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  1. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  2. The association between greater continuity of care and timely measles-mumps-rubella vaccination.

    PubMed Central

    Christakis, D A; Mell, L; Wright, J A; Davis, R; Connell, F A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study assessed whether greater continuity of care is associated with timely administration of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. METHODS: We studied 11,233 patients continuously enrolled in Group Health Cooperative (GHC) from birth to 15 months. We used a preestablished index to quantify continuity of care based on the number of primary care providers in relation to the number of clinic visits. MMR vaccination status at 15 months was assessed with automated immunization data systems at GHC. RESULTS: In a logistic regression model, both medium continuity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.33) and high continuity (OR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.22, 1.52) were associated with increased likelihood of being immunized by 15 months compared with patients in the lowest tercile of continuity of care. CONCLUSION: Greater continuity of care is associated with more timely immunization. PMID:10846516

  3. Trend analysis of long-term temperature time series in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohsin, Tanzina; Gough, William A.

    2010-08-01

    As the majority of the world’s population is living in urban environments, there is growing interest in studying local urban climates. In this paper, for the first time, the long-term trends (31-162 years) of temperature change have been analyzed for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Annual and seasonal time series for a number of urban, suburban, and rural weather stations are considered. Non-parametric statistical techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen slope estimation are used primarily for the assessing of the significance and detection of trends, and the sequential Mann test is used to detect any abrupt climate change. Statistically significant trends for annual mean and minimum temperatures are detected for almost all stations in the GTA. Winter is found to be the most coherent season contributing substantially to the increase in annual minimum temperature. The analyses of the abrupt changes in temperature suggest that the beginning of the increasing trend in Toronto started after the 1920s and then continued to increase to the 1960s. For all stations, there is a significant increase of annual and seasonal (particularly winter) temperatures after the 1980s. In terms of the linkage between urbanization and spatiotemporal thermal patterns, significant linear trends in annual mean and minimum temperature are detected for the period of 1878-1978 for the urban station, Toronto, while for the rural counterparts, the trends are not significant. Also, for all stations in the GTA that are situated in all directions except south of Toronto, substantial temperature change is detected for the periods of 1970-2000 and 1989-2000. It is concluded that the urbanization in the GTA has significantly contributed to the increase of the annual mean temperatures during the past three decades. In addition to urbanization, the influence of local climate, topography, and larger scale warming are incorporated in the analysis of the trends.

  4. A time-series analysis of mortality and air temperature in Greater Beirut.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Abbas; Tewtel-Salem, Mylene; Nehme, Gebran

    2004-09-01

    The literature on the association between health and weather in the temperate to semi-arid cities of the Eastern Mediterranean is scarce. The quantification of the relationship between temperature and daily mortality can be useful for developing policy interventions such as heat-warning systems. A time-series analysis of total daily mortality and weather data for the city of Beirut was carried out. The study covered the period between 1997 and 1999. Poisson auto-regressive models were constructed, with mean daily temperature and mean daily humidity as explanatory variables. Delayed effects, up to 2 weeks, were accounted for. The regression models were used next to assess the effect of an average increase in temperature on yearly mortality. The association between temperature and mortality was found to be significant. A relatively high minimum-mortality temperature (TMM) of 27.5 degrees C was calculated. A 1 degrees C rise in temperature yielded a 12.3% increase (95% confidence interval: 5.7-19.4%) and 2.9% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2-3.7%) in mortality, above and below TMM, respectively. Lag temperature variables were found to be significant below TMM but not above it. Where the temperature change was less than 0.5 degrees C, annual above-TMM losses were offset by below-TMM gains, within a 95% confidence interval. TMM for Beirut fell within the range usually associated with warm climates. However, the mild below-TMM and steep above-TMM slopes were more typical of cities with temperate to cold climates. Our findings suggest that heat-related mortality at moderately high temperatures can be a significant public health issue in countries with warm climates. Moreover, at the projected climate change over the next 50 years, heat-related losses are unlikely to be offset by cold-related gains. PMID:15325159

  5. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Andrew J; Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-05-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75-min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex-Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu-RT, sigma-RT, and tau-RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = -.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = -.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = -.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = -.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  6. Decreased reaction time variability is associated with greater cardiovascular responses to acute stress

    PubMed Central

    Hamer, Mark; Steptoe, Andrew; Endrighi, Romano

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular (CV) responses to mental stress are prospectively associated with poor CV outcomes. The association between CV responses to mental stress and reaction times (RTs) in aging individuals may be important but warrants further investigation. The present study assessed RTs to examine associations with CV responses to mental stress in healthy, older individuals using robust regression techniques. Participants were 262 men and women (mean age = 63.3 ± 5.5 years) from the Whitehall II cohort who completed a RT task (Stroop) and underwent acute mental stress (mirror tracing) to elicit CV responses. Blood pressure, heart rate, and heart rate variability were measured at baseline, during acute stress, and through a 75‐min recovery. RT measures were generated from an ex‐Gaussian distribution that yielded three predictors: mu‐RT, sigma‐RT, and tau‐RT, the mean, standard deviation, and mean of the exponential component of the normal distribution, respectively. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was marginally associated with greater systolic (B = −.009, SE = .005, p = .09) and diastolic (B = −.004, SE = .002, p = .08) blood pressure reactivity. Decreased intraindividual RT variability was associated with impaired systolic blood pressure recovery (B = −.007, SE = .003, p = .03) and impaired vagal tone (B = −.0047, SE = .0024, p = .045). Study findings offer tentative support for an association between RTs and CV responses. Despite small effect sizes and associations not consistent across predictors, these data may point to a link between intrinsic neuronal plasticity and CV responses. PMID:26894967

  7. Do ewes born with a male co-twin have greater longevity with lambing over time?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Based on a recent analysis of historical records, ewes born co-twin to a ram had greater lifetime reproductive performance than ewes born co-twin to a ewe. We are interested in determining what component(s) of lifetime reproductive performance may be associated with a ewe’s co-twin sex. As an initi...

  8. Increasing Time and Enriching Learning for Greater Equity in Schools: Perspective from Two Community Funders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Janet; Rivera, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Foundations across the country engage in grantmaking to eliminate the opportunity and achievement gaps in K-12 public schools. Many of the strategies and investments that funders have supported in recent years focus not only on "more time" but also on "better use of time" in schools. This better use of time centers on outcomes…

  9. Web-Based Time Entry Systems: Providing Greater Automation and Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Tracy

    2005-01-01

    Time and resources are becoming increasingly scarce in most higher education institutions today. As a result, colleges and universities are looking to streamline and simplify many costly, labor-intensive administrative processes. In this article, Tracy Williams examines how Web-based time-entry systems can help institutions save valuable time and…

  10. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  11. Greater India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Jason R.; Aitchison, Jonathan C.

    2005-10-01

    "Greater India" is an 80-yr-old concept that has been used by geoscientists in plate tectonic models of the India-Asia collision system. Numerous authors working on the orogen and/or plate models of the broader region have added various sized chunks of continental lithosphere to the now northern edge of their reconstructed Indian plate. Prior to plate tectonic theory, Emile Argand (1924) [Argand, E., 1924. La tectonique de l' Asie. Proc. 13th Int. Geol. Cong. 7 (1924), 171-372.] and Arthur Holmes (1965) [Holmes, A., 1965. Principles of Physical Geology, Second Edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, 1128.] thought that the Himalayan Mountains and Tibetan Plateau had been raised due to the northern edge of the Indian craton under-thrusting the entire region. Since the advent of plate tectonic theory, Greater India proposals have been based principally on three lines of logic. One group of workers has added various amounts of continental lithosphere to India as part of their Mesozoic Gondwana models. A second form of reconstruction is based on Himalayan crustal-shortening estimates. A third body of researchers has used India continent extensions as means of allowing initial contact between the block and the Eurasian backstop plate in southern Tibet to take place at various times between the Late Cretaceous and late Eocene in what we call "fill-the-gap" solutions. The Indian craton and the southern edge of Eurasia were almost invariably some distance from one another when the collision was supposed to have started; extensions to the sub-continent were used to circumvent the problem. Occasionally, Greater India extensions have been based on a combination of fill-the-gap and shortening estimate arguments. In this paper, we exhume and re-examine the key Greater India proposals. From our analysis, it is clear that many proponents have ignored key information regarding the sub-continent's pre break-up position within Gondwana and the bathymetry of the Indian Ocean

  12. Oman-India pipeline sets survey challenges. Crossing involves most rugged terrain, water depths four times greater than previous attempts

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decisions concerning the route for the world`s deepest pipeline call for some of the most challenging commercial oceanographic and engineering surveys ever undertaken. Oman Oil Co.`s 1, 170-kilometer pipeline will carry 2 billion cubic feet of gas daily across the Arabian Sea from Oman to the northern coast of India at the Gulf of Kutch. Not only will the project be in water depths four times greater than any previous pipeline, but it will cross some of the world`s most rugged seabed terrain, traversing ridges and plunging into deep canyons. Project costs are likely to approach $5 billion.

  13. What are the Progenitors of Compace, Massive, Quiescent Galaxies at z (equals) 2.3? The Population of Massive Galaxies at z (greater than) 3 From NMBS AND CANDELS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefanon, Mauro; Marchesini, Danilo; Rudnick, Gregory H.; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Tease, Katherine Whitaker

    2013-01-01

    Using public data from the NEWFIRM Medium-Band Survey (NMBS) and the Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS), we investigate the population of massive galaxies at z > 3. The main aim of this work is to identify the potential progenitors of z 2 compact, massive, quiescent galaxies (CMQGs), furthering our understanding of the onset and evolution of massive galaxies. Our work is enabled by high-resolution images from CANDELS data and accurate photometric redshifts, stellar masses, and star formation rates (SFRs) from 37-band NMBS photometry. The total number of massive galaxies at z > 3 is consistent with the number of massive, quiescent galaxies (MQGs) at z 2, implying that the SFRs for all of these galaxies must be much lower by z 2. We discover four CMQGs at z > 3, pushing back the time for which such galaxies have been observed. However, the volume density for these galaxies is significantly less than that of galaxies at z < 2 with similar masses, SFRs, and sizes, implying that additional CMQGs must be created in the intervening 1 Gyr between z = 3 and z = 2. We find five star-forming galaxies at z 3 that are compact (Re < 1.4 kpc) and have stellar mass M* > 1010.6M; these galaxies are likely to become members of the massive, quiescent, compact galaxy population at z 2. We evolve the stellar masses and SFRs of each individual z > 3 galaxy adopting five different star formation histories (SFHs) and studying the resulting population of massive galaxies at z = 2.3. We find that declining or truncated SFHs are necessary to match the observed number density of MQGs at z 2, whereas a constant delayed-exponential SFH would result in a number density significantly smaller than observed. All of our assumed SFHs imply number densities of CMQGs at z 2 that are consistent with the observed number density. Better agreement with the observed number density of CMQGs at z 2 is obtained if merging is included in the analysis and better still if

  14. Development and Validation of Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Nofs, Sally; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5 log10 concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness. PMID:22842286

  15. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  16. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix A-2: Timing of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steinke, W.F.

    1994-09-01

    Planning for the storage or disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) requires characterization of that waste. Timing, or the date the waste will require storage or disposal, is an integral aspect of that planning. The majority of GTCC LLW is generated by nuclear power plants, and the length of time a reactor remains operational directly affects the amount of GTCC waste expected from that reactor. This report uses data from existing literature to develop high, base, and low case estimates for the number of plants expected to experience (a) early shutdown, (b) 40-year operation, or (c) life extension to 60-year operation. The discussion includes possible effects of advanced light water reactor technology on future GTCC LLW generation. However, the main focus of this study is timing for shutdown of current technology reactors that are under construction or operating.

  17. How the Other 2/3 Live: Institutional Initiatives for Part-Time Faculty Assimilation in America's 2-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    The number of part-time faculty employed in two-year colleges has risen dramatically in recent years, with current data indicating that 64% of two-year college faculty work part time. It is critical, therefore, that colleges ensure that part-time faculty are well integrated into the organizational culture. In assessing initiatives for helping…

  18. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  19. Testing Age-Paced Parenting Newsletters up to Age 3: Greater Impact on First-Time Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostergren, Carol S.; Riley, David A.

    2012-01-01

    An age-paced newsletter for parents of toddlers was evaluated. Mothers reported the newsletters were as useful as information from doctors or nurses and more useful than other sources of information. We hypothesized and found that first-time mothers reported the newsletters more useful than experienced mothers--reading more of the newsletters and…

  20. Real-time earthquake alert system for the greater San Francisco Bay Area: a prototype design to address operational issues

    SciTech Connect

    Harben, P.E.; Jarpe, S.; Hunter, S.

    1996-12-10

    The purpose of the earthquake alert system (EAS) is to outrun the seismic energy released in a large earthquake using a geographically distributed network of strong motion sensors that telemeter data to a rapid CPU-processing station, which then issues an area-wide warning to a region before strong motion will occur. The warning times involved are short, from 0 to 30 seconds or so; consequently, most responses must be automated. The San Francisco Bay Area is particularly well suited for an EAS because (1) large earthquakes have relatively shallow hypocenters (10- to 20-kilometer depth), giving favorable ray-path geometries for larger warning times than deeper from earthquakes, and (2) the active faults are few in number and well characterized, which means far fewer geographically distributed strong motion sensors are (about 50 in this region). An EAS prototype is being implemented in the San Francisco Bay Area. The system consists of four distinct subsystems: (1) a distributed strong motion seismic network, (2) a central processing station, (3) a warning communications system and (4) user receiver and response systems. We have designed a simple, reliable, and inexpensive strong motion monitoring station that consists of a three-component Analog Devices ADXLO5 accelerometer sensing unit, a vertical component weak motion sensor for system testing, a 16-bit digitizer with multiplexing, and communication output ports for RS232 modem or radio telemetry. The unit is battery-powered and will be sited in fire stations. The prototype central computer analysis system consists of a PC dam-acquisition platform that pipes the incoming strong motion data via Ethernet to Unix-based workstations for dam processing. Simple real-time algorithms, particularly for magnitude estimation, are implemented to give estimates of the time since the earthquake`s onset its hypocenter location, its magnitude, and the reliability of the estimate. These parameters are calculated and transmitted

  1. A Commercial Real-Time PCR Kit Provides Greater Sensitivity than Direct Sequencing to Detect KRAS Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Angulo, Bárbara; García-García, Elena; Martínez, Rebeca; Suárez-Gauthier, Ana; Conde, Esther; Hidalgo, Manuel; López-Ríos, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    KRAS mutation testing has become a standard procedure in the management of patients with carcinomas. The most frequently used method for KRAS testing is direct sequencing of PCR products. The development of commercial real-time quantitative PCR kits offers a useful alternative since they are in theory much more sensitive than direct sequencing and they avoid post- PCR handling. We present our experience as a reference center for the study of KRAS mutations, comparing direct sequencing and the use of a commercial real-time quantitative PCR kit, as well as determining the sensitivity of both procedures in clinical practice. The TheraScreen K-RAS Mutation Kit identified mutations in 75 (44%) of the 170 tumors. Three cases were tested positive using TheraScreen K-RAS Mutation Kit and negative by direct sequencing. We then compared the sensitivity of the kit and that of direct sequencing using 74 mutant tumors. The kit was able to detect the presence of a mutation in a 1% dilution of the total DNA in 13.5% of the tumors and, in 84%, KRAS mutation was identified at a dilution of 5%. Sequencing was able to detect KRAS mutations when the mutant DNA represented 10% of the total DNA in 20/74 (27%) of the tumors. When the mutant DNA represented 30% of the total DNA, sequencing could detect mutations in 56/74 (76%). PMID:20203003

  2. Role-Playing and Real-Time Strategy Games Associated with Greater Probability of Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Adam; Kattner, Florian; Bradford, Daniel; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn

    2015-08-01

    Research indicates that a small subset of those who routinely play video games show signs of pathological habits, with side effects ranging from mild (e.g., being late) to quite severe (e.g., losing a job). However, it is still not clear whether individual types, or genres, of games are most strongly associated with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). A sample of 4,744 University of Wisconsin-Madison undergraduates (Mage=18.9 years; SD=1.9 years; 60.5% female) completed questionnaires on general video game playing habits and on symptoms of IGD. Consistent with previous reports: 5.9-10.8% (depending on classification criteria) of individuals who played video games show signs of pathological play. Furthermore, real-time strategy and role-playing video games were more strongly associated with pathological play, compared with action and other games (e.g., phone games). The current investigation adds support to the idea that not all video games are equal. Instead, certain genres of video games, specifically real-time strategy and role-playing/fantasy games, are disproportionately associated with IGD symptoms. PMID:26252934

  3. Time-dependent transcriptomic and biochemical responses of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are explained by AHR activation time.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; O'Brien, Jason M; Jones, Stephanie P; Kennedy, Sean W

    2016-09-01

    6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and bind to the AHR with high affinity. Until recently, TCDD was considered to be the most potent AHR agonist, but several recent studies indicate that FICZ binds with greater affinity to the AHR than TCDD. To advance our understanding of the similarities and differences of the effects of FICZ and TCDD exposure in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) cultures, we compared relative expression changes of 27 dioxin-responsive genes by the use of a chicken PCR array, porphyrin accumulation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity at different time points. In addition, an egg injection study was performed to assess the effects of FICZ on the developing chicken embryo. The results of the current study showed: (1) mean EROD-derived relative potency values for FICZ compared to TCDD changed as a function of time (i.e. 9, 0.004, 0.0008 and 0.00008 at 3, 8, 24, and 48h, respectively) in CEH cultures; (2) FICZ exposure did not result in porphyrin accumulation in CEH cultures; (3) concordance between gene expression profiles for FICZ and TCDD was time- and concentration-dependent, and (4) no mortality or morphological abnormalities were observed in chicken embryos injected with 0.87ng FICZ/g egg into the air cell. The results presented herein suggest that while FICZ and TCDD share similar molecular targets, transient versus sustained AHR activation by FICZ and TCDD result in differential transcriptomic responses. Moreover, rapid metabolism of FICZ in hepatocytes resulted in a significant decrease in the induction of EROD activity. PMID:27301797

  4. Constraining the Sahara freshwater discharge during sapropel S5 time by a stable isotope record from the Greater Sirte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirks, Eleen; Kucera, Michal; Bachem, Paul; Schulz, Hartmut

    2016-04-01

    The Nile River and the Black Sea were long considered as the only significant eastern Mediterranean freshwater sources and therefore inferred as the primary agents promoting surface stratification associated with sapropel formation. Sapropel S5, deposited during the last interglacial, marks a time of possible movement of Homo sapiens out of Africa. Satellite images revealed the existence of ancient rivers that once ran through the Sahara desert and drained into the Gulf of Sirte. Anomalous Nd isotope records from sapropel S5 deposits indicate that these rivers may have been active during MIS 5e, implying another freshwater source into the eastern Mediterranean Sea during that period. To constrain the extent of freshwater discharge into the Mediterranean from the Kufrah River during MIS 5e, a new δ18O record of five planktonic foraminifera species was generated from sediment core GeoTü SL 96, located proximal to the assumed outflow of the Kufrah River. The record from core GeoTü SL 96 compared with seven other records from the eastern Mediterranean Sea reveal a pattern of oxygen isotope anomalies which implies that the Kufrah River delivered detectable amount of freshwater during the second part of sapropel S5. These results reinforce the hypothesis that Sahara river systems were active during MIS 5e, which has ramifications for the understanding of sapropel events, reconstruction of coastal landscape, and the better understanding of migration routes of early humans.

  5. X-ray absorption resonances near L2,3-edges from real-time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Marius; Konecny, Lukas; Gao, Bin; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-09-21

    The solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the relativistic Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix formalism is presented and used to calculate X-ray absorption cross sections. Both dynamical relaxation effects and spin-orbit corrections are included, as demonstrated by calculations of the X-ray absorption of SF6 near the sulfur L2,3-edges. We also propose an analysis facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions from real-time simulations, and a selective perturbation that eliminates nonphysical excitations that are artifacts of the finite basis representation. PMID:26268195

  6. Profile of time-dependent VEGF upregulation in human pulmonary endothelial cells, HPMEC-ST1.6R infected with DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4 viruses.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Azliyati; Fitzpatrick, Kelly; Signorovitz, Aimee; Tanner, Richard; Hernandez, Heidi; Stark, Lillian; Sweat, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the upregulated expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a pulmonary endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) infected with dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4), was investigated. This cell line exhibits the major constitutive and inducible endothelial cell characteristics, as well as angiogenic response. Infection by all four DENV serotypes was confirmed by an observed cytopathic effect (CPE), as well as RT-PCR (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) assays. As we had previously reported, the DENV-infected HPMEC-ST1.6R cells exhibited an elongated cytoplasmic morphology, possibly representing a response to VEGF and activation of angiogenesis. In this study, increase in VEGF expression level at designated time points of 0, 8, 24, 96 and 192 hours post-infection was investigated, using a microbead-based Bio-Plex immunoassay. Increased level of VEGF expression in infected-HPMEC-ST1.6R was detected at 8 hours post-infection. Interestingly, VEGF expression level began to decrease up to 96 hours post-infection, after which an upsurge of increased VEGF expression was detected at 192 hours post-infection. This profile of VEGF upregulated expression pattern associated with DENV infection appeared to be consistent among all four DENV-serotypes, and was not observed in mock-infected cells. In this study, the expression level of VEGF, a well-established vascular permeabilizing agent was shown to be elevated in a time-dependent manner, and exhibited a unique dual-response profile, in a DENV-infected endothelial cell. The experimental observation described here provided additional insights into potential mechanism for VEGF-mediated vascular leakage associated with DENV, and support the idea that there are potential applications of anti-VEGF therapeutic interventions for prevention of severe DENV infections. PMID:19419573

  7. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  8. Population cycles are highly correlated over long time series and large spatial scales in two unrelated species: Greater sage-grouse and cottontail rabbits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fedy, B.C.; Doherty, K.E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal species across multiple taxa demonstrate multi-annual population cycles, which have long been of interest to ecologists. Correlated population cycles between species that do not share a predator-prey relationship are particularly intriguing and challenging to explain. We investigated annual population trends of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus sp.) across Wyoming to explore the possibility of correlations between unrelated species, over multiple cycles, very large spatial areas, and relatively southern latitudes in terms of cycling species. We analyzed sage-grouse lek counts and annual hunter harvest indices from 1982 to 2007. We show that greater sage-grouse, currently listed as warranted but precluded under the US Endangered Species Act, and cottontails have highly correlated cycles (r = 0. 77). We explore possible mechanistic hypotheses to explain the synchronous population cycles. Our research highlights the importance of control populations in both adaptive management and impact studies. Furthermore, we demonstrate the functional value of these indices (lek counts and hunter harvest) for tracking broad-scale fluctuations in the species. This level of highly correlated long-term cycling has not previously been documented between two non-related species, over a long time-series, very large spatial scale, and within more southern latitudes. ?? 2010 US Government.

  9. Isoform distinct time-, dose-, and castration-dependent alterations in flavin-containing monooxygenase expression in mouse liver after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Rachel M.; Vezina, Chad M.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2010-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) expression in male mouse liver is altered after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure or castration. Because TCDD is slowly eliminated from the body, we examined hepatic Fmo mRNA alterations for up to 32 days following 10 or 64 µg/kg TCDD exposure by oral gavage in male C57BL/6J mice. Fmo2 mRNA was significantly induced at 1, 4, and 8 days whereas Fmo3 mRNA was also induced at 32 days relative to controls. Fmo3 mRNA levels exhibited a dose-dependent increase at 4, 8, and 32 days after exposure; Fmo1, Fmo4, and Fmo5 mRNA did not exhibit clear trends. Because castration alone also increased Fmo2, Fmo3, and Fmo4 mRNA we examined the combined effects of castration and TCDD treatment on FMO expression. A greater than additive effect was observed with Fmo2 and Fmo3 mRNA expression. Fmo2 mRNA exhibited a 3–5 fold increase after castration or 10 µg/kg TCDD exposure by oral gavage, whereas an approximately 20-fold increase was observed between the sham-castrated control and castrated TCDD-treated mice. Similarly, treatment with 10 µg/kg TCDD alone increased Fmo3 mRNA 130- and 180-fold in the sham-castrated and castrated mice compared to their controls respectively, whereas, Fmo3 mRNA increased approximately 1900-fold between the sham control and castrated TCDD-treated mice. An increase in hepatic Fmo3 protein in TCDD treated mice was observed by immunoblotting and assaying methionine S-oxidase activity. Collectively, these results provide evidence for isoform distinct time-, dose-, and castration-dependent effects of TCDD on FMO expression and suggest cross-talk between TCDD and testosterone signal transduction pathways. PMID:20036217

  10. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. Greater arch injuries.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Deepak; Manjunath, Dayanand; Amaravathi, Rajkumar

    2014-12-01

    Dislocations and fracture dislocations of carpal bones are uncommon injuries which invariably poses challenges in the management. Perilunate fracture dislocations are the combination of ligamentous and osseous injury that involve the "greater arc" of the perilunate associated instability. Despite their severity, these injuries often go unrecognized in the emergency department leading to delayed diagnosis and treatment. A Prospective study was done from June 2008 to December 2013 in 15 cases of complex wrist injuries which included of greater arch injuries, perilunate fracture dislocation and one dorsal dislocation of Scaphoid. 10 cases of perilunate fracture dislocation underwent open reduction and internal fixation with Herbert screw and k-wire, 4 cases of greater arch injury underwent closed reduction and kwire fixation and one case of neglected dorsal dislocation underwent proximal row carpectomy. One patient had Sudecks osteodystrophy 1 had Scaphoid nonunion and 6 had median nerve compression. Overall outcome according to Mayo wrist score was 53 % excellent, 33 % good and 14 % fair. Greater arch injuries are difficult to treat because injuries to many ligaments are involved and failure to recognize early leads to persistent pain, disability and early onset of arthritis. Prompt recognition requires CT scan and MRI. Management requires reduction and multiple K-Wiring according to merits of the case. PMID:25414554

  12. Random variation in rectal position during radiotherapy for prostate cancer is two to three times greater than that predicted from prostate motion

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, K; Romanchikova, M; Parker, A; Sutcliffe, M; Bond, S; Thomas, S; Freeman, S; Jena, R; Bates, A; Burnet, N

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Radiotherapy for prostate cancer does not explicitly take into account daily variation in the position of the rectum. It is important to accurately assess accumulated dose (DA) to the rectum in order to understand the relationship between dose and toxicity. The primary objective of this work was to quantify systematic (Σ) and random (σ) variation in the position of the rectum during a course of prostate radiotherapy. Methods: The rectum was manually outlined on the kilo-voltage planning scan and 37 daily mega-voltage image guidance scans for 10 participants recruited to the VoxTox study. The femoral heads were used to produce a fixed point to which all rectal contours were referenced. Results: Σ [standard deviation (SD) of means] between planning and treatment was 4.2 mm in the anteroposterior (AP) direction and 1.3 mm left–right (LR). σ (root mean square of SDs) was 5.2 mm AP and 2.7 mm LR. Superior–inferior variation was less than one slice above and below the planning position. Conclusion: Our results for Σ are in line with published data for prostate motion. σ, however, was approximately twice as great as that seen for prostate motion. This suggests that DA may differ from planned dose in some patients treated with radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Advances in knowledge: This work is the first to use daily imaging to quantify Σ and σ of the rectum in prostate cancer. σ was found to be greater than published data, providing strong rationale for further investigation of individual DA. PMID:25138155

  13. The 2-Year Checkup on 10 SNe IIn Discovered by Spitzer to Exhibit Late-Time (is greater than 100 Day) IR Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori Dosovitz; Chevalier, R. A.; Skrutskie, A. V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Silverman, J. M.; Ganeshalingam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Two years ago, a warm Spitzer survey of sixty-eight SNe IIn identified between the years 1998-2008 discovered 10 events with unreported late-time infrared (IR) excesses, in some cases more than 5 years post-explosion. These data nearly double the database of existing mid-IR observations of SNe IIn and offer important clues regarding the SN circumstellar.

  14. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Redmond, John M; Chen, Austin W; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    Patients who have lateral hip pain historically have been diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Although this strategy is effective for most patients, a substantial number of patients continue to have pain and functional limitations. Over the past decade, our understanding of disorders occurring in the peritrochanteric space has increased dramatically. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses trochanteric bursitis, external coxa saltans (ie, snapping hip), and abductor tendinopathy. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, examination findings, and imaging characteristics aids the clinician in treating these patients. Open and endoscopic treatment options are available for use when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. PMID:26990713

  15. Hemolymphangioma of Greater Omentum

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Chang, Dandan; Zhu, Junfeng; Zhu, Ying; Li, Ziping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hemolymphangioma is a rare vascular developmental error. It comprises malformed venous and lymphatic component in various proportion. To the best of our knowledge, only a few cases have been reported in the literature so far. Here, we report a case of huge intraperitoneal cystic mass in a 3-year-old boy that was presented to hospital with intractable abdominal pain. On examination, he had fever along with associated symptoms like cough and sputum. Abdomen was distended with no tenderness or rebound tenderness. On computed tomography scan, huge cystic mass was seen and was diagnosed as intraperitoneal benign cystic lesion. Excisional surgery of the lesion was planned. On surgery, lesion was found to be originated from greater omentum and no adhesion was seen in surrounding tissue. Complete excision of the lesion was done. Histopathological specimen after surgery suggested it to be hemolymphangioma. Follow-up for 6 months showed no recurrence. Hemolymphangioma of the greater omentum is benign tumor and accurate diagnosis before surgery is still a challenge. Presentation of disease may vary from simple well-defined cystic lesion to aggressive ill-defined lesion mimicking malignancy. Therefore, further research is needed to help doctor with preoperative radiological diagnosis and avoid unnecessary radical surgery. PMID:27124058

  16. More features, greater connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    Changes in our political infrastructure, the continuing frailties of our economy, and a stark growth in population, have greatly impacted upon the perceived stability of the NHS. Healthcare teams have had to adapt to these changes, and so too have the technologies upon which they rely to deliver first-class patient care. Here Sarah Hunt, marketing co-ordinator at Aid Call, assesses how the changing healthcare environment has affected one of its fundamental technologies - the nurse call system, argues the case for wireless such systems in terms of what the company claims is greater adaptability to changing needs, and considers the ever-wider range of features and functions available from today's nurse call equipment, particularly via connectivity with both mobile devices, and ancillaries ranging from enuresis sensors to staff attack alert 'badges'. PMID:26548128

  17. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  18. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  19. Trading Accountability for Greater Flexibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Ted

    1991-01-01

    Describes the plight of two risk-taking principals who drastically improved their schools' academic performance, only to be defeated by bureaucratic regulations and business-as-usual attitudes. Allowing schools greater flexibility in exchange for increased accountability will free talented teachers and principals to restructure schools and solve…

  20. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O.

    1996-12-31

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  1. Paleotectonic and paleogeographic evolution of greater China

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O.; Norton, I.O. )

    1996-01-01

    In this study, we utilize plate tectonic history of Central Asia to constrain understanding of sedimentary basin development and to show how regional scale tectonic events affect play elements for major basins of greater China. Tectonic framework and paleogeography are used as a constraint on models for basin formation, climate distribution and accommodation which in turn control distribution of reservoir, source, seal and trap. Greater China is an artifact of Phanerozoic tectonics. It has a protracted history of continental deformation as amalgamation of crustal blocks and island arc/subduction and accretion complexes occurred. Early Paleozoic hydrocarbon systems are dominated by extensive carbonate platform and Permian and younger systems are dominated by continental and lacustrine sedimentation. The basement of greater China consists of continental and accretion crust. The crustal blocks include South and North China, Indochina, Tibet and Tarim, and accretion blocks include the Altaids and Manchurides. The relative positions and interactions of these blocks during Paleozic and Mesozoic time resulted in formation of greater China. Final amalgamation and deformation occurred in Eocene time when India collided with Asia. The discussions consist of presentation of a model for tectonic evolution of these blocks and their paleogeography through Phanerozoic time. This is done with maps at 1:8 million scale covering nine time slices, three in the Paleozoic, three in the Mesozoic and three in the Cenozoic.

  2. Bison in the greater Yellowstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary

    1994-01-01

    In the Greater Yellowstone Area, free-ranging bison occur in Jackson Hole, Wyoming, and Yellowstone National Park. The Yellowstone population is discussed, with emphasis on changes in numbers from approximately 400 in 1968 to about 3500 now. Major influences for change initially were natural; more recently the winter road system used by snowmobiles appeared to be the dominant factor. The situation is in a state of flux. Interagency planning is in progress to address management alternatives for conflicts outside the park.

  3. [Autoerotic fatalities in Greater Dusseldorf].

    PubMed

    Hartung, Benno; Hellen, Florence; Borchard, Nora; Huckenbeck, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Autoerotic fatalities in the Greater Dusseldorf area correspond to the relevant medicolegal literature. Our results included exclusively young to middle-aged, usually single men who were found dead in their city apartments. Clothing and devices used showed a great variety. Women's or fetish clothing and complex shackling or hanging devices were disproportionately frequent. In most cases, death occurred due to hanging or ligature strangulation. There was no increased incidence of underlying psychiatric disorders. In most of the deceased no or at least no remarkable alcohol intoxication was found. Occasionally, it may be difficult to reliably differentiate autoerotic accidents, accidents occurring in connection with practices of bondage & discipline, dominance & submission (BDSM) from natural death, suicide or homicide. PMID:22039693

  4. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  5. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  6. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  8. 11 CFR 2.3 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part. (b) Except as provided in 11 CFR 2.4, every portion of every Commission meeting shall be... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules. 2.3 Section 2.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.3 General rules. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  10. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  11. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  12. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  13. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  14. 43 CFR 5511.2-3 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits. 5511.2-3 Section 5511.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-3 Permits. (a) Application for permit. Before timber...

  15. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  16. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan; de Boer, Hugo; Dermody, Brian; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin; Eppinga, Maarten

    2015-04-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems in South Florida (USA) remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy datasets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the non-linear processes involved in peat production and decomposition in combination with the local drainage conditions of Southern Florida. The model results suggest that RSL-rise alone cannot predict the onset of peat initiation in the Greater Everglades using our model setup. The model also implies that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr BP. The two-phased character of peat land initiation may be explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly non-linear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleo-ecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  17. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  18. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization. PMID:23356996

  19. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating of metamorphic complexes in the conjunction of the Greater and Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China: Timing of formation and metamorphism and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Laicheng; Zhang, Fuqin; Zhu, Mingshuai; Liu, Dunyi

    2015-12-01

    Metamorphic complexes, including the Luomahu, Xinkailing and Fengshuigouhe groups, are scattered in the conjunction of the Greater and the Lesser Xing'an ranges, NE China, and have long been interpreted to represent the Precambrian basement of the so-called "Xing'an" and "Songnen" blocks although reliable evidence is lacking. Thin-section examination and mineral assemblage indicate that the protoliths of these metamorphic rocks are mainly meta-sedimentary and meta-volcanic rocks and have experienced greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism and strong deformation. Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating results of the metamorphic complexes and associated pre- or syn-kinematic veins constrained the formation and metamorphic ages of the Luomahuo Group at 175 ± 3 Ma and 159 ± 3 Ma, the Xingkailing Group at 200 ± 2 Ma and 158 ± 3 Ma, and the Fengshuigouhe Group at between 230-310 Ma and 170 ± 3 Ma, respectively. Additionally, all these rocks contain some Late Paleozoic detrital or inherited zircons with ages between 290-390 Ma, but no Precambrian, even if Early Paleozoic, age information was detected from these metamorphic rocks. These new data suggest that the metamorphic complexes were formed during Mesozoic-Late Paleozoic period, rather than in Precambrian as previously inferred, and that all of them underwent metamorphism and deformation during Middle Jurassic between 170-160 Ma. Consequently, these metamorphic complexes are not basement rocks of the so-called Precambrian continental blocks. Instead, there are likely metamorphosed Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic accretionary complexes and/or arc terranes. These results, in combination with published data, illustrate an overall young trend from north to south in the tectonic evolution of the northern Xing'an region. Significantly, the Jurassic (170-160 Ma) metamorphism and deformation event firstly identified by this study from the metamorphic complexes likely recorded the coinstantaneous Mongol-Okhotsk collisional and

  20. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  1. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  2. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  3. Holocene peatland initiation in the Greater Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Stefan C.; Boer, Hugo J.; Dermody, Brian J.; Wagner-Cremer, Friederike; Wassen, Martin J.; Eppinga, Maarten B.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanisms involved in the initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatland ecosystems remain a topic of discussion. In this study, we first present an overview of basal ages of peat deposits in South Florida, which shows two major episodes of peatland initiation between 7.0-4.5 kyr and 3.5-2.0 kyr. Our analysis of regional climate proxy data sets led to three alternative hypotheses that may explain the timing and duration of these two peatland initiation episodes: (1) decreased drainage due to relative sea level (RSL) rise during the Holocene, (2) gradual increase in precipitation throughout the Holocene, and (3) a combination of increasing precipitation, rising RSL, and oscillations in the climate system. We test whether these three hypotheses can explain the pattern of initiation and development of the Greater Everglades peatlands using models that simulate the nonlinear processes involved in peat production and decomposition. The model results suggest that RSL rise could explain the onset of peatland initiation and imply that the climate was wet enough for peat development also during the early Holocene. The first two hypothesized mechanisms in combination with climate oscillations may explain the onset of peat accumulation at 8.2 kyr B.P. The two-phased character of peatland initiation maybe explained by the spatial distribution of local drainage conditions. As peatland development is highly nonlinear, our model uncovers a mechanistic way how peats can suddenly shift from a dry high equilibrium to a wet low equilibrium resulting in lake formation as observed in paleoecological studies in the Greater Everglades.

  4. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  5. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  6. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  7. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  8. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  9. Geochronology and magma sources of Elbrus volcano (Greater Caucasus, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Elbrus volcano (5642m), the largest Quaternary volcano in the European part of the Russia, is situated within the central part of Greater Caucasus mountain system at the watershed of Black and Caspian seas. Complex isotope-geochronological studies showed that the Elbrus volcano experienced long (approximately 200-250 thousands years) discrete evolution, with protracted periods of igneous quiescence (approximately 50 ka) between large-scale eruptions. The volcanic activity of Elbrus is subdivided into three phases: Middle-Neopleistocene (225-170 ka), Late Neopleistocene (110-70 ka), and Late Neopleistocene-Holocene (less than 35 ka). No eruptions presumably occurred during 'quiescence' periods, while the volcano was dormant or revealed only insignificant explosive eruptions and postmagmatic activity. Volcanic rocks of the Elbrus volcano are represented by biotite-hypersthene-plagioclase calc-alcaline dacites (65.2-70.4% SiO2, and 6.4-7.9% K2O+Na2O at 2.7-3.9% K2O). Petrogeochemical and isotope-geochemical signatures of Elbrus dacitic lavas (87Sr/86Sr - 0.70535-0.70636, Eps(Nd) from +0.8 to -2.3, 206Pb/204Pb - 18.631-18.671, 207Pb/204Pb - 15.649-15.660, and 208Pb/204Pb = 38.811-38.847) point to their mantle-crustal origin. It was found that hybrid parental magmas of the volcano were formed due to mixing and/or contamination of deep-seated mantle melts by Paleozoic upper crustal material of the Greater Caucasus. The temporal evolution of isotope characteristics for lavas of Elbrus volcano is well described by a Sr-Nd mixing hyperbole between mantle source of 'Common'-type and estimated average composition of the Paleozoic upper crust of the Greater Caucasus. It was shown that, with time, the proportions of mantle material in the parental magmas of Elbrus gently increased: from ~60% at the Middle-Neopleistocene phase of activity to ~80% at the Late Neopleistocene-Holocene phase, which indicates an increase of the activity of deep-seated source at decreasing input of

  10. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Michael; Nazarian, Levon N

    2014-05-01

    Lateral hip pain, or greater trochanteric pain syndrome, is a commonly seen condition; in this article, the relevant anatomy, epidemiology, and evaluation strategies of greater trochanteric pain syndrome are reviewed. Specific attention is focused on imaging of this syndrome and treatment techniques, including ultrasound-guided interventions. PMID:24787333

  11. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  12. Debris Flows Within The Greater Caucasus Northern Slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panova, S.

    : at the lower levels (up to 1500 m) they are recorded for a longer period and higher than 2000 m only 2-3 months. In terms of genesis the following types of debris flows are registered: rain, glacial and mixed. Rain mudflows are formed due to intensive rains (the daily amount is about 25 U 100 mm). A critical norm of precipitation forming debris 1 flows varies from west to east. In the western part it is 75-100 mm, central U 50-75 mm and eastern U 25-50 mm. Also the norm varies from north to south, in particular on advanced ridges it is higher but on the Glavny and Bokovoy ridges it is less. The difference is about 2 times. Glacial mudflows are observed only in the areas of modern glaciation. They form under high air temperature (20 U 25°C) leading to an intensive melting of snow and ice on glaciers. High air temperature should be recorded not less than 5-10 days. Mixed mudflows form under high air temperature in the glaciers area and significant rainstorms in the glacial zone. Rainstorms cause debris flow formation in focal points. Frontal precipitation with a significant amount of rain cause debris flows at vast territories often covering several kilometers. In total rain mudflows prevail on the Greater Caucasus northern slope and equal 60 - 80% of all the mudflows. Glacial mudflows constitute 30-40% and mixed mudflows U 10-20%. In the western and eastern parts rain mudflows are the principal and their share is 80-90% of all the mudflows. In the central part glacial mudflows prevail (60- 0%). Technogenic mudflows are recorded in the areas with developed mining industry, highways, forestry, and pastures. In the given region debris flows distribute from north to south depending on genesis and volume. On advanced ridges (Lesisty, Pastbishny, Skalisty) only rain mudflows are registered with the volume up to 100,000 m3. Eluvial-deluvial, alluvial-proluvial and eolian-proluvial deposits compose their solid constituents. This is a zone of weak mudflow hazard. The most

  13. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  14. 2,3-Dihydrobiflavone from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, M; Sowiński, P

    1999-06-01

    From the yellow leaves of Ginkgo biloba 2,3-dihydrosciadopitysin (5,5'',7''-trihydroxy-7,4',4'''-trimethoxy-3',8''-flavanone/flavone) was isolated as a mixture of two diastereomers. Its structure was elucidated employing 2D NMR techniques. PMID:17260276

  15. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  16. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart ... 30, 2016 THURSDAY, June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men are significantly more likely to have their heart ...

  17. Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159651.html Men Face Greater Risk of Cardiac Arrest: Study Heart disease tends to develop earlier than ... About one in nine men will suffer a cardiac arrest before the age of 70, compared to about ...

  18. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established. PMID:8141821

  19. Cell-specific activity-dependent fractionation of layer 2/3→5B excitatory signaling in mouse auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Ankur; Middleton, Jason W; Anderson, Charles T; Borges, Katharine; Suter, Benjamin A; Shepherd, Gordon M G; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2015-02-18

    Auditory cortex (AC) layer 5B (L5B) contains both corticocollicular neurons, a type of pyramidal-tract neuron projecting to the inferior colliculus, and corticocallosal neurons, a type of intratelencephalic neuron projecting to contralateral AC. Although it is known that these neuronal types have distinct roles in auditory processing and different response properties to sound, the synaptic and intrinsic mechanisms shaping their input-output functions remain less understood. Here, we recorded in brain slices of mouse AC from retrogradely labeled corticocollicular and neighboring corticocallosal neurons in L5B. Corticocollicular neurons had, on average, lower input resistance, greater hyperpolarization-activated current (Ih), depolarized resting membrane potential, faster action potentials, initial spike doublets, and less spike-frequency adaptation. In paired recordings between single L2/3 and labeled L5B neurons, the probabilities of connection, amplitude, latency, rise time, and decay time constant of the unitary EPSC were not different for L2/3→corticocollicular and L2/3→corticocallosal connections. However, short trains of unitary EPSCs showed no synaptic depression in L2/3→corticocollicular connections, but substantial depression in L2/3→corticocallosal connections. Synaptic potentials in L2/3→corticocollicular connections decayed faster and showed less temporal summation, consistent with increased Ih in corticocollicular neurons, whereas synaptic potentials in L2/3→corticocallosal connections showed more temporal summation. Extracellular L2/3 stimulation at two different rates resulted in spiking in L5B neurons; for corticocallosal neurons the spike rate was frequency dependent, but for corticocollicular neurons it was not. Together, these findings identify cell-specific intrinsic and synaptic mechanisms that divide intracortical synaptic excitation from L2/3 to L5B into two functionally distinct pathways with different input-output functions. PMID

  20. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme. Remarkably, we discovered IDO-specific T cells that can influence adaptive immune reactions in patients with cancer. Further, a recent phase I clinical trial demonstrated long-lasting disease stabilization without toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were vaccinated with an IDO-derived HLA-A2-restricted epitope. PMID:25949864

  1. Myth Exposed: Academically Deficient Students Gain 2.3 Grade Equivalents in Only One Semester at a 96% Black Inner-City Community College in South Central Los Angeles Or Inner-City Academic Acceleration: How to Structure a Developmental Skills Program so that Black, Inner-City Students Accelerate Their Academic Growth Rate to a Rate 5.9 Times as Great as They Have Achieved in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ruby; And Others

    The success of the Developmental Skills Program offered at Los Angeles Southwest College, a 96% black institution, is indicated by an average student grade equivalent gain of 2.3 years in one semester; a 5 year average accelerated academic growth rate that is 5.9 times the rate of academic growth black inner-city students have experienced in the…

  2. Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workforce Strategy Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This case study documents the activities of the Greater Capital Region Career Pathways Initiative (CPI), a partnership to develop regional, demand driven career pathways for the biotechnology sector in and around Albany, NY. This document is written for three primary audiences. First, it provides a report to the New York State Department of Labor…

  3. Spread of English across Greater China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Anwei

    2012-01-01

    Greater China is used in this article to refer to mainland China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan and Macao. While a holistic approach is adopted to present and compare the rapid spread of English and development in English language education in these geographically close, and sociopolitically, culturally and economically interrelated but hugely…

  4. Waste Management in Greater Dhaka City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on the environmental degradation of Greater Dhaka City (GDC) resulting from pollution created by the indiscriminate disposal of industrial wastes, open dumping of solid wastes, inadequate treatment and disposal of domestic sewage, and unplanned disposal of leachate from agricultural land. Measures to protect the GDC environment…

  5. Signal phase switches offer greater dynamic range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1970-01-01

    Circuit, placed in the signal path of a closed-loop receiver to modulate telemetered data in the 10-MHz spectrum, improves signal-to-noise ratio by 3 db in a communication receiver. The switch enables bandwidth reduction which reduces noise overload on the following stages, giving the system greater dynamic range.

  6. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  8. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper. PMID:18205250

  9. Greater sadness reactivity in late life

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Benjamin H.; Shiota, Michelle N.; Whalen, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Although previous research suggests that overall emotional reactivity does not change with normal aging, it is possible that different emotions follow different developmental courses. We examined emotional reactivity to films selected to elicit sadness, disgust, and a neutral state in young, middle-aged and older adults (total N = 222). Physiology and expressive behavior were measured continuously and reports of subjective emotional experience were obtained following each film. Results indicated that older adults reported greater sadness in response to all films and greater physiological responses to the sadness film than did the younger age groups. There were no age differences found in self-reported disgust or in behavioral expressions of sadness or disgust in response to any film. The age differences that were found were maintained even after controlling for pre-film self-reported sadness and for personal experiences of loss. These findings support the notion that sadness reactivity is heightened with age. PMID:20650943

  10. Genomic landscape of the Greater Middle East.

    PubMed

    Özçelik, Tayfun; Onat, Onur Emre

    2016-08-30

    Study of the Greater Middle East (GME), home to approximately 10% of the world's population, has made invaluable contributions to the characterization of rare genetic disease, especially recessive conditions arising from the tradition of consanguinity and large families with multiple children. A new study now reports 1,111 unrelated exomes from the GME and provides a comprehensive view of genetic variation for enhanced discovery of disease-associated genes. PMID:27573686

  11. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: a mechanism of the antitumor activity of interferon. gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Y.; Edelstein, M.P.; Duch, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    The antiproliferative effects of interferon ..cap alpha.. (IFN-..cap alpha..) and interferon ..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..) were found to be cell-dependent. Among the human cell lines examined, IFN-..gamma.. had a greater antiproliferative effect against cell lines that exhibited induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, such as the KB oral carcinoma or WiDr colon adenocarcinoma, than against those that lacked the enzyme activity, such as the SW480 colon adenocarcinoma of NCI-H128 small-cell lung carcinoma. Induction of this dioxygenase showed a clear temporal relationship with increased metabolism of L-tryptophan and the depletion of this amino acid in the culture medium. While 70-80% of L-tryptophan remained in the medium of IFN-..cap alpha..- or vehicle-treated cells, virtually all of this amino acid was depleted in the medium of the IFN-..gamma..-treated group following 2-3 days of culture. Supplementing the growth medium with additional L-tryptophan reversed the antiproliferative effect of IFN-..gamma.. against KB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The antiproliferative effects of IFN-..cap alpha.. and IFN-..gamma.. on SW480 and NCI-H128 cells, which are independent of the dioxygenase activity, and the inability of added L-tryptophan to reverse the effects of IFN-..gamma.. in WiDr cells suggest multiple mechanisms of action of the IFNs. The data show that the antiproliferative effect of IFN-..gamma.. through induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, with a consequent L-tryptophan deprivation, is an effective means of regulating cell growth.

  12. Myopes experience greater contrast adaptation during reading.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Colm; van der Linde, Ian; Pardhan, Shahina; Engel, Stephen A; Mallen, Edward A H; Allen, Peter M

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated whether reading influences contrast adaptation differently in young adult emmetropic and myopic participants at the spatial frequencies created by text rows and character strokes. Pre-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured for test gratings with spatial frequencies of 1cdeg(-1) and 4cdeg(-1), presented horizontally and vertically. Participants then adapted to reading text corresponding to the horizontal "row frequency" of text (1cdeg(-1)), and vertical "stroke frequency" of the characters (4cdeg(-1)) for 180s. Following this, post-adaptation contrast sensitivity was measured. Twenty young adults (10 myopes, 10 emmetropes) optimally corrected for the viewing distance participated. There was a significant reduction in logCS post-text adaptation (relative to pre-adaptation logCS) at the row frequency (1cdeg(-1) horizontal) but not at the stroke frequency (4cdeg(-1) vertical). logCS changes due to adaptation at 1cdeg(-1) horizontal were significant in both emmetropes and myopes. Comparing the two refractive groups, myopic participants showed significantly greater adaptation compared to emmetropic participants. Reading text on a screen induces contrast adaptation in young adult observers. Myopic participants were found to exhibit greater contrast adaptation than emmetropes at the spatial frequency corresponding to the text row frequency. No contrast adaptation was observed at the text stroke frequency in either participant group. The greater contrast adaptation experienced by myopes after reading warrants further investigation to better understand the relationship between near work and myopia development. PMID:26804636

  13. Greater trochanter apophysitis in the adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Safran, Marc R

    2015-05-01

    Lower limb traction apophysitis is common in young athletes, occurring at sites such as the tibial tubercle (Osgood-Schlatter disease) and distal patella (Sinding-Larsen-Johansson disease). Around the hip, iliac apophysitis is well recognized, but no cases of greater trochanter apophysitis have previously been reported. We describe the case of a 15-year-old male basketball player with a 2-month history of the right hip pain and significant functional limitation. X-rays revealed widening of the greater trochanter apophysis with subchondral sclerosis, consistent with a diagnosis of traction apophysitis. The patient was treated with a period of relative rest and anti-inflammatory medication. He gradually returned to full athletic activity, including basketball, without recurrence of pain or limitation. We describe the first reported case of traction apophysitis of the greater trochanter. The unique muscular anatomy of this apophysis with balanced forces explains the rarity of this condition. If encountered, rest and activity modification is the recommended treatment. PMID:24942622

  14. Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanser, Steven E.; Manier, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    The condition of the sagebrush ecosystem has been declining in the Western United States, and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a sagebrush-obligate species, has experienced concurrent decreases in distribution and population numbers. This has prompted substantial research and management over the past two decades to improve the understanding of sage-grouse and its habitats and to address the observed decreases in distribution and population numbers. The amount of research and management has increased as the year 2015 approaches, which is when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is expected to make a final decision about whether or not to protect the species under the Endangered Species Act. In 2012, the Sage-Grouse Executive Oversight Committee (EOC) of the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA) requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) lead the development of a Greater Sage-Grouse National Research Strategy (hereafter Research Strategy). This request was motivated by a practical need to systematically connect existing research and conservation plans with persisting or emerging information needs. Managers and researchers also wanted to reduce redundancy and help focus limited funds on the highest priority research and management issues. The USGS undertook the development of this Research Strategy, which addresses information and science relating to the greater sage-grouse and its habitat across portions of 11 Western States. This Research Strategy provides an outline of important research topics to ensure that science information gaps are identified and documented in a comprehensive manner. Further, by identifying priority topics and critical information needed for planning, research, and resource management, it provides a structure to help coordinate members of an expansive research and management community in their efforts to conduct priority research.

  15. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  16. Greater auricular nerve masquerading as lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Shilpi; Deb, Prabal; Nijhawan, Vijay Shrawan; Kharayat, Veena; Verma, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Hansen's disease is on the verge of being eliminated from India and often missed by clinicians due to low index of suspicion. We present an unusual case in which greater auricular nerve thickening masqueraded as enlarged lymph node in the neck. The patient was referred for fine needle aspiration cytology, which revealed epithelioid cell granulomas suggestive of Hansen's disease. Further clinical examination and investigations including the skin biopsy confirmed the disease, highlighting the role of pathologist in the management of such unusual presentation of a common disease. PMID:26229249

  17. Interspecific hybridization between greater kudu and nyala.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Desiré L; Tordiffe, Adrian; Luther, Ilse; Duran, Assumpta; van Wyk, Anna M; Brettschneider, Helene; Oosthuizen, Almero; Modiba, Catherine; Kotzé, Antoinette

    2014-06-01

    Hybridization of wildlife species, even in the absence of introgression, is of concern due to wasted reproductive effort and a reduction in productivity. In this study we detail an accidental mating between a female nyala (Tragelaphus angasii) and a male greater kudu (T. strepsiceros). The hybrid was phenotypically nyala and was identified as such based on mitochondrial DNA. Further genetic analysis based on nine microsatellite markers, chromosome number and chromosome morphology however, confirmed its status as an F1 hybrid. Results obtained from a reproductive potential assessment indicated that this animal does not have the potential to breed successfully and can be considered as sterile. PMID:24906427

  18. Expression of tandem gene duplicates is often greater than twofold

    PubMed Central

    Loehlin, David W.; Carroll, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem gene duplication is an important mutational process in evolutionary adaptation and human disease. Hypothetically, two tandem gene copies should produce twice the output of a single gene, but this expectation has not been rigorously investigated. Here, we show that tandem duplication often results in more than double the gene activity. A naturally occurring tandem duplication of the Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) gene exhibits 2.6-fold greater expression than the single-copy gene in transgenic Drosophila. This tandem duplication also exhibits greater activity than two copies of the gene in trans, demonstrating that it is the tandem arrangement and not copy number that is the cause of overactivity. We also show that tandem duplication of an unrelated synthetic reporter gene is overactive (2.3- to 5.1-fold) at all sites in the genome that we tested, suggesting that overactivity could be a general property of tandem gene duplicates. Overactivity occurs at the level of RNA transcription, and therefore tandem duplicate overactivity appears to be a previously unidentified form of position effect. The increment of surplus gene expression observed is comparable to many regulatory mutations fixed in nature and, if typical of other genomes, would shape the fate of tandem duplicates in evolution. PMID:27162370

  19. Six lessons learned for greater success.

    PubMed

    Leander, W J

    1993-01-01

    These six lessons learned for greater success with your Patient Focused communications can help keep your cultural change process in sync with your operational change process. Of course, there are other key elements of the former, including: formal Patient Focused educational programs; restructured Human Resources "systems" (e.g., job descriptions and compensation programs); and migration toward greater organizational empowerment and more self-directed work teams. Still, your Patient Focused communications campaign will spearhead the cultural change process. As such, it will have the opportunity to make the very first impact. Basically, your communications can make or break your Patient Focused Care program from Day One. It's up to you--learn the lessons learned by others and your organization may follow the words of Marx rather than those of Brand: "Workers of the world, unite (on behalf of your Patient Focused Care program)!" Karl Marx.p6 "Workers of the world, fan out (in formation against your Patient Focused Care program)!" Stewart Brand. PMID:10133393

  20. Diary of a Conversion--Lotus 1-2-3 to Symphony 1.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunnewin, Larry

    1986-01-01

    Describes the uses of Lotus 1-2-3 (a spreadsheet-graphics-database program created by Lotus Development Corporation) and Symphony 1.1 (a refinement and expansion of Symphony 1.01 providing memory efficiency, speed, ease of use, greater file compatibility). Spreadsheet and graphics capabilities, the use of windows, database environment, and…

  1. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  2. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N.K.; Trevorrow, L.E.; Yu, C.

    1984-01-01

    This contribution is a progress report for preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (GCD) of low-level radioactive waste. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. This progress report is limited to Phase I. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives. 16 references.

  3. Greater confinement disposal of radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste (LLW) includes a broad spectrum of different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and hazards. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most LLW. A small volume fraction (approx. 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx. 90%) requires specific measures known as greater-confinement disposal (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics.

  4. Planning for greater-confinement disposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, T. L.; Luner, C.; Meshkov, N. K.; Trevorrow, L. E.; Yu, C.

    The preparation of a document that will summarize procedures and technical information needed to plan for and implement greater-confinement disposal (CGD) of low-level radioactive waste is presented. Selection of a site and a facility design (Phase I), and construction, operation, and extended care (Phase II) will be covered in the document. Phase I includes determination of the need for GCD, design alternatives, and selection of a site and facility design. Alternative designs considered are augered shafts, deep trenches, engineered structures, high-integrity containers, hydrofracture, and improved waste form. Design considerations and specifications, performance elements, cost elements, and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the different designs are covered. Procedures are discussed for establishing overall performance objectives and waste-acceptance criteria, and for comparative assessment of the performance and cost of the different alternatives.

  5. Health and Greater Manchester in Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Stephanie J.

    2015-01-01

    This article maps the history of health organisation across Greater Manchester (GM), primarily since the Second World War, to show how against a continuing backdrop of health inequalities, services have been driven (and constrained) by the needs and the politics of each period. Defining ‘success’ as benefits for patients the article identifies examples such as Salford’s mental health services (1950s and 1960s), public health in North Manchester (1970s and 1980s), the creation of centres for diabetes, sickle-cell and thalassaemia (1980s) and the formation of the Joint Health Unit in 2002. What this history shows is that over the period the common factors influencing the ‘success’ of health organisation across GM have been the championing of particular issues by multi-disciplinary groups working across health and social care and stability in structures and personnel. PMID:27499557

  6. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  7. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation on the nature of the electronic transitions involved in the nonlinear optical response of [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Sgamelotti, Antonio; Cariati, Franco; Roberto, Dominique; Tessore, Francesca; Ugo, Renato

    2006-02-14

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations on the nature and role of the absorption bands involved in the nonlinear optical response of the complexes [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = T1, T2; T1 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, T2 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NMe2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine). Geometry optimizations, performed without any symmetry constraints, confirm a twisting of the -C6H4-p-NBu2 moiety with respect to the plane of the chelated terpyridine. Despite this lack of strong pi interaction, TDDFT excited states calculations of the electronic spectrum in solution provide evidence of a relevant role of the NBu2 donor group in the low-energy LMCT band at 911 nm. Calculations also show that the two bands at higher energy (508 and 455 nm) are not attributable only to LMCT and ILCT transitions but to a mixing of ILCT/MLCT and ILCT/pi-pi* transitions, respectively. The 911 nm LMCT band, appearing at lower wavelength of the second harmonic (670 nm) of the EFISH experiment, controls the negative value of the second-order NLO response. This is confirmed by our calculations of the static component beta0(zzz) of the quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor, showing a large positive value. In addition we have found that the increase of the dipole moment upon excitation occurs, in all the characterized transitions, along the dipole moment axis, thus explaining why the EFISH and solvatochromic experimental values of the quadratic hyperpolarizability agree as sign and value. PMID:16437181

  8. Malaria situation in the Greater Mekong Subregion.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sean; Delacollette, Charles; Chavez, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    The epidemiology of malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion is complex and rapidly evolving. Malaria control and elimination efforts face a daunting array of challenges including multidrug-resistant parasites. This review presents secondary data collected by the national malaria control programs in the six countries between 1998 and 2010 and examines trends over the last decade. This data has a number of limitations: it is derived exclusively from public sector health facilities; falciparum-specific and then pan-specific rapid diagnostic tests were introduced during the period under review; and, recently there has been a massive increase in case detection capability as a result of increased funding. It therefore requires cautious interpretation. A series of maps are presented showing trends in incidence, mortality and proportion of cases caused by Plasmodium falciparum over the last decade. A brief overview of institutional and implementation arrangements, historical background, demographics and key issues affecting malaria epidemiology is provided for each country. National malaria statistics for 2010 are presented and their robustness discussed in terms of the public sector's share of cases and other influencing factors such as inter-country variations in risk stratification, changes in diagnostic approach and immigration. Targets are presented for malaria control and where appropriate for elimination. Each country's artemisinin resistance status is described. The epidemiological trends presented reflect the improvement in the malaria situation, however the true malaria burden is as yet unknown. There is a need for continuing strengthening and updating of surveillance and response systems. PMID:24159830

  9. Early tectonic history of the Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.F.; Draper, G.; Mattson, P.

    1985-01-01

    The islands of the Greater Antilles exhibit differing pre-Oligocene tectonic styles and histories, but all display the results of convergent plate activity from the Early Cretaceous to the Middle Eocene. Western and central Cuba consist of autochthonous, Jurassic and older continental crust, which was overthrust by Cretaceous ophiolites in the Early to Middle Eocene. In contrast, eastern Cuba seems to be similar to Northern Hispaniola, and both areas consist of complexes of upper Cretaceous to Eocene magmatic-arc rocks, and trench generated ophiolites and blueschists produced by SW directed subduction. The oldest rocks in central Hispaniola are exposed in NW trending linear fault-bounded belts. Unusual high-Mg greenschists and amphibolites, quartz-feldspathic greenschists, together with N-type MORB basalts and keratophyric volcanics, are juxtaposed against a medial serpentinite belt. Central and eastern Puerto Rico consist of Lower to Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks intruded by upper Cretaceous to Eocene plutons. Similar Cretaceous volcanics occur in SW Puerto Rico, but they are overthrust by Upper Jurassic cherts, spilites and amphibolites. Jamaica lies along the Nicaraguan Rise to the SW of the other islands and consists of Barremian to Maastrichtian volcanics and volcanogenic sediments intruded by upper Cretaceous calc-alkalic plutons. Blueschists and related rocks in eastern Jamaica, and geochemical zonation in the igneous rocks suggest that the subduction was to the NW. Change in tectonic movements from convergence to left lateral shear took place during the Late Eocene/Early Oligocene.

  10. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  11. 1,2,3-Triazoles as inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Caldelari, Daniela; Dilek, Nahzli; Reichenbach, Patrick; Ascencao, Kelly; Irving, Melita; Coukos, George; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays. Our approach yielded low molecular weight inhibitors of IDO2, the most active displaying an IC50 value of 51μM for mIDO2, and twofold selectivity over hIDO1. These compounds could be useful as molecular probes to investigate the biological role of IDO2, and could inspire the design of new IDO2 inhibitors. PMID:27469130

  12. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  13. Changing Water Environment in the Greater Jakarta Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawitan, H.; Delinom, R.; Lubis, R. F.

    2014-12-01

    Recent rapid economic development in the greater Jakarta areas has caused not only increased water resources demands but also affects the water environment due to population increase and land use changes, that further causes land degradation, and changes in hydrologic regimes and environmental qualities. In the present study, the water environmental capacities as indicated by the changing landscapes in the greater Jakarta basins were investigated to understand the role of land use management and its impact on water resources, ecosystem and environmental services. The Ciliwung river basin where rapid population increases and progresses of the land use/cover changes occurring was selected as a representative basin, and 41 water samplings were taken at different time of Jan. 08, Apr. 08, Jul. 08, and Oct. 08 during 2009 to understand the effect of rainfall variation on water quality, and clarify the characteristics of hydrological cycle. Landuse changes of the upper basins as can be seen for the upper basin indicated the expansion of settlements during 1990 to 2004 from 4.1% to 17.6% or in acreage increased almost five times, not only converting forested area, but mostly taking place from paddy fields that contributed about 50% of the additional land for new settlements. Urbanization expanding around the greater Jakarta basins, is closely related to the increased fluctuations of river discharges in recent years, with recurrence floods quickly after heavy rainfall events. Furthermore, the study results indicated that water quality of Ciliwung river, especially the loading concentrations of nitric acid closely reflects the population densities of the watershed. These results suggest that the land use/cover changes of the greater Jakarta basins affect largely the change of water environment of the areas and resulting a deteriorated factor for water resources, ecosystems and environmental services in both of quantity and quality

  14. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  15. Rock Art of the Greater Southwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krupp, Edwin C.

    Archaeoastronomical studies in the American Southwest began in 1955 with recognition of what seemed to be pictorial eyewitness records of the Crab supernova of 1054 AD In time, reports of seasonally significant light-and-shadow effects on rock art and associations of rock art with astronomical alignments also emerged. Most astronomical rock art studies remained problematic, however, because criteria for proof of ancient intent were elusive. Disciplined methods for assessing cultural function were difficult to develop, but review of ethnographically documented astronomical traditions of California Indians and of Indians in the American Southwest subsequently increased confidence in the value of some astronomical rock art initiatives.

  16. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  17. Promoting greater Federal energy productivity [Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Mark; Dudich, Luther

    2003-03-05

    This document is a close-out report describing the work done under this DOE grant to improve Federal Energy Productivity. Over the four years covered in this document, the Alliance To Save Energy conducted liaison with the private sector through our Federal Energy Productivity Task Force. In this time, the Alliance held several successful workshops on the uses of metering in Federal facilities and other meetings. We also conducted significant research on energy efficiency, financing, facilitated studies of potential energy savings in energy intensive agencies, and undertook other tasks outlined in this report.

  18. Fragmentation pathways of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane cations in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kirk, Benjamin B; Ellis-Steinborner, Simon; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) is an explosive taggant added to plastic explosives during manufacture making them more susceptible to vapour-phase detection systems. In this study, the formation and detection of gas-phase [M+H](+), [M+Li](+), [M+NH(4)](+) and [M+Na](+) adducts of DMNB was achieved using electrospray ionisation on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The [M+H](+) ion abundance was found to have a strong dependence on ion source temperature, decreasing markedly at source temperatures above 50 degrees C. In contrast, the [M+Na](+) ion demonstrated increasing ion abundance at source temperatures up to 105 degrees C. The relative susceptibility of DMNB adduct ions toward dissociation was investigated by collision-induced dissociation. Probable structures of product ions and mechanisms for unimolecular dissociation have been inferred based on fragmentation patterns from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of source-formed ions of normal and isotopically labelled DMNB, and quantum chemical calculations. Both thermal and collisional activation studies suggest that the [M+Na](+) adduct ions are significantly more stable toward dissociation than their protonated analogues and, as a consequence, the former provide attractive targets for detection by contemporary rapid screening methods such as desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PMID:19670345

  19. Distribution of Permo-Carboniferous clastics of Greater Arabian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Laboun, A.A.

    1987-05-01

    Strikingly correlative sequences of sediments composed of sandstones, siltstones, shales, and thin argillaceous carbonate beds are present, practically everywhere, underlying the Late Permian carbonates in the Greater Arabian basin. The Greater Arabian basin as defined here occupies the broad Arabian Shelf that borders the Arabian shield. This basin is composed of several smaller basins. These clastics are exposed as thin bands and scattered small exposures in several localities around the margins of the basin. The Permo-Carboniferous clastics are represented by the Unayzah Formation of Arabia, the Doubayat Group of Syria, the Hazro Formation of southeast Turkey, the Ga'arah Formation of Iraq, the Faraghan Formation of southwest Iran, and the Haushi Group of Oman. A Late Carboniferous-Early Permian age is assigned to these clastics because they contain fossil plants and palynomorphs. These sediments represent time-transgressive fluctuating sea deposits following a phase of regional emergence, erosion, and structural disturbance which preceded the Permian transgression. The basal contact of these clastics is marked by a well-pronounced angular unconformity with various older units, ranging in age from early Carboniferous to late Precambrian. This regional unconformity is probably related to the Hercynian movements. The upper contact is conformable with the Permian carbonates. The porous sandstones of the Permo-Carboniferous sediments are important hydrocarbon exploration targets. These reservoir rocks sometimes overlie mature source rocks and are capped by shales, marls, and tight carbonates. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons are contained in these reservoirs in different parts of the Greater Arabian basin.

  20. Integrating parasitology and marine ecology: Seven challenges towards greater synergy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, Robert; Blasco-Costa, Isabel; Randhawa, Haseeb S.

    2016-07-01

    Despite their very different historical origins as scientific disciplines, parasitology and marine ecology have already combined successfully to make important contributions to our understanding of the functioning of natural ecosystems. For example, robust assessments of the contribution of parasites to ecosystem biomass and energetics, and of their impact on community-wide biodiversity and food web structure, have all been made for the first time in marine systems. Nevertheless, for the marriage between parasitology and marine ecology to remain fruitful, several challenges must first be overcome. We discuss seven such challenges on the road to a greater synergy between these disciplines: (1) Raising awareness of parasitism as an ecological force by increasing the proportion of articles about parasites and diseases in marine ecology journals; (2) Making greater use of theory and conceptual frameworks from marine ecology to guide parasitological research; (3) Speeding up or at least maintaining the current rate at which marine parasites are found and described; (4) Elucidating a greater proportion of life cycles in all major groups of marine parasites; (5) Increasing the number of host-parasite model systems on which our knowledge is based; (6) Extending parasitological research offshore and into ocean depths; and (7) Developing, as needed, new epidemiological theory and transmission models for the marine environment. None of these challenges is insurmountable, and addressing just a few of them should guarantee that parasitology and marine ecology will continue to join forces and make further substantial contributions.

  1. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  2. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  3. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  4. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  5. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  6. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  7. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  8. 22 CFR 2.3 - Notification of foreign officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of foreign officials. 2.3 Section 2.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER OFFICIAL PERSONNEL § 2.3 Notification of foreign officials. (a) Any notification of a foreign official...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  13. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  14. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  15. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  16. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  17. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  18. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  19. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  20. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  1. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  2. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  3. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  4. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  5. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  6. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  7. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  8. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of spinosyn analogs functionally altered at the 2'-,3'- and 4'-positions of the rhamnose moiety.

    PubMed

    Creemer, L C; Kirst, H A; Paschal, J W; Worden, T V

    2000-02-01

    In an effort to increase the insecticidal activity of the spinosyn family of naturally occurring macrolides, the 2'-, 3'- and 4'-O-desmethyl-O-acetyl analogs and the 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-O-desmethoxy analogs have been synthesized. These analogs were prepared synthetically from the minor spinosyn factors H, J, K, L and Q either via direct acylation of the corresponding factor or deoxygenation of an intermediate xanthate. The acylated analogs were all more potent insecticides against Heliothis virescens larvae than their respective parent factors, but not as potent as spinosyns A or D. The deoxy analogs were also more potent insecticides than their respective parent factors. The 2'-desmethoxy analogs showed, for the first time, analogs with insecticidal potency against H. virescens greater than that of spinosyns A and D, indicating that polarity is not well tolerated in the rhamnose moiety of spinosyn A. PMID:10805578

  9. Catalytic cycloalumination in steroid chemistry II: selective functionalization of 2'-methylidene-2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane.

    PubMed

    D'yakonov, Vladimir A; Tuktarova, Regina A; Islamov, Ilgiz I; Khalilov, Leonard M; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2013-12-11

    The catalytic cycloalumination of 2'-methylidene-2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane with Et3Al catalyzed by Cp2ZrCl2 was performed for the first time to give spiro[2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane-2',3″-aluminacyclopentane] in a ~75% yield and with high stereoselectivity (>98%). The obtained cyclic organoaluminum compound was transformed in situ into heterocyclic spiran derivatives of 2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane. PMID:24075970

  10. Greater Burgan of Kuwait: world's second largest oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Youash, Y.Y.

    1989-03-01

    Greater Burgan (Main burgan, Magwa, and Ahmadi) field is located in the Arabian Platform geologic province and the stable shelf tectonic environment of the Mesopotamian geosyncline, a sedimentary basin extending from the Arabian shield on the west to the complexly folded and faulted Zagros Mountains on the east. The structural development in Cretaceous time represents a major anticlinorium bounded by a basin to the west and a synclinorium to the east. Greater Burgan is located within this anticlinorium. The field consists of three dome structures 25 km wide and 65 km long with gentle dips of only few degrees. Faults have little throw and did not contribute to the trapping mechanism. The structural deformation may have been caused by halokinetic movements and most likely by basement block faulting that may have started in the Paleozoic. Greater Burgan was discovered in 1938. All production during the last 40 years has been by its natural pressure. Although natural gas injection has been carried out for some time, no waterflooding has been initiated yet. Recoverable reserves of the field are 87 billion bbl of oil. During the last 5 years giant reserves have been added in this field from the deeper strata of Jurassic age. Several deep wells have been drilled to the Permian for the purpose of discovering gas. So far, no Permian gas has been found in Kuwait. The Permian is 25,000 ft deep, and it is unlikely gas will be found there in the future. However, the potential of the Jurassic reservoirs will be a major target in the future. Also, there is a great possibility of discovering oil in stratigraphic traps, as several producing strata in the nearby fields pinch out on the flanks of this giant structure. Enhanced oil recovery should add significant reserves in the future.

  11. Synthesis, antimicrobial and in vitro antitumor activities of a series of 1,2,3-thiadiazole and 1,2,3-selenadiazole derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Mhaidat, Nizar M; Al-Smadi, Mousa; Al-Momani, Fouad; Alzoubi, Karem H; Mansi, Iman; Al-Balas, Qosay

    2015-01-01

    Three derivatives of substituted 1,2,3-thia- or 1,2,3-selenadiazole (4a–c) were prepared and characterized by different chemical techniques. These compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial and antitumor activities. Compounds 4a (propenoxide derivative), 4b (carbaldehyde derivative), and 4c (benzene derivative) were active against the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans. Compound 4a was active against gram-negative Escherichia coli, and compound 4c was active against the gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. For the antitumor activity, both compounds 4b and 4c were active against all tested tumor cell lines, namely, SW480, HCT116, C32, MV3, HMT3522, and MCF-7. The activity of compound 4c was greater than that of compound 4b and more than that of the reference antitumor 5-flourouracil against the SW480, HCT116, and MCF-7 tumor cell lines. In conclusion, a number of the prepared 1,2,3-thia- or 1,2,3-selenadiazole compounds showed promising antifungal, antibacterial, and in vitro antitumor activities. Further investigations are required to explore the mechanism by which active compound are inducing their cytotoxicity. PMID:26316694

  12. Hepatic metabolism of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in the rat and guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Wroblewski, V.J.; Olson, J.R.

    1985-11-01

    Marked interspecies variability exists in the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with the rat having an LD/sub 50/ about 25-fold greater than the guinea pig. The metabolism of TCDD was examined by incubating hepatocytes isolated from these animals with purified (/sup 14/C)TCDD (2.2 microM) for 8 hr. Over the 8-hr incubation, cytochrome P-450 content and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and benzphetamine N-demethylase activities were well maintained, indicating the functional viability of the hepatocytes. Quantitative differences were observed in the rate of (/sup 14/C)TCDD metabolism, with hepatocytes from control rats metabolizing TCDD at a rate 2.8-fold greater than hepatocytes from control guinea pigs. The role of the hepatic cytochrome P-450-448-dependent monooxygenase system in the metabolism of TCDD was examined through the use of hepatocytes isolated from animals pretreated with either TCDD or phenobarbital. The rate of (/sup 14/C)TCDD metabolite formation in hepatocytes from TCDD pretreated guinea pigs (0.26 +/- 0.14 pmol mg cell protein-1 hr-1) was unchanged from the control rate, while the rate in hepatocytes from TCDD pretreated rats was 3.2-fold greater than control and nine times greater than in hepatocytes from TCDD-pretreated guinea pigs. On the other hand, phenobarbital pretreatment produced little change in the rate of (/sup 14/C)TCDD metabolism in rat hepatocytes. These results suggest that TCDD may be metabolized by a TCDD inducible form of cytochrome P-448 which is expressed in the rat but not in the guinea pig.

  13. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  14. Sexual predators, energy development, and conservation in greater Yellowstone.

    PubMed

    Berger, Joel; Beckmann, Jon P

    2010-06-01

    In the United States, as elsewhere, a growing debate pits national energy policy and homeland security against biological conservation. In rural communities the extraction of fossil fuels is often encouraged because of the employment opportunities it offers, although the concomitant itinerant workforce is often associated with increased wildlife poaching. We explored possible positive and negative factors associated with energy extraction in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE), an area known for its national parks, intact biological diversity, and some of the New World's longest terrestrial migrations. Specifically, we asked whether counties with different economies-recreation (ski), agrarian (ranching or farming), and energy extractive (petroleum)-differed in healthcare (gauged by the abundance of hospital beds) and in the frequency of sexual predators. The absolute and relative frequency of registered sex offenders grew approximately two to three times faster in areas reliant on energy extraction. Healthcare among counties did not differ. The strong conflation of community dishevel, as reflected by in-migrant sexual predators, and ecological decay in Greater Yellowstone is consistent with patterns seen in similar systems from Ecuador to northern Canada, where social and environmental disarray exist around energy boomtowns. In our case, that groups (albeit with different aims) mobilized campaigns to help maintain the quality of rural livelihoods by protecting open space is a positive sign that conservation can matter, especially in the face of rampant and poorly executed energy extraction projects. Our findings further suggest that the public and industry need stronger regulatory action to instill greater vigilance when and where social factors and land conversion impact biological systems. PMID:20184654

  15. Synthesis, transformations and biological properties of furo[2,3-b]pyridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakanyan, S. N.; Hovakimyan, A. A.; Noravyan, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Data on furo[2,3-b]pyridines published in the last 15 years are integrated and analyzed for the first time. Information on the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and biological action of these systems is described systematically. Particular attention is paid to the preparation and study of properties of polycondensed derivatives as the most promising and rapidly developing line of research of furo[2,3-b]pyridine chemistry. The biological properties of this class of compounds are discussed, and examples of furo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibit high biological activities are given. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  16. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  17. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  18. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  19. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public...

  20. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ramón A; Pacala, Stephen W; Winebrake, James J; Chameides, William L; Hamburg, Steven P

    2012-04-24

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH(4) leakage were capped at a level 45-70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH(4) losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  1. Greater focus needed on methane leakage from natural gas infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ramón A.; Pacala, Stephen W.; Winebrake, James J.; Chameides, William L.; Hamburg, Steven P.

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas is seen by many as the future of American energy: a fuel that can provide energy independence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the process. However, there has also been confusion about the climate implications of increased use of natural gas for electric power and transportation. We propose and illustrate the use of technology warming potentials as a robust and transparent way to compare the cumulative radiative forcing created by alternative technologies fueled by natural gas and oil or coal by using the best available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from each fuel cycle (i.e., production, transportation and use). We find that a shift to compressed natural gas vehicles from gasoline or diesel vehicles leads to greater radiative forcing of the climate for 80 or 280 yr, respectively, before beginning to produce benefits. Compressed natural gas vehicles could produce climate benefits on all time frames if the well-to-wheels CH4 leakage were capped at a level 45–70% below current estimates. By contrast, using natural gas instead of coal for electric power plants can reduce radiative forcing immediately, and reducing CH4 losses from the production and transportation of natural gas would produce even greater benefits. There is a need for the natural gas industry and science community to help obtain better emissions data and for increased efforts to reduce methane leakage in order to minimize the climate footprint of natural gas. PMID:22493226

  2. The relationship between inhibition of vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase and reduction of clotting factor activity with warfarin.

    PubMed Central

    Choonara, I A; Malia, R G; Haynes, B P; Hay, C R; Cholerton, S; Breckenridge, A M; Preston, F E; Park, B K

    1988-01-01

    1 The effect of low dose steady state warfarin (0.2 mg and 1 mg daily) on clotting factor activity and vitamin K1 metabolism was studied in seven healthy volunteers. 2 Steady state plasma warfarin concentrations were 41-99 ng ml-1 for the 0.2 mg dose and 157-292 ng ml-1 for the 1 mg dose. 3 There was a significant prolongation of the mean prothrombin time (0.9 s) after 1 mg warfarin daily, but no significant change in prothrombin time after 0.2 mg warfarin daily. There was no significant change in individual clotting factor activity (II, VII, IX or X) with either dose of warfarin. 4 Following the administration of a pharmacological dose of vitamin K1 (10 mg), all seven volunteers had detectable levels of vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide with both doses of warfarin (Cpmax 31-409 ng ml-1). 5 Both the Cpmax and the AUC for vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide were significantly greater on 1 mg of warfarin daily than 0.2 mg daily (P less than 0.01). 6 The apparent dissociation between inhibition of vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide reductase and reduction of clotting factor activity, produced by warfarin, may reflect the insensitivity of functional clotting factor assays to a small reduction in clotting factor concentration. PMID:3370190

  3. 43 CFR 3712.2-3 - Contents of published notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of published notice. 3712.2-3 Section 3712.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23,...

  4. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  5. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  6. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  7. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3... NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  8. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3 Section 3453.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  9. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  10. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  11. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  12. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  13. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  14. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  15. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 grants. 35.909 Section 35.909 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority. The Regional...

  16. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of...

  17. Reductions in Red Blood Cell 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate Concentration during Continuous Renal Replacment Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Brugnara, Carlo; Betensky, Rebecca A.; Waikar, Sushrut S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Hypophosphatemia is a frequent complication during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), a dialytic technique used to treat AKI in critically ill patients. This study sought to confirm that phosphate depletion during CRRT may decrease red blood cell (RBC) concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), a crucial allosteric effector of hemoglobin’s (Hgb’s) affinity for oxygen, thereby leading to impaired oxygen delivery to peripheral tissues. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Phosphate mass balance studies were performed in 20 patients with severe AKI through collection of CRRT effluent. RBC concentrations of 2,3-DPG, venous blood gas pH, and oxygen partial pressure required for 50% hemoglobin saturation (P50) were measured at CRRT initiation and days 2, 4, and 7. Similar measurements were obtained on days 0 and 2 in a reference group of 10 postsurgical patients, most of whom did not have AKI. Associations of 2,3-DPG with laboratory parameters and clinical outcomes were examined using mixed-effects and Cox regression models. Results Mean 2,3-DPG levels decreased from a mean (±SD) of 13.4±3.4 µmol/g Hgb to 11.0±3.1 µmol/g Hgb after 2 days of CRRT (P<0.001). Mean hemoglobin saturation P50 levels decreased from 29.7±4.4 mmHg to 26.7±4.0 mmHg (P<0.001). No significant change was seen in the reference group. 2,3-DPG levels after 2 days of CRRT were not significantly lower than those in the reference group on day 2. Among patients receiving CRRT, 2,3-DPG decreased by 0.53 µmol/g Hgb per 1 g phosphate removed (95% confidence interval 0.38 to 0.68 µmol/g Hgb; P<0.001). Greater reductions in 2,3-DPG were associated with higher risk for death (hazard ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.88; P=0.01). Conclusions CRRT-induced phosphate depletion is associated with measurable reductions in RBC 2,3-DPG concentration and a shift in the O2:Hgb affinity curve even in the absence of overt hypophosphatemia. 2,3

  18. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from glycerol by forced pH fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Kaloyan; Petrova, Penka

    2010-07-01

    The glycerol fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae occurs by receiving more than five liquid products-organic acids, diols, and ethanol. Aiming to direct the glycerol conversion towards predominant production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), the main influencing parameters (the aeration and the pH) were investigated during fed-batch processes. The regime of intensive aeration (2.2 vvm air supply) was evaluated as most favorable for 2,3-BD synthesis and ensured the decrease of all other metabolites. Thus, without pH control, 52.5 g/l 2,3-BD were produced, as the carbon conversion of glycerol into 2,3-BD reached 60.6%. Additional enhancement in 2,3-BD production (by significant increase of glycerol utilization) was achieved by the development of a new method of "forced pH fluctuations". It was realized by consecutive raisings of pH using definite DeltapH value, at exact time intervals, allowing multiple variations. Thus, the optimal conditions for maximal glycerol consumption were defined, and 70 g/l 2,3-BD were produced, which is the highest amount obtained from glycerol as a sole carbon source until now. The forced pH fluctuations emphasized pH as a governing factor in microbial conversion processes. PMID:20361325

  19. Galactic Diffuse Gamma Ray Emission Is Greater than 10 Gev

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Stanley D.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    AGILE and Gamma-ray Large Area Telescope (GLAST) are the next high-energy gamma-ray telescopes to be flown in space. These instruments will have angular resolution about 5 times better than Energetic Gamma-Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) above 10 GeV and much larger field of view. The on-axis effective area of AGILE will be about half that of EGRET, whereas GLAST will have about 6 times greater effective area than EGRET. The capabilities of ground based very high-energy telescopes are also improving, e.g. Whipple, and new telescopes, e.g. Solar Tower Atmospheric Cerenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE), Cerenkov Low Energy Sampling and Timing Experiment (CELESTE), and Mars Advanced Greenhouse Integrated Complex (MAGIC) are expected to have low-energy thresholds and sensitivities that will overlap the GLAST sensitivity above approximately 10 GeV. In anticipation of the results from these new telescopes, our current understanding of the galactic diffuse gamma-ray emission, including the matter and cosmic ray distributions is reviewed. The outstanding questions are discussed and the potential of future observations with these new instruments to resolve these questions is examined.

  20. Nicotinic acid metabolism. 2,3-Dimethylmalate lyase.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, P; Lill, U; Eggerer, H

    1979-12-01

    1) A new enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, was purified from Clostridium barkeri to about 80% homogeneity. Some of the properties of the enzyme are described. 2) It is shown that the 2,3-dimethylmalic acid (m.p. 143 degrees C) described in the literature represents only one racemic pair. This pair is not attacked by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 3) The isolation of both racemic pairs of 2,3-dimethylmalic acid is described. Half of one pair, m.p. 104-106 degrees C, was converted to propionate and pyruvate by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 4) In combination with earlier work performed by E.R. Stadtman and coworkers the results given under points 1--3 establish 2,3-dimethylmalate as an intermediate in the degradation of nicotinic acid by C. barkeri. 5) Experimental evidence indicates the 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase is no acyl-S-enzyme and that it is different in this respect as well as in quaternary structure from the apparently related enzymes citrate lyase and citramalate lyase. PMID:527937

  1. Response to comment on "Environmental fate of the next generation refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Im, Jeongdae; Walshe-Langford, Gillian E.; Moon, Ji Won; Loeffler, Frank E.

    2015-06-11

    In this study, refrigerant 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) has been developed for use in mobile air conditioning systems to replace 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), which has a much greater global warming potential.

  2. Destruction of 2,2`,3 - trichlorobiphenyl in aqueous solution by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO)

    SciTech Connect

    Leif, R.N.; Knauss, K.G.; Mew, D.A.; Aines, R.D.

    1997-11-25

    Aqueous, low-temperature oxidation rates for the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener 2,2`,3-trichlorobiphenyl have been measured in aqueous phosphate-buffered solutions using Dickson-type reaction vessels. Concentrations of the target compounds were determined by gas chromatography and compound identification was verified by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. The reaction temperatures ranged from 131 {degrees}C to 165{degrees}C and the activation energy for the destruction of 2,2`,3-trichlorobiphenyl was estimated to be 134 kJ/mole. In a low concentration experiment (approximately 500 ng/g starting concentration), 2,2`,3-trichlorobiphenyl concentration reached non-detect in two days at 135{degrees}C. In a much higher concentration experiment (approximately 24,000 mg/g initial loading), nearly 40% of the initial 2,2`,3-trichlorobiphenyl concentration, or about 10,000 ng/g was destroyed at 161{degrees}C in 18 days. The 2,2`, 3-trichlorobiphenyl concentration of 24,000 ng/g measured at 131{degrees}C represents a greater than 100 fold increase in the aqueous solubility compared to the value of 200 ng/g at 20{degrees}C reported by Mackay et al. During the experiments the reacted portion of the 2,2`, 3-trichlorobiphenyl was completely mineralized, as indicated by a stoichiometric production of inorganic carbon and chloride ion, and no intermediates amenable to gas chromatography were observed during the HPO experiments. These preliminary experiments indicate that hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO) may be a useful alternative method for remediating soil and groundwater contaminated with PCBs.

  3. Ferromagnetism in Cu 3-thiosemicarbazone- 2,3-dioxoindole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentková, M.; Kováč, J.; Zentko, A.; Košturiak, A.

    1991-12-01

    We report evidence for ferromagnetic ordering in Cu-chelates of 3-thiosemicarbazone-2,3-dioxoindole (isatine). It has been found that the Curie temperature is 16.8 K and is independent of the Cu content.

  4. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  5. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Wittig [2,3]-Rearrangement of Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Ošeka, Maksim; Kimm, Mariliis; Kaabel, Sandra; Järving, Ivar; Rissanen, Kari; Kanger, Tõnis

    2016-03-18

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic [2,3]-rearrangement of oxindole derivatives is presented. The reaction was catalyzed by squaramide, and this provides access to 3-hydroxy 3-substituted oxindoles in high enantiomeric purities. PMID:26937554

  6. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan; Müller, Volker

    2015-07-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD(+)-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  7. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  8. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, EAST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  9. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM NORTH SHORE OF RIVER (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), FACING SOUTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  10. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  12. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, WEST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  13. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  14. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  15. 2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the comtents:

  16. [Drowsiness--greater traffic hazard than alcohol. Causes, risks and treatment].

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, P O; Akerstedt, T

    2001-06-20

    Stress and shortage of sleep may cause daytime somnolence and impaired vigilance at the wheel, especially among those suffering from sleep disturbances. According to the international consensus meeting in Stockholm in May of 2000 on "The sleepy driver and pilot--causes, risks and countermeasures", drowsy driving is an underestimated risk factor in official statistics, and as many as 15-30 percent of today's traffic accidents are related to drowsiness; thus it is an even greater risk factor than alcohol. Drowsy drivers suffer from inattention, impaired concentration and may even fall asleep at the wheel. Accidents during dozing result in three times as many fatalities as other accidents. There are a number of reasons for habitual drowsiness at the wheel aside from sleep deprivation, including rhonchopathy, shift work and jet lag, mental depression, insomnia, narcolepsy, endocrinological diseases, periodic limb movement disorder, medication, pain-disordered sleep, and heart disease. Among the most active drivers, i.e. middle aged men, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been found to be the most common reason for habitually drowsy driving. OSAS causes a 2-3 fold increased risk of traffic accidents, and it impairs simulated driving. Palatoplasty as well as nasal CPAP have been shown to improve vigilance and driving performance to an extent that the increase in risk is eliminated. Drivers suffering from habitual drowsiness and micro-sleep attacks forcing them to take repeated rests are at special risk. Even if they are as dangerous as drivers with unlawful blood alcohol levels they cannot be caught in a police checkpoint. However they often seek medial advice, and properly treated they may often return safely to traffic. If not, there could be a need to report them to the authorities so as to limit or prohibit their driving. PMID:11462875

  17. Bilateral luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Vikas; Pradhan, Pavan

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture and luxatio erecta, both are rare by themselves, with only few reports of each. We report an unusual case of posttraumatic bilateral symmetrical shoulder dislocation involving luxatio erecta with greater tuberosity fracture in a young male. To our knowledge, this is the first case of symmetrical bilateral shoulder dislocation with greater tuberosity fracture involving luxatio erecta dislocation from Indian subcontinent. PMID:26403880

  18. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stein, R.S.; Toda, S.; Parsons, T.; Grunewald, E.; Blong, R.; Sparks, S.; Shah, H.; Kennedy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105 000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M???8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10 000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300 000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M???7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M??? 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M??? 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations. This approach permits robust estimates

  19. A new probabilistic seismic hazard assessment for greater Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Stein, Ross S; Toda, Shinji; Parsons, Tom; Grunewald, Elliot

    2006-08-15

    Tokyo and its outlying cities are home to one-quarter of Japan's 127 million people. Highly destructive earthquakes struck the capital in 1703, 1855 and 1923, the last of which took 105,000 lives. Fuelled by greater Tokyo's rich seismological record, but challenged by its magnificent complexity, our joint Japanese-US group carried out a new study of the capital's earthquake hazards. We used the prehistoric record of great earthquakes preserved by uplifted marine terraces and tsunami deposits (17 M approximately 8 shocks in the past 7000 years), a newly digitized dataset of historical shaking (10000 observations in the past 400 years), the dense modern seismic network (300,000 earthquakes in the past 30 years), and Japan's GeoNet array (150 GPS vectors in the past 10 years) to reinterpret the tectonic structure, identify active faults and their slip rates and estimate their earthquake frequency. We propose that a dislodged fragment of the Pacific plate is jammed between the Pacific, Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates beneath the Kanto plain on which Tokyo sits. We suggest that the Kanto fragment controls much of Tokyo's seismic behaviour for large earthquakes, including the damaging 1855 M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo shock. On the basis of the frequency of earthquakes beneath greater Tokyo, events with magnitude and location similar to the M approximately 7.3 Ansei-Edo event have a ca 20% likelihood in an average 30 year period. In contrast, our renewal (time-dependent) probability for the great M > or = 7.9 plate boundary shocks such as struck in 1923 and 1703 is 0.5% for the next 30 years, with a time-averaged 30 year probability of ca 10%. The resulting net likelihood for severe shaking (ca 0.9 g peak ground acceleration (PGA)) in Tokyo, Kawasaki and Yokohama for the next 30 years is ca 30%. The long historical record in Kanto also affords a rare opportunity to calculate the probability of shaking in an alternative manner exclusively from intensity observations

  20. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  1. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  2. Development of the Ariane 4 interstage 2-3 in CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaas, C.

    1986-02-01

    For the Ariane 4 interstage 2/3, stiffened skin panels of CFRP were developed. The panels are 1.0 m wide and 2.7 m long. Each panel has 15 blade-type stiffeners with a height of 25 mm on a pitch of 68 mm. The material used is Fiberite 976-T300 in laying sequences of 45 and 0 deg. The total mass reduction of the structure compared to the aluminum version is greater than 20%. In the design of the structure, classical laminate theory and the numerical programs BOSOR 4, NASTRAN and SINDA were used.

  3. Respiratory and olfactory cytotoxicity of inhaled 2,3-pentanedione in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hubbs, Ann F; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Battelli, Lori A; Kashon, Michael L; Jackson, Mark C; Frazer, David G; Fedan, Jeffrey S; Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Castranova, Vincent; Kreiss, Kathleen; Willard, Patsy A; Friend, Sherri; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fluharty, Kara L; Sriram, Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    Flavorings-related lung disease is a potentially disabling disease of food industry workers associated with exposure to the α-diketone butter flavoring, diacetyl (2,3-butanedione). To investigate the hypothesis that another α-diketone flavoring, 2,3-pentanedione, would cause airway damage, rats that inhaled air, 2,3-pentanedione (112, 241, 318, or 354 ppm), or diacetyl (240 ppm) for 6 hours were sacrificed the following day. Rats inhaling 2,3-pentanedione developed necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis comparable to diacetyl-induced injury. To investigate delayed toxicity, additional rats inhaled 318 (range, 317.9-318.9) ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours and were sacrificed 0 to 2, 12 to 14, or 18 to 20 hours after exposure. Respiratory epithelial injury in the upper nose involved both apoptosis and necrosis, which progressed through 12 to 14 hours after exposure. Olfactory neuroepithelial injury included loss of olfactory neurons that showed reduced expression of the 2,3-pentanedione-metabolizing enzyme, dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase, relative to sustentacular cells. Caspase 3 activation occasionally involved olfactory nerve bundles that synapse in the olfactory bulb (OB). An additional group of rats inhaling 270 ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours 41 minutes showed increased expression of IL-6 and nitric oxide synthase-2 and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in the OB, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum using real-time PCR. Claudin-1 expression increased in the OB and striatum. We conclude that 2,3-pentanedione is a respiratory hazard that can also alter gene expression in the brain. PMID:22894831

  4. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  5. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  6. Improving Education through Greater Partnerships with Business and Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theede, Marcy P.

    Perspectives on a greater partnership between education and business/industry are offered. The goal of this partnership is to achieve educational excellence. To accomplish this, greater participation of business and industry in the universities' educational preparation programs is needed. It is necessary to define role responsibilities for a…

  7. Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Adult and Experiential Learning (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    Human capital is one of the critical issues that impacts the Greater Philadelphia region's ability to grow and prosper. The CEO Council for Growth (CEO Council) is committed to ensuring a steady and talented supply of quality workers for this region. "Strategies for Talent Management: Greater Philadelphia Companies in Action" provides insights…

  8. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance for the Greater Mekong Subregion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soika, Valerii; Nigro, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    At 4,200 km, the Mekong River is the tenth longest river in the world. It directly and indirectly influences the lives of hundreds of millions of inhabitants in its basin. The riparian countries - Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and a small part of China - form the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS). This geographical region has the misfortune of being the world's epicenter of falciparum malaria, which is the most severe form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum. Depending on the country, approximately 50 to 90% of all malaria cases are due to this species. In the Malaria Modeling and Surveillance Project, we have been developing techniques to enhance public health's decision capability for malaria risk assessments and controls. The main objectives are: 1) Identifying the potential breeding sites for major vector species; 2) Implementing a malaria transmission model to identify the key factors that sustain or intensify malaria transmission; and 3) Implementing a risk algorithm to predict the occurrence of malaria and its transmission intensity. The potential benefits are: 1) Increased warning time for public health organizations to respond to malaria outbreaks; 2) Optimized utilization of pesticide and chemoprophylaxis; 3) Reduced likelihood of pesticide and drug resistance; and 4) Reduced damage to environment. Environmental parameters important to malaria transmission include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, and vegetation conditions. These parameters are extracted from NASA Earth science data sets. Hindcastings based on these environmental parameters have shown good agreement to epidemiological records.

  9. Cooled radiofrequency ablation for bilateral greater occipital neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Vu, Tiffany; Chhatre, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a case of bilateral greater occipital neuralgia treated with cooled radiofrequency ablation. The case is considered in relation to a review of greater occipital neuralgia, continuous thermal and pulsed radiofrequency ablation, and current medical literature on cooled radiofrequency ablation. In this case, a 35-year-old female with a 2.5-year history of chronic suboccipital bilateral headaches, described as constant, burning, and pulsating pain that started at the suboccipital region and radiated into her vertex. She was diagnosed with bilateral greater occipital neuralgia. She underwent cooled radiofrequency ablation of bilateral greater occipital nerves with minimal side effects and 75% pain reduction. Cooled radiofrequency ablation of the greater occipital nerve in challenging cases is an alternative to pulsed and continuous RFA to alleviate pain with less side effects and potential for long-term efficacy. PMID:24716017

  10. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  11. Hail events across the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasuly, A. A.; Cheung, K. K. W.; McBurney, B.

    2015-05-01

    This study addresses the recent climatology of hail occurrence in the Greater Metropolitan Severe Thunderstorm Warning Area (GMSTWA) of New South Wales (NSW). The study area is a sprawling suburban area with a population of nearly 4.7 million and one of Australia's largest metropoles. The main objective is to highlight the recent temporal-spatial fluctuations of hail event frequencies and magnitudes (sizes) for each of recognized and vastly inhabited local government areas (LGAs). The relevant hail event data from 1989 to 2013 were initially derived from the severe storm archive of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. A climatologically oriented GIS technique was then applied in the examining and mapping procedure of all hail events and hail days reported throughout the study area. By applying a specific criterion, severe hail (defined as 2 cm or more in diameter) was cautiously selected for relevant analysis. The database includes 357 hail events with sizes 2-11 cm which occurred in 169 hail days (a day in which a hail event at least more than 2 cm reported) across the region during the past 25 years. The hail distribution patterns are neither temporally nor spatially uniform in magnitude throughout the study area. Temporal analysis indicated that most of hail events occur predominately in the afternoons with peak time of 1-5 p.m. Australian eastern standard time (EST). They are particularly common in spring and summer, reaching maximum frequency in November and December. There is an average of 14.3 events per year, but a significant decreasing trend in hail frequency and associated magnitude in the recent years has been identified. In turn, spatial analyses also established three main distribution patterns over the study area which include the Sydney metropolitan, the coastal and the most pronounced topographic effects. Based on the understanding of the favorable factors for thunderstorm development in the GMSTWA, the potential impacts from climate variability

  12. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  13. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of 14C-labelcd 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evaluated by using batch shake testing. orption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (foc) were l...

  14. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  15. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  16. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  17. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  18. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  19. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  20. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  1. Welcome to Lotus 1-2-3. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains 11 self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a 36-hour course of study for Lotus 1-2-3 at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion and performance standards, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications of the…

  2. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  3. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  4. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  5. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  6. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  7. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  8. Midbrain dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Heli; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Laakso, Mikko P; Viinamäki, Heimo; Husso, Minna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2006-09-01

    Several studies suggest that dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission in the midbrain and thalamus may contribute to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the putative alteration of dopamine D(2/3 )receptor densities in the thalamus and midbrain of drug-naïve schizophrenic patients. We used the high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand [(123)I]epidepride for imaging D(2/3 )receptor binding sites in six neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients, and seven healthy controls. Schizophrenic symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Significantly lower D(2/3 )values were observed in the midbrain of patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (P = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was observed in the thalamus between two groups. Negative correlations were found between thalamic D(2/3 )receptor binding and general psychopathological schizophrenic symptoms (r from -0.78 to -0.92). These observations implicate altered dopaminergic activity in the midbrain of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16783502

  9. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  10. Structural basis of the impact sensitivities of 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, and 4-nitro-2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.B.; Ryan, R.R.; Ritchie, J.P.; Hall, J.H.; Bachrach, S.M. )

    1989-01-26

    The isomeric pairs 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole differ dramatically in their impact sensitivity. Since these pairs of compounds have identical oxygen balance this strongly suggests that there is a difference in the decomposition mechanism. The authors report here the x-ray crystal structure, molecular orbital calculations, and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the four compounds. The picryl substituents are essentially identical in all four cases. The most significant structural difference in the X-ray structures and in the molecular orbital calculations is a decrease in the N2-N3 bond length, accompanied by a lengthening of the adjacent bonds, in the two 1-picryl isomers relative to the corresponding bond lengths in the 2-picryl isomers. Molecular orbital calculations show that this leads to a low activation energy for the elimination of N{sub 2} from the 1-picryl isomers. They suggest that this initial step then leads to a reactive intermediate and is responsible for the large difference in sensitivity.

  11. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  12. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  13. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  14. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  15. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  16. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  17. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  18. Spontaneous neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs (Setifer setosus).

    PubMed

    Khoii, Mina K; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Burns, Roy B; Carmichael, K Paige; Gyimesi, Zoltan S

    2008-09-01

    Little information is available about diseases and pathology of species within the family Tenrecidae, including the greater hedgehog tenrec (Setifer setosus), a Madagascan insectivore. This report summarizes necropsy and histopathologic findings of neoplasia in four captive greater hedgehog tenrecs. Although only four animals are included in this report, neoplasia seems to be a common and significant source of morbidity and mortality in greater hedgehog tenrecs. Types of neoplasia identified include a thyroid follicular-solid carcinoma, two urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas, uterine endometrial polyps, and multicentric B-cell lymphoma. Due to small sample size, no etiology could be determined, but genetics, viral infection, pesticide treatment, nutrition, or other environmental factors might contribute to the development of neoplasia in this species. This is the first report of neoplasia in greater hedgehog tenrecs. PMID:18817002

  19. Lancet Dynamics in Greater Horseshoe Bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

    PubMed Central

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C.; Gupta, Anupam K.; Simmons, James A.; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages (‘noseleaves’) that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that—in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna—horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  20. Lancet dynamics in greater horseshoe bats, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum.

    PubMed

    He, Weikai; Pedersen, Scott C; Gupta, Anupam K; Simmons, James A; Müller, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Echolocating greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) emit their biosonar pulses nasally, through nostrils surrounded by fleshy appendages ('noseleaves') that diffract the outgoing ultrasonic waves. Movements of one noseleaf part, the lancet, were measured in live bats using two synchronized high speed video cameras with 3D stereo reconstruction, and synchronized with pulse emissions recorded by an ultrasonic microphone. During individual broadcasts, the lancet briefly flicks forward (flexion) and is then restored to its original position. This forward motion lasts tens of milliseconds and increases the curvature of the affected noseleaf surfaces. Approximately 90% of the maximum displacements occurred within the duration of individual pulses, with 70% occurring towards the end. Similar lancet motions were not observed between individual pulses in a sequence of broadcasts. Velocities of the lancet motion were too small to induce Doppler shifts of a biologically-meaningful magnitude, but the maximum displacements were significant in comparison with the overall size of the lancet and the ultrasonic wavelengths. Three finite element models were made from micro-CT scans of the noseleaf post mortem to investigate the acoustic effects of lancet displacement. The broadcast beam shapes were found to be altered substantially by the observed small lancet movements. These findings demonstrate that-in addition to the previously described motions of the anterior leaf and the pinna-horseshoe bat biosonar has a third degree of freedom for fast changes that can happen on the time scale of the emitted pulses or the returning echoes and could provide a dynamic mechanism for the encoding of sensory information. PMID:25853738

  1. Greater sage-grouse winter habitat selection and energy development

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, K.E.; Naugle, D.E.; Walker, B.L.; Graham, J.M.

    2008-01-15

    Recent energy development has resulted in rapid and large-scale changes to western shrub-steppe ecosystems without a complete understanding of its potential impacts on wildlife populations. We modeled winter habitat use by female greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming and Montana, USA, to 1) identify landscape features that influenced sage-grouse habitat selection, 2) assess the scale at which selection occurred, 3) spatially depict winter habitat quality in a Geographic Information System, and 4) assess the effect of coal-bed natural gas (CBNG) development on winter habitat selection. We developed a model of winter habitat selection based on 435 aerial relocations of 200 radiomarked female sage-grouse obtained during the winters of 2005 and 2006. Percent sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) cover on the landscape was an important predictor of use by sage-grouse in winter. Sage-grouse were 1.3 times more likely to occupy sagebrush habitats that lacked CBNG wells within a 4-km{sup 2} area, compared to those that had the maximum density of 12.3 wells per 4 km{sup 2} allowed on federal lands. We validated the model with 74 locations from 74 radiomarked individuals obtained during the winters of 2004 and 2007. This winter habitat model based on vegetation, topography, and CBNG avoidance was highly predictive (validation R{sup 2} = 0.984). Our spatially explicit model can be used to identify areas that provide the best remaining habitat for wintering sage-grouse in the PRB to mitigate impacts of energy development.

  2. Descriptive epidemiology of bone cancer in greater Bombay.

    PubMed

    Yeole, B B; Jussawalla, D J

    1998-09-01

    Bone tumours are comparatively uncommon, constituting only 0.5% of the total world cancer incidence. As Bone tumors consist of several distinct clinico-pathological entities, descriptive epidemiology of tumors at this site can be based only on studies where they can be distinguished. Ewing's sarcoma Chondrosarcoma and Osteosarcoma are the principal tumors involving bones. The basic data utilized for this study was collected from the Bombay Cancer Registry which was established in 1963, and is the first population based registry to be established in India. For studying the descriptive epidemiological variables the most recent 5 year incidence rates have been used. As a group, bone cancers represent 0.9% of the total number of incident cancer are seen in Greater Bombay. Males in general are seen to have a higher incidence of bone cancers than females. Ewing's sarcoma was found to be the commonest bone cancer in Bombay. The age specific incidence curves present striking differences according to cell types of bone cancer. Time trends in the incidence of these cancers, over the past 30 years have been presented. Our data indicate that there is a decreasing trend in incidence of bone cancers in females, whilst the rates are stable in males. Ionising radiation is the only environmental agent to cause this cancer. The discovery of other risk factors is the key prevention and will depend upon the experimental work undertaken to develop sub-clinical measures of risk that can be applied in interdisciplinary studies to identify more completely the causes of bone cancers. PMID:10226399

  3. Convergence between central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokhadze, Giorgi; Floyd, Mike; Cowgill, Eric; Chen, Horng-Yue; Hu, Jyr-Ching

    2016-04-01

    Caucasus region is the relatively young part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and represent northernmost edge of intracontinental collision of Arabia-Eurasia plates. Greater and Lesser Caucasus are major tectonic units and separated by west Rioni basin, Dzirula Massif and east Kura (Mtkvari) basin, with fold-thrust belt. During last decades, Instrumentally recorded earthquakes revealed, that Greater and Lesser Caucasus margins are active, where north dipping thrust earthquakes Racha(6,9Mw, 1991 year), Barisako(6.4Mw, 1992 year) and flank of Lesser Caucasus Gori(6.2Mw, 1920 year) and south dipping thrust Baghdati(5.3Mw, 2011 year) produced. Geodetic and Geologic observation Shows that major present-day crustal deformation are between lesser and greater Caucasus, where convergence rate increase from WNW to ESE (~2 to ~12 mm/yr). Deformation in the east part of Kura basin is accommodated to the north, foothill of the greater Caucasus, where north dipping thrust system presence, which is coherent with seismic activity. However in the west(42E - 44.5E) convergence not well constrained and slip distribution between Lesser and Greater Caucasus is ambiguous. In this study we present combined previously published and new geodetic observation for present-day surface motions and constrain convergence and position of locked fault in the central segment of Greater and Lesser Caucasus.

  4. Cyclic interconversion of vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, H; Trenk, D; Meinertz, T; Rowland, M; Jähnchen, E

    1983-01-01

    The disposition of a single intravenous bolus dose of 10 mg vitamin K1 and vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide were studied in two healthy subjects without and with 12 h pretreatment dose of phenprocoumon (0.4 mg/kg). For each compound administered alone the plasma concentration-time profile was adequately fitted by a biexponential equation, with an average terminal half-life of 2.0 and 1.15 h for the administered vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide respectively. While vitamin K1 was measurable in plasma following administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, the epoxide was not detectable following administration of vitamin K1. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after intravenous administration of vitamin K1, both the average half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time profile of vitamin K1 were marginally reduced to 1.5 h and 1.76 mg l-1 h respectively, while the plasma concentration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide was readily measurable and its half-life markedly prolonged to 14.7 h. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after oral administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, no vitamin K1 was detectable in plasma and the half-life of the epoxide was 13.8 h. Based on area considerations the data suggest that either phenprocoumon does more than just inhibit the reduction of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide to vitamin K1, or that the simple model describing the interconversion between vitamin K1 and its epoxide is inadequate. The same conclusion is drawn from the analysis of comparable data in dogs, obtained by Carlisle & Blaschke (1981). PMID:6661354

  5. Optical Colors of Centaurs and Kuiper Belt Objects From the Keck I 10-m Telescope and the University of Arizona 2.3-m Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegler, S. C.; Romanishin, W.

    2002-09-01

    Our ongoing survey of Centaur and Kuiper belt object colors includes accurate B-V and V-R colors for about 50 objects. We find 20 out of 20 classical KBOs on low eccentricity and low inclination orbits with perihelion distances, q, greater than 40 AU exhibit extremely red surface colors (Tegler and Romanishin, 2000, Nature, 407, 979; Tegler and Romanishin, 2002, Icarus, submitted). As a result of three nights on the Keck I telescope during April of 2002 and three nights on the 2.3-m telescope during September of 2001, we report B-V and V-R colors for additional Centaurs and KBOs, all with q < 40 AU. We use these latest measurements to test our controversial claim that objects with q < 40 AU divide into two color populations. We thank the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program for their support and the NASA/Keck and University of Arizona TACs for their consistent allocation of telescope time.

  6. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    PubMed

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  7. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by 3O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  8. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  9. Activities of the four optical isomers of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (BCH-189) against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Schinazi, R F; Chu, C K; Peck, A; McMillan, A; Mathis, R; Cannon, D; Jeong, L S; Beach, J W; Choi, W B; Yeola, S

    1992-01-01

    Four different isomers of 2',3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine [beta-DL-(+-)-BCH-189] were evaluated in primary human lymphocytes infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. The beta-L-(-) isomer was the most potent enantiomer, with a median effective concentration of 1.8 nM and no discernible cytotoxicity up to 100 microM. The relative order of potencies for the isomers was beta-L-(-) greater than beta-DL-(+-) racemic greater than beta-D-(+) greater than alpha-L-(+) greater than alpha-D-(-). The beta-L-(-) enantiomer was as potent as 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine. PMID:1320365

  10. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  11. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydroderivatives: Preparation, antiradical and cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Pyszková, Michaela; Biler, Michal; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Kuzma, Marek; Vrba, Jiří; Ulrichová, Jitka; Sokolová, Romana; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Kubala, Martin; Trouillas, Patrick; Křen, Vladimír; Vacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The protective constituents of silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we explore the electron-donor properties of the major silymarin flavonolignans. Silybin (SB), silychristin (SCH), silydianin (SD) and their respective 2,3-dehydroderivatives (DHSB, DHSCH and DHSD) were oxidized electrochemically and their antiradical/antioxidant properties were investigated. Namely, Folin-Ciocalteau reduction, DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging, inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and cytoprotective effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line were evaluated. Due to the presence of the highly reactive C3-OH group and the C-2,3 double bond (ring C) allowing electron delocalization across the whole structure in the 2,3-dehydroderivatives, these compounds are much more easily oxidized than the corresponding flavonolignans SB, SCH and SD. This finding was unequivocally confirmed not only by experimental approaches, but also by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The hierarchy in terms of ability to undergo electrochemical oxidation (DHSCH~DHSD>DHSB>SCH/SD>SB) was consistent with their antiradical activities, mainly DPPH scavenging, as well as in vitro cytoprotection of HepG2 cells. The results are discussed in the context of the antioxidant vs. prooxidant activities of flavonolignans and molecular interactions in complex biological systems. PMID:26582372

  12. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros)

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, James K.; Dawson, Michael; Spencer, Yvonne I.; Green, Robert B.; Wells, Gerald A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Of all the species exposed naturally to the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent, the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), a nondomesticated bovine from Africa, appears to be the most susceptible to the disease. We present the results of mouse bioassay studies to show that, contrary to findings in cattle with BSE in which the tissue distribution of infectivity is the most limited recorded for any of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), infectivity in greater kudu with BSE is distributed in as wide a range of tissues as occurs in any TSE. BSE agent was also detected in skin, conjunctiva, and salivary gland, tissues in which infectivity has not previously been reported in any naturally occurring TSE. The distribution of infectivity in greater kudu with BSE suggests possible routes for transmission of the disease and highlights the need for further research into the distribution of TSE infectious agents in other host species. PMID:15207051

  13. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  14. Disposition of 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1988-09-30

    1,2,3,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran (1PeCDF) is one of several toxic polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) which are ubiquitous environmental contaminants. Related in structure and toxicity to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), PCDFs have been detected in municipal and industrial effluents, PCB mixtures, and in a variety of antiseptics and preservative solutions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution and elimination of 1PeCDF in the rat and to compare these parameters with that of 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4PeCDF) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF). After iv administration of 0.1 mumol (3H)1PeCDF/kg, 1PeCDF was rapidly cleared from the blood and distributed to the liver, muscle, skin, and adipose tissue in a manner similar to that for other dibenzofurans. The initial pool sizes of 1PeCDF-derived radioactivity in the liver, muscle, skin, and adipose tissue were 43,35,10, and 7% of the administered dose, respectively. In all cases, loss of radioactivity from these tissues could be described by exponential decay and the initial half-lives for these tissues were 1.36, 0.03, 13, and 1 day, respectively. After redistribution from the muscle, skin, and adipose tissues to the liver, 1PeCDF was metabolized to a polar metabolite(s) and excreted from the body via the bile into the feces. No parent compound was detected in the bile and fecal excretion was the major route of elimination. Most of the radioactivity in the urine was excreted within the first day, after which less than 0.5% of the dose/day was detected. More than half of the administered dose was excreted in the urine and feces within 2 days. The whole-body half-life of related compounds is 4PeCDF much greater than 1PeCDF greater than or equal to TCDF.

  15. 35C NQR studies in 2,4,6-,2,3,6-, and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukmani, K.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1985-02-01

    The chlorine-35 NQR frequencies and their temperature variation in 2,4,6-, 2,3,6- and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles have been studied and compared with the corresponding chlorophenols with a view to studying the effect of hydrogen bonding. The observed frequencies have been assigned to the various chlorines with the help of the additive model of the substituent effect. The temperature dependence has been analysed in terms of the Bayer—Kushida—Brown models. The torsional frequencies and their temperature dependence have been calculated numerically under a two mode approximation. A comparison of the trichloro anisoles with the corresponding trichloro phenols has shown that the resonance frequency decreases due to hydrogen bonding while the torsional frequencies are not affected.

  16. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, AND 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCB'S IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA: LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from t...

  17. Laparoscopic Greater Curve Plication as an Outpatient Weight Loss Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Ilvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic greater curve plication is emerging as a weight loss procedure that avoids many of the complications of other surgeries that require gastrointestinal division, amputation, or use of a foreign body. Cost savings and affordability have also been promoted, as plication does not require the use of stapling devices, adjustable gastric bands, or prolonged hospitalization. The ability to predictably perform plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as a therapeutic option for treating morbid obesity. We present the 30-day outcomes and supplementary 12-month data in a series of 141 laparoscopic greater curve plication surgeries performed as outpatient procedures. Methods: Laparoscopic greater curve plication was performed as outpatient surgery in 141 consecutive patients. Outcomes including perioperative complications, incidental 12-month follow-up for weight loss, and change in diabetic and hypertensive medication are reported. Results: Of the 141 plications performed, 138 patients were discharged from the recovery room and 6 were readmitted. There was no conversion to open surgery and no mortality. Conclusions: The ability to reliably perform greater curve plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as an additional weight loss surgery technique. PMID:26508824

  18. Contaminants in greater snow geese and their eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; Heyland, J.D.; Reed, A.; Laporte, P.

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on organochlorine pesticide, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and mercury residues in eggs and tissues of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) and provides data on egg length and width, egg and shell weight, shell thickness, and the index of thickness.

  19. The Educational Afterlife of Greater Britain, 1903-1914

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Following its late nineteenth-century emergence as an important element within federalist thinking across the British Empire, the idea of Greater Britain lost much of its political force in the years following the Boer War. The concept however continued to retain considerable residual currency in other fields of Imperial debate, including those…

  20. Report Urges Greater Coordination of European Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    A new report assessing the state of doctoral education in Europe says that, even as 47 European nations enter the final phase of harmonizing their degree programs, Ph.D.-level education across Europe suffers from a lack of coordination and cooperation. "There is an urgent need for greater consultation and coordination at the regional, national,…

  1. External Scan 2000: Environmental Scan of the Greater Sacramento Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beachler, Judith

    This document provides a summary of the social, economic, and political changes at state and national levels that affect the Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD) in California. LRCCD consists of American River College (ARC), Cosumnes River College (CRC), and Sacramento City College (SCC). Demographic trends show that Greater Sacramento is…

  2. On the Occurrence of Standardized Regression Coefficients Greater than One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, John, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that standardized regression coefficients greater than one can legitimately occur. Furthermore, the relationship between the occurrence of such coefficients and the extent of multicollinearity present among the set of predictor variables in an equation is examined. Comments on the interpretation of these coefficients are…

  3. Lodging Management Career Questionnaire of Greater Philadelphia Area.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert C., Jr.; Wetzel, Susan J.

    A survey was undertaken by Delaware County Community College's (Pennsylvania) Hotel/Restaurant Management program: (1) to provide students with local up-to-date information regarding the lodging industry in the Greater Philadelphia area; and (2) to provide information regarding necessary skills as perceived by the managers for the purpose of…

  4. College Students with ADHD at Greater Risk for Sleep Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaultney, Jane F.

    2014-01-01

    The pediatric literature indicates that children with ADHD are at greater risk for sleep problems, daytime sleepiness, and some sleep disorders than children with no diagnosed disability. It has not been determined whether this pattern holds true among emerging adults, and whether comorbid sleep disorders with ADHD predict GPA. The present study…

  5. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome.

    PubMed

    Dube, Anita N; Moyo, Freeman; Dhlamini, Zephaniah

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  6. Metagenome Sequencing of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) Rumen Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Anita N.; Moyo, Freeman

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant herbivores utilize a symbiotic relationship with microorganisms in their rumen to exploit fibrous foods for nutrition. We report the metagenome sequences of the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) rumen digesta, revealing a diverse community of microbes and some novel hydrolytic enzymes. PMID:26272573

  7. Unpacking Unpacking: Greater Detail Can Reduce Perceived Likelihood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redden, Joseph P.; Frederick, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Past research suggests that a categorical event is perceived to be more likely if its subcases are explicitly delineated or "unpacked." In 6 studies, we find that unpacking can often make an event seem less likely, especially when the details being unpacked are already highly accessible. Process evidence shows that the provision of greater detail…

  8. Cancer mortality in workers exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Fingerhut, M.A.; Halperin, W.E.; Marlow, D.A.; Piacitelli, L.A.; Honchar, P.A.; Sweeney, M.H.; Greife, A.L.; Dill, P.A.; Steenland, K.; Suruda, A.J. )

    1991-01-24

    In both animal and epidemiologic studies, exposure to dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, or TCDD) has been associated with an increased risk of cancer. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of mortality among the 5172 workers at 12 plants in the United States that produced chemicals contaminated with TCDD. Occupational exposure was documented by reviewing job descriptions and by measuring TCDD in serum from a sample of 253 workers. Causes of death were taken from death certificates. Mortality from several cancers previously associated with TCDD (stomach, liver, and nasal cancers, Hodgkin's disease, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) was not significantly elevated in this cohort. Mortality from soft-tissue sarcoma was increased, but not significantly (4 deaths; standardized mortality ratio (SMR), 338; 95 percent confidence interval, 92 to 865). In the subcohort of 1520 workers with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency, however, mortality was significantly increased for soft-tissue sarcoma (3 deaths; SMR, 922; 95 percent confidence interval, 190 to 2695) and for cancers of the respiratory system (SMR, 142; 95 percent confidence interval, 103 to 192). Mortality from all cancers combined was slightly but significantly elevated in the overall cohort (SMR, 115; 95 percent confidence interval, 102 to 130) and was higher in the subcohort with greater than or equal to 1 year of exposure and greater than or equal to 20 years of latency (SMR, 146; 95 percent confidence interval, 121 to 176). This study of mortality among workers with occupational exposure to TCDD does not confirm the high relative risks reported for many cancers in previous studies. Conclusions about an increase in the risk of soft-tissue sarcoma are limited by small numbers and misclassification on death certificates.

  9. Greater Monoamine Oxidase A Binding in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Brittany A.; Kish, Stephen J.; Xu, Xin; Boileau, Isabelle; Rusjan, Pablo M.; Wilson, Alan A.; DiGiacomo, Dan; Houle, Sylvain; Meyer, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) is a multiorgan disease in which excessive oxidative stress and apoptosis are implicated. Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) is an important enzyme on the outer mitochondrial membrane that participates in the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity. It is unknown whether MAO-A levels are abnormal in AD. We hypothesized that MAO-A VT, an index of MAO-A level, is elevated in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during AD, because markers of greater oxidative stress and apoptosis are reported in the brain in AD and a microarray analysis reported greater MAO-A messenger RNA in the PFC of rodents exposed to alcohol vapor. Methods Sixteen participants with alcohol dependence and 16 healthy control subjects underwent [11C]-harmine positron emission tomography. All were nonsmoking, medication- and drug-free, and had no other past or present psychiatric or medical illnesses. Results MAO-A VT was significantly greater in the PFC (37%, independent samples t test, t30 = 3.93, p < .001), and all brain regions analyzed (mean 32%, multivariate analysis of variance, F7,24 = 3.67, p = .008). Greater duration of heavy drinking correlated positively with greater MAO-A VT in the PFC (r = .67, p = .005) and all brain regions analyzed (r = .73 to .57, p = .001–.02). Conclusions This finding represents a new pathological marker present in AD that is therapeutically targetable through direct inhibition or by novel treatments toward oxidative/pro-apoptotic processes implicated by MAO-A overexpression. PMID:24269057

  10. Triazolines XIII: delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines, a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, P K

    1984-06-01

    A series of 1,5-diaryl-delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines has been synthesized and evaluated for the first time as potential anticonvulsant agents using the standard subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold and maximal electroshock seizure tests. Out of the 31 triazolines that were screened, 11 exhibited moderate anticonvulsant activity; 9 of the compounds afforded protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, while two antagonized electrically induced convulsions. PMID:6737279

  11. [Analgesic activity of derivatives of 7-amino-2,3-polymethylenindoles and their congeners].

    PubMed

    Cerri, R; Boatto, G; Pau, A; Sparatore, F; Manca, P

    1988-02-01

    Some N-trifluoromethylsulphonyl and N-trifluoroacetylderivatives of 7-amino-2,3-polymethyleneindoles and of 7-amino-3-propylindole [(I) - (XIII)] were prepared and tested, together with corresponding aniline derivates [(XIV) - (XIX)] and with N-trifluoromethylsulphonylcyclopentylamine (XX), against formic acid induced writhings in mice. With very few exceptions, at the oral dose of 0.167 mmole/kg, they proved from 2 to 3.4 times more active than acetanilide. PMID:3391261

  12. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  13. Vibrational spectrum and internal rotation in 2,3-dimethylpyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J. F.; Lòpez-Navarrete, J. T.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine have been recorded and assigned on the basis of a C2v molecular geometry previously determined by MINDO/3. The potential energy function corresponding to the internal rotation of both methyl groups has been used to solve the Schrödinger equation and to obtain the energy levels of that motion on the basis of a molecular geometry G36. The rotation of the substituents is not independent and they behave as two geared rotors.

  14. Continuous variable (2, 3) threshold quantum secret sharing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Tyc, Tomás; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2003-01-01

    We present two schemes to perform continuous variable (2, 3) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) on the quadrature amplitudes of bright light beams. Both schemes require a pair of entangled light beams. The first scheme utilizes two phase sensitive optical amplifiers, whilst the second uses an electro-optic feedforward loop for the reconstruction of the secret. We examine the efficacy of QSS in terms of fidelity, as well as the signal transfer coefficients and the conditional variances of the reconstructed output state. We show that both schemes in the ideal case yield perfect secret reconstruction.

  15. Pot Smokers May Face 5 Times Greater Risk of Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many people focus on possible negative effects of cannabis use itself, in terms of developing a cannabis use problem or the impact of cannabis use on brain function," said study lead researcher ...

  16. PREPARATION OF OXALATES OF METALS OF ATOMIC NUMBER GREATER THAN 88

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1959-02-01

    A method is presented for the preparation of oxalates of metals of atomic number greater than 88. A solid peroxide of the heavy metal is contacted with an aqueous oxalic acid solution ai a temperature of about 50 C for a period of time sufficient to form the insoluble metal oxalate which is subsequentiy recovered as a pures crystalline compound.

  17. Representations of the POINCARÉ Group from Positive Energy Representations of SO(2,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, P.

    2004-10-01

    We describe representations of the simply connected covering group of the Poincaré group, {˜ {B}}, which are associated with certain positive energy representations of SO0(2, 3), the simply connected cover of SO0(2, 3). The translation generators of these representations of {˜ {B}} can be viewed as solutions of certain algebraic equations with coefficients from a commutative algebraic extension of the skew field of {˜ {B}}. These representations of {˜ {B}} depend upon a parameter λ that is essentially the reciprocal of the radius of anti-deSitter space, and they go over into the Segal-Inönü-Wigner contractions of the corresponding representations of SO0(2, 3) as λ → 0. Explicit results are given for the Di and Rac representations and the representations of SO0(2, 3) which extend to massless, unitary irreducible representations of SU(2, 2), the four-fold cover of the conformal group of Minkowski space-time.

  18. The Greater India beneath Tibet: A detailed new seismic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Sergei; Schaeffer, Andrew; Agius, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    The Greater India is a continent that existed before the India-Asia collision and comprised today's Indian subcontinent and its extension to the north, by now consumed in the collision. The size, shape, and evolution of the Greater India are a matter of a heated debate, from its place in the make-up of Gondwana to its rapid northward drift and evolution following the break-up of the supercontinent and to its eventual collision with Eurasia. How the India-Asia collision has been accommodated (how much of the continental Indian lithosphere has been consumed and what happened to it) is an important unresolved problem in itself, the proposed solutions including: underthrusting of India beneath Tibet; northward subduction of India; viscous thickening of the Indian and Asian lithospheres beneath Tibet; viscous thickening followed by convective removal; lateral extrusion of chunks of Greater India eastwards; slicing and sinking of the Greater India's lithosphere beneath the Himalayas. Body-wave seismic tomography shows the remnants of the subducted lithosphere of the ancient Tethys Ocean, now in the lower mantle, and the more recently subducted lithosphere of the Indian Plate around the transition-zone depths. In the lithosphere-asthenosphere depth range, however, the properties and even the presence of Indian lithosphere in the upper mantle beneath Tibet are debated. Whereas surface-wave tomographic models typically show a high-velocity anomaly beneath much of Tibet at around 200 km depth, many body-wave models do not show high-velocity anomalies under most of the plateau, prompting very different interpretations. Here we determine the morphology of the Indian lithosphere beneath Tibet using a combination of large-scale waveform tomography (based on a new, unprecedentedly large global dataset) and of surface-wave array analysis in Tibet. The Greater Indian lithosphere is present (underthrusting or subducting) beneath much of Tibet. There are marked differences in the

  19. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036978

  20. 3-O-Alkyl-2,3-dehydrosilibinins: Two synthetic approaches and in vitro effects toward prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Vue, Bao; Huang, Michael; Zhang, Xiaojie; Lee, Timmy; Chen, Guanglin; Zhang, Qiang; Zheng, Shilong; Wang, Guangdi; Chen, Qiao-Hong

    2016-07-15

    Eight 3-O-alkyl-2,3-dehydrosilibinins have been synthesized from commercially available silibinin through two synthetic approaches. A one-pot reaction, starting with aerobic oxidation of silibinin followed by direct alkylation of the phenolic hydroxyl group in the subsequent 2,3-dehydrosilibinin, furnishes the desired derivatives in 11-16% yields. The three-step procedure employing benzyl ether to protect 7-OH in silibinin generates the desired derivatives in 30-46% overall yields. The antiproliferative activity of the 2,3-dehydrosilibinin derivatives against both androgen-sensitive and androgen-insensitive prostate cancer cells have been assessed using a WST-1 cell proliferation assay. All derivatives exhibited greater antiproliferative potency than silibinin, with 2,3-dehydrosilibinins each possessing a three- to five-carbon linear alkyl group to 3-OH (IC50 values in a range of 1.71-3.06μM against PC-3 and LNCaP cells) as the optimal derivatives. The optimal potency was reached with three- to five-carbon alkyl groups. Our findings suggest that 3-O-propyl-2,3-dehydrosilibinin effectively inhibits the growth of PC-3 prostate cancer cells by arresting cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, but not by activating PC-3 cell apoptosis. PMID:27261177

  1. Trafficking in persons and development: towards greater policy coherence.

    PubMed

    Danailova-Trainor, Gergana; Laczko, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is often regarded as the "root cause" of trafficking, but the linkages between poverty, a lack of development and trafficking are complex. For example, there is some evidence to suggest that victims of cross-border trafficking are more likely to originate from middle-income rather than lower-income countries. Trafficking and development have tended to be treated as very separate policy areas and the assessment of the development impact of counter-trafficking programmes is still at an early stage. This paper outlines a possible framework for a more evidence-based approach to understanding the linkages between trafficking, trafficking policy and human development. The paper argues that the human development gains from greater mobility could be significantly enhanced if there was greater coherence between policies to combat trafficking and policies to promote development. PMID:20645470

  2. Composite materials with viscoelastic stiffness greater than diamond.

    PubMed

    Jaglinski, T; Kochmann, D; Stone, D; Lakes, R S

    2007-02-01

    We show that composite materials can exhibit a viscoelastic modulus (Young's modulus) that is far greater than that of either constituent. The modulus, but not the strength, of the composite was observed to be substantially greater than that of diamond. These composites contain bariumtitanate inclusions, which undergo a volume-change phase transformation if they are not constrained. In the composite, the inclusions are partially constrained by the surrounding metal matrix. The constraint stabilizes the negative bulk modulus (inverse compressibility) of the inclusions. This negative modulus arises from stored elastic energy in the inclusions, in contrast to periodic composite metamaterials that exhibit negative refraction by inertial resonant effects. Conventional composites with positive-stiffness constituents have aggregate properties bounded by a weighted average of constituent properties; their modulus cannot exceed that of the stiffest constituent. PMID:17272714

  3. Mercury source sector asssessment for the Greater Milwaukee Area

    SciTech Connect

    Obenauf, P.; Skavroneck, S.

    1997-09-01

    The Mercury Reduction Project for the Greater Milwaukee Area is a joint effort of the Pollution Prevention Partnership, Milwaukee Metropolitan Seweage District (MMSD) and Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources. Estimates of the amounts of mercury present, used and/or annually released to air, land and water within the MMSD service area are provided for 25 source sectors. This 420 square mile area (including Milwaukee County and parts of Waukesha, Racine, Ozaukee and Washington Counties) is home to just over 1 million people. The tables and figures summarize the relative amounts of mercury: annually released from purposeful uses; annually released due to trace impurities; and present or in use from the various source sectors in the Greater Milwaukee Area.

  4. Taxonomy of Greater White-fronted Geese (Aves: Anatidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Five subspecies of the Greater White-fronted Goose, Anser albifrons (Scopoli, 1769), have been named, all on the basis of wintering birds, and up to six subspecies have been recognized. There has been confusion over the application of some names, particularly in North America, because of lack of knowledge of the breeding ranges and type localities, and incorrect taxonomic decisions. There is one clinally varying subspecies in Eurasia, one that breeds in Greenland, and three in North America, one newly named herein.

  5. APOPHYSEAL FRACTURE OR AVULSION OF THE GREATER TROCHANTER

    PubMed Central

    FREITAS, ANDERSON; MACEDO, SÍLVIO LEITE DE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACTS The apophyseal fracture or avulsion of the greater trochanter occurs in skeletally immature patients. It has at etiological factors indirect mechanisms (avulsion) and direct mechanisms (trauma on the trochanter), the latter being the most common. The clinical presentation is easily identified and a simple X- ray can confirm the diagnosis. Regardless of the treatment chosen, this pathology has a high correlation with osteonecrosis of the femoral head, even as a rare fact, however with innocent appearance, on this pathology. PMID:27217820

  6. Greater forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Michiya; Yamamoto, Kenta; Gando, Yuko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Tabata, Izumi; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2010-11-01

    Greater venous compliance is associated with attenuation of the tolerance response to orthostatic stress and reduced incidence of venous diseases. Resistance training induces tolerance to orthostatic challenge and the growth of capillaries, which may lead to negative and positive effects on venous compliance, respectively. It has not been confirmed, however, whether habitual resistance training positively or negatively affects venous compliance. We compared the forearm venous compliance in resistance-trained men with age-matched controls. Eleven resistance-trained middle-aged men (37.7 ± 1.5 years) and 12 age-matched sedentary controls (36.7 ± 1.6 years) were studied. Forearm venous compliance was measured in subjects in the supine position by inflating a venous collecting cuff placed around the upper arm to 60 mmHg for 8 min and then decreasing cuff pressure to 0 mmHg at a rate of 1 mmHg/s. Forearm venous compliance was determined using the first derivative of the pressure-volume relation during cuff pressure reduction (compliance = β(1) + 2β(2) × cuff pressure). Forearm venous compliance at 20 mmHg cuff pressure was 16% greater in the resistance-trained group than in the age-matched sedentary controls (0.097 ± 0.005 vs. 0.083 ± 0.004 ml/dl/mmHg, P < 0.05). Forearm venous compliance was positively related to forearm venous volume (r = 0.643, P = 0.0009), but not forearm muscle mass (r = 0.391, P = 0.0648). In conclusion, the present study suggests that (1) the resistance-trained men have greater forearm venous compliance than age-matched controls, and (2) the higher forearm venous compliance in the resistance-trained men may be explained by greater forearm venous capacitance. PMID:20596725

  7. Radiolytic degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in artificially contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Hillarides, R.J.; Gray, K.A. ); Guzzetta, J.; Cortellucci, N.; Sommer, C. )

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports results of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) destruction on artificially contaminated soil using cobalt-60 ([sup 60]Co) [gamma] radiation. Important parameters (soil moisture content, surfactant type/concentration, equilibration, and radiation dose) and their optimum ranges are identified. Scavenger (N[sub 2]O, O[sub 2], 2-propanol) studies were conducted to explore the consequences of controlling oxidative and reductive conditions in the soil, and reaction byproducts have been analyzed under selected reaction conditions. A standard soil (EPA SSM-91) was artificially contaminated with 2,3,7,8-TCDD to 100 ppb, and in the presence of 25% water and 2% surfactant (RA-40) and at a high irradiation dose (800 kGy), greater than 92% TCDD destruction was achieved, resulting in a final TCDD concentration of less than 7 ppb. Results of scavenger and byproduct studies and theoretical target theory calculations indicate that TCDD destruction is caused primarily by direct radiation effects and proceeds through reductive dechlorination. 53 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  9. Occult Intertrochanteric Fracture Mimicking the Fracture of Greater Trochanter

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Phil Hyun; Kang, Suk; Kim, Jong Pil; Kim, Young Sung; Back, In Hwa; Eom, Kyeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Occult intertrochanteric fractures are misdiagnosed as isolated greater trochanteric fractures in some cases. We investigated the utility of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis and outcome management of occult intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods This study involved 23 cases of greater trochanteric fractures as diagnosed using plain radiographs from January 2004 to July 2013. Until January 2008, 9 cases were examined with 3D-CT only, while 14 cases were screened with both 3D-CT and MRI scans. We analyzed diagnostic accuracy and treatment results following 3D-CT and MRI scanning. Results Nine cases that underwent 3D-CT only were diagnosed with isolated greater trochanteric fractures without occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, a patient with displacement received surgical treatment. Of the 14 patients screened using both CT and MRI, 13 were diagnosed with occult intertrochanteric fractures. Of these, 11 were treated with surgical intervention and 2 with conservative management. Conclusion Three-dimensional CT has very low diagnostic accuracy in diagnosing occult intertrochanteric fractures. For this reason, MRI is recommended to confirm a suspected occult intertrochanteric fracture and to determine the most appropriate mode of treatment.

  10. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  11. Ecological specialization and morphological diversification in Greater Antillean boas.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, R Graham; Collar, David C; Pasachnik, Stesha A; Niemiller, Matthew L; Puente-Rolón, Alberto R; Revell, Liam J

    2016-08-01

    Colonization of islands can dramatically influence the evolutionary trajectories of organisms, with both deterministic and stochastic processes driving adaptation and diversification. Some island colonists evolve extremely large or small body sizes, presumably in response to unique ecological circumstances present on islands. One example of this phenomenon, the Greater Antillean boas, includes both small (<90 cm) and large (4 m) species occurring on the Greater Antilles and Bahamas, with some islands supporting pairs or trios of body-size divergent species. These boas have been shown to comprise a monophyletic radiation arising from a Miocene dispersal event to the Greater Antilles, though it is not known whether co-occurrence of small and large species is a result of dispersal or in situ evolution. Here, we provide the first comprehensive species phylogeny for this clade combined with morphometric and ecological data to show that small body size evolved repeatedly on separate islands in association with specialization in substrate use. Our results further suggest that microhabitat specialization is linked to increased rates of head shape diversification among specialists. Our findings show that ecological specialization following island colonization promotes morphological diversity through deterministic body size evolution and cranial morphological diversification that is contingent on island- and species-specific factors. PMID:27345593

  12. A comparison of behavior for two cohorts of captive-reared greater sandhill cranes released in northern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mummert, D.P.; Chambers, C.L.; Ellis, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    To determine how the behavior of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) changes according to time of year, time of day, and number of days after release, we observed the activities of 2 groups of captive-reared greater sandhill cranes at Mormon Lake, northern Arizona. The behaviors we compared were alert, loafing, sleeping, foraging, preening, locomotion, and other. We found costume-reared subadult greater sandhill cranes that were established at the study site for a year spent more time foraging and being alert towards predators than parent-reared juvenile greater sandhill cranes that were recently released from captivity. We also found that with time juvenile sandhill cranes were increasingly alert and spent less time loafing. It appeared that captive-reared juvenile sandhill cranes learn behavior important for survival from previously released captive-reared cranes.

  13. A new synthesis of 2,3-di- or 2,3,3-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones by reaction of 3-ethoxycyclobutanones and N-p-toluenesulfonyl imines using titanium(IV) chloride: synthesis of (+/-)-bremazocine.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Jun-ichi; Okado, Ryohei; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-16

    N-p-Toluenesulfonyl (Ts) aldimines reacted with 3-ethoxycyclobutanones by catalysis of titanium(IV) chloride to afford 2,3-di- or 2,3,3-trisubstituted N-Ts-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones. Synthesis of (+/-)-bremazocine was efficiently accomplished by using this method. PMID:20568828

  14. Gas chromatographic determination of the interconversion energy barrier for dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, J; Krupcík, J; Májek, P; Skacáni, I; Jakubík, T; Sandra, P; Armstrong, D W

    2007-05-25

    The enantiomers of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate undergo interconversion during gas chromatographic separation on chiral stationary phases. In this paper the on-column apparent interconversion kinetic and thermodynamic activation data were determined for dimethyl, diethyl, propylbutyl and dibutyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers by gas chromatographic separation of the racemic mixtures on a capillary column containing a polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase coupled to 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tertbutyldimethylsilyl-beta-cyclodextrin. A deconvolution method was used to determine the individual enantiomer peak areas and retention times that are needed to calculate the interconversion rate constants and the energy barriers. The apparent rate constants and interconversion energy barriers decrease slightly with an increase in the alkyl chain length of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate esters. The optimum conformation of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate molecules, their separation selectivity factors and apparent interconversion enthalpy and entropy data changes with the alkyl chain length. The dependence of the apparent interconversion energy barrier (deltaG(app)(a-->b), deltaG(app)(b-->a)) on temperature was used to determine the apparent activation enthalpy (deltaH(app)(a-->b), deltaH(app)(b-->a)) and apparent entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) (where a denotes the first and b second eluted enantiomer). The comparison of the activation enthalpy and entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) indicated that the interconversion of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series is an entropy driven process at 160 degrees C. Data obtained for dimethyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series at 120 degrees C (deltaG(app)(a-->b) = 123.3 and deltaG(app)(b-->a) = 124.4 kJ mol(-1)) corresponds (at the 95% confidence interval) with the value of deltaG(#) = 128+/-1 kJ mol(-1) found at this

  15. Cyanobacterial conversion of carbon dioxide to 2,3-butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, John W. K.; Machado, Iara M. P.; Yoneda, Hisanari; Atsumi, Shota

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of CO2 for the synthesis of chemicals by photosynthetic organisms is an attractive target for establishing independence from fossil reserves. However, synthetic pathway construction in cyanobacteria is still in its infancy compared with model fermentative organisms. Here we systematically developed the 2,3-butanediol (23BD) biosynthetic pathway in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 as a model system to establish design methods for efficient exogenous chemical production in cyanobacteria. We identified 23BD as a target chemical with low host toxicity, and designed an oxygen-insensitive, cofactor-matched biosynthetic pathway coupled with irreversible enzymatic steps to create a driving force toward the target. Production of 23BD from CO2 reached 2.38 g/L, which is a significant increase for chemical production from exogenous pathways in cyanobacteria. This work demonstrates that developing strong design methods can continue to increase chemical production in cyanobacteria. PMID:23297225

  16. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ~2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ~16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported. PMID:24269239

  17. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  18. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  19. Greater performance impairment of black runners than white runners when running in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Santos-Concejero, J; Tucker, R; Myburgh, K H; Essen-Gustavsson, B; Kohn, T A

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of performance-matched black and white runners during maximal and sub-maximal running in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. 14 well-trained runners (8 black, 6 white) performed 2 incremental maximal exercise tests and 2 fatigue resistance tests at 21% O2 (normoxia) or 14% O2 (hypoxia). Respiratory parameters, heart rate (HR), lactate concentration ([La(-)]) as well as arterial saturation (SpO2) were measured. Enzyme activities and myosin heavy chain content (MHC) were also measured. White runners reached a significantly greater peak treadmill speed and a higher HRmax than black runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Additionally, White runners achieved a greater time to fatigue than black runners (p<0.05), with black runners displaying a greater decline in performance in hypoxia compared to normoxia (20.3% vs. 13.4%, black vs. white, respectively). However, black runners presented lower [La(-)] and higher SpO2 than white runners in hypoxia (p<0.05). Black runners had a higher proportion of MHC IIa and higher lactate dehydrogenase activity (p<0.05). The greater performance impairment observed in black runners in hypoxia suggests a greater performance sensitivity to this condition, despite the maintenance of physiological variables such as SpO2 and [La (-) ] within a smaller range than white runners. PMID:24577858

  20. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, α-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (α-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  1. Land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica using MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giri, Chandra; Jenkins, Clinton N.

    2005-01-01

    A new land cover database of Greater Mesoamerica has been prepared using moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS, 500 m resolution) satellite data. Daily surface reflectance MODIS data and a suite of ancillary data were used in preparing the database by employing a decision tree classification approach. The new land cover data are an improvement over traditional advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) based land cover data in terms of both spatial and thematic details. The dominant land cover type in Greater Mesoamerica is forest (39%), followed by shrubland (30%) and cropland (22%). Country analysis shows forest as the dominant land cover type in Belize (62%), Cost Rica (52%), Guatemala (53%), Honduras (56%), Nicaragua (53%), and Panama (48%), cropland as the dominant land cover type in El Salvador (60.5%), and shrubland as the dominant land cover type in Mexico (37%). A three-step approach was used to assess the quality of the classified land cover data: (i) qualitative assessment provided good insight in identifying and correcting gross errors; (ii) correlation analysis of MODIS- and Landsat-derived land cover data revealed strong positive association for forest (r2 = 0.88), shrubland (r2 = 0.75), and cropland (r2 = 0.97) but weak positive association for grassland (r2 = 0.26); and (iii) an error matrix generated using unseen training data provided an overall accuracy of 77.3% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.73608. Overall, MODIS 500 m data and the methodology used were found to be quite useful for broad-scale land cover mapping of Greater Mesoamerica.

  2. Greater omentectomy improves insulin sensitivity in nonobese dogs.

    PubMed

    Lottati, Maya; Kolka, Cathryn M; Stefanovski, Darko; Kirkman, Erlinda L; Bergman, Richard N

    2009-04-01

    Visceral adiposity is strongly associated with insulin resistance; however, little evidence directly demonstrates that visceral fat per se impairs insulin action. Here, we examine the effects of the surgical removal of the greater omentum and its occupying visceral fat, an omentectomy (OM), on insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and beta-cell function in nonobese dogs. Thirteen male mongrel dogs were used in this research study; animals were randomly assigned to surgical treatment with either OM (n = 7), or sham-surgery (SHAM) (n = 6). OM failed to generate measurable changes in body weight (+2%; P = 0.1), or subcutaneous adiposity (+3%; P = 0.83) as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The removal of the greater omentum did not significantly reduce total visceral adipose volume (-7.3 +/- 6.4%; P = 0.29); although primary analysis showed a trend for OM to increase S(I) when compared to sham operated animals (P = 0.078), further statistical analysis revealed that this minor reduction in visceral fat alleviated insulin resistance by augmenting S(I) of the periphery (+67.7 +/- 35.2%; P = 0.03), as determined by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. Insulin secretory response during the hyperglycemic step clamp was not directly influenced by omental fat removal (presurgery 6.82 +/- 1.4 vs. postsurgery: 6.7 +/- 1.2 pmol/l/mg/dl, P = 0.9). These findings provide new evidence for the deleterious role of visceral fat in insulin resistance, and suggest that a greater OM procedure may effectively improve insulin sensitivity. PMID:19214178

  3. Practicing more retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jun; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tongtong; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2016-09-01

    A wealth of research has shown that retrieval practice plays a significant role in improving memory retention. The current study focused on one simple yet rarely examined question: would repeated retrieval using two different retrieval routes or using the same retrieval route twice lead to greater long-term memory retention? Participants elaborately learned 22 Japanese-Chinese translation word pairs using two different mediators. Half an hour after the initial study phase, the participants completed two retrieval sessions using either one mediator (Tm1Tm1) or two different mediators (Tm1Tm2). On the final test, which was performed 1week after the retrieval practice phase, the participants received only the cue with a request to report the mediator (M1 or M2) followed by the target (Experiment 1) or only the mediator (M1 or M2) with a request to report the target (Experiment 2). The results of Experiment 1 indicated that the participants who practiced under the Tm1Tm2 condition exhibited greater target retention than those who practiced under the Tm1Tm1 condition. This difference in performance was due to the significant disadvantage in mediator retrieval and decoding of the unpracticed mediator under the Tm1Tm1 condition. Although mediators were provided to participants on the final test in Experiment 2, decoding of the unpracticed mediators remained less effective than decoding of the practiced mediators. We conclude that practicing multiple retrieval routes leads to greater memory retention than focusing on a single retrieval route. Thus, increasing retrieval variability during repeated retrieval practice indeed significantly improves long-term retention in a delay test. PMID:27270228

  4. Individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis have greater pain than those with common knee osteoarthritis progression: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Eaton, Charles B; Lu, Bing; Lo, Grace H; Lapane, Kate L; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated whether accelerated knee osteoarthritis (AKOA) was associated with greater pain and other outcomes and if outcomes varied over time differently among those with incident AKOA or common knee osteoarthritis (KOA), which we defined as a gradual onset of disease. We conducted longitudinal analyses among participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative who had no radiographic KOA at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL] <2). Participants were considered AKOA if ≥1 knees progressed to KL grade ≥3 and common KOA if ≥1 knees increased in radiographic scoring within 48 months. We defined the index visit as the study visit when they met the AKOA or common KOA criteria. Our observation period included up to 3 years before and after the index visit. Our primary outcome was WOMAC pain converted to an ordinal scale: none (pain score = 0/1 out of 20), mild (pain score = 2/3), and moderate-severe pain (pain score >3). We explored 11 other secondary outcome measures. We performed an ordinal logistic regression or linear models with generalized estimating equations. The predictors were group (AKOA or common KOA), time (seven visits), and a group-by-time interaction. Overall, individuals with AKOA (n = 54) had greater pain, functional disability, and global rating scale as well as slower chair-stand and walking pace compared with those with common KOA (n = 187). There was no significant interaction between group and time for knee pain; however, there was for chair-stand pace and global rating scale. In conclusion, AKOA may be a painful and disabling phenotype that warrants more attention by clinicians and researchers. PMID:26614536

  5. Ultradeep (greater than 300 kilometers), ultramafic upper mantle xenoliths.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, S E; Sautter, V

    1990-05-25

    Geophysical discontinuities in Earth's upper mantle and experimental data predict the structural transformation of pyroxene to garnet and the solid-state dissolution of pyroxene into garnet with increasing depth. These predictions are indirectly verified by omphacitic pyroxene exsolution in pyropic garnet-bearing xenoliths from a diamondiferous kimberlite. Conditions for silicon in octahedral sites in the original garnets are met at pressures greater than 130 kilobars, placing the origin of these xenoliths at depths of 300 to 400 kilometers. These ultradeep xenoliths support the theory that the 400-km seismic discontinuity is marked by a transition from peridotite to eclogite. PMID:17745405

  6. Passalidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of the Greater and Lesser Antilles.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C

    2015-01-01

    We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles. PMID:26248935

  7. Range-wide patterns of greater sage-grouse persistence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, C.L.; Nielsen, S.E.; Beyer, H.L.; Boyce, M.S.; Connelly, J.W.; Knick, S.T.; Schroeder, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), a shrub-steppe obligate species of western North America, currently occupies only half its historical range. Here we examine how broad-scale, long-term trends in landscape condition have affected range contraction. Location: Sagebrush biome of the western USA. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess persistence and extirpation of greater sage-grouse range based on landscape conditions measured by human population (density and population change), vegetation (percentage of sagebrush habitat), roads (density of and distance to roads), agriculture (cropland, farmland and cattle density), climate (number of severe and extreme droughts) and range periphery. Model predictions were used to identify areas where future extirpations can be expected, while also explaining possible causes of past extirpations. Results: Greater sage-grouse persistence and extirpation were significantly related to sagebrush habitat, cultivated cropland, human population density in 1950, prevalence of severe droughts and historical range periphery. Extirpation of sage-grouse was most likely in areas having at least four persons per square kilometre in 1950, 25% cultivated cropland in 2002 or the presence of three or more severe droughts per decade. In contrast, persistence of sage-grouse was expected when at least 30 km from historical range edge and in habitats containing at least 25% sagebrush cover within 30 km. Extirpation was most often explained (35%) by the combined effects of peripherality (within 30 km of range edge) and lack of sagebrush cover (less than 25% within 30 km). Based on patterns of prior extirpation and model predictions, we predict that 29% of remaining range may be at risk. Main Conclusions: Spatial patterns in greater sage-grouse range contraction can be explained by widely available landscape variables that describe patterns of remaining sagebrush habitat and loss due to cultivation, climatic trends, human

  8. CCD/CID Processors Would Offer Greater Precision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, Nikzad; Fijany, Amir

    1995-01-01

    Charge-coupled-device/charge-injection-device (CCD/CID) data processors of proposed type offer advantages of massively parallel computational architecture and high computational speed typical of older CCD/CID data processors, but with increased precision. Useful in performing matrix vector multiplications in variety of applications, including solving partial differential equations, processing signal and image data, control computations, and neural-network simulations. Greater precision of proposed devices help to ensure accuracy in CCD/CID implementations of pseudospectral neural networks - particular class of artificial neural networks especially suited to solving nonlinear differential equations.

  9. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  10. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  11. Microbial Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl under Anaerobic Conditions in the Absence of Soil or Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Leah; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial enrichment cultures developed with Baltimore Harbor (BH) sediments were found to reductively dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,5,6-CB) when incubated in a minimal estuarine medium containing short-chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of sediment. Primary enrichment cultures formed both meta and ortho dechlorination products from 2,3,5,6-CB. The lag time preceding dechlorination decreased from 30 to less than 20 days as the cultures were sequentially transferred into estuarine medium containing dried, sterile BH sediment. In addition, only ortho dechlorination was observed following transfer of the cultures. Sequential transfer into medium without added sediment also resulted in the development of a strict ortho-dechlorinating culture following a lag of more than 100 days. Upon further transfer into the minimal medium without sediment, the lag time decreased to less than 50 days. At this stage all cultures, regardless of the presence of sediment, would produce 2,3,5-CB and 3,5-CB from 2,3,5,6-CB. The strict ortho-dechlorinating activity in the sediment-free cultures has remained stable for more than 1 year through several transfers. These results reveal that the classical microbial enrichment technique using a minimal medium with a single polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener selected for ortho dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-CB. Furthermore, this is the first report of sustained anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the complete absence of soil or sediment. PMID:9687458

  12. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  13. Greater-confinement disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Trevorrow, L.E.; Gilbert, T.L.; Luner, C.; Merry-Libby, P.A.; Meshkov, N.K.; Yu, C.

    1985-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes include a broad spectrum of wastes that have different radionuclide concentrations, half-lives, and physical and chemical properties. Standard shallow-land burial practice can provide adequate protection of public health and safety for most low-level wastes, but a small volume fraction (about 1%) containing most of the activity inventory (approx.90%) requires specific measures known as ''greater-confinement disposal'' (GCD). Different site characteristics and different waste characteristics - such as high radionuclide concentrations, long radionuclide half-lives, high radionuclide mobility, and physical or chemical characteristics that present exceptional hazards - lead to different GCD facility design requirements. Facility design alternatives considered for GCD include the augered shaft, deep trench, engineered structure, hydrofracture, improved waste form, and high-integrity container. Selection of an appropriate design must also consider the interplay between basic risk limits for protection of public health and safety, performance characteristics and objectives, costs, waste-acceptance criteria, waste characteristics, and site characteristics. This paper presents an overview of the factors that must be considered in planning the application of methods proposed for providing greater confinement of low-level wastes. 27 refs.

  14. Greater inequalities in dental treatment than in disease experience.

    PubMed

    Mejia, G; Jamieson, L M; Ha, D; Spencer, A J

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed to (1) describe social gradients in dental caries in a population-level survey and (2) examine whether inequalities are greater in disease experience or in its treatment. Using data from Australia's National Survey of Adult Oral Health 2004-2006, we examined absolute and relative income inequalities for DMFT and its separate components (DT, MT, FT) using adjusted proportions, means, and health disparity indices [Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII)]. Approximately 90% of Australian adults had experienced caries, with prevalence ranging from 89.7% in the highest to 96.6% in the lowest income group. Social gradients in caries were evident across all components of DMFT, but particularly notable in Missing (SII = -15.5, RII = -0.3) and untreated Decay (SII = -23.7, RII = -0.9). Analysis of age- and gender-adjusted data indicated less variation in levels of disease experienced (DMFT) than in the health outcomes of its management (missing teeth). The findings indicate that social gradients for dental caries have a greater effect on how the disease was treated than on lifetime disease experience. PMID:25081039

  15. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  16. Occult fractures of the greater tuberosity of the humerus

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, S.; Postacchini, F.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the highest reported number of patients with occult fracture of the greater tuberosity of the humerus and we analysed why fracture was not diagnosed, shoulder function and prevalence of eventually associated rotator cuff tear (RCT). Twenty-four patients with a missed fracture of the greater tuberosity underwent MR study for a suspect RCT. We evaluated shoulder function and self-assessed comfort with the Constant score (CS) and Simple Shoulder Test (SST). Nine patients showed evidence of cuff tendinosis, 11 of partial (p) RCT (2: subscapularis; 6: supraspinatus and 3: supraspinatus and infraspinatus). All patients with pRCT were older than 40. Initially, the mean CS and SST were 54% and 5/12; at follow-up, values increased to 36% and 5 points. MR should be performed in patients apparently negative for fracture but with painful shoulders and decreased ROM. Of our patients, 45.8% had pRCT; nevertheless function recovery was verified in 16 weeks. PMID:18256834

  17. Dissociable Rate-Dependent Effects of Oral Methylphenidate on Impulsivity and D2/3 Receptor Availability in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Jupp, Bianca; Hong, Young T.; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Valentina; Wharton, Laura; Williamson, David J.; McNabb, Carolyn; Berry, David; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Fryer, Tim D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats is linked to decreased dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. In the present study, we investigated, using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of orally administered methylphenidate (MPH), a first-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, on D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal and ventral striatum and related these changes to impulsivity. Rats were screened for impulsive behavior on a five-choice serial reaction time task. After a baseline PET scan with the D2/3 ligand [18F]fallypride, rats received 6 mg/kg MPH, orally, twice each day for 28 d. Rats were then reassessed for impulsivity and underwent a second [18F]fallypride PET scan. Before MPH treatment, we found that D2/3 receptor availability was significantly decreased in the left but not the right ventral striatum of high-impulse (HI) rats compared with low-impulse (LI) rats. MPH treatment increased impulsivity in LI rats, and modulated impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal and ventral striatum of HI rats through inverse relationships with baseline levels of impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability, respectively. However, we found no relationship between the effects of MPH on impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in any of the striatal subregions investigated. These findings indicate that trait-like impulsivity is associated with decreased D2/3 receptor availability in the left ventral striatum, and that stimulant drugs modulate impulsivity and striatal D2/3 receptor availability through independent mechanisms. PMID:25740505

  18. Exercise vasodilation is greater in women: contributions of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Rebecca E.; Harrell, John W.; Sebranek, Joshua J.; Walker, Benjamin J.; Eldridge, Marlowe W.; Schrage, William G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We hypothesized exercise vasodilation would be greater in women due to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX) signaling. Methods 45 healthy adults (23 women, W, 22 men, M, 26 ± 1 years) completed two 10-min trials of dynamic forearm exercise at 15 % intensity. Forearm blood flow (FBF; Doppler ultrasound), arterial pressure (brachial catheter), and forearm lean mass were measured to calculate relative forearm vascular conductance (FVCrel) = F BF 100 mmHg−1 100 g−1 lean mass. Local intra-arterial infusion of L-NMMA or ketorolac acutely inhibited NOS and COX, respectively. In Trial 1, the first 5 min served as control exercise (CON), followed by 5 min of L-NMMA or ketorolac over the last 5 min of exercise. In Trial 2, the remaining drug was infused during 5–10 min, to achieve combined NOS–COX inhibition (double blockade, DB). Results Are mean ± SE. Women exhibited 29 % greater vasodilation in CON (AFVCrel, 19 ± 1 vs. 15 ± 1, p = 0.01). L-NMMA reduced AFVCrel (p < 0.001) (W: Δ −2.3 ± 1.3 vs. M: Δ −3.7 ± 0.8, p = 0.25); whereas, ketorolac modestly increased ΔFVCrel (p = 0.04) similarly between sexes (W: Δ 1.6 ± 1.1 vs. M: Δ 2.0 ± 1.6, p = 0.78). DB was also found to be similar between the sexes (p = 0.85). Conclusion These data clearly indicate women produce a greater exercise vasodilator response. Furthermore, contrary to experiments in animal models, these data are the first to demonstrate vascular control by NOS and COX is similar between sexes. PMID:25820143

  19. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  20. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  1. Dynamic Spectra Predicted for 2-3 Khz Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jeremy J.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    Radio emissions observed at 2-3 kHz by the Voyager spacecraft occur when global merged interaction regions (GMIRs) reach the heliopause. The radiation is thought to occur when a GMIR enters a region close to the heliopause where the electron speed distribution is primed with a superthermal tail produced by lower hybrid drive. Previously this priming mechanism was combined with a theory for type II solar radio bursts to predict the flux of radio emission in the outer heliosphere. Here this theory is extended in two ways. First theoretical arguments regarding the availability of Langmuir and ion sound waves are used to determine whether emission occurs via three wave processes or processes involving wave scattering off thermal ions (STI). New expressions for conversion efficiencies into radio emission associated with STI are then implemented where appropriate. Second dynamic spectra are calculated for the radio emission generated by shock from the inner solar wind to beyond the heliopause. The results are then compared with existing Voyager observations.

  2. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  3. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  4. Species differences in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity and biotransformation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, J.M.; Olson, J.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1988-02-01

    Rainbow trout, yellow perch, carp, bluegill, largemouth bass, and bullhead were treated with graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1, 5, 25, or 125 micrograms/kg) or vehicle, ip. The lethal potency of TCDD tended to be greater in yellow perch, carp, and bullhead than in the other three species (LD50 80 days post-treatment, 3-5 versus 10-16 micrograms/kg, respectively). All species treated with the highest dose of TCDD (125 micrograms/kg) displayed a latency period of 1-4 weeks prior to death; longer latency periods were produced by lower lethal doses. Effects of TCDD treatment on body weight were both species-dependent and dose-dependent. Fin necrosis was observed in all fish species; however, cutaneous hemorrhage was observed only in TCDD-treated perch, carp, and bluegill, and cutaneous hyperpigmentation only in TCDD-treated carp and largemouth bass. Gallbladder bile was analyzed for TCDD and its metabolites 7 days after fish were injected with (/sup 14/C)TCDD (60 micrograms/kg, ip). At least three TCDD metabolites in addition to the parent compound were found in the gallbladder bile of all six species. In addition, the retention time of the major biliary TCDD metabolite (determined by HPLC) was similar in all species except yellow perch. Beta-Glucuronidase treatment of the bile from largemouth bass and bluegill suggested that at least two of the TCDD metabolites were glucuronide conjugates. Thus, species differences exist in the lethal potency, signs of overt toxicity, and biotransformation of TCDD among freshwater fish.

  5. GP consortia: navigating ambiguity to produce greater public value?

    PubMed

    Holbeche, Linda

    2011-05-01

    The UK's NHS is about to be significantly remodelled according to a white paper published in July 2010 that outlines the devolution of commissioning responsibilities away from strategic health authorities and primary care trusts to consortia of GPs, which are to be established at local level. Details of how the new GP consortia will operate are as yet unclear, but in essence they will be strategic alliances and it is likely that they will develop more or less formal arrangements between consortia partners, such as those of a commercial joint venture. This article draws on primary research into strategic alliances between organizations in all sectors. It suggests that there can be significant challenges for those working within strategic alliances, given that these tend to be beset by ambiguity and political tensions. In a context of ever greater transparency and accountability, it will be crucial to attend to the human aspects of strategic alliances since these represent significant risk if neglected. Conversely, alliances also offer the opportunity to develop the synergy of people, organizations and communities to deliver greater public value. Successful collaborations need to get three things right: governance, operations and behaviours. Relationships between consortia partners have a significant bearing on their ability to deliver desired outcomes. They must be able to build and maintain trust. Consortia partners will need sophisticated negotiating and stakeholder management skills and must be able to engage the public in setting the strategic goals for which they will be accountable. They also need strategic and operational management skills and must be able to cope with ambiguity and manage complexity. This paper argues that specific forms of leadership are needed in collaborative arrangements to mobilize people for positive action. People must work together by willingly and effectively pooling their initiative and expertise, and create a product or energy

  6. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  7. Low glucose relates to greater aggression in married couples

    PubMed Central

    Bushman, Brad J.; DeWall, C. Nathan; Pond, Richard S.; Hanus, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence affects millions of people globally. One possible contributing factor is poor self-control. Self-control requires energy, part of which is provided by glucose. For 21 days, glucose levels were measured in 107 married couples. To measure aggressive impulses, each evening participants stuck between 0 and 51 pins into a voodoo doll that represented their spouse, depending how angry they were with their spouse. To measure aggression, participants competed against their spouse on a 25-trial task in which the winner blasted the loser with loud noise through headphones. As expected, the lower the level of glucose in the blood, the greater number of pins participants stuck into the voodoo doll, and the higher intensity and longer duration of noise participants set for their spouse. PMID:24733932

  8. Ecosystem management: A comparison of greater yellowstone and georges bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burroughs, Richard H.; Clark, Tim W.

    1995-09-01

    Ecosystem management links human activities with the functioning of natural environments over large spatial and temporal scales. Our examination of Greater Yellowstone and Georges Bank shows similarities exist between human uses, administrative characteristics, and some biophysical features. Each region faces growing pressures to replace traditional extractive uses with more sustainable extractive or noncommodity uses coupled with concern about endangered species. Ecosystem management as a set of practical guidelines for making decisions under evolving expectations is far from complete, and it embodies new demands on individuals and institutions. In each system these challenges are considered relative to: the public's symbolic understanding of the management challenge, ecosystem management ambiguities, information availability, information use, administrative setting, and learning capabilities of governance organizations Progress in making ecosystem management operational may occur as refinements in content and approach make it an increasingly attractive option for resource users, the public, and government officials.

  9. Greater hippocampal volume is associated with PTSD treatment response.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mikael; Shvil, Erel; Papini, Santiago; Chhetry, Binod T; Helpman, Liat; Markowitz, John C; Mann, J John; Neria, Yuval

    2016-06-30

    Previous research associates smaller hippocampal volume with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is unclear, however, whether treatment affects hippocampal volume or vice versa. Seventy-six subjects, 40 PTSD patients and 36 matched trauma-exposed healthy resilient controls, underwent clinical assessments and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at baseline, and 10 weeks later, during which PTSD patients completed ten weeks of Prolonged Exposure (PE) treatment. The resilient controls and treatment responders (n=23) had greater baseline hippocampal volume than treatment non-responders (n=17) (p=0.012 and p=0.050, respectively), perhaps due to more robust fear-extinction capacity in both the initial phase after exposure to trauma and during treatment. PMID:27179314

  10. The Greater Plains Collaborative: a PCORnet Clinical Research Data Network.

    PubMed

    Waitman, Lemuel R; Aaronson, Lauren S; Nadkarni, Prakash M; Connolly, Daniel W; Campbell, James R

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Plains Collaborative (GPC) is composed of 10 leading medical centers repurposing the research programs and informatics infrastructures developed through Clinical and Translational Science Award initiatives. Partners are the University of Kansas Medical Center, Children's Mercy Hospital, University of Iowa Healthcare, the University of Wisconsin-Madison, the Medical College of Wisconsin and Marshfield Clinic, the University of Minnesota Academic Health Center, the University of Nebraska Medical Center, the University of Texas Health Sciences Center at San Antonio, and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. The GPC network brings together a diverse population of 10 million people across 1300 miles covering seven states with a combined area of 679 159 square miles. Using input from community members, breast cancer was selected as a focus for cohort building activities. In addition to a high-prevalence disorder, we also selected a rare disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:24778202

  11. Discrimination reversal learning reveals greater female behavioural flexibility in guppies

    PubMed Central

    Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Bisazza, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural flexibility allows an animal to adapt its behaviour in response to changes in the environment. Research conducted in primates, rodents and domestic fowl suggests greater behavioural persistence and reduced behavioural flexibility in males. We investigated sex differences in behavioural flexibility in fish by comparing male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in a reversal learning task. Fish were first trained on a colour discrimination, which was learned equally rapidly by males and females. However, once the reward contingency was reversed, females were better at inhibiting the previous response and reached criterion twice as fast as males. When reward reversing was repeated, males gradually reduced the number of errors, and the two sexes had a comparable performance after four reversals. We suggest that sex differences in behavioural flexibility in guppies can be explained in terms of the different roles that males and females play in reproduction.

  12. Free greater omental flap for treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, W.J.; Panje, W.R.

    1987-04-01

    Osteoradionecrosis can involve the mandible following radical irradiation for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The radionecrosis of the mandible is often associated with severe intractable pain, local or extensive deformity, including pathologic fracture, orocutaneous fistula formation, and frequent loss of function. Treatment has ranged from analgesia and antibiotics to hyperbaric oxygen treatments to local or extensive sequestrectomies with partial or total mandibulectomy and restoration of tissue losses with unirradiated tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the successful use of a free greater omental flap for immediate treatment of mandibular osteoradionecrosis and concomitant reconstruction. We found the omentum to be an excellent vascular bed that rapidly resolved the osteoradionecrosis and pain, promoted healing, and restored mandibular function with minimal discomfort to the patient.

  13. Evil genius? How dishonesty can lead to greater creativity.

    PubMed

    Gino, Francesca; Wiltermuth, Scott S

    2014-04-01

    We propose that dishonest and creative behavior have something in common: They both involve breaking rules. Because of this shared feature, creativity may lead to dishonesty (as shown in prior work), and dishonesty may lead to creativity (the hypothesis we tested in this research). In five experiments, participants had the opportunity to behave dishonestly by overreporting their performance on various tasks. They then completed one or more tasks designed to measure creativity. Those who cheated were subsequently more creative than noncheaters, even when we accounted for individual differences in their creative ability (Experiment 1). Using random assignment, we confirmed that acting dishonestly leads to greater creativity in subsequent tasks (Experiments 2 and 3). The link between dishonesty and creativity is explained by a heightened feeling of being unconstrained by rules, as indicated by both mediation (Experiment 4) and moderation (Experiment 5). PMID:24549296

  14. Arp2/3 complex ATP hydrolysis promotes lamellipodial actin network disassembly but is dispensable for assembly

    PubMed Central

    Ingerman, Elena; Hsiao, Jennifer Ying

    2013-01-01

    We examined the role of ATP hydrolysis by the Arp2/3 complex in building the leading edge of a cell by studying the effects of hydrolysis defects on the behavior of the complex in the lamellipodial actin network of Drosophila S2 cells and in a reconstituted, in vitro, actin-based motility system. In S2 cells, nonhydrolyzing Arp2 and Arp3 subunits expanded and delayed disassembly of lamellipodial actin networks and the effect of mutant subunits was additive. Arp2 and Arp3 ATP hydrolysis mutants remained in lamellipodial networks longer and traveled greater distances from the plasma membrane, even in networks still containing wild-type Arp2/3 complex. In vitro, wild-type and ATP hydrolysis mutant Arp2/3 complexes each nucleated actin and built similar dendritic networks. However, networks constructed with Arp2/3 hydrolysis-defective mutants were more resistant to disassembly by cofilin. Our results indicate that ATP hydrolysis on both Arp2 and Arp3 contributes to dissociation of the complex from the actin network but is not strictly necessary for lamellipodial network disassembly. PMID:23439681

  15. Effects of neck bands on survival of greater snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Menu, S.; Hestbeck, J.B.; Gauthier, G.; Reed, A.

    2000-01-01

    Neck bands are a widely used marker in goose research. However, few studies have investigated a possible negative effect of this marker on survival. We tested the effect of neck bands on the survival of adult female greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) by marking birds with either a neck band and a metal leg band or a leg band only on Bylot Island (Nunavut, formerly included in the Northwest Territories, Canada) from 1990 to 1996. Annual survival was estimated using leg-band recoveries in fall and winter and using neck-band sightings in spring and fall. Recapture rates were estimated using summer recaptures. Using recovery data, the selected model yielded a survival similar for the neck-banded and leg-banded only birds (S = 0.845 ?? 0.070 vs. S = 0.811 ?? 0.107). The hypothesis of equality of survival between the 2 groups was easily accepted under most constraints imposed on survival or recovery rates. However, failure to account for a different direct recovery rate for neck-banded birds would lead us to incorrectly conclude a possible negative effect of neck bands on survival. Using sighting data, mean annual survival of neck-banded birds was independently estimated at 0.833 ?? 0.057, a value very similar to that estimated with band-recovery analysis. Raw recapture rates during summer were significantly lower for neck-banded birds compared to those marked with leg bands only (4.6% vs. 12.1%), but in this analysis, survival, site fidelity, reproductive status, and recapture rates were confounded. We conclude that neck bands did not affect survival of greater snow geese, but could possibly affect other demographic traits such as breeding propensity and emigration.

  16. Ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup during egg production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorman, K.B.; Flint, P.L.; Esler, Daniel; Williams, T.D.

    2007-01-01

    Studies of female waterfowl nutrient reserve use during egg production require a precise understanding of ovarian follicle dynamics to correctly interpret breeding status, and, therefore, derive proper inference. Concerns over numerical declines of North American scaup have increased the need to better understand the role of female condition in reproductive performance. We quantified ovarian follicle dynamics of female Greater Scaup (Aythya marila) breeding on the Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, using a method that accounts for within day variation in follicle size. We considered several models for describing changes in follicle growth with the best supported model estimating the duration of rapid follicle growth (RFG) to be 5.20 ± 0.52 days (±95% confidence intervals) for each developing follicle. Average diameter and dry mass of preovulatory follicles were estimated to be 9.36 mm and 0.26 g, respectively, at the onset of RFG, and these follicle characteristics were 41.47 mm and 15.57 g, respectively, at ovulation. The average diameter of postovulatory follicles immediately following ovulation was estimated to be 17.35 mm, regressing quickly over several days. In addition, we derived predictive equations using diameter and dry mass to estimate the number of days before, and after, ovulation for pre- and postovulatory follicles, as well as an equation to estimate dry mass of damaged follicles. Our results allow precise definition of RFG and nest initiation dates, clutch size, and the daily energetic and nutritional demands of egg production at the individual level. This study provides the necessary foundation for additional work on Greater Scaup reproductive energetics and physiology, and offers an approach for quantifying ovarian follicle dynamics in other species.

  17. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  18. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  19. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2015-12-15

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2(/)3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2(/)3(+) cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2(/)3(+) neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism

  20. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  1. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  2. Accurate molecular structures and infrared spectra of trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane, methyloxirane, and trans-2,3-dimethyloxirane

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata Bloino, Julien; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2014-07-21

    Oxirane derivatives are the most used benchmarks for chiroptical spectroscopies in view of their small size and relative rigidity. The molecular structure, vibrational harmonic and anharmonic frequencies, and infrared intensities of the ground electronic states are analyzed in this paper. Equilibrium structure and harmonic force fields have been evaluated by means of high-level quantum-chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level including single and double excitations together with a perturbative treatment of triples (CCSD(T)). Extrapolation to the complete basis-set limit as well as core-correlation effects have also been taken into account. Anharmonic contributions have been computed at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level for trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane. These data can serve as references to evaluate the accuracy of less expensive computational approaches rooted in the density functional theory (DFT). The latter have been used within hybrid CC/DFT approaches, which have been applied to simulate fully anharmonic infrared (IR) spectra. Finally, the best theoretical estimates of the equilibrium structures and vibrational wavenumbers are compared to the most accurate experimental data and show in all cases very good agreement, i.e., within 0.001 Å, 0.1 deg, 10 cm{sup −1}, and 0.5 km mol{sup −1}, for bond lengths, angles, wavenumbers, and IR intensities, respectively.

  3. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  4. Smad2/3 Upregulates the Expression of Vimentin and Affects Its Distribution in DBP-Exposed Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiaogang; Liu, Taixiu; Mo, Min; Ao, Lin; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Cui, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) in the testes provide physical and nutritional support to germ cells. The vimentin cytoskeleton in SCs is disrupted by dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which leads to SCs dysfunction. In a previous study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) influenced the distribution of vimentin by affecting its phosphorylation in DBP-exposed SCs. In the present study, we investigated the role of Smad2/3 in regulating the expression of vimentin in DBP-exposed SCs. We hypothesized that Smad2/3 affects the distribution of vimentin by regulating its expression and that there is cross talk between Smad2/3 and PPARα. The real-time PCR and ChIP-qPCR results showed that SB431542 (an inhibitor of Smad2/3) could significantly attenuate the expression of vimentin induced by DBP in SCs. Phosphorylated and soluble vimentin were both downregulated by SB431542 pretreatment. WY14643 (an agonist of PPARα) pretreatment stimulated, while GW6471 (an antagonist of PPARα) inhibited, the activity of Smad2/3; SB431542 pretreatment also inhibited the activity of PPARα, but it did not rescue the DBP-induced collapse in vimentin. Our results suggest that, in addition to promoting the phosphorylation of vimentin, DBP also stimulates the expression of vimentin by activating Smad2/3 in SCs and thereby induces irregular vimentin distribution. PMID:26819576

  5. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  6. Thermodynamics of lanthanide and uranyl complexes with tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA).

    SciTech Connect

    Morss, L. R.; Nash, K. L.; Tennessee Technological Univ.

    2000-01-01

    We present the results of an investigation of the thermochemistry of the complexation of La{sup 3+} Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Dy{sup 3+}, Tm{sup 3+}, and UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} by tetrahydrofuran-2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA). This predisposed structural analog to oxydiacetic acid (ODA) has been previously shown both to exhibit greater sensitivity to lanthanide cation radius than complexes with the unconstrained ODA and to form anomalously weak complexes with UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. Our purpose is to interpret these observations in terms of the balance between enthalpy and entropy contributions to the overall complexation thermodynamics. Enthalpies have been calculated from titration calorimetry experiments both for the protonation of the free ligand and for the formation of selected 1:1 and 1:2 complexes in pH 2-3 acidic media (I = 0.1 M). The complexation entropies for the lanthanide complexes have been calculated using the previously reported stability constants for the MH{sub 2}L{sup +}, MHL, and M(H{sub 2}L){sup 2-}. The stability constants for the uranyl complexes have been determined by potentiometric titration and these values used to calculate the thermodynamic parameters. Complexation enthalpies for the 1:1 lanthanide-THFTCA complexes (MH{sub 2}L{sup +} species) are nearly identical to those of the lanthanide ODA complexes. Therefore, the size-selectivity observed in the lanthanide-THFTCA complexes arises from the complexation entropy. The comparative weakness of the uranyl complexes with THFTCA also is accounted for thermodynamically in the entropy term. Calculations based on an electrostatic model for complexation entropy and molecular mechanics modeling are used to help interpret the experimental results.

  7. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    diarrhea virus, nonstructural protein NS2-3 is of critical importance to switch between these processes. While free NS3 is essential for RNA replication, uncleaved NS2-3, which accumulates over time in the infected cell, is required for virion morphogenesis. In contrast, the virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus is independent from uncleaved NS2-NS3. Here, we demonstrate that pestiviruses can adapt to virion morphogenesis in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3 by just two amino acid exchanges. While the mechanism behind this gain of function remains elusive, the fact that it can be achieved by such minor changes is in line with the assumption that an ancestral virus already used this mechanism but lost it in the course of adapting to a new host/infection strategy. PMID:26355097

  8. Views That Are Shared With Others Are Expressed With Greater Confidence and Greater Fluency Independent of Any Social Influence.

    PubMed

    Koriat, Asher; Adiv, Shiri; Schwarz, Norbert

    2016-05-01

    Research on group influence has yielded a prototypical majority effect (PME): Majority views are endorsed faster and with greater confidence than minority views, with the difference increasing with majority size. The PME was attributed to conformity pressure enhancing confidence in consensual views and causing inhibition in venturing deviant opinions. Our results, however, indicate that PME for binary choices can arise from the process underlying confidence and latency independent of social influence. PME was demonstrated for tasks and conditions that are stripped of social relevance; it was observed in within-individual analyses in contrasting the individual's more frequent and less frequent responses to the same item, and was found for the predictions of others' responses. A self-consistency model, which assumes that choice and confidence are based on the sampling of representations from a commonly shared pool of representations, yielded a PME for confidence and latency. Behavioral implications of the results are discussed. PMID:25968137

  9. Integrated diode circuits for greater than 1 THz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenthal, Gerhard Siegbert

    The terahertz frequency band, spanning from roughly 100 GHz to 10 THz, forms the transition from electronics to photonics. This band is often referred to as the "terahertz technology gap" because it lacks typical microwave and optical components. The deficit of terahertz devices makes it difficult to conduct important scientific measurements that are exclusive to this band in fields such as radio astronomy and chemical spectroscopy. In addition, a number of scientific, military and commercial applications will become more practical when a suitable terahertz technology is developed. UVa's Applied Electrophysics Laboratory has extended non-linear microwave diode technology into the terahertz region. Initial success was achieved with whisker-contacted diodes and then discrete planar Schottky diodes soldered onto quartz circuits. Work at UVa and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory succeeded in integrating this diode technology onto low dielectric substrates, thereby producing more practical components with greater yield and improved performance. However, the development of circuit integration technologies for greater than 1 THz and the development of broadly tunable sources of terahertz power remain as major research goals. Meeting these critical needs is the primary motivation for this research. To achieve this goal and demonstrate a useful prototype for one of our sponsors, this research project has focused on the development of a Sideband Generator at 1.6 THz. This component allows use of a fixed narrow band source as a tunable power source for terahertz spectroscopy and compact range radar. To prove the new fabrication and circuit technologies, initial devices were fabricated and tested at 200 and 600 GHz. These circuits included non-ohmic cathodes, air-bridged fingers, oxideless anode formation, and improved quartz integration processes. The excellent performance of these components validated these new concepts. The prototype process was then further optimized to

  10. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-2'-3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine in woodchucks.

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, P; Boudinot, F D; Chu, C K; Tennant, B C; Baldwin, B H; Schinazi, R F

    1996-01-01

    The woodchuck (Marmota monax) has proven to be a suitable animal model for studying hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection owing to similarities in the course of infection between woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in woodchucks and HBV in humans. (-)-beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC; lamivudine) is a nucleoside analog which has demonstrated antiviral activity against HBV as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 3TC following intravenous and oral administration of 20 mg of 3TC per kg of body weight to woodchucks. Following intravenous administration, the concentrations of 3TC in plasma declined, with a terminal half-life of 2.84 +/- 0.85 h (mean +/- standard deviation). The systemic clearance and steady-state volume of distribution of 3TC were 0.22 +/- 0.078 liters/h/kg and 0.75 +/- 0.13 liters/kg, respectively. The renal clearance of the nucleoside analog was 0.063 +/- 0.016 liters/h/kg. The oral bioavailability of 3TC ranged from 18 to 54%. Allometric relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and body weight developed by Hussey et al. (E.K. Hussey, K.H. Donn, M.J. Daniel, S.T. Hall, A.J. Harker, and G.L. Evans, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 34:975-977, 1994) were augmented by including data from woodchucks, monkeys (S.M. Blaney, M.J. Daniel, A.J. Harker, K. Godwin, and F.M. Balis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2779-2782, 1995), and additional data from rats (P. Rajagopalan, L. Moore, C.K. Chu, R.F. Schinazi, and F.D. Boudinot, submitted for publication). Interspecies scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3TC demonstrated a good correlation between clearance (0.74 . W0.76 [where W is body weight]; r = 0.93; P < 0.025), apparent volume of distribution (1.62 . W0.81; r = 0.98; P < 0.005), and steady-state volume of distribution (1.09 . W0.94; r = 0.99; P < 0.05) and species body weight. The allometric relationships for clearance and volume of distribution at steady

  11. Optimization and scale-up of 2,3-butanediol production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Gu, Shenghui; Xia, Haifeng; Xu, Zhenghong

    2012-04-01

    The effects of culture conditions on 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production and its possible scale-up have been studied. A newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127, belonged to GRAS microorganisms and showed a remarkable 2,3-BD producing potency, was used for this experiment. Corn steep liquor, soybean meal and ammonium citrate were found to be the key factors in the fermentation according to the results obtained from the Plackett-Burman experimental design. The optimal concentration range of the three factors was examined by the steepest ascent path, and their optimal concentration were further optimized via response surface methodological approach and determined to be 31.9, 22.0 and 5.58 g/l, respectively. The concentration of the obtained 2,3-BD increased significantly with optimized medium (62.7 g/l) when compared with unoptimized medium (45.7 g/l) and the 2,3-BD productivity was about 2.4-fold (The fermentation time was shorten from 72 to 42 h). To observe scale-up effects, batch fermentation was carried out at various working volumes. At a working volume of 20.0 l, the final 2,3-BD concentration and yield were 61.4 and 0.38 g/g at 36 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 1.71 g/l h. This result shows similar amount of 2,3-BD obtained in lab-scale fermentation, and it is possible to scale up to larger fermentors without major problems. PMID:22805938

  12. Removable cast walker boots yield greater forefoot off-loading than total contact casts

    PubMed Central

    Gutekunst, David J.; Hastings, Mary K.; Bohnert, Kathryn L.; Strube, Michael J.; Sinacore, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Elevated plantar loading has been implicated in the etiology of plantar ulceration in individuals with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Total contact casts and cast walker boots are common off-loading strategies to facilitate ulcer healing and prevent re-ulceration. The purpose of this study was to compare off-loading capabilities of these strategies with respect to plantar loading during barefoot walking. Methods Twenty-three individuals with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and plantar ulceration were randomly assigned to total contact cast (N=11) or removable cast walker boot (N=12). Each subject underwent plantar loading assessment walking barefoot and wearing the off-loading device. Analysis of covariance was used to compare loading patterns in the off-loading devices for the whole foot, hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot while accounting for walking speed and barefoot loading. Findings For the foot as a whole, there were no differences in off-loading between the two techniques. Subjects wearing cast walker boots had greater reductions in forefoot peak pressure, pressure-time integral, maximum force, and force-time integral with respect to barefoot walking. Healing times were similar between groups, but a greater proportion of ulcers healed in total contact casting compared to cast walker boots. Interpretation In subjects with diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, and plantar ulceration, cast walker boots provided greater load reduction in the forefoot, the most frequent site of diabetic ulceration, though a greater proportion of subjects wearing total contact casts experienced ulcer healing. Taken together, the less effective ulcer healing in cast walker boots despite superior forefoot off-loading suggests an important role for patient compliance in ulcer healing. PMID:21496977

  13. Amino-substituted 1,8-naphthyridines and pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines: new compounds with affinity for A1- and A2-adenosine receptors.

    PubMed

    Müller, C E; Grahner, B; Heber, D

    1994-12-01

    Two novel classes of adenosine receptor (AR) antagonists, 4-amino-1,8-naphthyridines and 5-aminopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines, have been identified and investigated in radioligand binding assays. The compounds exhibit affinities for A1 and A2a AR of rat brain in the micromolar range. 1,8-Naphthyridines are non-selective, or somewhat selective for either A1- or A2 AR. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines are several-fold selective for A1 AR, the most potent and selective compound being 5-n-butylamino-1,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido-[2,3-d]pyr imi dine-2,4-dione (12) with a Ki value of 1.8 microM at A1 AR and greater than 10-fold A1-selectivity. PMID:7838877

  14. Greater-than-Class C low-level waste characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Piscitella, R.R.

    1991-12-31

    In 1985, Public Law 99-240 (Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985) made the Department of Energy (DOE) responsible for the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW). DOE strategies for storage and disposal of GTCC LLW required characterization of volumes, radionuclide activities, and waste forms. Data from existing literature, disposal records, and original research were used to estimate characteristics, project volumes, and determine radionuclide activities to the years 2035 and 2055. Twenty-year life extensions for 70% of the operating nuclear reactors were assumed to calculate the GTCC LLW available in 2055. The following categories of GTCC LLW were addressed: Nuclear Utilities Waste; Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW; DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW; and Other Generator Waste. It was determined that the largest volume of these wastes, approximately 57%, is generated by nuclear utilities. The Other Generator Waste category contributes approximately 10% of the total GTCC LLW volume projected to the year 2035. DOE-Held Potential GTCC LLW accounts for nearly 33% of all waste projected to the year 2035. Potential Sealed Sources GTCC LLW is less than 0.2% of the total projected volume. The base case total projected volume of GTCC LLW for all categories was 3,250 cubic meters. This was substantially less than previous estimates.

  15. The shifting climate portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Adam; Tercek, Mike T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Ray, Andrew; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change.

  16. Integrating Alpine Adventure and Citizen Science in the Greater Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mix, H.

    2014-12-01

    As earth scientists, we are drawn together by our fascination with the natural world. On alpine climbing expeditions in the Greater Ranges of Asia during 2012-14, I had the opportunity to contribute to the scientific understanding and stewardship of the places I visit for personal fulfillment. Using the "matchmaking" services of Adventurers and Scientists for Conservation, I was connected with researchers to conduct field studies in some of the world's highest and most remote mountains. Here, I present work from two projects: 1) Assessing the role of biological weathering in shaping high altitude landscapes in the Pamir Mountains of Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, and 2) Understanding the effects of anthropogenic biomass burning on glacial thinning in the Everest Region, Nepal. Both collaborative efforts succeeded in collecting valuable data from challenging environments using a small research budget. As a scientist with expertise in terrestrial paleoclimate and stable isotope geochemistry, these projects served to expand my research horizons and areas of professional interest. Citizen science can not only add a sense of value to otherwise selfish endeavors such as high altitude climbing, but also serve to connect scientists with the communities who appreciate their efforts most.

  17. Greater emotional empathy and prosocial behavior in late life.

    PubMed

    Sze, Jocelyn A; Gyurak, Anett; Goodkind, Madeleine S; Levenson, Robert W

    2012-10-01

    Emotional empathy and prosocial behavior were assessed in older, middle-aged, and young adults. Participants watched two films depicting individuals in need, one uplifting and the other distressing. Physiological responses were monitored during the films, and participants rated their levels of emotional empathy following each film. As a measure of prosocial behavior, participants were given an additional payment they could contribute to charities supporting the individuals in the films. Age-related linear increases were found for both emotional empathy (self-reported empathic concern and cardiac and electrodermal responding) and prosocial behavior (size of contribution) across both films and in self-reported personal distress to the distressing film. Empathic concern and cardiac reactivity to both films, along with personal distress to the distressing film only, were associated with greater prosocial behavior. Empathic concern partially mediated the age-related differences in prosocial behavior. Results are discussed in terms of our understanding both of adult development and of the nature of these vital aspects of human emotion. PMID:21859198

  18. Distribution of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Haroldson, M.A.; Gunther, K.; Moody, D.

    2006-01-01

    The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) proposed delisting the Yellowstone grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) in November 2005. Part of that process required knowledge of the most current distribution of the species. Here, we update an earlier estimate of occupied range (1990–2000) with data through 2004. We used kernel estimators to develop distribution maps of occupied habitats based on initial sightings of unduplicated females (n = 481) with cubs of the year, locations of radiomarked bears (n = 170), and spatially unique locations of conflicts, confrontations, and mortalities (n = 1,075). Although each data set was constrained by potential sampling bias, together they provided insight into areas in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) currently occupied by grizzly bears. The current distribution of 37,258 km2 (1990–2004) extends beyond the distribution map generated with data from 1990–2000 (34,416 km2 ). Range expansion is particularly evident in parts of the Caribou–Targhee National Forest in Idaho and north of Spanish Peaks on the Gallatin National Forest in Montana.

  19. Status on disposal of greater-than-Class C

    SciTech Connect

    Plummer, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a plan for the management and disposal of commercially generated greater-than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 made DOE responsible for disposal of GTCC waste. The act requires that GTCC waste be disposed in a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-licensed facility. The NRC has amended 10 CFR 61 to express a preference for geologic disposal of GTCC waste. Based on reassessment studies, legislative guidance, and stakeholder involvement, a revised plan has been formulated to provide for total management of GTCC waste. The plan has four major thrusts: (1) plan for GTCC waste storage at the generator site until disposal is available, (2) establish storage for GTCC sealed sources posing health and safety risk to the public, (3) facilitate storage for other GTCC waste posing health and safety risk to the public, and (4) plan for co-disposal of GTCC waste in a geologic disposal site with similar waste types. The revised plan focuses on applying available resources to near- and long-term needs.

  20. Neural markers of a greater female responsiveness to social stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Proverbio, Alice M; Zani, Alberto; Adorni, Roberta

    2008-01-01

    Background There is fMRI evidence that women are neurally predisposed to process infant laughter and crying. Other findings show that women might be more empathic and sensitive than men to emotional facial expressions. However, no gender difference in the brain responses to persons and unanimated scenes has hitherto been demonstrated. Results Twenty-four men and women viewed 220 images portraying persons or landscapes and ERPs were recorded from 128 sites. In women, but not in men, the N2 component (210–270) was much larger to persons than to scenes. swLORETA showed significant bilateral activation of FG (BA19/37) in both genders when viewing persons as opposed to scenes. Only women showed a source of activity in the STG and in the right MOG (extra-striate body area, EBA), and only men in the left parahippocampal area (PPA). Conclusion A significant gender difference was found in activation of the left and right STG (BA22) and the cingulate cortex for the subtractive condition women minus men, thus indicating that women might have a greater preference or interest for social stimuli (faces and persons). PMID:18590546

  1. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area.

    PubMed

    Sepulveda, Adam J; Tercek, Michael T; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M; Thoma, David P; Hossack, Blake R; Pederson, Gregory T; Rodman, Ann W; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world's most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948-2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA's physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  2. The Shifting Climate Portfolio of the Greater Yellowstone Area

    PubMed Central

    Sepulveda, Adam J.; Tercek, Michael T.; Al-Chokhachy, Robert; Ray, Andrew M.; Thoma, David P.; Hossack, Blake R.; Pederson, Gregory T.; Rodman, Ann W.; Olliff, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of climatic variability at small spatial extents (< 50 km) is needed to assess vulnerabilities of biological reserves to climate change. We used empirical and modeled weather station data to test if climate change has increased the synchrony of surface air temperatures among 50 sites within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) of the interior western United States. This important biological reserve is the largest protected area in the Lower 48 states and provides critical habitat for some of the world’s most iconic wildlife. We focused our analyses on temporal shifts and shape changes in the annual distributions of seasonal minimum and maximum air temperatures among valley-bottom and higher elevation sites from 1948–2012. We documented consistent patterns of warming since 1948 at all 50 sites, with the most pronounced changes occurring during the Winter and Summer when minimum and maximum temperature distributions increased. These shifts indicate more hot temperatures and less cold temperatures would be expected across the GYA. Though the shifting statistical distributions indicate warming, little change in the shape of the temperature distributions across sites since 1948 suggest the GYA has maintained a diverse portfolio of temperatures within a year. Spatial heterogeneity in temperatures is likely maintained by the GYA’s physiographic complexity and its large size, which encompasses multiple climate zones that respond differently to synoptic drivers. Having a diverse portfolio of temperatures may help biological reserves spread the extinction risk posed by climate change. PMID:26674185

  3. r-1,t-2,3,c-4-Tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene in human urine: a potential biomarker for assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Chen, Menglan; Yagi, Haruhiko; Jerina, Donald M; Carmella, Steven G

    2003-12-01

    Individual differences in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may influence cancer risk. This has been investigated in many studies using genotyping approaches, but the results to date have been inconsistent. We propose that carcinogen metabolite phenotyping would be a more reliable way to determine the role of host metabolism in PAH-related cancer. Many PAHs are metabolically activated by formation of bay-region diol epoxides. Phenanthrene, generally considered to be noncarcinogenic, is the simplest PAH with a bay region and is metabolized to diol epoxides by the same enzymes and with the same stereochemistry as the prototypic carcinogenic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. The major end product of this metabolic activation pathway is r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, anti-PheT). We have developed a method for the analysis of trans, anti-PheT in human urine. r-1,t-2,4,c-3-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, syn-PheT) was used as internal standard. After hydrolysis by beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase, solid phase extraction, and high-performance liquid chromatography collection, the sample was silylated and analyzed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring at m/z 372. The resulting chromatograms were remarkably clean and trans, anti-PheT was readily detected in all human urine samples. Levels of trans, anti-PheT were 791 +/- 363 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 20) in psoriasis patients treated with a PAH-containing ointment, 25.7 +/- 16.8 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 32) in coke oven workers exposed to PAH, 4.58 +/- 2.95 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 31) in smokers, and 1.51 +/- 1.15 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 30) in nonsmokers. Levels of trans, anti-PheT correlated with levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of coke oven workers, smokers, and nonsmokers. Thus, trans, anti-PheT appears to be an excellent biomarker of PAH uptake. Levels

  4. Gas, Oil, and Water Production from Jonah, Pinedale, Greater Wamsutter, and Stagecoach Draw Fields in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Philip H.; Ewald, Shauna M.; Santus, Stephen L.; Trainor, Patrick K.

    2010-01-01

    Gas, oil, and water production data were compiled from selected wells in four gas fields in rocks of Late Cretaceous age in southwestern Wyoming. This study is one of a series of reports examining fluid production from tight-gas reservoirs, which are characterized by low permeability, low porosity, and the presence of clay minerals in pore space. Production from each well is represented by two samples spaced five years apart, the first sample typically taken two years after commencement of production. For each producing interval, summary diagrams of oil versus gas and water versus gas production show fluid production rates, the change in rates during five years, the water-gas and oil-gas ratios, and the fluid type. These diagrams permit well-to-well and field-to-field comparisons. Fields producing water at low rates (water dissolved in gas in the reservoir) can be distinguished from fields producing water at moderate or high rates, and the water-gas ratios are quantified. The ranges of first-sample gas rates in Pinedale field and Jonah field are quite similar, and the average gas production rate for the second sample, taken five years later, is about one-half that of the first sample for both fields. Water rates are generally substantially higher in Pinedale than in Jonah, and water-gas ratios in Pinedale are roughly a factor of ten greater in Pinedale than in Jonah. Gas and water production rates from each field are fairly well grouped, indicating that Pinedale and Jonah fields are fairly cohesive gas-water systems. Pinedale field appears to be remarkably uniform in its flow behavior with time. Jonah field, which is internally faulted, exhibits a small spread in first-sample production rates. In the Greater Wamsutter field, gas production from the upper part of the Almond Formation is greater than from the main part of the Almond. Some wells in the main and the combined (upper and main parts) Almond show increases in water production with time, whereas increases

  5. Sensitivity enhancement in the fluorometric determination of aliphatic amines using naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde derivatization followed by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chin-Yi; Tung, Shu-Yin; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Huang, Hsien-Lu; Ko, Chun-Han; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2016-05-15

    A highly sensitive liquid chromatographic method was developed for the fluorometric determination of trace amounts of linear aliphatic primary amines. Prior to extraction, amines were derivatized with naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA) in the presence of cyanide ion (CN) and extracted by vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VALLME). The optimum conditions were as follows: derivatization reaction time for 5min in 2.0mL aqueous donor samples with 50μM NDA/CN, and 10mM borate buffer at pH 9; vortex extraction time for 20s in the VALLME step with 50μL of isooctane as the extractant phase; centrifugation for 1min at 6000rpm. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LOD) were between 0.01 and 0.04nmolL(-1). The calibration curves showed good linearity in the range of 0.1-20nmolL(-1). In comparison with previous work using o-phthalaldehyde/2-mercaptoethanol derivatization, the method has much more stable fluorescent derivatives, higher fluorescence intensities, and greater extraction efficiencies. The sensitivity enhancement factors (SEF) were between 2 and 70, which is in good agreement with the theoretical values calculated from partition coefficients in VALLME system. PMID:26992544

  6. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin has both pro-carcinogenic and anti-carcinogenic effects on neuroendocrine prostate carcinoma formation in TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Moore, Robert W; Fritz, Wayne A; Schneider, Andrew J; Lin, Tien-Min; Branam, Amanda M; Safe, Stephen; Peterson, Richard E

    2016-08-15

    It is well established that the prototypical aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can both cause and protect against carcinogenesis in non-transgenic rodents. But because these animals almost never develop prostate cancer with old age or after carcinogen exposure, whether AHR activation can affect cancer of the prostate remained unknown. We used animals designed to develop this disease, Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) mice, to investigate the potential role of AHR signaling in prostate cancer development. We previously reported that AHR itself has prostate tumor suppressive functions in TRAMP mice; i.e., TRAMP mice in which Ahr was knocked out developed neuroendocrine prostate carcinomas (NEPC) with much greater frequency than did those with both Ahr alleles. In the present study we investigated effects of AHR activation by three different xenobiotics. In utero and lactational TCDD exposure significantly increased NEPC tumor incidence in TRAMP males, while chronic TCDD treatment in adulthood had the opposite effect, a significant reduction in NEPC incidence. Chronic treatment of adult TRAMP mice with the low-toxicity selective AHR modulators indole-3-carbinol or 3,3'-diindolylmethane did not significantly protect against these tumors. Thus, we demonstrate, for the first time, that ligand-dependent activation of the AHR can alter prostate cancer incidence. The nature of the responses depended on the timing of AHR activation and ligand structures. PMID:27151233

  7. Predicting Greater Prairie-Chicken Lek Site Suitability to Inform Conservation Actions

    PubMed Central

    Hovick, Torre J.; Dahlgren, David K.; Papeş, Monica; Elmore, R. Dwayne; Pitman, James C.

    2015-01-01

    The demands of a growing human population dictates that expansion of energy infrastructure, roads, and other development frequently takes place in native rangelands. Particularly, transmission lines and roads commonly divide rural landscapes and increase fragmentation. This has direct and indirect consequences on native wildlife that can be mitigated through thoughtful planning and proactive approaches to identifying areas of high conservation priority. We used nine years (2003–2011) of Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) lek locations totaling 870 unique leks sites in Kansas and seven geographic information system (GIS) layers describing land cover, topography, and anthropogenic structures to model habitat suitability across the state. The models obtained had low omission rates (<0.18) and high area under the curve scores (AUC >0.81), indicating high model performance and reliability of predicted habitat suitability for Greater Prairie-Chickens. We found that elevation was the most influential in predicting lek locations, contributing three times more predictive power than any other variable. However, models were improved by the addition of land cover and anthropogenic features (transmission lines, roads, and oil and gas structures). Overall, our analysis provides a hierarchal understanding of Greater Prairie-Chicken habitat suitability that is broadly based on geomorphological features followed by land cover suitability. We found that when land features and vegetation cover are suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens, fragmentation by anthropogenic sources such as roadways and transmission lines are a concern. Therefore, it is our recommendation that future human development in Kansas avoid areas that our models identified as highly suitable for Greater Prairie-Chickens and focus development on land cover types that are of lower conservation concern. PMID:26317349

  8. Exhumation of Greater Himalayan rock along the main central thrust in Nepal: Implications for channel flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, D.M.; Pearson, O.N.

    2006-01-01

    South-vergent channel flow from beneath the Tibetan Plateau may have played an important role in forming the Himalaya. The possibility that Greater Himalayan rocks currently exposed in the Himalayan Fold-Thrust Belt flowed at mid-crustal depths before being exhumed is intriguing, and may suggest a natural link between orogenic processes operating under the Tibetan Plateau and in the fold-thrust belt. Conceptual and numeric models for the Himalayan-Tibetan Orogen currently reported in the literature do an admirable job of replicating many of the observable primary geological features and relationships. However, detailed observations from Greater Himalayan rocks exposed in the fold-thrust belt's external klippen, and from Lesser Himalayan rocks in the proximal footwall of the Main Central Thrust, suggest that since Early Miocene time, it may be more appropriate to model the evolution of the fold-thrust belt using the critical taper paradigm. This does not exclude the possibility that channel flow and linked extrusion of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred, but it places important boundaries on a permissible time frame during which these processes may have operated. ?? The Geological Society of London 2006.

  9. Visitor influence on the behavior of captive greater rheas (Rhea americana, Rheidae Aves).

    PubMed

    de Azevedo, Cristiano Schetini; Lima, Márcia Fontes Figueiredo; da Silva, Vitor Caetano Alves; Young, Robert John; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Visitors can affect and reduce the welfare of nonhuman animals. The Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil, had a group of greater rheas intended for reintroduction to the wild. Because this group received public visitation, evaluating its effect on the birds' behavior and welfare was important. The study conducted 60 hr of behavioral observations: 30 with, and 30 without, visitors in front of the birds' enclosure. The study, conducted April-December 2009, collected data using scan sampling with instantaneous recording of behavior every minute. The study collected data on public behavior, visitor density, and time spent observing the birds. More than 4,000 persons visited the birds' enclosure: 9.86 s average time spent. Public behaviors most expressed were walking-watching-talking and stopped-watching-talking; visitors or not, greater rheas' most expressed behaviors (inversed between treatments) were foraging and walking alert; defecating/urinating and other behaviors differed statistically between treatments. Walking alert was most expressed in the presence of visitors; defecating/urinating and other behaviors were most expressed in their absence. Greater rheas seemed to habituate to visitors. Birds' behaviors differed little in visitors' presence or absence. PMID:22458873

  10. T2 can be greater than 2T1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevian, H. M.; Skinner, J. L.

    1989-08-01

    We consider a quantum-mechanical two-level system under the influence of both diagonal and off-diagonal stochastic perturbations, and focus on the decay times T1 and T2, which refer to the relaxation to equilibrium of the populations and relative phase of the two levels, respectively. From both theoretical and experimental viewpoints one traditionally expects that T2≤2T1. On the other hand, from a fourth-order cumulant expansion calculation of the asymptotic time dependence of the density matrix elements, Budimir and Skinner [J. Stat. Phys. 49, 1029 (1987)] showed that, in fact, in some instances T2>2T1. In this paper we solve the stochastic model numerically, which leads to the exact time dependence of the density matrix at all times. We find that the analytic prediction that T2>2T1 is not only correct, but also meaningful, in the sense that the density matrix elements decay exponentially after only a short transient time.

  11. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans using a Brønsted base/thiourea bifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Barrios Antúnez, Diego-Javier; Greenhalgh, Mark D; Fallan, Charlene; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-07-26

    The diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (15 examples, up to 96 : 4 dr, 95 : 5 er) via intramolecular Michael addition has been developed using keto-enone substrates and a bifunctional tertiary amine-thiourea catalyst. This methodology was extended to include non-activated ketone pro-nucleophiles for the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indane and 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives. PMID:27387095

  12. Wise Detections of Known QSOS at Redshifts Greater Than Six

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto; Stern, Daniel; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter; Bridge, Carrie; Benford, Dominic; Jarrett, Tom; Cutri, Roc; Petty, Sara; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.

    2013-01-01

    We present WISE All-Sky mid-infrared (IR) survey detections of 55 % (17/31) of the known QSOs at z greater than 6 from a range of surveys: the SDSS, the CFHT-LS, FIRST, Spitzer and UK1DSS. The WISE catalog thus provides a substantial increase in tiie quantity of IR data available for these sources: 17 are detected in the WISE Wl (3.4 micrometer) band, 16 in W2 (4.6 micrometers), 3 in W3 (12 micrometers) and 0 in W4 (22micrometers). This is particularly important with Spitzer in its warm-mission phase and no faint follow-up capability at wavelengths longwards of 5 micrometers until the launch of JWST. WISE thus provides a useful tool for understanding QSOs found in forthcoming large-area optical/IR sky surveys, using PanSTARRS, SkyMapper, VISTA, DES and LSST. The rest-UV properties of the WISE-detected and the WISE-non-detected samples differ: the detections have brighter i/z-band magnitudes and redder rest-UV colors. This suggests thai a more aggressive hunt for very-high-redshift QSOs, by combining WISE Wl and W2 data with red observed optical colors could be effective at least, for a subset of dusty candidate QSOs. Stacking the WISE images of the WISE-non-detected QSOs indicates that they are on average significantly fainter than the WISE-detccted examples, and are thus not narrowly missing detection in the WISE catalog. The WISE-catalog detection of three of our sample in the W3 band indicates that their mid-ID flux can be detected individually, although there is no stacked W3 detection of sources detected in Wl but not. W3. Stacking analyses of WISE data for large AGN samples will be a useful tool, and high-redshifl. QSOs of all types will be easy targets for JWST.

  13. Dietary breadth of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gunther, Kerry A.; Shoemaker, Rebecca; Frey, Kevin L.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Cain, Steven L; van Manen, Frank T.; Fortin, Jennifer K.

    2014-01-01

    Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (GYE) are opportunistic omnivores that eat a great diversity of plant and animal species. Changes in climate may affect regional vegetation, hydrology, insects, and fire regimes, likely influencing the abundance, range, and elevational distribution of the plants and animals consumed by GYE grizzly bears. Determining the dietary breadth of grizzly bears is important to document future changes in food resources and how those changes may affect the nutritional ecology of grizzlies. However, no synthesis exists of all foods consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We conducted a review of available literature and compiled a list of species consumed by grizzly bears in the GYE. We documented >266 species within 200 genera from 4 kingdoms, including 175 plant, 37 invertebrate, 34 mammal, 7 fungi, 7 bird, 4 fish, 1 amphibian, and 1 algae species as well as 1 soil type consumed by grizzly bears. The average energy values of the ungulates (6.8 kcal/g), trout (Oncorhynchus spp., 6.1 kcal/g), and small mammals (4.5 kcal/g) eaten by grizzlies were higher than those of the plants (3.0 kcal/g) and invertebrates (2.7 kcal/g) they consumed. The most frequently detected diet items were graminoids, ants (Formicidae), whitebark pine seeds (Pinus albicaulis), clover (Trifolium spp.), and dandelion (Taraxacum spp.). The most consistently used foods on a temporal basis were graminoids, ants, whitebark pine seeds, clover, elk (Cervus elaphus), thistle (Cirsium spp.), and horsetail (Equisetum spp.). Historically, garbage was a significant diet item for grizzlies until refuse dumps were closed. Use of forbs increased after garbage was no longer readily available. The list of foods we compiled will help managers of grizzly bears and their habitat document future changes in grizzly bear food habits and how bears respond to changing food resources.

  14. SORPTION OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14 C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD) to Soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. ncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (foc) from 0.0066 to...

  15. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  16. A novel form of spontaneous tool use displayed by several captive greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa).

    PubMed

    Lambert, Megan L; Seed, Amanda M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-12-01

    Parrots are frequently cited for their sophisticated problem-solving abilities, but cases of habitual tool use among psittacines are scarce. We report the first evidence, to our knowledge, of tool use by greater vasa parrots (Coracopsis vasa). Several members of a captive population spontaneously adopted a novel tool-using technique by using pebbles and date pits either (i) to scrape on the inner surface of seashells, subsequently licking the resulting calcium powder from the tool, or (ii) as a wedge to break off smaller pieces of the shell for ingestion. Tool use occurred most frequently just prior to the breeding season, during which time numerous instances of tool transfer were also documented. These observations provide new insights into the tool-using capabilities of parrots and highlight the greater vasa parrot as a species of interest for studies of physical cognition. PMID:26673936

  17. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs in marine sediments and biota: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River (PR), New Jersey. Organisms were exposed to PR sediments for up to 180 days in the laboratory. In addition, sediments and associated infauna from the New York Bight were collected and analyzed for the same suite of chemical compounds.

  18. Late Paleozoic deformation of interior North America: The greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Hongzhuan |; Royden, L.; Burchfiel, C.; Schuepbach, M.

    1996-09-01

    Late Paleozoic deformation within interior North America has produced a series of north-northwest- to northwest-trending elongate basins that cover much of Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah. Each basin thickens asymmetrically toward an adjacent region of coeval basement uplift from which it is separated by synsedimentary faults with great vertical relief. The remarkable coincidence in timing, geometry, and apparent structural style throughout the region of late Paleozoic deformation strongly suggests that these paired regions of basin subsidence and basement uplift form a unified system of regional deformation, the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains. Over this region, basin subsidence and basement uplift were approximately synchronous, beginning in the Chesterian-Morrowan, continuing through the Pennsylvanian, and ending in the Wolfcampian (although minor post-Wolfcampian deformation occurs locally). The basement uplifts show evidence for folding and faulting in the Pennsylvanian and Early Permian. Reverse faults and thrust faults have been drilled over many of the uplifts, but only in the Anadarko region has thrusting of the basement uplifts over the adjacent basin been clearly documented. Extensive basement-involved thrusting also occurs along the margins of the Delaware and Midland basins, and suggests that the entire greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains region probably formed as the result of northeast-southwest-directed-intraplate shortening. Deformation within the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains was coeval with late Paleozoic subduction along much of the North American plate margin, and has traditionally been related to emplacement of thrust sheets within the Ouachita-Marathon orogenic belt. The nature, timing, and orientation of events along the Ouachita-Marathon belt make it difficult to drive the deformation of the greater Ancestral Rocky Mountains by emplacement of the Ouachita-Marathon belt along the southern margin of North America.

  19. Targeting Nonsquamous Nonsmall Cell Lung Cancer via the Proton-Coupled Folate Transporter with 6-Substituted Pyrrolo[2,3-d]Pyrimidine Thienoyl Antifolates.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mike R; Hou, Zhanjun; Yang, Si; Polin, Lisa; Kushner, Juiwanna; White, Kathryn; Huang, Jenny; Ratnam, Manohar; Gangjee, Aleem; Matherly, Larry H

    2016-04-01

    Pemetrexed (PMX) is a 5-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine antifolate used for therapy of nonsquamous nonsmall cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC). PMX is transported by the reduced folate carrier (RFC) and proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT). Unlike RFC, PCFT is active at acidic pH levels characterizing the tumor microenvironment. By real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, PCFT transcripts and proteins were detected in primary NS-NSCLC specimens. In six NS-NSCLC cell lines (A549, H1437, H460, H1299, H1650, and H2030), PCFT transcripts and proteins were detected by real-time RT-PCR and western blots, respectively. 6-Substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolates related to PMX [compound 1 (C1) and compound 2 (C2), respectively] are selective substrates for PCFT over RFC. In the NS-NSCLC cell lines, both [(3)H]PMX and [(3)H]C2 were transported by PCFT. C1 and C2 inhibited proliferation of the NS-NSCLC cell lines; A549, H460, and H2030 cells were more sensitive to C1 than to PMX. C1 and C2 inhibited glycinamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase in de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis. When treated at pH 6.8, which favors PCFT uptake, C1 and C2 inhibited clonogenicity of H460 cells greater than PMX; PMX inhibited clonogenicity more than C1 or C2 at pH 7.2, which favors RFC transport over PCFT. Knockdown of PCFT in H460 cells resulted in decreased [(3)H]PMX and [(3)H]C2 transport and decreased growth inhibition by C1 and C2, and to a lesser extent by PMX. In vivo efficacy of C1 was seen toward H460 tumor xenografts in severe-combined immunodeficient mice. Our results suggest that 6-substituted pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine thienoyl antifolates offer significant promise for treating NS-NSCLC by selective uptake by PCFT. PMID:26837243

  20. Rate of Interfacial Electron Transfer through the 1,2,3-Triazole Linkage

    PubMed Central

    Devaraj, Neal K.; Decreau, Richard A.; Ebina, Wataru; Collman, James P.; Chidsey, Christopher E. D.

    2012-01-01

    The rate of electron transfer is measured to two ferrocene and one iron tetraphenylporphyrin redox species coupled through terminal acetylenes to azide-terminated thiol monolayers by the Cu(I)-catalyzed azide–alkyne cycloaddition (a Sharpless “click” reaction) to form the 1,2,3-triazole linkage. The high yield, chemoselectivity, convenience, and broad applicability of this triazole formation reaction make such a modular assembly strategy very attractive. Electron-transfer rate constants from greater than 60,000 to 1 s−1 are obtained by varying the length and conjugation of the electron-transfer bridge and by varying the surrounding diluent thiols in the monolayer. Triazole and the triazole carbonyl linkages provide similar electronic coupling for electron transfer as esters. The ability to vary the rate of electron transfer to many different redox species over many orders of magnitude by using modular coupling chemistry provides a convenient way to study and control the delivery of electrons to multielectron redox catalysts and similar interfacial systems that require controlled delivery of electrons. PMID:16898751

  1. Candidates of M7-Class Earthquake Beneath Greater Tokyo Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Y.

    2003-12-01

    In greater Tokyo area, the occurrence of M7-class earthquake is thought to be imminent by the following reasons. (1) In these 20 years, maximum size of shallow microearthquakes beneath Tokyo is steadily increasing. (2) In recent 80 years after Kanto earthquake, maximum size of the earthquakes in Kanto region is gradually increasing. (3) In these 400 years, it was observed twice that two M7-class earthquakes precede the M8 interplate earthquakes in the latter half of the interseismic period. Taking into consideration these background, the Central Disaster Management Council, Japan issued _gGuideline for Countermeasures to the Earthquakes Beneath Southern Kanto Region _h on August 1994, and proposed 19 fault models along the upper boundary of Philippine Sea plate as the candidates of the forthcoming M7-class earthquake. At present, we have no data of abnormal seismic activity or crustal movement to select preferable one among these 19 fault models. Here, we will try to constrain the candidates which may have relatively higher possibility of the occurrence by a elimination method. It seems to be possible to exclude some of the fault models by the following ways. (1) Adopting characteristic earthquake concept, we can exclude 5 models which overlap to the focal region of 1923 Kanto earthquake. (2) A belt like zone of serpentine are found from tomography results at 30-40km depth along the Philippine Sea plate beneath the Kanto Plain and no microearthquake activities are generated along this zone (Kamiya and Kobayashi, GRL, 2000). We can eliminate 4 models which lie in this zone. (3) Beneath the eastern Boso Peninsula, it was found that slow slips of M6.5-class are repeated every 5-6 years. We can exclude 2 models in the area (4) Since plate collision is undertaken beneath eastern Yamanashi Prefecture, we can exclude 1 model in this area. Finally, it remains 7 fault models as the possible candidates of M7-class earthquake beneath Tokyo area. They are 3 models just beneath

  2. Malaria in the Greater Mekong Subregion: Heterogeneity and Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cao, Yaming; Chen, Bin; Chen, Xiaoguang; Fan, Qi; Fang, Qiang; Jongwutiwes, Somchai; Parker, Daniel; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Su, Xin-zhuan; Yang, Henglin; Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Baomin; Xu, Jianwei; Zheng, Bin; Zhong, Daibin; Zhou, Guofa

    2011-01-01

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), comprised of six countries including Cambodia, China's Yunnan Province, Lao PDR, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand and Vietnam, is one of the most threatening foci of malaria. Since the initiation of the WHO's Mekong Malaria Program a decade ago, malaria situation in the GMS has greatly improved, reflected in the continuous decline in annual malaria incidence and deaths. However, as many nations are moving towards malaria elimination, the GMS nations still face great challenges. Malaria epidemiology in this region exhibits enormous geographical heterogeneity with Myanmar and Cambodia remaining high-burden countries. Within each country, malaria distribution is also patchy, exemplified by ‘border malaria’ and ‘forest malaria’ with high transmission occurring along international borders and in forests or forest fringes, respectively. ‘Border malaria’ is extremely difficult to monitor, and frequent malaria introductions by migratory human populations constitute a major threat to neighboring, malaria-eliminating countries. Therefore, coordination between neighboring countries is essential for malaria elimination from the entire region. In addition to these operational difficulties, malaria control in the GMS also encounters several technological challenges. Contemporary malaria control measures rely heavily on effective chemotherapy and insecticide control of vector mosquitoes. However, the spread of multidrug resistance and potential emergence of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum make resistance management a high priority in the GMS. This situation is further worsened by the circulation of counterfeit and substandard artemisinin-related drugs. In most endemic areas of the GMS, P. falciparum and P. vivax coexist, and in recent malaria control history, P. vivax has demonstrated remarkable resilience to control measures. Deployment of the only registered drug (primaquine) for the radical cure of vivax malaria is

  3. Exercising in environmental extremes : a greater threat to immune function?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Neil P; Whitham, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Athletes, military personnel, fire fighters, mountaineers and astronauts may be required to perform in environmental extremes (e.g. heat, cold, high altitude and microgravity). Exercising in hot versus thermoneutral conditions (where core temperature is > or = 1 degrees C higher in hot conditions) augments circulating stress hormones, catecholamines and cytokines with associated increases in circulating leukocytes. Studies that have clamped the rise in core temperature during exercise (by exercising in cool water) demonstrate a large contribution of the rise in core temperature in the leukocytosis and cytokinaemia of exercise. However, with the exception of lowered stimulated lymphocyte responses after exercise in the heat, and in exertional heat illness patients (core temperature > 40 degrees C), recent laboratory studies show a limited effect of exercise in the heat on neutrophil function, monocyte function, natural killer cell activity and mucosal immunity. Therefore, most of the available evidence does not support the contention that exercising in the heat poses a greater threat to immune function (vs thermoneutral conditions). From a critical standpoint, due to ethical committee restrictions, most laboratory studies have evoked modest core temperature responses (< 39 degrees C). Given that core temperature during exercise in the field often exceeds levels associated with fever and hyperthermia (approximately 39.5 degrees C) field studies may provide an opportunity to determine the effects of severe heat stress on immunity. Field studies may also provide insight into the possible involvement of immune modulation in the aetiology of exertional heat stroke (core temperature > 40.6 degrees C) and identify the effects of acclimatisation on neuroendocrine and immune responses to exercise-heat stress. Laboratory studies can provide useful information by, for example, applying the thermal clamp model to examine the involvement of the rise in core temperature in the

  4. Greater Athens PM pollution: Local or regional origin;

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pateraki, Stella; Maggos, Thomas; Assimakopoulos, Demosthenis; Bougiatioti, Aikaterini; Vasilakos, Christos; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2013-04-01

    During the last decades, the Particulate Matter (PM) pollution has become one of most challenging environmental problems worldwide. Along with their impact on global climate change and ecosystems, particles, especially for the smaller one, are indicated by numerous epidemiological studies to pose a great risk to human health with acute or long-term effects. Being located at the intersection of air masses circulating among three continents, the Mediterranean Basin is one of the areas heavily affected by aerosols with both natural and anthropogenic origin. Furthermore, the complex prevailing meteorology favours the aging of polluted air masses and induces high level of PM and photooxidant gases. In line with such scientific demands, the aim of the specific work is to elucidate the main characteristics of PM2.5 and PM1 nature (mass and chemical composition (Cl-, , SO , , K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, OC, EC)) of the Greater Athens Area (GAA) to elucidate the factors controlling the PM pollution and enable the policy makers to develop effective air quality remediation plans. Taking into consideration that PM measured at a specific site is the result of combined features and processes, at a local or a larger scale, as well as the air quality degradation by particulate matter over polluted areas which is often characterized by high levels of regional background aerosols, the main goal of this study is the identification and estimation of the local or regional contribution to the PM burden at GAA during different meteorological driven scenarios. Focusing on the changes in the prevailing atmospheric circulation patterns (mesoscale/synoptic wind regimes), a mass closure study of the available chemical species in conjunction with the observed PM mass is also attempted, in order to differentiate the relative contributions of the constituents. Special attention is also given to the high PM concentration (exceedances) days. The experimental campaign was held in parallel, during the period of

  5. BIOAVAILABILITY OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCBS TO MARINE BENTHOS FROM PASSAIC RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macom...

  6. Synthesis and properties of new derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, H; Bartoszko-Malik, A; Zawisza, T

    1990-01-01

    Condensation of diethyl 2-amino-6-methylpyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate with phenyl or cyclohexyl isocyanates gave the corresponding derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine- 5-carboxylate[(V), (VI)]. Alkylation of (V) and (VI) afforded the corresponding N-1 substituted derivatives (XI-XIX). PMID:2337441

  7. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-08-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05-0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000-40 000 Ω cm(2)) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1-3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  8. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  9. Greater rhea (Rhea americana) external morphology at different stages of embryonic and fetal development.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Hatawa Melo; Sousa, Renata Patrícia; Bezerra, Dayseanny Oliveira; Olivindo, Rodrigo Fernando Gomes; das Neves Diniz, Anaemilia; de Oliveira, Sâmia Clara; Feitosa, Matheus Levi Tajra; de Moura Fortes, Eunice Anita; Ferraz, Maíra Soares; de Carvalho, Yulla Klinger Pereira; de Menezes, Danilo José Ayres; de Carvalho, Maria Acelina Martins

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge of wild species embryonic development is important for their maintenance in captivity or the wild. The objective of the present study was to characterize the external morphology and define the biometry of greater rhea embryos and fetuses at different stages of development. A total of 41 embryos and fetuses were analyzed to describe their external morphology using a stereoscopic microscope. The crown-rump (CR), total length (TL), cephalocaudal length (CCL), biparietal diameter (BPD), beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal lengths were measured by digital pachymeter, millimetric scale ruler and cotton thread. The weight of the embryos and fetuses was measured on digital scales. The greater rhea embryos at 5, 6 and 7 days incubation presented a "C" shape. At 9, 10 and 11 days the eyes were big and pigmented. At 11, 12 and 13 days the eyelid covered more than half the eye, resulting in an oval slit. In 14 and 15 day-old embryos, the skin was still thin and the ribs evident, but at 18 days this structure was thicker. In embryos at 21 and 27 days of development closed eyelids were observed forming an eyelid slit, and the eye ball was less pronounced at 27 days. Weight gain presented an exponential growth curve, while measurements such as TL, DBP, beak, humerus and tibio-tarsal length had linear growth over time. Thus it was possible to characterize the greater rhea embryos and fetuses at several incubation ages using their external morphology and morphometric analyses. PMID:26432389

  10. Earthquake vulnerability and risk modeling for the area of Greater Cairo, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagunov, S.; Abdel-Rahman, K.; El-Hady, S.; El-Ela Mohamed, A.; Stempniewski, L.; Liesch, T.; Zschau, J.

    2009-04-01

    Egypt is a country of low-to-moderate earthquake hazard. However, the earthquake risk potential (in terms of both probable economic and human losses) is rather high. Population of Egypt (according to the Central Agency for Public Mobilisation and Statistics - CAPMAS) is about 80 million. At the same time the distribution of the population in the country is far from uniform. In particular, the area of Greater Cairo attracts migrants from the whole country and the metropolitan area faces the problem of unplanned urbanization. Due to the high density of population and vulnerability of the existing building stock the potential for earthquake damage and loss in the area is a problem of great concern. The area under study covers 43 administrative districts of Greater Cairo (including the City of Cairo, El-Giza and Shubra El-Kheima), where field investigations were conducted aiming at identifying representative building types and assessing their seismic vulnerability. On the base of collected information, combining the findings of the field investigations in different districts with available statistical data about the distribution of buildings in the districts, we constructed vulnerability composition models (in terms of the vulnerability classes of the European Macroseismic Scale, EMS-98) for all the considered districts of Greater Cairo. The vulnerability models are applicable for analysis of potential damage and losses in case of occurring damaging earthquakes in the region, including zonation of the seismic risk in the area, generation of probable earthquake scenarios and rapid damage and loss assessment for the purposes of emergency management.

  11. Greater migratory propensity in hosts lowers pathogen transmission and impacts.

    PubMed

    Hall, Richard J; Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A

    2014-09-01

    Animal migrations are spectacular and migratory species have been shown to transmit pathogens that pose risks to human health. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen dispersal, empirical work indicates that migration can often have the opposite effect of lowering disease risk. Key to assessing disease threats to migratory species is the ability to predict how migratory behaviour influences pathogen invasion success and impacts on migratory hosts, thus motivating a mechanistic understanding of migratory host-pathogen interactions. Here, we develop a quantitative framework to examine pathogen transmission in animals that undergo two-way directed migrations between wintering and breeding grounds annually. Using the case of a pathogen transmitted during the host's breeding season, we show that a more extreme migratory strategy (defined by the time spent away from the breeding site and the total distance migrated) lowers the probability of pathogen invasion. Moreover, if migration substantially lowers the survival probability of infected animals, then populations that spend comparatively less time at the breeding site or that migrate longer distances are less vulnerable to pathogen-induced population declines. These findings provide theoretical support for two non-exclusive mechanisms proposed to explain how seasonal migration can lower infection risk: (i) escape from habitats where parasite transmission stages have accumulated and (ii) selective removal of infected hosts during strenuous journeys. Our work further suggests that barriers to long-distance movement could increase pathogen prevalence for vulnerable species, an effect already seen in some animal species undergoing anthropogenically induced migratory shifts. PMID:24460702

  12. Some optimal partial-unit-memory codes. [time-invariant binary convolutional codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, G. S.

    1979-01-01

    A class of time-invariant binary convolutional codes is defined, called partial-unit-memory codes. These codes are optimal in the sense of having maximum free distance for given values of R, k (the number of encoder inputs), and mu (the number of encoder memory cells). Optimal codes are given for rates R = 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, and 2/3, with mu not greater than 4 and k not greater than mu + 3, whenever such a code is better than previously known codes. An infinite class of optimal partial-unit-memory codes is also constructed based on equidistant block codes.

  13. Contributions of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase to the conversion of D-tryptophan to nicotinamide analyzed by using tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Akihiro; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contribution percentage of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) to the conversion of D-tryptophan to nicotinamide in TDO-knockout mice. The calculated percentage conversions indicated that TDO and IDO oxidized 70 and 30%, respectively, of the dietary L-tryptophan. These results indicate that both TDO and IDO biosynthesize nicotinamide from D-tryptophan and L-tryptophan in mice. PMID:25035993

  14. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  15. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  16. Forgetting is regulated via Musashi-mediated translational control of the Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Nils; Vukojevic, Vanja; Peter, Fabian; Milnik, Annette; Fastenrath, Matthias; Fenyves, Bank Gabor; Hieber, Petra; Demougin, Philippe; Vogler, Christian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2014-03-13

    A plastic nervous system requires the ability not only to acquire and store but also to forget. Here, we report that musashi (msi-1) is necessary for time-dependent memory loss in C. elegans. Tissue-specific rescue demonstrates that MSI-1 function is necessary in the AVA interneuron. Using RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (IP), we found that MSI-1 binds to mRNAs of three subunits of the Arp2/3 actin branching regulator complex in vivo and downregulates ARX-1, ARX-2, and ARX-3 translation upon associative learning. The role of msi-1 in forgetting is also reflected by the persistence of learning-induced GLR-1 synaptic size increase in msi-1 mutants. We demonstrate that memory length is regulated cooperatively through the activation of adducin (add-1) and by the inhibitory effect of msi-1. Thus, a GLR-1/MSI-1/Arp2/3 pathway induces forgetting and represents a novel mechanism of memory decay by linking translational control to the structure of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. PMID:24630719

  17. The role of placental indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Munn et al. made a scientific observation of major biological importance. For the first time they showed that in the mammal the fetus does survive an immune attack mounted by the mother, and that the mechanism responsible for the survival depends on the fetus and placenta 'actively' defending itself from attack by maternal T cells by means of an enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.42) dependent localised depletion of L-tryptophan. These findings raise critical questions for disease and its prevention during human pregnancy. Specifically, the role of this mechanism (discovered in mouse) in the human, and the extent to which defective activation of this process is responsible for major clinical diseases are unknown. Therefore some key facts about this enzyme expressed in the human placenta have been studied in order to test whether Munn et al.'s findings in mouse are met for human pregnancy. This short review attempts to describe our experimental work on human placental indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. PMID:24328005

  18. Augmented atherogenesis in ApoE-null mice co-exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    SciTech Connect

    Shan, Qiuli; Wang, Jing; Huang, Fengchen; Lv, Xiaowen; Ma, Min; Du, Yuguo

    2014-04-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic pollutants found as complex mixtures in the environment throughout the world. Therefore, humans are ubiquitously and simultaneously exposed to TCDD and PCBs. TCDD and PCBs alone have been linked to atherosclerosis. However, the effects of interactions or synergism between TCDD and PCBs on atherogenesis are unknown. We investigated the possible enhanced atherogenesis by co-exposure to TCDD and PCBs and the potential mechanism(s) involved in this enhancement. Male ApoE{sup −/−} mice were exposed to TCDD (15 μg/kg) and Aroclor1254 (55 mg/kg, a representative mixture of PCBs) alone or in combination by intraperitoneal injection four times over six weeks of duration. Our results showed that mice exposed to TCDD alone, but not Aroclor1254 alone, developed atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, we found that atherosclerotic disease was exacerbated to the greatest extent in mice co-exposed to TCDD and Aroclor1254. The enhanced lesions correlated with several pro-atherogenic changes, including a marked increase in the accumulation of the platelet-derived chemokine PF4, and the expression of the proinflammatory cytokine MCP-1 and the critical immunity gene-RIG-I. Our data demonstrated that co-exposure to TCDD and Aroclor1254 markedly enhanced atherogenesis in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. Significantly, our observations suggest that combined exposure to TCDD and PCBs may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than previously anticipated from individual studies. - Highlights: • Augmented atherogenesis was found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice co-exposed to Aroclor1254 and TCDD. • Enhanced expression of PF4, MCP-1 and RIG-I correlated with augmented lesions. • POPs combination may be a greater cardiovascular health risk than individual POPs.

  19. Ecological studies of bison in the Greater Yellowstone Area: Development and implementation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gogan, Peter J.; Mack, John A.; Brewster, Wayne G.; Olexa, Edward M.; Clark, Wendy E.

    2001-01-01

    Bison (Bison bison) of the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) are perhaps best known to the scientific community from the classic study of Meagher (1973) that reviewed their ecological status and management from the time of establishment of Yellowstone National Park in 1872 through the last National Park Service (NPS) removals of bison within the park in 1966. Since cessation of herd reductions in the park, bison numbers within Yellowstone increased (Dobson and Meagher 1996), as did range use (Meagher 1989b), including increased frequency and magnitude of movements beyond the park boundaries in winter (Meagher 1989a; Pac and Frey 1991; Cheville et al. 1998).

  20. Becoming pure: identifying generational classes of admixed individuals within lesser and greater scaup populations.

    PubMed

    Lavretsky, Philip; Peters, Jeffrey L; Winker, Kevin; Bahn, Volker; Kulikova, Irina; Zhuravlev, Yuri N; Wilson, Robert E; Barger, Chris; Gurney, Kirsty; McCracken, Kevin G

    2016-02-01

    Estimating the frequency of hybridization is important to understand its evolutionary consequences and its effects on conservation efforts. In this study, we examined the extent of hybridization in two sister species of ducks that hybridize. We used mitochondrial control region sequences and 3589 double-digest restriction-associated DNA sequences (ddRADseq) to identify admixture between wild lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and greater scaup (A. marila). Among 111 individuals, we found one introgressed mitochondrial DNA haplotype in lesser scaup and four in greater scaup. Likewise, based on the site-frequency spectrum from autosomal DNA, gene flow was asymmetrical, with higher rates from lesser into greater scaup. However, using ddRADseq nuclear DNA, all individuals were assigned to their respective species with >0.95 posterior assignment probability. To examine the power for detecting admixture, we simulated a breeding experiment in which empirical data were used to create F1 hybrids and nine generations (F2-F10) of backcrossing. F1 hybrids and F2, F3 and most F4 backcrosses were clearly distinguishable from pure individuals, but evidence of admixed histories was effectively lost after the fourth generation. Thus, we conclude that low interspecific assignment probabilities (0.011-0.043) for two lesser and nineteen greater scaup were consistent with admixed histories beyond the F3 generation. These results indicate that the propensity of these species to hybridize in the wild is low and largely asymmetric. When applied to species-specific cases, our approach offers powerful utility for examining concerns of hybridization in conservation efforts, especially for determining the generational time until admixed histories are effectively lost through backcrossing. PMID:26833858

  1. Lifetime history of heroin use is associated with greater drug severity among prescription opioid abusers

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Andrew C.; Patrick, Mollie E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background While research suggests primary prescription opioid (PO) abusers may exhibit less severe demographic and drug use characteristics than primary heroin abusers, less is known about whether a lifetime history of heroin use confers greater severity among PO abusers. Objective In this secondary analysis, we examined demographic and drug use characteristics as a function of lifetime heroin use among 89 PO-dependent adults screened for a trial evaluating the relative efficacy of buprenorphine taper durations. Exploratory analyses also examined contribution of lifetime heroin use to treatment response among a subset of participants who received a uniform set of study procedures. Methods Baseline characteristics were compared between participants reporting lifetime heroin use ≥5 (H+; n=41) vs. <5 (H−; n=48) times. Treatment response (i.e., illicit opioid abstinence and treatment retention at end of study) was examined in the subset of H+ and H− participants randomized to receive the 4-week taper condition (N=22). Results H+ participants were significantly older and more likely to be male. They reported longer durations of illicit opioid use, greater alcohol-related problems, more past-month cocaine use, greater lifetime IV drug use, and greater lifetime use of cigarettes, amphetamines and hallucinogens. H+ participants also had lower scores on the Positive Symptom Distress and Depression subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Finally, there was a trend toward poorer treatment outcomes among H+ participants. Conclusion A lifetime history of heroin use may be associated with elevated drug severity and unique treatment needs among treatment-seeking PO abusers. PMID:25481453

  2. The Yellowstone hotspot, Greater Yellowstone ecosystem, and human geography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, Kenneth L.; Despain, D.G.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Good, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Modern and Pleistocene climate and associated vegetation patterns strongly relate to the topography created by the hotspot and its track along the eastern Snake River Plain. Winter air masses from the moist northern Pacific Ocean traverse the topographic low of the Snake River Plain to where orographic rise onto the Yellowstone Plateau and adjacent mountains produces deep snow. A winter precipitation shadow forms on the lee (eastern) sides of the GYE. During Pleistocene glacial times, this moisture conduit provided by the hotspot-track-produced ice-age glaciers that covered the core of the present GYE. These glaciers sculpted bedrock and produced glacial moraines that are both forested and unforested, sand and gravel of ice-marginal streams and outwash gravels that are commonly covered with sagebrush-grassland, and silty lake sediments that are commonly covered by lush grassland

  3. On conformally recurrent manifolds of dimension greater than 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantica, Carlo Alberto; Molinari, Luca Guido

    2016-03-01

    Conformally recurrent pseudo-Riemannian manifolds of dimension n ≥ 5 are investigated. The Weyl tensor is represented as a Kulkarni-Nomizu product. If the square of the Weyl tensor is non-zero, a covariantly constant symmetric tensor is constructed, that is quadratic in the Weyl tensor. Then, by Grycak’s theorem, the explicit expression of the traceless part of the Ricci tensor is obtained, up to a scalar function. The Ricci tensor has at most two distinct eigenvalues, and the recurrence vector is an eigenvector. Lorentzian conformally recurrent manifolds are then considered. If the square of the Weyl tensor is non-zero, the manifold is decomposable. A null recurrence vector makes the Weyl tensor of algebraic type IId or higher in the Bel-Debever-Ortaggio classification, while a time-like recurrence vector makes the Weyl tensor purely electric.

  4. Solar Influence on Medieval Megadroughts in the Greater Near East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushnir, Y.; Stein, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recent surveys of medieval era chronicles provide calendar accurate information of years of unusual, extreme weather and climate events in areas surrounding the eastern Mediterranean, between the mid-A.D. 10th century and end of the 11th century. Put together, these documents show that the region was simultaneously afflicted by unprecedented sever and persistent droughts in Egypt's Nile Valley and by unusually cold and dry winters associated with crop failure and loss of pasture areas in present-day Iraq and Iran, and in historical Khurasan. We show that this documentary information is consistent with the annually dated Nile summer flood record as measured at the Cairo Nilometer site and within acceptable dating accuracies with much more coarsely resolved regional paleoclimate proxies. We furthermore note that the timing of these events coincided with the Oort Grand Solar Minimum that reached its peak between A.D. 1040 and 1080. Given the scientific evidence for the impact of solar minima on sea surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific and how the latter affect the intensity of the African summer monsoon, we argue that the Oort Solar Minimum forced the frequent failure of the Nile summer floods resulting in dearth and famine in Egypt. Furthermore, the simultaneous cold and dry winters in the northern Near East are also consistent with the hypothesized solar minimum influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation and on the intensity of the Siberian High. This interpretation underscores the sensitivity of the climate system to variations in solar irradiance, particularly on multi-decadal time scales, to their role in regional processes, and their impact on human history and may help understand other rapid Mediterranean cooling events that occured during the Holocene.

  5. Greater migratory propensity in hosts lowers pathogen transmission and impacts

    PubMed Central

    Altizer, Sonia; Bartel, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Animal migrations are spectacular and migratory species have been shown to transmit pathogens that pose risks to human health. Although migration is commonly assumed to enhance pathogen dispersal, empirical work indicates that migration can often have the opposite effect of lowering disease risk.Key to assessing disease threats to migratory species is the ability to predict how migratory behaviour influences pathogen invasion success and impacts on migratory hosts, thus motivating a mechanistic understanding of migratory host-pathogen interactions.Here we develop a quantitative framework to examine pathogen transmission in animals that undergo two-way directed migrations between wintering and breeding grounds annually.Using the case of a pathogen transmitted during the hosts’ breeding season, we show that a more extreme migratory strategy (defined by the time spent away from the breeding site and the total distance migrated) lowers the probability of pathogen invasion. Moreover, if migration substantially lowers the survival probability of infected animals, then populations that spend comparatively less time at the breeding site or that migrate longer distances are less vulnerable to pathogen-induced population declines.These findings provide theoretical support for two non-exclusive mechanisms proposed to explain how seasonal migration can lower infection risk: (i) escape from habitats where parasite transmission stages have accumulated, and (ii) selective removal of infected hosts during strenuous journeys. Our work further suggests that barriers to long distance movement could increase pathogen prevalence for vulnerable species, an effect already seen in some animal species undergoing anthropogenically induced migratory shifts. PMID:24460702

  6. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  7. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  10. 45 CFR 2.3 - Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... PARTY § 2.3 Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. No employee or...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  13. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. 177.841... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.841 Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. (See also § 177... by other appropriate method, and the marking removed. (b) (c) Division 2.3 (poisonous gas)...

  14. Genome Sequence of meso-2,3-Butanediol-Producing Strain Serratia marcescens ATCC 14041

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Li, Kun; Su, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strain ATCC 14041 was found to be an efficient meso-2,3-butanediol (meso-2,3-BD) producer from glucose and sucrose. Here we present a 5.0-Mb assembly of its genome. We have annotated 4 coding sequences (CDSs) for meso-2,3-BD fermentation and 2 complete operons including 6 CDSs for sucrose utilization. PMID:24948764

  15. CARDIOPATHIC EFFECT OF 1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE AFTER SUBACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) is an industrial water contaminant with potential for human exposure by the oral route. The systemic toxicology of 1,2,3-TCP was evaluated after subacute or subchronic exposure in male and female Sprague Dawley rate. Animals were treated with 0....

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  19. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  20. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  1. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  2. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  3. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  7. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  8. Vibrational spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies of 2-amino-7-bromo-5-oxo-[1]benzopyrano [2,3-b]pyridine-3 carbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Premkumar, S.; Jawahar, A.; Mathavan, T.; Kumara Dhas, M.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2015-03-01

    The vibrational spectra of 2-amino-7-bromo-5-oxo-[1]benzopyrano [2,3-b]pyridine-3 carbonitrile were recorded using fourier transform-infrared and fourier transform-Raman spectrometer. The optimized structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken atomic charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals, thermodynamic properties, temperature dependence of thermodynamic parameters, first order hyperpolarizability and natural bond orbital calculations of the molecule were performed using the Gaussian 09 program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program. The calculated first order hyperpolarizability of ABOBPC molecule was obtained as 6.908 × 10-30 issue, which was 10.5 times greater than urea. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was also confirmed by the frontier molecular orbitals and natural bond orbital analysis. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis shows that the lower energy gap of the molecule, which leads to the higher value of first order hyperpolarizability. The natural bond orbital analysis indicates that the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule arises due to the π → π∗ transitions. The Mulliken atomic charge distribution confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule. The reactive site of the molecule was predicted from the molecular electrostatic potential contour map. The values of thermo dynamic parameters were increasing with increasing temperature.

  9. Vibrational spectroscopic and DFT calculation studies of 2-amino-7-bromo-5-oxo-[1]benzopyrano [2,3-b]pyridine-3 carbonitrile.

    PubMed

    Premkumar, S; Jawahar, A; Mathavan, T; Kumara Dhas, M; Milton Franklin Benial, A

    2015-03-01

    The vibrational spectra of 2-amino-7-bromo-5-oxo-[1]benzopyrano [2,3-b]pyridine-3 carbonitrile were recorded using fourier transform-infrared and fourier transform-Raman spectrometer. The optimized structural parameters, vibrational frequencies, Mulliken atomic charge distribution, frontier molecular orbitals, thermodynamic properties, temperature dependence of thermodynamic parameters, first order hyperpolarizability and natural bond orbital calculations of the molecule were performed using the Gaussian 09 program. The vibrational frequencies were assigned on the basis of potential energy distribution calculation using the VEDA 4.0 program. The calculated first order hyperpolarizability of ABOBPC molecule was obtained as 6.908×10(-30) issue, which was 10.5 times greater than urea. The nonlinear optical activity of the molecule was also confirmed by the frontier molecular orbitals and natural bond orbital analysis. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis shows that the lower energy gap of the molecule, which leads to the higher value of first order hyperpolarizability. The natural bond orbital analysis indicates that the nonlinear optical activity of the molecule arises due to the π→π(∗) transitions. The Mulliken atomic charge distribution confirms the presence of intramolecular charge transfer within the molecule. The reactive site of the molecule was predicted from the molecular electrostatic potential contour map. The values of thermo dynamic parameters were increasing with increasing temperature. PMID:25498822

  10. Oxidative potential and chemical speciation of size-resolved particulate matter (PM) at near-freeway and urban background sites in the greater Beirut area.

    PubMed

    Daher, Nancy; Saliba, Najat A; Shihadeh, Alan L; Jaafar, Malek; Baalbaki, Rima; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2014-02-01

    To assess particle oxidative potential in the greater Beirut area, size-resolved PM10-2.5, PM2.5-0.25 and PM0.25 samples were collected at near-freeway and urban background sites. Metals and trace elements, including Mn, Cr, Cu, Ba, Mo and Sb, displayed increased levels and crustal enrichment factors at the roadway, indicating their vehicular origin. These elements in addition to Co, V, Ni and Zn were mostly distributed in PM2.5-0.25 and PM0.25 at both sites, with moderate-to-high water-solubility (>30%). The presence of these metals, mainly air toxics, in small size ranges constitutes an added health risk. Of particular concern are elements with strong correlations (R ≥ 0.70) with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-activity, measured by a cellular assay. In PM10-2.5, road dust component Mn and soil-related element Co were highly correlated with ROS-activity. In PM2.5-0.25, vehicular abrasion element Cu and soil-derived component Co were highly associated with ROS-activity. In PM0.25, V and Ni, originating from fuel oil combustion, strongly correlated with ROS formation. ROS-activity displayed a particle-size dependency, with lowest activity associated with PM10-2.5. On a per air volume basis, size-resolved ROS-activity was 1.5-2.8 times greater at the roadside than background location, indicating that exposure to redox-active species may be greatest near the freeway. Size-fractionated PM intrinsic activity (i.e. PM mass-normalized) was comparable at both sites, possibly suggesting a similarity in the sources of ROS-active species. Relative to other urban settings, while the intrinsic redox activity of PM10-2.5 in Beirut is comparable to that measured at an urban site in Los Angeles (LA), its PM0.25-induced ROS-activity is ~2.3-fold greater. Moreover, the intrinsic ROS-activity of ambient PM2.5 in Beirut is comparable to that reported in Milan-Italy, but 3.1-times PM2.5 activity in the heavily-polluted Lahore-Pakistan. Lastly, findings suggest a dominant role of

  11. Git can facilitate greater reproducibility and increased transparency in science

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reproducibility is the hallmark of good science. Maintaining a high degree of transparency in scientific reporting is essential not just for gaining trust and credibility within the scientific community but also for facilitating the development of new ideas. Sharing data and computer code associated with publications is becoming increasingly common, motivated partly in response to data deposition requirements from journals and mandates from funders. Despite this increase in transparency, it is still difficult to reproduce or build upon the findings of most scientific publications without access to a more complete workflow. Findings Version control systems (VCS), which have long been used to maintain code repositories in the software industry, are now finding new applications in science. One such open source VCS, Git, provides a lightweight yet robust framework that is ideal for managing the full suite of research outputs such as datasets, statistical code, figures, lab notes, and manuscripts. For individual researchers, Git provides a powerful way to track and compare versions, retrace errors, explore new approaches in a structured manner, while maintaining a full audit trail. For larger collaborative efforts, Git and Git hosting services make it possible for everyone to work asynchronously and merge their contributions at any time, all the while maintaining a complete authorship trail. In this paper I provide an overview of Git along with use-cases that highlight how this tool can be leveraged to make science more reproducible and transparent, foster new collaborations, and support novel uses. PMID:23448176

  12. Estimating Software-Development Costs With Greater Accuracy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Dan; Hihn, Jairus; Lum, Karen

    2008-01-01

    COCOMOST is a computer program for use in estimating software development costs. The goal in the development of COCOMOST was to increase estimation accuracy in three ways: (1) develop a set of sensitivity software tools that return not only estimates of costs but also the estimation error; (2) using the sensitivity software tools, precisely define the quantities of data needed to adequately tune cost estimation models; and (3) build a repository of software-cost-estimation information that NASA managers can retrieve to improve the estimates of costs of developing software for their project. COCOMOST implements a methodology, called '2cee', in which a unique combination of well-known pre-existing data-mining and software-development- effort-estimation techniques are used to increase the accuracy of estimates. COCOMOST utilizes multiple models to analyze historical data pertaining to software-development projects and performs an exhaustive data-mining search over the space of model parameters to improve the performances of effort-estimation models. Thus, it is possible to both calibrate and generate estimates at the same time. COCOMOST is written in the C language for execution in the UNIX operating system.

  13. Lewis rats have greater response impulsivity than Fischer rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kristen R; Potenza, Marc N; Grunberg, Neil E

    2014-11-01

    Impulsivity, a tendency toward immediate action without consideration of future consequences, is associated with a wide array of problematic behaviors. Response impulsivity, a type of behaviorally-assessed impulsivity characterized by behavioral disinhibition, is also associated with health risk behaviors. Response impulsivity is distinct from choice impulsivity, which is characterized by intolerance for delay. Lewis rats have higher levels of choice impulsivity than Fischer rats (Anderson & Woolverton, 2005; Madden et al., 2008; Stein et al., 2012). However, no studies have examined whether Lewis and Fischer rats have different levels of response impulsivity. The present research examined response impulsivity in the two rat strains. Subjects were 16 male Lewis and Fischer rats. Rats' response impulsivity was measured using the Five Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT). In addition, their locomotor activity was measured in locomotor activity chambers. Lewis rats had more premature responses than Fischer rats during the 5-CSRTT assessment [F(1, 14)=5.34, p<0.05], indicating higher levels of response impulsivity. Locomotor activity did not differ between rat strain groups [F(1, 14)=3.05, p=.10], suggesting that overall movement did not account for group differences in response impulsivity on the 5-CSRTT. It can be concluded from this research that Lewis rats have higher levels of response impulsivity than Fischer rats, and therefore provide a valid rat model of individual differences in impulsivity. PMID:24613059

  14. Genomics for greater efficiency in pigeonpea hybrid breeding

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Rachit K.; Saxena, K. B.; Pazhamala, Lekha T.; Patel, Kishan; Parupalli, Swathi; Sameerkumar, C. V.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Cytoplasmic genic male sterility (CGMS) based hybrid technology has demonstrated its immense potential in increasing the productivity of various crops, including pigeonpea. This technology has shown promise for breaking the long-standing yield stagnation in pigeonpea. There are difficulties in commercial hybrid seed production due to non-availability of field-oriented technologies such as time-bound assessment of genetic purity of hybrid seeds. Besides this, there are other routine breeding activities which are labor oriented and need more resources. These include breeding and maintenance of new fertility restorers and maintainer lines, diversification of cytoplasm, and incorporation of biotic and abiotic stress resistances. The recent progress in genomics research could accelerate the existing traditional efforts to strengthen the hybrid breeding technology. Marker based seed purity assessment, identification of heterotic groups; selection of new fertility restorers are few areas which have already been initiated. In this paper efforts have been made to identify critical areas and opportunities where genomics can play a leading role and assist breeders in accelerating various activities related to breeding and commercialization of pigeonpea hybrids. PMID:26483810

  15. The influence of different cellular environments on PET radioligand binding: An application to D2/3-dopamine receptor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Quelch, Darren R.; Withey, Sarah L.; Nutt, David J.; Tyacke, Robin J.; Parker, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Various D2/3 receptor PET radioligands are sensitive to endogenous dopamine release in vivo. The Occupancy Model is generally used to interpret changes in binding observed in in vivo competition binding studies; an Internalisation Hypothesis may also contribute to these changes in signal. Extension of in vivo competition imaging to other receptor systems has been relatively unsuccessful. A greater understanding of the cellular processes underlying signal changes following endogenous neurotransmitter release may help translate this imaging paradigm to other receptor systems. To investigate the Internalisation Hypothesis we assessed the effects of different cellular environments, representative of those experienced by a receptor following agonist-induced internalisation, on the binding of three D2/3 PET ligands with previously reported sensitivities to endogenous dopamine in vivo, namely [3H]spiperone, [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO. Furthermore, we determined the contribution of each cellular compartment to total striatal binding for these D2/3 ligands. These studies suggest that sensitivity to endogenous dopamine release in vivo is related to a decrease in affinity in the endosomal environment compared with those found at the cell surface. In agreement with these findings we also demonstrate that ∼25% of total striatal binding for [3H]spiperone originates from sub-cellular, microsomal receptors, whereas for [3H]raclopride and [3H]PhNO, this fraction is lower, representing ∼14% and 17%, respectively. This pharmacological approach is fully translatable to other receptor systems. Assessment of affinity shifts in different cellular compartments may play a crucial role for understanding if a radioligand is sensitive to endogenous release in vivo, for not just the D2/3, but other receptor systems. PMID:24910074

  16. Inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate and inositol 1,2- and/or 2,3-bisphosphate are normal constituents of mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C J; French, P J; Moore, A J; Nilsson, T; Berggren, P O; Bunce, C M; Kirk, C J; Michell, R H

    1995-01-01

    1. An inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) distinct from Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4)P3, which we previously observed in myeloid and lymphoid cells [French, Bunce, Stephens, Lord, McConnell, Brown, Creba and Michell (1991) Proc R. Soc. London B 245, 193-201; Bunce, French, Allen, Mountford, Moore, Greaves, Michell and Brown (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 667-673], is present in WRK1 rat mammary tumour cells and pancreatic endocrine beta-cells. 2. It has been identified as Ins(1,2,3)P3 by a combination of oxidation to ribitol, a structurally diagnostic polyol, and ammoniacal hydrolysis to identified inositol monophosphates. 3. Ins(1,2,3)P3 concentration in HL60 cells changed little during stimulation by ATP or fMetLeuPhe or during neutrophilic or monocytic differentiation, and Ins(1,2,3)P3 was unresponsive to vasopressin in WRK1 cells. 4. Ins(1,2,3)P3 was usually more abundant than Ins(1,4,5)P3, often being present at concentrations between approximately 1 microM and approximately 10 microM. 5. HL60, WRK-1 and lymphoid cells also contain Ins(1,2)P2 or Ins(2,3)P2, or a mixture of these two enantiomers, as a major InsP2 species. 6. Ins(1,2,3)P3 and Ins(1,2)P2/Ins(2,3)P2 are readily detected in cells labelled for long periods, but not in acutely labelled cells. This behaviour resembles that of InsP6, the most abundant cellular inositol polyphosphate that includes the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif, which also achieves isotopic equilibrium with inositol only slowly. 7. Ins(1,2,3)P3 is the major InsP3 that accumulates during metabolism of InsP6 by WRK-1 cell homogenates. 8. Possible metabolic relationships between Ins(1,2,3)P3, Ins(1,2)P2/Ins(2,3)P2 and other inositol polyphosphates in cells, and a possible role for Ins(1,2,3)P3 in cellular iron handling, are considered. PMID:7887911

  17. Dechlorination of 1,2,3-trichloropropane by zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, R.M.; Gillham, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the dechlorination of aqueous 1,2,3-trichloropropane in the presence of zero-valent iron. Using flow-through column procedures, the rate of dechlorination was significantly enhanced by the presence of iron, with the half life decreasing in proportion to the iron surface area to solution volume ratio. Unlike previous results obtained for chlorinated C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} compounds, half-lives increased significantly over time, at rates ranging from 5.0 to 13.9 minutes per pore volume of water passed through the column. No accumulation of chlorinated products of degradation was detected, and the principal products of degradation were Cl{sup -} and propene. The products of degradation and the trends in pH suggest reductive dechlorination and dehydrochlorination to be the degradation mechanisms.

  18. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  19. Synthesis and antifungal activity of the novel triazole derivatives containing 1,2,3-triazole fragment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shichong; Wang, Nan; Chai, Xiaoyun; Wang, Baogang; Cui, Hong; Zhao, Qingjie; Zou, Yan; Sun, Qingyan; Meng, Qingguo; Wu, Qiuye

    2013-10-01

    A series of fluconazole analogues containing 1,2,3-triazole fragment have been designed and synthesized on the basis of the active site of the cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase (CYP51). Their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and LC-MS. The MIC80 values indicate that the target compounds 1a-r showed higher activities against nearly all the fungi tested to some extent except against Aspergillus fumigatus. Compounds 1c, e, f, l and p showed 128 times higher activity (with the MIC80 value of 0.0039 mg/mL) than that of fluconazole against Candida albicans and also showed higher activity than that of the other positive controls. PMID:23640383

  20. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  1. The Relationship Between Greater Prepubertal Adiposity, Subsequent Age of Maturation, and Bone Strength During Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Glass, Natalie A; Torner, James C; Letuchy, Elena M; Burns, Trudy L; Janz, Kathleen F; Eichenberger Gilmore, Julie M; Schlechte, Janet A; Levy, Steven M

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study investigated whether greater prepubertal adiposity was associated with subsequent timing of maturation and bone strength during adolescence in 135 girls and 123 boys participating in the Iowa Bone Development Study. Greater adiposity was defined using body mass index (BMI) data at age 8 years to classify participants as overweight (OW, ≥85th percentile for age and sex) or healthy weight (HW). Maturation was defined as the estimated age of peak height velocity (PHV) based on a series of cross-sectional estimates. Measurements were taken at ages 11, 13, 15, and 17 years for estimates of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bone compression (bone strength index), and torsion strength (polar strength-strain index) at the radius and tibia by pQCT, and femoral neck bending strength (section modulus) by hip structural analysis. Bone strength in OW versus HW were evaluated by fitting sex-specific linear mixed models that included centered age (visit age - grand mean age of cohort) as the time variable and adjusted for change in fat mass, and limb length in model 1. Analyses were repeated using biological age (visit age - age PHV) as the time variable for model 1 with additional adjustment for lean mass in model 2. BMI was negatively associated with age of maturation (p < 0.05). OW versus HW girls had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) in model 1, whereas OW versus HW boys had significantly greater bone strength (p < 0.001) at the tibia and femoral neck but not radius (p > 0.05). Analyses were repeated using biological age, which yielded reduced parameter estimates for girls but similar results for boys (model 1.) Differences were no longer present after adjustment for lean mass (model 2) in girls (p > 0.05) whereas differences at the tibia were sustained in boys (p < 0.05). These findings demonstrate sex- and site-specific differences in the associations between adiposity, maturation, and

  2. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    PubMed

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. PMID:19827023

  3. Hybrid Wound Filaments for Greater Resistance to Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLay, Thomas K.; Patterson, James E.; Olson, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid material containing wound filaments made of a hybrid of high-strength carbon fibers and poly(phenylene benzobisoxazole) [PBO] fibers is discussed. This hybrid material is chosen in an effort to increase the ability of the pressure vessel to resist damage by low-speed impacts (e.g., dropping of tools on the vessel or bumping of the vessel against hard objects during installation and use) without significantly increasing the weight of the vessel. While the basic concept of hybridizing fibers in filament-wound structures is not new, the use of hybridization to increase resistance to impacts is an innovation, and can be expected to be of interest in the composite-pressure-vessel industry. The precise types and the proportions of the high-strength carbon fibers and the PBO fibers in the hybrid are chosen, along with the filament-winding pattern, to maximize the advantageous effects and minimize the disadvantageous effects of each material. In particular, one seeks to (1) take advantage of the ability of the carbon fibers to resist stress rupture while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to impact damage and (2) take advantage of the toughness of the PBO fibers while minimizing their contribution to vulnerability of the vessel to stress rupture. Experiments on prototype vessels fabricated according to this concept have shown promising results. At the time of reporting the information for this article, research toward understanding and optimizing the performances of PBO fibers so as to minimize their contribution to vulnerability of the pressure vessel to stress rupture had yet to be performed.

  4. The CaV2.3 R-Type Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channel in Mouse Sleep Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Siwek, Magdalena Elisabeth; Müller, Ralf; Henseler, Christina; Broich, Karl; Papazoglou, Anna; Weiergräber, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are key elements in mediating thalamocortical rhythmicity. Low-voltage activated (LVA) CaV 3 T-type Ca2+ channels have been related to thalamic rebound burst firing and to generation of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. High-voltage activated (HVA) CaV 1 L-type Ca2+ channels, on the opposite, favor the tonic mode of action associated with higher levels of vigilance. However, the role of the HVA Non-L-type CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels, which are predominantly expressed in the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN), still remains unclear. Recently, CaV2.3−/− mice were reported to exhibit altered spike-wave discharge (SWD)/absence seizure susceptibility supported by the observation that CaV2.3 mediated Ca2+ influx into RTN neurons can trigger small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channel type 2 (SK2) currents capable of maintaining thalamic burst activity. Based on these studies we investigated the role of CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in rodent sleep. Methods: The role of CaV2.3 Ca2+ channels was analyzed in CaV2.3−/− mice and controls in both spontaneous and artificial urethane-induced sleep, using implantable video-EEG radiotelemetry. Data were analyzed for alterations in sleep architecture using sleep staging software and time-frequency analysis. Results: CaV2.3 deficient mice exhibited reduced wake duration and increased slow-wave sleep (SWS). Whereas mean sleep stage durations remained unchanged, the total number of SWS epochs was increased in CaV2.3−/− mice. Additional changes were observed for sleep stage transitions and EEG amplitudes. Furthermore, urethane-induced SWS mimicked spontaneous sleep results obtained from CaV2.3 deficient mice. Quantitative Real-time PCR did not reveal changes in thalamic CaV3 T-type Ca2+ channel expression. The detailed mechanisms of SWS increase in CaV2.3−/− mice remain to be determined. Conclusions: Low-voltage activated CaV2.3 R-type Ca2+ channels in the thalamocortical

  5. In situ combustion measurements of CO with diode-laser absorption near 2.3 microm.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Maiorov, M; Baer, D S; Garbuzov, D Z; Connolly, J C; Hanson, R K

    2000-10-20

    In situ measurements of CO concentration were recorded with tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy techniques in both the exhaust and the immediate post-flame regions of an atmospheric-pressure flat-flame burner operating on ethylene air. Two room-temperature cw single-mode InGaAsSb/AlGaAsSb diode lasers operating near 2.3 microm were tuned over individual transitions in the CO first overtone band (v' = 2 <-- v" = 0) to record high-resolution absorption line shapes in the exhaust duct [79 cm above the burner, approximately 470 K; R(15) transition at 4311.96 cm(-1)] and the immediate postflame zone [1.5 cm above the burner, 1820-1975 K; R(30) transition at 4343.81 cm(-1)]. The CO concentration was determined from the measured absorption and the gas temperature, which was monitored with type-S thermocouples. For measurements in the exhaust duct, the noise-equivalent absorbance was approximately 3 x 10(-5) (50-kHz detection bandwidth, 50-sweep average, 0.1-s total measurement time), which corresponds to a CO detection limit of 1.5 ppm m at 470 K. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy techniques were used to improve the detection limit in the exhaust to approximately 0.1 ppm m (approximately 500-Hz detection bandwidth, 20-sweep average, 0.4-s total measurement time). For measurements in the immediate postflame zone, the measured CO concentrations in the fuel-rich flames were in good agreement with chemical equilibrium predictions. These experiments demonstrate the utility of diode-laser absorption sensors operating near 2.3 microm for in situ combustion emission monitoring and combustion diagnostics. PMID:18354555

  6. Remote monitoring of parental incubation conditions in the greater sandhill crane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Hatfield, J.; Howey, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    To monitor incubation conditions in nests of greater sandhill cranes, a radiotransmitting egg was built using six temperature sensors, a position sensor, and a light sensor. Sensor readings were received, along with time of observations, and stored in a computer. The egg was used to monitor incubation in nests of six pairs of cranes during 1987 and 1988. Ambient temperature was also measured. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to relate highest egg temperature, core egg temperature, and lowest egg temperature to ambient temperature, time since the egg was last turned, and time since the beginning of incubation. Ambient temperature had the greatest effect on egg temperature (P 0.0001), followed by the time since the beginning of incubation and time since the egg was last turned. Pair effect, the class variable in the ANCOVA. was also very significant (P < 0.0001). A nine-term Fourier series was used to estimate the average core egg temperature versus time of day and was found to fit the data well (r2 = 0.94). The Fourier series will be used to run a mechanical incubator to simulate natural incubation conditions for cranes.

  7. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  8. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C(6)H(3)B(OH)(2)F(2)) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm(-1)) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra. PMID:22902933

  9. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: A combined experimental and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M.; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C6H3B(OH)2F2) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm-1) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm-1) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  10. Faster top running speeds are achieved with greater ground forces not more rapid leg movements.

    PubMed

    Weyand, P G; Sternlight, D B; Bellizzi, M J; Wright, S

    2000-11-01

    We twice tested the hypothesis that top running speeds are determined by the amount of force applied to the ground rather than how rapidly limbs are repositioned in the air. First, we compared the mechanics of 33 subjects of different sprinting abilities running at their top speeds on a level treadmill. Second, we compared the mechanics of declined (-6 degrees ) and inclined (+9 degrees ) top-speed treadmill running in five subjects. For both tests, we used a treadmill-mounted force plate to measure the time between stance periods of the same foot (swing time, t(sw)) and the force applied to the running surface at top speed. To obtain the force relevant for speed, the force applied normal to the ground was divided by the weight of the body (W(b)) and averaged over the period of foot-ground contact (F(avge)/W(b)). The top speeds of the 33 subjects who completed the level treadmill protocol spanned a 1.8-fold range from 6.2 to 11.1 m/s. Among these subjects, the regression of F(avge)/W(b) on top speed indicated that this force was 1.26 times greater for a runner with a top speed of 11.1 vs. 6.2 m/s. In contrast, the time taken to swing the limb into position for the next step (t(sw)) did not vary (P = 0.18). Declined and inclined top speeds differed by 1.4-fold (9.96+/-0.3 vs. 7.10+/-0.3 m/s, respectively), with the faster declined top speeds being achieved with mass-specific support forces that were 1.3 times greater (2.30+/- 0.06 vs. 1.76+/-0.04 F(avge)/ W(b)) and minimum t(sw) that were similar (+8%). We conclude that human runners reach faster top speeds not by repositioning their limbs more rapidly in the air, but by applying greater support forces to the ground. PMID:11053354

  11. Studies on the isopropylbenzene 2,3-dioxygenase and the 3-isopropylcatechol 2,3-dioxygenase genes encoded by the linear plasmid of Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2.

    PubMed

    Kesseler, M; Dabbs, E R; Averhoff, B; Gottschalk, G

    1996-11-01

    The enzymes responsible for the degradation of isopropylbenzene (IPB) and co-oxidation of trichloroethene (TCE) by Rhodococcus erythropolis BD2 are encoded by the linear plasmid pBD2. Fragments containing IPB catabolic genes were cloned from pBD2 and the nucleotide sequence was determined. By means of database searches and expression of the cloned genes in recombinant strains, we identified five clustered genes, ipbA1A2A3A4C, which encode the three components of the IPB 2,3-dioxygenase system, reductaseIPB (ipbA4), ferredoxinIPB (ipbA3) and the two subunits of the terminal dioxygenase (ipbA1A2), as well as the 3-isopropylcatechol (IPC) 2,3-dioxygenase (ipbC). The protein sequences deduced from the ipbA1A2A3A4C gene cluster exhibited significant homology with the corresponding proteins of analogous degradative pathways in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but the gene order differed from most of them. IPB 2,3-dioxygenase and 3-IPC 2,3-dioxygenase could both be expressed in Escherichia coli, but the IPB 2,3-dioxygenase activities were too low to be detected by polarographic and TCE degradative means. However, inhibitor studies with the R. erythropolis BD2 wild-type are in accordance with the involvement of the IPB 2,3-dioxygenase in TCE oxidation. PMID:8969521

  12. Hypertension is associated with greater heat exchange during exercise recovery in a hot environment

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, S. F.; Teles, M. C.; Ribeiro, V. G. C.; Magalhães, F. C.; Mendonça, V. A.; Peixoto, M. F. D.; Leite, L. H. R.; Coimbra, C. C.; Lacerda, A. C. R.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with systemic arterial hypertension have a higher risk of heat-related complications. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine the thermoregulatory responses of hypertensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in the heat. A total of eight essential hypertensive (H) and eight normotensive (N) male subjects (age=46.5±1.3 and 45.6±1.4 years, body mass index=25.8±0.8 and 25.6±0.6 kg/m2, mean arterial pressure=98.0±2.8 and 86.0±2.3 mmHg, respectively) rested for 30 min, performed 1 h of treadmill exercise at 50% of maximal oxygen consumption, and rested for 1 h after exercise in an environmental chamber at 38°C and 60% relative humidity. Skin and core temperatures were measured to calculate heat exchange parameters. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the hypertensive than in the normotensive subjects throughout the experiment (P<0.05, unpaired t-test). The hypertensive subjects stored less heat (H=-24.23±3.99 W·m−2 vs N=-13.63±2.24 W·m−2, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), experienced greater variations in body temperature (H=-0.62±0.05°C vsN=-0.35±0.12°C, P=0.03, unpaired t-test), and had more evaporated sweat (H=-106.1±4.59 W·m−2 vs N=-91.15±3.24 W·m−2, P=0.01, unpaired t-test) than the normotensive subjects during the period of recovery from exercise. In conclusion, essential hypertensive subjects showed greater sweat evaporation and increased heat dissipation and body cooling relative to normotensive subjects during recovery from moderate-intensity exercise performed in hot conditions. PMID:26517335

  13. Learning to wait for more likely or just more: greater tolerance to delays of reward with increasingly longer delays.

    PubMed

    Rung, Jillian M; Young, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Little research has focused on training greater tolerance to delays of rewards in the context of delayed gratification. In delayed gratification, waiting for a delayed outcome necessitates the ability to resist defection for a continuously available smaller, immediate outcome. The present research explored the use of a fading procedure for producing greater waiting in a video-game based, delayed gratification task. Participants were assigned to conditions in which either the reward magnitude, or the probability of receiving a reward, was a function of time waited and the delay to the maximum reward was gradually increased throughout this training. Waiting increased for all participants but less for those waiting for a greater reward magnitude than a greater reward probability. All participants showed a tendency to wait in a final testing phase, but training with probabilistic outcomes produced a significantly greater likelihood of waiting during testing. The behavioral requirements of delay discounting versus delay gratification are discussed, as well as the benefits of training greater self-control in a variety of contexts. PMID:25641081

  14. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241. PMID:26753612

  15. SYNTHESIS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF NEW 5H-INDOLO[2,3-B]QUINOLINE O-AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

    PubMed

    Badowska-Rosłonek, Katarzyna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Switalska, Marta; Piskozub, Małgorzata; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline O-aminoglycosides were synthesized in order to check the hypothesis that the construction of hybrids composed of the active 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline chromophore and daunosaminyl or acosaminyl moiety may result in the cytotoxic activity of the obtained derivatives that is much higher than the one of the parent DIMIQ (5,11-dimethyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) and 6H-indoloquinoline analogs. Actually, 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides showed the anti-proliferative activity in vitro against human lung adenocarcinoma A549, breast cancer MCF-7, melanoma Hs294T, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, uterine sarcoma MES-SA and colon cancer LoVo cell lines, which was 10 times higher than that of the 6H-analogs and comparable to the one of the referential DIMIQ. Unexpectedly, it appeared that except for HL-60/MX2 (P-gp-independent and topoisomerase II-dependent resistance), other MDR tumor cell lines (LoVo/DX. P-gp-dependent, MRP-, LRP-dependent multidrug resistance) and MES-SA/DX5 (P-gp-dependent resistance to doxorubicin) are also resistant to the 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides tested. This is surprising because 6H-analogs, in general, 10 times less active against non-MDR tumor cell lines, as well as the DIMIQ itself, are able to overcome drug resistance in all MDR cell lines examined. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds against tumor cell lines and against normal cells (mice fibroblasts BALB/3T3) was comparable. PMID:27476287

  16. 2,3-butanediol production from cellobiose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hong; Seo, Seung-Oh; Oh, Eun Joong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2014-06-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass is a critical step towards energy sustainability and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Microbial cells have been engineered for producing chemicals from cellulosic sugars. Among these chemicals, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a compound of interest due to its diverse applications. While microbial production of 2,3-BDO with high yields and productivities has been reported, there are concerns associated with utilization of potential pathogenic bacteria and inefficient utilization of cellulosic sugars. To address these problems, we engineered 2,3-BDO production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially from cellobiose, a prevalent sugar in cellulosic hydrolysates. Specifically, we overexpressed alsS and alsD from Bacillus subtilis to convert pyruvate into 2,3-BDO via α-acetolactate and acetoin in an engineered cellobiose fermenting S. cerevisiae. Under oxygen-limited conditions, the resulting strain was able to produce 2,3-BDO. Still, major carbon flux went to ethanol, resulting in substantial amounts of ethanol produced as a byproduct. To enhance pyruvate flux to 2,3-BDO through elimination of the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction, we employed a deletion mutant of both PDC1 and PDC5 for producing 2,3-BDO. When a cellobiose utilization pathway, consisting of a cellobiose transporter and intracellular β-glucosidase, and the 2,3-BDO producing pathway were introduced in a pyruvate decarboxylase deletion mutant, the resulting strain produced 2,3-BDO without ethanol production from cellobiose under oxygen-limited conditions. A titer of 5.29 g/l 2,3-BDO with a productivity of 0.22 g/l h and yield of 0.29 g 2,3-BDO/g cellobiose was attained. These results suggest the possibility of producing 2,3-BDO safely and sustainably from cellulosic hydrolysates. PMID:24743979

  17. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert S; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R

    2015-01-01

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately. PMID:26354026

  18. Mortality from contact-related epidemics among indigenous populations in Greater Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Robert S.; Sattenspiel, Lisa; Hill, Kim R.

    2015-01-01

    European expansion and contact with indigenous populations led to catastrophic depopulation primarily through the introduction of novel infectious diseases to which native peoples had limited exposure and immunity. In the Amazon Basin such contacts continue to occur with more than 50 isolated indigenous societies likely to make further contacts with the outside world in the near future. Ethnohistorical accounts are useful for quantifying trends in the severity and frequency of epidemics through time and may provide insight into the likely demographic consequences of future contacts. Here we compile information for 117 epidemics that affected 59 different indigenous societies in Greater Amazonia and caused over 11,000 deaths between 1875 and 2008, mostly (75%) from measles, influenza, and malaria. Results show that mortality rates from epidemics decline exponentially through time and, independently, with time since peaceful contact. The frequency of documented epidemics also decreases with time since contact. While previous work on virgin soil epidemics generally emphasizes the calamity of contacts, we focus instead on improvements through time. The prospects for better survivorship during future contacts are good provided modern health care procedures are implemented immediately. PMID:26354026

  19. The synthesis and evaluation of 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamides as actinide chelators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramer, Christine Julia

    The 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamides are characterized as chelators for actinide(IV) ions and are investigated as potential nuclear waste remediation agents. Chapter One details the nuclear waste situation in the United States: the formation of nuclear waste, the reason waste cannot remain in its current state, and current approaches to nuclear waste remediation are covered. The properties of the 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamides as Fe(III) chelators are reviewed, with a discussion of the reasons these ligands are suitable targets as actinide(IV) chelators. In Chapter Two the coordination chemistry of the 2,3-dihydroxyterephthalamides with the metal ions Zr(IV), Ce(IV), Th(IV), and Pu(IV) is presented. Crystal structures of Zr(IV) and Th(IV) complexes of a simple terephthalamide illustrate that this ligand can accommodate several different coordination geometries about the metal center. Solution thermodynamic studies of the Th(IV) and Pu(IV) complexes of this ligand indicate that the terephthalamides have very high stability constants with these metals and are suitable as chelators in solutions with basic pH. In Chapter Three several terephthalamides are presented that function as liquid-liquid extractants of Fe(III). Two different ligand designs were developed to neutralize the charge on the resulting metal complex: one containing an ammonium for an internal cation, and the other utilizing cetylpyridinium as a lipophilic counter cation. The constants for Fe(III) extraction with each were determined. A water-soluble version of one of these ligands incorporates one amine into each side chain and has a higher formation constant with Fe(III) than any previously examined terephthalamide. Parallels between the aqueous formation constants and extraction constants are discussed. In Chapter Four a shorter synthetic route to the terephthalamides is presented. The route avoids the protection and deprotection of the catecholate oxygens, reducing the time, cost, and hazards

  20. Low-energy vibrational spectra of flexible diphenyl molecules: biphenyl, diphenylmethane, bibenzyl and 2-, 3- and 4-phenyltoluene.

    PubMed

    Martin-Drumel, M A; Pirali, O; Falvo, C; Parneix, P; Gamboa, A; Calvo, F; Bréchignac, Ph

    2014-10-28

    Gas phase absorption far-infrared (FIR) spectra of six flexible hydrocarbon molecules containing two phenyl groups -biphenyl, diphenylmethane, bibenzyl and 2-, 3-, 4-phenyltoluene- are reported for the first time, allowing an accurate determination of most of their active low-frequency vibrational modes. DFT calculations have been carried out at the harmonic and perturbative anharmonic levels to predict the vibrational spectra of these molecules and unambiguously assign observed vibrational modes. PMID:25208925

  1. Herschel protocluster survey: a search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z = 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Hatsukade, B.; Umehata, H.; Tanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Erb, D. K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Geach, J. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Yamada, T.; Hayashino, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) survey of three protoclusters at z = 2-3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 μm sources, we selected high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4σ overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5 arcmin (˜2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of H α emitters at z = 2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5σ overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1 arcmin (˜1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 μm sources are concentrated 3 arcmin (˜1.4 Mpc) east to the Ly α emitters overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star formation rate densities are 103-104 times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters. Further observations are needed to confirm the redshifts of the SPIRE sources and to investigate what processes enhance the dusty star formation activity in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters.

  2. Are 1,4- and 1,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazoles good pharmacophoric groups?

    PubMed

    Massarotti, Alberto; Aprile, Silvio; Mercalli, Valentina; Del Grosso, Erika; Grosa, Giorgio; Sorba, Giovanni; Tron, Gian Cesare

    2014-11-01

    Over the last decade, 1,2,3-triazoles have received increasing attention in medicinal chemistry thanks to the discovery of the highly useful and widely applicable 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between azides and alkynes (click chemistry) catalyzed by copper salts and ruthenium complexes. After a decade of medicinal chemistry research on 1,2,3-triazoles, we feel that the time is ripe to demonstrate the real ability of this heterocycle to participate in important and pivotal binding interactions with biological targets while maintaining a good pharmacokinetic profile. In this study, we retrieved and analyzed X-ray crystal structures of complexes between 1,2,3-triazoles and either proteins or DNA to understand the pharmacophoric role of the triazole. Furthermore, the metabolic stability, the capacity to inhibit cytochromes, and the contribution of 1,2,3-triazoles to the overall aqueous solubility of compounds containing them have been analyzed. This information should furnish fresh insight for medicinal chemists in the design of novel bioactive molecules that contain the triazole nucleus. PMID:25079879

  3. Herschel protocluster survey: A search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z = 2 - 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Hatsukade, B.; Umehata, H.; Tanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Erb, D. K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Geach, J. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Yamada, T.; Hayashino, T.

    2016-05-01

    We present a Herschel/SPIRE survey of three protoclusters at z = 2 - 3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 μm sources, we selected high redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4σ overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5' (˜ 2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of Hα emitters at z = 2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5σ overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1' (˜ 1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of LBGs at z = 2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 μm sources are concentrated 3' (˜1.4 Mpc) east to the LAEs overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star-formation rate densities are 103 - 104 times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star-formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z ˜ 2 - 3 protoclusters. Further observations are needed to confirm the redshifts of the SPIRE sources and to investigate what processes enhance the dusty star-formation activity in z ˜ 2 - 3 protoclusters.

  4. From the ephemeral to the enduring: how approach-oriented mindsets lead to greater status.

    PubMed

    Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2013-11-01

    We propose that the psychological states individuals bring into newly formed groups can produce meaningful differences in status attainment. Three experiments explored whether experimentally created approach-oriented mindsets affected status attainment in groups, both immediately and over time. We predicted that approach-oriented states would lead to greater status attainment by increasing proactive behavior. Furthermore, we hypothesized that these status gains would persist longitudinally, days after the original mindsets had dissipated, due to the self-reinforcing behavioral cycles the approach-oriented states initiated. In Experiment 1, individuals primed with a promotion focus achieved higher status in their newly formed groups, and this was mediated by proactive behavior as rated by themselves and their teammates. Experiment 2 was a longitudinal experiment and revealed that individuals primed with power achieved higher status, both immediately following the prime and when the groups were reassembled 2 days later to work on new tasks. These effects were mediated by independent coders' ratings of proactive behavior during the first few minutes of group interaction. Experiment 3 was another longitudinal experiment and revealed that priming happiness led to greater status as well as greater acquisition of material resources. Importantly, these immediate and longitudinal effects were independent of the effects of a number of stable dispositional traits. Our results establish that approach-oriented psychological states affect status attainment, over and above the more stable characteristics emphasized in prior research, and provide the most direct test yet of the self-reinforcing nature of status hierarchies. These findings depict a dynamic view of status organization in which the same group may organize itself differently depending on members' incoming psychological states. PMID:23895266

  5. Allometric scaling for chemical restraint in greater Rheas (Rhea americana) with Tiletamine and Zolazepam

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chemical restraint is of great importance in the clinical practice of wildlife animals. In such, interspecific allometric scaling proposes pharmacological doses to a wide range of species, based on previously known doses for domestic animals and the target animal’s body mass. The objective was to compare chemical restraint responses in the greater rhea (Rhea americana) with conventional doses of tiletamine/zolazepam, found in the literature for the species, and with doses calculated through interspecific allometric scaling extrapolation. From the Federal University of Piauí, six adult greater rheas (Rhea americana), three males and three females, were randomly selected to be subjects in this research. All six animals were submitted to two chemical restraint protocols with tiletamine and zolazepam, per intramuscular injection in the hind limb. The first protocol was composed of doses found on the literature for the species, while the second protocol used doses calculated by interspecific allometric scaling, with the domestic dog as model animal. Heart and respiratory rates, body temperature, eyelid reflex, digital pinch and metatarsal reflex were registered along with latency and ambulation times. Results The use of interspecific allometric scaling for chemical restraint with the combination tiletamine and zolazepam showed satisfying results, with great similarity to results obtained with conventional doses in Greater rheas. Conclusions Literature on chemical restraint and use of tiletamine and zolazepam in rheas is scarce. Chemical restraint is of extreme importance on these animals, due to their aggressive nature and low level of domesticity. This research may further establish the interspecific allometric scaling method as a viable tool for the veterinary physician in formulating anesthetic and chemical restraint protocols for wildlife animals. PMID:24625103

  6. Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hassoun, E.; d'Argy, R.; Dencker, L.

    1984-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDBF) was administered in single doses (0.1-0.8 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pregnant C57BL mice on d 10, 11, 12, or 13 of gestation. A dose-dependent increase was observed in the frequency of fetal resorptions and fetal death, especially in the earlier stages (d 10-11). Cleft palate and hydronephrosis as well appeared in a dose-dependent manner, with a peak in sensitivity after administration on d 11-12. TCDBF given at a dose level of 0.1 mg/kg body weight on d 12 of gestation (only dose- and stage-tested) produced a marked thymic hypoplasia as well. A few cases of general hydrops occurred. The pattern of malformations and time of sensitivity corresponded well to that observed earlier after administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; ED50 approx. = 25 ..mu..g/kg) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazoxybenzene (TCAOB; ED50 approx. = 6 mg/kg), two congeners of TCDBF, indicating common mechanisms of action of this family of compounds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an important enzyme in cell proliferation and growth with a high activity in embryonic tissues. Liver ODC activity has previously been found to be stimulated by TCDD in weanling mice. However, this enzyme was not found to be stimulated in fetal and placental tissues, but slightly in maternal kidney after treatment with TCDBF in teratogenic doses. It is possible that the ODC activity increases under certain conditions only, on administration of TCDD and its congeners. 40 references, 3 tables, 3 figures.

  7. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 3: The point source catalog declination range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 3, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 30 deg greater than delta greater than 0 deg.

  8. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 4: The point source catalog declination range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched 26 January 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 4, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 0 deg greater than delta greater than -30 deg.

  9. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 6: The point source catalog declination range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, it surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 6, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -50 deg greater than delta greater than -90 deg.

  10. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 5: The point source catalog declination range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed over 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 5, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range -30 deg greater than delta greater than -50 deg.

  11. Infrared astronomical satellite (IRAS) catalogs and atlases. Volume 2: The point source catalog declination range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) was launched January 26, 1983. During its 300-day mission, IRAS surveyed 96 pct of the celestial sphere at four infrared wavelengths, centered approximately at 12, 25, 60, and 100 microns. This is Volume 2, The Point Source Catalog Declination Range 90 deg greater than delta greater than 30 deg.

  12. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine-triphosphate in cretins living at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Adams, W H

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in the red cells of cretins and normal controls living at 3,700 m in the Nepal Himalayas has shown that 2,3-DPG and ATP levels were higher in the cretins. A negative correlation between hemoglobin and 2.3-DPG level was found. Chronic hypoxia appears to have provided the additional stress required to differentiate the significance of thyroid hormone deficiency in producing anemia from its effect on 2,3-DPG levels. If thyroid hormone is in fact one regulator of 2,3-DPG, the anemia of hypothyroidism appears to be more significant. This also suggest that the anemia of hypothyroidism, is at least in part, "pathologic" as opposed to "adaptive". PMID:822672

  13. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm. PMID:26625973

  14. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes.

    PubMed

    Seider, Talia R; Fieo, Robert A; O'Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C; Woods, Adam J; Cohen, Ronald A

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  15. Cognitively Engaging Activity Is Associated with Greater Cortical and Subcortical Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Seider, Talia R.; Fieo, Robert A.; O’Shea, Andrew; Porges, Eric C.; Woods, Adam J.; Cohen, Ronald A.

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages and dementia becomes a growing healthcare concern, it is increasingly important to identify targets for intervention to delay or attenuate cognitive decline. Research has shown that the most successful interventions aim at altering lifestyle factors. Thus, this study examined how involvement in physical, cognitive, and social activity is related to brain structure in older adults. Sixty-five adults (mean age = 71.4 years, standard deviation = 8.9) received the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS), a questionnaire that polls everyday activities in which older adults may be involved, and also underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Stepwise regression with backward selection was used to predict weekly time spent in either social, cognitive, light physical, or heavy physical activity from the volume of one of the cortical or subcortical regions of interest (corrected by intracranial volume) as well as age, education, and gender as control variables. Regressions revealed that more time spent in cognitive activity was associated with greater volumes of all brain regions studied: total cortex (β = 0.289, p = 0.014), frontal (β = 0.276, p = 0.019), parietal (β = 0.305, p = 0.009), temporal (β = 0.275, p = 0.020), and occipital (β = 0.256, p = 0.030) lobes, and thalamus (β = 0.310, p = 0.010), caudate (β = 0.233, p = 0.049), hippocampus (β = 0.286, p = 0.017), and amygdala (β = 0.336, p = 0.004). These effects remained even after accounting for the positive association between cognitive activity and education. No other activity variable was associated with brain volumes. Results indicate that time spent in cognitively engaging activity is associated with greater cortical and subcortical brain volume. Findings suggest that interventions aimed at increasing levels of cognitive activity may delay cognitive consequences of aging and decrease the risk of developing dementia. PMID:27199740

  16. Greater Melbourne.

    PubMed

    Wulff, M; Burke, T; Newton, P

    1986-03-01

    With more than a quarter of its population born overseas, Melbourne, Australia, is rapidly changing from an all-white British outpost to a multicultural, multilingual community. Since the "white" Australian policy was abandoned after World War II, 3 million immigrants from 100 different countries have moved to Australia. Most of the immigrants come from New Zealand, Rhodesia, South Africa, Britain, Ireland, Greece, Turkey, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Indochina. Melbourne is Australia's 2nd largest city and houses 1 out of 5 Australians. Its 1984 population was 2,888,400. Melbourne's housing pattern consists of subdivisions; 75% of the population live in detached houses. Between 1954 and 1961 Melbourne grew at an annual rate of 3.5%; its growth rate between 1961 and 1971 still averaged 2.5%. In the 1970s the growth rate slowed to 1.4%. Metropolitan Melbourne has no central government but is divided into 56 councils and 8 regions. Both Australia's and Melbourne's fertility rates are high compared to the rest of the developed world, partly because of their younger age structure. 41% of Melbourne's population was under age 24 in 1981. Single-person households are growing faster than any other type. 71% of the housing is owner-occupied; in 1981 the median sized dwelling had 5.2 rooms. Public housing only accounts for 2.6% of all dwellings. Fewer students graduate from high school in Australia than in other developed countries, and fewer graduates pursue higher education. Melbourne's suburban sprawl promotes private car travel. In 1980 Melbourne contained more than 28,000 retail establishments and 4200 restaurants and hotels. Industry accounts for 30% of employment, and services account for another 30%. Its largest industries are motor vehicles, clothing, and footware. Although unemployment reached 10% after the 1973 energy crisis, by 1985 it was down to 6%. PMID:12340610

  17. Greater Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCloskey, Patrick J.

    2006-01-01

    Julius Bennett was once a disinterested student destined to become a dropout. Then he enrolled in Amistad Academy, an academically focused charter middle school intent on narrowing the achievement gap between urban and suburban kids located in New Haven, Connecticut. Now Julius is making plans for college. In this article the author details the…

  18. Discovery of 7-Methyl-10-Hydroxyhomocamptothecins with 1,2,3-Triazole Moiety as Potent Topoisomerase I Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiguo; Wu, Yuelin; Liu, Wenfeng; Sheng, Chuanquan; Yao, Jianzhong; Dong, Guoqiang; Fang, Kun; Li, Jin; Yu, Zhiliang; Min, Xiao; Zhang, Huojun; Miao, Zhenyuan; Zhang, Wannian

    2016-09-01

    Homocamptothecin is emerging as an important topoisomerase I inhibitor originating in natural product camptothecin. We report the modifications and SAR of homocamptothecin on position C10 to develop potent topoisomerase I inhibitors for anticancer drug discovery. Based on click chemistry, twenty-one 1,2,3-triazole-substituted homocamptothecin derivatives were readily synthesized in two steps. For A549, cycloalkyl- and alkyl-substituted compounds 6j, 6l, and 6o revealed highly antiproliferative inhibitory activities with IC50 value of 30, 30, and 50 nm, respectively. In addition, cyclopropyl 6j exhibited greater Topo I inhibitory activity than 20(S)-Camptothecin, which indicated suitability for further drug development. PMID:27062430

  19. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  4. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L. [Martinez, CA; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  5. Process for preparing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  6. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, F.L.; Raymond, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to a compound of the formula given in the patent wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO[sub 3]H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes. No Drawings

  7. Greater taxol yield of fungus Pestalotiopsis hainanensis from dermatitic scurf of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gu, Yu; Wang, Yanlin; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Chengdong; Yue, Guizhou; Zhang, Yuetian; Zhang, Yunyan; Li, Shanshan; Ling, Shanshan; Liu, Xiaomin; Wen, Xintian; Cao, Sanjie; Huang, Xiaobo; Deng, Junliang; Zuo, Zhicai; Yu, Shumin; Shen, Liuhong; Wu, Rui

    2015-01-01

    While taxol yields of fungi from non-animal sources are still low, whether Pestalotiopsis hainanensis isolated from the scurf of a dermatitic giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca, provides a greater taxol yield remains unknown. The objective of the study was to determine the corresponding taxol yield. The structure of the taxol produced by the fungus was evaluated by thin layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR), and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS), with standard taxol as a control. The results demonstrated that the P. hainanensis fungus produced taxol, which had the same structure as the standard taxol and yield of 1,466.87 μg/L. This fungal taxol yield from the dermatitic giant panda was significantly greater than those of fungus from non-animal sources. The taxol-producing fungus may be a potential candidate for the production of taxol on an industrial scale. PMID:25245682

  8. A Paleocene lowland macroflora from Patagonia reveals significantly greater richness than North American analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ari; Wilf, Peter; Johnson, Kirk R.; Zamuner, Alba B.; Rubén Cúneo, N.; Matheos, Sergio D.; Singer, Bradley S.

    2007-10-01

    Few South American macrofloras of Paleocene age are known, and this limits our knowledge of diversity and composition between the end-Cretaceous event and the Eocene appearance of high floral diversity. We report new, unbiased collections of 2516 compression specimens from the Paleocene Salamanca Formation (ca. 61.7 Ma) from two localities in the Palacio de los Loros exposures in southern Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. Our samples reveal considerably greater richness than was previously known from the Paleocene of Patagonia, including 36 species of angiosperm leaves as well as angiosperm fruits, flowers, and seeds; ferns; and conifer leaves, cones, and seeds. The floras, which are from siltstone and sandstone channel-fills deposited on low-relief floodplain landscapes in a humid, warm temperate climate, are climatically and paleoenvironmentally comparable to many quantitatively collected Paleocene floras from the Western Interior of North America. Adjusted for sample size, there are >50% more species at each Palacio de los Loros quarry than in any comparable U.S. Paleocene sample. These results indicate more vibrant terrestrial ecosystems in Patagonian than in North American floodplain environments ˜4 m.y. after the end-Cretaceous extinction, and they push back the time line 10 m.y. for the evolution of high floral diversity in South America. The cause of the dis parity is unknown but could involve reduced impact effects because of greater distance from the Chicxulub site, higher latest Cretaceous diversity, or faster recovery or immigration rates.

  9. Late quaternary dislocations and seismotectonics of the Racha earthquake source, the Greater Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsyuchenko, A. N.; Marakhanov, A. V.; Lar'kov, A. S.; Novikov, S. S.

    2014-11-01

    The results of studying traces of ancient seismic catastrophes in epicentral zone of the 1991 Racha earthquake are set forth. The source of this earthquake is noteworthy, because it reflects the main tendency in the geological evolution of the region, i.e., thrusting of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus over the basement of the Transcaucasus Median Mass. It has been ascertained that two large-scale seismic events were related to this source in the Holocene. The approximate duration of the middle Holocene event was 2300 yr (7300-5000 yr ago). The late Holocene event, including the Racha earthquake in 1991, lasted ˜1600 yr. The role of the Racha earthquake in the large-scale seismic cycle is discussed. A surprising circumstance was the absence of datings in the time interval of 2400-9500 yr ago. The lack of these datings could have been caused by the change in climate and absence of paleosoils or by deceleration of seismic activity. The results also allowed us to substantiate seismotectonic segmentation of the southern slope of the Greater Caucasus in the area under consideration.

  10. Greater cortical thinning in normal older adults predicts later cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Jennifer; Goh, Joshua O; Kraut, Michael A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Resnick, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown regional differences in cortical thickness between healthy older adults and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We now demonstrate that participants who subsequently develop cognitive impairment leading to a diagnosis of MCI or AD (n = 25) experience greater cortical thinning in specific neuroanatomic regions compared with control participants who remained cognitively normal (n = 96). Based on 8 years of annual magnetic resonance imaging scans beginning an average of 11 years before onset of cognitive impairment, participants who developed cognitive impairment subsequent to the scanning period had greater longitudinal cortical thinning in the temporal poles and left medial temporal lobe compared with controls. No significant regional cortical thickness differences were found at baseline between the 2 study groups indicating that we are capturing a critical time when brain changes occur before behavioral manifestations of impairment are detectable. Our findings suggest that early events of the pathway that leads to cognitive impairment may involve the temporal lobe and that this increased atrophy could be considered an early biomarker of neurodegeneration predictive of cognitive impairment years later. PMID:25311277

  11. Older, Less Regulated Medical Marijuana Programs Have Much Greater Enrollment Rates Than Newer 'Medicalized' Programs.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur Robin; Olfson, Mark; Kim, June H; Martins, Silvia S; Kleber, Herbert D

    2016-03-01

    Twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed laws implementing medical marijuana programs. The nineteen programs that were in operation as of October 2014 collectively had over one million participants. All states (including D.C.) with medical marijuana laws require physicians directly or indirectly to authorize the use of marijuana at their discretion, yet little is known about how medical marijuana programs vary regarding adherence to basic principles of medical practice and associated rates of enrollment. To explore this, we analyzed marijuana programs according to seven components of traditional medical care and pharmaceutical regulation. We then examined enrollment rates, while controlling for potentially confounding state characteristics. We found that fourteen of the twenty-four programs were nonmedical and collectively enrolled 99.4 percent of participants nationwide, with enrollment rates twenty times greater than programs deemed to be "medicalized." Policy makers implementing or amending medical marijuana programs should consider the powerful relationship between less regulation and greater enrollment. Researchers should consider variations across programs when assessing programs' population-level effects. PMID:26953303

  12. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  13. Nucleosides of 4-methylthio-1,2,3-triazol-5-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Shingarova, I.D.; Yartseva, I.V.; Preobrazhenskaya, M.N.

    1987-08-01

    2-..beta..-D-Ribofuranosyl-4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole was obtained by fusing 4-methylthio-5-methoxycarbonyl-1,2,3-triazole together with tetraacyl-D-ribofuranose, followed by deacylation, and its amide and hydrazide were prepared. The structures of the new nucleosides were established by converting them into known 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives. By comparing PMR spectra with previously reported PMR spectra for the isomeric 1- and 2-nucleosides of 1,2,3-triazol-4-yl-carboxylic acid derivatives, the synthesized nucleosides could be assigned to 2-substituted triazoles.

  14. Production of 2,3-butanediol from glucose by GRAS microorganism Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Lin, Qing; Xia, Haifeng; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian

    2011-12-01

    In the current study, a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) designated as B10-127 was isolated in our lab. The strain B10-127 produced 2,3-BD effectively under the condition of 20% glucose (quality concentration), showed a high-glucose tolerance. The effects of initial glucose concentration, temperature, pH and agitation on 2,3-BD production were investigated in this work and the proper parameters were identified. Accordingly, the fed-batch culture of B10-127 in larger scales (5 l) showed a remarkable 2,3-BD producing potency. The maximum 2,3-BD concentration reached 92.3 g/l at 96 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 0.96 g/l h. To our knowledge, the results were new records on 2,3-BD fermentation by Bacillus, which shown an excellent candidate for the microbial fermentation of 2,3-BD on an industrial scale. PMID:21780143

  15. Regulatory functions and pathological relevance of the MECP2 3'UTR in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    McGowan, Heather; Pang, Zhiping P

    2015-01-01

    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), encoded by the gene MECP2, is a transcriptional regulator and chromatin-remodeling protein, which is ubiquitously expressed and plays an essential role in the development and maintenance of the central nervous system (CNS). Highly enriched in post-migratory neurons, MeCP2 is needed for neuronal maturation, including dendritic arborization and the development of synapses. Loss-of-function mutations in MECP2 cause Rett syndrome (RTT), a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a phase of normal development, followed by the progressive loss of milestones and cognitive disability. While a great deal has been discovered about the structure, function, and regulation of MeCP2 in the time since its discovery as the genetic cause of RTT, including its involvement in a number of RTT-related syndromes that have come to be known as MeCP2-spectrum disorders, much about this multifunctional protein remains enigmatic. One unequivocal fact that has become apparent is the importance of maintaining MeCP2 protein levels within a narrow range, the limits of which may depend upon the cell type and developmental time point. As such, MeCP2 is amenable to complex, multifactorial regulation. Here, we summarize the role of the MECP2 3' untranslated region (UTR) in the regulation of MeCP2 protein levels and how mutations in this region contribute to autism and other non-RTT neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:26516454

  16. COMPLETION OF THE TRANSURANIC GREATER CONFINEMENT DISPOSAL BOREHOLE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR THE NEVADA TEST SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Colarusso, Angela; Crowe, Bruce; Cochran, John R.

    2003-02-27

    assessment, inclusion of dose calculations from collocated low-level waste in the boreholes for the individual protection requirements, further assessments of engineered barriers and conditions associated with the assurance requirements, and expansion of documentation provided for assessing the groundwater protection requirements. The Transuranic Waste Disposal Federal Review Group approved the performance assessment for Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes in 2001 and did not approve the Application of the Assurance Requirements. Remaining issues concerned with engineered barriers and the multiple aspects of the Assurance Requirements will be resolved at the time of closure of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site. This is the first completion and acceptance of a performance assessment for transuranic materials under the U.S. Department of Energy self-regulation. The Greater Confinement Disposal boreholes are only the second waste disposal configuration to meet the safety regulatory requirements of 40 CFR 191.

  17. ENSO-Related Variability in Wave Climate Drives Greater Erosion Potential on Central Pacific Atolls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramante, J. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulates atmospheric circulation across the equatorial Pacific over a periodic time scale of 2-7 years. Despite the importance of this climate mode in forcing storm generation and trade wind variability, its impact on the wave climate incident on central Pacific atolls has not been addressed. We used the NOAA Wavewatch III CFSR reanalysis hindcasts (1979-2007) to examine the influence of ENSO on sediment mobility and transport at Kwajalein Atoll (8.8°N, 167.7°E). We found that during El Nino event years, easterly trade winds incident on the atoll weakened by 4% compared to normal years and 17% relative to La Nina event years. Despite this decrease in wind strength, significant wave heights incident on the atoll were 3-4% greater during El Nino event years. Using machine learning to partition these waves revealed that the greater El Nino wave heights originated mainly from greater storm winds near the atoll. The southeastern shift in tropical cyclone genesis location during El Nino years forced these storm winds and contributed to the 7% and 16% increases in annual wave energy relative to normal and La Nina years, respectively. Using nested SWAN and XBeach models we determined that the additional wave energy during El Nino event years significantly increased potential sediment mobility at Kwajalein Atoll and led to greater net offshore transport on its most populous island. The larger storm waves likely deplete ocean-facing beaches and reef flats of sediment, but increase the supply of sediment to the atoll lagoon across open reef platforms that are not supporting islands. We discuss further explicit modelling of storms passing over the atoll to elucidate the confounding role of storm surge on the net erosional/depositional effects of these waves. Extrapolating our results to recent Wavewatch III forecasts leads us to conclude that climate change-linked increases in wave height and storm wave energy will increase erosion on

  18. Organocatalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones with bifunctional amine-thiourea catalysts bearing multiple hydrogen-bond donors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Yue, Deng-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Luo, Yuan; Xu, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Wei-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones was achieved with a chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea as a catalyst possessing multiple hydrogen-bond donors. With this developed method, a range of 3-hydroxy-3-nitromethyl-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters were obtained in acceptable yield (up to 75%) and enantioselectivity (up to 73% ee). PMID:26977188

  19. Organocatalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones with bifunctional amine-thiourea catalysts bearing multiple hydrogen-bond donors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming-Liang; Yue, Deng-Feng; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Summary For the first time, a catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones was achieved with a chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea as a catalyst possessing multiple hydrogen-bond donors. With this developed method, a range of 3-hydroxy-3-nitromethyl-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters were obtained in acceptable yield (up to 75%) and enantioselectivity (up to 73% ee). PMID:26977188

  20. Frontal D2/3 Receptor Availability in Schizophrenia Patients Before and After Their First Antipsychotic Treatment: Relation to Cognitive Functions and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Nørbak-Emig, Henrik; Ebdrup, Bjørn H.; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Svarer, Claus; Rasmussen, Hans; Friberg, Lars; Allerup, Peter N.; Rostrup, Egill; Pinborg, Lars H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We have previously reported associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential positive symptoms and cognitive deficits in antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Here, we examined the effect of dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade on cognition. Additionally, we explored the relation between frontal D2/3 receptor availability and treatment effect on positive symptoms. Methods: Twenty-five antipsychotic-naïve first-episode schizophrenia patients were examined with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, tested with the cognitive test battery Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery, scanned with single-photon emission computerized tomography using the dopamine D2/3 receptor ligand [123I]epidepride, and scanned with MRI. After 3 months of treatment with either risperidone (n=13) or zuclopenthixol (n=9), 22 patients were reexamined. Results: Blockade of extrastriatal dopamine D2/3 receptors was correlated with decreased attentional focus (r = -0.615, P=.003) and planning time (r = -0.436, P=.048). Moreover, baseline frontal dopamine D2/3 binding potential and positive symptom reduction correlated positively (D2/3 receptor binding potential left frontal cortex rho = 0.56, P=.003; D2/3 receptor binding potential right frontal cortex rho = 0.48, P=.016). Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis of a negative influence of D2/3 receptor blockade on specific cognitive functions in schizophrenia. This is highly clinically relevant given the well-established association between severity of cognitive disturbances and a poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. Additionally, the findings support associations between frontal D2/3 receptor binding potential at baseline and the effect of antipsychotic treatment on positive symptoms. PMID:26819282