferrous iron adsorbed to iron oxides, and most forms of construction-grade or nano-Fe(0)) produce insignificant rates of reductive dechlorination of TCP. Quantifiable rates of TCP reduction were obtained with several types of activated nano-Fe(0), but the surface area normalized rate contants (k(SA)) for these reactions were lower than is generally considered useful for in situ remediation applications (10(-4) L m(-2) h(-1)). Much faster rates of degradation of TCP were obtained with granular Zn(0), (k(SA) = 10(-3) - 10(-2) L m(-2) h(-1)) and potentially problematic dechlorination intermediates (1,2- or 1,3-dichloropropane, 3-chloro-1-propene) were not detected. The advantages of Zn(0) over Fe(0) are somewhat peculiar to TCP and may suggest a practical application for Zn(0) even though it has not found favor for remediation of contamination with other chlorinated solvents.

  19. FAMOUS, faster: using parallel computing techniques to accelerate the FAMOUS/HadCM3 climate model with a focus on the radiative transfer algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanappe, P.; Beurivé, A.; Laguzet, F.; Steels, L.; Bellouin, N.; Boucher, O.; Yamazaki, Y. H.; Aina, T.; Allen, M.

    2011-09-01

    We have optimised the atmospheric radiation algorithm of the FAMOUS climate model on several hardware platforms. The optimisation involved translating the Fortran code to C and restructuring the algorithm around the computation of a single air column. Instead of the existing MPI-based domain decomposition, we used a task queue and a thread pool to schedule the computation of individual columns on the available processors. Finally, four air columns are packed together in a single data structure and computed simultaneously using Single Instruction Multiple Data operations. The modified algorithm runs more than 50 times faster on the CELL's Synergistic Processing Element than on its main PowerPC processing element. On Intel-compatible processors, the new radiation code runs 4 times faster. On the tested graphics processor, using OpenCL, we find a speed-up of more than 2.5 times as compared to the original code on the main CPU. Because the radiation code takes more than 60 % of the total CPU time, FAMOUS executes more than twice as fast. Our version of the algorithm returns bit-wise identical results, which demonstrates the robustness of our approach. We estimate that this project required around two and a half man-years of work.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Lawson, L.D.; Corbett, J.T.; McKinney, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay is described for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in commercial preparations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as environmental samples including animal tissues. A feature of the assay method is the use of nonionic detergent to solubilize the hydrophobic dibenzofurans in a manner permitting their binding to antibodies. The detection limits of the assay range between 20 pg and 4.0 ng of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Extensive cross-reactivity studies indicated that the antiserum was fairly specific for TCDF although some cross-reactivity was found to structurally similar compounds. Values for TCDF in various Aroclors and animal tissues by radioimmunoassay correlated with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The radioimmunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening and should be simple enough to be performed in most clinical laboratories. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  1. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  2. Phosphorus accumulates faster than nitrogen globally in freshwater ecosystems under anthropogenic impacts.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengbing; Han, Wenxuan; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Elser, James J; Du, Enzai; Reich, Peter B; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-10-01

    Combined effects of cumulative nutrient inputs and biogeochemical processes that occur in freshwater under anthropogenic eutrophication could lead to myriad shifts in nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in global freshwater ecosystems, but this is not yet well-assessed. Here we evaluated the characteristics of N and P stoichiometries in bodies of freshwater and their herbaceous macrophytes across human-impact levels, regions and periods. Freshwater and its macrophytes had higher N and P concentrations and lower N : P ratios in heavily than lightly human-impacted environments, further evidenced by spatiotemporal comparisons across eutrophication gradients. N and P concentrations in freshwater ecosystems were positively correlated and N : P was negatively correlated with population density in China. These results indicate a faster accumulation of P than N in human-impacted freshwater ecosystems, which could have large effects on the trophic webs and biogeochemical cycles of estuaries and coastal areas by freshwater loadings, and reinforce the importance of rehabilitating these ecosystems. PMID:27501082

  3. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster

    PubMed Central

    Culler, Lauren E.; Ayres, Matthew P.; Virginia, Ross A.

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator–prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2–1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human–natural systems. PMID:26378217

  4. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N.; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G.; King, Ross D.

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist ‘Eve’ designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25652463

  5. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    PubMed

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems.

  6. Dynamic control of light emission faster than the lifetime limit using VO2 phase-change

    PubMed Central

    Cueff, Sébastien; Li, Dongfang; Zhou, You; Wong, Franklin J.; Kurvits, Jonathan A.; Ramanathan, Shriram; Zia, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Modulation is a cornerstone of optical communication, and as such, governs the overall speed of data transmission. Currently, the two main strategies for modulating light are direct modulation of the excited emitter population (for example, using semiconductor lasers) and external optical modulation (for example, using Mach–Zehnder interferometers or ring resonators). However, recent advances in nanophotonics offer an alternative approach to control spontaneous emission through modifications to the local density of optical states. Here, by leveraging the phase-change of a vanadium dioxide nanolayer, we demonstrate broadband all-optical direct modulation of 1.5 μm emission from trivalent erbium ions more than three orders of magnitude faster than their excited state lifetime. This proof-of-concept demonstration shows how integration with phase-change materials can transform widespread phosphorescent materials into high-speed optical sources that can be integrated in monolithic nanoscale devices for both free-space and on-chip communication. PMID:26489436

  7. Topological transitions from multipartite entanglement with tensor networks: a procedure for sharper and faster characterization.

    PubMed

    Orús, Román; Wei, Tzu-Chieh; Buerschaper, Oliver; García-Saez, Artur

    2014-12-19

    Topological order in two-dimensional (2D) quantum matter can be determined by the topological contribution to the entanglement Rényi entropies. However, when close to a quantum phase transition, its calculation becomes cumbersome. Here, we show how topological phase transitions in 2D systems can be much better assessed by multipartite entanglement, as measured by the topological geometric entanglement of blocks. Specifically, we present an efficient tensor network algorithm based on projected entangled pair states to compute this quantity for a torus partitioned into cylinders and then use this method to find sharp evidence of topological phase transitions in 2D systems with a string-tension perturbation. When compared to tensor network methods for Rényi entropies, our approach produces almost perfect accuracies close to criticality and, additionally, is orders of magnitude faster. The method can be adapted to deal with any topological state of the system, including minimally entangled ground states. It also allows us to extract the critical exponent of the correlation length and shows that there is no continuous entanglement loss along renormalization group flows in topological phases.

  8. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  9. Some improvements in the theory of faster-than-light particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Charles

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between differentially conserved quantities (electric current density Jμ, stress tensor density Tμν, etc.) and the conserved integral quantities (charge Q, energy-momentum Pν, etc.) is carefully studied for the case of faster-than-light particles. It is found that there is no problem of "negative-energy states" and no need for the "reinterpretation principle" used by previous authors. The central lesson learned is that the concept of "charge" or "momentum" or "energy" even for a free particle should not be taken as separable from the concept of the particle moving "in" or "out" relative to some interaction. Mathematically it is just a matter of certain minus signs in otherwise familiar formulas, but it is essential to include these factors in order to get a relativistically consistent theory for tachyons. Basic application is made to the classical theory of point particles with electromagnetic interactions, the classical theory of a free field, and the quantum theory of a free field. The earlier tachyon quantum theory of Feinberg is drastically revised.

  10. Eye-hand coordination: saccades are faster when accompanied by a coordinated arm movement.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Lawrence H; Calton, Jeffrey L; Dickinson, Anthony R; Lawrence, Bonnie M

    2002-05-01

    When primates reach for an object, they very often direct an eye movement toward the object as well. This pattern of directing both eye and limb movements to the same object appears to be fundamental to eye-hand coordination. We investigated interactions between saccades and reaching movements in a rhesus monkey model system. The amplitude and peak velocity of isolated eye movements are positively correlated with one another. This relationship is called the main sequence. We now report that the main sequence relationship for saccades is changed during coordinated eye and arm movements. In particular, peak eye velocity is approximately 4% faster for the same size saccade when the saccade is accompanied by a coordinated arm movement. Saccade duration is reduced by an equivalent amount. The main sequence relationship is unperturbed when the arm moves simultaneously but in the opposite direction as the eyes, suggesting that eye and arm movements must be tightly coordinated to produce the effect. Candidate areas mediating this interaction include the posterior parietal cortex and the superior colliculus.

  11. Decadally cycling soil carbon is more sensitive to warming than faster-cycling soil carbon.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junjie; Zhu, Biao; Cheng, Weixin

    2015-12-01

    The response of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools to globally rising surface temperature crucially determines the feedback between climate change and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the temperature sensitivity of decomposition for decadally cycling SOC which is the main component of total soil carbon stock and the most relevant to global change. We tackled this issue using two decadally (13) C-labeled soils and a much improved measuring system in a long-term incubation experiment. Results indicated that the temperature sensitivity of decomposition for decadally cycling SOC (>23 years in one soil and >55 years in the other soil) was significantly greater than that for faster-cycling SOC (<23 or 55 years) or for the entire SOC stock. Moreover, decadally cycling SOC contributed substantially (35-59%) to the total CO2 loss during the 360-day incubation. Overall, these results indicate that the decomposition of decadally cycling SOC is highly sensitive to temperature change, which will likely make this large SOC stock vulnerable to loss by global warming in the 21st century and beyond.

  12. Strong mutator phenotype drives faster adaptation from growth on glucose to growth on acetate in Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, Hervé; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Barloy-Hubler, Frédérique; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Bousarghin, Latifa

    2014-10-01

    The metabolic adaptation of strong mutator strains was studied to better understand the link between the strong mutator phenotype and virulence. Analysis of the growth curves of isogenic strains of Salmonella, which were previously grown in M63 glucose media, revealed that the exponential phase of growth was reached earlier in an M63 acetate medium with strong mutator strains (mutated in mutS or in mutL) than with normomutator strains (P<0.05). Complemented strains confirmed the direct role of the strong mutator phenotype in this faster metabolic adaptation to the assimilation of acetate. In a mixed cell population, proliferation of strong mutators over normomutators was observed when the carbon source was switched from glucose to acetate. These results add to the sparse body of knowledge about strong mutators and highlight the selective advantage conferred by the strong mutator phenotype to adapt to a switch of carbon source in the environment. This work may provide clinically useful information given that there is a high prevalence of strong mutators among pathogenic strains of Salmonella and that acetate is the principal short chain fatty acid of the human terminal ileum and colon where Salmonella infection is localized.

  13. Faster, better, cheaper metrology of lobster-eye (square-pore) optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irving, Thomas H. K.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.; Brumby, Steven P.

    2001-01-01

    Lobster-eye optics have attracted much attention and effort in recent years due to their unique x-ray focusing capabilities. While many advances have been made in the manufacture and analysis of these optics, their characterization and the determination of their metrology remains constrained by the shortcomings of current techniques. We present a faster, better and cheaper method for the determination of many of the metrological parameters of lobster-eye optics. Optical images of the entrance and exit surfaces of an optic are taken. Applying our technique to these images allows measurement of all the geometrical properties that previously have been found to be the major contributors to focusing defects. In addition, the number of free parameters required in fitting a simulated to a measured x-ray image can be greatly reduced. We present results for the characterization of an existing lobster-eye optic and the improved modeling thereby obtained which are in very good agreement with experimental x-ray focusing data.

  14. In a warmer Arctic, mosquitoes avoid increased mortality from predators by growing faster.

    PubMed

    Culler, Lauren E; Ayres, Matthew P; Virginia, Ross A

    2015-09-22

    Climate change is altering environmental temperature, a factor that influences ectothermic organisms by controlling rates of physiological processes. Demographic effects of warming, however, are determined by the expression of these physiological effects through predator-prey and other species interactions. Using field observations and controlled experiments, we measured how increasing temperatures in the Arctic affected development rates and mortality rates (from predation) of immature Arctic mosquitoes in western Greenland. We then developed and parametrized a demographic model to evaluate how temperature affects survival of mosquitoes from the immature to the adult stage. Our studies showed that warming increased development rate of immature mosquitoes (Q10 = 2.8) but also increased daily mortality from increased predation rates by a dytiscid beetle (Q10 = 1.2-1.5). Despite increased daily mortality, the model indicated that faster development and fewer days exposed to predators resulted in an increased probability of mosquito survival to the adult stage. Warming also advanced mosquito phenology, bringing mosquitoes into phenological synchrony with caribou. Increases in biting pests will have negative consequences for caribou and their role as a subsistence resource for local communities. Generalizable frameworks that account for multiple effects of temperature are needed to understand how climate change impacts coupled human-natural systems. PMID:26378217

  15. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax.

  16. Small-amplitude swimmers can self-propel faster in viscoelastic fluids.

    PubMed

    Riley, Emily E; Lauga, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Many small organisms self-propel in viscous fluids using travelling wave-like deformations of their bodies or appendages. Examples include small nematodes moving through soil using whole-body undulations or spermatozoa swimming through mucus using flagellar waves. When self-propulsion occurs in a non-Newtonian fluid, one fundamental question is whether locomotion will occur faster or slower than in a Newtonian environment. Here we consider the general problem of swimming using small-amplitude periodic waves in a viscoelastic fluid described by the classical Oldroyd-B constitutive relationship. Using Taylor's swimming sheet model, we show that if all travelling waves move in the same direction, the locomotion speed of the organism is systematically decreased. However, if we allow waves to travel in two opposite directions, we show that this can lead to enhancement of the swimming speed, which is physically interpreted as due to asymmetric viscoelastic damping of waves with different frequencies. A change of the swimming direction is also possible. By analysing in detail the cases of swimming using two or three travelling waves, we demonstrate that swimming can be enhanced in a viscoelastic fluid for all Deborah numbers below a critical value or, for three waves or more, only for a finite, non-zero range of Deborah numbers, in which case a finite amount of elasticity in the fluid is required to increase the swimming speed.

  17. Phosphorus accumulates faster than nitrogen globally in freshwater ecosystems under anthropogenic impacts.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengbing; Han, Wenxuan; Peñuelas, Josep; Sardans, Jordi; Elser, James J; Du, Enzai; Reich, Peter B; Fang, Jingyun

    2016-10-01

    Combined effects of cumulative nutrient inputs and biogeochemical processes that occur in freshwater under anthropogenic eutrophication could lead to myriad shifts in nitrogen (N):phosphorus (P) stoichiometry in global freshwater ecosystems, but this is not yet well-assessed. Here we evaluated the characteristics of N and P stoichiometries in bodies of freshwater and their herbaceous macrophytes across human-impact levels, regions and periods. Freshwater and its macrophytes had higher N and P concentrations and lower N : P ratios in heavily than lightly human-impacted environments, further evidenced by spatiotemporal comparisons across eutrophication gradients. N and P concentrations in freshwater ecosystems were positively correlated and N : P was negatively correlated with population density in China. These results indicate a faster accumulation of P than N in human-impacted freshwater ecosystems, which could have large effects on the trophic webs and biogeochemical cycles of estuaries and coastal areas by freshwater loadings, and reinforce the importance of rehabilitating these ecosystems.

  18. Small-amplitude swimmers can self-propel faster in viscoelastic fluids.

    PubMed

    Riley, Emily E; Lauga, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Many small organisms self-propel in viscous fluids using travelling wave-like deformations of their bodies or appendages. Examples include small nematodes moving through soil using whole-body undulations or spermatozoa swimming through mucus using flagellar waves. When self-propulsion occurs in a non-Newtonian fluid, one fundamental question is whether locomotion will occur faster or slower than in a Newtonian environment. Here we consider the general problem of swimming using small-amplitude periodic waves in a viscoelastic fluid described by the classical Oldroyd-B constitutive relationship. Using Taylor's swimming sheet model, we show that if all travelling waves move in the same direction, the locomotion speed of the organism is systematically decreased. However, if we allow waves to travel in two opposite directions, we show that this can lead to enhancement of the swimming speed, which is physically interpreted as due to asymmetric viscoelastic damping of waves with different frequencies. A change of the swimming direction is also possible. By analysing in detail the cases of swimming using two or three travelling waves, we demonstrate that swimming can be enhanced in a viscoelastic fluid for all Deborah numbers below a critical value or, for three waves or more, only for a finite, non-zero range of Deborah numbers, in which case a finite amount of elasticity in the fluid is required to increase the swimming speed. PMID:26163369

  19. Dynamics of adaptation at high luminances: adaptation is faster after luminance decrements than after luminance increments.

    PubMed

    Poot, L; Snippe, H P; van Hateren, J H

    1997-09-01

    As is well known, dark adaptation in the human visual system is much slower than is recovery from darkness. We show that at high photopic luminances the situation is exactly opposite. First, we study detection thresholds for a small light flash, at various delays from decrement and increment steps in background luminance. Light adaptation is nearly complete within 100 ms after luminance decrements but takes much longer after luminance increments. Second, we compare sensitivity after equally visible pulses or steps in the adaptation luminance and find that detectability is initially the same but recovers much faster for pulses than for increment steps. This suggests that, whereas any residual threshold elevation after a step shows the incomplete luminance adaptation, the initial threshold elevation is caused by the temporal contrast of the background steps and pulses. This hypothesis is further substantiated in a third experiment, whereby we show that manipulating the contrast of a transition between luminances affects only the initial part of the threshold curve, and not later stages.

  20. Cheaper faster drug development validated by the repositioning of drugs against neglected tropical diseases.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kevin; Bilsland, Elizabeth; Sparkes, Andrew; Aubrey, Wayne; Young, Michael; Soldatova, Larisa N; De Grave, Kurt; Ramon, Jan; de Clare, Michaela; Sirawaraporn, Worachart; Oliver, Stephen G; King, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    There is an urgent need to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. This will enable the development of treatments for diseases currently neglected for economic reasons, such as tropical and orphan diseases, and generally increase the supply of new drugs. Here, we report the Robot Scientist 'Eve' designed to make drug discovery more economical. A Robot Scientist is a laboratory automation system that uses artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to discover scientific knowledge through cycles of experimentation. Eve integrates and automates library-screening, hit-confirmation, and lead generation through cycles of quantitative structure activity relationship learning and testing. Using econometric modelling we demonstrate that the use of AI to select compounds economically outperforms standard drug screening. For further efficiency Eve uses a standardized form of assay to compute Boolean functions of compound properties. These assays can be quickly and cheaply engineered using synthetic biology, enabling more targets to be assayed for a given budget. Eve has repositioned several drugs against specific targets in parasites that cause tropical diseases. One validated discovery is that the anti-cancer compound TNP-470 is a potent inhibitor of dihydrofolate reductase from the malaria-causing parasite Plasmodium vivax. PMID:25652463

  1. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  2. A robust adaptive sampling method for faster acquisition of MR images.

    PubMed

    Vellagoundar, Jaganathan; Machireddy, Ramasubba Reddy

    2015-06-01

    A robust adaptive k-space sampling method is proposed for faster acquisition and reconstruction of MR images. In this method, undersampling patterns are generated based on magnitude profile of a fully acquired 2-D k-space data. Images are reconstructed using compressive sampling reconstruction algorithm. Simulation experiments are done to assess the performance of the proposed method under various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels. The performance of the method is better than non-adaptive variable density sampling method when k-space SNR is greater than 10dB. The method is implemented on a fully acquired multi-slice raw k-space data and a quality assurance phantom data. Data reduction of up to 60% is achieved in the multi-slice imaging data and 75% is achieved in the phantom imaging data. The results show that reconstruction accuracy is improved over non-adaptive or conventional variable density sampling method. The proposed sampling method is signal dependent and the estimation of sampling locations is robust to noise. As a result, it eliminates the necessity of mathematical model and parameter tuning to compute k-space sampling patterns as required in non-adaptive sampling methods.

  3. The cost of defeat: Capuchin groups travel further, faster and later after losing conflicts with neighbors.

    PubMed

    Crofoot, Margaret C

    2013-09-01

    Although competition between social groups is central to hypotheses about the evolution of human social organization, competitive interactions among group-mates are thought to play a more dominant role in shaping the behavior and ecology of other primate species. However, few studies have directly tested the impact of intergroup conflicts in non-human primates. What is the cost of defeat? To address this question, the movements of six neighboring white-faced capuchin (Cebus capucinus) social groups living on Barro Colorado Island, Panama were tracked simultaneously using an Automated Radio Telemetry System (ARTS), for a period of six months. Groups moved 13% (441 m) further on days they lost interactions compared with days they won interactions. To cover these larger distances, they traveled faster, stopped less frequently, and remained active later in the evening. Defeat also caused groups to alter their patterns of space use. Losing groups had straighter travel paths than winning groups, larger net displacements and were more likely to change their sleeping site. These results demonstrate that losing groups pay increased travel costs and suggest that they forage in low-quality areas. They provide some of the first direct evidence that intergroup conflicts have important energetic consequences for members of competitively unsuccessful primate social groups. A better understanding of how intergroup competition impacts patterns of individual fitness is thus needed to clarify the role that this group-level process plays in shaping the evolution of human- and non-human primate behavior.

  4. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai.

    PubMed

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-11-18

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%-3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones.

  5. Differentially-Expressed Genes Associated with Faster Growth of the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Mi-Jin; Kim, Gun-Do; Kim, Jong-Myoung; Lim, Han Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai is used for commercial aquaculture in Korea. We examined the transcriptome of Pacific abalone Haliotis discus hannai siblings using NGS technology to identify genes associated with high growth rates. Pacific abalones grown for 200 days post-fertilization were divided into small-, medium-, and large-size groups with mean weights of 0.26 ± 0.09 g, 1.43 ± 0.405 g, and 5.24 ± 1.09 g, respectively. RNA isolated from the soft tissues of each group was subjected to RNA sequencing. Approximately 1%–3% of the transcripts were differentially expressed in abalones, depending on the growth rate. RT-PCR was carried out on thirty four genes selected to confirm the relative differences in expression detected by RNA sequencing. Six differentially-expressed genes were identified as associated with faster growth of the Pacific abalone. These include five up-regulated genes (including one specific to females) encoding transcripts homologous to incilarin A, perlucin, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein immunoglobulin-heavy chain 3 (ig-h3), vitelline envelope zona pellucida domain 4, and defensin, and one down-regulated gene encoding tomoregulin in large abalones. Most of the transcripts were expressed predominantly in the hepatopancreas. The genes identified in this study will lead to development of markers for identification of high-growth-rate abalones and female abalones. PMID:26593905

  6. Soft robotics: a review and progress towards faster and higher torque actuators (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Last year, nearly 160,000 industrial robots were shipped worldwide—into a total market valued at 26 Bn (including hardware, software, and peripherals).[1] Service robots for professional (e.g., defense, medical, agriculture) and personal (e.g., household, handicap assistance, toys, and education) use accounted for 16,000 units, 3.4 Bn and 3,000,000 units, $1.2 Bn respectively.[1] The vast majority of these robotic systems use fully actuated, rigid components that take little advantage of passive dynamics. Soft robotics is a field that is taking advantage of compliant actuators and passive dynamics to achieve several goals: reduced design, manufacturing and control complexity, improved energy efficiency, more sophisticated motions, and safe human-machine interactions to name a few. The potential for societal impact is immense. In some instances, soft actuators have achieved commercial success; however, large scale adoption will require improved methods of controlling non-linear systems, greater reliability in their function, and increased utility from faster and more forceful actuation. In my talk, I will describe efforts from my work in the Whitesides group at Harvard to prove sophisticated motions in these machines using simple controls, as well capabilities unique to soft machines. I will also describe the potential for combinations of different classes of soft actuators (e.g., electrically and pneumatically actuated systems) to improve the utility of soft robots. 1. World Robotics - Industrial Robots 2013, 2013, International Federation of Robotics.

  7. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  8. Decadally cycling soil carbon is more sensitive to warming than faster-cycling soil carbon.

    PubMed

    Lin, Junjie; Zhu, Biao; Cheng, Weixin

    2015-12-01

    The response of soil organic carbon (SOC) pools to globally rising surface temperature crucially determines the feedback between climate change and the global carbon cycle. However, there is a lack of studies investigating the temperature sensitivity of decomposition for decadally cycling SOC which is the main component of total soil carbon stock and the most relevant to global change. We tackled this issue using two decadally (13) C-labeled soils and a much improved measuring system in a long-term incubation experiment. Results indicated that the temperature sensitivity of decomposition for decadally cycling SOC (>23 years in one soil and >55 years in the other soil) was significantly greater than that for faster-cycling SOC (<23 or 55 years) or for the entire SOC stock. Moreover, decadally cycling SOC contributed substantially (35-59%) to the total CO2 loss during the 360-day incubation. Overall, these results indicate that the decomposition of decadally cycling SOC is highly sensitive to temperature change, which will likely make this large SOC stock vulnerable to loss by global warming in the 21st century and beyond. PMID:26301625

  9. 1/f noise measurements for faster evaluation of electromigration in advanced microelectronics interconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyne, Sofie; Croes, Kristof; De Wolf, Ingrid; Tőkei, Zsolt

    2016-05-01

    The use of 1/f noise measurements is explored for the purpose of finding faster techniques for electromigration (EM) characterization in advanced microelectronic interconnects, which also enable a better understanding of its underlying physical mechanisms. Three different applications of 1/f noise for EM characterization are explored. First, whether 1/f noise measurements during EM stress can serve as an early indicator of EM damage. Second, whether the current dependence of the noise power spectral density (PSD) can be used for a qualitative comparison of the defect concentration of different interconnects and consequently also their EM lifetime t50. Third, whether the activation energies obtained from the temperature dependence of the 1/f noise PSD correspond to the activation energies found by means of classic EM tests. In this paper, the 1/f noise technique has been used to assess and compare the EM properties of various advanced integration schemes and different materials, as they are being explored by the industry to enable advanced interconnect scaling. More concrete, different types of copper interconnects and one type of tungsten interconnect are compared. The 1/f noise measurements confirm the excellent electromigration properties of tungsten and demonstrate a dependence of the EM failure mechanism on copper grain size and distribution, where grain boundary diffusion is found to be a dominant failure mechanism.

  10. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. X chromosomes and autosomes evolve at similar rates in Drosophila: no evidence for faster-X protein evolution.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Kevin; Bachtrog, Doris; Andolfatto, Peter

    2006-04-01

    Recent data from Drosophila suggest that a substantial fraction of amino acid substitutions observed between species are beneficial. If these beneficial mutations are on average partially recessive, then the rate of protein evolution is predicted to be faster for X-linked genes compared to autosomal genes (the "faster-X" hypothesis). We test this prediction by comparing rates of protein substitutions between orthologous genes, taking advantage of variations in chromosome fusions within the genus Drosophila. In members of the Drosophila melanogaster species group, the chromosomal arm 3L segregates as an ordinary autosome (i.e., two homologous copies in both males and females). However, in the Drosophila pseudoobscura species group, this chromosomal arm has become fused to the ancestral X chromosome and is hemizygous in males. The faster-X hypothesis predicts that protein evolution should be faster for genes on this chromosomal arm in the D. pseudoobscura lineage, relative to the D. melanogaster lineage. Here we combine new sequence data for 202 gene fragments in Drosophila miranda (in the pseudoobscura species group) with the completed genomes of D. melanogaster, D. pseudoobscura, and Drosophila yakuba to show that there are no detectable differences in rates of amino acid evolution for orthologous X-linked and autosomal genes. Our results imply that the contribution of the faster-X (if any) to the large-X effect on reproductive isolation in Drosophila is not due to a generally faster rate of protein evolution. The lack of a detectable faster-X effect in these species suggests either that beneficial amino acids are not partially recessive on average, or that adaptive evolution does not often use newly arising amino acid mutations.

  12. Stimulus- and goal-driven control of eye movements: action videogame players are faster but not better.

    PubMed

    Heimler, Benedetta; Pavani, Francesco; Donk, Mieke; van Zoest, Wieske

    2014-11-01

    Action videogame players (AVGPs) have been shown to outperform nongamers (NVGPs) in covert visual attention tasks. These advantages have been attributed to improved top-down control in this population. The time course of visual selection, which permits researchers to highlight when top-down strategies start to control performance, has rarely been investigated in AVGPs. Here, we addressed specifically this issue through an oculomotor additional-singleton paradigm. Participants were instructed to make a saccadic eye movement to a unique orientation singleton. The target was presented among homogeneous nontargets and one additional orientation singleton that was more, equally, or less salient than the target. Saliency was manipulated in the color dimension. Our results showed similar patterns of performance for both AVGPs and NVGPs: Fast-initiated saccades were saliency-driven, whereas later-initiated saccades were more goal-driven. However, although AVGPs were faster than NVGPs, they were also less accurate. Importantly, a multinomial model applied to the data revealed comparable underlying saliency-driven and goal-driven functions for the two groups. Taken together, the observed differences in performance are compatible with the presence of a lower decision bound for releasing saccades in AVGPs than in NVGPs, in the context of comparable temporal interplay between the underlying attentional mechanisms. In sum, the present findings show that in both AVGPs and NVGPs, the implementation of top-down control in visual selection takes time to come about, and they argue against the idea of a general enhancement of top-down control in AVGPs. PMID:25073611

  13. Responses of cardiac natriuretic peptides after paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia: ANP surges faster than BNP and CNP.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Jen-Yuan; Wang, An-Mei; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Hung, Chung-Lieh; Chen, Chun-Yen; Shih, Bing-Fu; Yeh, Hung-I

    2016-03-15

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion increases after 30 min of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT). Whether this phenomenon also applies to brain or C-type natriuretic peptides (BNP or CNP) remains unknown. Blood samples of 18 patients (41 ± 11 yr old; 4 men) with symptomatic PSVT and normal left ventricular systolic function (ejection fraction 65 ± 6%) were collected from the coronary sinus (CS) and the femoral artery (FA) before and 30 min after the induction, and 30 min after the termination of PSVT. The results showed that the ANP levels rose steeply after the PSVT and then reduced at 30 min after the termination (baseline vs. post-PSVT vs. posttermination: CS: 34.0 ± 29.6 vs. 74.1 ± 42.3 vs. 46.1 ± 32.9; FA: 5.9 ± 3.24 vs. 28.2 ± 20.7 vs. 10.0 ± 4.6 pg/ml; all P < 0.05). In contrast, compared with ANP, the increases of BNP and CNP in CS after the PSVT were less sharp, but continued to rise after the termination of tachycardia (BNP, 10.2 ± 6.4 vs. 11.3 ± 7.1 vs. 11.8 ± 7.9; CNP, 4.5 ± 1.2 vs. 4.9 ± 1.4 vs. 5.0 ± 1.4 pg/ml; all P < 0.05). The rise of BNP and CNP in FA was similarly less sharp after the PSVT and remained stationary after the termination. PSVT exerted differential effects on cardiac natriuretic peptide levels. ANP increased greater after a 30-min induced PSVT, but dropped faster after termination of PSVT, compared with BNP and CNP.

  14. WEIBEL, TWO-STREAM, FILAMENTATION, OBLIQUE, BELL, BUNEMAN...WHICH ONE GROWS FASTER?

    SciTech Connect

    Bret, A.

    2009-07-10

    Many competing linear instabilities are likely to occur in astrophysical settings, and it is important to assess which one grows faster for a given situation. An analytical model including the main beam plasma instabilities is developed. The full three-dimensional dielectric tensor is thus explained for a cold relativistic electron beam passing through a cold plasma, accounting for a guiding magnetic field, a return electronic current, and moving protons. Considering any orientations of the wave vector allows to retrieve the most unstable mode for any parameters set. An unified description of the filamentation (Weibel), two-stream, Buneman, Bell instabilities (and more) is thus provided, allowing for the exact determination of their hierarchy in terms of the system parameters. For relevance to both real situations and PIC simulations, the electron-to-proton mass ratio is treated as a parameter, and numerical calculations are conducted with two different values, namely 1/1836 and 1/100. In the system parameter phase space, the shape of the domains governed by each kind of instability is far from being trivial. For low-density beams, the ultra-magnetized regime tends to be governed by either the two-stream or the Buneman instabilities. For beam densities equaling the plasma one, up to four kinds of modes are likely to play a role, depending of the beam Lorentz factor. In some regions of the system parameters phase space, the dominant mode may vary with the electron-to-proton mass ratio. Application is made to solar flares, intergalactic streams, and relativistic shocks physics.

  15. The road from Santa Rosalia: A faster tempo of evolution in tropical climates

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Shane; Keeling, Jeannette; Gillman, Len

    2006-01-01

    Using an appropriately designed and replicated study of a latitudinal influence on rates of evolution, we test the prediction by K. Rohde [(1992) Oikos 65, 514–527] that the tempo of molecular evolution in the tropics is greater than at higher latitudes. Consistent with this prediction we found tropical plant species had more than twice the rate of molecular evolution as closely related temperate congeners. Rohde’s climate-speciation hypothesis constitutes one explanation for the cause of that relationship. This hypothesis suggests that mutagenesis occurs more frequently as productivity and metabolic rates increase toward the equator. More rapid mutagenesis was then proposed as the mechanism that increases evolutionary tempo and rates of speciation. A second possible explanation is that faster rates of molecular evolution result from higher tropical speciation rates [e.g., Bromham, L. & Cardillo, M. (2003) J. Evol. Biol. 16, 200–207]. However, we found the relationship continued to hold for genera with the same number of, or more, species in temperate latitudes. This finding suggests that greater rates of speciation in the tropics do not cause higher rates of molecular evolution. A third explanation is that more rapid genetic drift might have occurred in smaller tropical species populations [Stevens, G. C. (1989) Am. Nat. 133, 240–256]. However, we targeted common species to limit the influence of genetic drift, and many of the tropical species we used, despite occurring in abundant populations, had much higher rates of molecular evolution. Nonetheless, this issue is not completely resolved by that precaution and requires further examination. PMID:16672371

  16. Natural enemies act faster than endophytic fungi in population control of cereal aphids.

    PubMed

    Härri, Simone A; Krauss, Jochen; Müller, Christine B

    2008-05-01

    1. Fast-growing populations of phytophagous insects can be limited by the presence of natural enemies and by alkaloids that are produced by symbiotic associations of many temperate grass species with endophytic fungi. It is unclear if and how acquired plant defences derived from endophytic fungi interact with natural enemies to affect phytophagous insect populations. 2. To assess the relative importance of endophytic fungi compared to that of natural enemies on the population dynamics of phytophagous insects, we carried out a fully factorial field experiment, in which the presence of natural enemies and the presence of endophytic fungi were manipulated simultaneously. Target colonies of aphids were monitored for 8 weeks starting from their natural appearance in the field to the end of the aphid season. 3. We show that on Lolium perenne increased natural enemy densities reduced the individual numbers of two common cereal aphids, Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium festucae. 4. The presence of the endophytic fungi Neotyphodium lolii reduced the number of M. festucae but did not affect the number of R. padi. The reduction in R. padi numbers by predators and parasitoids was not influenced by the presence of endophytes. For adult M. festucae, however, the negative effects of natural enemies were significant only in the absence of endophytes. 5. Over the duration of the experiment, the effect of natural enemies on aphid colony growth was much stronger than the effect of the endophytic fungi N. lolii, presumably because predator and parasitoid action on aphid colonies is much faster than any effects of endophytes. 6. Our results demonstrate that with simultaneous action of acquired endosymbionts and natural enemies, both factors can control aphid colony growth but they generally act independently of each other.

  17. A faster and economical approach to floodplain mapping using the SSURGO soil database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangwan, N.; Merwade, V.

    2014-12-01

    Floods are the most damaging of all natural disasters, adversely affecting millions of lives and causing financial losses worth billions of dollars every year across the globe. Flood inundation maps play a key role in the assessment and mitigation of potential flood hazards. However, there are several communities in the United States where flood risk maps are not available due to the lack of the resources needed to create such maps through the conventional modeling approach. The objective of this study is to develop and examine an economical alternative approach to floodplain mapping using widely available SSURGO soil data in the United States. By using the state of Indiana as a test case, floodplain maps are developed for the entire state by identifying the flood-prone soil map units based on their attributes recorded in the SSURGO database. For validation, the flood extents obtained from the soil data are compared with the extents predicted by other floodplain maps, including the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) issued Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRM), flood extents observed during past floods, and other flood maps derived using Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). In general, SSURGO based floodplain maps are found to be largely in agreement with flood inundation maps created by FEMA. Comparison between the FEMA maps and the SSURGO derived floodplain maps show an overlap ranging from 65 to 90 percent. Similar results are also found when the SSURGO derived floodplain maps are compared with FEMA maps for recent flood events in other states including Minnesota, Washington and Wisconsin. Although not in perfect conformance with reference flood maps, the SSURGO soil data approach offers an economical and faster alternative to floodplain mapping in areas where detailed flood modeling and mapping has not been conducted.

  18. Faster qualification of 193-nm resists for 100-nm development using photo cell monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Chris M.; Kallingal, Chidam; Zawadzki, Mary T.; Jeewakhan, Nazneen N.; Kaviani, Nazila N.; Krishnan, Prakash; Klaum, Arthur D.; Van Ess, Joel

    2003-05-01

    The development of 100-nm design rule technologies is currently taking place in many R&D facilities across the world. For some critical alyers, the transition to 193-nm resist technology has been required to meet this leading edge design rule. As with previous technology node transitions, the materials and processes available are undergoing changes and improvements as vendors encounter and solve problems. The initial implementation of the 193-nm resits process did not meet the photolithography requirements of some IC manufacturers due to very high Post Exposure Bake temperature sensitivity and consequently high wafer to wafer CD variation. The photoresist vendors have been working to improve the performance of the 193-nm resists to meet their customer's requirements. Characterization of these new resists needs to be carried out prior to implementation in the R&D line. Initial results on the second-generation resists evaluated at Cypress Semicondcutor showed better CD control compared to the aelrier resist with comparable Depth of Focus (DOF), Exposure Latitute, Etch Resistance, etc. In addition to the standard lithography parameters, resist characterization needs to include defect density studies. It was found that the new resists process with the best CD control, resulted in the introduction of orders of magnitude higher yield limiting defects at Gate, Contact adn Local Interconnect. The defect data were shared with the resists vendor and within days of the discovery the resist vendor was able to pinpoint the source of the problem. The fix was confirmed and the new resists were successfully released to production. By including defect monitoring into the resist qualification process, Cypress Semiconductor was able to 1) drive correction actions earlier resulting in faster ramp and 2) eliminate potential yield loss. We will discuss in this paper how to apply the Micro Photo Cell Monitoring methodology for defect monitoring in the photolithogprhay module and the

  19. Sharper, Stronger, Faster Upper Visual Field Representation in Primate Superior Colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hafed, Ziad M; Chen, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-11

    Visually guided behavior in three-dimensional environments entails handling immensely different sensory and motor conditions across retinotopic visual field locations: peri-personal ("near") space is predominantly viewed through the lower retinotopic visual field (LVF), whereas extra-personal ("far") space encompasses the upper visual field (UVF). Thus, when, say, driving a car, orienting toward the instrument cluster below eye level is different from scanning an upcoming intersection, even with similarly sized eye movements. However, an overwhelming assumption about visuomotor circuits for eye-movement exploration, like those in the primate superior colliculus (SC), is that they represent visual space in a purely symmetric fashion across the horizontal meridian. Motivated by ecological constraints on visual exploration of far space, containing small UVF retinal-image features, here we found a large, multi-faceted difference in the SC's representation of the UVF versus LVF. Receptive fields are smaller, more finely tuned to image spatial structure, and more sensitive to image contrast for neurons representing the UVF. Stronger UVF responses also occur faster. Analysis of putative synaptic activity revealed a particularly categorical change when the horizontal meridian is crossed, and our observations correctly predicted novel eye-movement effects. Despite its appearance as a continuous layered sheet of neural tissue, the SC contains functional discontinuities between UVF and LVF representations, paralleling a physical discontinuity present in cortical visual areas. Our results motivate the recasting of structure-function relationships in the visual system from an ecological perspective, and also exemplify strong coherence between brain-circuit organization for visually guided exploration and the nature of the three-dimensional environment in which we function. PMID:27291052

  20. Action-effect congruence during observational learning leads to faster action sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Jared C; Gray, Zachary; Schilberg, Lukas; Vidrin, Ilya; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Common coding theory suggests that any action (pressing a piano key) is intimately linked with its resultant sensory effect (an auditory musical tone). We conducted two experiments to explore the effect of varying auditory action-effect patterns during complex action learning. In Experiment 1, participants were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, watched a silent video of a hand playing a sequence on a piano keyboard with no auditory action effect (observation) and were asked to practise and perform the sequence on an identical keyboard with varying action effects (reproduction). During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones (identical to observed video), Group 2 heard typical scale-ascending piano tones with each key press, Group 3 heard fixed but out-of-sequence piano tones with each key press, and Group 4 heard random piano tones with each key press. In Experiment two, new participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and watched an identical video; however, the video in this experiment contained typical, scale-ascending piano sounds. During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones while Group 2 heard typical, scale-ascending piano tones with each key press (identical to observed video). Our results showed that participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction matched those in the observed video learned the action sequence faster than participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction differed from those in the observed video. Additionally, our results suggest that adding an effect during reproduction (when one is absent during observation) is somewhat more detrimental to action sequence learning than removing an effect during reproduction (when one is present during observation).

  1. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R [Clinton, TN; Bingham, Philip R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  2. Faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.

    2006-10-03

    Systems and methods are described for faster processing of multiple spatially-heterodyned direct to digital holograms. A method includes of obtaining multiple spatially-heterodyned holograms, includes: digitally recording a first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; digitally recording a second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes for Fourier analysis; Fourier analyzing the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a first original origin of the recorded first spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a first angle between a first reference beam and a first, object beam; applying a first digital filter to cut off signals around the first original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result; Fourier analyzing the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram by shifting a second original origin of the recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram including spatial heterodyne fringes in Fourier space to sit on top of a spatial-heterodyne carrier frequency defined as a second angle between a second reference beam and a second object beam; and applying a second digital filter to cut off signals around the second original origin and performing an inverse Fourier transform on the result, wherein digitally recording the first spatially-heterodyned hologram is completed before digitally recording the second spatially-heterodyned hologram and a single digital image includes both the first spatially-heterodyned hologram and the second spatially-heterodyned hologram.

  3. Application of enzymatic apple pomace hydrolysate to production of 2,3-butanediol by alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059.

    PubMed

    Białkowska, Aneta M; Gromek, Ewa; Krysiak, Joanna; Sikora, Barbara; Kalinowska, Halina; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Kubik, Celina; Lang, Siegmund; Schütt, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis by a nonpathogenic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059 from enzymatic hydrolysate of depectinized apple pomace and its blend with glucose was studied. In shake flasks, the maximum diol concentration in fed-batch fermentations was 113 g/L (in 163 h, from the hydrolysate, feedings with glucose) while in batch processes it was around 27 g/L (in 32 h, from the hydrolysate and glucose blend). Fed-batch fermentations in the 0.75 and 30 L fermenters yielded 87.71 g/L 2,3-BD in 160 h, and 72.39 g/L 2,3-BD in 94 h, respectively (from the hydrolysate and glucose blend, feedings with glucose). The hydrolysate of apple pomace, which was for the first time used for microbial 2,3-BD production is not only a source of sugars but also essential minerals. PMID:26445877

  4. Spiders appear to move faster than non-threatening objects regardless of one's ability to block them.

    PubMed

    Witt, Jessica K; Sugovic, Mila

    2013-07-01

    We examined whether perception of a threatening object - a spider - was more accurate than of a non-threatening object. An accurate perception could promote better survival than a biased perception. However, if biases encourage faster responses and more appropriate behaviors, then under the right circumstances, perceptual biases could promote better survival. We found that spiders appeared to be moving faster than balls and ladybugs. Furthermore, the perceiver's ability to act on the object also influenced perceived speed: the object looked faster when it was more difficult to block. Both effects--the threat of the object and the perceiver's blocking abilities--acted independently from each other. The results suggest effects of multiple types of affordances on perception of speed. PMID:23692998

  5. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J W; Antane, M; Nguyen, T T; Collini, M D; Antane, S; Bender, R; Hartupee, D; White, V; McCallum, J; Park, C H

    1994-02-18

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II (A II) antagonists was synthesized and tested for antagonism of A II. Compounds with a biphenylyltetrazole pharmacophore and small alkyl groups at the 2- and 4-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring were found to be the most potent in an AT1 receptor binding assay and in blocking the A II pressor response in anesthetized, ganglion-blocked A II-infused rats. 5,8-Dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-8-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one (4a) was one of the more potent compounds in the binding assay and was the most efficacious compound in the A II-infused rat model. Further study of 4a in Goldblatt (2K-1C) rats showed the compound to have oral bioavailability and to be an efficacious and potent compound in a high renin form of hypertension.

  6. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  7. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  8. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  9. Removal Tools are Faster and Produce Less Force and Torque on the Helmet Than Cutting Tools During Face-Mask Retraction

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Heather L.; Valovich, Tamara C.; Arnold, Brent L.; Gansneder, Bruce M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the retraction time, forces, and torques applied to the football helmet during removal of the face mask with different face-mask removal tools. Design and Setting: Subjects retracted the face mask of a football helmet mounted to a force platform in a laboratory setting. They removed a standard face mask by cutting or removing (or both) the lateral plastic loop straps using 4 different tools: the Trainer's Angel (TA), FM Extractor (FM), power screwdriver (SD), and Quick Release System (QR) in a counterbalanced fashion. Subjects: Eighteen certified athletic trainers participated in this study. Measurements: We started measuring time when the subject picked up the tool and ended when the face mask was in a fully retracted position. Maximum forces and torques were measured from the force platform during the retraction process. Results: The SD and QR retracted the face mask significantly faster than the TA and FM. Forces producing superior-inferior translation were least with the SD. The SD and QR produced less lateral translation and rotation and lateral flexion moment than the TA and FM. The FM produced less torque in the lateral flexion moment than the TA. Conclusions: Tools that removed the loop straps (SD, QR) were faster and produced less force and torque on the helmet than the tools that cut through the loop straps (TA, FM). PMID:12937580

  10. Evidence for shifts to faster growth strategies in the new ranges of invasive alien plants

    PubMed Central

    Leishman, Michelle R; Cooke, Julia; Richardson, David M; Newman, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    novel environment commonly results in a reduction in the top-down constraint imposed by herbivores on growth, allowing plants to shift towards a faster growth strategy which may result in an increase in population size and spread and consequently to invasive success. PMID:25558090

  11. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  12. Does 2,3-butanedione monoxime inhibit nonmuscle myosin?

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Fabian, Lacramioara

    2005-04-01

    BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime) has been used extensively to inhibit nonmuscle myosin. However, recent articles raise the question of what BDM actually does, because of experiments in which BDM did not affect the actin-activated ATPase of nonmuscle myosins. We describe results that indicate that BDM indeed inhibits motility due to nonmuscle myosins: in many different cells BDM has the same effects as anti-actin agents and/or as other anti-myosin agents, and BDM slows or stops the sliding between actin filaments and myosin in vitro. We discuss how the two sets of apparently contradictory results might be resolved, and we suggest possible experiments that might clarify the contradictory interpretations. PMID:15868207

  13. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  14. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  15. Deexcitation of helium 2 3S, 2 1S, and 2 3P atoms at Ar and Xe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oró, D. M.; Soletsky, P. A.; Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Walters, G. K.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of ejected electron energy distributions are used in conjunction with electron spin labeling techniques to probe the mechanisms by which He(2 3S), He(2 1S), and He(2 3P) atoms are deexcited at Ar and Xe films adsorbed on a cooled Cu(100) substrate. The data for both surfaces contain features similar to those observed in gas-phase Penning ionization, indicating that ejection results, in part, from Auger deexcitation, i.e., surface Penning ionization. For Xe, however, additional features are observed that can be attributed to resonance ionization of an incident excited atom followed by neutralization of the resulting He+ ion through an interaction that involves neighboring Xe atoms in the film. Indeed, the Xe data provide an exceptional example of a surface at which Auger deexcitation and resonance ionization occur in parallel with one another, with a branching ratio that changes significantly as the internal energy of the incident atoms increases. The ejected electron yield from both Ar and Xe films is substantially higher than for clean Cu(100), indicating that such films might form the basis of an efficient thermal-energy helium metastable-atom detector.

  16. Faster development does not lead to correlated evolution of greater pre-adult competitive ability in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Shakarad, Mallikarjun; Prasad, N G; Gokhale, Kaustubh; Gadagkar, Vikram; Rajamani, M; Joshi, Amitabh

    2005-03-22

    In comparisons across Drosophila species, faster pre-adult development is phenotypically correlated with increased pre-adult competitive ability, suggesting that these two traits may also be evolutionary correlates of one another. However, correlations between traits within- and among- species can differ, and in most cases it is the within-species genetic correlations that are likely to act as constraints on adaptive evolution. Moreover, laboratory studies on Drosophila melanogaster have shown that the suite of traits that evolves in populations subjected to selection for faster development is the opposite of the traits that evolve in populations selected for increased pre-adult competitive ability. This observation led us to propose that, despite having a higher carrying capacity and a reduced minimum food requirement for completing development than controls, D. melanogaster populations subjected to selection for faster development should have lower competitive ability than controls owing to their reduced larval feeding rates and urea tolerance. Here, we describe results from pre-adult competition experiments that clearly show that the faster developing populations are substantially poorer competitors than controls when reared at high density in competition with a marked mutant strain. We briefly discuss these results in the context of different formulations of density-dependent selection theory.

  17. Farther, Faster: Six Promising Programs Show How Career Pathway Bridges Help Basic Skills Students Earn Credentials That Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Students forced to complete a long sequence of remedial or English language classes before they can begin their postsecondary program rarely earn college certificates or degrees. This brief highlights six promising programs that show how career pathway bridges help lower-skilled students move farther and faster along college and career paths…

  18. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  19. Faster, Faster! Broadband Access to the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Mark

    1999-01-01

    Defines "plain old telephone service" (POTS) and broadband communication, comparing costs and performance of cable modems with POTS modems. Describes Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) and digital subscriber line (DSL) services. Discusses broadband wireless and satellite networks. Three sidebars illustrate differences between…

  20. L-selenomethionine reduces platinum(IV) anticancer model compounds at strikingly faster rates than L-methionine.

    PubMed

    Huo, Shuying; Dong, Jingran; Shen, Shigang; Ren, Yanli; Song, Changying; Xu, Jianzhong; Shi, Tiesheng

    2014-11-01

    L-Selenomethionine (SeMet), the predominant form of selenium acquired from the diet by humans, has been used as a supplement, and exhibit some important functions like cancer prevention and antioxidative defense. Its interactions with Pt(II) anticancer drugs have been characterized, but its redox reactions with platinum(IV) anticancer prodrugs have not been exploited. In this work, the oxidation of SeMet by Pt(IV) anticancer model compounds trans-[PtX2(CN)4](2-) (X = Cl, Br) was characterized. A stopped-flow spectrometer was used to record the rapid scan spectra and to follow the reaction kinetics over a wide pH range. An overall second-order rate law was derived: -d[Pt(IV)]/dt = k'[Pt(IV)][SeMet], where k' pertains to the observed second-order rate constants. The k'-pH profiles showed that k' increased only about 6 times even though the solution pH was varied from 0.25 to 10.5. The redox stoichiometry was determined as Δ[Pt(IV)]/Δ[SeMet] = 1 : (1.07 ± 0.07), suggesting that SeMet was oxidized to selenomethionine selenoxide. The selenoxide together with its hydrated form was identified explicitly by high resolution mass spectral analysis. A reaction mechanism was proposed which encompassed three parallel rate-determining steps relying on the protolytic species of SeMet. Rate constants of the rate-determining steps were obtained from the simulations of the k'-pH profiles. Activation parameters were determined for the reactions of the zwitterionic form of SeMet with the Pt(IV) complexes. A bridged electron transfer process is delineated in the rate-determining steps and several lines of evidence support the bridged electron transfer mode. Strikingly, reduction of [PtX2(CN)4](2-) by SeMet is 3.7 × 10(3)-5.7 × 10(4) times faster than that by L-methionine. Some potential biological consequences resulting from the strikingly fast reduction are discussed.

  1. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  2. Identification of cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate in Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 culture.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Emily; Oberc, Christopher; Ameen, Eve; da Silva, Amanda Mendes; Yan, Hongbin

    2014-09-15

    Cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cCMP) and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cUMP) were isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 cell extracts by semi-preparative reverse phase HPLC. The structures of the two compounds were confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopy against commercially available authentic samples. Concentrations of both intracellular and extracellular 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP were determined. Addition of 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP to P. fluorescens pfo-1 culture did not significantly affect the level of biofilm formation in static liquid cultures. PMID:25139571

  3. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  4. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  5. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  7. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  8. Ferryl derivatives of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2011-06-17

    The critical role of the ferryl intermediate in catalyzing the oxygen chemistry of monooxygenases, oxidases, or peroxidases has been known for decades. In contrast, its involvement in heme-based dioxygenases, such as human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), was not recognized until recently. In this study, H(2)O(2) was used as a surrogate to generate the ferryl intermediate of hIDO. Spectroscopic data demonstrate that the ferryl species is capable of oxidizing azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) but not L-Trp. Kinetic studies reveal that the conversion of the ferric enzyme to the ferryl intermediate facilitates the L-Trp binding rate by >400-fold; conversely, L-Trp binding to the enzyme retards the peroxide reaction rate by ∼9-fold, because of the significant elevation of the entropic barrier. The unfavorable entropic factor for the peroxide reaction highlights the scenario that the structure of hIDO is not optimized for utilizing H(2)O(2) as a co-substrate for oxidizing L-Trp. Titration studies show that the ferryl intermediate possesses two substrate-binding sites with a K(d) of 0.3 and 440 μM and that the electronic properties of the ferryl moiety are sensitive to the occupancy of the two substrate-binding sites. The implications of the data are discussed in the context of the structural and functional relationships of the enzyme. PMID:21502325

  9. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  10. Hotter, Faster: A Thermal Model for the H-Chondrite Parent Body Consistent with Chronology and Cooling Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Bennett, M. E., III

    1995-09-01

    HOTTER, FASTER: A THERMAL MODEL FOR THE H-CHONDRITE PARENT BODY CONSISTENT WITH CHRONOLOGY AND COOLING RATES. H. Y. McSween, Jr. and M. E. Bennett, III, Department of Geological Sciences, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996, USA. Because of the abundant sampling and relatively low shock levels of H chondrites, their thermal histories are more tightly constrained than for other ordinary chondrites; consequently, rigorous models for the thermal evolution of their parent asteroid can be formulated that are not possible for other chondrite groups. A revised thermal model for the H-chondrite parent asteroid [Bennett and McSween], based on heating by decay of 26Al, follows the formulation of [Miyamoto and Fujii] except: the unfounded constraint that the relative volumes of different petrologic types must mimic meteorite fall statistics is removed, a shortened thermal history of 60 Ma [Gopel et al] rather than 100 Ma is adopted, and improved geothermometry constraints and measurements of thermal properties [Yomogida and Matsui] are used. Our new model predicts a parent body of approximately 88 kilometers radius, containing a much larger volumetric proportion (71%) of H6 material than in the previous model, with a high thermal gradient and correspondingly small proportions of H5 and H4 material (together comprising 10%) near the surface. Constraints on chronology and cooling rates from H chondrites are used as independent tests of the model. 26Al heating requires that the body accreted 1.5-3.1 Ma after formation of CAIs to reach the measured peak temperature for H6 chondrites, consistent with the 3.0 + 2.6 Ma estimate from Pb/Pb chronology [Gopel et al]. Times of Pb isotopic closure, relative to CAIs, in H-chondrite phosphates (3-5 Ma for H4, 10-16 Ma for H5, 42-62 Ma for H6, from [Gopel et al]) precisely overlap the thermal model estimates. In particular, the markedly shorter duration of heating for H4-5 chondrites agrees with model predictions. The model also

  11. Decisions beyond boundaries: when more information is processed faster than less.

    PubMed

    Glöckner, Andreas; Betsch, Tilmann

    2012-03-01

    Bounded rationality models usually converge in claiming that decision time and the amount of computational steps needed to come to a decision are positively correlated. The empirical evidence for this claim is, however, equivocal. We conducted a study that tests this claim by adding and omitting information. We demonstrate that even an increase in information amount can yield a decrease in decision time if the added information increases coherence in the information set. Rather than being influenced by amount of information, decision time systematically increased with decreasing coherence. The results are discussed with reference to a parallel constraint satisfaction approach to decision making, which assumes that information integration is operated in an automatic, holistic manner.

  12. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  13. Faster extraction of heavy metals from soils using vacuum and ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Fernanda V M; Carneiro, Manuel C; de da Souza, Evelyn M F; da Silva, Lílian I D; Monteiro, Maria Inês C; Neto, Arnaldo A

    2013-01-01

    A fast vacuum- and ultrasound-assisted acid extraction of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn from soils using a homemade system has been investigated. Preliminarily, a full factorial design with two levels and three variables (extracting agent, extraction temperature, and sonication time) was applied to optimize the extraction conditions (without vacuum) for some heavy metals (Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn). The best results were obtained with a 3:1 HCI extraction solution, temperature of 80 degrees C, and time of 2 h. As this sonication time was too long, a vacuum pump was used to produce air bubbles in order to increase the contact between the sample and the extracting agent and to prevent the sample sedimentation. This improvement drastically reduced the sonication time to 2 min. Under these conditions, Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn were totally extracted (recoveries of 86-99%), while recoveries of 73-76 and 74% were obtained for Fe and Pb, respectively. The LOD values using flame atomic absorption spectrometry for determination of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn were 3.2, 7.5, 37.5, 7.5, 22.5, and 3.8 micro glg, respectively. The RSDs were lower than 11% (n = 3).

  14. What We Know about Guided Pathways: Helping Students to Complete Programs Faster. Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas; Jaggars, Shanna Smith; Jenkins, Davis

    2015-01-01

    The idea behind guided pathways is straightforward. College students are more likely to complete a degree in a timely fashion if they choose a program and develop an academic plan early on, have a clear road map of the courses they need to take to complete a credential, and receive guidance and support to help them stay on plan. However, most…

  15. Faster Remission of Chronic Depression with Combined Psychotherapy and Medication than with Each Therapy Alone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manber, Rachel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Arnow, Bruce A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Rush, A. John; Thase, Michael E.; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Klein, Daniel N.; Kocsis, James H.; Gelenberg, Alan J.; Keller, Martin E.

    2008-01-01

    The main aim of the present novel reanalysis of archival data was to compare the time to remission during 12 weeks of treatment of chronic depression following antidepressant medication (n = 218), psychotherapy (n = 216), and their combination (n = 222). Cox regression survival analyses revealed that the combination of medication and psychotherapy…

  16. Managing schedule and financial risk in a faster, better, cheaper development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, R. W.

    2000-01-01

    The X2000 Program is a technology development program that will provide next generation avionics for missions to deep space. The goal of the X2000 Program is to develop revolutionary flight and ground systems which can be replicated by missions at a low cost, affording timely new science and mission opportunities to investigators and institutions.

  17. A Safer, Easier, Faster Synthesis for CdSe Quantum Dot Nanocrystals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatman, Elizabeth M.; Lisensky, George C.; Nordell, Karen J.

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis for CdSe quantum dot nanocrystals that vary in color and are a visually engaging way to demonstrate quantum effects in chemistry is presented. CdSe nanocrystals are synthesized from CdO and elemental Se using a kinetic growth method where particle size depends on reaction time.

  18. A Regression Solution to Cason and Cason's Model of Clinical Performance Rating: Easier, Cheaper, Faster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cason, Gerald J.; Cason, Carolyn L.

    A more familiar and efficient method for estimating the parameters of Cason and Cason's model was examined. Using a two-step analysis based on linear regression, rather than the direct search interative procedure, gave about equally good results while providing a 33 to 1 computer processing time advantage, across 14 cohorts of junior medical…

  19. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  20. Nurse initiated thrombolysis in the accident and emergency department: safe, accurate, and faster than fast track

    PubMed Central

    Heath, S; Bain, R; Andrews, A; Chida, S; Kitchen, S; Walters, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To reduce the time between arrival at hospital of a patient with acute myocardial infarction and administration of thrombolytic therapy (door to needle time) by the introduction of nurse initiated thrombolysis in the accident and emergency department. Methods: Two acute chest pain nurse specialists (ACPNS) based in A&E for 62.5 hours of the week were responsible for initiating thrombolysis in the A&E department. The service reverts to a "fast track" system outside of these hours, with the on call medical team prescribing thrombolysis on the coronary care unit. Prospectively gathered data were analysed for a nine month period and a head to head comparison made between the mean and median door to needle times for both systems of thrombolysis delivery. Results: Data from 91 patients were analysed; 43 (47%) were thrombolysed in A&E by the ACPNS and 48 (53%) were thrombolysed in the coronary care unit by the on call medical team. The ACPNS achieved a median door to needle time of 23 minutes (IQR=17 to 32) compared with 56 minutes (IQR=34 to 79.5) for the fast track. The proportion of patients thrombolysed in 30 minutes by the ACPNS and fast track system was 72% (31 of 43) and 21% (10 of 48) respectively (difference=51%, 95% confidence intervals 34% to 69%, p<0.05). Conclusion: Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and administration of thrombolysis by experienced cardiology nurses in A&E is a safe and effective strategy for reducing door to needle times, even when compared with a conventional fast track system. PMID:12954678

  1. One experienced engineer`s approach to better/cheaper/faster satellite testing (philosophies and lessons learned)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, C.M.

    1995-10-01

    In this paper, the author recalls hardware failures observed on satellites over the years; makes some observations about today`s environment of trying to build and test satellites; and makes specific recommendations concerning testing in general, as well as specifically addressing box-, payload-, spacecraft-, and full up satellite-level testing. The recommendations are intended to provide insight into how to produce satellites better, cheaper, and faster.

  2. ARP2/3-dependent growth in the plant kingdom: SCARs for life

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zhang, Chunhua; Szymanski, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    In the human experience SCARs (suppressor of cAMP receptors) are permanent reminders of past events, not always based on bad decisions, but always those in which an interplay of opposing forces leaves behind a clear record in the form of some permanent watery mark. During plant morphogenesis, SCARs are important proteins that reflect an unusual evolutionary outcome, in which the plant kingdom relies heavily on this single class of actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex activator to dictate the time and place of actin filament nucleation. This unusually simple arrangement may serve as a permanent reminder that cell shape control in plants is fundamentally different from that of crawling cells in mammals that use the power of actin polymerization to define and maintain cell shape. In plant cells, actin filaments indirectly affect cell shape by determining the transport properties of organelles and cargo molecules that modulate the mechanical properties of the wall. It is becoming increasingly clear that polarized bundles of actin filaments operate at whole cell spatial scales to organize the cytoplasm and dictate the patterns of long-distance intracellular transport and secretion. The number of actin-binding proteins and actin filament nucleators that are known to participate in the process of actin network formation are rapidly increasing. In plants, formins and ARP2/3 are two important actin filament nucleators. This review will focus on ARP2/3, and the apparent reliance of most plant species on the SCAR/WAVE (WASP family verprolin homologous) regulatory complex as the sole pathway for ARP2/3 activation. PMID:23802001

  3. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  4. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  5. Faster tomographic fan-beam back-projection using Cartesian axes pre-projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, G. R.

    1998-02-01

    The convolution back-projection algorithm is the most common method for reconstructing images from complete sets of fan-beam projections. For each pixel and for every projection, the interception point on the detector array must be determined and a weighted value from the appropriate point on the filtered back projection added. Thus the number of operations required is of order n2p, where n is the number of points per projection, and p the number of projections. This can mean a considerable computation time, even with modern, fast computer workstations. The complexity of each pixel operation (weighting and geometric computations) is reduced if the projection is first pre-projected onto one or other of the Cartesian axes. This has been demonstrated to reduce the computational time by a factor of 2, with no loss of accuracy, when compared with a highly optimised implementation of the conventional fan-beam back-projection algorithm.

  6. Passive samplers of hydrophobic organic chemicals reach equilibrium faster in the laboratory than in the field.

    PubMed

    Booij, Kees; Tucca, Felipe

    2015-09-15

    The use of passive sampling methods for monitoring hydrophobic organic chemicals frequently requires the determination of equilibration times and partition coefficients in the laboratory. These experiments are often carried out by exposing passive samplers in a finite water volume, and errors are easily made when the obtained results are applied to the field, where water volumes are essentially infinite. The effect of water volume on the equilibration rate constant is discussed, using a mechanistic model. Application of this model to two literature reports illustrates that aqueous concentrations in the field may be underestimated by a factor of 10 or more, when the water volume effect is neglected. Finally, it is shown that the concept of "sorption capacity" (sampler mass times partition coefficient) allows for a more intuitive understanding of the passive sampling process in small and large water volumes, which may reduce the risk of laboratory-field extrapolation errors.

  7. Faster and improved 3-D head digitization in MEG using Kinect.

    PubMed

    Vema Krishna Murthy, Santosh; MacLellan, Matthew; Beyea, Steven; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in localizing the brain areas that generate neuromagnetic activity in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is dependent on properly co-registering MEG data to the participant's structural magnetic resonance image (MRI). Effective MEG-MRI co-registration is, in turn, dependent on how accurately we can digitize anatomical landmarks on the surface of the head. In this study, we compared the performance of three devices-Polhemus electromagnetic system, NextEngine laser scanner and Microsoft Kinect for Windows-for source localization accuracy and MEG-MRI co-registration. A calibrated phantom was used for verifying the source localization accuracy. The Kinect improved source localization accuracy over the Polhemus and the laser scanner by 2.23 mm (137%) and 0.81 mm (50%), respectively. MEG-MRI co-registration accuracy was verified on data from five healthy human participants, who received the digitization process using all three devices. The Kinect device captured approximately 2000 times more surface points than the Polhemus in one third of the time (1 min compared to 3 min) and thrice as many points as the NextEngine laser scanner. Following automated surface matching, the calculated mean MEG-MRI co-registration error for the Kinect was improved by 2.85 mm with respect to the Polhemus device, and equivalent to the laser scanner. Importantly, the Kinect device automatically aligns 20-30 images per second in real-time, reducing the limitations on participant head movement during digitization that are implicit in the NextEngine laser scan (~1 min). We conclude that the Kinect scanner is an effective device for head digitization in MEG, providing the necessary accuracy in source localization and MEG-MRI co-registration, while reducing digitization time.

  8. HOTTER, SMALLER, DENSER, FASTER...AND NEARLY-PERFECT: WHAT IS THE MATTER AT RHIC?

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.

    2006-07-03

    The experimental and theoretical status of the ''near perfect fluid'' at RHIC is discussed. While the hydrodynamic paradigm for understanding collisions at RHIC is well established, there remain many important open questions to address in order to understand its relevance and scope. It is also a crucial issue to understand how the early equilibration is achieved, requiring insight into the active degrees of freedom at early times.

  9. Faster and improved 3-D head digitization in MEG using Kinect

    PubMed Central

    Vema Krishna Murthy, Santosh; MacLellan, Matthew; Beyea, Steven; Bardouille, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy in localizing the brain areas that generate neuromagnetic activity in magnetoencephalography (MEG) is dependent on properly co-registering MEG data to the participant's structural magnetic resonance image (MRI). Effective MEG-MRI co-registration is, in turn, dependent on how accurately we can digitize anatomical landmarks on the surface of the head. In this study, we compared the performance of three devices—Polhemus electromagnetic system, NextEngine laser scanner and Microsoft Kinect for Windows—for source localization accuracy and MEG-MRI co-registration. A calibrated phantom was used for verifying the source localization accuracy. The Kinect improved source localization accuracy over the Polhemus and the laser scanner by 2.23 mm (137%) and 0.81 mm (50%), respectively. MEG-MRI co-registration accuracy was verified on data from five healthy human participants, who received the digitization process using all three devices. The Kinect device captured approximately 2000 times more surface points than the Polhemus in one third of the time (1 min compared to 3 min) and thrice as many points as the NextEngine laser scanner. Following automated surface matching, the calculated mean MEG-MRI co-registration error for the Kinect was improved by 2.85 mm with respect to the Polhemus device, and equivalent to the laser scanner. Importantly, the Kinect device automatically aligns 20–30 images per second in real-time, reducing the limitations on participant head movement during digitization that are implicit in the NextEngine laser scan (~1 min). We conclude that the Kinect scanner is an effective device for head digitization in MEG, providing the necessary accuracy in source localization and MEG-MRI co-registration, while reducing digitization time. PMID:25389382

  10. High irradiance UV/condensation testers allow faster accelerated weathering test results

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, P.J.; Fedor, G.R.

    1993-12-31

    Because outdoor exposures are so time consuming, accelerated laboratory testing is used extensively by industry. One of the more popular laboratory weathering testers is the ASTM G53 UV/Condensation device, also known as the QUV. This paper examines an enhancement to the G53 weather tester that allows precise control of light output and higher than previous light intensity levels. Data is presented on the accelerating effect of higher irradiance on several common polymers.

  11. Restricted Collision List method for faster Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macrossan, Michael N.

    2016-08-01

    The 'Restricted Collision List' (RCL) method for speeding up the calculation of DSMC Variable Soft Sphere collisions, with Borgnakke-Larsen (BL) energy exchange, is presented. The method cuts down considerably on the number of random collision parameters which must be calculated (deflection and azimuthal angles, and the BL energy exchange factors). A relatively short list of these parameters is generated and the parameters required in any cell are selected from this list. The list is regenerated at intervals approximately equal to the smallest mean collision time in the flow, and the chance of any particle re-using the same collision parameters in two successive collisions is negligible. The results using this method are indistinguishable from those obtained with standard DSMC. The CPU time saving depends on how much of a DSMC calculation is devoted to collisions and how much is devoted to other tasks, such as moving particles and calculating particle interactions with flow boundaries. For 1-dimensional calculations of flow in a tube, the new method saves 20% of the CPU time per collision for VSS scattering with no energy exchange. With RCL applied to rotational energy exchange, the CPU saving can be greater; for small values of the rotational collision number, for which most collisions involve some rotational energy exchange, the CPU may be reduced by 50% or more.

  12. Oxygen uptake occurs faster than sodium pumping in bee retina after a light flash.

    PubMed

    Tsacopoulos, M; Orkand, R K; Coles, J A; Levy, S; Poitry, S

    When neurones are active there is an entry of Na+, which must subsequently be pumped out, and an increase in their oxygen consumption rate (Qo2). The Na+ pump derives its energy from ATP, splitting it into ADP and Pi, and it has reasonably been proposed that the changes in concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi lead to a stimulation of the O2 consumption by the mitochondria and hence to a restoration of the stock of ATP. Here we present evidence suggesting that Qo2 must be controlled differently in the retinal photoreceptor cells of the honeybee drone. Stimulation of drone photoreceptors with a flash of light causes an entry of Na+ (ref. 4) and a transient increase in Qo2 that indicates respiration of the right order of magnitude to provide ATP to pump the Na+ out. We report intracellular recordings of changes in intracellular sodium (Nai+) and potassium (Ki+) in response to single light flashes and have compared the time course of extra oxygen consumption (delta Qo2) with these ion changes and other indices of Na+ pumping. We found that the time course of pumping seems to lag behind the time course of delta Qo2. It follows that the mitochondrial respiration must be stimulated by some signal which is generated earlier than the rise in ADP produced by the Na+ pump.

  13. A software channel compression technique for faster reconstruction with many channels.

    PubMed

    Huang, Feng; Vijayakumar, Sathya; Li, Yu; Hertel, Sarah; Duensing, George R

    2008-01-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging, highly parallel imaging using coil arrays with a large number of elements is an area of growing interest. With increasing channel numbers for parallel acquisition, the increased reconstruction time and extensive computer memory requirements have become significant concerns. In this work, principal component analysis (PCA) is used to develop a channel compression technique. This technique efficiently reduces the size of parallel imaging data acquired from a multichannel coil array, thereby significantly reducing the reconstruction time and computer memory requirement without undermining the benefits of multichannel coil arrays. Clinical data collected with a 32-channel cardiac coil are used in all of the experiments. The performance of the proposed method on parallel, partially acquired data, as well as fully acquired data, was evaluated. Experimental results show that the proposed method dramatically reduces the processing time without considerable degradation in the quality of reconstructed images. It is also demonstrated that this PCA technique can be used to perform intensity correction in parallel imaging applications.

  14. Review of Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 (2007).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Reviews the book, Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 by I. A. Serlin, M. A. DiCowden, K. Rockefeller, S. Brown, J. Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (2007). With the more-than-1,000-page tour de force titled Whole Person Healthcare, Ilene Serlin, current president of the San Francisco Psychological Association, has purposefully edited a three-volume series aimed at humanizing the fields of psychotherapy and health care. Throughout the series, all of the authors carry the message that integrative treatment strategies in psychotherapy and health care are more valuable than reductionist "treat the symptom rather than the person" approaches as a way to humanize patient-client interaction. Whole Person Healthcare persuasively presents the principle reasons for integrating human-centered strategies into psychotherapeutic and health care practices. Volume 1 of the series, Humanizing Healthcare, sets the tone for the other two volumes, providing a conceptual scaffold for framing humanistic and positive psychological theories within an applied health care setting. Volume 2 of the series, Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, focuses on presenting concrete, evidence-based examples of integrative therapeutic techniques such as imagery and visualization, meditation, meaning finding, prayer and psychospiritual practices, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong. Volume 3 of the series, The Arts and Health, provides a critically important contribution to the field because the art therapies are so often forgotten in the world of managed health care. Volume 3 gives evidence-based examples of the valuable contributions of artistic interactions within therapeutic contexts. The collection of readings in Whole Person Healthcare covers a wide spectrum of modern healing approaches, and this series is a must for any practitioner of integrative, holistic therapies. However, there are two practical barriers of note. First is cost: The price is too steep for most readers

  15. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  16. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  17. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  18. Trailing edges projected to move faster than leading edges for large pelagic fish habitats under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, L. M.; Hobday, A. J.; Possingham, H. P.; Richardson, A. J.

    2015-03-01

    There is mounting evidence to suggest that many species are shifting their ranges in concordance with the climate velocity of their preferred environmental conditions/habitat. While accelerated rates in species' range shifts have been noted in areas of intense warming, due to climate change, few studies have considered the influence that both spatial temperature gradients and rates of warming (i.e., the two components of climate velocity) could have on rates of movement in species habitats. We compared projected shifts in the core habitat of nine large pelagic fish species (five tuna, two billfish and two shark species) off the east coast of Australia at different spatial points (centre, leading and trailing edges of the core habitat), during different seasons (summer and winter), in the near-(2030) and long-term (2070), using independent species distribution models and habitat suitability models. Model projections incorporated depth integrated temperature data from 11 climate models with a focus on the IPCC SRES A2 general emission scenario. Projections showed a number of consistent patterns: southern (poleward) shifts in all species' core habitats; trailing edges shifted faster than leading edges; shifts were faster by 2070 than 2030; and there was little difference in shifts among species and between seasons. Averaging across all species and climate models, rates of habitat shifts for 2030 were 45-60 km decade-1 at the trailing edge, 40-45 km decade-1 at the centre, and 20-30 km decade-1 at the leading edge. Habitat shifts for 2070 were 60-70 km decade-1 at the trailing edge, 50-55 km decade-1 at the centre, and 30-40 km decade-1 at the leading edge. It is often assumed that the leading edge of a species range will shift faster than the trailing edge, but there are few projections or observations in large pelagic fish to validate this assumption. We found that projected shifts at the trailing edge were greater than at the centre and leading of core habitats in

  19. A far-view intensive care unit monitoring display enables faster triage.

    PubMed

    Görges, Matthias; Kück, Kai; Koch, Sven H; Agutter, Jim; Westenskow, Dwayne R

    2011-01-01

    Although nurses perform the majority of the clinical tasks in an intensive care unit, current patient monitors were not designed to support a nurse's workflow. Nurses constantly triage patients, deciding which patient is currently in the most need of care. To make this decision, nurses must observe the patient's vital signs and therapeutic device information from multiple sources. To obtain this information, they often have to enter the patient's room. This study addresses 3 hypotheses. Information provided by far-view monitoring displays (1) reduces the amount of time to determine which patient needs care first, (2) increases the accuracy of assigning priority to the right patient, and (3) reduces nurses mental workload. We developed 2 far-view displays to be read from a distance of 3 to 5 m without entering the patient's room. Both display vital signs, trends, alarms, infusion pump status, and therapy support indicators. To evaluate the displays, nurses were asked to use the displays to decide which of 2 patients required their attention first. They made 60 decisions: 20 with each far-view display and 20 decisions with a standard patient monitor next to an infusion pump. Sixteen nurses (median age of 27.5 years with 2.75 years of experience) participated in the study. Using the 2 far-view displays, nurses more accurately and rapidly identified stable patients and syringe pumps that were nearly empty. Median decision times were 11.3 and 12.4 seconds for the 2 far-view displays and 17.2 seconds for the control display. The 2 far-view displays reduced median decision-making times by 4.8 to 5.9 seconds, increased accuracy in assignment of priority in 2 of 7 patient conditions, and reduced nurses' frustration with the triaging task. In a clinical setting, the proposed far-view display might reduce nurses' mental workload and thereby increase patient safety.

  20. Citius and longius (faster and longer) with no alpha-actinin-3 in skeletal muscles?

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Oliván, Jesús; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Santiago, Catalina; Montil, Marta; Foster, Carl

    2007-09-01

    The muscle protein alpha-actinin-3 (ACTN3) is normally thought to be expressed in type II muscle fibres and to be necessary for high-power, high-velocity muscle contractions, such as those typically seen in speed/power athletes. The authors report the case of a Spanish elite long jumper (two times Olympian, personal best of 8.26 m) whose genotype for the ACTN3 gene is 577XX (ACTN3 deficient). These data suggest that there might be notable exceptions to the concept that ACTN3 is the "gene for speed".

  1. A simplified implementation of edge detection in MATLAB is faster and more sensitive than fast fourier transform for actin fiber alignment quantification.

    PubMed

    Kemeny, Steven Frank; Clyne, Alisa Morss

    2011-04-01

    Fiber alignment plays a critical role in the structure and function of cells and tissues. While fiber alignment quantification is important to experimental analysis and several different methods for quantifying fiber alignment exist, many studies focus on qualitative rather than quantitative analysis perhaps due to the complexity of current fiber alignment methods. Speed and sensitivity were compared in edge detection and fast Fourier transform (FFT) for measuring actin fiber alignment in cells exposed to shear stress. While edge detection using matrix multiplication was consistently more sensitive than FFT, image processing time was significantly longer. However, when MATLAB functions were used to implement edge detection, MATLAB's efficient element-by-element calculations and fast filtering techniques reduced computation cost 100 times compared to the matrix multiplication edge detection method. The new computation time was comparable to the FFT method, and MATLAB edge detection produced well-distributed fiber angle distributions that statistically distinguished aligned and unaligned fibers in half as many sample images. When the FFT sensitivity was improved by dividing images into smaller subsections, processing time grew larger than the time required for MATLAB edge detection. Implementation of edge detection in MATLAB is simpler, faster, and more sensitive than FFT for fiber alignment quantification.

  2. Time Costs of Mastery Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arlin, Marshall; Webster, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-eight seventh grade students were randomly assigned to mastery or nonmastery approaches to learning four hierarchical chapters about sailing. The price of increased achievement benefits of group-based mastery learning seems to be increased time costs of (1) extra remedial time and (2) "wasted time" of faster learners. (Author/PN)

  3. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    diarrhea virus, nonstructural protein NS2-3 is of critical importance to switch between these processes. While free NS3 is essential for RNA replication, uncleaved NS2-3, which accumulates over time in the infected cell, is required for virion morphogenesis. In contrast, the virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus is independent from uncleaved NS2-NS3. Here, we demonstrate that pestiviruses can adapt to virion morphogenesis in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3 by just two amino acid exchanges. While the mechanism behind this gain of function remains elusive, the fact that it can be achieved by such minor changes is in line with the assumption that an ancestral virus already used this mechanism but lost it in the course of adapting to a new host/infection strategy. PMID:26355097

  4. Context for Understanding why Particular Nanoscale Crystals Turn-On Faster and Other Lenr Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Scott R.

    Two persistent questions have been: (1) Why is it often necessary to wait for a finite period of time before the Excess Heat effect is observed after palladium (Pd) has been sufficiently loaded with deuterium (D), that the near full-loading condition (PdDx, 0.85 ~ < x → 1) that is required for Excess Heat, has been achieved? (2) Is it possible to identify physical properties of the materials and/or crystals that are used that might be playing a role in the interval of time associated with this phenomenon? Recently, I generalized conventional energy band theory to address both questions. The new theory can explain these experimental results but will be ignored by most scientists. I suggest that this is expected: The context of energy band and Ion Band State (IBS) theory is very different from the context of hot fusion theory. Even within the Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) field, hidden, simplifying assumptions exist, which implicitly reflect biases associated with the context of hot fusion. A typical example is the idea that a single, particular form of reaction or environment can explain all LENR phenomena. As opposed to such a picture, involving a single "nuclear active environment" ("NAE"), the context of IBS theory and many-body physics suggests a more realistic and useful description of LENR involves a multiplicity of "nuclear active environments" (NAEs).

  5. Fenton fragmentation for faster electrophoretic on chip purification of amplifiable genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Hakenberg, S; Hügle, M; Meyer, P; Behrmann, O; Dame, G; Urban, G A

    2015-05-15

    With a rapid and simple actuation protocol electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction is easy automatable, requires no moving parts, is easy to miniaturize and furthermore possesses a size dependent cut-off filter adjustable by the pore size of the hydrogel. However electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction from bacteria has so far been applied mainly for short RNA targets. One of the reasons is that electrophoretic processing of unfragmented genomic DNA strands is time-consuming, because of the length. Here DNA fragmentation would accelerate extraction and isolation. We introduce on-chip lysis and non-enzymatic DNA cleavage directly followed by a purifying step for receiving amplifiable DNA fragments from bacteria in less than 25 min. In contrast to restriction enzymes the Fenton reaction is known to cleave DNA without nucleotide specificity. The reaction mix contains iron(II) EDTA, sodium ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme. The degree of fragmentation can be adjusted by the concentration of reagents. The results enable electrophoretic extraction methods to unspecifically process long genomic DNA in a short time frame, e.g. for pathogen detection in a lab-on-a-chip format.

  6. Fenton fragmentation for faster electrophoretic on chip purification of amplifiable genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Hakenberg, S; Hügle, M; Meyer, P; Behrmann, O; Dame, G; Urban, G A

    2015-05-15

    With a rapid and simple actuation protocol electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction is easy automatable, requires no moving parts, is easy to miniaturize and furthermore possesses a size dependent cut-off filter adjustable by the pore size of the hydrogel. However electrophoretic nucleic acid extraction from bacteria has so far been applied mainly for short RNA targets. One of the reasons is that electrophoretic processing of unfragmented genomic DNA strands is time-consuming, because of the length. Here DNA fragmentation would accelerate extraction and isolation. We introduce on-chip lysis and non-enzymatic DNA cleavage directly followed by a purifying step for receiving amplifiable DNA fragments from bacteria in less than 25 min. In contrast to restriction enzymes the Fenton reaction is known to cleave DNA without nucleotide specificity. The reaction mix contains iron(II) EDTA, sodium ascorbate, hydrogen peroxide and lysozyme. The degree of fragmentation can be adjusted by the concentration of reagents. The results enable electrophoretic extraction methods to unspecifically process long genomic DNA in a short time frame, e.g. for pathogen detection in a lab-on-a-chip format. PMID:24970713

  7. The Effect of Faster Engine Response on the Lateral Directional Control of a Damaged Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, Ryan D.; Lemon, Kimberly A.; Csank, Jeffrey T.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2012-01-01

    The integration of flight control and propulsion control has been a much discussed topic, especially for emergencies where the engines may be able to help stabilize and safely land a damaged aircraft. Previous research has shown that for the engines to be effective as flight control actuators, the response time to throttle commands must be improved. Other work has developed control modes that accept a higher risk of engine failure in exchange for improved engine response during an emergency. In this effort, a nonlinear engine model (the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k) has been integrated with a nonlinear airframe model (the Generic Transport Model) in order to evaluate the use of enhanced-response engines as alternative yaw rate control effectors. Tests of disturbance rejection and command tracking were used to determine the impact of the engines on the aircraft's dynamical behavior. Three engine control enhancements that improve the response time of the engine were implemented and tested in the integrated simulation. The enhancements were shown to increase the engine s effectiveness as a yaw rate control effector when used in an automatic feedback loop. The improvement is highly dependent upon flight condition; the airframe behavior is markedly improved at low altitude, low speed conditions, and relatively unchanged at high altitude, high speed.

  8. Contribution of Intracolumnar Layer 2/3-to-Layer 2/3 Excitatory Connections in Shaping the Response to Whisker Deflection in Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarid, Leora; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Gidon, Albert; Sakmann, Bert; Segev, Idan

    2015-01-01

    This computational study integrates anatomical and physiological data to assess the functional role of the lateral excitatory connections between layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells (PCs) in shaping their response during early stages of intracortical processing of a whisker deflection (WD). Based on in vivo and in vitro recordings, and 3D reconstructions of connected pairs of L2/3 PCs, our model predicts that: 1) AMPAR and NMDAR conductances/synapse are 0.52 ± 0.24 and 0.40 ± 0.34 nS, respectively; 2) following WD, connection between L2/3 PCs induces a composite EPSPs of 7.6 ± 1.7 mV, well below the threshold for action potential (AP) initiation; 3) together with the excitatory feedforward L4-to-L2/3 connection, WD evoked a composite EPSP of 16.3 ± 3.5 mV and a probability of 0.01 to generate an AP. When considering the variability in L4 spiny neurons responsiveness, it increased to 17.8 ± 11.2 mV; this 3-fold increase in the SD yielded AP probability of 0.35; 4) the interaction between L4-to-L2/3 and L2/3-to-L2/3 inputs is highly nonlinear; 5) L2/3 dendritic morphology significantly affects L2/3 PCs responsiveness. We conclude that early stages of intracortical signaling of WD are dominated by a combination of feedforward L4–L2/3 and L2/3–L2/3 lateral connections. PMID:24165834

  9. Education is associated with higher later life IQ scores, but not with faster cognitive processing speed.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Der, Geoff; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2013-06-01

    Recent reports suggest a causal relationship between education and IQ, which has implications for cognitive development and aging-education may improve cognitive reserve. In two longitudinal cohorts, we tested the association between education and lifetime cognitive change. We then tested whether education is linked to improved scores on processing-speed variables such as reaction time, which are associated with both IQ and longevity. Controlling for childhood IQ score, we found that education was positively associated with IQ at ages 79 (Sample 1) and 70 (Sample 2), and more strongly for participants with lower initial IQ scores. Education, however, showed no significant association with processing speed, measured at ages 83 and 70. Increased education may enhance important later life cognitive capacities, but does not appear to improve more fundamental aspects of cognitive processing.

  10. New Accelerated Testing and Lifetime Modeling Methods Promise Faster Development of More Durable MEAs

    SciTech Connect

    Pierpont, D. M.; Hicks, M. T.; Turner, P. L.; Watschke, T. M.

    2005-11-01

    For the successful commercialization of fuel cell technology, it is imperative that membrane electrode assembly (MEA) durability is understood and quantified. MEA lifetimes of 40,000 hours remain a key target for stationary power applications. Since it is impractical to wait 40,000 hours for durability results, it is critical to learn as much information as possible in as short a time period as possible to determine if an MEA sample will survive past its lifetime target. Consequently, 3M has utilized accelerated testing and statistical lifetime modeling tools to develop a methodology for evaluating MEA lifetime. Construction and implementation of a multi-cell test stand have allowed for multiple accelerated tests and stronger statistical data for learning about durability.

  11. Running Faster Together: Huge Speed up of Thermal Ratchets due to Hydrodynamic Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgaretti, Paolo; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Frenkel, Daan

    2012-10-01

    We present simulations that reveal a surprisingly large effect of hydrodynamic coupling on the speed of thermal ratchet motors. The model that we use considers particles performing thermal ratchet motion in a hydrodynamic solvent. Using particle-based, mesoscopic simulations that maintain local momentum conservation, we analyze quantitatively how the coupling to the surrounding fluid affects ratchet motion. We find that coupling can increase the mean velocity of the moving particles by almost 2 orders of magnitude, precisely because ratchet motion has both a diffusive and a deterministic component. The resulting coupling also leads to the formation of aggregates at longer times. The correlated motion that we describe increases the efficiency of motor-delivered cargo transport and we speculate that the mechanism that we have uncovered may play a key role in speeding up molecular motor-driven intracellular transport.

  12. V1 neurons respond to luminance changes faster than contrast changes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Liang; Li, Ran; Ding, Jian; Tao, Louis; Li, Da-Peng; Wang, Yi

    2015-12-04

    Luminance and contrast are two major attributes of objects in the visual scene. Luminance and contrast information received by visual neurons are often updated simultaneously. We examined the temporal response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) to stimuli whose luminance and contrast were simultaneously changed by 50 Hz. We found that response tuning to luminance changes precedes tuning to contrast changes in V1. For most V1 neurons, the onset time of response tuning to luminance changes was shorter than that to contrast changes. Most neurons carried luminance information in the early response stage, while all neurons carried both contrast and luminance information in the late response stage. The early luminance response suggests that cortical processing for luminance is not as slow as previously thought.

  13. Indirect addressing and load balancing for faster solution to Mandelbrot Set on SIMD architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomboulian, Sherryl

    1989-01-01

    SIMD computers with local indirect addressing allow programs to have queues and buffers, making certain kinds of problems much more efficient. Examined here are a class of problems characterized by computations on data points where the computation is identical, but the convergence rate is data dependent. Normally, in this situation, the algorithm time is governed by the maximum number of iterations required by each point. Using indirect addressing allows a processor to proceed to the next data point when it is done, reducing the overall number of iterations required to approach the mean convergence rate when a sufficiently large problem set is solved. Load balancing techniques can be applied for additional performance improvement. Simulations of this technique applied to solving Mandelbrot Sets indicate significant performance gains.

  14. V1 neurons respond to luminance changes faster than contrast changes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Liang; Li, Ran; Ding, Jian; Tao, Louis; Li, Da-Peng; Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Luminance and contrast are two major attributes of objects in the visual scene. Luminance and contrast information received by visual neurons are often updated simultaneously. We examined the temporal response properties of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1) to stimuli whose luminance and contrast were simultaneously changed by 50 Hz. We found that response tuning to luminance changes precedes tuning to contrast changes in V1. For most V1 neurons, the onset time of response tuning to luminance changes was shorter than that to contrast changes. Most neurons carried luminance information in the early response stage, while all neurons carried both contrast and luminance information in the late response stage. The early luminance response suggests that cortical processing for luminance is not as slow as previously thought. PMID:26634691

  15. Faster, better, cheaper: lean labs are the key to future survival.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Patsy M; Gulling, Richard D

    2006-03-28

    Process improvement techniques have been used in manufacturing for many years to rein in costs and improve quality. Health care is now grappling with similar challenges. The Department of Laboratory Services at Good Samaritan Hospital, a 560-bed facility in Dayton, OH, used the Lean process improvement method in a 12-week project to streamline its core laboratory processes. By analyzing the flow of samples through the system and identifying value-added and non-value-added steps, both in the laboratory and during the collection process, Good Samaritan's project team redesigned systems and reconfigured the core laboratory layout to trim collection-to-results time from 65 minutes to 40 minutes. As a result, virtually all morning results are available to physicians by 7 a.m., critical values are called to nursing units within 30 minutes, and core laboratory services are optimally staffed for maximum cost-effectiveness.

  16. Toxicokinetics of acrylamide in primary rat hepatocytes: coupling to glutathione is faster than conversion to glycidamide.

    PubMed

    Watzek, Nico; Scherbl, Denise; Schug, Markus; Hengstler, Jan G; Baum, Matthias; Habermeyer, Michael; Richling, Elke; Eisenbrand, Gerhard

    2013-08-01

    Acrylamide (AA), classified as class 2A carcinogen (probably carcinogenic to humans) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is formed during heating of food from reducing carbohydrates and asparagine by Maillard reaction chemistry. After dietary uptake, AA is in part metabolically converted into the proximate genotoxic phase I metabolite glycidamide (GA). GA reacts with nucleophilic base positions in DNA, primarily forming N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-GA-Gua) adducts. In a competing phase II biotransformation pathway AA, as well as its phase I metabolite GA, is coupled to glutathione (GSH). The GSH coupling products are further biotransformed and excreted via urine as mercapturic acids (MA), N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (AAMA), and N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxy-2-carbamoylethyl)cysteine (GAMA). In the present study, hepatic biotransformation pathways and DNA adduct formation were studied in primary rat hepatocytes, incubated with AA (0.2-2,000 μM) for up to 24 h. Contents of AA-GSH, GA, AAMA, and GAMA were measured in the cell culture medium after solid phase extraction (SPE). N7-GA-Gua adducts in DNA of hepatocytes were determined by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS after lysis of the cells and neutral thermal hydrolysis. Formation of AA-GSH was linear with AA concentration and incubation time and became detectable already at 0.2 μM (4 h). In contrast to AA, GA was not detected before 16 h incubation at 10-fold higher AA concentration (2 μM). In summary, the rate of AA-GSH formation was found to be about 1.5-3 times higher than that of GA formation. N7-GA-Gua adducts were found only at the highest AA concentration tested (2,000 μM).

  17. Virus Infections Incite Pain Hypersensitivity by Inducing Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Ou, Rong; Rabelo de Souza, Guilherme; Cunha, Thiago M.; Lemos, Henrique; Mohamed, Eslam; Li, Lingqian; Pacholczyk, Gabriela; Randall, Janice; Munn, David H.; Mellor, Andrew L.

    2016-01-01

    Increased pain sensitivity is a comorbidity associated with many clinical diseases, though the underlying causes are poorly understood. Recently, chronic pain hypersensitivity in rodents treated to induce chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues was linked to enhanced tryptophan catabolism in brain mediated by indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). Here we show that acute influenza A virus (IAV) and chronic murine leukemia retrovirus (MuLV) infections, which stimulate robust IDO expression in lungs and lymphoid tissues, induced acute or chronic pain hypersensitivity, respectively. In contrast, virus-induced pain hypersensitivity did not manifest in mice lacking intact IDO1 genes. Spleen IDO activity increased markedly as MuLV infections progressed, while IDO1 expression was not elevated significantly in brain or spinal cord (CNS) tissues. Moreover, kynurenine (Kyn), a tryptophan catabolite made by cells expressing IDO, incited pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient mice and Kyn potentiated pain hypersensitivity due to MuLV infection. MuLV infection stimulated selective IDO expression by a discreet population of spleen cells expressing both B cell (CD19) and dendritic cell (CD11c) markers (CD19+ DCs). CD19+ DCs were more susceptible to MuLV infection than B cells or conventional (CD19neg) DCs, proliferated faster than B cells from early stages of MuLV infection and exhibited mature antigen presenting cell (APC) phenotypes, unlike conventional (CD19neg) DCs. Moreover, interactions with CD4 T cells were necessary to sustain functional IDO expression by CD19+ DCs in vitro and in vivo. Splenocytes from MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice induced pain hypersensitivity in uninfected IDO1-deficient recipient mice, while selective in vivo depletion of DCs alleviated pain hypersensitivity in MuLV-infected IDO1-sufficient mice and led to rapid reduction in splenomegaly, a hallmark of MuLV immune pathogenesis. These findings reveal critical roles for CD19+ DCs

  18. [Role of lyrics and melody in song recognition: why is song recognition faster?].

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoko; Sakuma, Naoko; Ishii, Kenji; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2009-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to identify the role of lyrics and melody in song recognition. Experiment 1 (N = 30) investigated the ratings of familiarity, age of acquisition, retrievability of lyrics or melody, and happiness for 100 Japanese children's songs. In Experiment 2 (N = 31), a familiarity-judgment task was conducted involving three stimulus types-sung lyrics (SONG), spoken lyrics (LYRICS), and sung melody using the syllable/la/ (MELODY)--for two excerpts (beginning and middle locations). The participants were instructed to judge whether an excerpt sounded familiar as quickly as possible. The more familiar the songs, the easier could they be identified from the three stimulus types. SONG-response time (RT) was shorter than MELODY-RT for both beginning and middle, and than LYRICS-RT for the middle. The location effect emerged most prominently for LYRICS-RT. Our results suggest that interactively connected information of lyrics and melody may facilitate song recognition. Lyrics in the beginning might be an index only for certain, very familiar songs, whereas melody may play a facilitative role for song recognition regardless of location. PMID:20095443

  19. Control architectures of galvanometer-based scanners for an increased precision and a faster response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mnerie, Corina; Preitl, Stefan; Duma, Virgil-Florin

    2014-01-01

    High-end biomedical applications, such as Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) or Confocal Microscopy (CM) require both precision and speed. The latter is essential in OCT by example to achieve in vivo, real time imaging - with video rate imaging capability. An essential element of this effort to achieve such speeds in OCT by example is the optomechatronic system used for lateral scanning. It usually consists of a dual axis double galvanometer-based scanner (GS). However, GSs are used in a larger variety of applications in biomedical imaging - not only in lateral scanning. Due to the importance of the topic, we have approached different aspects of GSs technology, including scanning and control functions, duty cycle optimization, and minimization of artifacts. The paper proposes a Model-based Predictive Control (MPC) structure for driving the GSs in order to achieve either an improved precision or a higher speed. The predictive control solution was tested for different types of input signals. Reasons for choosing the objective function and the predictive horizons are discussed. The GS was characterized by a second order mathematical model (MM), with the values of the parameters identified experimentally. Simulations were carried out using Matlab Simulink. The control results achieved are compared with the Proportional Integrative Derivative controller with Lags (PID-L1). The conclusions support the proposed control solution and its implementation in applications.

  20. Smoothing of cost function leads to faster convergence of neural network learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-Qun; Hall, Trevor J.

    1994-03-01

    One of the major problems in supervised learning of neural networks is the inevitable local minima inherent in the cost function f(W,D). This often makes classic gradient-descent-based learning algorithms that calculate the weight updates for each iteration according to (Delta) W(t) equals -(eta) (DOT)$DELwf(W,D) powerless. In this paper we describe a new strategy to solve this problem, which, adaptively, changes the learning rate and manipulates the gradient estimator simultaneously. The idea is to implicitly convert the local- minima-laden cost function f((DOT)) into a sequence of its smoothed versions {f(beta t)}Ttequals1, which, subject to the parameter (beta) t, bears less details at time t equals 1 and gradually more later on, the learning is actually performed on this sequence of functionals. The corresponding smoothed global minima obtained in this way, {Wt}Ttequals1, thus progressively approximate W-the desired global minimum. Experimental results on a nonconvex function minimization problem and a typical neural network learning task are given, analyses and discussions of some important issues are provided.

  1. Broad-line active galactic nuclei rotate faster than narrow-line ones.

    PubMed

    Kollatschny, Wolfram; Zetzl, Matthias

    2011-02-17

    The super-massive black holes of 10(6)M(⊙) to 10(9)M(⊙) that reside in the nuclei of active galaxies (AGN) are surrounded by a region emitting broad lines, probably associated with an accretion disk. The diameters of the broad-line regions range from a few light-days to more than a hundred light-days, and cannot be resolved spatially. The relative significance of inflow, outflow, rotational or turbulent motions in the broad-line regions as well as their structure (spherical, thin or thick accretion disk) are unknown despite intensive studies over more than thirty years. Here we report a fundamental relation between the observed emission linewidth full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) and the emission line shape FWHM/σ(line) in AGN spectra. From this relation we infer that the predominant motion in the broad-line regions is Keplerian rotation in combination with turbulence. The geometry of the inner region varies systematically with the rotation velocity: it is flattest for the fast-rotating broad-line objects, whereas slow-rotating narrow-line AGN have a more spherical structure. Superimposed is the trend that the line-emitting region becomes geometrically thicker towards the centre within individual galaxies. Knowing the rotational velocities, we can derive the central black-hole masses more accurately; they are two to ten times smaller than has been estimated previously.

  2. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-Duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Wood, S. J.; Cohen, H. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth s gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight.

  3. Fluorescence microscopy gets faster and clearer: roles of photochemistry and selective illumination.

    PubMed

    Wolenski, Joseph S; Julich, Doerthe

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in fluorescence microscopy tend be a balance between two competing qualities wherein improvements in resolution and low light detection are typically accompanied by losses in acquisition rate and signal-to-noise, respectively. These trade-offs are becoming less of a barrier to biomedical research as recent advances in optoelectronic microscopy and developments in fluorophore chemistry have enabled scientists to see beyond the diffraction barrier, image deeper into live specimens, and acquire images at unprecedented speed. Selective plane illumination microscopy has provided significant gains in the spatial and temporal acquisition of fluorescence specimens several mm in thickness. With commercial systems now available, this method promises to expand on recent advances in 2-photon deep-tissue imaging with improved speed and reduced photobleaching compared to laser scanning confocal microscopy. Superresolution microscopes are also available in several modalities and can be coupled with selective plane illumination techniques. The combination of methods to increase resolution, acquisition speed, and depth of collection are now being married to common microscope systems, enabling scientists to make significant advances in live cell and in situ imaging in real time. We show that light sheet microscopy provides significant advantages for imaging live zebrafish embryos compared to laser scanning confocal microscopy.

  4. Kd-Jump: a path-preserving stackless traversal for faster isosurface raytracing on GPUs.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David M; Lim, Ik Soo

    2009-01-01

    Stackless traversal techniques are often used to circumvent memory bottlenecks by avoiding a stack and replacing return traversal with extra computation. This paper addresses whether the stackless traversal approaches are useful on newer hardware and technology (such as CUDA). To this end, we present a novel stackless approach for implicit kd-trees, which exploits the benefits of index-based node traversal, without incurring extra node visitation. This approach, which we term Kd-Jump, enables the traversal to immediately return to the next valid node, like a stack, without incurring extra node visitation (kd-restart). Also, Kd-Jump does not require global memory (stack) at all and only requires a small matrix in fast constant-memory. We report that Kd-Jump outperforms a stack by 10 to 20% and kd-restart by 100%. We also present a Hybrid Kd-Jump, which utilizes a volume stepper for leaf testing and a run-time depth threshold to define where kd-tree traversal stops and volume-stepping occurs. By using both methods, we gain the benefits of empty space removal, fast texture-caching and realtime ability to determine the best threshold for current isosurface and view direction. PMID:19834233

  5. Towards smaller and faster gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems for field chemical detection.

    PubMed

    Smith, P A; Sng, M T; Eckenrode, B A; Leow, S Y; Koch, D; Erickson, R P; Jackson Lepage, C R; Hook, G L

    2005-03-01

    Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is already an important laboratory method, but new sampling techniques and column heating approaches will expand and improve its usefulness for detection and identification of unknown chemicals in field settings. In order to demonstrate commercially-available technical advances for both sampling and column heating, we used solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling of both water and air systems, followed by immediate analysis with a resistively heated analytical column and mass spectrometric detection. High-concern compounds ranging from 140 to 466 amu were analyzed to show the applicability of these techniques to emergency situations impacting public health. A field portable (about 35 kg) GC-MS system was used for analysis of water samples with a resistively heated analytical column externally mounted as a retrofit using the air bath oven of the original instrument design to heat transfer lines. The system used to analyze air samples included a laboratory mass spectrometer with a dedicated resistive column heating arrangement (no legacy air bath column oven). The combined sampling and analysis time was less than 10 min for both air and water sample types. By combining dedicated resistive column heating with smaller mass spectrometry systems designed specificallyfor use in the field, substantially smaller high performance field-portable instrumentation will be possible.

  6. A biological walker is faster and better recognized when aligned with body axis observer.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Guillaume; Fouque, Florent; Pozzo, Thierry; Pérennou, Dominic

    2013-09-01

    The representation of the vertical direction is a compromise between the directions given by the egocentric and allocentric references. Dissociations between these two referentials in the discrimination of a biological walker which typically refers to a model of verticality questions the coordinate system (allocentric and/or egocentric) used to perceive it. With a point-light display paradigm, the characteristics of an artificial walking pattern were manipulated in order to offer to 10 healthy participants (5 men/5 women; 24.6±3.4 years) a female or male locomotion which had to be identified as such. The body position of the viewer (sitting/lying) and the walking pattern viewed (aligned/rotated in relation to the egocentric referential) were crossed. Three indices were analyzed and 200 trials recorded: percentage of correct identification, reaction time and confidence score. This paper confirms the validity of the walking pattern model since the more pronounced the gradient of the walking pattern (as female or male) the better the recognition. Furthermore, whatever the body position, artificial walking patterns were more easily identified when they were aligned with the egocentric referential rather than tilted. The participant gender had no influence on the walking pattern recognition. We conclude that the perception of a biological walker referenced to the vertical is exclusively improved by a representation of the spatial information in an egocentric coordinate system. PMID:23768527

  7. USING BLOCKS OF SKEWERS FOR FASTER COMPUTATION OF PIXEL PURITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    J. THEILER; D. LAVENIER; ET AL

    2000-10-01

    The pixel purity index (PPI) algorithm proposed by Boardman, et al.1 identifies potential endmember pixels in multispectral imagery. The algorithm generates a large number of skewers (unit vectors in random directions), and then computes the dot product of each skewer with each pixel. The PPI is incremented for those pixels associated with the extreme values of the dot products. A small number of pixels (a subset of those with the largest PPI values) are selected as pure and the rest of the pixels in the image are expressed as linear mixtures of these pure endmembers. This provides a convenient and physically-motivated decomposition of the image in terms of a relatively few components. We report on a variant of the PPI algorithm in which blocks of B skewers are considered at a time. From the computation of B dot products, one can produce a much larger set of derived dot products that are associated with skewers that are linear combinations of the original B skewers. Since the derived dot products involve only scalar operations, instead of full vector dot products, they can be very cheaply computed. We will also discuss a hardware implementation on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) processor both of the original PPI algorithm and of the block-skewer approach. We will furthermore discuss the use of fast PPI as a front-end to more sophisticated algorithms for selecting the actual endmembers.

  8. Faster photodegradation rate and higher dioxin yield of triclosan induced by cationic surfactant CTAB.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xianliang; Zheng, Xiaodong; Xie, Qing; Yang, Xianhai; Xiao, Jie; Xue, Weifeng; Chen, Jingwen

    2014-06-30

    Triclosan has received extensive attention as it has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. Photolysis was found to be a major pathway governing the fate of triclosan in the aquatic environment. However, the effects of surfactants that usually coexist with triclosan, on the photodegradation of triclosan, are largely unknown. In this study, the effects of selected surfactants on the photodegradation of triclosan were investigated experimentally. The results show that anionic sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, sodium dodecyl sulfate and neutral polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate inhibit the photolysis of triclosan, whereas cationic cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) significantly accelerates the photodegradation rate of triclosan. The interactions between the hydrophilic group of CTAB and anionic triclosan lead to the apparent decrease of pKa of triclosan from 8.4 to 6.1, which increase the fraction of anionic triclosan from 4% to 89% in neutral solution. A red shift in the UV-VIS absorption spectrum is exhibited, thus leading to the increased photodegradation rate of triclosan. The accelerations caused by CTAB were observed under xenon lamp and Hg lamp irradiances, as well as under natural sunlight. Effect of CTAB demonstrated pH dependence with significantly enhancement under pH 5∼9 and inhibition at pH=3. The presence of CTAB also increased the yield of 2,8-dichlorodibenzo-p-dioxin from the photolysis of triclosan about 7 times at pH=7.

  9. Temporal scattering and response software users' manual: Version 2. 3

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual gives complete information on how to use the TSAR electromagnetic analysis software. Included are descriptions of input files, the details of how these files affect the problem, and output data specifications. What is not included is the theory of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm or details of the TSAR implementation of it. This manual assumes that readers are sufficiently familiar with FDTD that they only need the how to'' knowledge presented here. This is a reference manual rather than a tutorial manual. To help new users become familiar with the TSAR software, a set of example problems is included with the TSAR distribution.

  10. Nutritional Status is Associated with Faster Cognitive Decline and Worse Functional Impairment in the Progression of Dementia: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study1.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Chelsea; Behrens, Stephanie; Schwartz, Sarah; Wengreen, Heidi; Corcoran, Chris D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, JoAnn T

    2016-02-27

    Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer's disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time β= 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 β= -0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (β= 0.35, p <  0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention.

  11. Nutritional Status is Associated with Faster Cognitive Decline and Worse Functional Impairment in the Progression of Dementia: The Cache County Dementia Progression Study1.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Chelsea; Behrens, Stephanie; Schwartz, Sarah; Wengreen, Heidi; Corcoran, Chris D; Lyketsos, Constantine G; Tschanz, JoAnn T

    2016-02-27

    Nutritional status may be a modifiable factor in the progression of dementia. We examined the association of nutritional status and rate of cognitive and functional decline in a U.S. population-based sample. Study design was an observational longitudinal study with annual follow-ups up to 6 years of 292 persons with dementia (72% Alzheimer's disease, 56% female) in Cache County, UT using the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE), Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-sb), and modified Mini Nutritional Assessment (mMNA). mMNA scores declined by approximately 0.50 points/year, suggesting increasing risk for malnutrition. Lower mMNA score predicted faster rate of decline on the MMSE at earlier follow-up times, but slower decline at later follow-up times, whereas higher mMNA scores had the opposite pattern (mMNA by time β= 0.22, p = 0.017; mMNA by time2 β= -0.04, p = 0.04). Lower mMNA score was associated with greater impairment on the CDR-sb over the course of dementia (β= 0.35, p <  0.001). Assessment of malnutrition may be useful in predicting rates of progression in dementia and may provide a target for clinical intervention. PMID:26967207

  12. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth's gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight. Eighteen astronauts performed two tests of locomotion before and after 6 months of space flight: a treadmill walking test to examine vestibular reflexive mechanisms controlling head

  13. Faster implementation of the hierarchical search algorithm for detection of gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengupta, Anand S.; Dhurandhar, Sanjeev; Lazzarini, Albert

    2003-04-01

    The first scientific runs of kilometer scale laser interferometric detectors such as LIGO are under way. Data from these detectors will be used to look for signatures of gravitational waves from astrophysical objects such as inspiraling neutron-star black-hole binaries using matched filtering. The computational resources required for online flat-search implementation of the matched filtering are large if searches are carried out for a small total mass. A flat search is implemented by constructing a single discrete grid of densely populated template waveforms spanning the dynamical parameters—masses, spins—which are correlated with the interferometer data. The correlations over the kinematical parameters can be maximized a prioriwithout constructing a template bank over them. Mohanty and Dhurandhar showed that a significant reduction in computational resources can be accomplished by using a hierarchy of such template banks where candidate events triggered by a sparsely populated grid are followed up by the regular, dense flat-search grid. The estimated speedup in this method was a factor ˜25 over the flat search. In this paper we report an improved implementation of the hierarchical search, wherein we extend the domain of hierarchy to an extra dimension—namely, the time of arrival of the signal in the bandwidth of the interferometer. This is accomplished by lowering the Nyquist sampling rate of the signal in the trigger stage. We show that this leads to further improvement in the efficiency of data analysis and speeds up the online computation by a factor of ˜65 70 over the flat search. We also take into account and discuss issues related to template placement, trigger thresholds, and other peculiar problems that do not arise in earlier implementation schemes of the hierarchical search. We present simulation results for 2PN waveforms embedded in the noise expected for initial LIGO detectors.

  14. Graded Smad2/3 Activation Is Converted Directly into Levels of Target Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mavrakis, Konstantinos J.; Goggolidou, Paraskevi; Norris, Dominic P.; Episkopou, Vasso

    2009-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) β signalling family includes morphogens, such as Nodal and Activin, with important functions in vertebrate development. The concentration of the morphogen is critical for fate decisions in the responding cells. Smad2 and Smad3 are effectors of the Nodal/Activin branch of TGFβ signalling: they are activated by receptors, enter the nucleus and directly transcribe target genes. However, there have been no studies correlating levels of Smad2/3 activation with expression patterns of endogenous target genes in a developmental context over time. We used mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells to create a system whereby levels of activated Smad2/3 can be manipulated by an inducible constitutively active receptor (Alk4*) and an inhibitor (SB-431542) that blocks specifically Smad2/3 activation. The transcriptional responses were analysed by microarrays at different time points during activation and repression. We identified several genes that follow faithfully and reproducibly the Smad2/3 activation profile. Twenty-seven of these were novel and expressed in the early embryo downstream of Smad2/3 signalling. As they responded to Smad2/3 activation in the absence of protein synthesis, they were considered direct. These immediate responsive genes included negative intracellular feedback factors, like SnoN and I-Smad7, which inhibit the transcriptional activity of Smad2/3. However, their activation did not lead to subsequent repression of target genes over time, suggesting that this type of feedback is inefficient in ES cells or it is counteracted by mechanisms such as ubiquitin-mediated degradation by Arkadia. Here we present an ES cell system along with a database containing the expression profile of thousands of genes downstream of Smad2/3 activation patterns, in the presence or absence of protein synthesis. Furthermore, we identify primary target genes that follow proportionately and with high sensitivity changes in Smad2/3 levels over 15–30

  15. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  16. Faster dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction methods using magnetic ionic liquids as solvents.

    PubMed

    Yu, Honglian; Merib, Josias; Anderson, Jared L

    2016-09-01

    Three hydrophobic magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) containing the tetrachloromanganate(II) (MnCl4(2-)) anion, namely, aliquat tetrachloromanganate(II) ([Aliquat(+)]2[MnCl4(2-)]), methyltrioctylammonium [MnCl4(2-)] ([N1,8,8,8(+)]2[MnCl4(2-)]), and trihexyltetradecylphosphonium [MnCl4(2-)] ([P6,6,6,14(+)]2[MnCl4(2-)]) were employed as extraction solvents in DLLME coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) employing UV detection. The MILs were developed with the features of magnetic susceptibility to permit rapid retrieval of the extraction solvent, hydrophobicity to allow for phase separation from water, and mobile phase compatibility with reversed phase HPLC. Additionally, the MILs were customized to minimize hydrolysis of the anionic component in aqueous media as well as reduce absorbance when subjected to HPLC. The three MILs were applied for the extraction of pharmaceutical drugs, phenolics, insecticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The disperser solvent type, disperser solvent volume, mass of MIL, extraction time, the pH of the sample solution, and salt concentration were studied in order to achieve optimal extraction efficiency for each MIL. The [P6,6,6,14(+)]2[MnCl4(2-)] MIL exhibited the best extraction efficiencies for most of the target analytes compared to the other MILs. Good linearity was obtained using this MIL with correlation coefficients (R) varying from 0.997 to 0.999. The limits of detection (LODs) of all analytes ranged from 0.25 to 1.00μgL(-1). The relative recovery was studied in lake water and river water. The relative recovery in lake water varied from 53.8% to 114.7% at a spiked concentration of 20μgL(-1) (5μgL(-1) for phenanthrene) and from 52.1% to 106.7% at 150μgL(-1) (37.5μgL(-1) for phenanthrene). In river water, the relative recovery varied from 44.6% to 110.7% at a spiked concentration of 20μgL(-1) (5μgL(-1) for phenanthrene) and 42.9% to 83.6% at 150μgL(-1) (37.5μgL(-1) for phenanthrene). PMID:27515554

  17. Rethinking the global secondary organic aerosol (SOA) budget: stronger production, faster removal, shorter lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodzic, Alma; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Jo, Duseong S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Madronich, Sasha; Park, Rokjin J.

    2016-06-01

    Recent laboratory studies suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation rates are higher than assumed in current models. There is also evidence that SOA removal by dry and wet deposition occurs more efficiently than some current models suggest and that photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation may be important (but currently ignored) SOA sinks. Here, we have updated the global GEOS-Chem model to include this new information on formation (i.e., wall-corrected yields and emissions of semi-volatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds) and on removal processes (photolysis and heterogeneous oxidation). We compare simulated SOA from various model configurations against ground, aircraft and satellite measurements to assess the extent to which these improved representations of SOA formation and removal processes are consistent with observed characteristics of the SOA distribution. The updated model presents a more dynamic picture of the life cycle of atmospheric SOA, with production rates 3.9 times higher and sinks a factor of 3.6 more efficient than in the base model. In particular, the updated model predicts larger SOA concentrations in the boundary layer and lower concentrations in the upper troposphere, leading to better agreement with surface and aircraft measurements of organic aerosol compared to the base model. Our analysis thus suggests that the long-standing discrepancy in model predictions of the vertical SOA distribution can now be resolved, at least in part, by a stronger source and stronger sinks leading to a shorter lifetime. The predicted global SOA burden in the updated model is 0.88 Tg and the corresponding direct radiative effect at top of the atmosphere is -0.33 W m-2, which is comparable to recent model estimates constrained by observations. The updated model predicts a population-weighed global mean surface SOA concentration that is a factor of 2 higher than in the base model, suggesting the need for a reanalysis of the contribution of

  18. Do Higher Sea-cliff Retreat Rates Imply Faster Sea-cliff Retreat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushkin, A.; Katz, O.; Porat, N.

    2015-12-01

    Inland retreat of sea cliffs in response to post LGM (last glacial maximum) sea-level rise is an ongoing process that affects coastal environments and communities worldwide. Here, we examine a globally recurring pattern where reported sea-cliff retreat rates since the 20th century often appear to exceed longer-term millennial-scale ('background') rates that rarely exceed ~0.1 m/yr. Focusing on Israel's 30-km-long Mediterranean 'Sharon' sea-cliff as a case study we demonstrate that such apparent increase in rates may also reflect a widely acknowledged sampling bias in geologic rate estimates inferred from observation time windows ('Tobs') shorter than process episodicity. We show that this possible bias leads to an ambiguity in conventional rate estimates obtained by averaging observed retreat distances over Tobs, and that as a result despite ubiquitous and robust observations of cliff retreat since the 20th century (e.g., aerial photographs) recent/current retreat rates for many of the world's episodically retreating sea cliffs remain essentially unknown. To address this present limitation in our ability to detect and quantify recent changes in sea-cliff retreat rates we use airborne LiDAR to measure the continuous wave-driven volumetric erosion of collapsed material from the cliff base as an effective upper-bound constraint for the m/yr rate of episodic retreat of the cliff itself. We find that while conventional retreat rate estimates since the 20th century along the Sharon sea cliff artefactually increase up to several m/yr as an inverse function of Tobs, the LiDAR-constrained retreat rates are not susceptible to this sampling bias, are comparable to the cliff's background retreat rate of 0.03-0.07 m/yr since the mid Holocene and thus indicate no recent acceleration in retreat. This ability to unambiguously constrain sea-cliff retreat rates with annual to decadal-scale observations directly impacts the global-scale push to quantify, better understand and

  19. Locomotor Dysfunction after Long-duration Space Flight and Development of Countermeasures to Facilitate Faster Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Wood, Scott; Cohen, Helen; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2012-07-01

    Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in sensorimotor function allowing astronauts to operate in this unique environment. This adaptive state, however, is inappropriate for a 1-g environment. Consequently astronauts must spend time readapting to Earth's gravity following their return to Earth. During this readaptation period, alterations in sensorimotor function cause various disturbances in astronaut gait during postflight walking. They often rely more on vision for postural and gait stability and many report the need for greater cognitive supervision of motor actions that previous to space flight were fully automated. Over the last several years our laboratory has investigated postflight astronaut locomotion with the aim of better understanding how adaptive changes in underlying sensorimotor mechanisms contribute to postflight gait dysfunction. Exposure to the microgravity conditions of space flight induces adaptive modification in the control of vestibularly-mediated reflexive head movement during locomotion after space flight. Furthermore, during motor learning, adaptive transitions are composed of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic. Strategic mechanisms represent immediate and transitory modifications in control to deal with changes in the prevailing environment that, if prolonged, induce plastic mechanisms designed to automate new behavioral responses. The goal of the present study was to examine the contributions of sensorimotor subsystems such as the vestibular and body load sensing (BLS) somatosensory influences on head movement control during locomotion after long-duration space flight. Further we present data on the two motor learning processes during readaptation of locomotor function after long-duration space flight. Eighteen astronauts performed two tests of locomotion before and after 6 months of space flight: a treadmill walking test to examine vestibular reflexive mechanisms controlling head

  20. Greater carbon stocks and faster turnover rates with increasing agricultural productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderman, J.; Fallon, S.; Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    H.H. Janzen (2006) eloquently argued that from an agricultural perspective there is a tradeoff between storing carbon as soil organic matter (SOM) and the soil nutrient and energy benefit provided during SOM mineralization. Here we report on results from the Permanent Rotation Trial at the Waite Agricultural Institute, South Australia, indicating that shifting to an agricultural management strategy which returns more carbon to the soil, not only leads to greater carbon stocks but also increases the rate of carbon cycling through the soil. The Permanent Rotation Trial was established on a red Chromosol in 1925 with upgrades made to several treatments in 1948. Decadal soil samples were collected starting in 1963 at two depths, 0-10 and 10-22.5 cm, by compositing 20 soil cores taken along the length of each plot. We have chosen to analyze five trials representing a gradient in productivity: permanent pasture (Pa), wheat-pasture rotation (2W4Pa), continuous wheat (WW), wheat-oats-fallow rotation (WOF) and wheat-fallow (WF). For each of the soil samples (40 in total), the radiocarbon activity in the bulk soil as well as size-fractionated samples was measured by accelerator mass spectrometry at ANU's Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory (Fallon et al. 2010). After nearly 70 years under each rotation, SOC stocks increased linearly with productivity data across the trials from 24 to 58 tC ha-1. Importantly, these differences were due to greater losses over time in the low productivity trials rather than gains in SOC in any of the trials. Uptake of the bomb-spike in atmospheric 14C into the soil was greatest in the trials with the greatest productivity. The coarse size fraction always had greater Δ14C values than the bulk soil samples. Several different multi-pool steady state and non-steady state models were used to interpret the Δ14C data in terms of SOC turnover rates. Regardless of model choice, either the decay rates of all pools needed to increase or the allocation of C to

  1. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  2. Liquid chromatographic resolution of 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines on a chiral stationary phase based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Areum; Choi, Hee Jung; Jin, Kab Bong; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2011-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic chiral stationary phase (CSP) based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid was applied for the first time to the resolution of biologically important 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. The unusual resolution of cyclic secondary amino compounds on a chiral crown ether-based CSP was quite successful with the use of a mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-triethylamine at a ratio of 30/70/0.5 (v/v/v) as a mobile phase. From the chromatographic behaviours for the resolution of seven 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines, the steric bulkiness of the 1-phenyl ring at the chiral center of analytes was concluded to play an important role in the chiral recognition.

  3. Higher rate alternative non-drug reinforcement produces faster suppression of cocaine seeking but more resurgence when removed.

    PubMed

    Craig, Andrew R; Nall, Rusty W; Madden, Gregory J; Shahan, Timothy A

    2016-06-01

    Relapse following removal of an alternative source of reinforcement introduced during extinction of a target behavior is called resurgence. This form of relapse may be related to relapse of drug taking following loss of alternative non-drug reinforcement in human populations. Laboratory investigations of factors mediating resurgence with food-maintained behavior suggest higher rates of alternative reinforcement produce faster suppression of target behavior but paradoxically generate more relapse when alternative reinforcement is discontinued. At present, it is unknown if a similar effect occurs when target behavior is maintained by drug reinforcement and the alternative is a non-drug reinforcer. In the present experiment three groups of rats were trained to lever press for infusions of cocaine during baseline. Next, during treatment, cocaine reinforcement was suspended and an alternative response was reinforced with either high-rate, low-rate, or no alternative food reinforcement. Finally, all reinforcement was suspended to test for relapse of cocaine seeking. Higher rate alternative reinforcement produced faster elimination of cocaine seeking than lower rates or extinction alone, but when treatment was suspended resurgence of cocaine seeking occurred following only high-rate alternative reinforcement. Thus, although higher rate alternative reinforcement appears to more effectively suppress drug seeking, should it become unavailable, it can have the unfortunate effect of increasing relapse. PMID:26988268

  4. Sperm competition and the coevolution of pre- and postcopulatory traits: Weapons evolve faster than testes among onthophagine dung beetles.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh W; Fitzpatrick, John L

    2016-05-01

    Reproductive competition generates episodes of both pre- and postcopulatory sexual selection. Theoretical models of sperm competition predict that as the fitness gains from expenditure on the weapons of male combat increase, males should increase their expenditure on weapons and decrease their expenditure on traits that contribute to competitive fertilization success. Although traits subject to sexual selection are known to have accelerated evolutionary rates of phenotypic divergence, it is not known whether the competing demands of investment into pre- and postcopulatory traits affect their relative rates of evolutionary divergence. We use a comparative approach to estimate the rates of divergence in pre- and postcopulatory traits among onthophagine dung beetles. Weapons evolved faster than body size while testes mass and sperm length evolved more slowly than body size, suggesting that precopulatory competition is the stronger episode of sexual selection acting on these beetles. Although horns evolved faster than testes, evolutionary increases in horn length were not associated with evolutionary reductions in testes mass. Our data for onthophagines support the notion that in taxa where males are unable to monopolize paternity, expenditure on both weapons and testes should both be favored.

  5. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  6. Development of a Mutant Strain of Bacillus polymyxa Showing Enhanced Production of 2,3-Butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Mallonee, D. H.; Speckman, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic α-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant. PMID:16347522

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  8. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  9. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  10. Structural analysis of the transitional state of Arp2/3 complex activation by two actin-WCAs

    PubMed Central

    Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Kast, David J.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Actin filament nucleation and branching by Arp2/3 complex is activated by nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), whose C-terminal WCA region contains binding sites for actin (W) and Arp2/3 complex (CA). It is debated whether one or two NPFs are required for activation. Here, we present conclusive evidence in support of the two-NPF model and show that actin plays a crucial role in the interactions of two mammalian NPFs, N-WASP and WAVE2, with Arp2/3 complex. Competition between actin-WCA and glia maturation factor (GMF) for binding to Arp2/3 complex suggests that during activation the first actin monomer binds at the barbed end of Arp2. Based on distance constrains obtained by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we define the relative position of the two actin-WCAs on Arp2/3 complex and propose an atomic model of the 11-subunit transitional complex. PMID:24518936

  11. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  12. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-08-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05-0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000-40 000 Ω cm(2)) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1-3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks.

  13. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  14. A Faster Fastener

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A licensing agreement between Marshall Space Flight Center and M&A Screw and Machineworks has brought the quick connect nut to the commerical market. Originally designed as part of a project seeking in-space assembly techniques, the quick connect nut is secured around a bolt merely by pushing it onto the bolt and giving it a single twist. Applications for the nuts include oil drilling platforms, mining industry, and other practices that rely on speedy assembly for success.

  15. Controlling chaos faster

    SciTech Connect

    Bick, Christian; Kolodziejski, Christoph; Timme, Marc

    2014-09-01

    Predictive feedback control is an easy-to-implement method to stabilize unknown unstable periodic orbits in chaotic dynamical systems. Predictive feedback control is severely limited because asymptotic convergence speed decreases with stronger instabilities which in turn are typical for larger target periods, rendering it harder to effectively stabilize periodic orbits of large period. Here, we study stalled chaos control, where the application of control is stalled to make use of the chaotic, uncontrolled dynamics, and introduce an adaptation paradigm to overcome this limitation and speed up convergence. This modified control scheme is not only capable of stabilizing more periodic orbits than the original predictive feedback control but also speeds up convergence for typical chaotic maps, as illustrated in both theory and application. The proposed adaptation scheme provides a way to tune parameters online, yielding a broadly applicable, fast chaos control that converges reliably, even for periodic orbits of large period.

  16. Solar Smarter Faster

    SciTech Connect

    Armbrust, Dan; Haldar, Pradeep; Kaloyeros, Alain; Holladay, Dan

    2011-01-01

    As part of the SunShot Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced on April 15th the selection of up to $112.5 million over five years for funding to support the development of advanced solar photovoltaic (PV)-related manufacturing processes throughout the United States. The effort is led by Sematech, with a proven track record in breathing life back into the US semiconduster industry, and in partnership with CNSE, The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, who supplies world class R&D experts and facilities.

  17. Solar Smarter Faster

    ScienceCinema

    Armbrust, Dan; Haldar, Pradeep; Kaloyeros, Alain; Holladay, Dan

    2016-07-12

    As part of the SunShot Initiative, U.S. Department of Energy Secretary Steven Chu announced on April 15th the selection of up to $112.5 million over five years for funding to support the development of advanced solar photovoltaic (PV)-related manufacturing processes throughout the United States. The effort is led by Sematech, with a proven track record in breathing life back into the US semiconduster industry, and in partnership with CNSE, The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, who supplies world class R&D experts and facilities.

  18. Drive Innovation Faster.

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, Douglas K.

    2005-08-01

    Authored article by Doug Lemon. An expert opinion/thought piece on how PNNL approaches R&D projects, incorporating IP protection earlier in the process of innovation to shorten the development timeline. Article cites example of SMART program to illustrate point.

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  20. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...