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Sample records for 2-3 times higher

  1. Shot noise and higher current moments in dimensions 2, 3 and 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travnec, I.

    2005-04-01

    Shot noise and higher current moments TM = Tr (tt)M are studied within the Anderson model of disordered conductors in dimensions d = 2, 3 and 4. Here t denotes a transmission matrix. We calculate the conductance G = T1, shot noise S = T1-T2, Fano factor F = S/G and ratios CM = TM /G, and we show indications that all of them are as good order parameters as the conductance itself. In the limit of infinite system size, two limiting values of and CM are found; the stable one in the metallic regime, and the unstable one, characterizing the critical point for d > 2. We present analytical expressions for both limiting values, together with a compact formula for current cumulants at 3D criticality. Our data confirm also Nazarov's microscopic theory [Phys. Rev. B 52, 4720 (1995)], as we show numerically for special linear combinations of TM.

  2. Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, Dana D.; Collins, Natalia D.

    2010-01-01

    Public higher education is currently experiencing a decline in financial support from state governments, an acceleration of enrollment growth, and a shift from a transformational to a transactional student relationship. Private institutions are also struggling with increasing operational costs, and decreases in revenue from endowments and…

  3. Part Time Study in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neville, Colin

    This document, which is intended for adults considering enrolling in part-time study in higher education, examines the objectives and experiences of adults who have pursued part-time study in higher education in the United Kingdom. The following reasons why adults return to higher education are discussed: personal development; self-fulfillment;…

  4. Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159985.html Sleep Disorders 6 Times Higher Among Veterans Post-traumatic ... 20, 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Sleep disorders are six times more likely among American ...

  5. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  6. Stable pediatric kidney transplant recipients run higher urine indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase (IDO) levels than healthy children.

    PubMed

    Al Khasawneh, Eihab; Gupta, Sushil; Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Shahlaee, Amir H; Garrett, Timothy J; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Dharnidharka, Vikas R

    2014-05-01

    Immune cells utilize the IDO enzymatic conversion of trp to kyn to determine T-cell activation vs. anergy/apoptosis. In prior studies, urine IDO levels were higher in rejecting renal allografts than in stable state. However, urine IDO levels in healthy subjects or children are unknown. As a corollary to a larger longitudinal and prospective study of serum and urine IDO levels for transplant immune monitoring, here, we analyzed the difference between urine IDO levels in stable post-transplant vs. healthy children. IDO levels were measured by tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as kyn/trp ratios. We compared one-time urine samples, from 34 well children at general pediatric clinics, to the first-month post-transplant urine samples from 18 children, while in stable state (no acute rejection or major infection event in next 30 days). Urine kyn/trp ratios were significantly higher in stable children in first-month post-kidney transplant (median 16.6, range 3.9-44.0) vs. healthy children (median 9.2, range 3.51-17.0; p = 0.0057 by nonparametric Mann-Whitney test). Higher urine IDO levels even with stable transplant suggest a continuous ongoing low-grade allorecognition/inflammatory process. Our data also provide baseline urine IDO levels in healthy subjects for use in future studies.

  7. Strategies for Hard Times in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desfosses, Louis R.

    1996-01-01

    Planning and management strategies used in the private sector have practical applications for higher education in a period of systemic and organizational stress. Promising strategies include organizational delayering; employee empowerment; boundless thinking, problem-solving teams; accelerated processes; quality management and improvement; and…

  8. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  9. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  10. Representing 30 Years of Higher Education Change: UK Universities and the "Times Higher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Sharon; Cribb, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the "Times Higher" provides a powerful tool for understanding the changing character of UK higher education (HE) and can usefully be seen as representative, and in some ways constitutive, of that changing character. Drawing on an analysis of a sample of stories from the "Times Higher," it documents the changing policy…

  11. Representing 30 Years of Higher Education Change: UK Universities and the "Times Higher"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewirtz, Sharon; Cribb, Alan

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that the "Times Higher" provides a powerful tool for understanding the changing character of UK higher education (HE) and can usefully be seen as representative, and in some ways constitutive, of that changing character. Drawing on an analysis of a sample of stories from the "Times Higher," it documents the…

  12. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  13. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  14. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  15. Higher Education in Recessionary Times: A UK Colloquium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article talks about a meeting on "Higher Education in Recessionary Times" on March 24, 2010, which was hosted by the Society for Higher Education Research Policy Network. Although the meeting did take place in the context of an expected General Election, and on budget day, there was a general sense on the day that whoever won the Election (or…

  16. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This investigation…

  17. Diversity-oriented synthesis of medicinally important 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) derivatives and higher analogs.

    PubMed

    Kotha, Sambasivarao; Deodhar, Deepak; Khedkar, Priti

    2014-12-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxylic acid (Tic) is a constrained analog of phenylalanine (Phe). The Tic unit has been identified as a core structural element present in several peptide-based drugs and forms an integral part of various biologically active compounds. This report covers the biological significance of the Tic core and provides a detailed account of various synthetic approaches available for the construction of Tic derivatives. Along with the traditional methods such as the Pictet-Spengler and Bischler-Nepieralski reactions, we cover various recent approaches such as enyne metathesis, [2 + 2 + 2] cycloaddition and the Diels-Alder reaction to generate Tic derivatives. In addition, syntheses of higher analogs of Tic are also discussed. PMID:25299735

  18. Does the Timing of Tracking Affect Higher Education Completion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Roel; van der Steeg, Marc; Webbink, Dinand

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of the timing of tracking on completion of higher education by exploiting unique variation from the Dutch education system. At the age of 12 Dutch students can enrol in tracked schools or in comprehensive schools. The comprehensive schools postpone enrolment into tracked classes by one or two years. OLS- and…

  19. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-08-15

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension.

  20. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  1. Real-time operating systems at higher control

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Although virtually all development of real-time operating systems focuses on the lowest of the three traditional control levels, sheet economics demands higher level real-time OSs. Meeting this demand requires a major change in the mindset of the people who have been focusing on the lowest level of control. {open_quotes}These people are trying to deal with an elephant`s tail, but they don`t realize that there is an elephant attached to it.{close_quotes} For more than three decades, the historical real-time mindset, concepts and techniques have been driven by a particular pair of contexts. First is the application context, which can be characterized as {open_quotes}small, simple, centralized, static subsystems for low-level, sampled data, monitoring and first-order control.{close_quotes} Second is the hardware context, characterized by a scarcity of hardware resources due to size, weight, power and cost considerations. Both of these contexts are changing dramatically in ways that {open_quotes}have a significant impact on the concepts and techniques of real-time computing.{close_quotes} Hardware now offers much higher performance and the real-time domain is expanding upward in the application control hierarchy.

  2. Full-Time Students? Term-Time Employment among Higher Education Students in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, Merike; Smyth, Emer

    2008-01-01

    A good deal of research has focused on part-time employment among full-time students in higher education. However, little attention has been paid to the way in which these patterns may reflect societally specific processes rather than universal trends. This paper examines ways in which the higher education system itself can influence variation in…

  3. Late-time acceleration in higher dimensional cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Pahwa, Isha; Choudhury, Debajyoti; Seshadri, T.R. E-mail: debajyoti.choudhury@gmail.com

    2011-09-01

    We investigate late time acceleration of the universe in higher dimensional cosmology. The content in the universe is assumed to exert pressure which is different in the normal and extra dimensions. Cosmologically viable solutions are found to exist for simple forms of the equation of state. The parameters of the model are fixed by comparing the predictions with supernovae data. While observations stipulate that the matter exerts almost vanishing pressure in the normal dimensions, we assume that, in the extra dimensions, the equation of state is of the form P∝ρ{sup 1−γ}. For appropriate choice of parameters, a late time acceleration in the universe occurs with q{sub 0} and z{sub tr} being approximately -0.46 and 0.76 respectively.

  4. Pulse transmission transmitter including a higher order time derivate filter

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-23

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission transmitter includes: a clock; a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to the clock, the pseudorandom polynomial generator having a polynomial load input; an exclusive-OR gate coupled to the pseudorandom polynomial generator, the exclusive-OR gate having a serial data input; a programmable delay circuit coupled to both the clock and the exclusive-OR gate; a pulse generator coupled to the programmable delay circuit; and a higher order time derivative filter coupled to the pulse generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  5. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A.

    2016-01-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence—however measured—also varied throughout the Phanerozoic

  6. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  7. Time-resolved spectral imaging: better photon economy, higher accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fereidouni, Farzad; Reitsma, Keimpe; Blab, Gerhard A.; Gerritsen, Hans C.

    2015-03-01

    Lifetime and spectral imaging are complementary techniques that offer a non-invasive solution for monitoring metabolic processes, identifying biochemical compounds, and characterizing their interactions in biological tissues, among other tasks. Newly developed instruments that perform time-resolved spectral imaging can provide even more information and reach higher sensitivity than either modality alone. Here we report a multispectral lifetime imaging system based on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), capable of operating at high photon count rates (12 MHz) per spectral detection channel, and with time resolution of 200 ps. We performed error analyses to investigate the effect of gate width and spectral-channel width on the accuracy of estimated lifetimes and spectral widths. Temporal and spectral phasors were used for analysis of recorded data, and we demonstrated blind un-mixing of the fluorescent components using information from both modalities. Fractional intensities, spectra, and decay curves of components were extracted without need for prior information. We further tested this approach with fluorescently doubly-labeled DNA, and demonstrated its suitability for accurately estimating FRET efficiency in the presence of either non-interacting or interacting donor molecules.

  8. Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in Turbulent Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Tanya, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last three decades, higher education institutions have experienced massive changes. In particular, institutions of higher education have been positioned as a means to contribute to the knowledge economy and gain a level of competitive advantage in the global marketplace. "Advancing Knowledge in Higher Education: Universities in…

  9. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  10. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.

  11. California's "Gold Standard" for Higher Education Falls Upon Hard Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    Few documents in higher education have enjoyed the influence or longevity of the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the 1960 law that transformed the state's public colleges and served as a blueprint for public systems across the country. Even today, almost 50 years after it was written, the master plan retains a mythic status in…

  12. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  13. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: Electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO2,3 and IO2-4 radicals.

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gaolei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue B.

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) investigation on electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO{sub 2}{sup -} and IO{sub 2}{sup -} were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO{sub 3}{sup -}, IO{sub 3}{sup -}, and IO{sub 4}{sup -} were studied at 193 and 157 nm only due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anion ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. For the first time, EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined (except for IO{sub 2}) to be 2.515 {+-} 0.010 (BrO{sub 2}), 2.575 {+-} 0.010 (IO{sub 2}), 4.60 {+-} 0.05 (BrO{sub 3}), 4.70 {+-} 0.05 (IO{sub 3}), and 6.05 {+-} 0.05 eV (IO{sub 4}). Three low-lying excited states with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO{sub 2} [1.69 (A {sup 2}B2), 1.79 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.99 eV (C {sup 2}A{sub 2})], BrO{sub 3} [0.7 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.6 (B {sup 2}E), 3.1 eV (C {sup 2}E)], and IO{sub 3} [0.60 (A {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 1.20 (B {sup 2}E), {approx}3.0 eV (C {sup 2}E)], whereas six excited states of IO{sub 2} are determined with the respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A {sup 2}B{sub 2}), 1.73 (B {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 1.83 (C {sup 2}A{sub 2}), 4.23 (D {sup 2}A{sub 1}), 4.63 (E {sup 2}B{sub 2}), and 5.23 eV (F {sup 2}B{sub 1}). Periodate possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. The obtained EAs and low-lying excited state information are compared with available theoretical calculations and discussed with their atmospheric implications.

  14. Photoelectron spectroscopy of higher bromine and iodine oxide anions: electron affinities and electronic structures of BrO(2,3) and IO(2-4) radicals.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hui; Hou, Gao-Lei; Huang, Wei; Govind, Niranjan; Wang, Xue-Bin

    2011-11-14

    This report details a photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and theoretical investigation of electron affinities (EAs) and electronic structures of several atmospherically relevant higher bromine and iodine oxide molecules in the gas phase. PES spectra of BrO(2)(-) and IO(2)(-) were recorded at 12 K and four photon energies--355 nm/3.496 eV, 266 nm/4.661 eV, 193 nm/6.424 eV, and 157 nm/7.867 eV--while BrO(3)(-), IO(3)(-), and IO(4)(-) were only studied at 193 and 157 nm due to their expected high electron binding energies. Spectral features corresponding to transitions from the anionic ground state to the ground and excited states of the neutral are unraveled and resolved for each species. The EAs of these bromine and iodine oxides are experimentally determined for the first time (except for IO(2)) to be 2.515 ± 0.010 (BrO(2)), 2.575 ± 0.010 (IO(2)), 4.60 ± 0.05 (BrO(3)), 4.70 ± 0.05 (IO(3)), and 6.05 ± 0.05 eV (IO(4)). Three low-lying excited states along with their respective excitation energies are obtained for BrO(2) [1.69 (A (2)B(2)), 1.79 (B (2)A(1)), 1.99 eV (C (2)A(2))], BrO(3) [0.7 (A (2)A(2)), 1.6 (B (2)E), 3.1 eV (C (2)E)], and IO(3) [0.60 (A (2)A(2)), 1.20 (B (2)E), ∼3.0 eV (C (2)E)], whereas six excited states of IO(2) are determined along with their respective excitation energies of 1.63 (A (2)B(2)), 1.73 (B (2)A(1)), 1.83 (C (2)A(2)), 4.23 (D (2)A(1)), 4.63 (E (2)B(2)), and 5.23 eV (F (2)B(1)). Periodate (IO(4)(-)) possesses a very high electron binding energy. Only one excited state feature with 0.95 eV excitation energy is shown in the 157 nm spectrum. Accompanying theoretical calculations reveal structural changes from the anions to the neutrals, and the calculated EAs are in good agreement with experimentally determined values. Franck-Condon factors simulations nicely reproduce the observed vibrational progressions for BrO(2) and IO(2). The low-lying excited state information is compared with theoretical calculations and discussed with their

  15. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an…

  16. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  17. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  18. Time for Action to Bolster Future of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellings, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Higher education in America had its origins in New England more than 350 years ago. Since then, America's colleges and universities have been the incubators of great ideas, birthplaces of great inventions, and testing grounds of great individuals. For generations of New Englanders, a college education has provided the opportunity to fully embrace…

  19. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  20. Creating Time: Students, Technologies and Temporal Practices in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley

    2014-01-01

    The nature of time has been considered in some depth within philosophy and social theory, while theoreticians have also explored interrelationships between temporality, artefacts and social process. However, the notion of time in mainstream educational theory and research has arguably been regarded as fixed, naturalised, undifferentiated…

  1. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    How do departmental chairpersons and deans in a major university setting manage their time? What are the major administrative activities and functions associated with such responsibilities? What relationships do these have with an ability to delegate, to control one's time for planning and self-initiated activities, or personal sense of…

  2. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Aarssen, Ben G. K.; Alexander, Robert; Kagi, Robert I.

    2000-04-01

    The relative abundances of three higher-plant-derived biomarkers, retene, cadalene and ip-iHMN, have been measured in marine sedimentary rocks from the northwest margin of Australia. It is thought that each biomarker represents input from a different plant type. The distributions of these three compounds form a fingerprint, representing higher plant input (HPF). Variations in HPF in Oxfordian sediments were nearly identical in all three locations, with retene becoming very abundant relative to the other two compounds with decreasing age of the sediment. This finding strongly suggests that the composition of terrestrial input during deposition largely determines HPF and that the possible effects of diagenesis and catagenesis on the distribution of the three biomarkers are relatively unimportant. The marked increase in the abundance of retene relative to that of cadalene during the Oxfordian is interpreted to reflect an increase in the contribution of plants that produced precursors for retene, i.e., conifers, brought about by a significant change in climate. This was exemplified by measuring the distributions of retene and cadalene, expressed in the higher plant parameter (HPP) for a suite of sediments from the Carnarvon Basin, Western Australia, covering the complete Jurassic period. The HPP profile displays three major cycles, each covering a period of at least 10 million years. This profile not only compared well with published palaeoclimate data, but also showed a remarkable similarity with second order cycles in the global sea level curve, thus strongly supporting the proposal that variations in HPF and HPP are indications of changes in palaeoclimate. The relation with global sea level further suggests that global factors, e.g., the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration, may play a major role in determining the observed variations in the distributions of these higher-plant-derived biomarkers.

  3. Time Management in Higher Education Administration: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Darrell R.; Dahl, Tor

    1976-01-01

    Drawing on data from a staff development project for administrators in a college at a major American university, it was determined that there is considerable commonality across individuals and that it is possible to deal with such issues as time management, job stress, and enjoyment on an organizational level. (Editor/JT)

  4. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status.

    PubMed

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L

    2013-05-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but "blocking out time" and "time shifting" suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  5. State Spending on Higher Education: Testing the Balance Wheel over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Jennifer A.; Doyle, William R.

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the role of higher education in state budgets. It empirically models and tests the balance wheel hypothesis in a robust framework. The balance wheel model posits that in good economic times, higher education is an attractive area for states to fund and tends to be funded at a higher rate than other state budget categories.…

  6. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  7. Changing Times of Feminism and Higher Education: From Community to Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Dorothy; Richter, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the creation of space and time for feminist approaches in higher education in the context of shifting community and employment relations and the restructuring of higher education space-time. It draws on the reflections of three feminist academics concerning aspects of their work biographies in two very different higher…

  8. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  9. The Legal Rights of Tenured and Part-Time Faculty Members in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Sherie P.

    A review of faculty-related court decisions in the areas of status, compensation, and unit determination points out legal rights of part-time and full-time faculty in higher education. These rights have been tested and defined by many court cases. Litigation has occurred about the difference between part-time and full-time faculty. In regard to…

  10. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  11. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  12. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse correlator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-09-16

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a demodulation decoder coupled to the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator; a clock coupled to the demodulation decoder; and a pseudorandom polynomial generator coupled to both the higher-order time derivative pulse correlator and the clock. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  13. Higher Education Students in Part-Time Work in a Chinese City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses students taking part-time work whilst studying higher education (HE). It suggests that cross-national trends can be observed in the purposes, types, benefits, negative aspects and outcomes of part-time work by HE students. The paper reviews literature on HE students working part-time in the UK and the US, and UNESCO studies…

  14. Time Work by Overworked Professionals: Strategies in Response to the Stress of Higher Status

    PubMed Central

    Moen, Phyllis; Lam, Jack; Ammons, Samantha; Kelly, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    How are professionals responding to the time strains brought on by the stress of their higher status jobs? Qualitative data from professionals reveal (a) general acceptance of the emerging temporal organization of professional work, including rising time demands and blurred boundaries around work/ nonwork times and places, and (b) time work as strategic responses to work intensification, overloads, and boundarylessness. We detected four time-work strategies: prioritizing time, scaling back obligations, blocking out time, and time shifting of obligations. These strategies are often more work-friendly than family-friendly, but “blocking out time” and “time shifting” suggest promising avenues for work-time policy and practice. PMID:24039337

  15. Part-time Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Education: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Scott L.; Hoyt, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to inform researchers of those predictive factors of job satisfaction previously identified for part-time faculty in higher education. They used the information gathered to help develop a survey instrument that was administered to 700 part-time faculty at their own institution. The results of the study,…

  16. Preparation and Support for Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education: Case Studies of Departmental Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Fred, Comp.; Thompson, Sheila, Comp.

    This publication presents 14 departmental case studies of the preparation and support provided to part-time teachers in Scottish institutions of higher education. The case studies are grouped in four sections according to the category of part-time staff involved: practicing professionals (professional teaching assistants, lawyers, artists, and…

  17. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  18. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  19. Can Helical Peptides Unwind One Turn at a Time? - Controlled Conformational Transitions in α,β(2,3)-Hybrid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Dhayalan; Muraleedharan, Kannoth M

    2015-06-22

    Unfolding of helical trans-β(2,3) -hybrid peptides with (α-β)n α composition, when executed by increasing solvent polarity or temperature, proceeded in a systematic manner with the turns unwinding sequentially; C-terminal region of these peptides were first to unwind and the process propagated towards N terminus with more and more β residues equilibrating from the gauche to the anti rotameric state across Cα-Cβ . This is evidenced by clear change in their Cβ H signal splitting, (3)JCαH-CβH values, and sequential disappearance of i,i+2 NOEs.

  20. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm. PMID:25277626

  1. Finite time control for MIMO nonlinear system based on higher-order sliding mode.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjie; Han, Yaozhen

    2014-11-01

    Considering a class of MIMO uncertain nonlinear system, a novel finite time stable control algorithm is proposed based on higher-order sliding mode concept. The higher-order sliding mode control problem of MIMO nonlinear system is firstly transformed into finite time stability problem of multivariable system. Then continuous control law, which can guarantee finite time stabilization of nominal integral chain system, is employed. The second-order sliding mode is used to overcome the system uncertainties. High frequency chattering phenomenon of sliding mode is greatly weakened, and the arbitrarily fast convergence is reached. The finite time stability is proved based on the quadratic form Lyapunov function. Examples concerning the triple integral chain system with uncertainty and the hovercraft trajectory tracking are simulated respectively to verify the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed algorithm.

  2. Higher-Order, Space-Time Adaptive Finite Volume Methods: Algorithms, Analysis and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Minion, Michael

    2014-04-29

    The four main goals outlined in the proposal for this project were: 1. Investigate the use of higher-order (in space and time) finite-volume methods for fluid flow problems. 2. Explore the embedding of iterative temporal methods within traditional block-structured AMR algorithms. 3. Develop parallel in time methods for ODEs and PDEs. 4. Work collaboratively with the Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering (CCSE) at Lawrence Berkeley National Lab towards incorporating new algorithms within existing DOE application codes.

  3. An efficient higher-order PML in WLP-FDTD method for time reversed wave simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiao-Kun; Shao, Wei; Ou, Haiyan; Wang, Bing-Zhong

    2016-09-01

    Derived from a stretched coordinate formulation, a higher-order complex frequency shifted (CFS) perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method based on weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs). The higher-order PML is implemented with an auxiliary differential equation (ADE) approach. In order to further improve absorbing performance, the parameter values of stretching functions in the higher-order PML are optimized by the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). The optimal solutions can be chosen from the Pareto front for trading-off between two independent objectives. It is shown in a numerical test that the higher-order PML is efficient in terms of attenuating propagating waves and reducing late time reflections. Moreover, the higher-order PML can be placed very close to the wall when analyzing the channel characteristics of time reversal (TR) waves in a multipath indoor environment. Numerical examples of TR wave propagation demonstrate the availability of the proposed method.

  4. Iterative generation of higher-order nets in polynomial time using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Roy, A; Mukhopadhyay, S

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for constructing and training a class of higher-order perceptrons for classification problems. The method uses linear programming models to construct and train the net. Its polynomial time complexity is proven and computational results are provided for several well-known problems. In all cases, very small nets were created compared to those reported in other computational studies.

  5. Curriculum Characteristics of Time-Compressed Course in a U.S. Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook; Kretovics, Mark; Crowe, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The study explored characteristics of the curriculum practice of higher education faculty in the context of time-compressed (e.g., 5-6 weeks) courses as compared with regular term (15-16 weeks) courses. The researchers used open-ended questions on a web-based survey at a large doctoral-extensive university in a Midwestern state in the United…

  6. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  7. Analyzing the Anglo-American Hegemony in the "Times Higher Education" Rankings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaba, Amadu Jacky

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the 2009 "Times Higher Education"-QS top 200 universities in the world. Based on this analysis the study claims that the THS reflects the phenomenon of Anglo American hegemony. The United States with 54 universities and the United Kingdom with 29 dominated the THS. In addition, six out of every ten universities on the top 200…

  8. A time-saving method for higher plant tests in hydroculture.

    PubMed

    Andersohn, Cornelia; Fuchs, Maike; Seyed-Mansouri, Regina; Fleischmann, Susanne; Wilke, Berndt-Michael

    2002-01-01

    For higher plant tests in hydroculture we developed a method to unify the usually separately performed germination and growth testing. This method renders unnecessary the time-consuming and laborious installation of the germinated plants into the growth system. PMID:11931464

  9. Institutional View of Part-Time Faculty Management in Higher Education Institutes in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Zhifeng; Jiang, Xiulan; Li, Hongbo

    2007-01-01

    Part-time faculty has become an important labor force in Chinese colleges and universities. The number of them has risen rapidly and its structure varies in different types of higher education institutes (HEIs), which results from integration of the social motivation and the inner motivation of schools' reform. From the institutional point of…

  10. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  11. American Higher Education in 1975 and 1976: The Academy's Response to Continuing Kondratieff Recession as Reported in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, John B.; And Others

    Articles on American higher education that appeared in 1975 and 1976 in "The Times Higher Education Supplement" (London) are analyzed in connection with two statements about American society and its economy. These statements are Joseph A. Schumpeter's 1939 analysis of business cycles, and James B. Shuman's and Davis Rosenau's 1972 description of…

  12. Higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winges, Johan; Rylander, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    We present a higher-order brick-tetrahedron hybrid method for Maxwell's equations in time domain. Brick-shaped elements are used for large homogeneous parts of the computational domain, where we exploit mass-lumping and explicit time-stepping. In regions with complex geometry, we use an unstructured mesh of tetrahedrons that share an interface with the brick-shaped elements and, at the interface, tangential continuity of the electric field is imposed in the weak sense by means of Nitsche's method. Implicit time-stepping is used for the tetrahedrons together with the interface. For cavity resonators, the hybrid method reproduces the lowest non-zero eigenvalues with correct multiplicity and, for geometries without field singularities from sharp corners or edges, the numerical eigenvalues converge towards the analytical result with an error that is approximately proportional to h2p, where h is the cell size and p is the polynomial order of the elements. For a rectangular waveguide, a layer of tetrahedrons embedded in a grid of brick-shaped elements yields a low reflection coefficient that scales approximately as h2p. Finally, we demonstrate hybrid time-stepping for a lossless closed cavity resonator, where the time-domain response is computed for 300,000 time steps without any signs of instabilities.

  13. Time-domain multimode dispersion measurement in a higher-order-mode fiber

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E. V.; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-01-01

    We present a new multimode dispersion measurement technique based on the time-of-flight method. The modal delay and group velocity dispersion of all excited modes in a few-mode fiber can be measured simultaneously by a tunable pulsed laser and a high speed sampling oscilloscope. A newly designed higher-order-mode fiber with large anomalous dispersion in the LP02 mode has been characterized using this method, and experimental results are in good agreement with the designed dispersion values. The demonstrated technique is significantly simpler to implement than the existing frequency-domain or interferometry-based methods. PMID:22297348

  14. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2016-06-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  15. Discrete sliding mode control for robust tracking of higher order delay time systems with experimental application.

    PubMed

    Khandekar, A A; Malwatkar, G M; Patre, B M

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete time sliding mode controller (DSMC) is proposed for higher order plus delay time (HOPDT) processes. A sliding mode surface is selected as a function of system states and error and the tuning parameters of sliding mode controller are determined using dominant pole placement strategy. The condition for the existence of stable sliding mode is obtained by using Lyapunov function. The proposed method is applicable to HOPDT processes with oscillatory and integrating behavior, open loop instability or non-minimum phase characteristics and works satisfactory under the effect of parametric uncertainty. The method does not require reduced order model and provides simple way to design the controllers. The simulation and experimentation results show that the proposed method ensures desired tracking dynamics.

  16. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency gains obtained using higher-order implicit Runge-Kutta schemes as compared with the second-order accurate backward difference schemes for the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are investigated. Three different algorithms for solving the nonlinear system of equations arising at each timestep are presented. The first algorithm (NMG) is a pseudo-time-stepping scheme which employs a non-linear full approximation storage (FAS) agglomeration multigrid method to accelerate convergence. The other two algorithms are based on Inexact Newton's methods. The linear system arising at each Newton step is solved using iterative/Krylov techniques and left preconditioning is used to accelerate convergence of the linear solvers. One of the methods (LMG) uses Richardson's iterative scheme for solving the linear system at each Newton step while the other (PGMRES) uses the Generalized Minimal Residual method. Results demonstrating the relative superiority of these Newton's methods based schemes are presented. Efficiency gains as high as 10 are obtained by combining the higher-order time integration schemes with the more efficient nonlinear solvers.

  17. Higher Order Time Integration Schemes for the Unsteady Navier-Stokes Equations on Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jothiprasad, Giridhar; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Caughey, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The rapid increase in available computational power over the last decade has enabled higher resolution flow simulations and more widespread use of unstructured grid methods for complex geometries. While much of this effort has been focused on steady-state calculations in the aerodynamics community, the need to accurately predict off-design conditions, which may involve substantial amounts of flow separation, points to the need to efficiently simulate unsteady flow fields. Accurate unsteady flow simulations can easily require several orders of magnitude more computational effort than a corresponding steady-state simulation. For this reason, techniques for improving the efficiency of unsteady flow simulations are required in order to make such calculations feasible in the foreseeable future. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible reductions in computer time due to the choice of an efficient time-integration scheme from a series of schemes differing in the order of time-accuracy, and by the use of more efficient techniques to solve the nonlinear equations which arise while using implicit time-integration schemes. This investigation is carried out in the context of a two-dimensional unstructured mesh laminar Navier-Stokes solver.

  18. Incidence of restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty: a time-related phenomenon. A quantitative angiographic study in 342 consecutive patients at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serruys, P W; Luijten, H E; Beatt, K J; Geuskens, R; de Feyter, P J; van den Brand, M; Reiber, J H; ten Katen, H J; van Es, G A; Hugenholtz, P G

    1988-02-01

    Data from experimental, clinical, and pathologic studies have suggested that the process of restenosis begins very early after coronary angioplasty. The present study was performed to determine prospectively the incidence of restenosis with use of the four National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the 50% or greater diameter stenosis criteria, as well as a criterion based on a decrease of 0.72 mm or more in minimal luminal diameter. Patients were recatheterized at 30, 60, 90, or 120 days after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After PTCA all patients received 10 mg nifedipine three to six times a day and aspirin once a day until repeat angiography. Of 400 consecutive patients in whom PTCA was successful (less than 50% diameter stenosis), 342 underwent quantitative angiographic follow-up (86%) by use of an automated edge-detection technique. A wide variation in the incidence of restenosis was found dependent on the criterion applied. The incidence of restenosis proved to be progressive to at least the third month for all except NHLBI criterion II. At 4 months a further increase in the incidence of restenosis was observed when defined as a decrease of 0.72 mm or more in minimal luminal diameter, whereas the criteria based on percentage diameter stenosis showed a variable response. The lack of overlap between the different restenosis criteria applied affirms the arbitrary nature of angiographic definitions currently in use. Restenosis should be assessed by repeat angiography, and preferably ascertained according to the change in absolute quantitative measurements of the luminal diameter.

  19. Pulse transmission receiver with higher-order time derivative pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; Smith, Stephen F.

    2003-08-12

    Systems and methods for pulse-transmission low-power communication modes are disclosed. A pulse transmission receiver includes: a front-end amplification/processing circuit; a synchronization circuit coupled to the front-end amplification/processing circuit; a clock coupled to the synchronization circuit; a trigger signal generator coupled to the clock; and at least one higher-order time derivative pulse generator coupled to the trigger signal generator. The systems and methods significantly reduce lower-frequency emissions from pulse transmission spread-spectrum communication modes, which reduces potentially harmful interference to existing radio frequency services and users and also simultaneously permit transmission of multiple data bits by utilizing specific pulse shapes.

  20. Numerical time dependent sheet cavitation simulations using a higher order panel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekoninggans, H. J.

    1994-03-01

    This thesis deals with sheet cavitation. The investigation is aimed at profile design with respect to cavitation control. At present it is possible to predict the shape of cavities on an arbitrary two-dimensional profile in stationary flows. To compute the flow around an arbitrary profile, a higher order three-dimensional panel method program has been developed. The main algorithm used in this program is based on a special case of Green's theorem, called 'de Morino formulation'. This computer program (flow program) can calculate the potential on the body and the velocities at the surface of the body or in the flow field. A theoretical method is developed for time simulation of unsteady sheet cavitation. Numerical simulations of the flow around profiles and of cavitation have been carried out. The numerical results of the panel methods have been compared with other calculations of the two-dimensional flow around profiles and of three-dimensional flow around a sphere and a wing. Simulations of the growth of sheet cavitation on a foil have also been carried out. The conclusion is that higher order panel methods are more accurate than the zero order methods. Further refinement of the Kutta condition is required, however.

  1. Fission Multiplicity Detection with Temporal Gamma-Neutron Discrimination from Higher-Order Time Correlation Statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Oberer, R.B.

    2002-11-12

    The current practice of nondestructive assay (NDA) of fissile materials using neutrons is dominated by the {sup 3}He detector. This has been the case since the mid 1980s when Fission Multiplicity Detection (FMD) was replaced with thermal well counters and neutron multiplicity counting (NMC). The thermal well counters detect neutrons by neutron capture in the {sup 3}He detector subsequent to moderation. The process of detection requires from 30 to 60 {micro}s. As will be explained in Section 3.3 the rate of detecting correlated neutrons (signal) from the same fission are independent of this time but the rate of accidental correlations (noise) are proportional to this time. The well counters are at a distinct disadvantage when there is a large source of uncorrelated neutrons present from ({alpha}, n) reactions for example. Plastic scintillating detectors, as were used in FMD, require only about 20 ns to detect neutrons from fission. One thousandth as many accidental coincidences are therefore accumulated. The major problem with the use of fast-plastic scintillation detectors, however, is that both neutrons and gamma rays are detected. The pulses from the two are indistinguishable in these detectors. For this thesis, a new technique was developed to use higher-order time correlation statistics to distinguish combinations of neutron and gamma ray detections in fast-plastic scintillation detectors. A system of analysis to describe these correlations was developed based on simple physical principles. Other sources of correlations from non-fission events are identified and integrated into the analysis developed for fission events. A number of ratios and metric are identified to determine physical properties of the source from the correlations. It is possible to determine both the quantity being measured and detection efficiency from these ratios from a single measurement without a separate calibration. To account for detector dead-time, an alternative analytical technique

  2. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  3. Automated Determination of P-Wave Arrival Times Using Higher Order Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueperkoch, L.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.

    2009-04-01

    Due to the continuously increasing amount of digital, seismological data, automatic localication of seismic events becomes more and more important. The main difficulty is the automatic identification and precise determination of P- and S-wave arrival times. Here we present an algorithm based on higher order statistics for the automated determination of P-onsets of local and regional seismic events. Using the 4th central moment, a characteristic function is calculated, on which the "picker" is applied. Important is the automatic estimation of the quality of the P-onset. In order to get rid off false P-readings, several algorithms are applied to single station as well as to the finishing multy station processing. The robustness and reliability of the automatic has been tested on a very heterogeneous data set of the temporary, regional seismological network EGELADOS, using manual P-readings, which serve as reference picks, as well as by a comparison with the Allen- and the Baer- & Kradolfer-picker. The accuracy and the speed of the presented automatic makes this processing scheme to an option for the implementation into a near-real time processing, e.g. for earthquake early-warning systems.

  4. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  5. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A.M.; Cohen, B.I.; Caflisch, R.E.; Rosin, M.S.; Ricketson, L.F.

    2013-06-01

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler–Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt{sup 1/2})] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler–Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. This method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  6. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    SciTech Connect

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if and only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.

  7. Higher-order time integration of Coulomb collisions in a plasma using Langevin equations

    DOE PAGES

    Dimits, A. M.; Cohen, B. I.; Caflisch, R. E.; Rosin, M. S.; Ricketson, L. F.

    2013-02-08

    The extension of Langevin-equation Monte-Carlo algorithms for Coulomb collisions from the conventional Euler-Maruyama time integration to the next higher order of accuracy, the Milstein scheme, has been developed, implemented, and tested. This extension proceeds via a formulation of the angular scattering directly as stochastic differential equations in the two fixed-frame spherical-coordinate velocity variables. Results from the numerical implementation show the expected improvement [O(Δt) vs. O(Δt1/2)] in the strong convergence rate both for the speed |v| and angular components of the scattering. An important result is that this improved convergence is achieved for the angular component of the scattering if andmore » only if the “area-integral” terms in the Milstein scheme are included. The resulting Milstein scheme is of value as a step towards algorithms with both improved accuracy and efficiency. These include both algorithms with improved convergence in the averages (weak convergence) and multi-time-level schemes. The latter have been shown to give a greatly reduced cost for a given overall error level when compared with conventional Monte-Carlo schemes, and their performance is improved considerably when the Milstein algorithm is used for the underlying time advance versus the Euler-Maruyama algorithm. A new method for sampling the area integrals is given which is a simplification of an earlier direct method and which retains high accuracy. Lastly, this method, while being useful in its own right because of its relative simplicity, is also expected to considerably reduce the computational requirements for the direct conditional sampling of the area integrals that is needed for adaptive strong integration.« less

  8. Deep Upper Mantle Anisotropy from SKS Splitting Delay Times and Higher Mode Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, K.; Beghein, C.; Davis, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The splitting of SKS waves is widely used to study mantle anisotropy and to get insight on Earth's dynamic interior. However, while SKS splitting is an unambiguous signature of anisotropy, it cannot be used directly to infer the depth distribution of the anisotropy because the dealy times between the two polarization directions result from integrated measurements along quasi-vertical paths between the core-mantle boundary and the surface. SKS splitting data are generally interpreted in terms of olivine lattice preferred orientation in the uppermost 250 km of the mantle. There is, nevertheless, growing evidence from regional studies that the splitting may contain significant contributions from greater depths. In addition, SKS delay times are strongly under predicted by tomographic models of azimuthal anisotropy derived from fundamentqal mode surface waves. These models typically display anisotropy only in the 250 km of the mantle because fundamental mode surface wave data have little sensitivity to structure below that depth. For example, we calculated predictions of SKS splitting using the global azimuthal anisotropy model of Debayle et al. (2005), and found a global delay times distributon with a median of 0.4 s, compared to 1.1 s for the global station-averaged SKS splitting database compiled by Becker et al. (2012). This discrepancy may indicate that seismic anisotropy is present at greater depths. In this work, we analyzed a new global 3-D model of azimuthal anisotropy (Yuan and Beghein, 2013) that was obtained from the inversion of higher modes surface wave phase velocity data with unprecedented sensitivity to the top 1000 km of the mantle. While this model is comparable to previous models in the uppermost mantle, it also displays anisotropy amplitudes of about 1% below 250 km depth and a complex 3-D pattern of fast axes directions down to 800 km depth. The predicted SKS delay times calculated using this new model have a median of 0.75 s, which is in much

  9. Renewing Quality Assurance at a Time of Turbulence: An Attempt to Reenergise Quality in Australian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Mahsood; Nair, Chenicheri Sid

    2011-01-01

    The renewal of quality assurance in Australian higher education comes at a time when the higher education sectors in Australia and around the world are experiencing a number of key challenges. These include: ongoing decline in public funding of universities; the massification of higher education and demand for it during global recession;…

  10. What Is Going on in Higher Education? Is It Time for a Change?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Judith Dozier

    1992-01-01

    The president of the Association for the Study of Higher Education identifies four powerful forces causing disarray and turbulence in higher education: (1) increasing gender equality, (2) increasing globalism, (3) increasing multiculturalism, and (4) expanding technology. It is concluded that higher education needs to gather its forces, shift its…

  11. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 2--A Survey of the Issues Facing Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Susan; Brown, Nigel; Payne, Philip; Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is the report on part-time study in UK higher education institutions (HEIs) for Universities UK and GuildHE (previously SCOP) from Nigel Brown Associates. It forms Strand 2 of the wider research into part-time higher education commissioned by Universities UK and GuildHE using quantitative data not available from published sources and…

  12. Troubled Times for American Higher Education: The 1990s and Beyond. SUNY Series, Frontiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerr, Clark; And Others

    This volume looks at the future of American higher education in 13 essays most of which were originally speeches to gatherings around the United States and the globe. The first series of essays in Part I looks at possible "contours" of the future and what choices should be made by higher education to advance the quality of future performance. One…

  13. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment…

  14. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  15. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 1--A Quantitative Data Analysis of 2003/04 HESA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of the Strand 1 element of the Universities UK project to examine part-time students and part-time study within the United Kingdom. The aim of Strand 1 of this project is to set out, as far as possible, factual information about students studying part-time and following programmes of study leading to higher education…

  16. Use of Part-Time Faculty in Higher Education: Numbers and Impact. Briefing Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ross

    Colleges and universities of all kinds rely on part-time faculty to teach students from the freshman year through graduate studies, although they are more likely to teach lower division students. Overall, 43% of postsecondary instructional faculty work part-time, while full-time tenure track positions are held by about 18% of faculty members.…

  17. The Impact of Part-Time Faculty on Student Retention: A Case Study in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Curtis V.

    2010-01-01

    There has been considerable debate in community colleges over the last forty years regarding the impact of increased use of part-time faculty (PTF) on student learning. It has been argued that part-time faculty fail to provide the same level of teaching quality as full-time faculty (FTF). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of…

  18. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-06-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  19. The Challenge and Promise of Catholic Higher Education for Our Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, John I.

    2015-01-01

    Catholic colleges and universities face significant challenges in the present context of American higher education. Yet, there are opportunities to be found in the midst of this crisis when one carefully examines the intersections between the Catholic mission and objectives of an institution and current culture and academia. A return to the…

  20. Catching the Window of Opportunity: Being on Time for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kempner, Ken; Kinnick, Mary

    1990-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 2100 high school students indicates a "window of opportunity" opens for individuals entering higher education immediately after high school. Students delaying college entry are less likely to attain a bachelor's degree. The finding is critical for students without characteristics to mediate the disadvantage of stopping out.…

  1. Challenges to Christian Higher Education at a Time of Increasing Emphasis on Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, both Christian and non-Christian higher education institutions (HEIs) have experienced a rapidly changing external environment that is becoming more performance-driven, particularly in relation to faculty research. Academics working in Australian Christian HEIs often feel pressure to keep pace with their counterparts in non-Christian…

  2. Rural Education: A Field of Study Whose Time Has Come in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Richard W., Jr.; Kale, Karen E.

    Although professional educators and public school decision makers have attempted to respond to increased educational demands and a broader spectrum of students, the education of rural youth is a neglected area both in higher education and in educational legislation. The record indicates that policy decisions and the resulting legislation have…

  3. Retention and Attrition of Students in Higher Education: Challenges in Modern Times to What Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Marguerite; Macallister, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Retention and attrition rates in higher education have long been a focus of research. This paper presents findings of a single case study, undertaken in a School of Education, which identify important strategies that have led to attrition of five to eight per cent, compared with 18 per cent cross the education sector in Australia (Department of…

  4. The Effective Academic: A Handbook for Enhanced Academic Practice. The Times Higher Education Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ketteridge, Steve, Ed.; Marshall, Stephanie, Ed.; Fry, Heather, Ed.

    This handbook provides guidance about controlling and directing an academic career by suggesting systematic approaches to key areas of responsibility and activity. It explores management and leadership in higher education, developing and promoting research and teaching, and coping with the changing university environment. The chapters of part 1,…

  5. Examining a Higher Education Funding Formula in a Time of Shifting Currents: Kentucky's Benchmark Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Andrew; Frost, Robert; Smith, Ryan; Keeling, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Although datasets such as the Integrated Postsecondary Data System are available as inputs to higher education funding formulas, these datasets can be unreliable, incomplete, or unresponsive to criteria identified by state education officials. State formulas do not always match the state's economic and human capital goals. This article analyzes…

  6. Integrating Health and Sustainability: The Higher Education Sector as a Timely Catalyst

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, J.; Dooris, M.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of…

  7. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  8. First integrals for time-dependent higher-order Riccati equations by nonholonomic transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guha, Partha; Ghose Choudhury, A.; Khanra, Barun

    2011-08-01

    We exploit the notion of nonholonomic transformations to deduce a time-dependent first integral for a (generalized) second-order nonautonomous Riccati differential equation. It is further shown that the method can also be used to compute the first integrals of a particular class of third-order time-dependent ordinary differential equations and is therefore quite robust.

  9. The Impact of Term-Time Employment on Higher Education Students' Academic Attainment and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Term-time employment among Britain's undergraduates is a growing phenomenon but it has received scant attention from government and policy makers. Although there are numerous studies on the subject, few have explored the impact of term-time employment on students' actual attainment and those that have are limited. This article attempts to fill…

  10. Do Diligent Students Perform Better? Complex Relations between Student and Course Characteristics, Study Time, and Academic Performance in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masui, Chris; Broeckmans, Jan; Doumen, Sarah; Groenen, Anne; Molenberghs, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Research has reported equivocal results regarding the relationship between study time investment and academic performance in higher education. In the setting of the active, assignment-based teaching approach at Hasselt University (Belgium), the present study aimed (a) to further clarify the role of study time in academic performance, while taking…

  11. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda. PMID:20382673

  12. Integrating health and sustainability: the higher education sector as a timely catalyst.

    PubMed

    Orme, J; Dooris, M

    2010-06-01

    Higher education is an influential sector with enormous potential to impact positively on health and sustainability. The purpose of this paper was to explore its emergent role as a key setting for promoting health and sustainability and for addressing their challenges in an integrated and coherent way. Acknowledging both the relative narrowness of the environmental focus that has to date characterized and driven universities' work in relation to sustainability and the demonstrable value of adopting a whole-system approach, this paper will explore the concept of 'Healthy Universities' as a means of furthering debate and facilitating synergy between public health, sustainable development and climate change. Higher education represents one large-scale sector with a unique combination of roles that can be harnessed to focus and mobilize its education, knowledge exchange, research, corporate responsibility and future shaping agendas to achieve significant impacts in this area. It is the growing commitment to embedding health and well-being within the mainstream business of higher education coupled with the expectation that universities will act sustainably in all that they do that provides the perfect springboard to influence a process of 'co-ordinated action' to address climate change and impact positively on the integrated health and sustainability agenda.

  13. Solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, cyclohexanone, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and water at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C has been determined. The concentration of DMNB was measured by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The relative standard deviation of the measurements was between about 1% and 7%.

  14. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  15. Higher Dimensional Clayton–Oakes Models for Multivariate Failure Time Data

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Clayton–Oakes bivariate failure time model is extended to dimensions m > 2 in a manner that allows unspecified marginal survivor functions for all dimensions less than m. Special cases that allow unspecified marginal survivor functions of dimension q with q < m, while making some provisions for dependencies of dimension greater than q, are also described. PMID:27738350

  16. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  17. Preparation and Support of Part-Time Teachers in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicol, David J.

    2000-01-01

    Examines research on preparation and support of part-time faculty, analyzing four areas of support: institutional policies and practices, formal preparation programs, monitoring and evaluation systems, and formal and informal support measures in academic departments. Key processes and problems in each area are discussed, examining issues that must…

  18. Transformation or Decline? Using Tough Times to Create Higher-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Karen Hawley

    2011-01-01

    Instead of doing less with less during these fiscally challenging times, school districts can seize the moment to usher in school transformation that will leave the schools, families, and communities better off. They could follow the lead of districts such as Baltimore City, Syracuse, and Charlotte-Mecklenburg to think outside traditional cost…

  19. Lyapunov-type inequality for a higher order dynamic equation on time scales.

    PubMed

    Sun, Taixiang; Xi, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to establish a Lyapunov-type inequality for the following dynamic equation [Formula: see text]on some time scale T under the anti-periodic boundary conditions [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], p is the quotient of two odd positive integers and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]. PMID:27652044

  20. Cooperative Weblog Learning in Higher Education: Its Facilitating Effects on Social Interaction, Time Lag, and Cognitive Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Tien-Chi; Huang, Yueh-Min; Yu, Fu-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of using weblog technologies to support cooperative learning in higher education. The study focused on the effects of features embedded in weblogs on social interactions, time lags, and cognitive loads. A quasi-experimental control-group research design was adopted. The participants were 115 undergraduates who were…

  1. Impact of the Headscarf Ban Policy on the Identity Development of Part-Time Unveilers in Turkish Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seggie, Fatma Nevra; Austin, Ann E.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the impact of the Turkish higher education headscarf ban policy on the plural self-identities (i.e., as Turkish citizens, as Muslims, and as females) of part-time unveilers, female students who cover their hair in their private life but who remove the headscarf (or conceal it to appear unveiled) while at a Turkish…

  2. Utilizing Social Networks in Times of Crisis: Understanding, Exploring and Analyzing Critical Incident Management at Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asselin, Martha Jo

    2012-01-01

    With the rising number of major crises on college campuses today (Security on Campus Inc., 2009), institutions of higher education can benefit from understanding of how social networks may be used in times of emergency. What is currently known about the usage of social networks is not integral to the current practices of crisis management that are…

  3. Modern U-Pb chronometry of meteorites: advancing to higher time resolution reveals new problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amelin, Y.; Connelly, J.; Zartman, R.E.; Chen, J.-H.; Gopel, C.; Neymark, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the factors that influence the accuracy of lead (Pb)-isotopic ages of meteorites, and may possibly be responsible for inconsistencies between Pb-isotopic and extinct nuclide timescales of the early Solar System: instrumental mass fractionation and other possible analytical sources of error, presence of more than one component of non-radiogenic Pb, migration of ancient radiogenic Pb by diffusion and other mechanisms, possible heterogeneity of the isotopic composition of uranium (U), uncertainties in the decay constants of uranium isotopes, possible presence of "freshly synthesized" actinides with short half-life (e.g. 234U) in the early Solar System, possible initial disequilibrium in the uranium decay chains, and potential fractionation of radiogenic Pb isotopes and U isotopes caused by alpha-recoil and subsequent laboratory treatment. We review the use of 232Th/238U values to assist in making accurate interpretations of the U-Pb ages of meteorite components. We discuss recently published U-Pb dates of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs), and their apparent disagreement with the extinct nuclide dates, in the context of capability and common pitfalls in modern meteorite chronology. Finally, we discuss the requirements of meteorites that are intended to be used as the reference points in building a consistent time scale of the early Solar System, based on the combined use of the U-Pb system and extinct nuclide chronometers.

  4. Higher dimensional analysis shows reduced dynamism of time-varying network connectivity in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robyn L; Yaesoubi, Maziar; Calhoun, Vince D

    2014-01-01

    Assessments of functional connectivity between brain networks is a fixture of resting state fMRI research. Until very recently most of this work proceeded from an assumption of stationarity in resting state network connectivity. In the last few years however, interest in moving beyond this simplifying assumption has grown considerably. Applying group temporal independent component analysis (tICA) to a set of time-varying functional network connectivity (FNC) matrices derived from a large multi-site fMRI dataset (N=314; 163 healthy, 151 schizophrenia patients), we obtain a set of five basic correlation patterns (component spatial maps (SMs)) from which observed FNCs can be expressed as mutually independent linear combinations, i.e., the coefficient on each SM in the linear combination is maximally independent of the others. We study dynamic properties of network connectivity as they are reflected in this five-dimensional space, and report stark differences in connectivity dynamics between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls. We also find that the most important global differences in FNC dynamism between patient and control groups are replicated when the same dynamical analysis is performed on sets of correlation patterns obtained from either PCA or spatial ICA, giving us additional confidence in the results.

  5. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  6. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    PubMed

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  7. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach. PMID:26920085

  8. Continuous higher-order sliding mode control with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems.

    PubMed

    Han, Yaozhen; Liu, Xiangjie

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a continuous higher-order sliding mode (HOSM) control scheme with time-varying gain for a class of uncertain nonlinear systems. The proposed controller is derived from the concept of geometric homogeneity and super-twisting algorithm, and includes two parts, the first part of which achieves smooth finite time stabilization of pure integrator chains. The second part conquers the twice differentiable uncertainty and realizes system robustness by employing super-twisting algorithm. Particularly, time-varying switching control gain is constructed to reduce the switching control action magnitude to the minimum possible value while keeping the property of finite time convergence. Examples concerning the perturbed triple integrator chains and excitation control for single-machine infinite bus power system are simulated respectively to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed approach.

  9. Is the general conclusion justified that higher applicable field strength results in shorter analysis time with organic solvents in CE?

    PubMed

    Téllez, Adolfo; Kenndler, Ernst

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, a widespread opinion in CE with organic solvents for the background electrolyte is critically questioned, namely that in general a shorter analysis time can be achieved due to the higher field strength applicable compared with aqueous electrolyte systems. This view, common in the literature, is based on the supposition that the conductance in organic solvents is lower than in water. Indeed in many organic solvents with higher viscosity than water lower ion mobility is observed, and higher fields can be applied in these cases. However, in this paper the problem is sharper defined and treated two-fold: (i) in all solvents conditions are such that either the same electric power is generated, or (ii) the same temperature increase is taken into account. It was shown that for the same electric power the field strength in the organic solvent can be changed to a less extent than the ionic mobility changes. As a result, the migration velocity of the analytes is lower and the analysis time is longer in most organic solvents compared with water; acetonitrile (MeCN) is an exception (in this solvent the mobilities are higher than in water). The more stringent treatment of the problem takes an equal temperature increase due to Joule heating into account rather than equal electric power. The temperature increase in the capillary depends on the thermal conductivity of the solvent, which is only about one-third of that of water for organic liquids. The consequence is that in none of the organic solvent systems a shorter analysis time can be achieved compared with water (given that the experimental conditions are comparable, e.g. zero EOF). The theoretical predictions were confirmed by measurements with water, methanol, propylenecarbonate, and MeCN as solvents.

  10. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  11. Less Time to Study, Less Well Prepared for Work, yet Satisfied with Higher Education: A UK Perspective on Links between Higher Education and the Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Brenda; Arthur, Lore

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores graduates' views on the relationship between higher education and employment. It draws on a major European study involving graduates five years after graduation and highlights similarities and differences between UK graduates' experiences and their European counterparts. Specifically, we address questions raised in the study…

  12. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  13. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic.

  14. Higher Level Phylogeny and the First Divergence Time Estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) Based on Multiple Genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  15. Higher level phylogeny and the first divergence time estimation of Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera) based on multiple genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Tian, Ying; Zhao, Ying; Bu, Wenjun

    2012-01-01

    Heteroptera, or true bugs, are the largest, morphologically diverse and economically important group of insects with incomplete metamorphosis. However, the phylogenetic relationships within Heteroptera are still in dispute and most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters or with single gene (partial or whole 18S rDNA). Besides, so far, divergence time estimates for Heteroptera totally rely on the fossil record, while no studies have been performed on molecular divergence rates. Here, for the first time, we used maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) with multiple genes (18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, 16S rDNA and COI) to estimate phylogenetic relationships among the infraorders, and meanwhile, the Penalized Likelihood (r8s) and Bayesian (BEAST) molecular dating methods were employed to estimate divergence time of higher taxa of this suborder. Major results of the present study included: Nepomorpha was placed as the most basal clade in all six trees (MP trees, ML trees and Bayesian trees of nuclear gene data and four-gene combined data, respectively) with full support values. The sister-group relationship of Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha was also strongly supported. Nepomorpha originated in early Triassic and the other six infraorders originated in a very short period of time in middle Triassic. Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha underwent a radiation at family level in Cretaceous, paralleling the proliferation of the flowering plants. Our results indicated that the higher-group radiations within hemimetabolous Heteroptera were simultaneously with those of holometabolous Coleoptera and Diptera which took place in the Triassic. While the aquatic habitat was colonized by Nepomorpha already in the Triassic, the Gerromorpha independently adapted to the semi-aquatic habitat in the Early Jurassic. PMID:22384163

  16. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    PubMed Central

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries—conjoint analysis—which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods. PMID:25674069

  17. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero.

    PubMed

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H

    2005-01-22

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to approximately 5% for a wide range of temperature. PMID:15740237

  18. Quantum reaction rate from higher derivatives of the thermal flux-flux autocorrelation function at time zero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceotto, Michele; Yang, Sandy; Miller, William H.

    2005-01-01

    A quantum theory of thermal reaction rates is presented which may be viewed as an extension of the recently developed "quantum instanton" (QI) model [W. H. Miller, Y. Zhao, M. Ceotto, and S. Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 1329 (2003)]. It is based on using higher derivatives of the flux-flux autocorrelation function C(t) (as given by Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp) at t=0 to construct a short time approximation for C(t). Tests of this theory on 1d and collinear reactions, both symmetric and asymmetric, show it to be more accurate than the original QI model, giving rate constants to ˜5% for a wide range of temperature.

  19. Time in Bed is Associated with Decreased Physical Activity and Higher BMI in Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Fava, Joseph L; Subak, Leslee L; Stone, Katie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Demos, Kathryn; O'Brien, Erin; Cairns, Alyssa; Wing, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with obesity risk. Despite calls to incorporate strategies to enhance sleep within the context of behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment, little is known regarding the association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) among individuals presenting for BWL. Moreover, most research has focused on eating pathways linking sleep and BMI, and have not explored how sleep may impact engagement in physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in a sample of women seeking treatment for weight loss, there was an association between reported time in bed (TIB), higher BMI, lower physical activity, and less favorable dietary composition. Prior to randomization, 318 women completed measures of TIB, eating, and activity; weight and height were measured. Findings demonstrated that report of '6 hours or less' TIB/night was associated with higher BMI and lower reported physical activity compared to the referent (>7 to ≤ 8 hours/night). It was not associated with the number of reported calories consumed each day or with the percent of calories consumed from fat, carbohydrates or protein. Better understanding the role of sleep within the context of BWL treatment in women seems warranted.

  20. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  1. Pattern formations in miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates and the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system

    SciTech Connect

    Kuetche, Victor K.; Bouetou, Thomas B.; Kofane, Timoleon C.; Moubissi, Alain B.; Porsezian, K.

    2010-11-15

    In this article, we investigate the structure and dynamics of miscellaneous mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates confined within a time-independent anisotropic parabolic trap potential. In the zero-temperature mean-field approximation leading to coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for the macroscopic wave functions of the condensates, we show that these equations can be mapped onto the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system up to a first-order of accuracy. Paying particular attention to two-species mixtures and looking forward deriving a panel of miscellaneous excitations to the above equations, we analyze the singularity structure of the system by means of Weiss et al.'s [J. Weiss, M. Tabor, and G. Carnevale, J. Math. Phys. 24, 522 (1983); 25, 13 (1984).] methodology and provide its general Lax representation. As a result, we unearth a typical spectrum of localized and periodic coherent patterns while depicting elastic and nonelastic interactions among such structures alongside the splitting and resonance phenomena occurring during their motion.

  2. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  3. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  4. Study of Interpolated Timing Recovery Phase-Locked Loop with Linearly Constrained Adaptive Prefilter for Higher-Density Optical Disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajiwara, Yoshiyuki; Shiraishi, Junya; Kobayashi, Shoei; Yamagami, Tamotsu

    2009-03-01

    A digital phase-locked loop (PLL) with a linearly constrained adaptive filter (LCAF) has been studied for higher-linear-density optical discs. LCAF has been implemented before an interpolated timing recovery (ITR) PLL unit in order to improve the quality of phase error calculation by using an adaptively equalized partial response (PR) signal. Coefficient update of an asynchronous sampled adaptive FIR filter with a least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm has been constrained by a projection matrix in order to suppress the phase shift of the tap coefficients of the adaptive filter. We have developed projection matrices that are suitable for Blu-ray disc (BD) drive systems by numerical simulation. Results have shown the properties of the projection matrices. Then, we have designed the read channel system of the ITR PLL with an LCAF model on the FPGA board for experiments. Results have shown that the LCAF improves the tilt margins of 30 gigabytes (GB) recordable BD (BD-R) and 33 GB BD read-only memory (BD-ROM) with a sufficient LMS adaptation stability.

  5. Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s.

    PubMed

    Oseki, Yosuke; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Hara, Michihiro; Cai, Xichen; Ie, Yutaka; Aso, Yoshio; Majima, Tetsuro

    2005-06-01

    Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s (nTE, n denotes the number of thiophene rings, n = 2, 3) in benzene were investigated using steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies. For 2TE, generation of the radiative S2 and nonradiative S1 states was confirmed. Upon excitation, the S2 state was initially generated and deactivated to the S1 state within 10 ps. The S1 state exhibited the transient absorption band at 470 nm, of which the lifetime was estimated to be 5.3 ns. In the case of 3TE, on the other hand, it was revealed that the radiative S1 state with a transient absorption peak at 650 nm was generated upon excitation. The T1 states of nTE were generated from the S1 states. The quantum yields were estimated to be 0.52 and 0.54 for 2TE and 3TE, respectively. Extremely fast reactions in the higher triplet excited state were indicated for both 2TE and 3TE.

  6. The Campus in Hard Times. New York's Higher Education Crisis. How It Happened. How It Can Be Resolved.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Henry D.

    How did the New York State system of colleges and universities arrive at the brink of fiscal disaster? What is a possible new perception of higher education financing for New York? The radical shift in enrollment from independent to government-sponsored campuses, and the steep escalation in tax-levy burden for higher education resulted in the New…

  7. 25 CFR 2.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability. 2.3 Section 2.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.3... administrative appeal procedure applicable to a specific type of decision....

  8. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  9. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  10. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  11. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  12. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  13. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization.

  14. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization. PMID:23356996

  15. Educational Family Background and the Realisation of Educational Career Intentions: Participation of German Upper Secondary Graduates in Higher Education over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Felix; Steininger, Hanna-Marei

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we evaluate the impact of social origin on the realisation of educational intentions at the time of becoming eligible for higher education in Germany. In general, we find high persistence of intentions and actual attendance of higher education. However, effects of parental education on the changes of educational intentions…

  16. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  17. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation on the nature of the electronic transitions involved in the nonlinear optical response of [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Sgamelotti, Antonio; Cariati, Franco; Roberto, Dominique; Tessore, Francesca; Ugo, Renato

    2006-02-14

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations on the nature and role of the absorption bands involved in the nonlinear optical response of the complexes [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = T1, T2; T1 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, T2 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NMe2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine). Geometry optimizations, performed without any symmetry constraints, confirm a twisting of the -C6H4-p-NBu2 moiety with respect to the plane of the chelated terpyridine. Despite this lack of strong pi interaction, TDDFT excited states calculations of the electronic spectrum in solution provide evidence of a relevant role of the NBu2 donor group in the low-energy LMCT band at 911 nm. Calculations also show that the two bands at higher energy (508 and 455 nm) are not attributable only to LMCT and ILCT transitions but to a mixing of ILCT/MLCT and ILCT/pi-pi* transitions, respectively. The 911 nm LMCT band, appearing at lower wavelength of the second harmonic (670 nm) of the EFISH experiment, controls the negative value of the second-order NLO response. This is confirmed by our calculations of the static component beta0(zzz) of the quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor, showing a large positive value. In addition we have found that the increase of the dipole moment upon excitation occurs, in all the characterized transitions, along the dipole moment axis, thus explaining why the EFISH and solvatochromic experimental values of the quadratic hyperpolarizability agree as sign and value. PMID:16437181

  18. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  19. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  20. A Call to Action on New England's Innovation Economy: Will Business and Higher Education Answer This Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, William

    2003-01-01

    Mass Insight Corp, a public policy and communications firm that organizes public-private initiatives to support economic growth in Massachusetts, recently issued a new report, titled "An Economy at Risk," making the case for a Massachusetts economic development strategy organized around higher education and science and technology. Massachusetts,…

  1. Universities' Autonomy in Times of Changing Higher Education Governance: A Study of the Swiss Academic Labour Market

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baschung, Lukas; Goastellec, Gaele; Leresche, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Although eternally debated, the issue of autonomy in higher education is rarely analysed in its complexity. To address this issue, this article uses an analytical matrix which combines the distinction between substantive and procedural autonomy and the distinction between HEI governing bodies, academic professions and individual academics. This…

  2. Breaking the Mold: New Approaches for Higher Education in Tough Economic Times. Complete to Compete Briefing Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Human capital is the key to economic development. Without highly-skilled workers, states and territories cannot attract the productive businesses they need. That makes higher education a key element of any governor's growth strategy. But many public colleges and universities are struggling to produce more graduates. Overall graduation rates often…

  3. Quality after the Cuts? Higher Education Practitioners' Accounts of Systemic Challenges to Teaching Quality in Times of "Austerity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feigenbaum, Anna; Iqani, Mehita

    2015-01-01

    What are the ramifications of current changes in the higher education landscape in the UK for the ways in which teaching staff perceive their teaching practices? What impact are funding cuts, increases in student fees and the concomitant increased workloads having on faculty morale? How might this influence "quality cultures" in teaching…

  4. Australian Higher Education Leaders in Times of Change: The Role of Pro Vice-Chancellor and Deputy Vice-Chancellor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Bell, Sharon; Coates, Hamish; Grebennikov, Leonid

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses responses provided by 31 Pro Vice-Chancellors (PVCs) and Deputy Vice-Chancellors (DVCs) who were part of a larger study of more than 500 higher education leaders in roles ranging from DVC to head of programme in 20 Australian universities. Using both quantitative and qualitative data the paper gives an insider's perspective on…

  5. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  6. Applying the Modality Principle to Real-Time Feedback and the Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fiorella, Logan; Vogel-Walcutt, Jennifer J.; Schatz, Sae

    2012-01-01

    Effectively presenting complex material is a crucial component of instructional design within simulation-based training (SBT) environments. One approach to facilitate the acquisition of higher-order knowledge is to embed instructional strategies within the systems themselves. Currently, however, there are few established guidelines to inform…

  7. A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women's Higher Education, 1945-1965

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on three narratives that affected American women's participation in higher education during the first twenty years after World War II. In hindsight, the educators of the 1950s and early 1960s may seem gratuitously meek and self-effacing. In comparison to later efforts, their activism can appear unnecessarily limited and too…

  8. Unprecedented Times in the Professionalisation and State Regulation of Counselling and Psychotherapy: The Role of the Higher Education Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, David

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a number of issues facing those involved in counselling and psychotherapy training within United Kingdom Higher Education Institutes. It is proposed that the increasing professionalisation of counselling and psychotherapy has significant implications for lecturers and trainers. The article will explore the tension between…

  9. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  10. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  11. Full-Time Employed Students as University Consumers--Consequences and Triggers of Marketisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mägi, Eve; Jaakson, Krista; Aidla, Anne; Kirss, Laura; Reino, Anne

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on a qualitative study of student employment patterns among students who both study and work full-time. In the study, 17 employed bachelor students at state-commissioned study places in three Estonian universities, 12 lecturers from the same universities, and 13 employers supervising those full-time students, were interviewed.…

  12. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  13. Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times. Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education Annual Conference (2nd, Seattle, Washington, October 13-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education.

    Proceedings of the Pacific Rim Association for Higher Education 1981 conference are summarized. Authors and the summarized papers are as follows: "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The University Perspective" (George M. Beckmann); "Maintaining Quality in Troubled Times: The Community College Perspective" (Don A. Morgan); "Report from China"…

  14. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  15. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n = 7024) were included in the analysis. Parents/guardians reported the presence of a bedroom TV and average weekday TV screen time. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models assessed the effects of a bedroom on screen time. Results Youth with ADD/ADHD engaged in screen time with an average of 149.1 min/weekday and 59% had a TV in their bedroom. Adjusting for child and family characteristics, having a TV in the bedroom was associated with 25 minute higher daily screen time (95% CI: 12.8–37.4 min/day). A bedroom TV was associated with 32% higher odds of engaging in screen time for over 2 h/day (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0–1.7). Conclusion Future research should explore whether removing TVs from bedrooms reduces screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. PMID:25599016

  16. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  17. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  18. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  19. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  20. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  1. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  2. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  3. Progress integrating ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology with accessory mineral geochemistry: towards better accuracy and higher precision time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoene, B.; Samperton, K. M.; Crowley, J. L.; Cottle, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is increasingly common that hand samples of plutonic and volcanic rocks contain zircon with dates that span between zero and >100 ka. This recognition comes from the increased application of U-series geochronology on young volcanic rocks and the increased precision to better than 0.1% on single zircons by the U-Pb ID-TIMS method. It has thus become more difficult to interpret such complicated datasets in terms of ashbed eruption or magma emplacement, which are critical constraints for geochronologic applications ranging from biotic evolution and the stratigraphic record to magmatic and metamorphic processes in orogenic belts. It is important, therefore, to develop methods that aid in interpreting which minerals, if any, date the targeted process. One promising tactic is to better integrate accessory mineral geochemistry with high-precision ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology. These dual constraints can 1) identify cogenetic populations of minerals, and 2) record magmatic or metamorphic fluid evolution through time. Goal (1) has been widely sought with in situ geochronology and geochemical analysis but is limited by low-precision dates. Recent work has attempted to bridge this gap by retrieving the typically discarded elution from ion exchange chemistry that precedes ID-TIMS U-Pb geochronology and analyzing it by ICP-MS (U-Pb TIMS-TEA). The result integrates geochemistry and high-precision geochronology from the exact same volume of material. The limitation of this method is the relatively coarse spatial resolution compared to in situ techniques, and thus averages potentially complicated trace element profiles through single minerals or mineral fragments. In continued work, we test the effect of this on zircon by beginning with CL imaging to reveal internal zonation and growth histories. This is followed by in situ LA-ICPMS trace element transects of imaged grains to reveal internal geochemical zonation. The same grains are then removed from grain-mount, fragmented, and

  4. Wise Moves in Hard Times: Creating & Managing Resilient Colleges & Universities. The Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, David W.; Fretwell, E. K., Jr.

    Based on data gathered on-site at 13 colleges and universities, this volume offers an in-depth analysis of how colleges and universities have been affected by hard times, how they have risen to the challenges, and what their responses mean to the public and its support for higher education. Part 1 describes the study itself in detail and reports…

  5. Building on Strengths in a Time of Retrenchment: Developing an M.Ed. in Higher Education--Student Affairs Emphasis to Train Christian Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Jason; Haseltine, Jeffrey; Williams, Carol

    2007-01-01

    To gain approval of a new master's degree in difficult financial times, the authors applied strategies that are applicable at other institutions. Using existing internal resources to build on the university's mission was key in developing a new M.Ed. in Higher Education--Student Affairs Emphasis at Abilene Christian University. Creativity and…

  6. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin E-mail: tdereli@ku.edu.tr

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  7. Speaking rate, voice-onset time, and quantity: the search for higher-order invariants for two Icelandic speech cues.

    PubMed

    Pind, J

    1995-04-01

    The temporal structure of speech has been shown to be highly variable. Speaking rate, stress, and other factors influence the duration of individual speech sounds. The highly elastic nature of speech would seem to pose a problem for the listener, especially with respect to the perception of temporal speech cues such as voice-onset time (VOT) and quantity: How does the listener disentangle those temporal changes which are linguistically significant from those which are extrinsic to the linguistic message? This paper reports data on the behavior of two Icelandic speech cues at different speaking rates. The results show that manipulations of rate have the effect of slightly blurring the distinction between unaspirated and aspirated stops. Despite great changes in the absolute durations of vowels and consonants, the two categories of syllables--V:C and VC:--are nonetheless kept totally distinct. In two perceptual experiments, it is shown that while the ratio of vowel to rhyme duration is the primary cue to quantity and remains invariant at different rates, no such ratio can be defined for VOT. These results imply that quantity is the only one of these two speech cues that is self-normalizing for rate. Models of rate-dependent speech processing need to address this difference.

  8. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  9. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  10. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  11. Higher-order in time "quasi-unconditionally stable" ADI solvers for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in 2D and 3D curvilinear domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Oscar P.; Cubillos, Max

    2016-02-01

    This paper introduces alternating-direction implicit (ADI) solvers of higher order of time-accuracy (orders two to six) for the compressible Navier-Stokes equations in two- and three-dimensional curvilinear domains. The higher-order accuracy in time results from 1) An application of the backward differentiation formulae time-stepping algorithm (BDF) in conjunction with 2) A BDF-like extrapolation technique for certain components of the nonlinear terms (which makes use of nonlinear solves unnecessary), as well as 3) A novel application of the Douglas-Gunn splitting (which greatly facilitates handling of boundary conditions while preserving higher-order accuracy in time). As suggested by our theoretical analysis of the algorithms for a variety of special cases, an extensive set of numerical experiments clearly indicate that all of the BDF-based ADI algorithms proposed in this paper are "quasi-unconditionally stable" in the following sense: each algorithm is stable for all couples (h , Δt)of spatial and temporal mesh sizes in a problem-dependent rectangular neighborhood of the form (0 ,Mh) × (0 ,Mt). In other words, for each fixed value of Δt below a certain threshold, the Navier-Stokes solvers presented in this paper are stable for arbitrarily small spatial mesh-sizes. The second-order formulation has further been rigorously shown to be unconditionally stable for linear hyperbolic and parabolic equations in two-dimensional space. Although implicit ADI solvers for the Navier-Stokes equations with nominal second-order of temporal accuracy have been proposed in the past, the algorithms presented in this paper are the first ADI-based Navier-Stokes solvers for which second-order or better accuracy has been verified in practice under non-trivial (non-periodic) boundary conditions.

  12. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  13. Younger age at initiation of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination series is associated with higher rates of on-time completion.

    PubMed

    St Sauver, Jennifer L; Rutten, Lila J Finney; Ebbert, Jon O; Jacobson, Debra J; McGree, Michaela E; Jacobson, Robert M

    2016-08-01

    Vaccination rates for human papillomavirus (HPV) have remained disappointingly low. It is critical to identify methods to increase on-time vaccine series completion rates (before 13 or 15years). To determine whether younger age (9 to 10years of age) at HPV vaccine series initiation was associated with improved on-time completion rates compared to initiation at 11 to 12years, we examined the prevalence of on-time HPV vaccine series completion rates from August 2006 through December 2012 in a large, population-based cohort of children and adolescents (aged 9.5 to 27years) residing in Olmsted County, MN on December 31, 2012 (n=36,223). We compared age at vaccine initiation between individuals who successfully completed both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccination series on-time (before age 13.5 or 15.0years) using multivariate logistic regression. On-time completion of both 2 and 3 doses of the vaccine series by age 13.5 or 15.0years was significantly associated with initiation at 9 to 10years as compared to 11 to 12years after adjusting for sex, race, insurance status, frequent health care visits, and year of first vaccination (all p<.01). Interventions focused on beginning the vaccination series at 9 to 10years of age may result in higher rates of timely series completion.

  14. Multidimensional profiling of CSF1R screening hits and inhibitors: assessing cellular activity, target residence time, and selectivity in a higher throughput way.

    PubMed

    Uitdehaag, Joost C M; Sünnen, Cecile M; van Doornmalen, Antoon M; de Rouw, Nikki; Oubrie, Arthur; Azevedo, Rita; Ziebell, Michael; Nickbarg, Elliott; Karstens, Willem-Jan; Ruygrok, Simone

    2011-10-01

    Over the past years, improvements in high-throughput screening (HTS) technology and compound libraries have resulted in a dramatic increase in the amounts of good-quality screening hits, and there is a growing need for follow-on hit profiling assays with medium throughput to further triage hits. Here the authors present such assays for the colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R, Fms), including tests for cellular activity and a homogeneous assay to measure affinity for inactive CSF1R. They also present a high-throughput assay to measure target residence time, which is based on competitive binding kinetics. To better fit k(off) rates, they present a modified mathematical model for competitive kinetics. In all assays, they profiled eight reference inhibitors (imatinib, sorafenib, sunitinib, tandutinib, dasatinib, GW2580, Ki20227, and J&J's pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-5-one). Using the known biochemical selectivities of these inhibitors, which can be quantified using metrics such as the selectivity entropy, the authors have determined which assay readout best predicts hit selectivity. Their profiling shows surprisingly that imatinib has a preference for the active form of CSF1R and that Ki20227 has an unusually slow target dissociation rate. This confirms that follow-on hit profiling is essential to ensure that the best hits are selected for lead optimization.

  15. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  16. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper.

  17. Timing is everything: neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects.

    PubMed

    Dale, Corby L; Findlay, Anne M; Adcock, R Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L; Simpson, Gregory V; Nagarajan, Srikantan S; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2010-02-01

    Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is

  18. Timing is everything: Neural response dynamics during syllable processing and its relation to higher-order cognition in schizophrenia and healthy comparison subjects

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Corby L.; Findlay, Anne M.; Adcock, R. Alison; Vertinski, Mary; Fisher, Melissa; Genevsky, Alexander; Aldebot, Stephanie; Subramaniam, Karuna; Luks, Tracy L.; Simpson, Gregory V.; Nagarajan, Srikantan S.; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    Successful linguistic processing requires efficient encoding of successively-occurring auditory input in a time-constrained manner, especially under noisy conditions. In this study we examined the early neural response dynamics to rapidly-presented successive syllables in schizophrenia participants and healthy comparison subjects, and investigated the effects of noise on these responses. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to reveal the time-course of stimulus-locked activity over bilateral auditory cortices during discrimination of syllable pairs that differed either in voice onset time (VOT) or place of articulation (POA), in the presence or absence of noise. We also examined the association of these early neural response patterns to higher-order cognitive functions. The M100 response, arising from auditory cortex and its immediate environs, showed less attenuation to the second syllable in patients with schizophrenia than healthy comparison subjects during VOT-based discrimination in noise. M100 response amplitudes were similar between groups for the first syllable during all three discrimination conditions, and for the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in quiet and POA-based discrimination in noise. Across subjects, the lack of M100 attenuation to the second syllable during VOT-based discrimination in noise was associated with poorer task accuracy, lower education and IQ, and lower scores on measures of Verbal Learning and Memory and Global Cognition. Because the neural response to the first syllable was not significantly different between groups, nor was a schizophrenia-related difference obtained in all discrimination tasks, early linguistic processing dysfunction in schizophrenia does not appear to be due to general sensory input problems. Rather, data suggest that faulty temporal integration occurs during successive syllable processing when the signal-to-noise ratio is low. Further, the neural mechanism by which the second syllable is

  19. Validating SMAP L2/3 Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Bindlish, R.; Chan, S.; Das, N. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Kim, S.; Chen, F.; Crow, W. T.; Burgin, M. S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A. A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Pacheco, A. M.; Su, Z.; Thibeault, M.; Walker, J. P.; Njoku, E. G.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission entered its one year calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. This began with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and has now evolved to the geophysical products that include three different spatial resolutions of Level 2/3 surface soil moisture (36, 9, and 3 km) and freeze-thaw state. The goal is to provide validated products by May, 2016. SMAP utilizes five methodologies in soil moisture cal/val: core validation sites, sparse networks of in situ sensors, inter-comparisons with products from other satellite programs, inter-comparisons with model-based products, and field campaigns. Each methodology has a role in the process. Examples of each methodology will be presented including recent field campaigns. The evaluation of the beta version will the explained and plans for the providing the validated products presented.

  20. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  1. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  2. 43 CFR 3108.2-3 - Reinstatement at higher rental and royalty rates: Class II reinstatements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the United States in the lands have not been disposed of or have not otherwise become unavailable for..., including the release to the United States of funds being held in escrow, as appropriate; (iv) An agreement... action of the United States, its agents or employees, which preceded, and was a major consideration...

  3. 45 CFR 1220.2-3 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other serious consequences to the volunteer or the retention of an attorney prior to arraignment is... become payable to the volunteer. In the case of a grassroots sponsor of full-time volunteers which is not... office shall notify the General Counsel, giving all facts and circumstances at that time known to...

  4. SYNTHESIS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF NEW 5H-INDOLO[2,3-B]QUINOLINE O-AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

    PubMed

    Badowska-Rosłonek, Katarzyna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Switalska, Marta; Piskozub, Małgorzata; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline O-aminoglycosides were synthesized in order to check the hypothesis that the construction of hybrids composed of the active 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline chromophore and daunosaminyl or acosaminyl moiety may result in the cytotoxic activity of the obtained derivatives that is much higher than the one of the parent DIMIQ (5,11-dimethyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) and 6H-indoloquinoline analogs. Actually, 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides showed the anti-proliferative activity in vitro against human lung adenocarcinoma A549, breast cancer MCF-7, melanoma Hs294T, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, uterine sarcoma MES-SA and colon cancer LoVo cell lines, which was 10 times higher than that of the 6H-analogs and comparable to the one of the referential DIMIQ. Unexpectedly, it appeared that except for HL-60/MX2 (P-gp-independent and topoisomerase II-dependent resistance), other MDR tumor cell lines (LoVo/DX. P-gp-dependent, MRP-, LRP-dependent multidrug resistance) and MES-SA/DX5 (P-gp-dependent resistance to doxorubicin) are also resistant to the 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides tested. This is surprising because 6H-analogs, in general, 10 times less active against non-MDR tumor cell lines, as well as the DIMIQ itself, are able to overcome drug resistance in all MDR cell lines examined. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds against tumor cell lines and against normal cells (mice fibroblasts BALB/3T3) was comparable. PMID:27476287

  5. Time Is Money...and the Enemy of College Completion: Transform American Higher Education to Boost Completion and Reduce Costs. Testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Stan Jones' testimony before the United States House of Representatives Subcommittee on Higher Education and Workforce Training. In his testimony, he talks about a new American majority of students that is emerging on campuses, especially at community colleges. These students must delicately balance long hours at jobs they must…

  6. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  7. Effects of pH and fermentation strategies on 2,3-butanediol production with an isolated Klebsiella sp. Zmd30 strain.

    PubMed

    Wong, Chiao-Ling; Yen, Hong-Wei; Lin, Chung-Liang; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of pH-controlled and fermentation strategies on 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production by an isolated Klebsiella sp. Zmd30 strain. The pH value of 6.0 was found to be optimal among the investigated range of 4.5-9.0. In batch fermentation, the concentration, productivity and yield of 2,3-BDO were 57.17 g/l, 1.59 g/l/h and 82%, respectively. The 2,3-BDO production by Klebsiella sp. Zmd30 was found to be growth-associated. Higher 2,3-BDO concentration (110 g/l) and yield (94%) was obtained by using fed-batch operation, but the productivity was lower (0.88 g/l/h) as compared to that when using batch operation. The highest 2,3-BDO productivity of 2.81 g/l/h was obtained with the continuous culture at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 12h. The results suggest that fed-batch operation might be most suitable for commercialized 2,3-BDO production, due to obtaining a high concentration and yield.

  8. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  9. Higher Education or Higher Skilling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Steven

    1974-01-01

    Higher education may return to education for a minority, an unlikely course; concentrate on higher skilling, the road we are on today; or restore general education, the most attractive possibility, which can be implemented by restoring basic education in literacy, history, human biology, and language. (JH)

  10. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  11. Deexcitation of helium 2 3S, 2 1S, and 2 3P atoms at Ar and Xe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oró, D. M.; Soletsky, P. A.; Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Walters, G. K.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of ejected electron energy distributions are used in conjunction with electron spin labeling techniques to probe the mechanisms by which He(2 3S), He(2 1S), and He(2 3P) atoms are deexcited at Ar and Xe films adsorbed on a cooled Cu(100) substrate. The data for both surfaces contain features similar to those observed in gas-phase Penning ionization, indicating that ejection results, in part, from Auger deexcitation, i.e., surface Penning ionization. For Xe, however, additional features are observed that can be attributed to resonance ionization of an incident excited atom followed by neutralization of the resulting He+ ion through an interaction that involves neighboring Xe atoms in the film. Indeed, the Xe data provide an exceptional example of a surface at which Auger deexcitation and resonance ionization occur in parallel with one another, with a branching ratio that changes significantly as the internal energy of the incident atoms increases. The ejected electron yield from both Ar and Xe films is substantially higher than for clean Cu(100), indicating that such films might form the basis of an efficient thermal-energy helium metastable-atom detector.

  12. Herschel protocluster survey: a search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z = 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Hatsukade, B.; Umehata, H.; Tanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Erb, D. K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Geach, J. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Yamada, T.; Hayashino, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) survey of three protoclusters at z = 2-3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 μm sources, we selected high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4σ overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5 arcmin (˜2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of H α emitters at z = 2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5σ overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1 arcmin (˜1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 μm sources are concentrated 3 arcmin (˜1.4 Mpc) east to the Ly α emitters overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star formation rate densities are 103-104 times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters. Further observations are needed to confirm the redshifts of the SPIRE sources and to investigate what processes enhance the dusty star formation activity in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters.

  13. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    This eighth chapter of "The Yearbook of School Law, 1986" summarizes and analyzes over 330 state and federal court cases litigated in 1985 in which institutions of higher education were involved. Among the topics examined were relationships between postsecondary institutions and various governmental agencies; discrimination in the employment of…

  14. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Gregory, Dennis E.

    Decisions made by federal and state courts during 1983 concerning higher education are reported in this chapter. Issues of employment and the treatment of students underlay the bulk of the litigation. Specific topics addressed in these and other cases included federal authority to enforce regulations against age discrimination and to revoke an…

  15. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    Litigation in 1987 was very brisk with an increase in the number of higher education cases reviewed. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under four major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining and denial of employee benefits; (3)…

  16. Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.; Finnegan, Dorothy E.

    The higher education case law in 1988 is extensive. Cases discussed in this chapter are organized under five major topics: (1) intergovernmental relations; (2) employees, involving discrimination claims, tenured and nontenured faculty, collective bargaining, and denial of employee benefits; (3) students, involving admissions, financial aid, First…

  17. Higher Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bok, Derek

    Factors that distinguish the United States higher education system and its performance are considered, with attention to new developments, propsects for change, undergraduate education, and professional schools (especially law, business, and medicine). The way universities change the methods and content of their teaching in response to new…

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  19. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  20. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  1. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  2. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  3. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  4. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  5. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  6. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  7. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  8. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  9. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  10. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  12. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  13. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  14. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  15. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and use. In developed camping and...

  16. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  17. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  18. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  19. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  20. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  1. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  2. Engineering of cofactor regeneration enhances (2S,3S)-2,3-butanediol production from diacetyl

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Li, Lixiang; Ma, Cuiqing; Gao, Chao; Tao, Fei; Xu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    (2S,3S)-2,3-Butanediol ((2S,3S)-2,3-BD) is a potentially valuable liquid fuel and an excellent building block in asymmetric synthesis. In this study, cofactor engineering was applied to improve the efficiency of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD production and simplify the product purification. Two NADH regeneration enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and formate dehydrogenase (FDH), were introduced into Escherichia coli with 2,3-BD dehydrogenase, respectively. Introduction of FDH resulted in higher (2S,3S)-2,3-BD concentration, productivity and yield from diacetyl, and large increase in the intracellular NADH concentration. In fed-batch bioconversion, the final titer, productivity and yield of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD on diacetyl reached 31.7 g/L, 2.3 g/(L·h) and 89.8%, the highest level of (2S,3S)-2,3-BD production thus far. Moreover, cosubstrate formate was almost totally converted to carbon dioxide and no organic acids were produced. The biocatalytic process presented should be a promising route for biotechnological production of NADH-dependent microbial metabolites. PMID:24025762

  3. Providing Higher Education in Post-Modern Times: What Do University Mission Statements Tell Us about What They Believe and Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Jennifer; Miller, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) are critical to the delivery of education for all in any nation state. What they believe and what they do are critical components to creating societal impact. But what they believe and do is not always clear. Using a derivative of SWIFT (Structured Word Identification and Frequency Totals), the authors examined…

  4. Understanding the Changing Faculty Workforce in Higher Education: A Comparison of Full-Time Non-Tenure Track and Tenure Line Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Molly; Cisneros, Jesus

    2015-01-01

    Non-tenure track faculty are a growing majority in American higher education, but research examining their work lives is limited. Moreover, the theoretical frameworks commonly used by scholars have been critiqued for reliance on ideologically charged assumptions. Using a conceptual model developed from Hackman and Oldham's (1980) Job…

  5. Technology, Time and Transition in Higher Education--Two Different Realities of Everyday "Facebook" Use in the First Year of University in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stirling, Eve

    2016-01-01

    Within the range of websites and apps that are part of first-year undergraduates' digital environments, the social network site "Facebook" is perhaps the most popular and prominent. As such, the ubiquitous nature of "Facebook" in the higher education landscape has drawn much attention from scholars. Drawing on data from a…

  6. Assessing the Impact of a Statewide STEM Investment on K-12, Higher Education, and Business/Community STEM Awareness over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sondergeld, Toni A.; Johnson, Carla C.; Walten, Janet B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite monetary and educational investments in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) being at record high levels, little attention has been devoted to generating a common understanding of STEM. In addition, working with business, K-12 schools, and/or institutions of higher education to establish a grassroots effort to help…

  7. Deletion of lactate dehydrogenase in Enterobacter aerogenes to enhance 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Jung, Moo-Young; Ng, Chiam Yu; Song, Hyohak; Lee, Jinwon; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2012-07-01

    2,3-Butanediol is an important bio-based chemical product, because it can be converted into several C4 industrial chemicals. In this study, a lactate dehydrogenase-deleted mutant was constructed to improve 2,3-butanediol productivity in Enterobacter aerogenes. To delete the gene encoding lactate dehydrogenase, λ Red recombination method was successfully adapted for E. aerogenes. The resulting strain produced a very small amount of lactate and 16.7% more 2,3-butanediol than that of the wild-type strain in batch fermentation. The mutant and its parental strain were then cultured with six different carbon sources, and the mutant showed higher carbon source consumption and microbial growth rates in all media. The 2,3-butanediol titer reached 69.5 g/l in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant,which was 27.4% higher than that with the parental strain.With further optimization of the medium and aeration conditions,118.05 g/l 2,3-butanediol was produced in 54 h during fed-batch fermentation with the mutant. This is by far the highest titer of 2,3-butanediol with E. aerogenes achieved by metabolic pathway engineering.

  8. Fabrication and Evaluation of Mn-Substituted Ba(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamimura, Y.; Lee, B.-Y.; Yazawa, K.; Funakubo, H.; Iijima, T.; Uchida, H.

    2011-10-01

    Perovskite oxides with higher phase transition temperature receive much attention as promising candidates which possess excellent and stable dielectric properties over wide temperature range. In the present research, dense ceramics of Ba-based perovskite oxides of Ba(Cu1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BCN) were fabricated by powder sintering. Mn-substituted BCN (Mn-BCN) ceramics were also fabricated for improving the insulating property of the BCN ceramics. Mn-BCN ceramics were fabricated by powder sintering using fine precursor powders derived from sol-gel solutions. The chemical composition of the precursors were Ba[(Cu1/3Nb2/3)1-yMny]O3 with Mn content of y = 0-0.05. The cylindrical compacts of the powders were heat-treated at 1200-1350°C for 1-6 h for sintering. All of Mn-BCN ceramics consisted of perovskite-type crystal structure in tetragonal system at room temperature. The relative density of the pure and Mn-BCN ceramics sintered at 1300°C for 1 h were higher than 90%. The densities were degraded by firing at higher temperature and/or for longer time, owing to the thermal decomposition of the BCN crystalline phase. The Mn-substitution for BCN ceramics resulted in disappearing the dielectric relaxation and suppressing the leakage current conduction.

  9. Determinants of the abilities to jump higher and shorten the contact time in a running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ken; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Zushi, Koji

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to obtain useful information for developing training techniques for the running 1-legged vertical jump in basketball (lay-up shot jump). The ability to perform the lay-up shot jump and various basic jumps was measured by testing 19 male basketball players. The basic jumps consisted of the 1-legged repeated rebound jump, the 2-legged repeated rebound jump, and the countermovement jump. Jumping height, contact time, and jumping index (jumping height/contact time) were measured and calculated using a contact mat/computer system that recorded the contact and air times. The jumping index indicates power. No significant correlation existed between the jumping height and contact time of the lay-up shot jump, the 2 components of the lay-up shot jump index. As a result, jumping height and contact time were found to be mutually independent abilities. The relationships in contact time between the lay-up shot jump to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the 2-legged repeated rebound jump were correlated on the same significance levels (p < 0.05). A significant correlation for jumping height existed between the 1-legged repeated rebound jump and the lay-up shot jump (p < 0.05), although none existed for jumping height between the lay-up shot jump and both the 2-legged repeated rebound jump and countermovement jump. The lay-up shot index correlated more strongly to the 1-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.01) when compared to the 2-legged repeated rebound jump index (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the 1-legged repeated rebound jump is effective in improving both contact time and jumping height in the lay-up shot jump.

  10. 2,3-Dideoxyglucosides of selected terpene phenols and alcohols as potent antifungal compounds.

    PubMed

    James Bound, D; Murthy, Pushpa S; Srinivas, P

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal activities of novel 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol, thymol, and perillyl alcohol were tested against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ochraceus, Fusarium oxysporum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. In the agar well diffusion tests, zones of inhibition for the derivatives of carvacrol, thymol and perillyl alcohol were higher (15-30mm) in the case of filamentous fungi than those for the parent compounds. Their MIC and MFC values indicated that the 2,3-unsaturated and 2,3-dideoxy 1-O-glucosides of carvacrol and thymol exhibited more fungicidal activity than the other compounds. Further, the 2,3-dideoxyglucosides of carvacrol and thymol, exhibited antitoxigenic effects against A. ochraceus and A. flavus and inhibited the production of ochratoxin and aflatoxin-B2. Propidium iodide influx assay demonstrated the lysis of C. albicans cells by carvacrol and its 2,3-unsaturated 1-O-glucoside and the loss of the membrane integrity. These new 2,3-dideoxyglucosides can be useful as antifungal agents and condiments in foods. PMID:27211660

  11. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or other part...

  12. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  13. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  14. The Use of Quantile Regression to Forecast Higher Than Expected Respiratory Deaths in a Daily Time Series: A Study of New York City Data 1987-2000

    PubMed Central

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal / temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept. PMID:24147122

  15. The use of quantile regression to forecast higher than expected respiratory deaths in a daily time series: a study of New York City data 1987-2000.

    PubMed

    Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2013-01-01

    Forecasting higher than expected numbers of health events provides potentially valuable insights in its own right, and may contribute to health services management and syndromic surveillance. This study investigates the use of quantile regression to predict higher than expected respiratory deaths. Data taken from 70,830 deaths occurring in New York were used. Temporal, weather and air quality measures were fitted using quantile regression at the 90th-percentile with half the data (in-sample). Four QR models were fitted: an unconditional model predicting the 90th-percentile of deaths (Model 1), a seasonal/temporal (Model 2), a seasonal, temporal plus lags of weather and air quality (Model 3), and a seasonal, temporal model with 7-day moving averages of weather and air quality. Models were cross-validated with the out of sample data. Performance was measured as proportionate reduction in weighted sum of absolute deviations by a conditional, over unconditional models; i.e., the coefficient of determination (R1). The coefficient of determination showed an improvement over the unconditional model between 0.16 and 0.19. The greatest improvement in predictive and forecasting accuracy of daily mortality was associated with the inclusion of seasonal and temporal predictors (Model 2). No gains were made in the predictive models with the addition of weather and air quality predictors (Models 3 and 4). However, forecasting models that included weather and air quality predictors performed slightly better than the seasonal and temporal model alone (i.e., Model 3 > Model 4 > Model 2) This study provided a new approach to predict higher than expected numbers of respiratory related-deaths. The approach, while promising, has limitations and should be treated at this stage as a proof of concept.

  16. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours. PMID:26440946

  17. Spatial and temporal variation in type 1 diabetes incidence in Western Australia from 1991 to 2010: increased risk at higher latitudes and over time.

    PubMed

    Ball, Stephen J; Haynes, Aveni; Jacoby, Peter; Pereira, Gavin; Miller, Laura J; Bower, Carol; Davis, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal variation in childhood incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) among Western Australia׳s 36 Health Districts from 1991 to 2010. There was a strong latitudinal gradient of 3.5% (95% CI, 0.2-7.2) increased risk of T1DM per degree south of the Equator, as averaged across the range 15-35° south. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis of vitamin D deficiency at higher latitudes. In addition there was a 2.4% (95% CI, 1.3-3.6) average increase in T1DM incidence per year. These effects could not be explained by population density, socioeconomic status, remoteness or ethnicity.

  18. [Longer waiting time and higher mortality in older people with traumatic brain injuries. Mapping of emergency prehospital management and hospital management in Västerbotten].

    PubMed

    Holzmann, Martin; Bylund, Per O; Degerfält, Lisa; Carlsson, Axel C; Wändell, Per; Ruge, Toralph

    2015-10-06

    The main purpose was to study the prehospital and early intrahospital treatment of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) in the county of Västerbotten 2011-2012. In total, 162 patients were included. The main finding was that a large proportion of TBI patients were older men who fell in the same or from a different level. Older patients had higher mortality and had to wait longer for diagnostic imaging compared to younger patients. Furthermore, most patients were initially relatively unaffected by the injury and around 1/5 of the patients were transported to hospital by private transport. Finally, we observed that most patients were admitted to hospital and computer tomography scan of the head was performed within 4 hours.

  19. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-08-01

    The 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (3',5'-cAMP→5'-AMP→adenosine) and the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP→2'-AMP/3'-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway to the 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP, 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 3',5'-cAMP, and 5'-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2',3'-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2'-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2',3'-cAMP to 3'-AMP or 3',5'-cAMP to either 3'-AMP or 5'-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2',3'-cAMP and 2'-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2',3'-cAMP and extracellular 2'-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway but do have a 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2'-AMP formation rather than 3'-AMP, and because the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2'-AMP. Accumulation of 2'-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:25998049

  20. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...) Before initiating procurement action for the building of the project, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  1. 10 CFR 960.4-2-3 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.4-2-3 Section 960.4-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... environment and (2) the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60.113 for radionuclide releases from the...

  2. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... governing the mineral leasing of Indian lands are found in 25 CFR Chapter I Subchapter I. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-3 Lands in Indian reservations. All lands...

  3. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  4. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  5. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  6. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  7. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  8. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  9. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  10. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  11. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  12. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  13. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  14. Catalytic C6 functionalization of 2,3-disubstituted indoles by scandium triflate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Zheng, Chao; You, Shu-Li

    2014-02-01

    We report herein an unprecedented direct catalytic C6 functionalization reaction of 2,3-disubstituted indoles with various N-Ts aziridines catalyzed by Sc(OTf)3 under mild conditions. Mechanistic studies revealed that a kinetically favored but reversible formal [3 + 2] annulation occurs initially. The direct C6 functionalization, although having a relatively higher energetic barrier, delivers the thermodynamically favorable products.

  15. Transmissivity of carbon monoxide in the 2.3 microns band region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drayson, S. R.; Tallamraju, R. K.; Chaney, L. W.; Matthias, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    Line strengths and self and nitrogen broadened half-widths have been determined from high resolution spectroscopic measurements of selected lines in the 2.3 micrometer band region of CO. The CO 0-2 total band strength is estimated to be 2.086 + or - 0.146 cm/1 (ATM-cm)/1 STP which is higher than most previously reported values. The line half-widths are also generally higher than those in the literature.

  16. Numerical approximation of higher-order time-fractional telegraph equation by using a combination of a geometric approach and method of line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemi, M. S.; Baleanu, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose a simple and accurate numerical scheme for solving the time fractional telegraph (TFT) equation within Caputo type fractional derivative. A fictitious coordinate ϑ is imposed onto the problem in order to transform the dependent variable u (x , t) into a new variable with an extra dimension. In the new space with the added fictitious dimension, a combination of method of line and group preserving scheme (GPS) is proposed to find the approximate solutions. This method preserves the geometric structure of the problem. Power and accuracy of this method has been illustrated through some examples of TFT equation.

  17. Benchmarks on automated system and software generation higher flexibility increased productivity and shorter time-to-market by ScaPable software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Rainer

    2002-07-01

    "ScaPable" is an acronym derived from "scalable" and "portable". The attribute "scalable" indicates that specific application software can automatically be built from scratch and verified without writing any statement in a programming language like C, thereby covering a large variety of embedded and/or distributed applications. The term "portable" addresses the capability to automatically port parts of such an application from one physical node to another one - the processor and operating system type may change - only requiring the names of the nodes, their processor type and operating system. This way the infrastructure of an embedded / distributed system can be built just by provision of literals and figures which define the system interaction, communication, topology and performance. Moreover, dedicated application software like needed for on-board command handling, data acquisition and processing, and telemetry handling can be built from generic templates. The generation time range from less than one second up to about twenty minutes on a PC/Linux platform (800 MHz). By this extremely short generation time risks can be identified early because the executable application is immediately available for validation. A rough estimation shows that one hour of automated system and software generation is equivalent to about 5 .. 50 man years. Currently, about 50% of a typical space embedded system can be covered by the available automated approach. However, the more it is applied, the more can be covered by automation. A system is constructed by applying a formal transformation to the few information as delivered by the user. This approach is not limited to the space domain, although the first industrial application was a space project. Quite different domains can take advantage of such principles of system construction. This paper explains the approach, compares it with other approaches, and provides figures on productivity, duration of system generation and reliability.

  18. Silybin and 2,3-Dehydrosilybin Flavonolignans as Free Radical Scavengers.

    PubMed

    Reina, Miguel; Martínez, Ana

    2015-09-01

    The electronic properties of six derivatives of silybin (characterized by the absence of the 2,3 double bond) and six derivatives of 2,3-dehydrosilybin (characterized by the presence of the 2,3 double bond) have been studied by applying density functional theory to fully understand the free radical scavenger's mechanism for action and the relationship between reactivity and chemical structure. Optimized geometries, Raman spectra, and λmax values are reported, enabling us to characterize the systems. These spectra may be useful for monitoring the oxidation between silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin, thus providing important experimental information. The relative abundance of deprotonated species under physiological conditions is also reported. Under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), ∼70% of silybin is protonated, but 60% of 2,3-dehydrosilybin is deprotonated. The free radical scavenger capacity is analyzed in terms of two mechanisms: electron transfer and adduct formation. Deprotonated molecules are better electron donors and worse electron acceptors than non-deprotonated species. The conclusions derived from this investigation completely concur with previous experimental results. The free radical scavenging activity of 2,3-dehydrosilybin derivatives is higher than that for silybin derivatives. What was not previously considered was the importance of the deprotonated species, which is remarkable and may be important for future experiments.

  19. Carvedilol inhibits Kir2.3 channels by interference with PIP₂-channel interaction.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Tania; Ponce-Balbuena, Daniela; López-Izquierdo, Angélica; Aréchiga-Figueroa, Ivan A; de Boer, Teun P; van der Heyden, Marcel A G; Sánchez-Chapula, José A

    2011-10-01

    Carvedilol, a β- and α-adrenoceptor blocker, is used to treat congestive heart failure, mild to moderate hypertension, and myocardial infarction. It has been proposed to block K(ATP) channels by binding to the bundle crossing region at a domain including cysteine at position 166, and thereby plugging the pore region. However, carvedilol was reported not to affect Kir2.1 channels, which lack 166 Cys. Here, we demonstrate that carvedilol inhibits Kir2.3 carried current by an alternative mechanism. Carvedilol inhibited Kir2.3 channels with at least 100 fold higher potency (IC(50)=0.49 μM) compared to that for Kir2.1 (IC(50)>50 μM). Kir2.3 channel inhibition was concentration-dependent and voltage-independent. Increasing Kir2.3 channel affinity for PIP(2), by a I213L point mutation, decreased the inhibitory effect of carvedilol more than twentyfold (IC(50)=11.1 μM). In the presence of exogenous PIP(2), Kir2.3 channel inhibition by carvedilol was strongly reduced (80 vs. 2% current inhibition). These results suggest that carvedilol, as other cationic amphiphilic drugs, inhibits Kir2.3 channels by interfering with the PIP(2)-channel interaction.

  20. Onset of spermatogenesis is accelerated by gestational administration of 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachlorinated naphthalene in male rat offspring.

    PubMed Central

    Omura, M; Masuda, Y; Hirata, M; Tanaka, A; Makita, Y; Ogata, R; Inoue, N

    2000-01-01

    We treated pregnant rats with 1 microg/kg body weight/day 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachlorinated naphthalene (1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN) on days 14-16 of gestation and examined the effects on the reproductive systems of their male offspring at various phases of sexual maturation. Sperm count in the cauda epididymidis did not change in 1,2,3,4,6, 7-HxCN-treated rats on postnatal day 89, the age of sexual maturity, but the sperm count in the cauda epididymidis did increase to approximately 180% of the control value on postnatal day 62. In addition, homogenization-resistant testicular spermatids increased to approximately 160% of the control value on postnatal day 48, and the percent of postmeiotic tubules increased to approximately 190% of the control value on postnatal day 31 in this group. These results indicate that the onset of spermatogenesis was accelerated in the 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN rats. Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) had already reached the maximum level on postnatal day 31 in the 1,2,3,4,6, 7-HxCN group, suggesting that the onset of LH and FSH secretions from the pituitary gland was also accelerated and that this endocrine disruption was the cause of early onset of spermatogenesis in this group. In the fat of 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN-treated dams, 5.75+/-2.81 ppb 1,2,3,4,6,7-HxCN was detected when offspring were weaned. This concentration was 5-10 times higher than that found in human adipose tissue. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10856028

  1. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in the red blood cells of anaemic pregnant women in various periods of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Zachara, B; Krajewski, J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration in anaemic (haemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/100 ml blood) and in normal pregnant women (haemoglobin concentration above 12.5 g/100 ml blood). The authors showed that the 2,3-DPG concentration increased systematically between the 16th and 42nd weeks of pregnancy, both in the control group and in pregnant women with anaemia. However, in the group of anaemic pregnant women the 2,3-DPG concentration was higher in each stage of pregnancy. PMID:6629145

  2. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Studies in Mossy Maze Polypore, Cerrena unicolor (Higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Qi; Lin, Juan; Ye, Xiuyun

    2016-01-01

    With its ability to produce ligninolytic enzymes such as laccases, white-rot basidiomycete Cerrena unicolor, a medicinal mushroom, has great potential in biotechnology. Elucidation of the expression profiles of genes encoding ligninolytic enzymes are important for increasing their production. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool to study transcriptional regulation of genes of interest. To ensure accuracy and reliability of qPCR analysis of C. unicolor, expression levels of seven candidate reference genes were studied at different growth phases, under various induction conditions, and with a range of carbon/nitrogen ratios and carbon and nitrogen sources. The stability of the genes were analyzed with five statistical approaches, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, the ΔCt method, and RefFinder. Our results indicated that the selection of reference genes varied with sample sets. A combination of four reference genes (Cyt-c, ATP6, TEF1, and β-tubulin) were recommended for normalizing gene expression at different growth phases. GAPDH and Cyt-c were the appropriate reference genes under different induction conditions. ATP6 and TEF1 were most stable in fermentation media with various carbon/nitrogen ratios. In the fermentation media with various carbon or nitrogen sources, 18S rRNA and GAPDH were the references of choice. The present study represents the first validation analysis of reference genes in C. unicolor and serves as a foundation for its qPCR analysis. PMID:27279538

  3. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]dichloropropene in rats after inhalation.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A; Medinsky, M A; Dutcher, J S; Henderson, R F; Cheng, Y S; Mewhinney, J A; Birnbaum, L S

    1985-03-30

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. Human exposure potential exists during manufacture of the chemicals or during bulk handling activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-[14C]DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25 degrees C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of 14C (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of 14C in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (means +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of 14C feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (means +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-[14C]DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-[14C]DCP or 14CO2, respectively. Concentrations of 14C in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of 14C were seen. 14C was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-[14C]DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of 14C immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the 14C in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of 14C from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted.

  4. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)dichloropropene in rats after inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Henderson, R.F.; Cheng, Y.S.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-( UC)DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of UC (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of UC in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (anti x +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of UC feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (anti x +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-( UC)DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-( UC)DCP or UCO2, respectively. Concentrations of UC in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of UC were seen. UC was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-( UC)DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of UC immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the UC in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of UC from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted. 21 references. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  5. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  6. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  7. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  8. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  9. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  10. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  11. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  12. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent. PMID:27304610

  13. Renewable Gasoline, Solvents, and Fuel Additives from 2,3-Butanediol.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Benjamin G; Merriman, Walter W; Quintana, Roxanne L

    2016-07-21

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a renewable alcohol that can be prepared in high yield from biomass sugars. 2,3-BD was selectively dehydrated in a solvent-free process to a complex mixture of 2-ethyl-2,4,5-trimethyl-1,3-dioxolanes and 4,5-dimethyl-2isopropyl dioxolanes with the heterogeneous acid catalyst Amberlyst-15. The purified dioxolane mixture exhibited an anti-knock index of 90.5, comparable to high octane gasoline, and a volumetric net heat of combustion 34 % higher than ethanol. The solubility of the dioxolane mixture in water was only 0.8 g per 100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude lower than the common gasoline oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether. The dioxolane mixture has potential applications as a sustainable gasoline blending component, diesel oxygenate, and industrial solvent.

  14. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  15. Observation of two sequential pathways of (CO2 ) 3 + dissociation by heavy-ion impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhang, P.; Ma, X.; Feng, W. T.; Gao, Y.; Xu, S.; Zhao, Q. S.; Zhang, S. F.; Guo, D. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Zhang, R. T.; Huang, Z. K.; Wang, H. B.; Zhang, X. J.

    2016-09-01

    An experimental investigation of the breakup of (CO2 ) 3 + induced by N e4 + ion impact at incident energies of 1.12 MeV was performed. By analyzing the momentum distributions and the kinetic energies of the three fragment ions, the nonsequential and sequential dissociation mechanisms are verified. In contrast to highly charged ion impact, two different sequential decay pathways were observed in the present experiment. One pathway originates from the primary cation (CO2 ) 3 + populated into +4Σ states by collision charge exchange and its daughter cation (CO) 2 + populated into the two excited states (3Π and X 1Π ) by the first fragmentation step, resulting in a lower KER peak. The other pathway originates from the primary cation (CO2 ) 3 + locating at 6Π state, and its daughter cation (CO) 2 + populated into the metastable excited states 3Π , X 1Π , and +3Σ, leading to the higher KER peak. Our work is a breakup experiment of (CO2 ) 3 + presenting the initial states of the parent cation (CO2 ) 3 + and the metastable states of C O2 + ion simultaneously.

  16. Women in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pifer, Alan

    Women have traditionally been discriminated against in higher education in both the attainment of degrees and in employment after earning degrees. It has been felt that women are not as capable, reliable, or effective as men in administrative and classroom situations. Statistics show that even at the present time women are underemployed and…

  17. Leadership in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amey, Marilyn J.

    2006-01-01

    At a time when seasoned higher-education leaders are retiring and the challenges facing prospective administrators seem daunting, how do those in positions of authority or aspiring to those roles construct a meaningful and manageable identity as leaders? Where do they look for support and inspiration? How do they learn to lead? The author…

  18. Effective participation of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in the dehydrogenation pathway of the Mg(NH2)2-2LiH composite.

    PubMed

    Amica, G; Cova, F; Arneodo Larochette, P; Gennari, F C

    2016-07-21

    Lithium fast-ion conductors have shown positive effects on the hydrogen storage properties of the Li-Mg-N-H system. In the present work, Li4(NH2)3BH4 doped Mg(NH2)2-2LiH was formed by milling the 2LiNH2-MgH2-0.2LiBH4 composite and posterior annealing under hydrogen pressure to reduce the kinetic barrier of the Li-Mg-N-H system. The effect of repetitive dehydrogenation/rehydrogenation cycles on the kinetic and thermodynamic performance was evaluated. The dehydrogenation rate in the doped composite was twice that in the un-doped sample at 200 °C, while hydrogenation was 20 times faster. The activation energy decreases by 9% due to the presence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 compared to the un-doped composite, evidencing its catalytic role. The presence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in the composite stabilized the hydrogen storage capacity after successive sorption cycles. Thermodynamic studies revealed a variation in the pressure composition isotherm curves between the first dehydrogenation cycle and the subsequent. The Li4(NH2)3BH4 doped composite showed a sloped plateau region at higher equilibrium pressure in regard to the flat plateau of the un-doped composite. Detailed structural investigations revealed the effective influence of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in different reactions: the irreversible dehydrogenation in the presence of MgH2 and the reversible hydrogen release when it reacts with Li2Mg2(NH)3. The role of Li4(NH2)3BH4 in improving the dehydrogenation kinetics is associated with the weakening of the N-H bond and the mobile small ion mass transfer enhancement. PMID:27328012

  19. Application of cinder gel-beads/reeds combination strategy for bioremediation of pyrene- and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-contaminated estuarine wetlands.

    PubMed

    Tian, Weijun; Liu, Qing; Huang, Ruying; Jin, Xin; Qiao, Kaili

    2016-06-01

    Pseudomonas putida PYR1 and Acinetobacter baumannii INP1 isolated from Liaohe estuarine wetlands were entrapped in cinder beads to make cinder gel-beads. They were combined with reeds for bioremediation of pyrene- and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene-contaminated estuarine wetlands. The results showed that the removal percentages of pyrene and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (69.2 and 89.8 % respectively) in 40 days using cinder gel-beads/reeds were obviously higher than those using cinder gel-beads(52.6 and 70.0 %) and reeds (33.5 and 78.6 %) alone, about four times those of the control (13.8 and 31.1 %). The removal efficiency of pyrene was in the order cinder gel-beads/reeds > cinder gel-beads > reeds > control, which was different from cinder gel-beads/reeds > reeds > cinder gel-beads > control of indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene. This result indicated that the functional mechanism to remove indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene with six benzene rings was different from that of pyrene. The synergistic effect of reeds and cinder gel-beads for indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene removal was weaker than that of pyrene. But the absorption and transformation of reeds with high efficiency were beneficial to indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene removal from wetlands. Additionally, microbial analysis with high-throughput sequencing presented that Gammaproteobacteria were dominant PAH-degrading groups in bioremediation with immobilized bacteria. This strategy can serve as a model system for the removal of more complex or structurally related organic compounds from contaminated sites.

  20. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  1. Statistical Methods for Protecting Personally Identifiable Information in the Disclosure of Graduation Rates of First-Time, Full-Time Degree- or Certificate-Seeking Undergraduate Students by 2-Year Degree-Granting Institutions of Higher Education. Technical Brief. NCES 2012-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Bersudskaya, Vera; Cubarrubi, Archie

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (HEOA) requires that Title IV degree-granting institutions disclose annually the graduation rates of first-time, full-time degree- or certificate-seeking undergraduate students, disaggregated by gender, each major racial/ethnic subgroup, and receipt or non-receipt of a federal Pell grant or subsidized…

  2. Catalytic actions of alkaline salts in reactions between 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid and cellulose: II. Esterification.

    PubMed

    Ji, Bolin; Tang, Peixin; Yan, Kelu; Sun, Gang

    2015-11-01

    1,2,3,4-Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) reacts with cellulose in two steps with catalysis of alkaline salts such as sodium hypophosphite: anhydride formation and esterification of anhydride with cellulose. The alkali metal ions were found effective in catalyzing formation of BTCA anhydride in a previous report. In this work, catalytic functions of the alkaline salts in the esterification reaction between BTCA anhydride and cellulose were investigated. Results revealed that acid anions play an important role in the esterification reaction by assisting removal of protons on intermediates and completion of the esterification between cellulose and BTCA. Besides, alkaline salts with lower pKa1 values of the corresponding acids are more effective ones for the reaction since addition of these salts could lead to lower pH values and higher acid anion concentrations in finishing baths. The mechanism explains the results of FTIR and wrinkle recovery angles of the fabrics cured under different temperatures and times.

  3. Relationship between indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity and lymphatic invasion propensity of colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Engin, Atilla; Gonul, Ipek Isik; Engin, Ayse Basak; Karamercan, Ahmet; Sepici Dincel, Aylin; Dursun, Ayse

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether serum and tumor indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activities can predict lymphatic invasion (LI) or lymph node metastasis in colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: The study group consisted of 44 colorectal carcinoma patients. The patients were re-grouped according to the presence or absence of LI and lymph node metastasis. Forty-three cancer-free subjects without any metabolic disturbances were included into the control group. Serum neopterin was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary neopterin and biopterin, serum tryptophan (Trp) and kynurenine (Kyn) concentrations of all patients were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Kyn/Trp was calculated and its correlation with serum neopterin was determined to estimate the serum indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. Tissue sections from the studied tumors were re-examined histopathologically and were stained by immunohistochemistry with indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase antibodies. RESULTS: Neither serum nor urinary neopterin was significantly different between the patient and control groups (both P > 0.05). However, colorectal carcinoma patients showed a significant positive correlation between the serum neopterin levels and Kyn/Trp (r = 0.450, P < 0.01). Urinary biopterin was significantly higher in cancer cases (P < 0.05). Serum Kyn/Trp was significantly higher in colorectal carcinoma patients (P < 0.01). Lymphatic invasion was present in 23 of 44 patients, of which only 12 patients had lymph node metastasis. Eleven patients with LI had no lymph node metastasis. Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase intensity score was significantly higher in LI positive cancer group (44.56% ± 6.11%) than negative colorectal cancer patients (24.04% ± 6.90%), (P < 0.05). Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression correlated both with the presence of LI and lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). A significant difference between the accuracy of diagnosis by using either total indoleamine-2,3

  4. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  5. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  6. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  7. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL... or less according to the most recent U.S. Census; (b) The total Step 3 building cost is estimated...

  8. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  9. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  11. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  12. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  13. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  14. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  15. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  16. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  17. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  18. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  19. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  20. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  1. 43 CFR 3436.2-3 - Exchange procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2-3 Exchange procedures. (a) Any person meeting the... owner of the coal deposit underlying an alluvial valley floor identify Federal coal deposits that are... deposit underlying or near an alluvial valley floor, the Secretary shall proceed as though there were...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  3. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  4. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  5. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  6. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  7. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  8. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  9. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  10. Application of a liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method to the biodistribution and excretion studies of novel 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo (2', 3': 2, 3) betulinic acid (DRF-4012) in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gautam; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Awasthi, Anshumali; Singh, Anu T; Jaggi, Manu; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-06-01

    Novel betulinic acid derivative 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo [2', 3': 2, 3] betulinic acid (DRF-4012) is a new effective lupane type triterpenes with greater anticancer activity and efficacy than betulinic acid and currently under advanced preclinical investigation phase. In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method has been developed for the determination of DRF-4012 in tumour-bearing mice plasma, urine, feces and tissues (liver, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, stomach, thigh muscle, kidneys, urinary bladder, small intestine and tumour). Biodistribution and excretion studies were performed for DRF-4012 nanoparticle (30 mg/kg body weight) after intravenous (i.v.) injection in tumour-bearing mice. DRF-4012 rapidly distributed throughout the body. After 0.5 h, tumour showed the second highest concentration, which was nearly half of the liver. After 4 and 24 h, the highest concentration of DRF-4012 was found in tumour indicating its retention in tumour site for a longer time. Excretion studies revealed that very low amount of unchanged DRF-4012 was observed in urine and primarily excreted through fecal route. This study may be useful to explain the manner in which DRF-4012 can inhibit tumour growth without apparent toxicity and preclinical/clinical evaluation of this potential antitumour agent.

  11. Measurement of 25-hydroxyvitamin D2&3 and 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D2&3 by Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A Primate Multispecies Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Toni E.; Kapoor, Amita; Hedman, Curtis J.; Binkley, Neil; Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D metabolites are widely studied for their roles in bone health, immune functions and other potential physiologic roles in humans. However, the optimal blood levels of vitamin D metabolites are still unclear. Various methods for measuring vitamin D metabolites have been used and recently liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) has been adopted as the gold standard for vitamin D metabolite measurement. Here we report the use of LC-MS/MS to measure 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D2&3), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D2&3), in three laboratory nonhuman primate species: common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus), rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta), and cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis), and compare them to humans using the same technique. The nonhuman primates showed blood levels for 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3 significantly higher than human values with marmosets having the highest levels. Marmoset samples showed significantly more variability among individuals than those from macaques for both metabolites, but all three nonhuman primate species exhibited large variation within species for both 25(OH)D2&3 and 1,25(OH)2D2&3. Marmoset females had significantly lower values than the males for 25(OH)D3, while rhesus males showed a significant decrease in 25(OH)D3 with age. The most striking finding is the variation within species for vitamin D levels even in laboratory primates that have a controlled diet, UV exposure, and in some cases, genetic constraints. Similar variation in 25(OH)D responses to a fixed dose of oral vitamin D supplementation has been reported in humans. We suggest that these species can provide primate models for examining the factors influencing variation in the levels of vitamin D necessary for human and nonhuman primate health. PMID:25845705

  12. Cortical Layer 1 and Layer 2/3 Astrocytes Exhibit Distinct Calcium Dynamics In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Takata, Norio; Hirase, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative evidence supports bidirectional interactions between astrocytes and neurons, suggesting glial involvement of neuronal information processing in the brain. Cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration is important for astrocytes as Ca2+ surges co-occur with gliotransmission and neurotransmitter reception. Cerebral cortex is organized in layers which are characterized by distinct cytoarchitecture. We asked if astrocyte-dominant layer 1 (L1) of the somatosensory cortex was different from layer 2/3 (L2/3) in spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ activity and if it was influenced by background neural activity. Using a two-photon laser scanning microscope, we compared spontaneous Ca2+ activity of astrocytic somata and processes in L1 and L2/3 of anesthetized mature rat somatosensory cortex. We also assessed the contribution of background neural activity to the spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ dynamics by investigating two distinct EEG states (“synchronized” vs. “de-synchronized” states). We found that astrocytes in L1 had nearly twice higher Ca2+ activity than L2/3. Furthermore, Ca2+ fluctuations of processes within an astrocyte were independent in L1 while those in L2/3 were synchronous. Pharmacological blockades of metabotropic receptors for glutamate, ATP, and acetylcholine, as well as suppression of action potentials did not have a significant effect on the spontaneous somatic Ca2+ activity. These results suggest that spontaneous astrocytic Ca2+ surges occurred in large part intrinsically, rather than neural activity-driven. Our findings propose a new functional segregation of layer 1 and 2/3 that is defined by autonomous astrocytic activity. PMID:18575586

  13. Gridded atmospheric emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Tian, Chongguo; Zhang, Kai; Gao, Hong; Li, Yi-Fan; Ma, Jianmin

    2015-05-01

    Establishment of the dioxins emission inventory has been considered as a crucial step toward risk assessment and elimination of dioxins contaminations. Based on a total dioxin emission inventory in China from different emission categories in 2004, this study created a gridded emission inventory of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most toxic congener in dioxins, in China in 2009 with a 1/4° longitude by 1/4° latitude resolution. It was estimated that annually total 371 ± 53 g (average ± standard deviation) of 2,3,7,8-TCDD was released into the atmosphere in 2009 over China, increasing approximately by 37% compared with its emission in 2004. Differing from most developed countries where municipal waste incinerations were regarded as a major atmospheric emission source, in China ferrous and non-ferrous metal production made the largest contribution to 2,3,7,8-TCDD air emission (138 ± 16 g), followed by waste incineration (109 ± 12 g), power and heating generation (62 ± 9 g), and production of mineral products (47 ± 8 g). The rest of sources contributed approximately 3% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009. Iron and steel industries are mainly located in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) and Yangtze River Delta (YRD) regions, whereas waste incinerators are mainly located in Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Higher 2,3,7,8-TCDD emissions were found in these three regions. While the BTH, YRD, and PRD accounted for only about 4% of total land area of China, they contributed approximately 14%, 15%, and 5% to the total 2,3,7,8-TCDD emission in 2009 in China, respectively.

  14. A Tax for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Higher education pays off handsomely for society. Yet on a nationwide basis, states' support for higher education per full-time-equivalent student has fallen to just $6,290, the lowest in 15 years. A dedicated source of funds for higher education is problematic. But what if state and federal lawmakers applied the impeccable logic of the gas tax to…

  15. Higher Education in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McComas, James D.

    Events and conditions over the last 20 years that have altered the course of higher education are briefly noted, and trends in higher education for the early eighties are examined. Among the past influences on higher education that illustrate the wisdom of planning for a realistic period of time, such as five years, are the following: the massive…

  16. Radioimmunoassay for quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Lawson, L.D.; Corbett, J.T.; McKinney, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay is described for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in commercial preparations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as environmental samples including animal tissues. A feature of the assay method is the use of nonionic detergent to solubilize the hydrophobic dibenzofurans in a manner permitting their binding to antibodies. The detection limits of the assay range between 20 pg and 4.0 ng of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Extensive cross-reactivity studies indicated that the antiserum was fairly specific for TCDF although some cross-reactivity was found to structurally similar compounds. Values for TCDF in various Aroclors and animal tissues by radioimmunoassay correlated with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The radioimmunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening and should be simple enough to be performed in most clinical laboratories. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  17. Diethyldithiocarbamate-mediated zinc ion chelation reveals role of Cav2.3 channels in glucagon secretion.

    PubMed

    Drobinskaya, Irina; Neumaier, Felix; Pereverzev, Alexey; Hescheler, Jürgen; Schneider, Toni

    2015-05-01

    Peptide-hormone secretion is partially triggered by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) and gene inactivation of Zn2+-sensitive Cav2.3-type VGCCs is associated with disturbed glucose homeostasis in mice. Zn2+ has been implicated in pancreatic islet cell crosstalk and recent findings indicate that sudden cessation of Zn2+ supply during hypoglycemia triggers glucagon secretion in rodents. Here we show that diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), a chelating agent for Zn2+ and other group IIB metal ions, differentially affects blood glucose and serum peptide hormone level in wild-type mice and mice lacking the Cav2.3-subunit. Fasting glucose and glucagon level were significantly higher in Cav2.3-deficient compared to wild-type mice, while DEDTC Zn2+-chelation produced a significant and correlated increase of blood glucose and serum glucagon concentration in wild-type but not Cav2.3-deficient mice. Glucose tolerance tests revealed severe glucose intolerance in Zn2+-depleted Cav2.3-deficient but not vehicle-treated Cav2.3-deficient or Zn2+-depleted wildtype mice. Collectively, these findings indicate that Cav2.3 channels are critically involved in the Zn2+-mediated suppression of glucagon secretion during hyperglycemia. Especially under conditions of Zn2+ deficiency, ablation or dysfunction of Cav2.3 channels may lead to severe disturbances in glucose homeostasis. PMID:25603538

  18. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  19. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  20. The MOSDEF Survey: Electron Density and Ionization Parameter at z ~ 2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Coil, Alison L.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Using observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we investigate the physical conditions of star-forming regions in z ˜ 2.3 galaxies, specifically the electron density and ionization state. From measurements of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 and [S ii]λλ6716,6731 doublets, we find a median electron density of ˜250 cm-3 at z ˜ 2.3, an increase of an order of magnitude compared to measurements of galaxies at z ˜ 0. While z ˜ 2.3 galaxies are offset toward significantly higher O32 values relative to local galaxies at fixed stellar mass, we find that the high-redshift sample follows a similar distribution to the low-metallicity tail of the local distribution in the O32 versus R23 and O3N2 diagrams. Based on these results, we propose that z ˜ 2.3 star-forming galaxies have the same ionization parameter as local galaxies at fixed metallicity. In combination with simple photoionization models, the position of local and z ˜ 2.3 galaxies in excitation diagrams suggests that there is no significant change in the hardness of the ionizing spectrum at fixed metallicity from z ˜ 0 to z ˜ 2.3. We find that z ˜ 2.3 galaxies show no offset compared to low-metallicity local galaxies in emission line ratio diagrams involving only lines of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, but show a systematic offset in diagrams involving [N ii]λ6584. We conclude that the offset of z ˜ 2.3 galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [N ii] BPT diagram is primarily driven by elevated N/O at fixed O/H compared to local galaxies. These results suggest that the local gas-phase and stellar metallicity sets the ionization state of star-forming regions at z ˜ 0 and z ˜ 2. Based on data obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA, and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  1. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: ELECTRON DENSITY AND IONIZATION PARAMETER AT z ∼ 2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Groot, Laura de; Coil, Alison L.

    2016-01-01

    Using observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey, we investigate the physical conditions of star-forming regions in z ∼ 2.3 galaxies, specifically the electron density and ionization state. From measurements of the [O ii]λλ3726,3729 and [S ii]λλ6716,6731 doublets, we find a median electron density of ∼250 cm{sup −3} at z ∼ 2.3, an increase of an order of magnitude compared to measurements of galaxies at z ∼ 0. While z ∼ 2.3 galaxies are offset toward significantly higher O{sub 32} values relative to local galaxies at fixed stellar mass, we find that the high-redshift sample follows a similar distribution to the low-metallicity tail of the local distribution in the O{sub 32} versus R{sub 23} and O3N2 diagrams. Based on these results, we propose that z ∼ 2.3 star-forming galaxies have the same ionization parameter as local galaxies at fixed metallicity. In combination with simple photoionization models, the position of local and z ∼ 2.3 galaxies in excitation diagrams suggests that there is no significant change in the hardness of the ionizing spectrum at fixed metallicity from z ∼ 0 to z ∼ 2.3. We find that z ∼ 2.3 galaxies show no offset compared to low-metallicity local galaxies in emission line ratio diagrams involving only lines of hydrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, but show a systematic offset in diagrams involving [N ii]λ6584. We conclude that the offset of z ∼ 2.3 galaxies from the local star-forming sequence in the [N ii] BPT diagram is primarily driven by elevated N/O at fixed O/H compared to local galaxies. These results suggest that the local gas-phase and stellar metallicity sets the ionization state of star-forming regions at z ∼ 0 and z ∼ 2.

  2. Direct evidence of the low-temperature cluster-glass magnetic state of Nd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 perovskite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feher, Alexander; Desnenko, Vladimir; Fertman, Elena; Dolya, Sergiy; Kajňaková, Marcela; Beznosov, Anatoly

    2012-07-01

    A giant exchange bias is detected in the colossal magnetoresistance of Nd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 perovskite at low temperatures and is evidence of intrinsic exchange coupling in this compound. These phenomena confirm our previous assumption that the low-temperature magnetic structure of this compound consists of small (nanosized) ferromagnetic clusters embedded in a charge-ordered antiferromagnetic matrix. The magnetic behavior of the perovskite Nd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 is consistent with a cluster-glass magnetic state and inconsistent with the classical spin-glass state observed in a variety of disordered magnetic systems. We think that the cluster-glass magnetic behavior of Nd2/3Ca1/3MnO3 originates in a self-organized phase-separated state of the compound. A Cole-Cole analysis of the dynamic susceptibility at low temperatures reveals an extremely broad distribution of relaxation times, indicating that spins are frozen on a "macroscopic" time scale. Slow relaxation of the zero-field-cooled magnetization is also observed experimentally. This slow relaxation confirms the cluster-glass magnetic state of the compound. Two highly different relaxation mechanisms have been found: the first is characteristic of temperatures below the freezing temperature Tg ˜ 60 K and the second, of higher temperatures.

  3. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Ho, Yuen Fern; Austin, Christopher J D; Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2009-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. Interestingly, the K(m) value of IDO2 for L-Trp was 500-1000 fold higher than that of IDO1. In this study, we isolated both IDO1 and IDO2 cDNA from a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We characterized the recombinant proteins and those of other known IDO1/IDO2 in intact cells and a cell-free system. It was found that methylene blue may not be suitable reductant for IDO2, hence resulting in an underestimation of recombinant IDO2 activity. In intact cells, the K(m) value of IDO2 for L-Trp was estimated to be much higher than that of IDO1 and this high K(m) value appears to have been conserved during the evolution of IDO2. The protein encoded by the ancestor gene of IDO1 and IDO2 is likely to have had properties more similar to present day IDO2 than to IDO1.

  4. Characterization and evolution of vertebrate indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenases IDOs from monotremes and marsupials.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ball, Helen J; Ho, Yuen Fern; Austin, Christopher J D; Whittington, Camilla M; Belov, Katherine; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Jermiin, Lars S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2009-06-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO1) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in tryptophan catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. TDO is widely distributed in both eukaryotes and bacteria. In contrast, IDO has been found only in mammals and yeast. In 2007, a third enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-2 (IDO2), was discovered. IDO2 is found not only in mammals but also in lower vertebrates. Interestingly, the Km value of IDO2 for L-Trp was 500-1000 fold higher than that of IDO1. In this study, we isolated both IDO1 and IDO2 cDNA from a monotreme, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), and a marsupial, the gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica). We characterized the recombinant proteins and those of other known IDO1/IDO2 in intact cells and a cell-free system. It was found that methylene blue may not be suitable reductant for IDO2, hence resulting in an underestimation of recombinant IDO2 activity. In intact cells, the Km value of IDO2 for L-Trp was estimated to be much higher than that of IDO1 and this high Km value appears to have been conserved during the evolution of IDO2. The protein encoded by the ancestor gene of IDO1 and IDO2 is likely to have had properties more similar to present day IDO2 than to IDO1.

  5. Flood of April 2-3, 2005, Neversink River Basin, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suro, Thomas P.; Firda, Gary D.

    2006-01-01

    Heavy rain on April 2-3, 2005 produced rainfall amounts of 3 inches to almost 6 inches within a 36-hour period throughout the Delaware River basin. Major flooding occurred in the East and West Branches of the Delaware River and their tributaries, the main stem of the Delaware River and the Neversink River, a major tributary to the Delaware River. The resultant flooding damaged hundreds of homes, caused millions of dollars in damage to infrastructure in Orange and Sullivan Counties, and forced more than 1,000 residents to evacuate their homes. A total of 20 New York counties were declared Federal disaster areas. Some of the most extensive flooding occurred along the Neversink and Delaware Rivers in Orange and Sullivan Counties, New York. Disaster recovery assistance from the April 2005 flooding in New York stood at almost $35 million in 2005, at which time more than 3,400 New Yorkers had registered for Federal aid. All U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Neversink River below the Neversink Reservoir recorded peak water-surface elevations higher than those recorded during the September 2004 flooding. Peak water-surface elevations at some study sites on the Neversink River exceeded the 500-year flood elevation as documented in flood-insurance studies by the Federal Emergency Management Agency. Flood peaks at some long-term U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations were the highest ever recorded. Several U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations on the Delaware River also recorded peak water-surface elevations that exceeded those recorded during the September 2004 flooding.

  6. Application of enzymatic apple pomace hydrolysate to production of 2,3-butanediol by alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059.

    PubMed

    Białkowska, Aneta M; Gromek, Ewa; Krysiak, Joanna; Sikora, Barbara; Kalinowska, Halina; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Kubik, Celina; Lang, Siegmund; Schütt, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis by a nonpathogenic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059 from enzymatic hydrolysate of depectinized apple pomace and its blend with glucose was studied. In shake flasks, the maximum diol concentration in fed-batch fermentations was 113 g/L (in 163 h, from the hydrolysate, feedings with glucose) while in batch processes it was around 27 g/L (in 32 h, from the hydrolysate and glucose blend). Fed-batch fermentations in the 0.75 and 30 L fermenters yielded 87.71 g/L 2,3-BD in 160 h, and 72.39 g/L 2,3-BD in 94 h, respectively (from the hydrolysate and glucose blend, feedings with glucose). The hydrolysate of apple pomace, which was for the first time used for microbial 2,3-BD production is not only a source of sugars but also essential minerals. PMID:26445877

  7. Higher-order photon correlations in pulsed photonic crystal nanolasers

    SciTech Connect

    Elvira, D.; Hachair, X.; Braive, R.; Beaudoin, G.; Robert-Philip, I.; Sagnes, I.; Abram, I.; Beveratos, A.; Verma, V. B.; Baek, B.; Nam, S. W.; Stevens, M. J.; Dauler, E. A.

    2011-12-15

    We report on the higher-order photon correlations of a high-{beta} nanolaser under pulsed excitation at room temperature. Using a multiplexed four-element superconducting single-photon detector we measured g{sup (n)}(0-vector) with n=2,3,4. All orders of correlation display partially chaotic statistics, even at four times the threshold excitation power. We show that this departure from coherence and Poisson statistics is due to the quantum fluctuations associated with the small number of photons at the lasing threshold.

  8. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J W; Antane, M; Nguyen, T T; Collini, M D; Antane, S; Bender, R; Hartupee, D; White, V; McCallum, J; Park, C H

    1994-02-18

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II (A II) antagonists was synthesized and tested for antagonism of A II. Compounds with a biphenylyltetrazole pharmacophore and small alkyl groups at the 2- and 4-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring were found to be the most potent in an AT1 receptor binding assay and in blocking the A II pressor response in anesthetized, ganglion-blocked A II-infused rats. 5,8-Dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-8-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one (4a) was one of the more potent compounds in the binding assay and was the most efficacious compound in the A II-infused rat model. Further study of 4a in Goldblatt (2K-1C) rats showed the compound to have oral bioavailability and to be an efficacious and potent compound in a high renin form of hypertension.

  9. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  10. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  11. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  12. The Dynamics of Atom-Surface Interactions Involving HELIUM(2(1)S), HELIUM(2(3)P) and Electron-Spin HELIUM(2(3)S) Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oro, David Michael

    1994-01-01

    higher than that from atomically clean metal surfaces. Potential experimental applications of the large spin correlation in He(2^3S) deexcitation at Cu and Au, and of deexcitation at Xe(100) and Ar(100) films are discussed.

  13. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  14. Does 2,3-butanedione monoxime inhibit nonmuscle myosin?

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Fabian, Lacramioara

    2005-04-01

    BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime) has been used extensively to inhibit nonmuscle myosin. However, recent articles raise the question of what BDM actually does, because of experiments in which BDM did not affect the actin-activated ATPase of nonmuscle myosins. We describe results that indicate that BDM indeed inhibits motility due to nonmuscle myosins: in many different cells BDM has the same effects as anti-actin agents and/or as other anti-myosin agents, and BDM slows or stops the sliding between actin filaments and myosin in vitro. We discuss how the two sets of apparently contradictory results might be resolved, and we suggest possible experiments that might clarify the contradictory interpretations. PMID:15868207

  15. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  16. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  17. Cloning, expression and characterization of glycerol dehydrogenase involved in 2,3-butanediol formation in Serratia marcescens H30.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Xu, Quanming; Peng, Xiaoqian; Xu, Boheng; Wu, Yuehao; Yang, Yulong; Sun, Shujing; Hu, Kaihui; Shen, Yaling

    2014-09-01

    The meso-2,3-butanediol dehydrogenase (meso-BDH) from S. marcescens H30 is responsible for converting acetoin into 2,3-butanediol during sugar fermentation. Inactivation of the meso-BDH encoded by budC gene does not completely abolish 2,3-butanediol production, which suggests that another similar enzyme involved in 2,3-butanediol formation exists in S. marcescens H30. In the present study, a glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) encoded by gldA gene from S. marcescens H30 was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), purified and characterized for its properties. In vitro conversion indicated that the purified GDH could catalyze the interconversion of (3S)-acetoin/meso-2,3-butanediol and (3R)-acetoin/(2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol. (2S,3S)-2,3-Butanediol was not a substrate for the GDH at all. Kinetic parameters of the GDH enzyme showed lower K m value and higher catalytic efficiency for (3S/3R)-acetoin in comparison to those for (2R,3R)-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol, implying its physiological role in favor of 2,3-butanediol formation. Maximum activity for reduction of (3S/3R)-acetoin and oxidations of meso-2,3-butanediol and glycerol was observed at pH 8.0, while it was pH 7.0 for diacetyl reduction. The enzyme exhibited relative high thermotolerance with optimum temperature of 60 °C in the oxidation-reduction reactions. Over 60 % of maximum activity was retained at 70 °C. Additionally, the GDH activity was significantly enhanced for meso-2,3-BD oxidation in the presence of Fe(2+) and for (3S/3R)-acetoin reduction in the presence of Mn(2+), while several cations inhibited its activity, particularly Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) for (3S/3R)-acetoin reduction. The properties provided potential application for single configuration production of acetoin and 2,3-butanediol .

  18. Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan

    There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.

  19. Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν =2 /3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael R.; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan; Das Sarma, Sankar

    2015-07-01

    There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν =n +2 /3 , for integer n . Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν =n +2 /3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν =2 /3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν =8 /3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν =8 /3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively.

  20. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  1. The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist LY379268 induces anxiety-like behavior at the highest dose tested in two rat models of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Vasilios; Markou, Athina; Pitsikas, Nikolaos

    2013-09-01

    The activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptors reduces the excessive glutamate release that is hypothesized to be associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. LY379268 is a highly potent mGlu2/3 receptor agonist that has shown efficacy in several animal models of stroke, epilepsy, drug abuse, schizophrenia, and pain. The present study investigated the effects of LY379268 on anxiety-like behavior in rats assessed in the light/dark and open field tests. The effects of LY379268 on motility in a locomotor activity chamber were also investigated in rats. Administration of the two lower doses of LY379268 used (0.3 and 1mg/kg) did not influence rats' performance either in the light/dark or in the open field test. Importantly, the administration of a higher LY379268 dose (3mg/kg) induced decrease in the number of transitions between the light and dark chambers and time spent in the light chamber compared to the vehicle-treated animals in the light/dark test. In the open field test, rats that received 3mg/kg LY379268 made fewer entries and spent less time in the central zone of the apparatus, exhibited a decrease of rearing episodes, but displayed higher grooming activity compared to controls. Nevertheless, the 3mg/kg dose did not alter locomotor activity compared with vehicle-treated rats in a motility test. The present results indicate that the highest LY379268 dose used in this study induced an anxiety-like effect in the light/dark and open field tests that cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity, while lower doses had no effect.

  2. THE MOSDEF SURVEY: MASS, METALLICITY, AND STAR-FORMATION RATE AT z ∼ 2.3

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, Ryan L.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kriek, Mariska; Price, Sedona H.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Freeman, William R.; Siana, Brian; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; De Groot, Laura; Coil, Alison L.

    2015-02-01

    We present results on the z ∼ 2.3 mass-metallicity relation (MZR) using early observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field survey. We use an initial sample of 87 star-forming galaxies with spectroscopic coverage of Hβ, [O III] λ5007, Hα, and [N II] λ6584 rest-frame optical emission lines, and estimate the gas-phase oxygen abundance based on the N2 and O3N2 strong-line indicators. We find a positive correlation between stellar mass and metallicity among individual z ∼ 2.3 galaxies using both the N2 and O3N2 indicators. We also measure the emission-line ratios and corresponding oxygen abundances for composite spectra in bins of stellar mass. Among composite spectra, we find a monotonic increase in metallicity with increasing stellar mass, offset ∼0.15-0.3 dex below the local MZR. When the sample is divided at the median star-formation rate (SFR), we do not observe significant SFR dependence of the z ∼ 2.3 MZR among either individual galaxies or composite spectra. We furthermore find that z ∼ 2.3 galaxies have metallicities ∼0.1 dex lower at a given stellar mass and SFR than is observed locally. This offset suggests that high-redshift galaxies do not fall on the local ''fundamental metallicity relation'' among stellar mass, metallicity, and SFR, and may provide evidence of a phase of galaxy growth in which the gas reservoir is built up due to inflow rates that are higher than star-formation and outflow rates. However, robust conclusions regarding the gas-phase oxygen abundances of high-redshift galaxies await a systematic reappraisal of the application of locally calibrated metallicity indicators at high redshift.

  3. 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents in Great Lakes salmon derived using mammalian, bird, and fish cell bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Heuvel, M.R. van den; Clemons, J.H.; Bols, N.C.; Dixon, D.G.; Kennedy, S.W.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Smith, I.R.

    1994-12-31

    Chinook salmon from lakes Ontario and Huron, and Coho salmon from lakes Ontario and Erie were captured during their fall spawning migration. Subsamples of extracted pooled muscle, liver and egg tissue were used to measure congener specific PCBs, chlorinated dioxins and furans as well as bioassay derived 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalent concentration (TEC). The cell culture bioassays used to measure TECs were rat hepatoma (H411E) and rainbow trout hepatocyte (RTL-W1) continuous cell lines as well as chicken embryo hepatocyte primary culture (CEH). Although excellent correlations were found between all 3 cell culture bioassays, CEH was found to be 10 times and 30 times more sensitive than H411E and RTL-W1 respectively. Lake Ontario TECs were found to be higher than either Lake Huron or Lake Erie samples for both species of Salmon, and Chinook salmon was elevated over Coho Salmon. Chemical data indicates that the more toxic coplanar PCBs are selectively concentrated in eggs as compared to liver and muscle. Bioassay derived TECs are discussed with regard to chemical contribution of the PCB and dioxin/furan congeners based on an additive model.

  4. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  5. Combination of a higher-tier flow-through system and population modeling to assess the effects of time-variable exposure of isoproturon on the green algae Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Weber, Denis; Schaefer, Dieter; Dorgerloh, Michael; Bruns, Eric; Goerlitz, Gerhard; Hammel, Klaus; Preuss, Thomas G; Ratte, Hans Toni

    2012-04-01

    A flow-through system was developed to investigate the effects of time-variable exposure of pesticides on algae. A recently developed algae population model was used for simulations supported and verified by laboratory experiments. Flow-through studies with Desmodesmus subspicatus and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under time-variable exposure to isoproturon were performed, in which the exposure patterns were based on the results of FOrum for Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS) model calculations for typical exposure situations via runoff or drain flow. Different types of pulsed exposure events were realized, including a whole range of repeated pulsed and steep peaks as well as periods of constant exposure. Both species recovered quickly in terms of growth from short-term exposure and according to substance dissipation from the system. Even at a peak 10 times the maximum predicted environmental concentration of isoproturon, only transient effects occurred on algae populations. No modified sensitivity or reduced growth was observed after repeated exposure. Model predictions of algal growth in the flow-through tests agreed well with the experimental data. The experimental boundary conditions and the physiological properties of the algae were used as the only model input. No calibration or parameter fitting was necessary. The combination of the flow-through experiments with the algae population model was revealed to be a powerful tool for the assessment of pulsed exposure on algae. It allowed investigating the growth reduction and recovery potential of algae after complex exposure, which is not possible with standard laboratory experiments alone. The results of the combined approach confirm the beneficial use of population models as supporting tools in higher-tier risk assessments of pesticides.

  6. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  7. Identification of cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate in Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 culture.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Emily; Oberc, Christopher; Ameen, Eve; da Silva, Amanda Mendes; Yan, Hongbin

    2014-09-15

    Cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cCMP) and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cUMP) were isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 cell extracts by semi-preparative reverse phase HPLC. The structures of the two compounds were confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopy against commercially available authentic samples. Concentrations of both intracellular and extracellular 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP were determined. Addition of 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP to P. fluorescens pfo-1 culture did not significantly affect the level of biofilm formation in static liquid cultures. PMID:25139571

  8. Matrix metalloproteinases -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in gingival crevicular fluid during orthodontic tooth movement: a longitudinal randomized split-mouth study.

    PubMed

    Canavarro, Cristiane; Teles, Ricardo Palmier; Capelli Júnior, Jonas

    2013-10-01

    This randomized split-mouth study aimed to examine the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) -1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) at different time points during orthodontic tooth movement. A total of 16 healthy orthodontic subjects (7 females, 9 males; mean age, 17.7 years) who needed their first upper premolars extracted were enrolled. One randomly chosen maxillary canine was subjected to a distalizing force and was considered to be the test side. The contralateral canine, which was not subjected to any force but was included in the orthodontic appliance, was used as a control side. GCF sampling was performed at both the mesial (tension) and distal (pressure) test and control sites at baseline, immediately before applying the orthodontic appliance, and after 1 and 24 hours and 7, 14, and 21 days. A multiplexed bead immunoassay was used to analyse the GCF samples. The mean levels of the MMP-1, -2, -3, -7, -8, -12, and -13 were not significantly different between the test and control groups in each time showed. The comparisons between the tension and pressure sites were also not significantly different at each individual time. A few variations focused on MMP-1 and -3, but the expression of MMP-8 was higher than that of the other MMPs. MMPs are released in sufficient quantities such that tooth movement occurs but with no significant increase in GCF levels.

  9. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  11. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  12. Ferryl derivatives of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2011-06-17

    The critical role of the ferryl intermediate in catalyzing the oxygen chemistry of monooxygenases, oxidases, or peroxidases has been known for decades. In contrast, its involvement in heme-based dioxygenases, such as human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), was not recognized until recently. In this study, H(2)O(2) was used as a surrogate to generate the ferryl intermediate of hIDO. Spectroscopic data demonstrate that the ferryl species is capable of oxidizing azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) but not L-Trp. Kinetic studies reveal that the conversion of the ferric enzyme to the ferryl intermediate facilitates the L-Trp binding rate by >400-fold; conversely, L-Trp binding to the enzyme retards the peroxide reaction rate by ∼9-fold, because of the significant elevation of the entropic barrier. The unfavorable entropic factor for the peroxide reaction highlights the scenario that the structure of hIDO is not optimized for utilizing H(2)O(2) as a co-substrate for oxidizing L-Trp. Titration studies show that the ferryl intermediate possesses two substrate-binding sites with a K(d) of 0.3 and 440 μM and that the electronic properties of the ferryl moiety are sensitive to the occupancy of the two substrate-binding sites. The implications of the data are discussed in the context of the structural and functional relationships of the enzyme. PMID:21502325

  13. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  14. A Novel Soybean Intrinsic Protein Gene, GmTIP2;3, Involved in Responding to Osmotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dayong; Tong, Jinfeng; He, Xiaolan; Xu, Zhaolong; Xu, Ling; Wei, Peipei; Huang, Yihong; Brestic, Marian; Ma, Hongxiang; Shao, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential for plant growth and development. Water deficiency leads to loss of yield and decreased crop quality. To understand water transport mechanisms in plants, we cloned and characterized a novel tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) gene from soybean with the highest similarity to TIP2-type from other plants, and thus designated GmTIP2;3. The protein sequence contains two conserved NPA motifs and six transmembrane domains. The expression analysis indicated that this gene was constitutively expressed in all detected tissues, with higher levels in the root, stem and pod, and the accumulation of GmTIP2;3 transcript showed a significant response to osmotic stresses, including 20% PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol) and 100 μM ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. The promoter-GUS (glucuronidase) activity analysis suggested that GmTIP2;3 was also expressed in the root, stem, and leaf, and preferentially expressed in the stele of root and stem, and the core promoter region was 1000 bp in length, located upstream of the ATG start codon. The GUS tissue and induced expression observations were consistent with the findings in soybean. In addition, subcellular localization showed that GmTIP2;3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Yeast heterologous expression revealed that GmTIP2;3 could improve tolerance to osmotic stress in yeast cells. Integrating these results, GmTIP2;3 might play an important role in response to osmotic stress in plants. PMID:26779248

  15. A Novel Soybean Intrinsic Protein Gene, GmTIP2;3, Involved in Responding to Osmotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dayong; Tong, Jinfeng; He, Xiaolan; Xu, Zhaolong; Xu, Ling; Wei, Peipei; Huang, Yihong; Brestic, Marian; Ma, Hongxiang; Shao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Water is essential for plant growth and development. Water deficiency leads to loss of yield and decreased crop quality. To understand water transport mechanisms in plants, we cloned and characterized a novel tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) gene from soybean with the highest similarity to TIP2-type from other plants, and thus designated GmTIP2;3. The protein sequence contains two conserved NPA motifs and six transmembrane domains. The expression analysis indicated that this gene was constitutively expressed in all detected tissues, with higher levels in the root, stem and pod, and the accumulation of GmTIP2;3 transcript showed a significant response to osmotic stresses, including 20% PEG6000 (polyethylene glycol) and 100 μM ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. The promoter-GUS (glucuronidase) activity analysis suggested that GmTIP2;3 was also expressed in the root, stem, and leaf, and preferentially expressed in the stele of root and stem, and the core promoter region was 1000 bp in length, located upstream of the ATG start codon. The GUS tissue and induced expression observations were consistent with the findings in soybean. In addition, subcellular localization showed that GmTIP2;3 was a plasma membrane-localized protein. Yeast heterologous expression revealed that GmTIP2;3 could improve tolerance to osmotic stress in yeast cells. Integrating these results, GmTIP2;3 might play an important role in response to osmotic stress in plants. PMID:26779248

  16. Application of byproducts from food processing for production of 2,3-butanediol using Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TUL 308.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Barbara; Kubik, Celina; Kalinowska, Halina; Gromek, Ewa; Białkowska, Aneta; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Schüett, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2016-08-17

    A nonpathogenic bacterial strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TUL 308 synthesized minor 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) amounts from glucose, fructose, sucrose, and glycerol, and efficiently produced the diol from molasses and hydrolysates of food processing residues. Batch fermentations yielded 16.53, 10.72, and 5 g/L 2,3-BD from enzymatic hydrolysates of apple pomace, dried sugar beet pulp, and potato pulp (at initial concentrations equivalent to 45, 20, and 30 g/L glucose, respectively), and 25.3 g/L 2,3-BD from molasses (at its initial concentration equivalent to 60 g/L saccharose). Fed-batch fermentations in the molasses-based medium with four feedings with either glucose or sucrose (in doses increasing their concentration by 25 g/L) resulted in around twice higher maximum 2,3-BD concentration (of about 60 and 50 g/L, respectively). The GRAS Bacillus strain is an efficient 2,3-BD producer from food industry byproducts.

  17. The Increase in Phosphorylation Levels of Serine Residues of Protein HSP70 during Holding Time at 17°C Is Concomitant with a Higher Cryotolerance of Boar Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Yeste, Marc; Estrada, Efrén; Rivera del Álamo, Maria-Montserat; Bonet, Sergi; Rigau, Teresa; Rodríguez-Gil, Joan-Enric

    2014-01-01

    Boar-sperm cryopreservation is not usually performed immediately after semen collection, but rather a holding time (HT) of 4 h–30 h at 17°C is spent before starting this procedure. Taking this into account, the aim of this study was to go further in-depth into the mechanisms underlying the improving effects of HT at 17°C on boar-sperm cryotolerance by evaluating the effects of two different HTs (3 h and 24 h) on overall boar-sperm function and survival before and after cryopreservation. Given that phospho/dephosphorylation mechanisms are of utmost importance in the overall regulation of sperm function, the phosphorylation levels of serine residues (pSer) in 30 different sperm proteins after a 3 h- or 24 h-HT period were also assessed. We found that a HT of 24 h contributed to a higher sperm resistance to freeze-thawing procedures, whereas mini-array protein analyses showed that a HT of 24 h induced a significant (P<0.05) increase in pSer (from 100.0±1.8 arbitrary units in HT 3 h to 150.2±5.1 arbitrary units in HT 24 h) of HSP70 and, to a lesser extent, in protein kinases GSK3 and total TRK and in the cell-cycle regulatory protein CDC2/CDK1. In the case of HSP70, this increase was confirmed through immunoprecipation analyses. Principal component and multiple regression analyses indicated that a component explaining a percentage of variance higher than 50% in sperm cryotolerance was significantly correlated with pSer levels in HSP70. In addition, from all the parameters evaluated before freeze-thawing, only pSer levels in HSP70 resulted to be able to predict sperm cryotolerance. In conclusion, our results suggest that boar spermatozoa modulate its function during HT, at least partially, by changes in pSer levels of proteins like HSP70, and this is related to a higher cryotolerance. PMID:24603527

  18. Evolution of the dusty infrared luminosity function from z = 0 to z = 2.3 using observations from Spitzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnelli, B.; Elbaz, D.; Chary, R. R.; Dickinson, M.; Le Borgne, D.; Frayer, D. T.; Willmer, C. N. A.

    2011-04-01

    Aims: We derive the evolution of the infrared luminosity function (LF) over the last 4/5ths of cosmic time using deep 24 and 70 μm imaging of the GOODS North and South fields. Methods: We use an extraction technique based on prior source positions at shorter wavelengths to build the 24 and 70 μm source catalogs. The majority (93%) of the sources have a spectroscopic (39%) or a photometric redshift (54%) and, in our redshift range of interest (i.e., 1.3 < z < 2.3) s20% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. To extend our study to lower 70 μm luminosities we perform a stacking analysis and we characterize the observed L24/(1 + z) vs. L70/(1 + z) correlation. Using spectral energy distribution (SED) templates which best fit this correlation, we derive the infrared luminosity of individual sources from their 24 and 70 μm luminosities. We then compute the infrared LF at zs1.55 ± 0.25 and zs2.05 ± 0.25. Results: We observe the break in the infrared LF up to zs2.3. The redshift evolution of the infrared LF from z = 1.3 to z = 2.3 is consistent with a luminosity evolution proportional to (1 + z)1.0 ± 0.9 combined with a density evolution proportional to (1 + z)-1.1 ± 1.5. At zs2, luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs: 1011L⊙ < LIR < 1012 L⊙) are still the main contributors to the total comoving infrared luminosity density of the Universe. At zs2, LIRGs and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs: 1012L⊙ < LIR) account for s49% and s17% respectively of the total comoving infrared luminosity density of the Universe. Combined with previous results using the same strategy for galaxies at z < 1.3 and assuming a constant conversion between the infrared luminosity and star-formation rate (SFR) of a galaxy, we study the evolution of the SFR density of the Universe from z = 0 to z = 2.3. We find that the SFR density of the Universe strongly increased with redshift from z = 0 to z = 1.3, but is nearly constant at higher redshift out to z = 2.3. As part of the

  19. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  20. Long-Term Results of Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Advanced N2-3 Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Chen, Meng; Wu, Jing; Xu, Jian-Hua; Qian, Pu-Dong; Guo, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Xue-Song; Zhu, Huan-Feng; Gu, Jia-Jia; Wu, Jian-Feng; Zhang, Ye-wei; He, Xia

    2015-01-01

    Background N-stage is related to distant metastasis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of different nedaplatin-based chemotherapy regimens in advanced N2-3 stage NPC patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Patients and Methods Between April 2005 and December 2009, a total of 128 patients with N2-3 advanced NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were treated with IMRT concurrent with 2 cycles of chemotherapy consisting of either nedaplatin plus paclitaxel (NP group, n = 67) or nedaplatin plus fluorouracil and paclitaxel (NFP group, n = 61). Two to four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy were then administered every 21 days following concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Results With a median follow-up of 60 months, the 5-year overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), local-regional recurrence-free survival (LRRFS), and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for all patients were 81.4%, 71.5%, 87.8% and 82.0%, respectively. No significant difference in PFS (66.6% vs. 76.7%, P = 0.212) and LRRFS rates (89.0% vs. 86.3%, P = 0.664) was observed between the NP and NFP groups. The 5-year OS (75.4% vs. 88.5%, P = 0.046) and DMFS (75.1% vs. 89.0%, P = 0.042) rate were superior in the NFP group compared with the NP group. The NFP group had a higher incidence of grade 3–4 acute toxicities including bone marrow suppression (leukopenia: χ2 = 3.935, P = 0.047; anemia: χ2 = 9.760, P = 0.002; thrombocytopenia: χ2 = 8.821, P = 0.003), and both liver and renal dysfunction (χ2 = 5.206, P = 0.023) compared with the NP group. Late toxicities were moderate and no difference was observed between the two groups. Conclusion IMRT concurrent with nedaplatin-based chemotherapy is an advocated regimen for patients with advanced N2-3 stage NPC. Patients with advanced N2-3 stage may be better candidates for the NFP regimen although this regimen was associated with a high acute

  1. Higher Education Exchange, 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  2. Higher Education Exchange, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  3. Higher Education Exchange, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  4. Higher Education Exchange, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Research shows that not only does higher education not see the public; when the public, in turn, looks at higher education, it sees mostly malaise, inefficiencies, expense, and unfulfilled promises. Yet, the contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" tell of bright spots in higher education where experiments in working…

  5. Higher Education Exchange, 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The Higher Education Exchange is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the Higher Education Exchange publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  6. Higher Education Exchange, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "Higher Education Exchange" is part of a movement to strengthen higher education's democratic mission and foster a more democratic culture throughout American society. Working in this tradition, the "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic…

  7. Higher Education Exchange, 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Higher Education Exchange" publishes case studies, analyses, news, and ideas about efforts within higher education to develop more democratic societies. Contributors to this issue of the "Higher Education Exchange" examine whether institutions of higher learning are doing anything to increase the capacity of citizens to shape their future.…

  8. ARP2/3-dependent growth in the plant kingdom: SCARs for life

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zhang, Chunhua; Szymanski, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    In the human experience SCARs (suppressor of cAMP receptors) are permanent reminders of past events, not always based on bad decisions, but always those in which an interplay of opposing forces leaves behind a clear record in the form of some permanent watery mark. During plant morphogenesis, SCARs are important proteins that reflect an unusual evolutionary outcome, in which the plant kingdom relies heavily on this single class of actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex activator to dictate the time and place of actin filament nucleation. This unusually simple arrangement may serve as a permanent reminder that cell shape control in plants is fundamentally different from that of crawling cells in mammals that use the power of actin polymerization to define and maintain cell shape. In plant cells, actin filaments indirectly affect cell shape by determining the transport properties of organelles and cargo molecules that modulate the mechanical properties of the wall. It is becoming increasingly clear that polarized bundles of actin filaments operate at whole cell spatial scales to organize the cytoplasm and dictate the patterns of long-distance intracellular transport and secretion. The number of actin-binding proteins and actin filament nucleators that are known to participate in the process of actin network formation are rapidly increasing. In plants, formins and ARP2/3 are two important actin filament nucleators. This review will focus on ARP2/3, and the apparent reliance of most plant species on the SCAR/WAVE (WASP family verprolin homologous) regulatory complex as the sole pathway for ARP2/3 activation. PMID:23802001

  9. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  10. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  11. Probes for narcotic receptor mediated phenomena 49. N-Substituted rac-cis-4a-arylalkyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydrobenzofuro[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ols

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Malliga R.; Rothman, Richard B.; Dersch, Christina M.; Jacobson, Arthur E.; Rice, Kenner C.

    2015-01-01

    Racemic N-substituted -1,2,3,4,4a,9a-hexahydrobenzofuro[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ols containing cis-4aaralkyl groups were explored as probes for opioid receptors. Specifically cis-4a-phenylpropyl, -phenylbutyl, and- phenylpentyl groups coupled with widely varied substituents on the nitrogen atom were synthesized and their pharmacological profiles at opioid receptors examined. The study yielded compounds with good affinity and moderate to potent antagonist activity at the μ- and δ-opioid receptors, and agonist activity at the κ-opioid receptor. An N-allyl substituent in the C4a phenylpropyl series induced 6-fold higher affinity at δ- than μ-receptors, while an N-CPM substituent in the C4a (CH2)3Ph series led to a compound with high δ-affinity and potent δ-antagonist activity. PMID:25599950

  12. Review of Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 (2007).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Reviews the book, Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 by I. A. Serlin, M. A. DiCowden, K. Rockefeller, S. Brown, J. Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (2007). With the more-than-1,000-page tour de force titled Whole Person Healthcare, Ilene Serlin, current president of the San Francisco Psychological Association, has purposefully edited a three-volume series aimed at humanizing the fields of psychotherapy and health care. Throughout the series, all of the authors carry the message that integrative treatment strategies in psychotherapy and health care are more valuable than reductionist "treat the symptom rather than the person" approaches as a way to humanize patient-client interaction. Whole Person Healthcare persuasively presents the principle reasons for integrating human-centered strategies into psychotherapeutic and health care practices. Volume 1 of the series, Humanizing Healthcare, sets the tone for the other two volumes, providing a conceptual scaffold for framing humanistic and positive psychological theories within an applied health care setting. Volume 2 of the series, Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, focuses on presenting concrete, evidence-based examples of integrative therapeutic techniques such as imagery and visualization, meditation, meaning finding, prayer and psychospiritual practices, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong. Volume 3 of the series, The Arts and Health, provides a critically important contribution to the field because the art therapies are so often forgotten in the world of managed health care. Volume 3 gives evidence-based examples of the valuable contributions of artistic interactions within therapeutic contexts. The collection of readings in Whole Person Healthcare covers a wide spectrum of modern healing approaches, and this series is a must for any practitioner of integrative, holistic therapies. However, there are two practical barriers of note. First is cost: The price is too steep for most readers

  13. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  14. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  15. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  16. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    diarrhea virus, nonstructural protein NS2-3 is of critical importance to switch between these processes. While free NS3 is essential for RNA replication, uncleaved NS2-3, which accumulates over time in the infected cell, is required for virion morphogenesis. In contrast, the virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus is independent from uncleaved NS2-NS3. Here, we demonstrate that pestiviruses can adapt to virion morphogenesis in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3 by just two amino acid exchanges. While the mechanism behind this gain of function remains elusive, the fact that it can be achieved by such minor changes is in line with the assumption that an ancestral virus already used this mechanism but lost it in the course of adapting to a new host/infection strategy. PMID:26355097

  17. N-substituted 5-amino-6-methylpyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitriles: microwave-assisted synthesis and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Jandourek, Ondrej; Dolezal, Martin; Paterova, Pavla; Kubicek, Vladimir; Pesko, Matus; Kunes, Jiri; Coffey, Aidan; Guo, Jiahui; Kralova, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    In this work a series of 15 N-benzylamine substituted 5-amino-6-methyl-pyrazine-2,3-dicarbonitriles was prepared by the aminodehalogenation reactions using microwave assisted synthesis with experimentally set and proven conditions. This approach for the aminodehalogenation reaction was chosen due to its higher yields and shorter reaction times. The products of this reaction were characterized by IR, NMR and other analytical data. The compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial, antifungal and herbicidal activity. Compounds 3 (R=3,4-Cl), 9 (R=2-Cl) and 11 (R=4-CF3) showed good antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MIC=6.25 µg/mL). It was found that the lipophilicity is important for antimycobacterial activity and the best substitution on the benzyl moiety of the compounds is a halogen or trifluoromethyl group according to Craig's plot. The activities against bacteria or fungi were insignificant. The presented compounds also inhibited photosynthetic electron transport in spinach chloroplasts and the IC50 values of the active compounds varied in the range from 16.4 to 487.0 µmol/L. The most active substances were 2 (R=3-CF3), 3 (R=3,4-Cl) and 11 (R=4-CF3). A linear dependence between lipophilicity and herbicidal activity was observed. PMID:24402198

  18. [{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-TCDD uptake and elimination kinetics of medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmieder, P.; Lothenbach, D.; Tietge, J.; Erickson, R.; Johnson, R.

    1995-10-01

    Uptake and elimination rate constants for [{sup 3}H]-2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin ([{sup 3}H]TCDD) were estimated by exposing medaka (Oryzias latipes) to [{sup 3}H]TCDD in flowing water with no solvent carriers. Uptake was determined from body-burdens measured on exposure days 0, 2, 4, 6, 10, and 12. Elimination was quantified for whole fish after 28, 90, and 175 d in uncontaminated water. Medaka accumulated [{sup 3}H]TCDD at a rapid rate, achieving residues 24,000 times the water concentration after 12 d, with no indication of approach to steady state. After 6 months in uncontaminated water, the pg TCDD/g decreased by 69%, much of the decrease due to growth dilution as evidenced by only a 47% decrease in the pg TCDD/fish. Uptake and elimination rate constant (2,300 ml/g/d and 0.0045/d, respectively) were estimated by fitting a one-compartment, linear, mass-balance model to the data, adjusting for growth rate. The experimental design, including solvent-free delivery of [{sup 3}H]TCDD, exposure at concentrations below maximum water solubility, and measurement of fish growth and lipid content during a 6-month elimination phase, resulted in a predicted steady-state bioconcentration factor (BCF) for medaka of 510,000, a number considerably higher than previously reported for dioxin BCFs. Kinetic parameters were used to successfully predict TCDD BCF in medaka exposed independently.

  19. Contribution of Intracolumnar Layer 2/3-to-Layer 2/3 Excitatory Connections in Shaping the Response to Whisker Deflection in Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarid, Leora; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Gidon, Albert; Sakmann, Bert; Segev, Idan

    2015-01-01

    This computational study integrates anatomical and physiological data to assess the functional role of the lateral excitatory connections between layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells (PCs) in shaping their response during early stages of intracortical processing of a whisker deflection (WD). Based on in vivo and in vitro recordings, and 3D reconstructions of connected pairs of L2/3 PCs, our model predicts that: 1) AMPAR and NMDAR conductances/synapse are 0.52 ± 0.24 and 0.40 ± 0.34 nS, respectively; 2) following WD, connection between L2/3 PCs induces a composite EPSPs of 7.6 ± 1.7 mV, well below the threshold for action potential (AP) initiation; 3) together with the excitatory feedforward L4-to-L2/3 connection, WD evoked a composite EPSP of 16.3 ± 3.5 mV and a probability of 0.01 to generate an AP. When considering the variability in L4 spiny neurons responsiveness, it increased to 17.8 ± 11.2 mV; this 3-fold increase in the SD yielded AP probability of 0.35; 4) the interaction between L4-to-L2/3 and L2/3-to-L2/3 inputs is highly nonlinear; 5) L2/3 dendritic morphology significantly affects L2/3 PCs responsiveness. We conclude that early stages of intracortical signaling of WD are dominated by a combination of feedforward L4–L2/3 and L2/3–L2/3 lateral connections. PMID:24165834

  20. Pathways for nonsequential and sequential fragmentation of CO2 3 + investigated by electron collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Enliang; Shan, Xu; Shen, Zhenjie; Gong, Maomao; Tang, Yaguo; Pan, Yi; Lau, Kai-Chung; Chen, Xiangjun

    2015-05-01

    We report nonsequential and sequential fragmentation dynamics of CO2 3 + investigated by electron collision at an impact energy of 500 eV. The dissociation mechanisms are clearly distinguished by combined use of the Dalitz plot together with momentum correlation spectra. The angular distributions and kinetic-energy releases (KERs) of different fragmentation processes are obtained. The dissociation channels of higher excited states of the CO2 3 + molecular ion are opened, which are quite different from the previous studies of heavy-ion collision [N. Neumann, D. Hant, L. Ph. H. Schmidt, J. Titze, T. Jahnke, A. Czasch, M. S. Schöffler, K. Kreidi, O. Jagutzki, H. Schmidt-Böcking, and R. Dörner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 103201 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.103201] and intense laser field [C. Wu, C. Wu, D. Song, H. Su, Y. Yang, Z. Wu, X. Liu, H. Liu, M. Li, Y. Deng, Y. Liu, L.-Y. Peng, H. Jiang, and Q. Gong, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 103601 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.103601]. By analyzing KERs together with the help of potential-energy curves exploration at the multireference configuration interaction level, we conclude that the sequential fragmentation occurs in the 2Π ,4Π , and 2Σ+ states of the CO2 3 + ion. The bond length and bond angle are also determined based on the linear fragmentation, indicating that electron impact fragmentation is a potential method to precisely reconstruct the geometry of neutral molecules.

  1. Measurement of OH(X 2Πi υ = 2, 3, 4) Collisional Removal Rate Constants by Oxygen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulter, J. E.; Marschall, J.; Copeland, R. A.

    2002-05-01

    The fluorescence of vibrationally excited, ground electronic state hydroxyl radical (OH) in the airglow originates in the mesosphere-lower thermosphere (MLT) region of Earth's atmosphere. Spectroscopic measurements of this infrared emission are being made by the TIMED satellite to characterize the dynamics, temperature profiles, and HOy chemistry in the region 80-100 km. In the atmosphere, hydroxyl radicals in υ = 6-9 are formed in the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone; lower vibrational levels are populated through subsequent collisional deactivation by molecular oxygen. The lifetimes of the lower levels (υ <= 4) are significantly affected by collisions with atomic oxygen, as collisions with molecular oxygen are less efficient at relaxation than at higher levels. Given the importance of O-atom collisions in the atmosphere, we have developed an experimental approach and performed experiments on the collisional removal of OH(υ = 2, 3, 4) by atomic oxygen. In this work, the reaction of OH with atomic oxygen is studied using a two-laser method. Ozone is photolyzed in nitrogen with a pulsed excimer laser to generate O(1D), a portion of which reacts with either hydrogen to form OH(υ <= 4) or with water vapor to form OH(υ <= 3); the remainder is rapidly deactivated by collisions with N2 to produce ground state O(3P). A second, tunable dye laser pulse probes the OH population in a specific rovibrational state as a function of reaction time, using fluorescence from the A 2}Σ {+ - X 2Π { i} system. By adjusting the composition of the reactant gas mixture and by varying the photolysis laser fluence to control the ozone dissociation fraction, the dominant relaxation partner can be varied systematically from ozone and water or hydrogen to atomic oxygen. Experimentally determined rate constants for the removal of OH(υ = 2, 3, 4) by O(3P) are obtained at room temperature, with values of 6 x 10-11, 1.0 x 10-10 and 1.6 x 10-10 for υ = 2, 3 and 4, respectively, and 2-

  2. Plasticity during motherhood: changes in excitatory and inhibitory layer 2/3 neurons in auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lior; Mizrahi, Adi

    2015-01-28

    Maternal behavior can be triggered by auditory and olfactory cues originating from the newborn. Here we report how the transition to motherhood affects excitatory and inhibitory neurons in layer 2/3 (L2/3) of the mouse primary auditory cortex. We used in vivo two-photon targeted cell-attached recording to compare the response properties of parvalbumin-expressing neurons (PVNs) and pyramidal glutamatergic neurons (PyrNs). The transition to motherhood shifts the average best frequency of PVNs to higher frequency by a full octave, with no significant effect on average best frequency of PyrNs. The presence of pup odors significantly reduced the spontaneous and evoked activity of PVN. This reduction of feedforward inhibition coincides with a complimentary increase in spontaneous and evoked activity of PyrNs. The selective shift of PVN frequency tuning should render pup odor-induced disinhibition more effective for high-frequency stimuli, such as ultrasonic vocalizations. Indeed, pup odors increased neuronal responses of PyrNs to pup ultrasonic vocalizations. We conclude that plasticity in the mothers is mediated, at least in part, via modulation of the feedforward inhibition circuitry in the auditory cortex. PMID:25632153

  3. Metabolite transfer with the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol enhances virulence by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Venkataraman, Arvind; Rosenbaum, Miriam A; Werner, Jeffrey J; Winans, Stephen C; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-01-01

    The respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients harbor persistent microbial communities (CF airway microbiome) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa emerging as a dominant pathogen. Within a polymicrobial infection, interactions between co-habitant microbes can be important for pathogenesis, but even when considered, these interactions are not well understood. Here, we show with in vitro experiments that, compared with glucose, common fermentation products from co-habitant bacteria significantly increase virulence factor production, antimicrobial activity and biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa. The maximum stimulating effect was produced with the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol, which is a substrate for P. aeruginosa, resulting in a metabolic relationship between fermenters and this pathogen. The global transcription regulator LasI LasR, which controls quorum sensing, was upregulated threefold with 2,3-butanediol, resulting in higher phenazine and exotoxin concentrations and improved biofilm formation. This indicates that the success of P. aeruginosa in CF airway microbiomes could be governed by the location within the food web with fermenting bacteria. Our findings suggest that interbacterial metabolite transfer in polymicrobial infections stimulates virulence of P. aeruginosa and could have a considerable impact on disease progression. PMID:24401856

  4. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: First evidence of expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jimena; Alvarez, Claudio; Santana, Paula; Torres, Elisa; Mercado, Luis

    2016-12-01

    The role of enzymes as active antimicrobial agents of the innate immunity in teleost fish is proposed in diverse works. Secretion of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been described in higher vertebrates; it degrades l-tryptophan in extracellular environments associated mainly with mucosal organs. The effect of IDO on decreasing amino acid concentration may inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In fish the study of this molecule is still. Here we report the identification of an Onchorhyncus mykiss IDO homologue (OmIDO). IDO was cloned, sequenced, and the primary structure shows conservation of key functional sites. The constitutive expression is altered when the fish is challenged with LPS as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs). Up-regulation of IDO was shown preferentially in the fish's mucosal cells. In order to obtain evidence of a possible regulation mechanism, an in vitro cell model was used for to show that OmIDO is induced by rIFN. These study has identified a Indoleamine 2,3-dyoxigenase in O. mykiss will contribute to expands our knowledge of the function this protein in fish immune response. These findings allow to propose the use of OmIDO as a molecular indicator of strength of the animal's immune response and wellbeing.

  5. Bis-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium): a chiral scaffold for developing high-affinity ligands for SK channels.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Jean-François; Wouters, Johan; Seutin, Vincent; Dilly, Sébastien

    2014-04-01

    N-Methyl-bis-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium) analogues derived from AG525 (1,1'-(propane-1,3-diyl)-bis-(6,7-dimethoxy-2- methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline)) stereoisomers and tetrandrine, a rigid bis-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline) analogue with an S,S configuration, were synthesized and tested for their affinity for small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (SK/KCa2) subtypes using radioligand binding assays. A significant increase in affinity was observed for the quaternized analogues over the parent 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds. Interestingly, the impact of stereochemistry was not the same in the two groups of compounds. For quaternized analogues, affinities of S,S and R,R isomers for SK2 and SK3 channels were similar and in both cases higher than that of the meso derivative. Among the bis-tetrahydroisoquinoline compounds, the S,S isomers exhibited high affinity, while the R,R and meso isomers had similarly lower affinities. Furthermore, the SK2/SK3 selectivity ratio was slightly increased for quaternized analogues. Bis-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium) represents a new scaffold for the development of high-affinity ligands for SK channel subtypes. PMID:24829978

  6. The Higher Education Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottinger, Cecilia A.

    1991-01-01

    Higher education not only contributes to the development of the human resources and intellectual betterment of the nation but is also a major economic enterprise. This research brief reviews and highlights data on the size and growth of higher education and illustrates how higher education institutions are preparing the future labor force. It…

  7. Reflections on "Higher Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Felix

    1974-01-01

    The elitist, professional, and philosophical elements of higher education are reflected upon with stress on the differences between higher education and higher learning, where education is concerned with giving wider groups a share in a broad image of man, and learning is concerned with increasing specialization. (JH)

  8. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of Two Binding Sites for Nucleation-promoting Factor WASp-VCA on Arp2/3 Complex

    SciTech Connect

    S Ti; C Jurgenson; B Nolen; T Pollard

    2011-12-31

    Actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex mediates the formation of actin filament branches during endocytosis and at the leading edge of motile cells. The pathway of branch formation is ambiguous owing to uncertainty regarding the stoichiometry and location of VCA binding sites on Arp2/3 complex. Isothermal titration calorimetry showed that the CA motif from the C terminus of fission yeast WASP (Wsp1p) bound to fission yeast and bovine Arp2/3 complex with a stoichiometry of 2 to 1 and very different affinities for the two sites (K{sub d}s of 0.13 and 1.6 {micro}M for fission yeast Arp2/3 complex). Equilibrium binding, kinetic, and cross-linking experiments showed that (i) CA at high-affinity site 1 inhibited Arp2/3 complex binding to actin filaments, (ii) low-affinity site 2 had a higher affinity for CA when Arp2/3 complex was bound to actin filaments, and (iii) Arp2/3 complex had a much higher affinity for free CA than VCA cross-linked to an actin monomer. Crystal structures showed the C terminus of CA bound to the low-affinity site 2 on Arp3 of bovine Arp2/3 complex. The C helix is likely to bind to the barbed end groove of Arp3 in a position for VCA to deliver the first actin subunit to the daughter filament.

  9. Temporal scattering and response software users' manual: Version 2. 3

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual gives complete information on how to use the TSAR electromagnetic analysis software. Included are descriptions of input files, the details of how these files affect the problem, and output data specifications. What is not included is the theory of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm or details of the TSAR implementation of it. This manual assumes that readers are sufficiently familiar with FDTD that they only need the how to'' knowledge presented here. This is a reference manual rather than a tutorial manual. To help new users become familiar with the TSAR software, a set of example problems is included with the TSAR distribution.

  10. High Temperature Transfer Molding Resins Based on 2,3,3',4'-Biphenyltetracarboxylic Dianhydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Yokota, R.; Criss, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    As part of an ongoing effort to develop materials for resin transfer molding (RTM) processes to fabricate high performance/high temperature composite structures, phenylethynyl containing imides have been under investigation. New phenylethynyl containing imide compositions were prepared using 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA) and evaluated for cured glass transition temperature (Tg), melt flow behavior, and for processability into flat composite panels via RTM. The a-BPDA imparts a unique combination of properties that are desirable for high temperature transfer molding resins. In comparison to its symmetrical counterpart (i.e. 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride), a-BPDA affords oligomers with lower melt viscosities and when cured, higher Tgs. Several candidates exhibited the appropriate combination of properties such as a low and stable melt viscosity required for RTM processes, high cured Tg, and moderate toughness. The chemistry, physical, and composite properties of select resins will be discussed.

  11. African Higher Education: An International Reference Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew, Ed.; Altbach, Philip G., Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive survey of all aspects and dimensions of higher education in Africa. It includes a historical overview of higher education, descriptions of the higher education systems in each African country, and analyses of current and timely topics in higher education. Part 1, "Themes," contains 13 essays on trends in African higher…

  12. [Indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenasase (IDO) as a prognostic factor of hematological malignancies].

    PubMed

    Hara, Takeshi; Tsurumi, Hisashi

    2011-12-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) catalyses tryptophan degradation in the kynurenine pathway, and plays an important role in immune tolerance by regulating antigen-presenting cells. We introduce the results of our investigations of IDO for hematological malignancies. Serum L-kynurenine (KYN) for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL): The Complete remission (CR) rates of patients with lower KYN and higher KYN were 83% and 61%, respectively (p < 0.05). The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates for patients with lower KYN and higher KYN were 89% and 58%, respectively (p < 0.005). IDO expression for DLBCL: CR rates in patients with IDO-positive DLBCL and IDO-negative DLBCL were 55.3% and 79.0% (p = 0.008), while 3-year overall survival rates were 49.8% and 78.8%, respectively (p = 0.0003). Serum KYN and IDO expression for DLBCL: Three-year OS rates were 55% and 78% for patients with higher KYN and lower KYN, respectively (p = 0.027), and 44% and 75% for patients with IDO-positive and IDO-negative DLBCL, respectively (p = 0.0017). Patients with low KYN and IDO-negative showed the best outcomes, while patients with high KYN and IDO-positive showed the poorest outcome. Serum KYN for T-cell lymphoma: The 5-year OS rates for patients with lower KYN and higher KYN were 77% and 38%, respectively (p < 0.005). Serum KYN and IDO expression for AML: The 5-year OS rates for patients with lower KYN and higher KYN were 68% and 11%, respectively (p < 0.05). The 5-year OS rates for patients with IDO mRNA expression and without IDO mRNA expression were 64% and 41%, respectively (p < 0.05). IDO activity might play an important role in the disease activity of hematological malignancies.

  13. Graded Smad2/3 Activation Is Converted Directly into Levels of Target Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mavrakis, Konstantinos J.; Goggolidou, Paraskevi; Norris, Dominic P.; Episkopou, Vasso

    2009-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) β signalling family includes morphogens, such as Nodal and Activin, with important functions in vertebrate development. The concentration of the morphogen is critical for fate decisions in the responding cells. Smad2 and Smad3 are effectors of the Nodal/Activin branch of TGFβ signalling: they are activated by receptors, enter the nucleus and directly transcribe target genes. However, there have been no studies correlating levels of Smad2/3 activation with expression patterns of endogenous target genes in a developmental context over time. We used mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells to create a system whereby levels of activated Smad2/3 can be manipulated by an inducible constitutively active receptor (Alk4*) and an inhibitor (SB-431542) that blocks specifically Smad2/3 activation. The transcriptional responses were analysed by microarrays at different time points during activation and repression. We identified several genes that follow faithfully and reproducibly the Smad2/3 activation profile. Twenty-seven of these were novel and expressed in the early embryo downstream of Smad2/3 signalling. As they responded to Smad2/3 activation in the absence of protein synthesis, they were considered direct. These immediate responsive genes included negative intracellular feedback factors, like SnoN and I-Smad7, which inhibit the transcriptional activity of Smad2/3. However, their activation did not lead to subsequent repression of target genes over time, suggesting that this type of feedback is inefficient in ES cells or it is counteracted by mechanisms such as ubiquitin-mediated degradation by Arkadia. Here we present an ES cell system along with a database containing the expression profile of thousands of genes downstream of Smad2/3 activation patterns, in the presence or absence of protein synthesis. Furthermore, we identify primary target genes that follow proportionately and with high sensitivity changes in Smad2/3 levels over 15–30

  14. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  15. Replication of human immunodeficiency virus in monocytes. Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) potentiates viral production yet enhances the antiviral effect mediated by 3'-azido- 2'3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) and other dideoxynucleoside congeners of thymidine

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of granulocyte-macrophage CSF (GM- CSF) on the replication of HIV-1 in cells of monocyte/macrophage (M/M) lineage, and its effect on the anti-HIV activity of several 2'3'- dideoxynucleoside congeners of thymidine in these cells in vitro. We found that replication of both HTLV-IIIBa-L (a monocytotropic strain of HIV-1) and HTLV-IIIB (a lymphocytotropic strain) is markedly enhanced in M/M, but not in lymphocytes exposed to GM-CSF in culture. Moreover, GM-CSF reduced the dose of HIV required to obtain productive infection in M/M. Even in the face of this increased infection, GM-CSF also enhanced the net anti-HIV activity of 3'-azido-2'3'-dideoxythymidine (AZT) and several related congeners: 2'3'-dideoxythymidine (ddT), 2'3'- dideoxy-2'3'-didehydrothymidine (D4T), and 3'-azido-2'3'-dideoxyuridine (AZddU). Inhibition of viral replication in GM-CSF-exposed M/M was achieved with concentrations of AZT and related drugs, which were 10- 100 times lower than those inhibitory for HIV-1 in monocytes in the absence of GM-CSF. Other dideoxynucleosides not related to AZT showed unchanged or decreased anti-HIV activity in GM-CSF-exposed M/M. To investigate the possible biochemical basis for these effects, we evaluated the metabolism of several drugs in M/M exposed to GM-CSF. We observed in these cells markedly increased levels of both parent and mono-, di-, and triphosphate anabolites of AZT and D4T compared with M/M not exposed to GM-CSF. By contrast, only limited increases of endogenous competing 2'-deoxynucleoside-5'-triphosphate pools were observed after GM-CSF exposure. Thus, the ratio of AZT-5'- triphosphate/2'-deoxythymidine-5'-triphosphate and 2'3'-dideoxy-2'3'- didehydrothymidine-5'-triphosphate/2'-deoxythymi dine- 5'-triphosphate is several-fold higher in GM-CSF-exposed M/M, and this may account for the enhanced activity of such drugs in these cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that GM-CSF increases HIV-1 replication in M

  16. Liquid chromatographic resolution of 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines on a chiral stationary phase based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Areum; Choi, Hee Jung; Jin, Kab Bong; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2011-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic chiral stationary phase (CSP) based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid was applied for the first time to the resolution of biologically important 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. The unusual resolution of cyclic secondary amino compounds on a chiral crown ether-based CSP was quite successful with the use of a mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-triethylamine at a ratio of 30/70/0.5 (v/v/v) as a mobile phase. From the chromatographic behaviours for the resolution of seven 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines, the steric bulkiness of the 1-phenyl ring at the chiral center of analytes was concluded to play an important role in the chiral recognition.

  17. Higher prices in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    1982-03-01

    Price increases in the Jamaica CSM program went into effect on August 31, 1981. The program began in 1975. While the need for higher prices has been under discussion for the past 3 years, this is the 1st time the requisite approval from the Jamaica Price Commission has been obtained. The Jamaica National Family Planning Board (JNFPB) reports that the Panther 3-pack (condom) is up US$0.15 to US$0.30. Each Perle package (oral contraceptive) was increased by US$0.20. Single cycle Perle now sells for US$0.50, and 3-pack Perle sells for US$1.10. The 6-year price stagnation experienced by the CSM program resulted in a decreasing operational budget as program costs continued to rise. Marketing costs alone during this period escalated by 100-300%. For example, Panther pop-up display cartons cost the project US 16U each in 1975. By 1979 the same product cost US 49U. Newspaper advertisements have increased from the 1975 cost of US$68.00 to nearly $200.00 per placement. The overall inflation rate in Jamaica during the last 5 years has averaged more than 20% annually. In the face of these rising costs, outlet expansion for Perle has been prevented, wholesaler margins have been unavailable, and new retailer training has been discontinued. It is projected that the new prices will result in an annual increased revenues of US$80,000 which will be used to reinstate these essential marketing activities. The JNFPB is also planning to introduce a Panther 12-pack and Panther strips to the CSM product line. According to Marketing Manager Aston Evans, "We believe the public is now ready for this type of packaging" which is scheduled to be available soon. Panther is presently only available in a 3-pack, but annual sales have been steady. The new 12-pack will be stocked on supermarket shelves to provide higher product visibility and wider distribution. The selling price has been set as US$1.20 and is expected to yield a 25% increase in sales during the 1st year. A complete sales promotion

  18. Higher Education's Coming Leadership Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appadurai, Arjun

    2009-01-01

    The full impact of the current recession on American higher education remains uncertain, but drops in applications, faculty autonomy and job security, frozen salaries and hiring processes, and scaling back of new facilities and programs are already being seen. American colleges face tough times ahead for teaching, research, and capital projects…

  19. Supercomplexity in Higher Education Kinesiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Betty A.; Estes, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This article employs Barnett's (2004) specifications of the aspects that describe the times of "supercomplexity." This term characterizes the challenges universities are facing regarding the expanding and competing forces that are affecting higher education, particularly in the West. Outside forces related to globalization, digital technologies,…

  20. American Higher Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2011-01-01

    American higher education is in transition and if there ever was a "golden age" for faculty, it probably is behind us. The best historical data on the composition of faculty is collected annually by the American Mathematical Society. Between 1967 and 2009, the share of full-time faculty with PhDs remained constant at about 90 percent at doctoral…

  1. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  2. Development of a Mutant Strain of Bacillus polymyxa Showing Enhanced Production of 2,3-Butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Mallonee, D. H.; Speckman, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic α-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant. PMID:16347522

  3. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  4. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  5. Structural analysis of the transitional state of Arp2/3 complex activation by two actin-WCAs

    PubMed Central

    Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Kast, David J.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Actin filament nucleation and branching by Arp2/3 complex is activated by nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), whose C-terminal WCA region contains binding sites for actin (W) and Arp2/3 complex (CA). It is debated whether one or two NPFs are required for activation. Here, we present conclusive evidence in support of the two-NPF model and show that actin plays a crucial role in the interactions of two mammalian NPFs, N-WASP and WAVE2, with Arp2/3 complex. Competition between actin-WCA and glia maturation factor (GMF) for binding to Arp2/3 complex suggests that during activation the first actin monomer binds at the barbed end of Arp2. Based on distance constrains obtained by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we define the relative position of the two actin-WCAs on Arp2/3 complex and propose an atomic model of the 11-subunit transitional complex. PMID:24518936

  6. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  7. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-08-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05-0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000-40 000 Ω cm(2)) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1-3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks.

  8. Higher Education in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    For the past 7 years, the State Council of Higher Education has published a report of selected characteristics and degree programs for Virginia's state-supported colleges and universities. By combining data from independent institutions with information collected from the state-supported colleges, a more comprehensive picture of higher education…

  9. Minorities in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Justiz, Manuel J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 19 papers on efforts to increase the participation of members of minority groups in higher education. The papers are: (1) "Demographic Trends and the Challenges to American Higher Education" (Manuel Justiz); (2) "Three Realities: Minority Life in the United States--The Struggle for Economic Equity (adapted by Don M. Blandin);…

  10. Hypermedia and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemke, Jay L.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses changes in higher education that are resulting from the use of hypermedia. Topics addressed include the structure of traditional texts; a distributed model for academic communication; independent learning as a model for higher education; skills for hypermedia literacy; database searching; information retrieval; authoring skills; design…

  11. Reinventing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education institutions are in the battle of a lifetime as they are coping with political and economic uncertainties, threats to federal aid, declining state support, higher tuition rates and increased competition from for-profit institutions. Amid all these challenges, these institutions are pressed to keep up with technological demands,…

  12. Higher Education Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological conundrum of "knowledge produced…

  13. Higher Education Exchange, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This volume begins with an essay by Noelle McAfee, a contributor who is familiar to readers of Higher Education Exchange (HEX). She reiterates Kettering's president David Mathews' argument regarding the disconnect between higher education's sense of engagement and the public's sense of engagement, and suggests a way around the epistemological…

  14. PHOENIX. Higher Wage Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bismarck State Coll., ND.

    This document outlines the curriculum plan for the one-semester vocational-technical training component of PHOENIX: A Model Program for Higher-Wage Potential Careers offered by Bismarck State College (North Dakota) which prepares and/or retrains individuals for higher-wage technical careers. The comprehensive model for the program is organized…

  15. Higher Education Exchange 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Contributors to this issue of the Higher Education Exchange debate the issues around knowledge production, discuss the acquisition of deliberative skills for democracy, and examine how higher education prepares, or does not prepare, students for citizenship roles. Articles include: (1) "Foreword" (Deborah Witte); (2) "Knowledge, Judgment and…

  16. Reimagining Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, E. Eileen; Groom, David E., Jr.; Heltzel, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenges facing higher education continue to mount. The shifting of the U.S. ethnic and racial demographics, the proliferation of advanced digital technologies and data, and the move from traditional degrees to continuous learning platforms have created an unstable environment to which Christian higher education must adapt in order to remain…

  17. Gender and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank, Barbara J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive, encyclopedic review explores gender and its impact on American higher education across historical and cultural contexts. Challenging recent claims that gender inequities in U.S. higher education no longer exist, the contributors--leading experts in the field--reveal the many ways in which gender is embedded in the educational…

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  19. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...

  20. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...

  1. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  2. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  7. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  8. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  9. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  10. 14 CFR Sec. 2-3 - Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities. Sec. 2-3 Section 2-3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-3 Distribution of revenues and expenses...

  11. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  12. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  13. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  14. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  15. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  1. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  2. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  3. "I Don't Make out How Important It Is or Anything": Identity and Identity Formation by Part-Time Higher Education Students in an English Further Education College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esmond, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Policymakers in England have recently, in common with other Anglophone countries, encouraged the provision of higher education within vocational Further Education Colleges. Policy documents have emphasised the potential contribution of college-based students to widening participation: yet the same students contribute in turn to the difficulties of…

  4. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  5. K-bZIP Mediated SUMO-2/3 Specific Modification on the KSHV Genome Negatively Regulates Lytic Gene Expression and Viral Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shan; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Campbell, Mel; Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2015-07-01

    SUMOylation is associated with epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and transcription. Epigenetic modifications of herpesviral genomes accompany the transcriptional switch of latent and lytic genes during the virus life cycle. Here, we report a genome-wide comparison of SUMO paralog modification on the KSHV genome. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing, our study revealed highly distinct landscape changes of SUMO paralog genomic modifications associated with KSHV reactivation. A rapid and widespread deposition of SUMO-2/3, compared with SUMO-1, modification across the KSHV genome upon reactivation was observed. Interestingly, SUMO-2/3 enrichment was inversely correlated with H3K9me3 mark after reactivation, indicating that SUMO-2/3 may be responsible for regulating the expression of viral genes located in low heterochromatin regions during viral reactivation. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that the SUMO-2/3 enrichment pattern positively correlated with KSHV gene expression profiles. Activation of KSHV lytic genes located in regions with high SUMO-2/3 enrichment was enhanced by SUMO-2/3 knockdown. These findings suggest that SUMO-2/3 viral chromatin modification contributes to the diminution of viral gene expression during reactivation. Our previous study identified a SUMO-2/3-specific viral E3 ligase, K-bZIP, suggesting a potential role of this enzyme in regulating SUMO-2/3 enrichment and viral gene repression. Consistent with this prediction, higher K-bZIP binding on SUMO-2/3 enrichment region during reactivation was observed. Moreover, a K-bZIP SUMO E3 ligase dead mutant, K-bZIP-L75A, in the viral context, showed no SUMO-2/3 enrichment on viral chromatin and higher expression of viral genes located in SUMO-2/3 enriched regions during reactivation. Importantly, virus production significantly increased in both SUMO-2/3 knockdown and KSHV K-bZIP-L75A mutant cells. These results indicate that SUMO-2/3 modification

  6. K-bZIP Mediated SUMO-2/3 Specific Modification on the KSHV Genome Negatively Regulates Lytic Gene Expression and Viral Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wan-Shan; Hsu, Hung-Wei; Campbell, Mel; Cheng, Chia-Yang; Chang, Pei-Ching

    2015-07-01

    SUMOylation is associated with epigenetic regulation of chromatin structure and transcription. Epigenetic modifications of herpesviral genomes accompany the transcriptional switch of latent and lytic genes during the virus life cycle. Here, we report a genome-wide comparison of SUMO paralog modification on the KSHV genome. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation in conjunction with high-throughput sequencing, our study revealed highly distinct landscape changes of SUMO paralog genomic modifications associated with KSHV reactivation. A rapid and widespread deposition of SUMO-2/3, compared with SUMO-1, modification across the KSHV genome upon reactivation was observed. Interestingly, SUMO-2/3 enrichment was inversely correlated with H3K9me3 mark after reactivation, indicating that SUMO-2/3 may be responsible for regulating the expression of viral genes located in low heterochromatin regions during viral reactivation. RNA-sequencing analysis showed that the SUMO-2/3 enrichment pattern positively correlated with KSHV gene expression profiles. Activation of KSHV lytic genes located in regions with high SUMO-2/3 enrichment was enhanced by SUMO-2/3 knockdown. These findings suggest that SUMO-2/3 viral chromatin modification contributes to the diminution of viral gene expression during reactivation. Our previous study identified a SUMO-2/3-specific viral E3 ligase, K-bZIP, suggesting a potential role of this enzyme in regulating SUMO-2/3 enrichment and viral gene repression. Consistent with this prediction, higher K-bZIP binding on SUMO-2/3 enrichment region during reactivation was observed. Moreover, a K-bZIP SUMO E3 ligase dead mutant, K-bZIP-L75A, in the viral context, showed no SUMO-2/3 enrichment on viral chromatin and higher expression of viral genes located in SUMO-2/3 enriched regions during reactivation. Importantly, virus production significantly increased in both SUMO-2/3 knockdown and KSHV K-bZIP-L75A mutant cells. These results indicate that SUMO-2/3 modification

  7. A chicken influenza virus recognizes fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan receptors on the epithelial cells lining upper respiratory tracts of chickens.

    PubMed

    Hiono, Takahiro; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Nishihara, Shoko; Takase-Yoden, Sayaka; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi

    2014-05-01

    Influenza viruses recognize sialoglycans as receptors. Although viruses isolated form chickens preferentially bind to sialic acid α2,3 galactose (SAα2,3Gal) glycans as do those of ducks, chickens were not experimentally infected with viruses isolated from ducks. A chicken influenza virus, A/chicken/Ibaraki/1/2005 (H5N2) (Ck/IBR) bound to fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, whereas the binding towards linear SAα2,3Gal glycans was weak. On the epithelial cells of the upper respiratory tracts of chickens, fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans were detected, but not linear SAα2,3Gal glycans. The growth of Ck/IBR in MDCK-FUT cells, which were genetically prepared to express fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans, was significantly higher than that in the parental MDCK cells. The present results indicate that fucose-branched SAα2,3Gal glycans existing on the epithelial cells lining the upper respiratory tracts of chickens are critical for recognition by Ck/IBR.

  8. Metabolism of acetoin in mammalian liver slices and extracts. Interconversion with butane-2,3-diol and biacetyl.

    PubMed

    Gabriel, M A; Jabara, H; al-Khalidi, U A

    1971-10-01

    1. [(14)C]Acetoin was enzymically synthesized from [(14)C]pyruvate with a pyruvate decarboxylase preparation. Its optical activity was [alpha](20) (d)-78 degrees . 2. Large amounts (1000-fold higher than physiological concentrations) of acetoin were incubated with rat liver mince. Acetoin disappeared but very little (14)CO(2) was evolved. A compound accumulated, which was purified and identified as butane-2,3-diol. Chromatography on borate-impregnated paper indicated the presence of both the erythro and threo forms. 3. Liver extracts capable of interconverting biacetyl, acetoin and butane-2,3-diol were obtained. These interconversions were catalysed by two different enzymes: acetoin dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.5) and butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.4), previously identified in bacteria. Both required NAD(+) or NADP(+) as cofactors and were different from alcohol dehydrogenase. The equilibrium in both cases favoured the more reduced compound. 4. The activity of butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase was decreased by dialysis against EDTA: the addition of Co(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and other bivalent metal ions restored activity. 5. Biacetyl reductase was resolved into multiple forms by CM-Sephadex chromatography and electrophoresis.

  9. Metabolism of acetoin in mammalian liver slices and extracts. Interconversion with butane-2,3-diol and biacetyl

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel, M. A.; Jabara, Haifa; Al-Khalidi, U. A. S.

    1971-01-01

    1. [14C]Acetoin was enzymically synthesized from [14C]pyruvate with a pyruvate decarboxylase preparation. Its optical activity was [α]20d−78°. 2. Large amounts (1000-fold higher than physiological concentrations) of acetoin were incubated with rat liver mince. Acetoin disappeared but very little 14CO2 was evolved. A compound accumulated, which was purified and identified as butane-2,3-diol. Chromatography on borate-impregnated paper indicated the presence of both the erythro and threo forms. 3. Liver extracts capable of interconverting biacetyl, acetoin and butane-2,3-diol were obtained. These interconversions were catalysed by two different enzymes: acetoin dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.5) and butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.4), previously identified in bacteria. Both required NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactors and were different from alcohol dehydrogenase. The equilibrium in both cases favoured the more reduced compound. 4. The activity of butane-2,3-diol dehydrogenase was decreased by dialysis against EDTA: the addition of Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and other bivalent metal ions restored activity. 5. Biacetyl reductase was resolved into multiple forms by CM-Sephadex chromatography and electrophoresis. PMID:4399820

  10. Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-20

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.

  11. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  12. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo.

  13. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  14. On higher structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, Nils A.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we discuss various philosophical aspects of the hyperstructure concept extending networks and higher categories. By this discussion, we hope to pave the way for applications and further developments of the mathematical theory of hyperstructures.

  15. Forecasting Higher Education's Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyken, Don; Buck, Tina S.; Kollie, Ellen; Przyborowski, Danielle; Rondinelli, Joseph A.; Hunter, Jeff; Hanna, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Offers predictions on trends in higher education to accommodate changing needs, lower budgets, and increased enrollment. They involve campus construction, security, administration, technology, interior design, athletics, and transportation. (EV)

  16. International Higher Education Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lulat, Y. G-M.

    1988-01-01

    One in a series of bibliographies of articles in international higher education journals lists items on a variety of administrative, financial, faculty, student, curricular, and related issues. Articles on specific geographic regions are categorized separately. (MSE)

  17. [Effect of rhG-CSF on blood coagulation in beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Han, Qin-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Xie, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Fang; Yu, Zu-Yin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Cong, Yu-Wen; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on blood coagulation of beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron so as to provide new therapy for blood coagulation disorder after neutron irradiation. 10 beagles were exposed to 2.3 Gy neutron, and then randomly assigned into supportive care group and rhG-CSF-treated group. The rhG-CSF-treated cohorts were injected subcutaneously with rhG-CSF (10 µg/kg·d) beginning at the day of exposure for 21 consecutive days. Peripheral blood platelet counts were examined once every two days. In vitro platelet aggregation test, thromboelastography and blood clotting tetrachoric tests were also performed. The results indicated that the blood clotting system of irradiated dogs was in hypercoagulable state in the early days after 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation, and became hypocoagulable at crisis later and were mainly on intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blood fibrinogen increased markedly during the course of disease, while platelet counts and aggregation function were decreased remarkably. rhG-CSF administered daily could correct hypercoagulable state induced by 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation at the early time post exposure, shortened the thromboplastin generation time and clotting formation, down-regulated the abnormal high fibrinogen in blood, and improved platelet aggregation function. It is concluded that rhG-CSF can improve coagulation disorders of irradiated dogs.

  18. Safrole-2',3'-oxide induces cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in HepG2 cells and in mice.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Su-yin; Lee, Pei-yi; Lai, Ming-tsung; Shen, Li-ching; Chung, Wen-sheng; Huang, Hui-fen; Wu, Kuen-yuh; Wu, Hsiu-ching

    2011-12-24

    Safrole-2',3'-oxide (SAFO) is a reactive electrophilic metabolite of the hepatocarcinogen safrole, the main component of sassafras oil. Safrole occurs naturally in a variety of spices and herbs, including the commonly used Chinese medicine Xi xin (Asari Radix et Rhizoma) and Dong quai (Angelica sinensis). SAFO is the most mutagenic metabolite of safrole tested in the Ames test. However, little or no data are available on the genotoxicity of SAFO in mammalian systems. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of SAFO in human HepG2 cells and male FVB mice. Using MTT assay, SAFO exhibited a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect in HepG2 cells with TC(50) values of 361.9μM and 193.2μM after 24 and 48h exposure, respectively. In addition, treatment with SAFO at doses of 125μM and higher for 24h in HepG2 cells resulted in a 5.1-79.6-fold increase in mean Comet tail moment by the alkaline Comet assay and a 2.6-7.8-fold increase in the frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Furthermore, repeated intraperitoneal administration of SAFO (15, 30, 45, and 60mg/kg) to mice every other day for a total of twelve doses caused a significant dose-dependent increase in mean Comet tail moment in peripheral blood leukocytes (13.3-43.4-fold) and in the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (1.5-5.8-fold). Repeated administration of SAFO (60mg/kg) to mice caused liver lesions manifested as a rim of ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes immediately surrounding the central vein. Our data clearly demonstrate that SAFO significantly induced cytotoxicity, DNA strand breaks, micronuclei formation both in human cells in vitro and in mice. More studies are needed to explore the role SAFO plays in safrole-induced genotoxicity.

  19. High expression of IMPACT protein promotes resistance to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Darya; Jalili, Reza B; Forouzandeh, Farshad; Ong, Christopher J; Ghahary, Aziz

    2010-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan degrading enzyme, is a potent immunomodulatory factor. IDO expression in fibroblasts selectively induces apoptosis in immune cells but not in primary skin cells. However, the mechanism(s) of this selective effect of IDO-induced low tryptophan environment is not elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate whether the activity of general control non-derepressible-2(GCN2) kinase stress-responsive pathway and its known inhibitor, protein IMPACT homolog, in immune and skin cells are differentially regulated in response to IDO-induced low tryptophan environment. IDO-expressing human fibroblasts were co-cultured with Jurkat cells, human T cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. Activation of GCN2 pathway was significantly higher in immune cells exposed to IDO-expressing environment relative to that of skin cells. In contrast, IMPACT was highly and constitutively expressed in skin cells while its expression was very low in stimulated T cells and undetectable in Jurkat cells. A significant IDO-induced suppressive as well as apoptotic effect was demonstrated in IMPACT knocked down fibroblasts co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts. Proliferation of Jurkat cells, stably transduced with IMPACT-expressing vector, was rescued significantly in tryptophan-deficient but not IDO-expressing environment. This may be due to the ability of IMPACT to recover the effects of IDO-mediated tryptophan depletion (GCN2 dependent) but not the effects of IDO-generated cytotoxic metabolites. These findings collectively suggest for the first time that high expression of protein IMPACT homolog in non-immune cells such as skin cells acts as a protective mechanism against IDO-induced GCN2 activation, therefore, makes them resistant to the amino acid-deprived environment caused by IDO. PMID:20648630

  20. High expression of IMPACT protein promotes resistance to indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Darya; Jalili, Reza B; Forouzandeh, Farshad; Ong, Christopher J; Ghahary, Aziz

    2010-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a tryptophan degrading enzyme, is a potent immunomodulatory factor. IDO expression in fibroblasts selectively induces apoptosis in immune cells but not in primary skin cells. However, the mechanism(s) of this selective effect of IDO-induced low tryptophan environment is not elucidated. The aim of present study was to investigate whether the activity of general control non-derepressible-2(GCN2) kinase stress-responsive pathway and its known inhibitor, protein IMPACT homolog, in immune and skin cells are differentially regulated in response to IDO-induced low tryptophan environment. IDO-expressing human fibroblasts were co-cultured with Jurkat cells, human T cells, fibroblasts, or keratinocytes. Activation of GCN2 pathway was significantly higher in immune cells exposed to IDO-expressing environment relative to that of skin cells. In contrast, IMPACT was highly and constitutively expressed in skin cells while its expression was very low in stimulated T cells and undetectable in Jurkat cells. A significant IDO-induced suppressive as well as apoptotic effect was demonstrated in IMPACT knocked down fibroblasts co-cultured with IDO-expressing fibroblasts. Proliferation of Jurkat cells, stably transduced with IMPACT-expressing vector, was rescued significantly in tryptophan-deficient but not IDO-expressing environment. This may be due to the ability of IMPACT to recover the effects of IDO-mediated tryptophan depletion (GCN2 dependent) but not the effects of IDO-generated cytotoxic metabolites. These findings collectively suggest for the first time that high expression of protein IMPACT homolog in non-immune cells such as skin cells acts as a protective mechanism against IDO-induced GCN2 activation, therefore, makes them resistant to the amino acid-deprived environment caused by IDO.

  1. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  2. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: A combined experimental and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M.; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C6H3B(OH)2F2) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm-1) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm-1) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  3. Elucidating Key Motifs Required for Arp2/3-Dependent and Independent Actin Nucleation by Las17/WASP

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Agnieszka N.; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I.

    2016-01-01

    Actin nucleation is the key rate limiting step in the process of actin polymerization, and tight regulation of this process is critical to ensure actin filaments form only at specific times and at defined regions of the cell. Arp2/3 is a well-characterised protein complex that can promote nucleation of new filaments, though its activity requires additional nucleation promotion factors (NPFs). The best recognized of these factors are the WASP family of proteins that contain binding motifs for both monomeric actin and for Arp2/3. Previously we demonstrated that the yeast WASP homologue, Las17, in addition to activating Arp2/3 can also nucleate actin filaments de novo, independently of Arp2/3. This activity is dependent on its polyproline rich region. Through biochemical and in vivo analysis we have now identified key motifs within the polyproline region that are required for nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, and have addressed the role of the WH2 domain in the context of actin nucleation without Arp2/3. We have also demonstrated that full length Las17 is able to bind liposomes giving rise to the possibility of direct linkage of nascent actin filaments to specific membrane sites to which Las17 has been recruited. Overall, we propose that Las17 functions as the key initiator of de novo actin filament formation at endocytic sites by nucleating, elongating and tethering nascent filaments which then serve as a platform for Arp2/3 recruitment and function. PMID:27637067

  4. Elucidating Key Motifs Required for Arp2/3-Dependent and Independent Actin Nucleation by Las17/WASP.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Ellen G; Tyler, Joe J; Urbanek, Agnieszka N; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Actin nucleation is the key rate limiting step in the process of actin polymerization, and tight regulation of this process is critical to ensure actin filaments form only at specific times and at defined regions of the cell. Arp2/3 is a well-characterised protein complex that can promote nucleation of new filaments, though its activity requires additional nucleation promotion factors (NPFs). The best recognized of these factors are the WASP family of proteins that contain binding motifs for both monomeric actin and for Arp2/3. Previously we demonstrated that the yeast WASP homologue, Las17, in addition to activating Arp2/3 can also nucleate actin filaments de novo, independently of Arp2/3. This activity is dependent on its polyproline rich region. Through biochemical and in vivo analysis we have now identified key motifs within the polyproline region that are required for nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, and have addressed the role of the WH2 domain in the context of actin nucleation without Arp2/3. We have also demonstrated that full length Las17 is able to bind liposomes giving rise to the possibility of direct linkage of nascent actin filaments to specific membrane sites to which Las17 has been recruited. Overall, we propose that Las17 functions as the key initiator of de novo actin filament formation at endocytic sites by nucleating, elongating and tethering nascent filaments which then serve as a platform for Arp2/3 recruitment and function. PMID:27637067

  5. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C(6)H(3)B(OH)(2)F(2)) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm(-1)) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra. PMID:22902933

  6. How to Pay for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killingsworth, Charles C.

    The financial crisis for institutions of higher education is deepening. Higher tuition rates may be one of the answers, but this would exclude even more young people from attending college because of inability to pay, at a time when greater equality of opportunity in higher education has become an important goal. Federal support has helped but not…

  7. The MOSDEF Survey: Excitation Properties of z ˜ 2.3 Star-forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapley, Alice E.; Reddy, Naveen A.; Kriek, Mariska; Freeman, William R.; Sanders, Ryan L.; Siana, Brian; Coil, Alison L.; Mobasher, Bahram; Shivaei, Irene; Price, Sedona H.; de Groot, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We present results on the excitation properties of z ˜ 2.3 galaxies using early observations from the MOSFIRE Deep Evolution Field (MOSDEF) Survey. With its coverage of the full suite of strong rest-frame optical emission lines, MOSDEF provides an unprecedented view of the rest-frame optical spectra of a representative sample of distant star-forming galaxies. We investigate the locations of z ˜ 2.3 MOSDEF galaxies in multiple emission-line diagnostic diagrams. These include the [O iii]λ5007/Hβ vs. [N ii]/Hα and [O iii]λ5007/Hβ vs. [S ii]λλ6717, 6731/Hα “BPT” diagrams, as well as the O32 vs. R23 excitation diagram. We recover the well-known offset in the star-forming sequence of high-redshift galaxies in the [O iii]λ5007/Hβ vs. [N ii]/Hα BPT diagram relative to Sloan Digital Sky Survey star-forming galaxies. However, the shift for our rest-frame optically selected sample is less significant than for rest-frame-UV selected and emission-line selected galaxies at z ˜ 2. Furthermore, we find that the offset is mass-dependent, only appearing within the low-mass half of the z ˜ 2.3 MOSDEF sample, where galaxies are shifted toward higher [N ii]/Hα at fixed [O iii]/Hβ. Within the [O iii]λ5007/Hβ vs. [S ii]/Hα and O32 vs. R23 diagrams, we find that z ˜ 2.3 galaxies are distributed like local ones, and therefore attribute the shift in the [O iii]λ5007/Hβ vs. [N ii]/Hα BPT diagram to elevated N/O abundance ratios among lower-mass ({{M}*}\\lt {{10}10} {{M}⊙ }) high-redshift galaxies. The variation in N/O ratios calls into question the use at high redshift of oxygen abundance indicators based on nitrogen lines, but the apparent invariance with redshift of the excitation sequence in the O32 vs. R23 diagram paves the way for using the combination of O32 and R23 as an unbiased metallicity indicator over a wide range in redshift. This indicator will allow for an accurate characterization of the shape and normalization of the mass

  8. Effect of Membrane Composition on Antimicrobial Peptides Aurein 2.2 and 2.3 From Australian Southern Bell Frogs

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, John T.J.; Hale, John D.; Elliot, Melissa; Hancock, Robert E.W.; Straus, Suzana K.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The effects of hydrophobic thickness and the molar phosphatidylglycerol (PG) content of lipid bilayers on the structure and membrane interaction of three cationic antimicrobial peptides were examined: aurein 2.2, aurein 2.3 (almost identical to aurein 2.2, except for a point mutation at residue 13), and a carboxy C-terminal analog of aurein 2.3. Circular dichroism results indicated that all three peptides adopt an α-helical structure in the presence of a 3:1 molar mixture of 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (DMPC/DMPG), and 1:1 and 3:1 molar mixtures of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)] (POPC/POPG). Oriented circular dichroism data for three different lipid compositions showed that all three peptides were surface-adsorbed at low peptide concentrations, but were inserted into the membrane at higher peptide concentrations. The 31P solid-state NMR data of the three peptides in the DMPC/DMPG and POPC/POPG bilayers showed that all three peptides significantly perturbed lipid headgroups, in a peptide or lipid composition-dependent manner. Differential scanning calorimetry results demonstrated that both amidated aurein peptides perturbed the overall phase structure of DMPC/DMPG bilayers, but perturbed the POPC/POPG chains less. The nature of the perturbation of DMPC/DMPG bilayers was most likely micellization, and for the POPC/POPG bilayers, distorted toroidal pores or localized membrane aggregate formation. Calcein release assay results showed that aurein peptide-induced membrane leakage was more severe in DMPC/DMPG liposomes than in POPC/POPG liposomes, and that aurein 2.2 induced higher calcein release than aurein 2.3 and aurein 2.3-COOH from 1:1 and 3:1 POPC/POPG liposomes. Finally, DiSC35 assay data further delineated aurein 2.2 from the others by showing that it perturbed the lipid membranes of intact S. aureus C622

  9. Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hassoun, E.; d'Argy, R.; Dencker, L.

    1984-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDBF) was administered in single doses (0.1-0.8 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pregnant C57BL mice on d 10, 11, 12, or 13 of gestation. A dose-dependent increase was observed in the frequency of fetal resorptions and fetal death, especially in the earlier stages (d 10-11). Cleft palate and hydronephrosis as well appeared in a dose-dependent manner, with a peak in sensitivity after administration on d 11-12. TCDBF given at a dose level of 0.1 mg/kg body weight on d 12 of gestation (only dose- and stage-tested) produced a marked thymic hypoplasia as well. A few cases of general hydrops occurred. The pattern of malformations and time of sensitivity corresponded well to that observed earlier after administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; ED50 approx. = 25 ..mu..g/kg) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazoxybenzene (TCAOB; ED50 approx. = 6 mg/kg), two congeners of TCDBF, indicating common mechanisms of action of this family of compounds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an important enzyme in cell proliferation and growth with a high activity in embryonic tissues. Liver ODC activity has previously been found to be stimulated by TCDD in weanling mice. However, this enzyme was not found to be stimulated in fetal and placental tissues, but slightly in maternal kidney after treatment with TCDBF in teratogenic doses. It is possible that the ODC activity increases under certain conditions only, on administration of TCDD and its congeners. 40 references, 3 tables, 3 figures.

  10. meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid and prevention of arsenite embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Bosque, M A; Piera, V

    1991-08-01

    meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), an antidote for the treatment of experimental and human poisoning by a number of heavy metals, has been reported to reduce the lethality of animals poisoned with arsenic more effectively than 2,3-dimercaptopropanol. In the present study, the effect of DMSA on arsenite-induced embryotoxic and teratogenic effects was evaluated in mice. In a first experiment, a series of four DMSA injections was administered sc to pregnant Swiss mice immediately after a single ip injection of 12 mg/kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) given on Day 10 of gestation, and at 24, 48, and 72 hr thereafter. DMSA effectiveness was assessed at dosage levels of 0, 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg/day. Treatment with DMSA significantly reduced the embryolethality and the incidence of gross external and skeletal malformations and variations provoked by NaAsO2. Based on these findings, the effect of increasing the time interval between acute arsenite exposure and initiation of DMSA therapy was investigated in a second experiment. On Day 10 of gestation, DMSA (320 mg/kg) was administered sc to pregnant mice at 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 4, or 12 hr after a 12-mg/kg ip dose of NaAsO2. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity derived from NaAsO2 exposure were significantly reduced when DMSA was given during the first hour after NaAsO2 injection. According to these results, a delay between acute arsenite intoxication and DMSA treatment should be avoided to have a practical beneficial effect on the arsenite exposed conceptus.

  11. An extended dynamic model of Lactococcus lactis metabolism for mannitol and 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rafael S; Hartmann, Andras; Gaspar, Paula; Neves, Ana R; Vinga, Susana

    2014-03-01

    Biomedical research and biotechnological production are greatly benefiting from the results provided by the development of dynamic models of microbial metabolism. Although several kinetic models of Lactococcus lactis (a Lactic Acid Bacterium (LAB) commonly used in the dairy industry) have been developed so far, most of them are simplified and focus only on specific metabolic pathways. Therefore, the application of mathematical models in the design of an engineering strategy for the production of industrially important products by L. lactis has been very limited. In this work, we extend the existing kinetic model of L. lactis central metabolism to include industrially relevant production pathways such as mannitol and 2,3-butanediol. In this way, we expect to study the dynamics of metabolite production and make predictive simulations in L. lactis. We used a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with approximate Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics for each reaction, where the parameters were estimated from multivariate time-series metabolite concentrations obtained by our team through in vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The results show that the model captures observed transient dynamics when validated under a wide range of experimental conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the model using global perturbations, which corroborate experimental evidence about metabolic responses upon enzymatic changes. These include that mannitol production is very sensitive to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the wild type (W.T.) strain, and to mannitol phosphoenolpyruvate: a phosphotransferase system (PTS(Mtl)) in a LDH mutant strain. LDH reduction has also a positive control on 2,3-butanediol levels. Furthermore, it was found that overproduction of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPD) in a LDH/PTS(Mtl) deficient strain can increase the mannitol levels. The results show that this model has prediction capability over new experimental conditions and offers promising

  12. Development of a second generation experiment to measure the 2(3)S(1) transition to 2(3)P(J) intervals in positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbrecht, Jason John

    Positronium has proven to be a rich testing ground for Quantum Electrodynamics over the last half of the twentieth century. The 23S1 → 23PJ intervals in positronium have previously been measured and disagreements currently exist amongst various experiments and between some experiments and theoretical predictions. Furthermore, recent advances in theory have produced predictions with much higher precision than the current experiments. Therefore, work has been done to develop a 2 nd generation experiment to measure the 23S1 → 23PJ intervals in positronium. Previous experiments used the enhancement of the Lyman-a radiation from the 23P J states in order to observe the 23S1 → 23PJ resonance line. In the 2nd generation experiment the 23S1 positronium is observed by photo-ionizing the positronium and detecting the photo-positron. This signal is then depleted when microwave radiation is applied on resonance as compared to the signal off resonance. The ultimate goal of the 2nd generation experiment is to improve the precision of the measurement of the 2 3S1 → 23P2 interval from 1.5 MHz to 100 kHz. This dissertation describes the current status of the development of this 2nd generation experiment. This includes the development of all of the major subsystems necessary for detecting the 23S 1 → 23PJ transition, including the accumulated positron beam, the pulsed laser beam, the microwave delivery apparatus, and the interaction region. Results are presented showing the first photo-positron signal using an accumulated positron beam. The rate of this signal is approximately 100 mHz as compared to 15 mHz in the 1st generation experiments. This rate is sufficient to produce a 23S1 → 23P2 interval measurement with precision of 3 MHz with 8 hours of data acquisition and 600 kHz after 30 days. Potential improvements to the technique are suggested to allow for a 100 kHz measurement. Additionally, results are presented for Doppler broadening measurements of thermalization of

  13. Comparative Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altbach, Philip G.

    The comparative higher education course offered at the State University of New York at Buffalo is briefly described, and a course schedule is presented, including required and recommended readings for each topic. The course is intended to provide a broad cross-cultural perspective and considers the growth and development of universities in Europe,…

  14. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  15. Higher Education Exchange, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David W., Ed.; Witte, Deborah, Ed.

    This annual collection focuses on the obligation of higher education to democracy. Scholars from a variety if disciplines explore this question and related issues, such as the civic mission of the university, what it means to be an "engaged" university, and how a university can itself by a "good citizen." Following a foreword by Deborah Witte, the…

  16. Higher Education's Strange Paradox.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold, II

    The university which has had the temerity to change the world has not had the nerve to change itself to live in that world. The result is that the university's grading system, curriculum, teaching methods, and philosophies are in conflict with the world beyond the campus gates, and higher education does not meet the intellectual and social needs…

  17. European Higher Education Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcal-Grilo, Eduardo

    2003-01-01

    In his paper, the author--an academic and former Minister of Education for Portugal--traces the origins of the Bologna Declaration of 1999 and its follow-up studies leading to the Prague Conference of Higher Education Ministers in May 2001. He summarises the outcomes of the Prague Conference, and draws conclusions on the crucial role of…

  18. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  19. Higher Education Interpreting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woll, Bencie; Porcari li Destri, Giulia

    This paper discusses issues related to the training and provision of interpreters for deaf students at institutions of higher education in the United Kingdom. Background information provided notes the increasing numbers of deaf and partially hearing students, the existence of funding to pay for interpreters, and trends in the availability of…

  20. Understanding Higher Education Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middaugh, Michael F.

    2005-01-01

    Public discussion of higher education costs frequently confuses price with expenditure. This article examines factors associated with increases in the sticker price of a college education and the expenditures incurred by institutions in delivering that education. The discussion suggests that while growth in college tuition is real, access to…