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Sample records for 2-3 times larger

  1. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  2. Distribution of Seismicity Before the Larger Earthquakes in Italy in the Time Interval 1994-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentili, S.

    2010-08-01

    The Region-Time-Length (RTL) algorithm has been applied to different instrumental catalogues to detect seismic quiescence before medium-to-large earthquakes in Italy in the last two decades. RTL performances are sensitive to the choice of spatial and temporal parameters. The method for automatic parameters selection developed by Chen and Wu has been applied to twelve Italian earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. The limits of the method in constructing maps of seismic quiescence before the earthquake are demonstrated, and a simple improvement is proposed. Then a new technique, namely RTLsurv, is proposed for routine surveys of the Italian seismicity. RTLsurv has been applied to all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 4 in the Italian area in the time interval 1994-2004; four different sub-areas have been identified, with different characteristics in the level of recorded seismicity. One subarea—Tyrrhenian Sea—was characterized by a too low level of recorded seismicity for the application of the method. In the other three subareas a seismic quiescence was detected before at least the 66% of the earthquakes with magnitude greater or equal to 4 and all the earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.

  3. Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger extent than between spatial contexts.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Emily A; Diehl, Geoffrey W; Sparks, Fraser T; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA2 subregion has a different anatomical connectivity pattern within the entorhino-hippocampal circuit than either the CA1 or CA3 subregion. Yet major differences in the neuronal activity patterns of CA2 compared with the other CA subregions have not been reported. We show that standard spatial and temporal firing patterns of individual hippocampal principal neurons in behaving rats, such as place fields, theta modulation, and phase precession, are also present in CA2, but that the CA2 subregion differs substantially from the other CA subregions in its population coding. CA2 ensembles do not show a persistent code for space or for differences in context. Rather, CA2 activity patterns become progressively dissimilar over time periods of hours to days. The weak coding for a particular context is consistent with recent behavioral evidence that CA2 circuits preferentially support social, emotional, and temporal rather than spatial aspects of memory. PMID:25569350

  4. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  5. Relative influence of upland and lowland headwaters on the isotope hydrology and transit times of larger catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Hrachowitz, M.; Speed, M.

    2011-04-01

    SummaryWeekly variation of δ 18O was measured over 2 years in precipitation and river water in four relatively large catchments in north east Scotland. The River Dee (1712 km 2) is predominantly upland, with impermeable geology and hydrologically responsive soils. The headwaters of the River North Esk (732 km 2) are similar, but the lower third of the catchment is underlain by a major sandstone aquifer and is lowland (i.e. <300 m altitude) in nature. The upper 20% of the River Don catchment (1273 km 2) is upland, but the remainder is lowland with freely draining soils recharging significant groundwater reservoirs in superficial drifts. The River Ythan catchment (662 km 2) is entirely lowland and similar to the lower Don. The hydrological responsiveness of the catchments was directly related to their upland area, with the Dee and the North Esk generating the highest specific discharges during high flow events. Conversely, the Don and Ythan had more subdued hydrological regimes, but higher specific discharge under baseflows. Despite broadly similar δ 18O variation in precipitation inputs, the variability of stream waters was increasingly damped in the order Ythan > Don > North Esk > Dee. Convolution integral models were used to estimate Mean Transit Times (MTTs) for the four catchments from the isotope data. These were reasonably well-constrained at around 2 years for the Dee and 3 years for the North Esk. Estimates for the Don and Ythan were poorly constrained and therefore highly uncertain, but are both likely to exceed 10 years. MTTs in upland catchments in the Scottish Highlands are relatively short (ca. 2 months-4 years) and have been shown to be strongly correlated with soil hydrology, topographic indices and precipitation intensity. However, these relationships change in lowland areas as catchments become less surface water dominated and greater groundwater storage and deeper mixing processes result in much higher MTTs. Nevertheless, a close correlation

  6. Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight (MALDI-TOF) Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Intact Proteins Larger than 100 kDa

    PubMed Central

    Signor, Luca; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Effectively determining masses of proteins is critical to many biological studies (e.g. for structural biology investigations). Accurate mass determination allows one to evaluate the correctness of protein primary sequences, the presence of mutations and/or post-translational modifications, the possible protein degradation, the sample homogeneity, and the degree of isotope incorporation in case of labelling (e.g. 13C labelling). Electrospray ionisation (ESI) mass spectrometry (MS) is widely used for mass determination of denatured proteins, but its efficiency is affected by the composition of the sample buffer. In particular, the presence of salts, detergents, and contaminants severely undermines the effectiveness of protein analysis by ESI-MS. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS is an attractive alternative, due to its salt tolerance and the simplicity of data acquisition and interpretation. Moreover, the mass determination of large heterogeneous proteins (bigger than 100 kDa) is easier by MALDI-MS due to the absence of overlapping high charge state distributions which are present in ESI spectra. Here we present an accessible approach for analysing proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-time of flight (TOF). We illustrate the advantages of using a mixture of two matrices (i.e. 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and the utility of the thin layer method as approach for sample deposition. We also discuss the critical role of the matrix and solvent purity, of the standards used for calibration, of the laser energy, and of the acquisition time. Overall, we provide information necessary to a novice for analysing intact proteins larger than 100 kDa by MALDI-MS. PMID:24056304

  7. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  8. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  9. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  10. How the Other 2/3 Live: Institutional Initiatives for Part-Time Faculty Assimilation in America's 2-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    The number of part-time faculty employed in two-year colleges has risen dramatically in recent years, with current data indicating that 64% of two-year college faculty work part time. It is critical, therefore, that colleges ensure that part-time faculty are well integrated into the organizational culture. In assessing initiatives for helping…

  11. Growth oscillation in larger foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-01-01

    This work shows the potential for applying three-dimensional biometry to studying cell growth in larger benthic foraminifera. The volume of each test chamber was measured from the three-dimensional model obtained by means of computed tomography. Analyses of cell growth based on the sequence of chamber volumes revealed constant and significant oscillations for all investigated specimens, characterized by periods of approximately 15, 30, 90, and 360 days. Possible explanations for these periods are connected to tides, lunar cycles, and seasonality. The potential to record environmental oscillations or fluctuations during the lifetime of larger foraminifera is pivotal for reconstructing short-term paleoenvironmental variations or for gaining insight into the influence of tides or tidal current on the shallow-water benthic fauna in both recent and fossil environments. PMID:26166912

  12. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  13. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  14. Is Parental Involvement Lower at Larger Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Parents who volunteer, or who lobby for improvements in school quality, are generally seen as providing a school-wide public good. If so, straightforward public-good theory predicts that free-riding will reduce average involvement at larger schools. This study uses longitudinal data to follow families over time, as their children move from middle…

  15. X-ray absorption resonances near L2,3-edges from real-time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Marius; Konecny, Lukas; Gao, Bin; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-09-21

    The solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the relativistic Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix formalism is presented and used to calculate X-ray absorption cross sections. Both dynamical relaxation effects and spin-orbit corrections are included, as demonstrated by calculations of the X-ray absorption of SF6 near the sulfur L2,3-edges. We also propose an analysis facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions from real-time simulations, and a selective perturbation that eliminates nonphysical excitations that are artifacts of the finite basis representation. PMID:26268195

  16. Profile of time-dependent VEGF upregulation in human pulmonary endothelial cells, HPMEC-ST1.6R infected with DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4 viruses.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Azliyati; Fitzpatrick, Kelly; Signorovitz, Aimee; Tanner, Richard; Hernandez, Heidi; Stark, Lillian; Sweat, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the upregulated expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a pulmonary endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) infected with dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4), was investigated. This cell line exhibits the major constitutive and inducible endothelial cell characteristics, as well as angiogenic response. Infection by all four DENV serotypes was confirmed by an observed cytopathic effect (CPE), as well as RT-PCR (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) assays. As we had previously reported, the DENV-infected HPMEC-ST1.6R cells exhibited an elongated cytoplasmic morphology, possibly representing a response to VEGF and activation of angiogenesis. In this study, increase in VEGF expression level at designated time points of 0, 8, 24, 96 and 192 hours post-infection was investigated, using a microbead-based Bio-Plex immunoassay. Increased level of VEGF expression in infected-HPMEC-ST1.6R was detected at 8 hours post-infection. Interestingly, VEGF expression level began to decrease up to 96 hours post-infection, after which an upsurge of increased VEGF expression was detected at 192 hours post-infection. This profile of VEGF upregulated expression pattern associated with DENV infection appeared to be consistent among all four DENV-serotypes, and was not observed in mock-infected cells. In this study, the expression level of VEGF, a well-established vascular permeabilizing agent was shown to be elevated in a time-dependent manner, and exhibited a unique dual-response profile, in a DENV-infected endothelial cell. The experimental observation described here provided additional insights into potential mechanism for VEGF-mediated vascular leakage associated with DENV, and support the idea that there are potential applications of anti-VEGF therapeutic interventions for prevention of severe DENV infections. PMID:19419573

  17. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  18. Development and Validation of Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Nofs, Sally; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5 log10 concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness. PMID:22842286

  19. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  20. College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159931.html College Linemen Larger Than Ever, Study Finds These athletes will need help adopting healthy lifestyles after their careers end, researcher says To use the sharing features ...

  1. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  2. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  3. Time-dependent transcriptomic and biochemical responses of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are explained by AHR activation time.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; O'Brien, Jason M; Jones, Stephanie P; Kennedy, Sean W

    2016-09-01

    6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and bind to the AHR with high affinity. Until recently, TCDD was considered to be the most potent AHR agonist, but several recent studies indicate that FICZ binds with greater affinity to the AHR than TCDD. To advance our understanding of the similarities and differences of the effects of FICZ and TCDD exposure in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) cultures, we compared relative expression changes of 27 dioxin-responsive genes by the use of a chicken PCR array, porphyrin accumulation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity at different time points. In addition, an egg injection study was performed to assess the effects of FICZ on the developing chicken embryo. The results of the current study showed: (1) mean EROD-derived relative potency values for FICZ compared to TCDD changed as a function of time (i.e. 9, 0.004, 0.0008 and 0.00008 at 3, 8, 24, and 48h, respectively) in CEH cultures; (2) FICZ exposure did not result in porphyrin accumulation in CEH cultures; (3) concordance between gene expression profiles for FICZ and TCDD was time- and concentration-dependent, and (4) no mortality or morphological abnormalities were observed in chicken embryos injected with 0.87ng FICZ/g egg into the air cell. The results presented herein suggest that while FICZ and TCDD share similar molecular targets, transient versus sustained AHR activation by FICZ and TCDD result in differential transcriptomic responses. Moreover, rapid metabolism of FICZ in hepatocytes resulted in a significant decrease in the induction of EROD activity. PMID:27301797

  4. Accurate density functional thermochemistry for larger molecules.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-06-20

    Density functional methods are combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. Seven different density functionals are assessed for the evaluation of heats of formation, Delta H 0 (298 K), for a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O and N. The use of bond separation energies results in a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of all the density functionals. The B3-LYP functional has the smallest mean absolute deviation from experiment (1.5 kcal mol/f).

  5. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  6. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  7. The Larger Linear N-Heteroacenes.

    PubMed

    Bunz, Uwe H F

    2015-06-16

    The close structural and chemical relationship of N-heteroacenes to pentacene suggests their broad applicability in organic electronic devices, such as thin-film transistors. The superb materials science properties of azaacenes result from their improved resistance toward oxidation and their potential for electron transport, both of which have been demonstrated recently. The introduction of nitrogen atoms into the aromatic perimeter of acenes stabilizes their frontier molecular orbitals and increases their electron affinity. The HOMO-LUMO gaps in azaacenes in which the nitrogen atoms are symmetrically placed are similar to those of the acenes. The judiciously placed nitrogen atoms induce an "umpolung" of the electronic behavior of these pentacene-like molecules, i.e., instead of hole mobility in thin-film transistors, azaacenes are electron-transporting materials. The fundamental synthetic approaches toward larger azaacenes are described and discussed. Several synthetic methodologies have been exploited, and some have been newly developed to assemble substituted azaacenes. The oldest methods are condensation-based. Aromatic o-diamines are coupled with o-dihydroxyarenes in the melt without solvent. This method works well for unsubstituted azaacenes only. The attachment of substituents to the starting materials renders these "fire and sword" methods less useful. The starting materials decompose under these conditions. The direct condensation of substituted o-diamines with o-quinones proceeds well in some cases. Fluorinated benzene rings next to a pyrazine unit are introduced by nucleophilic aromatic substitution employing hexafluorobenzene. However, with these well-established synthetic methodologies, a number of azaacene topologies cannot be synthesized. The Pd-catalyzed coupling of aromatic halides and aromatic diamines has therefore emerged as versatile tool for azaacene synthesis. Now substituted diaza- and tetraazaacenes, azapentacenes, azahexacenes, and

  8. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  9. Spontaneous heating more likely with larger bales

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spontaneous heating in hay is caused generally by too much moisture in the plant at the time of baling. This costs livestock producers in terms of dry matter losses and forage quality. With conventional small rectangular bales (80 to 100 pounds), a positive linear relationship between moisture conte...

  10. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  11. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. Adaptive evolution toward larger size in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joanna; Meade, Andrew; Pagel, Mark; Venditti, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The notion that large body size confers some intrinsic advantage to biological species has been debated for centuries. Using a phylogenetic statistical approach that allows the rate of body size evolution to vary across a phylogeny, we find a long-term directional bias toward increasing size in the mammals. This pattern holds separately in 10 of 11 orders for which sufficient data are available and arises from a tendency for accelerated rates of evolution to produce increases, but not decreases, in size. On a branch-by-branch basis, increases in body size have been more than twice as likely as decreases, yielding what amounts to millions and millions of years of rapid and repeated increases in size away from the small ancestral mammal. These results are the first evidence, to our knowledge, from extant species that are compatible with Cope’s rule: the pattern of body size increase through time observed in the mammalian fossil record. We show that this pattern is unlikely to be explained by several nonadaptive mechanisms for increasing size and most likely represents repeated responses to new selective circumstances. By demonstrating that it is possible to uncover ancient evolutionary trends from a combination of a phylogeny and appropriate statistical models, we illustrate how data from extant species can complement paleontological accounts of evolutionary history, opening up new avenues of investigation for both. PMID:25848031

  13. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  14. Procrastination by pigeons: preference for larger, more delayed work requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Mazur, J E

    1996-01-01

    In three experiments, pigeons chose between alternatives that required the completion of a small ratio schedule early in the trial or a larger ratio schedule later in the trial. Completion of the ratio requirement did not lead to an immediate reinforcer, but simply allowed the events of the trial to continue. In Experiment 1, the ratio requirements interrupted periods in which food was delivered on a variable-time schedule. In Experiments 2 and 3, each ratio requirement was preceded and followed by a delay, and only one reinforcer was delivered, at the end of each trial. Two of the experiments used an adjusting-ratio procedure in which the ratio requirement was increased and decreased over trials so as to estimate an indifference point--a ratio size at which the two alternatives were chosen about equally often. These experiments found clear evidence for "procrastination"--the choice of a larger but more delayed response requirement. In some cases, subjects chose the more delayed ratio schedule even when it was larger than the more immediate alternative by a factor of four or more. The results suggest that as the delay to the start of a ratio requirement is increased, it has progressively less effect on choice behavior, in much the same way that delaying a positive reinforcer reduces it effect on choice. PMID:8583195

  15. Ureteroscopic treatment of larger renal calculi (>2 cm)

    PubMed Central

    Bagley, Demetrius H.; Healy, Kelly A.; Kleinmann, Nir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the current status of ureteroscopic lithotripsy (UL) for treating renal calculi of >2 cm, as advances in flexible ureteroscope design, accessory instrumentation and lithotrites have revolutionised the treatment of urinary calculi. While previously reserved for ureteric and small renal calculi, UL has gained an increasing role in the selective management of larger renal stone burdens. Methods We searched the available databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus, for relevant reports in English, and the article bibliographies to identify additional relevant articles. Keywords included ureteroscopy, lithotripsy, renal calculi, and calculi >2 cm. Retrieved articles were reviewed to consider the number of patients, mean stone size, success rates, indications and complications. Results In all, nine studies (417 patients) were eligible for inclusion. After one, two or three procedures the mean (range) success rates were 68.2 (23–84)%, 87.1 (79–91)% and 94.4 (90.1–96.7)%, respectively. Overall, the success rate was >90% with a mean of 1.2–2.3 procedures per patient. The overall complication rate was 10.3%, including six (1.4%) intraoperative and 37 (8.9%) postoperative complications, most of which were minor. The most common indications for UL were a failed previous treatment (46%), comorbidities (18.2%), and technical and anatomical factors (12.3%). Conclusions UL is safe and effective for treating large renal calculi. While several procedures might be required for total stone clearance, UL should be considered a standard approach in the urologist’s options treating renal calculi of >2 cm. PMID:26558040

  16. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  17. Isoform distinct time-, dose-, and castration-dependent alterations in flavin-containing monooxygenase expression in mouse liver after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Rachel M.; Vezina, Chad M.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2010-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) expression in male mouse liver is altered after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure or castration. Because TCDD is slowly eliminated from the body, we examined hepatic Fmo mRNA alterations for up to 32 days following 10 or 64 µg/kg TCDD exposure by oral gavage in male C57BL/6J mice. Fmo2 mRNA was significantly induced at 1, 4, and 8 days whereas Fmo3 mRNA was also induced at 32 days relative to controls. Fmo3 mRNA levels exhibited a dose-dependent increase at 4, 8, and 32 days after exposure; Fmo1, Fmo4, and Fmo5 mRNA did not exhibit clear trends. Because castration alone also increased Fmo2, Fmo3, and Fmo4 mRNA we examined the combined effects of castration and TCDD treatment on FMO expression. A greater than additive effect was observed with Fmo2 and Fmo3 mRNA expression. Fmo2 mRNA exhibited a 3–5 fold increase after castration or 10 µg/kg TCDD exposure by oral gavage, whereas an approximately 20-fold increase was observed between the sham-castrated control and castrated TCDD-treated mice. Similarly, treatment with 10 µg/kg TCDD alone increased Fmo3 mRNA 130- and 180-fold in the sham-castrated and castrated mice compared to their controls respectively, whereas, Fmo3 mRNA increased approximately 1900-fold between the sham control and castrated TCDD-treated mice. An increase in hepatic Fmo3 protein in TCDD treated mice was observed by immunoblotting and assaying methionine S-oxidase activity. Collectively, these results provide evidence for isoform distinct time-, dose-, and castration-dependent effects of TCDD on FMO expression and suggest cross-talk between TCDD and testosterone signal transduction pathways. PMID:20036217

  18. Biochronology and palaeoenvironment of Cenozoic Circum-Caribbean Larger Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner-Mora, C.

    2012-04-01

    to each other. Up to 40 UA result for the late Paleocene - middle Miocene time interval. However, many of these associations may have an ecologic significance, but nevertheless there is a high biochronologic potential in this dataset, that is now calibrated in more detail by co-occurring planktonic foraminifera, nannofossils and strontium isotope data. The late Paleocene is characterized by the association of Ranikothalia spp. (R. bermudezi, catenula, soldadensis, tobleri , antillea) with Discocyclina , Hexagonocyclina, Athecocyclina, Neodiscocyclina , Actinosiphon and Amphistegina spp. The Eocene Larger Foraminifera facies are characterized by many species of Amphistegina, Asterocyclina, Cycloloculina, Dictyoconus, Discocyclina, Euconoloides, Eofabiania, Fabiania, Gypsina, ,Helicolepidina, Heterostegina, Homotrema, Lepidocyclina, Linderina, Neodiscocyclina, Nummulites, Operculina, Operculinoides, Orthophragmina, Polylepidina, Proporocyclina, Sphareogypsina and Yaberinella. The Oligocene is characterized by many species of Archaias, Heterostegina, Miogypsina , Miolepidocyclina, Miosorites, Lepidocyclina, and Nummulites. Lower-middle Miocene carbonates contain associations of Amphistegina, Archaias, Miosorites, Miogypsina, Miolepidocyclina and Operculina.

  19. Local Studies and Larger Issues: The Case of Sara Bagby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckett, Judith

    2002-01-01

    Explains that students can study local events within a larger context that clarifies larger events or issues. Focuses on the 1861 case of Sara Lucy Bagby (Cleveland, Ohio), an escaped slave, to illuminate aspects of gender, racial relations, politics, and the origins of the U.S. Civil War. (CMK)

  20. The Yellowstone magma reservoir is 50% larger than previously imaged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, J.; Smith, R. B.; Husen, S.

    2013-12-01

    Earlier tomographic studies of the Yellowstone crustal magma system have revealed a low P-wave crustal anomaly beneath the 0.64 Ma Yellowstone caldera that has been interpreted to be the magma reservoir of partial melt that provides the thermal energy for Yellowstone's youthful volcanic and hydrothermal systems. The Yellowstone seismic network has evolved over the last decade into a modern real-time volcano monitoring system that consists of 36 short-period, broadband, and borehole seismometers that cover the entire Yellowstone volcanic field and surrounding tectonic areas. Until recently, limited seismograph coverage did not provide for adequate resolution of the velocity structure northeast of the caldera, an area of the largest negative Bouguer gravity field of -60 mGal whose 3D density model reveals a shallow, low density body that extends ~20 km northeast of the caldera. Recent upgrades to the Yellowstone Seismic Network (YSN), including the addition of nine 3-component and broadband seismic stations providing much better ray coverage of the entire Yellowstone area with greater bandwidth data. This allows much-expanded and improved resolution coverage of the Yellowstone crustal velocity structure. We have compiled waveforms for the Yellowstone earthquake catalog from 1984-2011 with 45,643 earthquakes and 1,159,724 waveforms to analyze P-wave arrival times with an automatic picker based on an adaptive high-fidelity human mimicking algorithm. Our analysis reduced the data to the 4,520 best-located earthquakes with 48,622 P-wave arrival times to invert for the velocity structure. The resulting 3D P-wave model reveals a low Vp body (up to -7% ΔVp) that is interpreted to be the Yellowstone crustal magma reservoir and is ~50% larger than previously imaged. It extends as an oblong shaped anomalous body ~90 km NE-SW, ~20 km NE of the 0.64 Ma caldera, and up to 30 km wide and markedly shallowing from 15 km depth beneath the caldera to less than ~2 km deep northeast of

  1. Editorial Commentary: The Larger Holes or Larger Number of Holes We Drill in the Coracoid, the Weaker the Coracoid Becomes.

    PubMed

    Brady, Paul

    2016-06-01

    The larger holes or larger number of holes we drill in the coracoid, the weaker the coracoid becomes. Thus, minimizing bone holes (both size and number) is required to lower risk of coracoid process fracture, in patients in whom transosseous shoulder acromioclavicular joint reconstruction is indicated. A single 2.4-mm-diameter tunnel drilled through both the clavicle and the coracoid lowers the risk of fracture, but the risk cannot be entirely eliminated. PMID:27263761

  2. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  3. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  4. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  5. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  6. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  7. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  8. Can a secondary isotope effect be larger than a primary?

    PubMed

    Perrin, Charles L; Burke, Kathryn D

    2015-05-21

    Primary and secondary (18)O equilibrium isotope effects on the acidities of a variety of Brønsted and Lewis acids centered on carbon, boron, nitrogen, and phosphorus were computed by density-functional theory. For many of these acids, the secondary isotope effect was found to be larger than the primary isotope effect. This is a counterintuitive result, because the H atom that is lost is closer to the (18)O atom that is responsible for the primary isotope effect. The relative magnitudes of the isotope effects can be associated with the vibrational frequency and zero-point energy of the X═O vibrations, which are greater than those of the X-O vibrations. However, the difference between these contributions is small, and the major responsibility for the larger secondary isotope effect comes from the moment-of-inertia factor, which depends on the position of the (18)O atom relative to the principal axes of rotation. PMID:25879248

  9. Larger brain size indirectly increases vulnerability to extinction in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; González-Suárez, Manuela; Vilà, Carles; Revilla, Eloy

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have addressed the question of why large brains evolved, we have limited understanding of potential beneficial or detrimental effects of enlarged brain size in the face of current threats. Using novel phylogenetic path analysis, we evaluated how brain size directly and indirectly, via its effects on life history and ecology, influences vulnerability to extinction across 474 mammalian species. We found that larger brains, controlling for body size, indirectly increase vulnerability to extinction by extending the gestation period, increasing weaning age, and limiting litter sizes. However, we found no evidence of direct, beneficial, or detrimental effects of brain size on vulnerability to extinction, even when we explicitly considered the different types of threats that lead to vulnerability. Order-specific analyses revealed qualitatively similar patterns for Carnivora and Artiodactyla. Interestingly, for Primates, we found that larger brain size was directly (and indirectly) associated with increased vulnerability to extinction. Our results indicate that under current conditions, the constraints on life history imposed by large brains outweigh the potential benefits, undermining the resilience of the studied mammals. Contrary to the selective forces that have favored increased brain size throughout evolutionary history, at present, larger brains have become a burden for mammals. PMID:27159368

  10. Air pollution episodes in larger area of Bucharest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raicu, C.; Iorga, G.

    2009-04-01

    In view of the fact that aerosol burdens in Eastern Europe may be heavily impacted by regional anthropogenic sources, this research is focused on analyses of air pollution episodes with the goal to quantify this impact in larger area of Bucharest. City of Bucharest is large size city (population 2.8 million) located in the Romanian Plain, characterised by environmental problems and meteorology typical for several cities in South-eastern Europe. It experiences intense photochemical processes. City environment includes intense emissions from traffic, thermo-electrical power-generation stations (CETs) that use mainly fossil fuels for power generation and domestic heating, and from industry. The data (PM10, SO2, CO, NOx) were collected at eight sampling sites in and around the urban area of Bucharest (three industrial and two traffic sites, one EPA urban background site, one suburban site and one regional site situated outside of Bucharest). Mass concentrations spanning over one year (2005 year) of continuous sampling were taken from data provided by the Air Quality Monitoring Network of the city. Analyses of temporal and spatial variability of PM10 were correlated with data of SO2, CO, NOx. The criterion for selecting the pollution episodes was the daily average concentration of PM10 to exceed by 35 times per year the limit value of 50 gm-3 (in accordance with Romanian Ministry Order 592/2002 criterion). Exceedances were considered as strong pollution events and were studied related to local pollution and long-range transport of pollutants provided by back-trajectories of air masses. As a general characteristics, the main contribution to the aerosol mass is due to anthropogenic local sources, but natural sources play a role, as well. The comparison between the concentration values at different sites indicates that industrial sources are responsible for a large part of the high concentrations in urban area followed by the traffic sources. The urban impact on nearby

  11. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  12. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring.

    PubMed

    Agnvall, B; Ali, A; Olby, S; Jensen, P

    2014-09-01

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected. PMID:24910136

  13. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  14. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  15. Treatment and recovery of larger particles of fine oxidized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, R.E.

    1980-09-16

    This invention relates to a method and treating agent for increasing the yield of larger particles of fine oxidized coal where the particle size is 28 X 100 mesh and preferably 28 X 70 mesh and where said coal particles are concentrated by froth flotation. The method consists of utilizing as a promoter an alkali metal or ammonium polyacrylate. A preferred promoter is about 0.05-1.5 lbs of sodium polyacrylate latex per ton of dry coal (0.017-0.5 lb of dry sodium polyacrylate per ton of dry coal), having an average molecular weight of about 100,000, to 1, 000,000 and more, with a preferred range of 1,000,000 or more. This preferred promoter or frothing aid for oxidized coal is a water-in-oil latex of sodium polyacrylate used with a water-inoil emulsifier and preferably used with an alcohol-type frother. The latex may be utilized neat and self inverts with the assistance of an oil-in-water surfactant and the water in the system upon application to form an oil-in-water emulsion, or it may be used as a two part system with an activator (Aqueous) to promote inversion. Additionally, the latex emulsion recovers larger particles in the size 100 mesh and greater and preferably in the range 28 X 70 mesh.

  16. Improved GIA correction yields larger Antarctic mass loss.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velicogna, I.; Sutterley, T. C.; Ivins, E. R.; van den Broeke, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    New regional ice deglaciation models have recently been developed to match a variety of geologic, glaciological, and geodetic observations. In Antarctica, these new models exhibit a smaller East Antarctic ice loss since the Last Glacial Maximum, and hence yield a smaller GIA correction to the Antarctic estimates than those predicted by ICE5G. These revised models yield less negative ice mass losses when using GRACE data. Although these new models represent a significant advance in Antarctic GIA modeling, there are still large uncertainties associated with them. One of the large uncertainties is due to the fact that in the East Antarctica interior, the GIA reconstruction is poorly constrained by observations. These new models assume a monotonic decrease in loading in the last 5000 years. We examine the impact of this assumption on the GIA estimates and how a more realistic non-monotonic loading scenario could impact the results and the GRACE ice mass estimates. We use GRACE in combination with output products from the Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO) and recent studies of deglaciation history to derive an improved GIA correction, which include a non-monotonic loading scenario, is consistent with available geological and geodetic constraints and reconstruction of recent climate history. We find a larger correction, which implies larger losses of the Antarctica ice sheet by about 70 Gt/yr.

  17. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  18. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  19. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  20. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  1. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  2. 11 CFR 2.3 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part. (b) Except as provided in 11 CFR 2.4, every portion of every Commission meeting shall be... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules. 2.3 Section 2.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.3 General rules. (a)...

  3. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  4. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  5. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  6. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  7. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  8. 43 CFR 5511.2-3 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits. 5511.2-3 Section 5511.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-3 Permits. (a) Application for permit. Before timber...

  9. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  10. Lamin A is not synthesized as a larger precursor polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Lebel, S; Raymond, Y

    1987-12-16

    Isolation of rat liver nuclei in the presence of N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) led to the recovery in the final nuclear matrix of a higher molecular weight form of lamin A. The 2 kDa larger form was identified as lamin A by isoelectric point determination, recognition by an anti-lamin A and C monoclonal antibody and peptide mapping using V8 protease and N-chlorosuccinimide. The 2 kDa extension was tentatively localized to the carboxy-terminus of lamin A. Pulse-chase labeling and immunoprecipitation studies using baby hamster kidney cells showed that lysis of the cells in the presence of NEM allowed the recovery of a stable higher molecular weight form of lamin A. We conclude from these results that NEM prevented the degradation of the native form of lamin A previously thought to represent a higher molecular weight transient precursor form. PMID:3426582

  11. V/Q Matched Defect Larger than Hiatal Hernia Itself.

    PubMed

    Wachsmann, Jason W; Kim, Chun K

    2015-01-01

    We present the case report of a patient 83 year old female who developed progressive shortness of breath and subsequently underwent scintigraphic evaluation of her symptoms with a ventilation/perfusion scintigraphic exam. A matched perfusion defect was seen involving the basal segments of the left lower lobe. Following this, the patient was examined with a contrast enhanced CT of the chest to further investigate the defect, which revealed compression of the bronchi and vasculature of the left lower lobe basal segments by the hernia larger than the actual hernia. To our knowledge there has not been a case report of a large hiatal hernia as a cause of matched lower lobe defect. PMID:26420992

  12. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  13. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  14. Larger benthic foraminifera of the Paleogene Promina Beds (Croatia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosovic, V.; Mrinjek, E.; Drobne, K.

    2012-04-01

    In order to add more information about complex origin of Promina Beds (traditionally interpreted as Paleogene molasse of Dinarides), two sections (Lišani Ostrovački and Ostrovica, Central Dalmatia, Croatia) have been studied in detail. Sampled carbonate sequences contain predominantly coralline red algae, larger benthic foraminifera and corals. Based on sedimentary textures, nummulitid (Nummulites s.str and Asterigerina sp.) test shapes and the associated skeletal components, altogether three types of the Middle Eocene (Lutetian to Bartonian) facies were recognized. The Ostrovica section is composed of alternating couples of marly limestones and marls, several decimeters thick with great lateral continuity. Two facies which vertically alternate are recognized as Nummulites - Asterigerina facies, where patchily dispersed large, robust and party reworked larger benthic foraminifera constitute 20% and small bioclasts (fomaniniferal fragments and whole tests less than 3 mm in diameters) 10% of rock volume and, Coral - Red algal facies with coral fragments of solitary and colonial taxa up to 1 cm in size constitute 5 - 40%, red algae 15 - 60% and lager benthic foraminifera up to 5% of rock volume. The textural and compositional differences among the facies suggest rhythmic exchanges of conditions that characterize shallower part of the mesophotic zone with abundant nummulithoclasts with deeper mesophotic, lime mud-dominated settings where nummulitids with the flat tests, coralline red algae and scleractinian corals are common. The scleractinian corals (comprising up to 20% of rock volume) encrusted by foraminifera (Acervulina, Haddonia and nubeculariids) or coralline red algae and foraminiferal assemblage made of orthophragminid and nummulitid tests scattered in matrix, are distributed uniformly throughout the studied Lišani Ostrovački section. In the central part of section, wavy to smooth thin (< 1 mm) crusts (laminas) alternating with encrusted corals occur. The

  15. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization. PMID:23356996

  16. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  17. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  18. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  19. Super-size me: self biases increase to larger stimuli.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jie; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2015-04-01

    Prior work has shown that simple perceptual match responses to pairings of shapes and labels are more efficient if the pairing is associated with the participant (e.g., circle-you) than if it is associated with another familiar person (e.g., square-friend). There is a similar advantage for matching associations with high-value rewards (circle-£9) versus low-value rewards (square-£1) (Sui, He, & Humphreys Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105-1117, 2012). Here we evaluated the relations between the self- and reward-bias effects by introducing occasional trials in which the size of a shape was varied unexpectedly (large or small vs. a standard medium). Participants favored stimuli that were larger than the standard when stimuli were associated with the self, and this enhancement of self bias was predicted by the degree of self bias that participants showed to standard (medium) sized stimuli. Although we observed a correlation between the magnitudes of the self and reward biases over participants, reward-bias effects were not increased to large stimuli. The data suggest both overlapping and independent components of the self and reward biases, and that self biases are uniquely enhanced when stimuli increase in size, consistent with previously reported motivational biases favoring large stimuli. PMID:25112393

  20. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  1. More ‘altruistic’ punishment in larger societies

    PubMed Central

    Marlowe, Frank W; Berbesque, J. Colette; Barr, Abigail; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Ensminger, Jean; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Joseph; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; McElreath, Richard; Tracer, David

    2007-01-01

    If individuals will cooperate with cooperators, and punish non-cooperators even at a cost to themselves, then this strong reciprocity could minimize the cheating that undermines cooperation. Based upon numerous economic experiments, some have proposed that human cooperation is explained by strong reciprocity and norm enforcement. Second-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on you; third-party punishment is when you punish someone who defected on someone else. Third-party punishment is an effective way to enforce the norms of strong reciprocity and promote cooperation. Here we present new results that expand on a previous report from a large cross-cultural project. This project has already shown that there is considerable cross-cultural variation in punishment and cooperation. Here we test the hypothesis that population size (and complexity) predicts the level of third-party punishment. Our results show that people in larger, more complex societies engage in significantly more third-party punishment than people in small-scale societies. PMID:18089534

  2. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  3. Optimization and scale-up of 2,3-butanediol production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Gu, Shenghui; Xia, Haifeng; Xu, Zhenghong

    2012-04-01

    The effects of culture conditions on 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production and its possible scale-up have been studied. A newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127, belonged to GRAS microorganisms and showed a remarkable 2,3-BD producing potency, was used for this experiment. Corn steep liquor, soybean meal and ammonium citrate were found to be the key factors in the fermentation according to the results obtained from the Plackett-Burman experimental design. The optimal concentration range of the three factors was examined by the steepest ascent path, and their optimal concentration were further optimized via response surface methodological approach and determined to be 31.9, 22.0 and 5.58 g/l, respectively. The concentration of the obtained 2,3-BD increased significantly with optimized medium (62.7 g/l) when compared with unoptimized medium (45.7 g/l) and the 2,3-BD productivity was about 2.4-fold (The fermentation time was shorten from 72 to 42 h). To observe scale-up effects, batch fermentation was carried out at various working volumes. At a working volume of 20.0 l, the final 2,3-BD concentration and yield were 61.4 and 0.38 g/g at 36 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 1.71 g/l h. This result shows similar amount of 2,3-BD obtained in lab-scale fermentation, and it is possible to scale up to larger fermentors without major problems. PMID:22805938

  4. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  5. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  6. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  7. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  8. Validation of velocity map imaging conditions over larger areas

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Mike; Koehler, Sven P. K.

    2013-04-15

    We have established through simulations and experiments the area over which Velocity Map Imaging (VMI) conditions prevail. We designed a VMI setup in which we can vary the ionization position perpendicular to the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer. We show that weak extraction conditions are far superior over standard three-plate setups if the aim is to increase the ionization volume without distorting VMI conditions. This is important for a number of crossed molecular beam experiments that already utilize weak extraction conditions, but to a greater extent for surface studies where fragments are desorbed or scattered off a surface in all directions. Our results on the dissociation of NO{sub 2} at 226 nm show that ionization of the fragments can occur up to {+-}5.5 mm away from the center axis of the time-of-flight spectrometer without affecting resolution or arrival position.

  9. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  10. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  11. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  12. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  13. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  14. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  15. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  16. [Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy in the treatment of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyuki; Yoshinaga, Atsushi; Ohno, Rena; Chiba, Koji; Hayashi, Tetsuo; Kamata, Shigeyoshi; Watanabe, Toru; Yamada, Takumi

    2004-06-01

    Optimal treatment for distal ureteral stones remains controversial. During a period of 10 years, from December 1992 to December 2002, 103 distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter were treated at our institution with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using the Siemens Lithostar. Only 2 patients had a ureteral stent in place at the time of treatment. The overall stone-free rate was 98% with 1-12 session and 3-month stone-free rate was 95.1%. These data reveal that a high success rate was achieved in multisession ESWL. Therefore, ESWL is considered to be acceptable as first-line therapy for fragmentation of distal ureteral stones larger than 10 mm in diameter. PMID:15293734

  17. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  18. 2,3-Dihydrobiflavone from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, M; Sowiński, P

    1999-06-01

    From the yellow leaves of Ginkgo biloba 2,3-dihydrosciadopitysin (5,5'',7''-trihydroxy-7,4',4'''-trimethoxy-3',8''-flavanone/flavone) was isolated as a mixture of two diastereomers. Its structure was elucidated employing 2D NMR techniques. PMID:17260276

  19. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  20. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  1. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Weller, M. E.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Shrestha, I. K.; Esaulov, A. A.; Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-01

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten).

  2. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples. PMID:27472601

  3. Transurethral holmium laser enucleation of prostates (HoLEP) larger than 80 g

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntz, Rainer M.; Lehrich, Karin; Fayad, Amr

    2001-05-01

    In this prospective study, the efficiency of HoLEP inpatients with prostates larger than 80 grams was to be evaluated. 64 urodynamically obstructed patients with prostate glands of 103 (80-230) grams of weight underwent HoLEP (80 W, 2.0 J, 40 Hz, 550 nm bare laser fibers). The resected weight was 70 (50-200) grams, the resection time was 120.5 (83-170) min., the average resection weight was 0.7 gm/min. The postoperative catheter time was 1.3 (1-3) days. The postoperative hospital stay was 2.5 (1-7) days. HoLEP induced a significant, pronounced and immediate improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and micturition. The symptom score decreased from 22.3 preoperatively to 5.7 one week and 2.8 one year postoperatively. The peak urinary flow rate of 4.3 ml/sec preoperatively increased to 22 ml/sec one week and 32 ml/sec one year postoperatively. The residual urine dropped from 267 ml preoperatively to 11.5 ml one week and 5.0 ml one year postoperatively. There was one incident of postoperative arterial bleeding, one patient developed urethral stricture and two patients needed a second HoLEP. HoLEP appeared to be a highly effective treatment for prostates larger than 80 grams, with excellent functional results, minor blood loss, low complication rate and very short catheter time and hospital stay.

  4. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established. PMID:8141821

  5. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme. Remarkably, we discovered IDO-specific T cells that can influence adaptive immune reactions in patients with cancer. Further, a recent phase I clinical trial demonstrated long-lasting disease stabilization without toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were vaccinated with an IDO-derived HLA-A2-restricted epitope. PMID:25949864

  6. Myth Exposed: Academically Deficient Students Gain 2.3 Grade Equivalents in Only One Semester at a 96% Black Inner-City Community College in South Central Los Angeles Or Inner-City Academic Acceleration: How to Structure a Developmental Skills Program so that Black, Inner-City Students Accelerate Their Academic Growth Rate to a Rate 5.9 Times as Great as They Have Achieved in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ruby; And Others

    The success of the Developmental Skills Program offered at Los Angeles Southwest College, a 96% black institution, is indicated by an average student grade equivalent gain of 2.3 years in one semester; a 5 year average accelerated academic growth rate that is 5.9 times the rate of academic growth black inner-city students have experienced in the…

  7. Production of 2,3-butanediol from glucose by GRAS microorganism Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Rao, Zhiming; Zhang, Xian; Lin, Qing; Xia, Haifeng; Xu, Zhenghong; Yang, Shangtian

    2011-12-01

    In the current study, a GRAS (Generally Recognized As Safe) strain of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens producing 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) designated as B10-127 was isolated in our lab. The strain B10-127 produced 2,3-BD effectively under the condition of 20% glucose (quality concentration), showed a high-glucose tolerance. The effects of initial glucose concentration, temperature, pH and agitation on 2,3-BD production were investigated in this work and the proper parameters were identified. Accordingly, the fed-batch culture of B10-127 in larger scales (5 l) showed a remarkable 2,3-BD producing potency. The maximum 2,3-BD concentration reached 92.3 g/l at 96 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 0.96 g/l h. To our knowledge, the results were new records on 2,3-BD fermentation by Bacillus, which shown an excellent candidate for the microbial fermentation of 2,3-BD on an industrial scale. PMID:21780143

  8. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  9. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper. PMID:18205250

  10. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  11. Open Walls to a Larger World: What Handheld Computing Can Do for School Libraries and Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embrey Theresa A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Handheld computers give students access to the larger world of information beyond the classroom. Wireless access allows students real time access to all networks resources, including downloading e-books and documents, searching the library media centres catalog and searching databases to which the library has subscribed.

  12. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  13. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  14. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  15. Editorial Commentary: Are Larger Screws the Answer When Anatomic Reconstruction of an Acromioclavicular Separation Fails?

    PubMed

    Denard, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Although fixation methods have improved, failure after fixation of an acromioclavicular joint separation is not uncommon. This biomechanical study shows that in the setting of graft slippage through previously well-placed clavicular tunnels, a revision anatomic reconstruction is feasible with larger tenodesis screws. Although the risk of clavicular fracture increases with larger tunnels, anatomic revision with larger screws is an option in select cases. PMID:27495861

  16. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  17. Breath gas metabolites and bacterial metagenomes from cystic fibrosis airways indicate active pH neutral 2,3-butanedione fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Whiteson, Katrine L; Meinardi, Simone; Lim, Yan Wei; Schmieder, Robert; Maughan, Heather; Quinn, Robert; Blake, Donald R; Conrad, Douglas; Rohwer, Forest

    2014-01-01

    The airways of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are chronically colonized by patient-specific polymicrobial communities. The conditions and nutrients available in CF lungs affect the physiology and composition of the colonizing microbes. Recent work in bioreactors has shown that the fermentation product 2,3-butanediol mediates cross-feeding between some fermenting bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and that this mechanism increases bacterial current production. To examine bacterial fermentation in the respiratory tract, breath gas metabolites were measured and several metagenomes were sequenced from CF and non-CF volunteers. 2,3-butanedione was produced in nearly all respiratory tracts. Elevated levels in one patient decreased during antibiotic treatment, and breath concentrations varied between CF patients at the same time point. Some patients had high enough levels of 2,3-butanedione to irreversibly damage lung tissue. Antibiotic therapy likely dictates the activities of 2,3-butanedione-producing microbes, which suggests a need for further study with larger sample size. Sputum microbiomes were dominated by P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus spp. and Rothia mucilaginosa, and revealed the potential for 2,3-butanedione biosynthesis. Genes encoding 2,3-butanedione biosynthesis were disproportionately abundant in Streptococcus spp, whereas genes for consumption of butanedione pathway products were encoded by P. aeruginosa and R. mucilaginosa. We propose a model where low oxygen conditions in CF lung lead to fermentation and a decrease in pH, triggering 2,3-butanedione fermentation to avoid lethal acidification. We hypothesize that this may also increase phenazine production by P. aeruginosa, increasing reactive oxygen species and providing additional electron acceptors to CF microbes. PMID:24401860

  18. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation on the nature of the electronic transitions involved in the nonlinear optical response of [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Sgamelotti, Antonio; Cariati, Franco; Roberto, Dominique; Tessore, Francesca; Ugo, Renato

    2006-02-14

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations on the nature and role of the absorption bands involved in the nonlinear optical response of the complexes [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = T1, T2; T1 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, T2 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NMe2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine). Geometry optimizations, performed without any symmetry constraints, confirm a twisting of the -C6H4-p-NBu2 moiety with respect to the plane of the chelated terpyridine. Despite this lack of strong pi interaction, TDDFT excited states calculations of the electronic spectrum in solution provide evidence of a relevant role of the NBu2 donor group in the low-energy LMCT band at 911 nm. Calculations also show that the two bands at higher energy (508 and 455 nm) are not attributable only to LMCT and ILCT transitions but to a mixing of ILCT/MLCT and ILCT/pi-pi* transitions, respectively. The 911 nm LMCT band, appearing at lower wavelength of the second harmonic (670 nm) of the EFISH experiment, controls the negative value of the second-order NLO response. This is confirmed by our calculations of the static component beta0(zzz) of the quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor, showing a large positive value. In addition we have found that the increase of the dipole moment upon excitation occurs, in all the characterized transitions, along the dipole moment axis, thus explaining why the EFISH and solvatochromic experimental values of the quadratic hyperpolarizability agree as sign and value. PMID:16437181

  19. 1,2,3-Triazoles as inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Caldelari, Daniela; Dilek, Nahzli; Reichenbach, Patrick; Ascencao, Kelly; Irving, Melita; Coukos, George; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays. Our approach yielded low molecular weight inhibitors of IDO2, the most active displaying an IC50 value of 51μM for mIDO2, and twofold selectivity over hIDO1. These compounds could be useful as molecular probes to investigate the biological role of IDO2, and could inspire the design of new IDO2 inhibitors. PMID:27469130

  20. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males. PMID:26188521

  1. Stable isotope stratigraphy and larger benthic foraminiferal extinctions in the Melinau Limestone, Sarawak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, Laura J.; Pearson, Paul N.; Renema, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Important long-ranging groups of larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are known to have become extinct during a period of global cooling and climate disruption at the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT) but the precise timing and mechanisms are uncertain. Recent study showed unexpectedly that the LBF extinction in Tanzania occurs very close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, as recognised by the extinction of the planktonic foraminiferal Family Hantkeninidae, rather than at the later period of maximum global ice growth and sea-level fall, as previously thought. Here we investigate the same phase of extinction in the Melinau Limestone of Sarawak, on the island of Borneo, Malaysia one of the most complete carbonate successions spanning the Eocene to Lower Miocene. Assemblages of LBF from the Melinau Limestone were studied extensively by Geoffrey Adams during the 1960s-80s, confirming a major extinction during the EOT, but the section lacked independent means of correlation. By analysing rock samples originally studied by Adams and now in the Natural History Museum, London, we provide new bulk stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) records. This enables us to identify, albeit tentatively, the level of maximum stable isotope excursion and show that the LBF extinction event in the Melinau Limestone occurs below this isotope excursion, supporting the results from Tanzania and indicating that the extinction of LBF close to the Eocene/Oligocene boundary may be a global phenomenon.

  2. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN. PMID:25624068

  3. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  4. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  5. RNA Interference in Schistosoma mansoni Schistosomula: Selectivity, Sensitivity and Operation for Larger-Scale Screening

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Martin; Braschi, Simon; Sojka, Daniel; Ruelas, Debbie S.; Suzuki, Brian; Lim, Kee-Chong; Hopkins, Stephanie D.; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2010-01-01

    Background The possible emergence of resistance to the only available drug for schistosomiasis spurs drug discovery that has been recently incentivized by the availability of improved transcriptome and genome sequence information. Transient RNAi has emerged as a straightforward and important technique to interrogate that information through decreased or loss of gene function and identify potential drug targets. To date, RNAi studies in schistosome stages infecting humans have focused on single (or up to 3) genes of interest. Therefore, in the context of standardizing larger RNAi screens, data are limited on the extent of possible off-targeting effects, gene-to-gene variability in RNAi efficiency and the operational capabilities and limits of RNAi. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated in vitro the sensitivity and selectivity of RNAi using double-stranded (ds)RNA (approximately 500 bp) designed to target 11 Schistosoma mansoni genes that are expressed in different tissues; the gut, tegument and otherwise. Among the genes investigated were 5 that had been previously predicted to be essential for parasite survival. We employed mechanically transformed schistosomula that are relevant to parasitism in humans, amenable to screen automation and easier to obtain in greater numbers than adult parasites. The operational parameters investigated included defined culture media for optimal parasite maintenance, transfection strategy, time- and dose- dependency of RNAi, and dosing limits. Of 7 defined culture media tested, Basch Medium 169 was optimal for parasite maintenance. RNAi was best achieved by co-incubating parasites and dsRNA (standardized to 30 µg/ml for 6 days); electroporation provided no added benefit. RNAi, including interference of more than one transcript, was selective to the gene target(s) within the pools of transcripts representative of each tissue. Concentrations of dsRNA above 90 µg/ml were directly toxic. RNAi efficiency was transcript

  6. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  7. Prognostic factors after hepatic resection for the single hepatocellular carcinoma larger than 5 cm

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae-Seok; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine which factors affect the prognosis of hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) larger than 5 cm, including the prognostic difference between tumor sizes from 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm. Methods The medical records of 114 patients who underwent hepatectomy for single HCC larger than 5 cm were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. Results In the analysis of the entire cohort of 114 patients, the 5-year overall and diseases-free survival rates were 50% and 29%, respectively. In a comparison of survival rates between groups, tumor sizes of 5 to 10 cm and larger than 10 cm, the overall and disease-free survival rates were not significantly different, respectively (54% vs. 41%, P = 0.433 and 33% vs. 23%, P = 0.083). On multivariate analysis, positive hepatitis B, high prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II levels over 200 mIU/mL, and vascular invasion (micro- and macrovascular invasion) were independent prognostic factors for recurrence after hepatic resection. However, tumor size larger than 10 cm was not significant for recurrence after resection. Conclusion This study shows that surgical resection of solitary HCC larger than 5 cm showed favorable overall survival. And there is no survival difference with tumors between 5–10 cm and larger than 10 cm.

  8. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  9. Fatigue acceptance test limit criteria for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1999-05-19

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches (25 mm) in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process.

  10. Fragmentation pathways of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane cations in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kirk, Benjamin B; Ellis-Steinborner, Simon; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) is an explosive taggant added to plastic explosives during manufacture making them more susceptible to vapour-phase detection systems. In this study, the formation and detection of gas-phase [M+H](+), [M+Li](+), [M+NH(4)](+) and [M+Na](+) adducts of DMNB was achieved using electrospray ionisation on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The [M+H](+) ion abundance was found to have a strong dependence on ion source temperature, decreasing markedly at source temperatures above 50 degrees C. In contrast, the [M+Na](+) ion demonstrated increasing ion abundance at source temperatures up to 105 degrees C. The relative susceptibility of DMNB adduct ions toward dissociation was investigated by collision-induced dissociation. Probable structures of product ions and mechanisms for unimolecular dissociation have been inferred based on fragmentation patterns from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of source-formed ions of normal and isotopically labelled DMNB, and quantum chemical calculations. Both thermal and collisional activation studies suggest that the [M+Na](+) adduct ions are significantly more stable toward dissociation than their protonated analogues and, as a consequence, the former provide attractive targets for detection by contemporary rapid screening methods such as desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PMID:19670345

  11. Tune-out wavelength around 413 nm for the helium 2 3S1 state including relativistic and finite-nuclear-mass corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Tang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2016-05-01

    The tune-out wavelength at 413 nm for the 2 3S1 state of helium is expected to be sensitive to finite nuclear mass, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic (QED) corrections, which provides a scheme for testing atomic structure theory [J. Mitroy and L.-Y. Tang, Phys. Rev. A 88, 052515 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052515]. In the present work, a large-scale full-configuration-interaction calculation based on both the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit Hamiltonian and the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian is performed for the dynamic dipole polarizabilities of helium in the 2 3S1 state. The tune-out wavelengths for the magnetic sublevels MJ=0 and MJ=±1 are determined to be 413.0801(4) nm and 413.0859(4) nm, respectively, at sub-ppm accuracy, including finite nuclear mass and relativistic corrections. Our value for the MJ=1 sublevel agrees with the measured value of 413.0938(20)(9) nm [B. M. Henson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 043004 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.043004] at the level of 19 ppm. The discrepancy between these two values is mainly due to the uncalculated QED contribution. Our current value confirms quantitatively the prediction of Mitroy and Tang. Also, for the state of 2 3S1 we find that the corrections due to finite nuclear mass and relativistic effects to the static dipole polarizability of 315.7227(4)a03 are about 600 ppm and 310 ppm, respectively, which are about 1.4 and 5.4 times larger than those for the ground state. A measurement at the level of 10 ppm for the static dipole polarizability of helium in 2 3S1 can be used to determine the transition matrix element between 2 3S and 2 3P at the level of 10-5.

  12. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  13. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  14. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  15. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  16. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  17. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  18. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  19. 22 CFR 2.3 - Notification of foreign officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of foreign officials. 2.3 Section 2.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER OFFICIAL PERSONNEL § 2.3 Notification of foreign officials. (a) Any notification of a foreign official...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  6. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  7. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  8. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  9. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  11. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  12. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  13. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  14. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  15. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  16. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  17. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  18. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  19. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  20. Catalytic cycloalumination in steroid chemistry II: selective functionalization of 2'-methylidene-2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane.

    PubMed

    D'yakonov, Vladimir A; Tuktarova, Regina A; Islamov, Ilgiz I; Khalilov, Leonard M; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2013-12-11

    The catalytic cycloalumination of 2'-methylidene-2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane with Et3Al catalyzed by Cp2ZrCl2 was performed for the first time to give spiro[2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane-2',3″-aluminacyclopentane] in a ~75% yield and with high stereoselectivity (>98%). The obtained cyclic organoaluminum compound was transformed in situ into heterocyclic spiran derivatives of 2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane. PMID:24075970

  1. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    The cosmopolite foraminifer Heterostegina depressa has been a target of studies, describing its internal and external morphology, ecology and biology. During the last decades many researcher concentrated on test morphology and described its maturoevolute shape. Furthermore, a continuously increasing trend of test flattening along water depth has been described multiple times. However, the most common measurements, such as the thickness/diameter ratio, are too dependent on individual size to pose as an accurate tool. /newline Therefore a growth invariant character has been used to describe the change of thickness through the ontogeny of H. depressa. To compute this, the thickness at the half-radius, the so-called mediolateral thickness, of five whorls has been measured in 127 axial section of H. depressa. Based on this the ontogenetic change in thickness has been computed for specimens from different depth intervals of the slope of Sesoko-Jima, NW-Okinawa. In addition, this has been compared with the actual thickness and the corresponding radii at the same measuring points. The latter describes how thickness would change according to the thickness/diameter ratio./newline Hence, our analysis clearly quantifies a continuous transition of individuals with thicker central parts to individuals with flatter central parts along the water depth gradient. This is most likely controlled by light intensity, since photosymbionts (diatoms) of H. depressa are most active at low irradiation levels. Thus, shallower specimens grow thicker tests to reduce light penetration, while deeper specimens increase their surface to reach a better light exposure. Due to its broad water depth distribution H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. Since similar ecological constraints are assumed for fossil nummulitid taxa, useful palaeobathymetric information might be gathered from studying test flattening in extinct species

  2. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  3. Can We Prevent a Postoperative Spinal Epidural Hematoma by Using Larger Diameter Suction Drains?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Hak; Chang, Byung Kwon; Lee, Jae Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidural hematoma is a rare but serious complication. According to previous studies, it is not prevented by suction drains. This study evaluated the following alternative hypothesis: the larger the diameter of a suction drain, the less the remaining epidural hematoma after spinal surgery. Methods This was a randomized prospective study. Patients who underwent posterior lumbar decompression and instrumented fusion were divided into two groups: the large drain (LD, 2.8-mm-diameter tube) and small drain (SD, 1.6-mm-diameter tube) groups according to the diameter of the suction drains. All patients were consecutive and allocated alternately according to the date of operations. Suction drains were removed on day 3 and magnetic resonance imaging was performed on day 7 postoperatively. The size of remaining hematomas was measured by the degree of thecal sac compression in cross section using the following 4-point numeric scale: G1, less than one quarter; G2, between one quarter and half; G3, more than half; and G4, more than subtotal obstruction. Results There were 39 patients with LDs and 38 with SDs. They did not differ significantly in terms of sex, number of fusion segments, revision or not, antiplatelet medication, intraoperative injection of tranexamic acid. However, patient age differed significantly between the two groups (LD, 63.3 years and < SD, 68.6 years; p = 0.007). The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, platelet number, blood loss, or operation duration. However, platelet function analysis exhibited a significant difference (LD, 164.7 seconds and < SD, 222.3 seconds; p = 0.002). The two blinded readers showed high consistency (Kappa value = 0.740; p = 0.000). The results of reader 1 were as follows: LD and SD had 21 and 21 cases of G1, 9 and 11 cases of G2, 6 and 6 cases of G3, and 3 and 0 cases of G4, respectively. The results of reader 2 were as follows: LD and SD had 22

  4. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  5. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  6. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  7. Low Temperature and Polyploidy Result in Larger Cell and Body Size in an Ectothermic Vertebrate.

    PubMed

    Hermaniuk, Adam; Rybacki, Mariusz; Taylor, Jan R E

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies reported that low temperatures result in increases in both cell size and body size in ectotherms that may explain patterns of geographic variation of their body size across latitudinal ranges. Also, polyploidy showed the same effect on body size in invertebrates. In vertebrates, despite their having larger cells, no clear effect of polyploidy on body size has been found. This article presents the relationship between temperature, cell size, growth rate, and body size in diploid and polyploid hybridogenetic frog Pelophylax esculentus reared as tadpoles at 19° and 24°C. The size of cells was larger in both diploid and triploid tadpoles at 19°C, and triploids had larger cells at both temperatures. In diploid and triploid froglets, the temperature in which they developed as tadpoles did not affect the size of their cells, but triploids still had larger cells. Triploid tadpoles grew faster than diploids at 19°C and had larger body mass; there was no clear difference between ploidies in growth rate at 24°C. This indicates better adaptation of triploid tadpoles to cold environment. This is the first report on the increase of body mass of a polyploid vertebrate caused by low temperature, and we showed relationship between increase in cell size and increased body mass. The large body mass of triploids may provide a selective advantage, especially in colder environments, and this may explain the prevalence of triploids in the northern parts of the geographic range of P. esculentus. PMID:27082722

  8. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  9. Manufacturing physics: using large(r) data sets and physical insight to develop great products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Steven

    2011-03-01

    Early stage research does a fantastic job providing knowledge and proof-of-feasibility for new product concepts. However, the handful of data points required to validate a concept is typically insufficient to provide insight on the whole range of effects relevant to manufacturing the product. Moving to manufacturing brings larger data sets and variability; opportunistic analysis of these larger sets can yield better product design rules. In the early 2000s Corning developed an optical transmission fiber optimized to suppress stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS). Analyzing the larger data set provided by the manufacturing environment using the same theoretical framework developed by the original researchers refined our understanding of how to improve SBS in optical fibers beyond what was known from our early efforts. This greater understanding allowed us to design better performing products.

  10. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  11. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  12. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately

  13. 76 FR 38059 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Products and Services Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ...), 75 FR. 48458 (Aug. 10, 2010). \\35\\ Id. The CFPB seeks public comment on the following: What consumer... registration process to use in its larger participant determinations? C. Measurement Dates and Supervision... participant rule. See Act at Sec. 1024(a)(1)(A), (D), and (E). \\23\\ IBIS World Industry Report. Auto...

  14. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Register of October 31, 2012 (77 FR 65775) amending 12 CFR part 1090 by adding a new section to define... for substantive disagreement. Accordingly, in FR Doc. 2012-26467 published on October 31, 2012 (77 FR... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market;...

  15. Optimal Inventory Planning under Permissible Delay in Payments When a Larger Order Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kuang-Hua; Huang, Hung-Fu; Tu, Yu-Cheng; Huang, Yung-Fu

    In the previous related studies, the inventory replenishment problems under permissible delay in payments are independent of the order quantity. In this study, the restrictive assumption of the trade credit independent of the order quantity is relaxed. This study discusses the inventory policies under permissible delay in payments when a larger order quantity.

  16. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...\\ The first two rules defined larger participants of markets for consumer reporting, 77 FR 42874 (July 20, 2012) (Consumer Reporting Rule), and for consumer debt collection, 77 FR 65775 (Oct. 31, 2012... participants of the student loan servicing market would become Sec. 1090.106 in subpart B. \\13\\ 77 FR...

  17. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  18. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin. PMID:22854118

  19. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  20. [Migration and problems related to population concentration in larger Bulgarian cities].

    PubMed

    Kiradzhiev, S

    1989-01-01

    The author examines the growing concentration of population in the larger cities of Bulgaria. Various methods for achieving a more balanced population distribution are suggested, including placing limits on migration to cities, relocating some industry, reducing labor-intensive production through automation, and improving local transportation systems to permit development of satellite towns and villages. (SUMMARY IN ENG AND RUS) PMID:12316673

  1. 77 FR 9592 - Defining Larger Participants in Certain Consumer Financial Product and Service Markets

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... FR 38059. \\9\\ In July 2011, the Bureau held four roundtable discussions on the larger participant... closed-end credit at 120 days delinquency. See 65 FR 36903, June 12, 2000. Debt buying is another... data aggregators, law firms, data and record suppliers, account maintenance services, call...

  2. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  3. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  4. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  5. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  6. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  7. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  8. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  9. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  10. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.232 Section 779.232 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  11. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... enterprise. 779.231 Section 779.231 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  12. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  13. Synthesis, transformations and biological properties of furo[2,3-b]pyridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakanyan, S. N.; Hovakimyan, A. A.; Noravyan, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Data on furo[2,3-b]pyridines published in the last 15 years are integrated and analyzed for the first time. Information on the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and biological action of these systems is described systematically. Particular attention is paid to the preparation and study of properties of polycondensed derivatives as the most promising and rapidly developing line of research of furo[2,3-b]pyridine chemistry. The biological properties of this class of compounds are discussed, and examples of furo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibit high biological activities are given. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  14. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  15. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  16. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  17. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public...

  18. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  19. Palliative Care Teams' Cost-Saving Effect Is Larger For Cancer Patients With Higher Numbers Of Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    May, Peter; Garrido, Melissa M; Cassel, J Brian; Kelley, Amy S; Meier, Diane E; Normand, Charles; Stefanis, Lee; Smith, Thomas J; Morrison, R Sean

    2016-01-01

    Patients with multiple serious conditions account for a high proportion of health care spending. Such spending is projected to continue to grow substantially as a result of increased insurance eligibility, the ever-rising cost of care, the continued use of nonbeneficial high-intensity treatments at the end of life, and demographic changes. We evaluated the impact of palliative care consultation on hospital costs for adults with advanced cancer, excluding those with dementia. We found that compared to usual care, the receipt of a palliative care consultation within two days of admission was associated with 22 percent lower costs for patients with a comorbidity score of 2-3 and with 32 percent lower costs for those with a score of 4 or higher. Earlier consultation was also found to be systematically associated with a larger cost-saving effect for all subsamples defined by multimorbidity. Given ongoing workforce shortages, targeting early specialist palliative care to hospitalized patients with advanced cancer and higher numbers of serious concurrent conditions could improve care while complementing strategies to curb the growth of health spending. PMID:26733700

  20. 43 CFR 3712.2-3 - Contents of published notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of published notice. 3712.2-3 Section 3712.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23,...

  1. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  2. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  3. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  4. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3... NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  5. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3 Section 3453.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  6. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  7. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  8. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  9. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  10. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  11. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  12. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 grants. 35.909 Section 35.909 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority. The Regional...

  13. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of...

  14. Numerical study of an oscillating smaller cylinder in the wake of an upstream larger cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Wang, Xikun; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study of flow around two tandem cylinders with unequal diameters was carried out. The upstream larger cylinder was fixed and the downstream smaller cylinder was allowed to oscillate in the transverse direction only. Comparisons of the experimental and numerical results were made to investigate the effects of the gap ratio on the maximum vibration amplitude and vortex shedding frequency. The results showed that the vibration response of the smaller cylinder was significantly affected by the presence of the upstream larger cylinder, and resulted in greatly reduced vibration amplitudes. With an increasing gap ratio, the vibration amplitude increased. However, the magnitude was lower than that corresponding to a single cylinder (with the same diameter as that of the downstream smaller cylinder) under the same flow conditions.

  15. Action video game players and deaf observers have larger Goldmann visual fields.

    PubMed

    Buckley, David; Codina, Charlotte; Bhardwaj, Palvi; Pascalis, Olivier

    2010-03-01

    We used Goldmann kinetic perimetry to compare how training and congenital auditory deprivation may affect the size of the visual field. We measured the ability of action video game players and deaf observers to detect small moving lights at various locations in the central (around 30 degrees from fixation) and peripheral (around 60 degrees ) visual fields. Experiment 1 found that 10 habitual video game players showed significantly larger central and peripheral field areas than 10 controls. In Experiment 2 we found that 13 congenitally deaf observers had significantly larger visual fields than 13 hearing controls for both the peripheral and central fields. Here the greatest differences were found in the lower parts of the fields. Comparison of the two groups showed that whereas VGP players have a more uniform increase in field size in both central and peripheral fields deaf observers show non-uniform increases with greatest increases in lower parts of the visual field. PMID:19962395

  16. Balance control impairment in obese individuals is caused by larger balance motor commands variability.

    PubMed

    Simoneau, Martin; Teasdale, Normand

    2015-01-01

    It is acknowledged that various factors impaired balance control. Among them, heavy body weight is associated with poor balance control because the location of the center of mass is further away from the ankle joint. Thus, a larger active ankle torque is required to counter the greater gravitational torque. Because balance motor commands have signal-dependent noise whose standard deviation increases with the absolute value of the neural control signal, it was hypothesized that faster center of pressure speed observed in obese individuals would be related to larger balance motor commands variability. A feedback-control model and parametric system identification technique was used to estimate the variability in the balance motor commands and neural controller parameters based on previously published experimental data. Results of the neuromechanical model confirmed that the balance motor commands of obese individuals are more variable than that of lean individuals. PMID:25455209

  17. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  18. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  19. Do larger femoral heads improve the functional outcome in total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Allen, Charlotte L; Hooper, Gary J; Frampton, Christopher M A

    2014-02-01

    Use of larger diameter femoral heads has been popularised in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Recent studies have implicated larger femoral heads in early failure. We evaluated what effect the size of the femoral head had on the early functional outcome in order to determine the optimal head size for the maximal functional outcome. There were 726 patients who underwent elective THA and were divided into 3 groups according to head size then compared with respect to functional outcome scores and dislocation rates. This study failed to show that increasing the size of the femoral head significantly improved the functional outcome at 1 year after total hip arthroplasty but that the use of a 36 mm or greater femoral head did reduce the dislocation rate. PMID:23891058

  20. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called 'Peto's paradox' can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  1. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: Nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elst, Nicholas J.; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-07-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  2. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations. PMID:21930936

  3. Novel role of KCNQ2/3 channels in regulating neuronal cell viability.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Wei, J; Song, M; Francis, K; Yu, S P

    2011-03-01

    Overactivation of certain K(+) channels can mediate excessive K(+) efflux and intracellular K(+) depletion, which are early ionic events in apoptotic cascade. The present investigation examined a possible role of the KCNQ2/3 channel or M-channel (also named Kv7.2/7.3 channels) in the pro-apoptotic process. Whole-cell recordings detected much larger M-currents (212 ± 31 pA or 10.5 ± 1.5 pA/pF) in cultured hippocampal neurons than that in cultured cortical neurons (47 ± 21 pA or 2.4 ± 0.8 pA/pF). KCNQ2/3 channel openers N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and flupirtine caused dose-dependent K(+) efflux, intracellular K(+) depletion, and cell death in hippocampal cultures, whereas little cell death was induced by NEM in cortical cultures. The NEM-induced cell death was antagonized by co-applied KCNQ channel inhibitor XE991 (10 μM), or by elevated extracellular K(+) concentration. Supporting a mediating role of KCNQ2/3 channels in apoptosis, expression of KCNQ2 or KCNQ2/3 channels in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells initiated caspase-3 activation. Consistently, application of NEM (20 μM, 8 h) in hippocampal cultures similarly caused caspase-3 activation assessed by immunocytochemical staining and western blotting. NEM increased the expression of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), induced mitochondria membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, formation of apoptosome complex, and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) translocation into nuclear. All these events were attenuated by blocking KCNQ2/3 channels. These findings provide novel evidence that KCNQ2/3 channels could be an important regulator in neuronal apoptosis. PMID:20885443

  4. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from glycerol by forced pH fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Kaloyan; Petrova, Penka

    2010-07-01

    The glycerol fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae occurs by receiving more than five liquid products-organic acids, diols, and ethanol. Aiming to direct the glycerol conversion towards predominant production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), the main influencing parameters (the aeration and the pH) were investigated during fed-batch processes. The regime of intensive aeration (2.2 vvm air supply) was evaluated as most favorable for 2,3-BD synthesis and ensured the decrease of all other metabolites. Thus, without pH control, 52.5 g/l 2,3-BD were produced, as the carbon conversion of glycerol into 2,3-BD reached 60.6%. Additional enhancement in 2,3-BD production (by significant increase of glycerol utilization) was achieved by the development of a new method of "forced pH fluctuations". It was realized by consecutive raisings of pH using definite DeltapH value, at exact time intervals, allowing multiple variations. Thus, the optimal conditions for maximal glycerol consumption were defined, and 70 g/l 2,3-BD were produced, which is the highest amount obtained from glycerol as a sole carbon source until now. The forced pH fluctuations emphasized pH as a governing factor in microbial conversion processes. PMID:20361325

  5. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner's linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner's ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  6. Why have microsaccades become larger? Investigating eye deformations and detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Nyström, Marcus; Hansen, Dan Witzner; Andersson, Richard; Hooge, Ignace

    2016-01-01

    The reported size of microsaccades is considerably larger today compared to the initial era of microsaccade studies during the 1950s and 1960s. We investigate whether this increase in size is related to the fact that the eye-trackers of today measure different ocular structures than the older techniques, and that the movements of these structures may differ during a microsaccade. In addition, we explore the impact such differences have on subsequent analyzes of the eye-tracker signals. In Experiment I, the movement of the pupil as well as the first and fourth Purkinje reflections were extracted from series of eye images recorded during a fixation task. Results show that the different ocular structures produce different microsaccade signatures. In Experiment II, we found that microsaccade amplitudes computed with a common detection algorithm were larger compared to those reported by two human experts. The main reason was that the overshoots were not systematically detected by the algorithm and therefore not accurately accounted for. We conclude that one reason to why the reported size of microsaccades has increased is due to the larger overshoots produced by the modern pupil-based eye-trackers compared to the systems used in the classical studies, in combination with the lack of a systematic algorithmic treatment of the overshoot. We hope that awareness of these discrepancies in microsaccade dynamics across eye structures will lead to more generally accepted definitions of microsaccades. PMID:25481631

  7. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities. PMID:24652527

  8. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  9. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  10. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  11. Source Parameters of the Bhuj Mainshock and Larger Aftershocks from Modeling of Broadband Teleseismic and Regional Waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, V.; Maggi, A.; Priestley, K.; Rai, S.; Davuluri, S.

    2001-12-01

    The January 26, 2001 mb 6.9 Bhuj mainshock was well recorded at both teleseismic and regional distances. Many of the larger aftershocks were also well recorded at regional distances by digital broadband seismographs operated by the National Geophysical Research Institute of India, the University of Cambridge and the Indian Meteorological Office. We have modeled the teleseismic P- and SH-waveforms to retrieve the mechanism and focal depth of the mainshock and find a thrust faulting mechanism with a fault strike 281 degrees, dip 42 degrees, rake 107 degrees, a seismic moment of 2.31*E20 Nm and a centroid focal depth of 20 km. The long-period source time function shows a relatively simple source of about 15 seconds duration. We use the source parameters for the mainshock derived from the teleseismic inversion and the records for the mainshock at the regional stations mentioned above to calibrate the 1-D propagation characteristics for these regional paths. Using the calibrated regional propagation paths, we invert the complete regional broadband waveforms (P-wave through the surface wave-train) for the source parameters of the larger aftershocks (M0 1015 to 1017 Nm) which are too small to derive from teleseismic recordings. We model the broadband waveforms using the time-domain, linear moment-tensor inversion code of Randall et al, 1995.

  12. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  13. Nicotinic acid metabolism. 2,3-Dimethylmalate lyase.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, P; Lill, U; Eggerer, H

    1979-12-01

    1) A new enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, was purified from Clostridium barkeri to about 80% homogeneity. Some of the properties of the enzyme are described. 2) It is shown that the 2,3-dimethylmalic acid (m.p. 143 degrees C) described in the literature represents only one racemic pair. This pair is not attacked by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 3) The isolation of both racemic pairs of 2,3-dimethylmalic acid is described. Half of one pair, m.p. 104-106 degrees C, was converted to propionate and pyruvate by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 4) In combination with earlier work performed by E.R. Stadtman and coworkers the results given under points 1--3 establish 2,3-dimethylmalate as an intermediate in the degradation of nicotinic acid by C. barkeri. 5) Experimental evidence indicates the 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase is no acyl-S-enzyme and that it is different in this respect as well as in quaternary structure from the apparently related enzymes citrate lyase and citramalate lyase. PMID:527937

  14. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  15. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  16. An improved permanent magnet quadrupole design with larger good field region for high intensity proton linacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Jose V.; Rao, S. V. L. S.; Krishnagopal, S.; Singh, P.

    2013-11-01

    The Low Energy High Intensity Proton Accelerator (LEHIPA), being developed at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) will produce a 20 MeV, 30 mA, continuous wave (CW) proton beam. At these low velocities, space-charge forces dominate, and could lead to larger beam sizes and beam halos. Hence in the design of the focusing lattice of the LEHIPA drift tube linac (DTL) using permanent magnet quadrupoles (PMQs), a larger good field region is preferred. Here we study, using the two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulation codes PANDIRA and RADIA, four different types of cylindrical PMQ designs: 16-segment trapezoidal Halbach configuration, bullet-nosed geometry and 8- and 16-segment rectangular geometries. The trapezoidal Halbach geometry is used in a variety of accelerators since it provides very high field gradients in small bores, while the bullet-nosed geometry, which is a combination of the trapezoidal and rectangular designs, is used in some DTLs. This study shows that a larger good field region is possible in the 16-segment rectangular design as compared to the Halbach and bullet-nosed designs, making it more attractive for high-intensity proton linacs. An improvement in good-field region by ˜16% over the Halbach design is obtained in the optimized 16-segment rectangular design, although the field gradient is lower by ˜20%. Tolerance studies show that the rectangular segment PMQ design is substantially less sensitive to the easy axis orientation errors and hence will be a better choice for DTLs.

  17. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  18. Application of 13C NMR spectroscopy to paratope mapping for larger antigen-Fab complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kato, K; Yamato, S; Igarashi, T; Matsunaga, C; Ohtsuka, H; Higuchi, A; Nomura, N; Noguchi, H; Arata, Y

    1994-06-13

    For the purpose of engineering the antibody combining site, mapping residues that are involved in antigen binding provide us with valuable information. By use of 13C NMR spectroscopy with selectively 13C-labeled Fv fragments, we have established a general strategy to identify the residues that are perturbed upon binding of small antigen (hapten) molecules [(1990) Biochemistry 30, 6604-6610]. In the present paper, we demonstrate that this strategy can be extended to molecular structural analyses of the complexes of an Fab fragment and a larger antigen molecule such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A with a molecular mass of 67 kDa. PMID:8013642

  19. Accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules : gaussian-2 theory with bond separation energies.

    SciTech Connect

    Raghavachari, K.; Stefanov, B. B.; Curtiss, L. A.; Lucent Tech.

    1997-04-22

    Gaussian-2 (G2) theory is combined with isodesmic bond separation reaction energies to yield accurate thermochemistry for larger molecules. For a test set of 40 molecules composed of H, C, O, and N, our method yields enthalpies of formation, {Delta}H{sub f}{sup 0}(298 K), with a mean absolute deviation from experiment of only 0.5 kcal/mol. This is an improvement of a factor of three over the deviation of 1.5 kcal/mol seen in standard G2 theory.

  20. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles. PMID:26104859

  2. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in urban and tropical rainforest locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabey, A. M.; Stanley, W. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kaye, P. H.

    2011-06-01

    UV-LIF measurements were performed on ambient aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter) and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical) using a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Spectrometer, version 3 (WIBS3). These sites are taken to represent environments with minor and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA) influences respectively, and the urban dataset describes the fluorescent background aerosol against which PBA must be identified by researchers using LIF. The ensemble aerosol at both sites was characterised over 2-3 weeks by measuring the fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter (DP) of single particles sized 0.8 ≤ DP ≤ 20 μm. Filter samples were also collected for a subset of the Manchester campaign and analysed using energy dispersive X-Ray (EDX) spectroscopy and environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), which revealed mostly non-PBA at D ≤ 1 μm. The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: the emission following a 280 nm excitation is recorded at 310-400 nm (channel F1) and 400-600 nm (F2), and fluorescence excited at 350 nm is detected at 400-600 nm (F3). In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was present at 0.8-1.2 μm, with a secondary fluorescent mode at 2-4 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 0.8-1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3-4 μm. Agreement between fluorescent number concentrations in each channel differed at the two sites, with F1 and F3 reporting similar concentrations in Borneo but F3 outnumbering F1 by a factor of 2-3 across the size spectrum in Manchester. The fluorescence intensity in each channel generally rose with DP at both sites with the exception of F1 intensity in Manchester, which peaked at DP = 4 μm, causing a divergence between F1 and F3 intensity at larger DP. This divergence and the differing fluorescent particle concentrations demonstrate the additional discrimination provided by the F1 channel in Manchester. The relationships between

  3. Management of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Larger than 100 ml: Simple Open Enucleation Versus Transurethral Laser Prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Elkoushy, Mohamed A; Elhilali, Mostafa M

    2016-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common causes of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in aging men. Over the age of 60, more than a half of men have BPH and/or bothersome LUTS. Contemporary guidelines advocate surgery as the standard of care for symptomatic BPH after failure of medical therapy, where the choice of the appropriate surgical procedure depends on the prostate size. Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) and simple open prostatectomy (OP) have been considered for decades the reference-standard techniques for men with prostate smaller and larger than 80 ml, respectively. However, both procedures are potentially associated with considerable perioperative morbidity which prompted the introduction of a variety of minimally invasive surgical techniques with comparable long-term outcomes compared to TURP and OP. Nevertheless, the management of prostates larger than 100 ml remains a clinical challenge. Transurethral anatomical enucleation of the prostate utilizing different laser energy represents an excellent alternative concept in transurethral BPH surgery. These procedures gained popularity and demonstrated similar outcomes to OP with the advantages of favorable morbidity profiles and shorter catheter time and hospital stay. Despite the fact that OP remains a viable treatment option for patients with bothersome LUTS secondary to very large prostates, this procedure has been to a large extent replaced by these emerging enucleation techniques. Given the advent of surgical alternatives, the current review presents an evidence-based comparison of the efficacy and safety profile of the currently available transurethral laser techniques with the standard OP for the management of BPH due to adenomas larger than 100 ml. PMID:27048160

  4. "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect": Correction to Arend and Henik (2015).

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    Reports an error in "Choosing the larger versus choosing the smaller: Asymmetries in the size congruity effect" by Isabel Arend and Avishai Henik (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2015[Nov], Vol 41[6], 1821-1830). In the article the wrong version of Figure 1 was published. The correct version is provided. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-23893-001.) The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by findings showing that the SiCE may be influenced by attention. The attentional contribution to the SiCE suggests that the effect is produced by an attention capture effect to the larger stimulus. Even though plausible, the attentional account overlooks 2 important factors in the study of magnitudes, namely, task (numerical vs. physical) and polarity of instructions (choose the larger vs. the smaller). We studied the influence of these factors using a size congruity task. Experiment 1 showed that the SiCE was modulated by task and instructions. In Experiment 2, we used a new set of numbers to examine a possible influence of the so-called end effect (i.e., responses to the smallest and to the largest numbers may not require number comparison). Experiment 2 successfully replicated the pattern of Experiment 1. We suggest that both feature saliency and long-term semantic processes modulate the SiCE. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27359227

  5. Ferromagnetism in Cu 3-thiosemicarbazone- 2,3-dioxoindole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentková, M.; Kováč, J.; Zentko, A.; Košturiak, A.

    1991-12-01

    We report evidence for ferromagnetic ordering in Cu-chelates of 3-thiosemicarbazone-2,3-dioxoindole (isatine). It has been found that the Curie temperature is 16.8 K and is independent of the Cu content.

  6. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  7. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Wittig [2,3]-Rearrangement of Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Ošeka, Maksim; Kimm, Mariliis; Kaabel, Sandra; Järving, Ivar; Rissanen, Kari; Kanger, Tõnis

    2016-03-18

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic [2,3]-rearrangement of oxindole derivatives is presented. The reaction was catalyzed by squaramide, and this provides access to 3-hydroxy 3-substituted oxindoles in high enantiomeric purities. PMID:26937554

  8. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan; Müller, Volker

    2015-07-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD(+)-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  9. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  10. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, EAST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  11. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM NORTH SHORE OF RIVER (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), FACING SOUTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  12. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  13. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  14. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, WEST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  15. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  16. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  17. 2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the comtents:

  18. Design and performance of tapered cubic anvil used for achieving higher pressure and larger sample cell.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi-Gang; Yang, Wen-Ke; Zhu, Pin-Wen; Ban, Qing-Chu; Yan, Ni; Zhang, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    In order to increase the maximum cell pressure of the cubic high pressure apparatus, we have developed a new structure of tungsten carbide cubic anvil (tapered cubic anvil), based on the principle of massive support and lateral support. Our results indicated that the tapered cubic anvil has some advantages. First, tapered cubic anvil can push the transfer rate of pressure well into the range above 36.37% compare to the conventional anvil. Second, the rate of failure crack decreases about 11.20% after the modification of the conventional anvil. Third, the limit of static high-pressure in the sample cell can be extended to 13 GPa, which can increase the maximum cell pressure about 73.3% than that of the conventional anvil. Fourth, the volume of sample cell compressed by tapered cubic anvils can be achieved to 14.13 mm(3) (3 mm diameter × 2 mm long), which is three and six orders of magnitude larger than that of double-stage apparatus and diamond anvil cell, respectively. This work represents a relatively simple method for achieving higher pressures and larger sample cell. PMID:23902079

  19. Description of the Weatherization Assistance Program in larger multifamily buildings for Program Year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) in larger multifamily buildings were examined for Program Year 1989. The results show that about 20,000 dwellings in these multifamily buildings were served under the Program that year. This is 9% of the total number of units served nationally, while costs were 7% of total national costs. High levels of activity in larger multifamily buildings were reported for some States, with New York accounting for half of all the residences treated. Owner investment is an important strategy in New York for improving their efforts. A wide range of measures was installed, but the materials costs for the measures are dominated by the cost of windows (80% of the total for that year). Where the whole building was treated, $561 was invested per unit, while for partial-building work the total invested was $417. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program were not estimated, because energy use and cost data adequate for developing such estimates could not be obtained.

  20. Pharmacogenomic variants have larger effect sizes than genetic variants associated with other dichotomous complex traits.

    PubMed

    Maranville, J C; Cox, N J

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that pharmacogenomic phenotypes are influenced by genetic variants with larger effect sizes than other phenotypes, such as complex disease risk. This is presumed to reflect the fact that relevant environmental factors (drug exposure) are appropriately measured and taken into account. To test this hypothesis, we performed a systematic comparison of effect sizes between pharmacogenomic and non-pharmacogenomic phenotypes across all genome-wide association studies (GWAS) reported in the NHGRI GWAS catalog. We found significantly larger effect sizes for studies focused on pharmacogenomic phenotypes, as compared with complex disease risk, morphological phenotypes and endophenotypes. We found no significant differences in effect sizes between pharmacogenomic studies focused on adverse events versus those focused on drug efficacy. Furthermore, we found that this pattern persists among sample size-matched studies, suggesting that this pattern does not reflect overestimation of effect sizes due to smaller sample sizes in pharmacogenomic studies.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 7 July 2015; doi:10.1038/tpj.2015.47. PMID:26149738

  1. Functional convergence of tundra vegetation simplifies the interpretation of flux observations at larger spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoy, P. C.; Williams, M.; Evans, J. G.; Lloyd, C. R.; Prieto-Blanco, A.; Disney, M.; Street, L. E.; Shaver, G. R.

    2007-12-01

    A central challenge in terrestrial carbon cycle research is upscaling measurements of vegetation function to larger spatial and temporal scales. A solution is required to, for example, make chamber-based measurements relevant at larger spatial scales and to make eddy covariance measurements applicable to leaf or chamber- based studies. Here we demonstrate that a simple model for photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration parameterized using pan-arctic chamber flux measurements closely matches eddy covariance flux observations in a tundra ecosystem near Abisko, Sweden. The agreement holds when using a generic parameter set that does not account for vegetation type or measurement location. Inverting the model to predict leaf area using eddy covariance-measured net ecosystem exchange closely approximates tower-based LAI estimates across seasons and during periods of drought stress. Thus, recent findings documenting functional convergence of arctic vegetation holds at multiple spatial as well as temporal scales using both chamber and tower measurements. After validating the model using the eddy covariance measurements, we integrate the model with meteorological and LAI observations using a simple data assimilation scheme. The reduction of error achieved via data assimilation is compared to standard techniques of estimating eddy covariance error. Our analysis demonstrates that accurate estimates of C flux at multiple spatial scales across the tundra biome are possible given accurate estimates of photosynthetically active radiation, temperature, and leaf area index given the observed functional convergence of tundra vegetation.

  2. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  3. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, F; Altenhoff, W; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Thum, C

    2006-02-01

    The most distant known object in the Solar System, 2003 UB313 (97 au from the Sun), was recently discovered near its aphelion. Its high eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic plane, along with its perihelion near the orbit of Neptune, identify it as a member of the 'scattered disk'. This disk of bodies probably originates in the Kuiper belt objects, which orbit near the ecliptic plane in circular orbits between 30 and 50 au, and may include Pluto as a member. The optical brightness of 2003 UB313, if adjusted to Pluto's distance, is greater than that of Pluto, which suggested that it might be larger than Pluto. The actual size, however, could not be determined from the optical measurements because the surface reflectivity (albedo) was unknown. Here we report observations of the thermal emission of 2003 UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, which in combination with the measured optical brightness leads to a diameter of 3,000 +/- 300 +/- 100 km. Here the first error reflects measurement uncertainties, while the second derives from the unknown object orientation. This makes 2003 UB313 the largest known trans-neptunian object, even larger than Pluto (2,300 km). The albedo is 0.60 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.05, which is strikingly similar to that of Pluto, suggesting that the methane seen in the optical spectrum causes a highly reflective icy surface. PMID:16452973

  4. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  5. Age-related greater Achilles tendon compliance is not associated with larger plantar flexor muscle fascicle strains in senior women

    PubMed Central

    Csapo, R.; Malis, V.; Hodgson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the age-associated decrease of tendon stiffness would necessitate greater muscle fascicle strains to produce similar levels of force during isometric contraction. Greater fascicle strains could force sarcomeres to operate in less advantageous regions of their force-length and force-velocity relationships, thus impairing the capacity to generate strong and explosive contractions. To test this hypothesis, sagittal-plane dynamic velocity-encoded phase-contrast magnetic resonance images of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle and Achilles tendon (AT) were acquired in six young (YW; 26.1 ± 2.3 yr) and six senior (SW; 76.7 ± 8.3 yr) women during submaximal isometric contraction (35% maximum voluntary isometric contraction) of the plantar flexor muscles. Multiple GM fascicle lengths were continuously determined by automatically tracking regions of interest coinciding with the end points of muscle fascicles evenly distributed along the muscle's proximo-distal length. AT stiffness and Young's modulus were measured as the slopes of the tendon's force-elongation and stress-strain curves, respectively. Despite significantly lower AT stiffness at older age (YW: 120.2 ± 52.3 N/mm vs. SW: 53.9 ± 44.4 N/mm, P = 0.040), contraction-induced changes in GM fascicle lengths were similar in both age groups at equal levels of absolute muscular force (4–5% fascicle shortening in both groups), and even significantly larger in YW (YW: 11–12% vs. SW: 6–8% fascicle shortening) at equal percentage of maximum voluntary contraction. These results suggest that factors other than AT stiffness, such as age-associated changes in muscle composition or fascicle slack, might serve as compensatory adaptations, limiting the degree of fascicle strains upon contraction. PMID:24505104

  6. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  7. The thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrate. II. Simultaneous occupation of larger and smaller cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Kiyohara, Kenji

    1993-05-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a clathrate hydrate encaging methane or xenon has been investigated by examining the free energy of formation. The total free energy is divided into several contributions: the interaction between water and guest molecules, the entropic contribution arising from the combinations of cage occupancy, and also the free energy arising from the guest molecular motions inside cages. Our method is based on the generalized van der Waals and Platteeuw theory used for the study of the hydrate encaging propane and is free from some of the fundamental assumptions in the original theory. This enables us to evaluate separately the factors which contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of the hydrate, and to address a question as to what extent the original theory is applicable to the prediction of the phase diagrams. While the potential energy curve of the guest molecule with surrounding water molecules in a smaller cage has a single minimum and the molecular motion can be accurately approximated to a collection of harmonic oscillators strongly coupled with the host molecules, the guest molecular motion in a larger cage does not couple with the host. To show evidence that the fixed lattice approximation is sufficient to describe molecular motions inside the larger cage, two kinds of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out. In one simulation, both host water and guest molecules move according to the classical equations of motion. In another simulation only guest molecules are allowed to move, interacting with fixed host molecules. We perform two kinds of analyses on those motions. In the first analysis, the velocity autocorrelation functions are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at several temperatures and the power spectra are obtained by the Fourier transform of the correlation functions. In the second, a so-called normal mode analysis is performed and the densities of state for intermolecular vibrations are

  8. Respiratory and olfactory cytotoxicity of inhaled 2,3-pentanedione in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hubbs, Ann F; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Battelli, Lori A; Kashon, Michael L; Jackson, Mark C; Frazer, David G; Fedan, Jeffrey S; Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Castranova, Vincent; Kreiss, Kathleen; Willard, Patsy A; Friend, Sherri; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fluharty, Kara L; Sriram, Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    Flavorings-related lung disease is a potentially disabling disease of food industry workers associated with exposure to the α-diketone butter flavoring, diacetyl (2,3-butanedione). To investigate the hypothesis that another α-diketone flavoring, 2,3-pentanedione, would cause airway damage, rats that inhaled air, 2,3-pentanedione (112, 241, 318, or 354 ppm), or diacetyl (240 ppm) for 6 hours were sacrificed the following day. Rats inhaling 2,3-pentanedione developed necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis comparable to diacetyl-induced injury. To investigate delayed toxicity, additional rats inhaled 318 (range, 317.9-318.9) ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours and were sacrificed 0 to 2, 12 to 14, or 18 to 20 hours after exposure. Respiratory epithelial injury in the upper nose involved both apoptosis and necrosis, which progressed through 12 to 14 hours after exposure. Olfactory neuroepithelial injury included loss of olfactory neurons that showed reduced expression of the 2,3-pentanedione-metabolizing enzyme, dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase, relative to sustentacular cells. Caspase 3 activation occasionally involved olfactory nerve bundles that synapse in the olfactory bulb (OB). An additional group of rats inhaling 270 ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours 41 minutes showed increased expression of IL-6 and nitric oxide synthase-2 and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in the OB, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum using real-time PCR. Claudin-1 expression increased in the OB and striatum. We conclude that 2,3-pentanedione is a respiratory hazard that can also alter gene expression in the brain. PMID:22894831

  9. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  10. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  11. Practical aspects of NMR signal assignment in larger and challenging proteins

    PubMed Central

    Frueh, Dominique P.

    2014-01-01

    NMR has matured into a technique routinely employed for studying proteins in near physiological conditions. However, applications to larger proteins are impeded by the complexity of the various correlation maps necessary to assign NMR signals. This article reviews the data analysis techniques traditionally employed for resonance assignment and describes alternative protocols necessary for overcoming challenges in large protein spectra. In particular, simultaneous analysis of multiple spectra may help overcome ambiguities or may reveal correlations in an indirect manner. Similarly, visualization of orthogonal planes in a multidimensional spectrum can provide alternative assignment procedures. We describe examples of such strategies for assignment of backbone, methyl, and nOe resonances. We describe experimental aspects of data acquisition for the related experiments and provide guidelines for preliminary studies. Focus is placed on large folded monomeric proteins and examples are provided for 37, 48, 53, and 81 kDa proteins. PMID:24534088

  12. NMR Structure Determination for Larger Proteins Using Backbone-Only Data

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Srivatsan; Lange, Oliver F.; Rossi, Paolo; Tyka, Michael; Wang, Xu; Aramini, James; Liu, Gaohua; Ramelot, Theresa; Eletsky, Alexander; Szyperski, Thomas; Kennedy, Michael; Prestegard, James; Montelione, Gaetano T.; Baker, David

    2010-01-01

    Conventional protein structure determination from nuclear magnetic resonance data relies heavily on side-chain proton-proton distances. The necessary side-chain resonance assignment, however, is labor intensive and prone to error. Here we show that structures can be accurately determined without NMR information on the sidechains for proteins up to 25 kDa by incorporating backbone chemical shifts, residual dipolar couplings, and amide proton distances into the Rosetta protein structure modelling methodology. These data, which are too sparse for conventional methods, serve only to guide conformational search towards the lowest energy conformations in the folding landscape; the details of the computed models are determined by the physical chemistry implicit in the Rosetta all atom energy function. The new method is not hindered by the deuteration required to suppress nuclear relaxation processes for proteins greater than 15 kDa, and should enable routine NMR structure determination for larger proteins. PMID:20133520

  13. A specialist toxicity database (TRACE) is more effective than its larger, commercially available counterparts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Copestake, P T; Robinson, L

    2000-10-26

    The retrieval precision and recall of a specialist bibliographic toxicity database (TRACE) and a range of widely available bibliographic databases used to identify toxicity papers were compared. The analysis indicated that the larger size and resources of the major bibliographic databases did not, for a series of test queries, assure superior retrieval of relevant papers. The specialist database, in which document selection and indexing is undertaken by the same expert toxicologists who use the database in their day-to-day work, achieved markedly better retrieval, using simpler search strategies, than the other databases. Specialist databases may offer a valuable alternative to the existing major bibliographic databases. The concept of relevance, as used to determine the effectiveness of bibliographic databases, is discussed. PMID:11074298

  14. The short-circuit test results of 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, A.; Otonari, T.; Ogata, T.; Iwakuma, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Iijima, Y.; Saito, T.; Gosho, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2011-11-01

    We are developing an elemental technology for 66 kV/6.9 kV 20 MVA-class power transformer with YBCO conductors. The protection of short-circuit technology is one of the elemental technologies for HTS transformer. Since short-circuit current is much higher than critical current of YBCO tape, there is a possibility that superconducting characteristics may be damaged during short-circuit period. We made a conductor to compose the YBCO tape with copper tape. We manufactured 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer using this conductor and performed short-circuit current test. The short-circuit current of primary winding was 346 A which was about six times larger than the rated current. The I-V characteristics of the winding did not change before and after the test. We may consider this conductor withstands short-circuit current.

  15. Introgression of a rare haplotype from Southeastern Africa to breed California blackeyes with larger seeds

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Mitchell R.; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Roberts, Philip A.; Close, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Seed size distinguishes most crops from their wild relatives and is an important quality trait for the grain legume cowpea. In order to breed cowpea varieties with larger seeds we introgressed a rare haplotype associated with large seeds at the Css-1 locus from an African buff seed type cultivar, IT82E-18 (18.5 g/100 seeds), into a blackeye seed type cultivar, CB27 (22 g/100 seed). Four recombinant inbred lines derived from these two parents were chosen for marker-assisted breeding based on SNP genotyping with a goal of stacking large seed haplotypes into a CB27 background. Foreground and background selection were performed during two cycles of backcrossing based on genome-wide SNP markers. The average seed size of introgression lines homozygous for haplotypes associated with large seeds was 28.7g/100 seed and 24.8 g/100 seed for cycles 1 and 2, respectively. One cycle 1 introgression line with desirable seed quality was selfed for two generations to make families with very large seeds (28–35 g/100 seeds). Field-based performance trials helped identify breeding lines that not only have large seeds but are also desirable in terms of yield, maturity, and plant architecture when compared to industry standards. A principal component analysis was used to explore the relationships between the parents relative to a core set of landraces and improved varieties based on high-density SNP data. The geographic distribution of haplotypes at the Css-1 locus suggest the haplotype associated with large seeds is unique to accessions collected from Southeastern Africa. Therefore this quantitative trait locus has a strong potential to develop larger seeded varieties for other growing regions which is demonstrated in this work using a California pedigree. PMID:25852699

  16. Compensatory larger cortical thickness in healthy elderly individuals with electroencephalographic risk for cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Castro-Chavira, Susana A; Barrios, Fernando A; Pasaye, Erick H; Alatorre-Cruz, Graciela C; Fernández, Thalía

    2016-06-15

    Excess theta electroencephalographic (EEG) activity has been described as an accurate predictor for cognitive decline at least 7 years before symptom presentation. To test whether this predictor for cognitive decline correlates with structural changes in the brains of healthy elderly individuals, we compared the magnetic resonance structural images of healthy individuals with excess of theta activity [group with a risk for cognitive decline, risk group (RG); n=14] with healthy controls with normal EEG activity (control group; n=14). Neuropsychological and epidemiological analyses showed significant differences in only two features: more years of education and better performance in the visuospatial process task in the control group. Voxel-based morphometry results were not conclusive, but showed tendencies toward larger volumes in the prefrontal and parietal lobes, and smaller volumes in the right temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and left cerebellum for the RG; these tendencies are in agreement with those proposed by the posterior-anterior shift in an aging model. Cortical-thickness analyses yielded a significant correlation between cortical thickness and years of education in the prefrontal and inferior-temporal regions, and larger cortical thickness in the RG, independent of age and years of education, in the right superior temporal region. These results suggest changes in the cortical thickness of structures related to memory and visuospatial functions in healthy, cognitively normal individuals before the appearance of cognitive decline. Thus, the performance of healthy elderly individuals with EEG risk may only be slightly different from normal because of compensation mechanisms allowing them to fulfill daily-life tasks, masking structural changes during preclinical neurocognitive disorders. PMID:27171033

  17. Fatigue acceptance test limit criterion for larger diameter rolled thread fasteners

    SciTech Connect

    Kephart, A.R.

    1997-05-01

    This document describes a fatigue lifetime acceptance test criterion by which studs having rolled threads, larger than 1.0 inches in diameter, can be assured to meet minimum quality attributes associated with a controlled rolling process. This criterion is derived from a stress dependent, room temperature air fatigue database for test studs having a 0.625 inch diameter threads of Alloys X-750 HTH and direct aged 625. Anticipated fatigue lives of larger threads are based on thread root elastic stress concentration factors which increase with increasing thread diameters. Over the thread size range of interest, a 30% increase in notch stress is equivalent to a factor of five (5X) reduction in fatigue life. The resulting diameter dependent fatigue acceptance criterion is normalized to the aerospace rolled thread acceptance standards for a 1.0 inch diameter, 0.125 inch pitch, Unified National thread with a controlled Root radius (UNR). Testing was conducted at a stress of 50% of the minimum specified material ultimate strength, 80 Ksi, and at a stress ratio (R) of 0.10. Limited test data for fastener diameters of 1.00 to 2.25 inches are compared to the acceptance criterion. Sensitivity of fatigue life of threads to test nut geometry variables was also shown to be dependent on notch stress conditions. Bearing surface concavity of the compression nuts and thread flank contact mismatch conditions can significantly affect the fastener fatigue life. Without improved controls these conditions could potentially provide misleading acceptance data. Alternate test nut geometry features are described and implemented in the rolled thread stud specification, MIL-DTL-24789(SH), to mitigate the potential effects on fatigue acceptance data.

  18. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2016-01-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  19. Larger ejaculate volumes are associated with a lower degree of polyandry across bushcricket taxa

    PubMed Central

    Vahed, Karim

    2006-01-01

    In numerous insects, including bushcrickets (Tettigoniidae), males are known to transfer substances in the ejaculate that inhibit the receptivity of females to further matings, but it has not yet been established whether these substances reduce the lifetime degree of polyandry of the female. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that larger ejaculate volumes should be associated with a lower degree of polyandry across tettigoniid taxa, controlling for male body mass and phylogeny. Data on ejaculate mass, sperm number, nuptial gift mass and male mass were taken primarily from the literature. The degree of polyandry for 14 species of European bushcrickets was estimated by counting the number of spermatodoses within the spermathecae of field-caught females towards the end of their adult lifespans. Data for four further species were obtained from the literature. Data were analysed by using both species regression and independent contrasts to control for phylogeny. Multiple regression analysis revealed that, as predicted, there was a significant negative association between the degree of polyandry and ejaculate mass, relative to male body mass, across bushcricket taxa. Nuptial gift size and sperm number, however, did not contribute further to interspecific variation in the degree of polyandry. A positive relationship was found, across bushcricket taxa, between relative nuptial gift size and relative ejaculate mass, indicating that larger nuptial gifts allow the male to overcome female resistance to accepting large ejaculates. This appears to be the first comparative evidence that males can manipulate the lifetime degree of polyandry of their mates through the transfer of large ejaculates. PMID:16928643

  20. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  1. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia.

    PubMed

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT(2A/2C), 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  2. Abelian and non-Abelian states in ν = 2 / 3 bilayer fractional quantum Hall systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Michael; Wu, Yang-Le; Cheng, Meng; Barkeshli, Maissam; Wang, Zhenghan

    There are several possible theoretically allowed non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states that could potentially be realized in one- and two-component FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , for integer n. Some of these states even possess quasiparticles with non-Abelian statistics that are powerful enough for universal topological quantum computation, and are thus of particular interest. Here we initiate a systematic numerical study, using both exact diagonalization and variational Monte Carlo, to investigate the phase diagram of FQH systems at total filling fraction ν = n + 2 / 3 , including in particular the possibility of the non-Abelian Z4 parafermion state. In ν = 2 / 3 bilayers we determine the phase diagram as a function of interlayer tunneling and repulsion, finding only three competing Abelian states, without the Z4 state. On the other hand, in single-component systems at ν = 8 / 3 , we find that the Z4 parafermion state has significantly higher overlap with the exact ground state than the Laughlin state, together with a larger gap, suggesting that the experimentally observed ν = 8 / 3 state may be non-Abelian. Our results from the two complementary numerical techniques agree well with each other qualitatively. We acknowledge the Office of Research and Sponsored Programs at California State University Long Beach and Microsoft Station Q.

  3. Dopamine D2/3 receptor antagonism reduces activity-based anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Klenotich, S J; Ho, E V; McMurray, M S; Server, C H; Dulawa, S C

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by severe hypophagia and weight loss, and an intense fear of weight gain. Activity-based anorexia (ABA) refers to the weight loss, hypophagia and paradoxical hyperactivity that develops in rodents exposed to running wheels and restricted food access, and provides a model for aspects of AN. The atypical antipsychotic olanzapine was recently shown to reduce both AN symptoms and ABA. We examined which component of the complex pharmacological profile of olanzapine reduces ABA. Mice received 5-HT2A/2C, 5-HT3, dopamine D1-like, D2, D3 or D2/3 antagonist treatment, and were assessed for food intake, body weight, wheel running and survival in ABA. D2/3 receptor antagonists eticlopride and amisulpride reduced weight loss and hypophagia, and increased survival during ABA. Furthermore, amisulpride produced larger reductions in weight loss and hypophagia than olanzapine. Treatment with either D3 receptor antagonist SB277011A or D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 also increased survival. All the other treatments either had no effect or worsened ABA. Overall, selective antagonism of D2 and/or D3 receptors robustly reduces ABA. Studies investigating the mechanisms by which D2 and/or D3 receptors regulate ABA, and the efficacy for D2/3 and/or D3 antagonists to treat AN, are warranted. PMID:26241351

  4. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  5. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of 14C-labelcd 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evaluated by using batch shake testing. orption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (foc) were l...

  6. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  7. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  8. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  9. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  10. Molecular Evidence for Lessepsian Invasion of Soritids (Larger Symbiont Bearing Benthic Foraminifera)

    PubMed Central

    Apothéloz-Perret-Gentil, Laure; Pawlowski, Jan; Abdu, Uri; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva; Hyams-Kaphzan, Orit; Bakhrat, Anna; Abramovich, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is considered as one of the hotspots of marine bioinvasions, largely due to the influx of tropical species migrating through the Suez Canal, so-called Lessepsian migrants. Several cases of Lessepsian migration have been documented recently, however, little is known about the ecological characteristics of the migrating species and their aptitude to colonize the new areas. This study focused on Red Sea soritids, larger symbiont-bearing benthic foraminifera (LBF) that are indicative of tropical and subtropical environments and were recently found in the Israeli coast of the Eastern Mediterranean. We combined molecular phylogenetic analyses of soritids and their algal symbionts as well as network analysis of Sorites orbiculus Forskål to compare populations from the Gulf of Elat (northern Red Sea) and from a known hotspot in Shikmona (northern Israel) that consists of a single population of S. orbiculus. Our phylogenetic analyses show that all specimens found in Shikmona are genetically identical to a population of S. orbiculus living on a similar shallow water pebbles habitat in the Gulf of Elat. Our analyses also show that the symbionts found in Shikmona and Elat soritids belong to the Symbiodinium clade F5, which is common in the Red Sea and also present in the Indian Ocean and Caribbean Sea. Our study therefore provides the first genetic and ecological evidences that indicate that modern population of soritids found on the Mediterranean coast of Israel is probably Lessepsian, and is less likely the descendant of a native ancient Mediterranean species. PMID:24204936

  11. Maternal support in early childhood predicts larger hippocampal volumes at school age.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan L; Barch, Deanna M; Belden, Andy; Gaffrey, Michael S; Tillman, Rebecca; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Hideo; Botteron, Kelly N

    2012-02-21

    Early maternal support has been shown to promote specific gene expression, neurogenesis, adaptive stress responses, and larger hippocampal volumes in developing animals. In humans, a relationship between psychosocial factors in early childhood and later amygdala volumes based on prospective data has been demonstrated, providing a key link between early experience and brain development. Although much retrospective data suggests a link between early psychosocial factors and hippocampal volumes in humans, to date there has been no prospective data to inform this potentially important public health issue. In a longitudinal study of depressed and healthy preschool children who underwent neuroimaging at school age, we investigated whether early maternal support predicted later hippocampal volumes. Maternal support observed in early childhood was strongly predictive of hippocampal volume measured at school age. The positive effect of maternal support on hippocampal volumes was greater in nondepressed children. These findings provide prospective evidence in humans of the positive effect of early supportive parenting on healthy hippocampal development, a brain region key to memory and stress modulation. PMID:22308421

  12. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  13. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  14. Lecture archiving on a larger scale at the University of Michigan and CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herr, Jeremy; Lougheed, Robert; Neal, Homer A.

    2010-04-01

    The ATLAS Collaboratory Project at the University of Michigan has been a leader in the area of collaborative tools since 1999. Its activities include the development of standards, software and hardware tools for lecture archiving, and making recommendations for videoconferencing and remote teaching facilities. Starting in 2006 our group became involved in classroom recordings, and in early 2008 we spawned CARMA, a University-wide recording service. This service uses a new portable recording system that we developed. Capture, archiving and dissemination of rich multimedia content from lectures, tutorials and classes are increasingly widespread activities among universities and research institutes. A growing array of related commercial and open source technologies is becoming available, with several new products introduced in the last couple years. As the result of a new close partnership between U-M and CERN IT, a market survey of these products was conducted and a summary of the results are presented here. It is informing an ambitious effort in 2009 to equip many CERN rooms with automated lecture archiving systems, on a much larger scale than before. This new technology is being integrated with CERN's existing webcast, CDS, and Indico applications.

  15. A loophole-free Bell test and the route to larger quantum networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiserer, Andreas; Hensen, Bas; Bernien, Hannes; Dréau, Anaïs; Kalb, Norbert; Blok, Machiel; Taminiau, Tim; Hanson, Ronald

    2016-05-01

    The nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond gives access to few-qubit nuclear-spin registers with exceptional coherence properties. Entanglement between remote registers can be established via a joint measurement of single photons that are each entangled with the electron spin of one NV center. The entanglement protocol is thus probabilistic but heralded, which has allowed us to perform the first loophole-free test of Bell's inequality using two NV centers at a distance of 1.3km. Extending the size of the network requires control over additional qubits at each node. To this end, we use nuclear spins that are controlled via the hyperfine interaction with the electronic spin. I will present our recent experimental results, where we keep a qubit locally in a single nuclear spin or in a decoherence-protected two-spin state while applying a sequence of optical pulses on the electronic spin that generates remote entanglement. Our results open perspectives toward the purification of remote entanglement and toward larger quantum networks.

  16. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  17. Technique for Extension of Small Antenna Array Mutual-Coupling Data to Larger Antenna Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    A technique is presented whereby the mutual interaction between a small number of elements in a planar array can be interpolated and extrapolated to accurately predict the combined interactions in a much larger array of many elements. An approximate series expression is developed, based upon knowledge of the analytical characteristic behavior of the mutual admittance between small aperture antenna elements in a conducting ground plane. This expression is utilized to analytically extend known values for a few spacings and orientations to other element configurations, thus eliminating the need to numerically integrate a large number of highly oscillating and slowly converging functions. This paper shows that the technique can predict very accurately the mutual coupling between elements in a very large planar array with a knowledge of the self-admittance of an isolated element and the coupling between only two-elements arranged in eight different pair combinations. These eight pair combinations do not necessarily have to correspond to pairs in the large array, although all of the individual elements must be identical.

  18. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  19. Larger aggregates of mutant seipin in Celia's Encephalopathy, a new protein misfolding neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sánchez-Iglesias, Sofía; Rábano, Alberto; Guillén-Navarro, Encarna; Domingo-Jiménez, Rosario; Ramos, Adriana; Rosa, Isaac; Senra, Ana; Nilsson, Peter; García, Ángel; Araújo-Vilar, David; Requena, Jesús R

    2015-11-01

    Celia's Encephalopathy (MIM #615924) is a recently discovered fatal neurodegenerative syndrome associated with a new BSCL2 mutation (c.985C>T) that results in an aberrant isoform of seipin (Celia seipin). This mutation is lethal in both homozygosity and compounded heterozygosity with a lipodystrophic BSCL2 mutation, resulting in a progressive encephalopathy with fatal outcomes at ages 6-8. Strikingly, heterozygous carriers are asymptomatic, conflicting with the gain of toxic function attributed to this mutation. Here we report new key insights about the molecular pathogenic mechanism of this new syndrome. Intranuclear inclusions containing mutant seipin were found in brain tissue from a homozygous patient suggesting a pathogenic mechanism similar to other neurodegenerative diseases featuring brain accumulation of aggregated, misfolded proteins. Sucrose gradient distribution showed that mutant seipin forms much larger aggregates as compared with wild type (wt) seipin, indicating an impaired oligomerization. On the other hand, the interaction between wt and Celia seipin confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (CoIP) assays, together with the identification of mixed oligomers in sucrose gradient fractionation experiments can explain the lack of symptoms in heterozygous carriers. We propose that the increased aggregation and subsequent impaired oligomerization of Celia seipin leads to cell death. In heterozygous carriers, wt seipin might prevent the damage caused by mutant seipin through its sequestration into harmless mixed oligomers. PMID:26282322

  20. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  1. Aspirations and common tensions: larger lessons from the third US national climate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Susanne C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Moss, Richard H.; Buizer, James L.

    2015-10-21

    The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) was produced by experts in response to the US Global Change Research Act of 1990. Based on lessons learned from previous domestic and international assessments, the NCA3 was designed to speak to a broad public and inform the concerns of policy- and decision-makers at different scales. The NCA3 was also intended to be the first step in an ongoing assessment process that would build the nation’s capacity to respond to climate change. This concluding paper draws larger lessons from the insights gained throughout the assessment process that are of significance to future US and international assessment designers. We bring attention to process and products delivered, communication and engagement efforts, and how they contributed to the sustained assessment. Based on areas where expectations were exceeded or not fully met, we address four common tensions that all assessment designers must confront and manage: between (1) core assessment ingredients (knowledge base, institutional set-up, principled process, and the people involved), (2) national scope and subnational adaptive management information needs, (3) scope, complexity, and manageability, and (4) deliberate evaluation and ongoing learning approaches. Managing these tensions, amidst the social and political contexts in which assessments are conducted, is critical to ensure that assessments are feasible and productive, while its outcomes are perceived as credible, salient, and legitimate.

  2. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  3. Larger receptive fields revealed using Battenberg stimuli to assess contrast summation with moving patterns.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Thomas J; Dickinson, J Edwin; Badcock, David R

    2016-09-01

    This study reevaluated the summation extent for moving stimuli using the Battenberg summation paradigm (Meese, 2010), which aims to circumvent internal noise changes with increasing stimulus size by holding display size constant. In the checkerboard stimulus, the size of the checks (luminance-modulated drifting gratings) was varied to measure dependence on signal area. Experiment 1 was a contrast detection task that used either signal checks alternating with uniform, mean luminance, checks (single-motion) or alternate checks containing gratings moving in opposite directions (opposing-motion). The latter was designed to test whether summation extent changes when segregating regions based on motion direction. Results showed summation over a square summation area with a side length of 3.33°, much larger than previous estimates of less than 1° for similar stimuli (Anderson & Burr, 1991). This was found for both motion combinations, providing no evidence that summation extent differs when segregating patterns based on direction, at contrast detection threshold. These results are in close agreement with those obtained for static patterns (Meese, 2010) and support the same underlying summation model. Experiment 2 was a contrast increment detection task conducted to determine whether differences in summation extent arise under suprathreshold contrast conditions. There was no dependence on check size for either condition across the range of sizes tested. This supports the suggestion that segmentation mechanisms dominate perception under high-contrast conditions, a potential adaptive strategy employed by the visual system. PMID:27604069

  4. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  5. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  6. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  7. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  8. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  9. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  10. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  11. Welcome to Lotus 1-2-3. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains 11 self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a 36-hour course of study for Lotus 1-2-3 at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion and performance standards, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications of the…

  12. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  13. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  14. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  16. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  17. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  18. Midbrain dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Heli; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Laakso, Mikko P; Viinamäki, Heimo; Husso, Minna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2006-09-01

    Several studies suggest that dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission in the midbrain and thalamus may contribute to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the putative alteration of dopamine D(2/3 )receptor densities in the thalamus and midbrain of drug-naïve schizophrenic patients. We used the high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand [(123)I]epidepride for imaging D(2/3 )receptor binding sites in six neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients, and seven healthy controls. Schizophrenic symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Significantly lower D(2/3 )values were observed in the midbrain of patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (P = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was observed in the thalamus between two groups. Negative correlations were found between thalamic D(2/3 )receptor binding and general psychopathological schizophrenic symptoms (r from -0.78 to -0.92). These observations implicate altered dopaminergic activity in the midbrain of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16783502

  19. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  20. Structural basis of the impact sensitivities of 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, and 4-nitro-2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.B.; Ryan, R.R.; Ritchie, J.P.; Hall, J.H.; Bachrach, S.M. )

    1989-01-26

    The isomeric pairs 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole differ dramatically in their impact sensitivity. Since these pairs of compounds have identical oxygen balance this strongly suggests that there is a difference in the decomposition mechanism. The authors report here the x-ray crystal structure, molecular orbital calculations, and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the four compounds. The picryl substituents are essentially identical in all four cases. The most significant structural difference in the X-ray structures and in the molecular orbital calculations is a decrease in the N2-N3 bond length, accompanied by a lengthening of the adjacent bonds, in the two 1-picryl isomers relative to the corresponding bond lengths in the 2-picryl isomers. Molecular orbital calculations show that this leads to a low activation energy for the elimination of N{sub 2} from the 1-picryl isomers. They suggest that this initial step then leads to a reactive intermediate and is responsible for the large difference in sensitivity.

  1. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  2. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  3. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  4. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  5. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  6. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  8. The role of subsurface flows in solar surface convection: modeling the spectrum of supergranular and larger scale flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. W.; Rast, M. P.; Cameron, R. H.; Rempel, M.; Roudier, T.

    2014-09-20

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions. (1) The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. (2) Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also seen in the fully nonlinear three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations employing a realistic equation of state. This adds to other recent evidence suggesting that the amplitudes of large-scale convective motions in the Sun are significantly lower than expected. Employing the same feature tracking algorithm used with observational data on the simulation output, we show that the observed low wavenumber power can be reproduced in hydrodynamic models if the amplitudes of large-scale modes in the deep layers are artificially reduced. Since the large-scale modes have reduced amplitudes, modes on the scale of supergranulation and smaller remain important to convective heat flux even in the deep layers, suggesting that small-scale convective correlations are maintained through the bulk of the solar convection zone.

  9. Cyclic interconversion of vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, H; Trenk, D; Meinertz, T; Rowland, M; Jähnchen, E

    1983-01-01

    The disposition of a single intravenous bolus dose of 10 mg vitamin K1 and vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide were studied in two healthy subjects without and with 12 h pretreatment dose of phenprocoumon (0.4 mg/kg). For each compound administered alone the plasma concentration-time profile was adequately fitted by a biexponential equation, with an average terminal half-life of 2.0 and 1.15 h for the administered vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide respectively. While vitamin K1 was measurable in plasma following administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, the epoxide was not detectable following administration of vitamin K1. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after intravenous administration of vitamin K1, both the average half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time profile of vitamin K1 were marginally reduced to 1.5 h and 1.76 mg l-1 h respectively, while the plasma concentration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide was readily measurable and its half-life markedly prolonged to 14.7 h. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after oral administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, no vitamin K1 was detectable in plasma and the half-life of the epoxide was 13.8 h. Based on area considerations the data suggest that either phenprocoumon does more than just inhibit the reduction of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide to vitamin K1, or that the simple model describing the interconversion between vitamin K1 and its epoxide is inadequate. The same conclusion is drawn from the analysis of comparable data in dogs, obtained by Carlisle & Blaschke (1981). PMID:6661354

  10. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  11. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES

    PubMed Central

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2015-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification

  12. Weapons Make the Man (Larger): Formidability Is Represented as Size and Strength in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans – and likely many other social vertebrates – navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  13. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  14. Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

  15. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  16. Microwaves create larger ablations than radiofrequency when controlled for power in ex vivo tissue

    PubMed Central

    Andreano, A.; Huang, Yu; Meloni, M. Franca; Lee, Fred T.; Brace, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To compare ablation zones created with equal amounts of 2.45 GHz microwave and 480 kHz radiofrequency (RF) energy in ex vivo liver and lung. Methods: A total of 38 ablations were performed in ex vivo liver and lung for 10 min each. Nineteen RF ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were performed with a 480 kHz system (200 W max, impedance-based pulsing) and cooled electrode while measuring the average RF power applied. Nineteen microwave ablations (nine liver, ten lung) were then created using a cooled triaxial antenna to deliver 2.45 GHz at the same power level as in RF experiments. Ablation zones were then sectioned and measured for minimum, maximum and mean diameters, and circularity. Measurements were compared using t-tests, with P<0.05 indicating statistical significance. Results: Mean diameters of microwave ablations were greater than RF ablations in both liver and lung (4.4±0.3 vs 3.3±0.2 cm in liver; 2.45±0.3 vs 1.6±0.5 cm in lungs; P<0.0005 all comparisons). There was no significant difference in the mean power applied during microwave or RF ablations in either organ (54.44±1.71 W vs 56.4±6.7 W in liver, P>0.05; 40±0.95 W vs 44.9±7.1 W in lung, P>0.05). Conclusions: Using a single cooled applicator, microwave energy at 2.45 GHz produces larger ablations than an equivalent amount of 480 kHz RF energy in normal liver and lung. This was more apparent in lung, likely due to the high baseline impedance which limits RF, but not microwave power delivery. PMID:20632609

  17. Low Concentrations of Methamphetamine Can Protect Dopaminergic Cells against a Larger Oxidative Stress Injury: Mechanistic Study

    PubMed Central

    El Ayadi, Amina; Zigmond, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Mild stress can protect against a larger insult, a phenomenon termed preconditioning or tolerance. To determine if a low intensity stressor could also protect cells against intense oxidative stress in a model of dopamine deficiency associated with Parkinson disease, we used methamphetamine to provide a mild, preconditioning stress, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) as a source of potentially toxic oxidative stress, and MN9D cells as a model of dopamine neurons. We observed that prior exposure to subtoxic concentrations of methamphetamine protected these cells against 6-OHDA toxicity, whereas higher concentrations of methamphetamine exacerbated it. The protection by methamphetamine was accompanied by decreased uptake of both [3H] dopamine and 6-OHDA into the cells, which may have accounted for some of the apparent protection. However, a number of other effects of methamphetamine exposure suggest that the drug also affected basic cellular survival mechanisms. First, although methamphetamine preconditioning decreased basal pERK1/2 and pAkt levels, it enhanced the 6-OHDA-induced increase in these phosphokinases. Second, the apparent increase in pERK1/2 activity was accompanied by increased pMEK1/2 levels and decreased activity of protein phosphatase 2. Third, methamphetamine upregulated the pro-survival protein Bcl-2. Our results suggest that exposure to low concentrations of methamphetamine cause a number of changes in dopamine cells, some of which result in a decrease in their vulnerability to subsequent oxidative stress. These observations may provide insights into the development of new therapies for prevention or treatment of PD. PMID:22022363

  18. Weapons make the man (larger): formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  19. Impact of a Glaucoma Severity Index on Results of Trabectome Surgery: Larger Pressure Reduction in More Severe Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Ralitsa T.; Roy, Pritha; Parikh, Hardik A.; Dang, Yalong; Schuman, Joel S.; Loewen, Nils A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To stratify outcomes of trabectome-mediated ab interno trabeculectomy (AIT) by glaucoma severity using a simple and clinically useful glaucoma index. Based on prior data of trabectome after failed trabeculectomy, we hypothesized that more severe glaucoma might have a relatively more reduced facility compared to mild glaucoma and respond with a larger IOP reduction to trabecular meshwork ablation. Methods Patients with primary open angle glaucoma who had undergone AIT without any other same session surgery and without any second eye surgery during the following 12 months were analyzed. Eyes of patients that had less than 12 months follow up or were diagnosed with neovascular glaucoma were excluded. A glaucoma index (GI) was created to capture glaucoma severity based on visual field, number of preoperative medications, and preoperative IOP. Visual field (VF) was separated into 3 categories: mild, moderate, and advanced (assigned 1, 2, and 3 points, respectively). Preoperative number of medications (meds) was divided into 4 categories: ≤1, 2, 3 or ≥4, and assigned with a value of 1 to 4. Baseline IOP (IOP) was divided into 3 categories: <20 mmHg, 20–29 mmHg, and greater than 30 mmHg and assigned with 1 to 3 points. GI was defined as IOP × meds × VF and separated into 4 groups: <6 (Group 1), 6–12 (Group 2), >12–18 (Group 3) and >18 (Group 4). Linear regression was used to determine if there was an association between GI group and IOP reduction after one year or age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc (C/D) ratio, and Shaffer grade. Results Out of 1340 patients, 843 were included in the analysis. The GI group distribution was GI1 = 164, GI2 = 202, GI3 = 260, and GI4 = 216. Mean IOP reduction after one year was 4.0±5.4, 6.4±5.8, 9.0±7.6, 12.0±8.0 mmHg for GI groups 1 to 4, respectively. Linear regression showed that IOP reduction was associated with GI group after adjusting for age, gender, race, diagnosis, cup to disc ratio, and Shaffer grade

  20. Why do oceanic negative cloud-to-ground lightning exhibit larger peak current values?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Koshak, W.; McCaul, E.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the temporal (monthly) and spatial climatology (2004-2010) of the first return stroke of the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash peak current (Ip) across various land/water boundaries over the contiguous United States. Four regions are examined: the Gulf of Mexico (region 1), the Florida peninsula (region 2), Lake Michigan (region 3), and part of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic (region 4). The crosss across the coastlines of regions 1, 2, and 4 show a gradual oceanward increase in the mean negative polarity CG peak current values (-Ip). This transition along the respective land/ocean boundaries is not sharp but gradual. In direct contrast with ocean, there is no consistent behavior in -Ip values as we move from land out across the fresh water of Lake Michigan (region 3). Meanwhile, the positive CG flash peak current (+Ip) values do not exhibit a consistent variation across any coastal boundary. For region 1, the -Ip values increase as we move toward the coast (southwards) especially during the wet season (June-October). This finding is in direct contrast with studies that documented winter as the season of maximum -Ip values. The zonal and seasonal variations of -Ip values across region 4 are not quite as pronounced, but the oceanic -Ip values are still larger than over the adjoining landmass. We explore in turn which up to date hypotheses pertinent to the oceanic -Ip enhancement are supported or refuted by our findings. It is concluded that the oceanic -Ip enhancement is not an artifact related to CG detection or Ip retrieval methods, nor is it likely related to the cloud top heights or CG activity. The study cannot refute the role of electrical conductivity and its contribution to CG leader attachment processes. However, given the observed "blurred transition" of the Ip values across the coastlines this paper suggests that likely the main physical mechanism is acting on the thundercloud potential. The recently suggested role of sodium chloride (Na

  1. How-to-Do-It: Why Don't Cells Grow Larger? A Lab Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanek, Joseph A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory investigation designed to analyze surface area to volume ratio related to cell division. Uses agar-gel "cells" with pH indicator added which are then "fed" acid for a measured time. Discusses procedures and materials used, providing a sample data table and important guiding questions. (JM)

  2. Biostratigraphy of Late Cretaceous carbonate platforms based on larger foraminifera: the Late Cretaceous shallow benthic zones (LKSBZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caus, Esmeralda; Parente, Mariano; Albrich, Sergi; Boix, Carme; Consorti, Lorenzo; Di Lucia, Matteo; Frijia, Gianluca; Robles, Raquel; Villalonga, Raquel

    2014-05-01

    The larger foraminifera are single-celled organisms extremely abundant and diverse in tropical-to-subtropical shallow-water oligotrophic-to- mesotrophic environments, especially in carbonate platforms. They cover all the environments within the platform, from the littoral areas to the lower limit of the photic zone. In the geological past, starting from the Late Carboniferous, the same ecological niches where inhabited by different assemblages that evolved in subsequent global community maturation cycles (GCMCs). These cycles are bounded by global palaeoenvironmental crises marked by increased extinction rates or even mass extinctions. This work focuses on the Late Cretaceous Global Community Maturation cycle (LKGCMC), which is bracketed between two mass extinction events: the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event at the base and the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary event at the top. Ten shallow benthic zones (SBZs) are proposed for the time span going from the base of the Turonian up to the Maastrichtian-Danian boundary. A SBZ is a composite zone of parallel phylogenetic lineages that covers at least the most common facies realms of shallow-water deposits. Each zone corresponds to the "total range zone" of some larger foraminifera taxa, and is defined using integrated evidence on multiple first appearances and last occurrences of taxa from all available neritic palaeoenvironments. The new biozonaton is based on an extensive regional data set derived from well exposed shallow-water carbonate successions on both sides of the Pyrenees (Northern Spain and Southern France). The LKSBZ 1 corresponds to the earliest phase of the LKGCM cycle. This biozone is characterized by the presence of few Cenomanian survivors. The LKSBZs 2-4 are characterized by the great development of the structurally complex porcellaneous groups and the first diversification of rotaliids. The LKSBZ 5-10 are dominated by lamellar-perforate foraminifera, with three main groups: Orbitoidids

  3. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    PubMed

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  4. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by 3O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  5. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of rat brain 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase isoform 2.

    PubMed

    Gravel, M; DeAngelis, D; Braun, P E

    1994-06-15

    We have isolated a cDNA coding for the larger isoform of the rat brain 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNP2), a protein associated with myelination in the central nervous system (CNS). The complete 420 amino acid sequence was deduced from the nucleotide sequence of the cDNA. Sequence comparisons show that rat CNP shares 96% homology with mouse, 84% with bovine, and 86% with human CNP. Errors in the published sequence of rat CNP1 have now been corrected. Comparisons with other proteins reveal several interesting conserved motifs, including two leucine repeat heptads, and two consensus motifs for phosphorylation in the N-terminal domain of CNP2. PMID:7932861

  7. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydroderivatives: Preparation, antiradical and cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Pyszková, Michaela; Biler, Michal; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Kuzma, Marek; Vrba, Jiří; Ulrichová, Jitka; Sokolová, Romana; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Kubala, Martin; Trouillas, Patrick; Křen, Vladimír; Vacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The protective constituents of silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we explore the electron-donor properties of the major silymarin flavonolignans. Silybin (SB), silychristin (SCH), silydianin (SD) and their respective 2,3-dehydroderivatives (DHSB, DHSCH and DHSD) were oxidized electrochemically and their antiradical/antioxidant properties were investigated. Namely, Folin-Ciocalteau reduction, DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging, inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and cytoprotective effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line were evaluated. Due to the presence of the highly reactive C3-OH group and the C-2,3 double bond (ring C) allowing electron delocalization across the whole structure in the 2,3-dehydroderivatives, these compounds are much more easily oxidized than the corresponding flavonolignans SB, SCH and SD. This finding was unequivocally confirmed not only by experimental approaches, but also by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The hierarchy in terms of ability to undergo electrochemical oxidation (DHSCH~DHSD>DHSB>SCH/SD>SB) was consistent with their antiradical activities, mainly DPPH scavenging, as well as in vitro cytoprotection of HepG2 cells. The results are discussed in the context of the antioxidant vs. prooxidant activities of flavonolignans and molecular interactions in complex biological systems. PMID:26582372

  9. The slippery slope: how small ethical transgressions pave the way for larger future transgressions.

    PubMed

    Welsh, David T; Ordóñez, Lisa D; Snyder, Deirdre G; Christian, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Many recent corporate scandals have been described as resulting from a slippery slope in which a series of small infractions gradually increased over time (e.g., McLean & Elkind, 2003). However, behavioral ethics research has rarely considered how unethical behavior unfolds over time. In this study, we draw on theories of self-regulation to examine whether individuals engage in a slippery slope of increasingly unethical behavior. First, we extend Bandura's (1991, 1999) social-cognitive theory by demonstrating how the mechanism of moral disengagement can reduce ethicality over a series of gradually increasing indiscretions. Second, we draw from recent research connecting regulatory focus theory and behavioral ethics (Gino & Margolis, 2011) to demonstrate that inducing a prevention focus moderates this mediated relationship by reducing one's propensity to slide down the slippery slope. We find support for the developed model across 4 multiround studies. PMID:24865577

  10. Choosing the Larger versus Choosing the Smaller: Asymmetries in the Size Congruity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Isabel; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by…

  11. Expanding Coherent Array Processing to Larger Apertures Using Empirical Matched Field Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ringdal, F; Harris, D B; Kvaerna, T; Gibbons, S J

    2009-07-23

    necessary to divide event populations from a single mine into identifiable subpopulations. For this purpose, we perform cluster analysis using matched field statistics calculated on pairs of individual events as a distance metric. In our initial work, calibrations were derived from ensembles of events ranging in number to more than 100. We are considering the performance now of matched field calibrations derived with many fewer events (even, as mentioned, individual events). Since these are high-variance estimates, we are testing the use of cross-channel, multitaper, spectral estimation methods to reduce the variance of calibrations and detection statistics derived from single-event observations. To test the applicability of the technique in a different tectonic region, we have obtained four years of continuous data from 4 Kazakh arrays and are extracting large numbers of event segments. Our initial results using 132 mining explosions recorded by the Makanchi array are similar to those obtained in the European Arctic. Matched field processing clearly separates the explosions from three closely-spaced mines located approximately 400 kilometers from the array, again using waveforms in a band (6-10 Hz) normally considered incoherent for this array. Having reproduced ARCES-type performance with another small aperture array, we have two additional objectives for matched field processing. We will attempt to extend matched field processing to larger apertures: a 200 km aperture (the KNET) and, if data permit, to an aperture comprised of several Kazakh arrays. We also will investigate the potential of developing matched field processing to roughly locate and classify natural seismicity, which is more diffuse than the concentrated sources of mining explosions that we have investigated to date.

  12. Absolutely calibrated radio polarimetry of the inner Galaxy at 2.3 and 4.8 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. H.; Gaensler, B. M.; Carretti, E.; Purcell, C. R.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Bernardi, G.; Haverkorn, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present high-sensitivity and absolutely calibrated images of diffuse radio polarization at a resolution of about 10 arcmin covering the range 10° < l < 34° and |b| < 5° at 2.3 GHz from the S-band Polarization All Sky Survey and at 4.8 GHz from the Sino-German λ6 cm polarization survey of the Galactic plane. Strong depolarization near the Galactic plane is seen at 2.3 GHz, which correlates with strong Hα emission. We ascribe the depolarization to spatial Faraday rotation measure fluctuations of about 65 rad m-2 on scales smaller than 6-9 pc. We argue that most (about 90 per cent) of the polarized emission seen at 4.8 GHz originates from a distance of 3-4 kpc in the Scutum arm and that the random magnetic field dominates the regular field there. A branch extending from the North Polar Spur towards lower latitudes can be identified from the polarization image at 4.8 GHz but only partly from the polarization image at 2.3 GHz, implying that the branch is at a distance larger than 2-3 kpc. We show that comparison of structure functions of complex polarized intensity with those of polarized intensity can indicate whether the observed polarized structures are intrinsic or caused by Faraday screens. The probability distribution function of gradients from the polarization images at 2.3 GHz indicates that the turbulence in the warm ionized medium is transonic.

  13. 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-Octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane: improved synthesis and crystal structure with NaSCN

    SciTech Connect

    Loustau-Chartez, Ms. Fanny; Robeson, Rachel M; Custelcean, Radu; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bonnesen, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    An efficient synthesis of 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, OM16C5) is described, which affords over an order of magnitude improvement in yield over the previously reported method. The first X-ray crystal structure of 1, as a complex with NaSCN, is also reported. There is much interest in sodium-selective ionophores [1,2] for use in electrodes [1,3] and optodes [4]. One such ionophore is 2,2,3,3,11,11,12,12-octamethyl-1,4,7,10,13-pentaoxacyclohexadecane (1, octamethyl-16-crown-5 or OM16C5), which was first prepared in 1996 by Suzuki and coworkers [1]. The synthetic procedure as reported and shown in Scheme 1 involved three steps starting from pinacol. The first two steps proceeded in excellent (95%) and good (ca. 81%) yields, respectively. However, the cyclization step, involving the addition of diethylene glycol dimesylate to 2,3,3,9,9,10-hexamethyl-4,8-dioxa-2,10-undecanediol (2) using NaH in THF, proceeded poorly with a low (3.7%) isolated yield, making the overall yield for the three steps starting from pinacol approximately 2.8%. We were interested in this crown ether for alkali-metal extraction studies, and sought to improve the yield so that larger (potentially gram) quantities of material could be readily prepared. We report here a modification of the synthetic procedure that boosts the conversion of 1 from 2 over 15-fold, by using three good- to high-yielding steps that allows 1 to be obtained from 2 in a combined yield of 59%. We also report for the first time a crystal structure of 1, as the NaSCN complex

  14. 35C NQR studies in 2,4,6-,2,3,6-, and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukmani, K.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1985-02-01

    The chlorine-35 NQR frequencies and their temperature variation in 2,4,6-, 2,3,6- and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles have been studied and compared with the corresponding chlorophenols with a view to studying the effect of hydrogen bonding. The observed frequencies have been assigned to the various chlorines with the help of the additive model of the substituent effect. The temperature dependence has been analysed in terms of the Bayer—Kushida—Brown models. The torsional frequencies and their temperature dependence have been calculated numerically under a two mode approximation. A comparison of the trichloro anisoles with the corresponding trichloro phenols has shown that the resonance frequency decreases due to hydrogen bonding while the torsional frequencies are not affected.

  15. Do aircraft-based atmospheric observations indicate that anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are larger than reported?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Methane emissions over the United States are dominated by anthropogenic sources related to three major categories: fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas mining and distribution), landfills, and ruminants. Atmospheric signatures of these sources are evident in aircraft profiles, regularly showing enhancements of 50-100 ppb in the planetary boundary layer. Through a lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), we directly link atmospheric methane measurements from NOAA’s aircraft program in 2004 with prior source fields, focusing on EDGAR32FT2000 and EDGARv4.0 for anthropogenic emissions. The LPDM employed is the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT), driven by meteorological output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Forward model runs indicate EDGAR32FT2000 is more consistent (despite larger point to point noise) with atmospheric data, particularly when assessing the shapes of vertical profiles, than EDGARv4.0. Simple scalar optimizations and inverse analyses suggest that emissions in the new EDGARv4.0 inventory, an inventory consistent with reported US EPA values, are too small.

  16. Why is the bulk modulus of jammed solids and granular packings much larger than the shear modulus?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaccone, Alessio; Weaire, Denis

    2013-03-01

    In granular packings and metallic glasses, the rigidity to compression is much more pronounced than with respect to shear, resulting in the bulk modulus being much larger than the shear modulus. This state of affairs becomes dramatic in marginal jammed solids which are solid-like to compression but not to shear (Ellenbroek, Zeravcic, van Saarloos, van Hecke, EPL 87, 34004 (2009)). For metallic glasses, it was argued by Weaire et al. some time ago (Acta Metall. 19, 779 (1971)) that this effect might be due to the nonaffinity of the particle displacements. These arise because the force acting on a particle upon strain as a result of the strain-induced motion of its neighbors is not balanced in the absence of local order. Hence the particles undergo nonaffine displacements to relax these forces to the expense of the elastic storage energy, leading to lower values of the elastic moduli. Using the nonaffine theory of Zaccone and Scossa-Romano (PRB, 83, 184205 (2011)) we found a conclusive solution to this long standing problem. We show that in packings and related materials the excluded volume between neighbors induces geometric correlations which significantly reduce the nonaffinity under compression but leave the nonaffinity in shear substantially unaltered.

  17. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the rangelands of South Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or Landsat) scale. Since field surveys are time consuming and of limited spatial extent, the satellite based creation of training sites using Google Earth images is intended. Training pixels for woody vegetation and non-woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 sample Google Earth images. A Random Forests model was trained to delineate woody from non-woody pixels. The results indicate a high performance of the model (AUC = 0.97). The model was applied to a further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250 m × 250 m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa.

  18. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  19. Operating a Telescope Larger than the Earth: How the VSOP Space VLBI Mission is Scheduled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, David L.; Fomalont, Edward B.

    The Japanese VLBI space observatory programme (VSOP) mission is one of the most complex scientific endeavors ever attempted. It involves coordinating a spacecraft with detailed pointing constraints that vary on time scales ranging from years to hours, tracking stations in four different countries, ground radio telescopes in nearly 20 different countries with different capabilities at the VSOP observing frequencies, and correlation and tape copying facilities with four different recording formats. Scientific constraints on the quality of (u,v)-coverage obtainable force the scheduling to be done far in advance of the observation - over about 1.5 years time - so that the sources are observed when the orbital orientation is most favorable. In order that all these facilities work as a single astronomical instrument, the constraints on them also must be taken into account in the scheduling to the satisfaction of all parties involved, including the principal investigators as well as mission and observatory personnel. In this paper we outline the entire VSOP mission scheduling process. Special emphasis is placed on software required to decide when to observe the proposed sources and how to ensure the highest quality science while preserving the health of the spacecraft. We also discuss application of the process to the future space VLBI missions VSOP2, RadioAstron, and ARISE

  20. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, AND 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCB'S IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA: LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from t...

  1. Separation of 2,3-butylene glycol and acetoin in fermented cheese whey permeate by liquid column chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Lippi, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    While use of 2,3-butylene glycol could relieve pressure on consumption of petroleum-derived feedstocks, the economics of producing 2,3-butylene glycol by fermentation are still cost prohibitive. One of the main reasons for this is the high cost of recovering the 2,3-butylene glycol from the aqueous fermentation broth. The research presented here involves utilizing a low cost liquid column chromatographic operation for separating 2,3-butylene glycol and acetoin (another major by-product of the fermentation), in fermented cheese whey permeate. The procedure involves prewashing the column with an inexpensive solvent (aqueous sodium borate solution), and eluting samples with distilled and deionized water. Plain tap water was also shown to work equally well as the eluent. Separating 2,3-butylene glycol into the water eluent should improve the economics of the recovery process. The lower boiling water can be evaporated and distilled leaving the high boiling 2,3-butylene glycol (boiling point of 183 C). Steam generation and equipment specifications would be reduced thereby decreasing both capital and maintenance expenditures. Studies were performed and parameters were optimized on a laboratory scale and then scaled-up. Best results on the lab-scale was that a 54 ml separation was obtained from a 100 ml sample of the two compounds on a column 15 cm by 2.6 cm. Best results on the larger column showed that a one liter sample of ultrafiltered fermented cheese whey permeate containing 900 micrograms/ml of 2,3-butylene glycol and 300 micrograms/ml of acetoin was completely separated on a 20 cm by 11.4 cm column bed of Dowex 1-X8 anion-exchange resin.

  2. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape. PMID:24045342

  3. Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele; boyd, danah; Korchmaros, Josephine; Oppenheim, Jay (Koby)

    2012-01-01

    Methods Two split-form surveys were conducted online among 6–17 year olds (n=1,200 each) to inform recommendations for cyberbullying measurement. Results Measures that use the word ‘bully’ result in prevalence rates similar to each other whether or not a definition is included, whereas measures not using the word ‘bully’ are similar to each other whether or not a definition is included. A behavioral list of bullying experiences without either a definition or the word ‘bully’ results in higher prevalence rates and likely measures experiences that are beyond the definition of ‘bullying’. Follow-up questions querying differential power, repetition, and bullying over time were used to examine misclassification. The measure using a definition but not the word ‘bully’ appeared to have the highest rate of false positives and, therefore, the highest rate of misclassification. Across two studies, an average of 25% reported being bullied at least monthly in person compared with an average of 10% bullied online, 7% via telephone (cell or landline), and 8% via text messaging. Conclusions Measures of bullying among English-speaking samples in the US should include the word ‘bully’ when possible. The definition may be a useful tool for researchers, but results suggest that it does not necessarily yield a more rigorous measure of bullying victimization. Directly measuring aspects of bullying (i.e., differential power, repetition, over time) reduces misclassification. To prevent double counting across categories, we conceptualize cyberbullying as bullying communicated through the online mode; type (e.g., verbal, relational), and environment (e.g., school, home) are additional domains of bullying. PMID:22727077

  4. Triazolines XIII: delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines, a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, P K

    1984-06-01

    A series of 1,5-diaryl-delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines has been synthesized and evaluated for the first time as potential anticonvulsant agents using the standard subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold and maximal electroshock seizure tests. Out of the 31 triazolines that were screened, 11 exhibited moderate anticonvulsant activity; 9 of the compounds afforded protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, while two antagonized electrically induced convulsions. PMID:6737279

  5. [Analgesic activity of derivatives of 7-amino-2,3-polymethylenindoles and their congeners].

    PubMed

    Cerri, R; Boatto, G; Pau, A; Sparatore, F; Manca, P

    1988-02-01

    Some N-trifluoromethylsulphonyl and N-trifluoroacetylderivatives of 7-amino-2,3-polymethyleneindoles and of 7-amino-3-propylindole [(I) - (XIII)] were prepared and tested, together with corresponding aniline derivates [(XIV) - (XIX)] and with N-trifluoromethylsulphonylcyclopentylamine (XX), against formic acid induced writhings in mice. With very few exceptions, at the oral dose of 0.167 mmole/kg, they proved from 2 to 3.4 times more active than acetanilide. PMID:3391261

  6. Vibrational spectrum and internal rotation in 2,3-dimethylpyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J. F.; Lòpez-Navarrete, J. T.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine have been recorded and assigned on the basis of a C2v molecular geometry previously determined by MINDO/3. The potential energy function corresponding to the internal rotation of both methyl groups has been used to solve the Schrödinger equation and to obtain the energy levels of that motion on the basis of a molecular geometry G36. The rotation of the substituents is not independent and they behave as two geared rotors.

  7. Continuous variable (2, 3) threshold quantum secret sharing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Tyc, Tomás; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2003-01-01

    We present two schemes to perform continuous variable (2, 3) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) on the quadrature amplitudes of bright light beams. Both schemes require a pair of entangled light beams. The first scheme utilizes two phase sensitive optical amplifiers, whilst the second uses an electro-optic feedforward loop for the reconstruction of the secret. We examine the efficacy of QSS in terms of fidelity, as well as the signal transfer coefficients and the conditional variances of the reconstructed output state. We show that both schemes in the ideal case yield perfect secret reconstruction.

  8. Representations of the POINCARÉ Group from Positive Energy Representations of SO(2,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, P.

    2004-10-01

    We describe representations of the simply connected covering group of the Poincaré group, {˜ {B}}, which are associated with certain positive energy representations of SO0(2, 3), the simply connected cover of SO0(2, 3). The translation generators of these representations of {˜ {B}} can be viewed as solutions of certain algebraic equations with coefficients from a commutative algebraic extension of the skew field of {˜ {B}}. These representations of {˜ {B}} depend upon a parameter λ that is essentially the reciprocal of the radius of anti-deSitter space, and they go over into the Segal-Inönü-Wigner contractions of the corresponding representations of SO0(2, 3) as λ → 0. Explicit results are given for the Di and Rac representations and the representations of SO0(2, 3) which extend to massless, unitary irreducible representations of SU(2, 2), the four-fold cover of the conformal group of Minkowski space-time.

  9. Occurrence of Isospora suis in larger piglet production units and on specialized piglet rearing farms.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Joachim, A; Daugschies, A

    1999-05-01

    Mixed fecal samples of 264 litters from five piglet production farms (155-238 sows/farm) were investigated three times during the suckling period for the occurrence of Isospora suis over the period of 1 year. On all five farms Isopora suis was found to be a common endoparasite with infection rates being highest in litters of 3-4 weeks of age. By the end of the third investigation period the cumulative infection rate was 53.8% of the litters ranging from 20.0% to 81.5% for the single farms. During the suckling period the infection rate increased from 18.6% to 32.6% and then to 37.7%. Diarrhea was present in 66.3% of the sampled litters with the highest rates at the end of the suckling period. 63.4% of the litters which showed diarrhea and 34.8% of those without diarrhea excreted I. suis within the study period. Diarrhea was recorded for 78.2% of the I. suis-positive litters and for 52.5% of the Isospora-negative litters. In summer and fall the occurrence of I. suis was higher (66.3% and 61.0%, respectively) than in spring and winter (47.7% and 37.9%, respectively). In litters with diarrhea and pathogenic E. coli I. suis often occurred simultaneously. Above-average hygiene measures and mainly perforated pen floors seemed to lower the risk of isosporosis. With the exception of Strongyloides ransomi other parasites were not found in the fecal samples of suckling piglets. Two specialized piglet rearing farms, a conventional large-scale rearing unit and a farm managed according to the segregated early weaning (SEW) system were examined three times during the 6-7 week rearing period. In both units I. suis was common, but was not correlated with diarrhea. In the SEW unit the infection rates decreased from 37.5% to 20.2% and to 4.1%, while the infection rate in the conventional unit slightly increased from the first (17.2%) to the second (21.9%) investigation and stayed at this level at the third sampling. PMID:10384903

  10. The phenomenon of drop in output at larger field sizes for telecobalt units.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sukhvir; Singh, Ajay K; Semwal, Manoj K; Suhag, Virender; Sarin, Arti; Kaushik, Aruna

    2016-07-01

    It is known that the output factors (OPFs) for external-beam radiotherapy units increase with field size due to increased scattered radiation from the collimator system. Saturation in the OPF value is generally reported beyond approximately 30 × 30 cm(2). For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, we report on a drop in OPF values, although marginal, measured for a telecobalt machine beyond the 38 × 38 cm(2) field size. We believe that reporting and explaining the results will lead to a better understanding of the scatter composition of the radiation from telecobalt machines. This also has the potential to impact the estimation of low dose regions in patients, in addition to being a purely scientific inquiry. We used Monte Carlo (MC) simulations to validate the measured values. The MC data showed that the decrease in OPF was due to decreased scatter from the machine head. PMID:27278958

  11. Performance of single carbon granules as perspective for larger scale capacitive bioanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsje, Casper; Liu, Dandan; Sleutels, Tom H. J. A.; Buisman, Cees J. N.; ter Heijne, Annemiek

    2016-09-01

    The use of high surface area electrodes, like carbon-based felt or granules, in Bioelectrochemical Systems is crucial for high volumetric current production. In case activated carbon granules are used, charge can also be stored in the form of an electric double layer in the pores, which has been shown to improve bioanode performance. So far, it is not known how much current can be generated by a single granule. In this study, we investigate the current production and charge storage behavior of a single carbon granule. Two types of activated carbon granules and one graphite granule are tested to find the untapped potential of granular bioanodes. A single activated carbon granule produces up to 0.6 mA, corresponding to 60 mA cm-3 granule volume at -300 mV vs. Ag/AgCl anode potential. Charge - discharge experiments show that capacitive granules produced 1.3-2.0 times more charge compared to a graphite granule with low surface area. When extrapolated to other granular systems, our study indicates that the current generated by granular bioanodes can be improved with several orders of magnitude, which could form the basis of an economically feasible Microbial Fuel Cell.

  12. Folding funnels and energy landscapes of larger proteins within the capillarity approximation

    PubMed Central

    Wolynes, Peter G.

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of protein-folding kinetics with increasing chain length under various thermodynamic conditions is addressed using the capillarity picture in which distinct spatial regions of the protein are imagined to be folded or trapped and separated by interfaces. The quantitative capillarity theory is based on the nucleation theory of first-order transitions and the droplet analysis of glasses and random magnets. The concepts of folding funnels and rugged energy landscapes are shown to be applicable in the large size limit just as for smaller proteins. An ideal asymptotic free-energy profile as a function of a reaction coordinate measuring progress down the funnel is shown to be quite broad. This renders traditional transition state theory generally inapplicable but allows a diffusive picture with a transition-state region to be used. The analysis unifies several scaling arguments proposed earlier. The importance of fluctuational fine structure both to the free-energy profile and to the glassy dynamics is highlighted. The fluctuation effects lead to a very broad trapping-time distribution. Considerations necessary for understanding the crossover between the mean field and capillarity pictures of the energy landscapes are discussed. A variety of mechanisms that may roughen the interfaces and may lead to a complex structure of the transition-state ensemble are proposed. PMID:9177189

  13. Recency gets larger as lesions move from anterior to posterior locations within the ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Guy; Yechiam, Eldad; Bechara, Antoine

    2010-11-12

    In the past two decades neuroimaging research has substantiated the important role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in decision-making. In the current study, we use the complementary lesion based approach to deepen our knowledge concerning the specific cognitive mechanisms modulated by prefrontal activity. Specifically, we assessed the brain substrates implicated in two decision making dimensions in a sample of prefrontal cortex patients: (a) the tendency to differently weigh recent compared to past experience; and (b) the tendency to differently weigh gains compared to losses. The participants performed the Iowa Gambling Task, a complex experience-based decision-making task, which was analyzed with a formal cognitive model (the Expectancy-Valance model). The results indicated that decisions become influenced by more recent, as opposed to older, events when the damage reaches the posterior sectors of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC). Furthermore, the degree of this recency deficit was related to the size of the lesion. These results suggest that the posterior area of the prefrontal cortex directly modulates the capacity to use time-delayed information. In contrast, we did not find similar modulation for the sensitivity to gains versus losses. PMID:20412820

  14. Controlled growth of larger heterojunction interface area for organic photosensitive devices

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Fan; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2009-12-29

    An optoelectronic device and a method of fabricating a photosensitive optoelectronic device includes depositing a first organic semiconductor material on a first electrode to form a continuous first layer having protrusions, a side of the first layer opposite the first electrode having a surface area at least three times greater than an underlying lateral cross-sectional area; depositing a second organic semiconductor material directly on the first layer to form a discontinuous second layer, portions of the first layer remaining exposed; depositing a third organic semiconductor material directly on the second layer to form a discontinuous third layer, portions of at least the second layer remaining exposed; depositing a fourth organic semiconductor material on the third layer to form a continuous fourth layer, filling any exposed gaps and recesses in the first, second, and third layers; and depositing a second electrode on the fourth layer, wherein at least one of the first electrode and the second electrode is transparent, and the first and third organic semiconductor materials are both of a donor-type or an acceptor-type relative to second and fourth organic semiconductor materials, which are of the other material type.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036978

  16. Safety and Effectiveness of UFE in Fibroids Larger than 10 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Bérczi, Viktor Valcseva, Éva Kozics, Dóra Kalina, Ildikó Kaposi, Pál; Sziller, Péter Várbíró, Szabolcs; Botos, Erzsébet Mária

    2015-10-15

    IntroductionEarly literature suggested that the size of the uterus, the size of the dominant fibroid, and the amount of applied embolization particles would be the risk factors for major postprocedural complications, but recent publications have confuted these early results. The purpose of our study was to evaluate whether the size of the dominant fibroid would influence the complication rate and effectiveness in a large single-center cohort.Patients and MethodsFrom 28 April 2008 until 31 December 2012, 303 patients had uterine artery embolization (UAE). 262 patients had small [largest diameter <10 cm (Group 1)], 41 patients had large [largest diameter >10 cm (Group 2)] fibroid. UAE was performed from unilateral femoral access using 500–710 and 355–500 µm polyvinyl alcohol particles. Periprocedural and postprocedural complications and numerical analog quality-of-life scores (0—unbearable symptoms; 100—perfect quality of life) were listed and statistically analyzed.ResultsDuring the mean follow-up time [7.79 ± 5.16 (SD) month], data on 275 patients (275/303 = 90.8 %) were available. Quality-of-life score was 33.3 ± 23.5 and 33.5 ± 24.1 before, whereas 85.6 ± 16.0 and 81.5 ± 23.5 after UAE in Group 1 and Group 2, respectively, (Mann–Whitney U test one-sided, p = 0.365). There were 4 myoma expulsions, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies reported from Group 1, meanwhile 1 myoma expulsion, 1 acute myomectomy, and 2 acute hysterectomies were documented from Group 2 (NS differences).ConclusionThere was no significant difference in the effectiveness and in the number of minor and major complications between fibroids with <10 cm largest diameter compared to those >10 cm.

  17. A new synthesis of 2,3-di- or 2,3,3-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones by reaction of 3-ethoxycyclobutanones and N-p-toluenesulfonyl imines using titanium(IV) chloride: synthesis of (+/-)-bremazocine.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Jun-ichi; Okado, Ryohei; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-16

    N-p-Toluenesulfonyl (Ts) aldimines reacted with 3-ethoxycyclobutanones by catalysis of titanium(IV) chloride to afford 2,3-di- or 2,3,3-trisubstituted N-Ts-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones. Synthesis of (+/-)-bremazocine was efficiently accomplished by using this method. PMID:20568828

  18. Gas chromatographic determination of the interconversion energy barrier for dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, J; Krupcík, J; Májek, P; Skacáni, I; Jakubík, T; Sandra, P; Armstrong, D W

    2007-05-25

    The enantiomers of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate undergo interconversion during gas chromatographic separation on chiral stationary phases. In this paper the on-column apparent interconversion kinetic and thermodynamic activation data were determined for dimethyl, diethyl, propylbutyl and dibutyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers by gas chromatographic separation of the racemic mixtures on a capillary column containing a polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase coupled to 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tertbutyldimethylsilyl-beta-cyclodextrin. A deconvolution method was used to determine the individual enantiomer peak areas and retention times that are needed to calculate the interconversion rate constants and the energy barriers. The apparent rate constants and interconversion energy barriers decrease slightly with an increase in the alkyl chain length of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate esters. The optimum conformation of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate molecules, their separation selectivity factors and apparent interconversion enthalpy and entropy data changes with the alkyl chain length. The dependence of the apparent interconversion energy barrier (deltaG(app)(a-->b), deltaG(app)(b-->a)) on temperature was used to determine the apparent activation enthalpy (deltaH(app)(a-->b), deltaH(app)(b-->a)) and apparent entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) (where a denotes the first and b second eluted enantiomer). The comparison of the activation enthalpy and entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) indicated that the interconversion of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series is an entropy driven process at 160 degrees C. Data obtained for dimethyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series at 120 degrees C (deltaG(app)(a-->b) = 123.3 and deltaG(app)(b-->a) = 124.4 kJ mol(-1)) corresponds (at the 95% confidence interval) with the value of deltaG(#) = 128+/-1 kJ mol(-1) found at this

  19. Illite precipitation and surface cracking during biotite dissolution under hydrothermal conditions: Effects of nanoscale system changes on larger scale processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Jun, Y.

    2012-12-01

    To ensure safe and efficient geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS), it is crucial to have a better understanding of CO2-brine-caprock interactions under GCS conditions. In this work, using biotite (K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2) as a model abundant clay mineral of the caprock at GCS sites, CO2-brine-biotite interactions were studied under hydrothermal conditions relevant to GCS sites (at 95 deg C, under 102 atm CO2, in 1 M NaCl, 0.4 M MgCl2, or 0.4 M CaCl2 solution). In these salt solutions, after reaction for 3 hrs, fast growth of micron-sized fibrous illite on flat basal planes of biotite was observed. After 22 hrs reaction, microscale cracks formed on the biotite basal surface, resulting in fibrous illite detaching from the surface. After reaction in 1 M NaCl solution for longer time, the cracked biotite pieces detached from the surface layer and released into solution. In control experiments with water under the same temperature and pressure, neither micron-sized fibrous illite nor cracks were observed, while oriented aggregation of hexagonal nanoparticles starting to form the fibrous-shaped illite was observed. These nano- and micro-scale behaviors have great effects on the macroscopic biotite dissolution and the aquifer properties. The cracking of the biotite surface can increase the surface area in contact with solution and accelerate biotite dissolution. The fibrous illite formation and its later mobilization in the salt solutions after its detachment could decrease the permeability of the aquifers greatly. This work provides unique information on how nanoscale system changes induced by geochemical reactions can affect larger scale chemical interactions and geophysical properties such as porosity and permeability. Ultimately, this information can help design safer and more efficient operations at not only GCS sites, but also other subsurface hydrothermal conditions.

  20. New Instruments for Spectrally-Resolved Solar Soft X-ray Observations from CubeSats, and Larger Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caspi, A.; Shih, A.; Warren, H. P.; DeForest, C. E.; Woods, T. N.

    2015-12-01

    Solar soft X-ray (SXR) observations provide important diagnostics of plasma heating, during solar flares and quiescent times. Spectrally- and temporally-resolved measurements are crucial for understanding the dynamics and evolution of these energetic processes; spatially-resolved measurements are critical for understanding energy transport. A better understanding of the thermal plasma informs our interpretation of hard X-ray (HXR) observations of nonthermal particles, improving our understanding of the relationships between particle acceleration, plasma heating, and the underlying release of magnetic energy during reconnection. We introduce a new proposed mission, the CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS), to measure spectrally- and spatially-resolved SXRs from the quiescent and flaring Sun from a 6U CubeSat platform in low-Earth orbit during a nominal 1-year mission. CubIXSS includes the Amptek X123-SDD silicon drift detector, a low-noise, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) instrument enabling solar SXR spectroscopy from ~0.5 to ~30 keV with ~0.15 keV FWHM spectral resolution with low power, mass, and volume requirements. An X123-CdTe cadmium-telluride detector is also included for ~5-100 keV HXR spectroscopy with ~0.5-1 keV FWHM resolution. CubIXSS also includes a novel spectro-spatial imager -- the first ever solar imager on a CubeSat -- utilizing a pinhole aperture and X-ray transmission diffraction grating to provide full-Sun imaging from ~0.1 to ~10 keV, with ~25 arcsec and ~0.1 Å FWHM spatial and spectral resolutions, respectively. We discuss scaled versions of these instruments, with greater sensitivity and dynamic range, and significantly improved spectral and spatial resolutions for the imager, for deployment on larger platforms such as Small Explorer missions.

  1. Recovery from adaptation to facial identity is larger for upright than inverted faces in the human occipito-temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mazard, Angelique; Schiltz, Christine; Rossion, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Human faces look more similar to each other when they are presented upside-down, leading to an increase of error rates and response times during individual face discrimination tasks. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that this perceived similarity leads to a lower recovery from identity adaptation for inverted faces than for upright faces in face-sensitive areas of the occipito-temporal cortex. Ten subjects were presented with blocks of upright and inverted faces, with the same face identity repeated consecutively in half of the blocks, and different facial identities repeated in the other blocks. When face stimuli were presented upright, the percent signal change in the bilateral middle fusiform gyrus (MFG) was larger for different faces as compared to same faces, replicating previous observations of a recovery from facial identity adaptation in this region. However, there was no significant recovery from adaptation when different inverted faces were presented. Most interestingly, the difference in activation between upright and inverted faces increased progressively during a block when different facial identities were presented. A similar pattern of activation was found in the left middle fusiform gyrus, but was less clear-cut in bilateral face-sensitive areas of the inferior occipital cortex. These findings show that the differential level of activation to upright and inverted faces in the fusiform gyrus is mainly due to a difference in recovery from adaptation, and they explain the discrepancies in the results reported in previous fMRI studies which compared the processing of upright and inverted faces. The lack of recovery from adaptation for inverted faces in the fusiform gyrus may underlie the face inversion effect (FIE), which takes place during perceptual encoding of individual face representations. PMID:16229867

  2. Cyanobacterial conversion of carbon dioxide to 2,3-butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, John W. K.; Machado, Iara M. P.; Yoneda, Hisanari; Atsumi, Shota

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of CO2 for the synthesis of chemicals by photosynthetic organisms is an attractive target for establishing independence from fossil reserves. However, synthetic pathway construction in cyanobacteria is still in its infancy compared with model fermentative organisms. Here we systematically developed the 2,3-butanediol (23BD) biosynthetic pathway in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 as a model system to establish design methods for efficient exogenous chemical production in cyanobacteria. We identified 23BD as a target chemical with low host toxicity, and designed an oxygen-insensitive, cofactor-matched biosynthetic pathway coupled with irreversible enzymatic steps to create a driving force toward the target. Production of 23BD from CO2 reached 2.38 g/L, which is a significant increase for chemical production from exogenous pathways in cyanobacteria. This work demonstrates that developing strong design methods can continue to increase chemical production in cyanobacteria. PMID:23297225

  3. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ~2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ~16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported. PMID:24269239

  4. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  5. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  6. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, α-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (α-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  7. Prebiotic polymerization: Oxidative polymerization of 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanol on the surface of iron(III) hydroxide oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    The oxidation of 2, 3-dimercapto-1-propanol by ferric ions on the surface of iron(III) hydroxide oxide (Fe(OH)O) yielded polydisulfide oligomers. This polymerization occurred readily at low dithiol concentration under mild aqueous conditions. Polydisulfide polymers up to the 15-mer were synthesized from 1 mM dithiol in 5 ml water reacted with iron(III) hydroxide oxide (20 mg, 160 micromole Fe) for 3 days under anaerobic conditions at 40 C and pH 4. About 91% of the dithiol was converted to short soluble oligomers and 9% to insoluble larger oligomers that were isolated with the Fe(OH)O phase. Reactions carried out at the same ratio of dithiol to Fe(OH)O but at higher dithiol concentrations gave higher yields of the larger insoluble oligomers. The relationship of these results to prebiotic polymer synthesis is discussed.

  8. Prebiotic Polymerization: Oxidative Polymerization of 2,3 Dimercapto-1- Propanol on the Surface of Iron(III) Hydroxide Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    The oxidation of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol by ferric ions on the surface of iron(III) hydroxide oxide (Fe(OH)O) yielded polydisulfide oligomers. This polymerization occurred readily at low dithiol concentration under mild aqueous conditions. Polydisulfide polymers up to the 15-mer were synthesized from 1 mM dithiol in 5 ml water reacted with iron(III) hydroxide oxide (20 mg, 160 micromole Fe) for 3 days under anaerobic conditions at 40 C and pH 4. About 91% of the dithiol was converted to short soluble oligomers and 9% to insoluble larger oligomers that were isolated with the FE(OH)O phase. Reactions carried out at the same ratio of dithiol to FE(OH)O but at higher dithiol concentrations gave higher yields of the larger insoluble oligomers. The relationship of these results to prebiotic polymer synthesis is discussed.

  9. Prebiotic Oxidative Polymerization of 2,3 Dimercaptopropanol on the Surface of Iron(III) Hydroxide Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1994-01-01

    The oxidation of 2,3-Dimercapto-1-propanol by ferric ions on the surface of iron (III) hydroxide oxide yielded polydisulfide polymers. This polymerization occured readily at low dithiol concentration under mild aqueous conditions. Polydisulfide polymers up to the 15-mer were synthesized from 1 mM dithiol in 5 ml water reacted with iron (III) hydroxide oxide (20 mg, 160 micro mole Fe) for 3 days under anaerobic conditions at 40 C and pH 4. About 91% of the dithiol was converted to short soluble oligomers and 9% to insoluble larger oligomers that were isolated with the mineral phase. Reactions at higher dithiol concentrations with the same ratio of dithiol to mineral gave a higher yield of the larger insoluble oligomers. The relationship of these results to prebiotic polymer synthesis will be discussed.

  10. Mass assembly through cosmic time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bundy, K.

    2016-06-01

    Structure in the universe is expected to grow hierarchically, with smaller systems merging to form larger ones as a function of time. Various galaxy formation models predict that hierarchical growth is also relevant for the galaxy distribution as characterized by stellar mass, but attempts to confirm this observationally have been challenging. While many studies agree that massive galaxies have grown significantly in size (factors of 5-6) since redshifts of 2-3, no evidence for corresponding growth in stellar mass has been detected, in large part due to statistical limitations from the small volumes probed by redshift surveys. Using the 140 square degree Stripe 82 Massive Galaxy Catalog, I report new constraints on high-mass growth histories since z=0.65 with unprecedented statistics. Remarkably, no convincing evidence for growth is detected. I discuss possible explanations, including the effects of tidal stripping and the growth of outer components which may have gone undetected in past imaging data sets.

  11. Optimal choice: assessing the probability of additional damage to buildings caused by water level changes of larger areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijnagte, J. L.; Luger, D.

    2012-12-01

    In the Northern parts of the Netherlands exploration of natural gas reservoirs causes subsidence over large areas. As a consequence, the water levels in canals and polders have to be adjusted over time in order to keep the groundwater levels at a constant depth relative to the surface level. In the middle of the subsidence area it is relatively easy to follow the settlements by a uniform lowering of the water level. This would however result in a relative lowering of the groundwater table at the edges of the subsidence area. Given the presence of soft compressible soils, this would result in induced settlements. For buildings in these areas this will increase the chance of damage. A major design challenge lies therefore in the optimisation of the use of compartments. The more compartments the higher the cost therefore the aim is to make compartments in the water management system that are as large as possible without causing inadmissible damage to buildings. In order to asses expected damage from different use of compartments three tools are needed. The first is a generally accepted method of damage determination, the second a method to determine the contribution to damage of a new influence, e.g. a groundwater table change. Third, and perhaps most importantly, a method is needed to evaluate effects not for single buildings but for larger areas. The first need is covered by established damage criteria like those of Burland & Wroth or Boscardin & Cording. Up until now the second and the third have been problematic. This paper presents a method which enables to assign a contribution to the probability of damage of various recognised mechanisms such as soil and foundation inhomogeneity, uneven loading, ground water level changes. Shallow subsidence due to peat oxidation and deep subsidence due to reservoir depletion can be combined. In order to address the third issue: evaluation of effects for larger areas, the method uses a probabilistic approach. Apart from a

  12. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  13. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  14. Larger than Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruopp, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Exploring idea and media while developing skills is always an interesting challenge in the middle grades. Often, the daunting task of having to draw a self-portrait turns some students away, so the author set out to create portraits with realistic likenesses while incorporating an exploration of multiple materials and allowing an expressive…

  15. The Larger View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Peggy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a series of lessons that focuses on observation and documentation of organisms and that is appropriate for the second through fourth grades. By giving students the necessary initial support, they will have the ability to observe details and the skills and confidence to make realistic scientific drawings and…

  16. Microbial Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl under Anaerobic Conditions in the Absence of Soil or Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Leah; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial enrichment cultures developed with Baltimore Harbor (BH) sediments were found to reductively dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,5,6-CB) when incubated in a minimal estuarine medium containing short-chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of sediment. Primary enrichment cultures formed both meta and ortho dechlorination products from 2,3,5,6-CB. The lag time preceding dechlorination decreased from 30 to less than 20 days as the cultures were sequentially transferred into estuarine medium containing dried, sterile BH sediment. In addition, only ortho dechlorination was observed following transfer of the cultures. Sequential transfer into medium without added sediment also resulted in the development of a strict ortho-dechlorinating culture following a lag of more than 100 days. Upon further transfer into the minimal medium without sediment, the lag time decreased to less than 50 days. At this stage all cultures, regardless of the presence of sediment, would produce 2,3,5-CB and 3,5-CB from 2,3,5,6-CB. The strict ortho-dechlorinating activity in the sediment-free cultures has remained stable for more than 1 year through several transfers. These results reveal that the classical microbial enrichment technique using a minimal medium with a single polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener selected for ortho dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-CB. Furthermore, this is the first report of sustained anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the complete absence of soil or sediment. PMID:9687458

  17. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  18. Dissociable Rate-Dependent Effects of Oral Methylphenidate on Impulsivity and D2/3 Receptor Availability in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Jupp, Bianca; Hong, Young T.; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Valentina; Wharton, Laura; Williamson, David J.; McNabb, Carolyn; Berry, David; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Fryer, Tim D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats is linked to decreased dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. In the present study, we investigated, using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of orally administered methylphenidate (MPH), a first-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, on D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal and ventral striatum and related these changes to impulsivity. Rats were screened for impulsive behavior on a five-choice serial reaction time task. After a baseline PET scan with the D2/3 ligand [18F]fallypride, rats received 6 mg/kg MPH, orally, twice each day for 28 d. Rats were then reassessed for impulsivity and underwent a second [18F]fallypride PET scan. Before MPH treatment, we found that D2/3 receptor availability was significantly decreased in the left but not the right ventral striatum of high-impulse (HI) rats compared with low-impulse (LI) rats. MPH treatment increased impulsivity in LI rats, and modulated impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal and ventral striatum of HI rats through inverse relationships with baseline levels of impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability, respectively. However, we found no relationship between the effects of MPH on impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in any of the striatal subregions investigated. These findings indicate that trait-like impulsivity is associated with decreased D2/3 receptor availability in the left ventral striatum, and that stimulant drugs modulate impulsivity and striatal D2/3 receptor availability through independent mechanisms. PMID:25740505

  19. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  20. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  1. Dynamic Spectra Predicted for 2-3 Khz Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jeremy J.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    Radio emissions observed at 2-3 kHz by the Voyager spacecraft occur when global merged interaction regions (GMIRs) reach the heliopause. The radiation is thought to occur when a GMIR enters a region close to the heliopause where the electron speed distribution is primed with a superthermal tail produced by lower hybrid drive. Previously this priming mechanism was combined with a theory for type II solar radio bursts to predict the flux of radio emission in the outer heliosphere. Here this theory is extended in two ways. First theoretical arguments regarding the availability of Langmuir and ion sound waves are used to determine whether emission occurs via three wave processes or processes involving wave scattering off thermal ions (STI). New expressions for conversion efficiencies into radio emission associated with STI are then implemented where appropriate. Second dynamic spectra are calculated for the radio emission generated by shock from the inner solar wind to beyond the heliopause. The results are then compared with existing Voyager observations.

  2. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  3. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  4. Sleep in Populations of Drosophila Melanogaster1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Haynes, Paula R.; Donelson, Nathan C.; Aharon, Shani

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is a diurnal insect active during the day with consolidated sleep at night. Social interactions between pairs of flies have been shown to affect locomotor activity patterns, but effects on locomotion and sleep patterns have not been assessed for larger populations. Here, we use a commercially available locomotor activity monitor (LAM25H) system to record and analyze sleep behavior. Surprisingly, we find that same-sex populations of flies synchronize their sleep/wake activity, resulting in a population sleep pattern, which is similar but not identical to that of isolated individuals. Like individual flies, groups of flies show circadian and homeostatic regulation of sleep, as well as sexual dimorphism in sleep pattern and sensitivity to starvation and a known sleep-disrupting mutation (amnesiac). Populations of flies, however, exhibit distinct sleep characteristics from individuals. Differences in sleep appear to be due to olfaction-dependent social interactions and change with population size and sex ratio. These data support the idea that it is possible to investigate neural mechanisms underlying the effects of population behaviors on sleep by directly looking at a large number of animals in laboratory conditions. PMID:26465005

  5. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  6. The effect of carbonate chemistry and light levels on calcification and photosynthesis in the larger benthic foraminifera Operculina ammonoides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Shai; Abramovich, Sigal; Evans, David; Erez, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We present data on metabolic measurements and growth experiments conducted on Operculina ammonoides, a symbiont bearing larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) of the family Nummulitidae, which is the closest living descendant of the Eocene Nummulites. The large size, the high abundance and wide distribution of Nummulitids and other LBF make them a vital archive for ancient and recent oceanic environments. LBF are also an important component of the ocean tropical and subtropical benthic ecosystem, where they have a significant contribution to primary production, and are major calcium carbonate producers. Their symbiosis, calcification physiology, and ecological response to environmental changes are poorly understood. The present study is part of an ongoing research effort focused on those topics. Calcification, respiration and symbiont photosynthesis were measured during long-term experiments that included manipulation of carbonate chemistry parameters and light levels. The experiments were done with large number of individuals (1500 in total) divided into incubation groups of 60-100. Diurnal and nocturnal data was obtained, along with cumulative incubations on a time span of a few days. The metabolic rates were estimated from measurements of dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and pH before and after the incubations. This technique does not interfere with the experimental populations and allow a series of measurements to be performed on the same specimens. In all experiments, both for the diurnal cycles and for the long incubations, we observed significantly higher photosynthesis rates than respiration (positive O2 budget) for the holobiont. This oxygen excess has increased with light intensity, suggesting a significant growth of the symbionts within their host. Calcification was enhanced during the day compared to the night but did not increase with light intensity or with photosynthesis. In normal seawater, higher calcification rates were observed during the cumulative

  7. Association of bedding types with management practices and indicators of milk quality on larger Wisconsin dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Rowbotham, R F; Ruegg, P L

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify associations of bedding type and selected management practices with bulk milk quality and productivity of larger Wisconsin dairy farms. Dairy herds (n=325) producing ≥11,340 kg of milk daily were surveyed during a single farm visit. Monthly bulk milk SCC and total bacteria counts were obtained from milk buyers for 255 farms for a 2-yr period. Of farms with the same type of bedding in all pens during the study period, most used inorganic bedding (IB), followed by organic nonmanure bedding (OB) and manure products (MB). Almost all bulk milk total bacterial counts were <10,000 cfu/mL and total bacterial count was not associated with bedding type. Bulk milk somatic cell score (BMSCS) was least for farms using IB, varied seasonally, and was greatest in the summer. The BMSCS was reduced when new bedding was added to stalls at intervals greater than 1 wk and when teats were dried before attaching the milking unit. The BMSCS for farms using OB was reduced when bedding in the backs of stalls was removed and replaced regularly and when fewer cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were present. The BMSCS for farms using MB was reduced when the proportion of cows with milk discarded was less. The rolling herd average (RHA) of herds using IB was 761 and 1,153 kg greater than the RHA of herds using OB and MB, respectively. The RHA was 353 kg greater on farms where farmers understood subclinical mastitis and 965 kg greater on farms milking 3 times daily. Each 1% increase of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters was associated with a decrease of 57 kg of RHA. The BMSCS, proportions of cows with milk discarded and proportion of cows with nonfunctioning mammary quarters were least for herds using IB and were associated with increased productivity. Large Wisconsin dairy farms that used inorganic bedding had greater productivity and better milk quality compared with herds using other bedding types. PMID:26298761

  8. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  9. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2015-12-15

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2(/)3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2(/)3(+) cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2(/)3(+) neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism

  10. The Perceived Efficacy by Educational Stakeholders of the Move to Smaller Learning Communities from Larger Comprehensive High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Jay V.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of key stakeholders, including teachers, board members, administrators, community members and parents in a larger suburban, formerly comprehensive high school that adopted a schools-within-a-school reform model (SWAS). The research illuminated similarities and differences in perceptions…

  11. Something Larger than Ourselves: Redefining the Young Artists at Work Program as an Art-as-Activism Residency for Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Laurel

    2014-01-01

    The Young Artists at Work Program at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts (YBCA) recently shifted its model from an afterschool arts program to a young artists' residency. This decision arose from a desire to reposition the youth program as a priority within the larger organization, coupled with a commitment to deepening the pedagogical values of…

  12. Sponsoring Institutions with Five or Fewer Residency Programs Produce a Larger Proportion of General Internists and Family Physicians.

    PubMed

    Hemeida, Sarah; Klink, Kathleen; Bazemore, Andrew; Petterson, Stephen; Peterson, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly interested in addressing the US primary care physician shortage and achieving measurable accountability for the products of the nation's $15 billion investment in graduate medical education (GME). Using one such measure, we found that sponsoring institutions (SIs) with ≤5 residency programs produce a higher percentage of general internists and family physicians than larger SIs. PMID:27170786

  13. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  14. LIGHT MODULATION OF RUBISCO ACTIVATION IN SPECIES WITHOUT A LARGER ACTIVASE ISOFORM - EXISTANCE OF AN ACTIVASE REGULATORY PROTEIN?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rubisco activase in some species like tobacco consists of only the shorter isoform. In Arabidopsis lack of the redox regulated, larger isoform results in an inability to modulate Rubisco activity in response to light intensity. However, light modulation can be observed in tobacco with characteristic...

  15. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  16. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  17. Accurate molecular structures and infrared spectra of trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane, methyloxirane, and trans-2,3-dimethyloxirane

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata Bloino, Julien; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2014-07-21

    Oxirane derivatives are the most used benchmarks for chiroptical spectroscopies in view of their small size and relative rigidity. The molecular structure, vibrational harmonic and anharmonic frequencies, and infrared intensities of the ground electronic states are analyzed in this paper. Equilibrium structure and harmonic force fields have been evaluated by means of high-level quantum-chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level including single and double excitations together with a perturbative treatment of triples (CCSD(T)). Extrapolation to the complete basis-set limit as well as core-correlation effects have also been taken into account. Anharmonic contributions have been computed at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level for trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane. These data can serve as references to evaluate the accuracy of less expensive computational approaches rooted in the density functional theory (DFT). The latter have been used within hybrid CC/DFT approaches, which have been applied to simulate fully anharmonic infrared (IR) spectra. Finally, the best theoretical estimates of the equilibrium structures and vibrational wavenumbers are compared to the most accurate experimental data and show in all cases very good agreement, i.e., within 0.001 Å, 0.1 deg, 10 cm{sup −1}, and 0.5 km mol{sup −1}, for bond lengths, angles, wavenumbers, and IR intensities, respectively.

  18. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  19. Characterization and environmental implications of nano- and larger TiO(2) particles in sewage sludge, and soils amended with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bojeong; Murayama, Mitsuhiro; Colman, Benjamin P; Hochella, Michael F

    2012-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is the most extensively used engineered nanoparticle to date, yet its fate in the soil environment has been investigated only rarely and is poorly understood. In the present study, we conducted two field-scale investigations to better describe TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in their most likely route of entry into the environment, i.e., the application of biosolids to soils. We particularly concentrated on the particles in the nano-size regime due to their novel and commercially useful properties. First, we analyzed three sewage sludge products from the US EPA TNSSS sampling inventory for the occurrence, qualitative abundance, and nature of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles by using analytical scanning electron microscopy and analytical (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. Nano- and larger particles of TiO(2) were repeatedly identified across the sewage sludge types tested, providing strong evidence of their likely concentration in sewage sludge products. The TiO(2) particles identified were as small as 40 nm, and as large as 300 nm, having faceted shapes with the rutile crystal structure, and they typically formed small, loosely packed aggregates. Second, we examined surface soils in mesocosms that had been amended with Ag nanoparticle-spiked biosolids for the occurrence of TiO(2) particles. An aggregate of TiO(2) nanoparticles with the rutile structure was again identified, but this time TiO(2) nanoparticles were found to contain Ag on their surfaces. This suggests that TiO(2) nanoparticles from biosolids can interact with toxic trace metals that would then enter the environment as a soil amendment. Therefore, the long-term behavior of TiO(2) nano- and larger particles in sewage sludge materials as well as their impacts in the soil environment need to be carefully considered. PMID:22349742

  20. The Bartonian-Priabonian marine record of the Eastern South Pyrenean Foreland Basin (NE Spain): A new calibration of the larger foraminifers and calcareous nannofossil biozonations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, E.; Garcés, M.; López-Blanco, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Bernaola, G.; Cabrera, L.; Beamud, E.

    2012-04-01

    The up to 5000-m-thick sedimentary infill of the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin (in NE Spain) records the Cenozoic evolution of the NE Iberian plate. This region is an excellent area where to perform a combined biomagnetostratigraphic study of a Paleogene succession as the present level of erosion of the basin infill and its surrounding mountain ranges is at an optimal stage for studying a continuous and thick stratigraphic record. In this sense, a biochronological framework of the South Pyrenean Foreland Basin has been developed since the early 1950's, which was later combined with magnetostratigraphic studies. This biochronological framework, together with all the available literature on the biostratigraphy and magnetostratigraphy of the Paleocene and Eocene Tethys, were integrated in a general chronostratigraphic framework used to define and calibrate the larger foraminifer biozonation (Shallow Benthic Zones, SBZ). However, in the Gelogical Time Scale 2004 no correlation of the Paleogene SBZ zonation with the geomagnetic polarity time scale was provided. Here we present a combined biostratigraphic (larger foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils) and magnetostratigraphic study of the Middle and Late Eocene marine units of the Igualada area, on the eastern Ebro Basin. The studied sections of Santa Maria de Miralles and La Tossa encompass the complete marine succession of the Santa Maria Group. A total of 224 paleomagnetic sites and 64 biostratigraphic samples were collected along a 1350-m-thick section that ranges from chron C20n to chron C16n (ca. 43-36 Ma). The resulting magnetostratigraphy-based chronology challenges existing chronostratigraphic interpretations of these units and results in a new calibration of the larger foraminifers and calcareous nannofossil biozonations. The traditional division of the Bartonian stage into two complete larger foraminifers zones, SBZ17 and SBZ18, is challenged. Zone SBZ17 embraces most of the Bartonian, while Zone SBZ18 extends

  1. Smad2/3 Upregulates the Expression of Vimentin and Affects Its Distribution in DBP-Exposed Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiaogang; Liu, Taixiu; Mo, Min; Ao, Lin; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Cui, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) in the testes provide physical and nutritional support to germ cells. The vimentin cytoskeleton in SCs is disrupted by dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which leads to SCs dysfunction. In a previous study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) influenced the distribution of vimentin by affecting its phosphorylation in DBP-exposed SCs. In the present study, we investigated the role of Smad2/3 in regulating the expression of vimentin in DBP-exposed SCs. We hypothesized that Smad2/3 affects the distribution of vimentin by regulating its expression and that there is cross talk between Smad2/3 and PPARα. The real-time PCR and ChIP-qPCR results showed that SB431542 (an inhibitor of Smad2/3) could significantly attenuate the expression of vimentin induced by DBP in SCs. Phosphorylated and soluble vimentin were both downregulated by SB431542 pretreatment. WY14643 (an agonist of PPARα) pretreatment stimulated, while GW6471 (an antagonist of PPARα) inhibited, the activity of Smad2/3; SB431542 pretreatment also inhibited the activity of PPARα, but it did not rescue the DBP-induced collapse in vimentin. Our results suggest that, in addition to promoting the phosphorylation of vimentin, DBP also stimulates the expression of vimentin by activating Smad2/3 in SCs and thereby induces irregular vimentin distribution. PMID:26819576

  2. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  3. Identification of reference proteins for Western blot analyses in mouse model systems of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Prokopec, Stephenie D; Watson, John D; Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Boutros, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Western blotting is a well-established, inexpensive and accurate way of measuring protein content. Because of technical variation between wells, normalization is required for valid interpretation of results across multiple samples. Typically this involves the use of one or more endogenous controls to adjust the measured levels of experimental molecules. Although some endogenous controls are widely used, validation is required for each experimental system. This is critical when studying transcriptional-modulators, such as toxicants like 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).To address this issue, we examined hepatic tissue from 192 mice representing 47 unique combinations of strain, sex, Ahr-genotype, TCDD dose and treatment time. We examined 7 candidate reference proteins in each animal and assessed consistency of protein abundance through: 1) TCDD-induced fold-difference in protein content from basal levels, 2) inter- and intra- animal stability, and 3) the ability of each candidate to reduce instability of the other candidates. Univariate analyses identified HPRT as the most stable protein. Multivariate analysis indicated that stability generally increased with the number of proteins used, but gains from using >3 proteins were small. Lastly, by comparing these new data to our previous studies of mRNA controls on the same animals, we were able to show that the ideal mRNA and protein control-genes are distinct, and use of only 2-3 proteins provides strong stability, unlike in mRNA studies in the same cohort, where larger control-gene batteries were needed. PMID:25329058

  4. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    diarrhea virus, nonstructural protein NS2-3 is of critical importance to switch between these processes. While free NS3 is essential for RNA replication, uncleaved NS2-3, which accumulates over time in the infected cell, is required for virion morphogenesis. In contrast, the virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus is independent from uncleaved NS2-NS3. Here, we demonstrate that pestiviruses can adapt to virion morphogenesis in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3 by just two amino acid exchanges. While the mechanism behind this gain of function remains elusive, the fact that it can be achieved by such minor changes is in line with the assumption that an ancestral virus already used this mechanism but lost it in the course of adapting to a new host/infection strategy. PMID:26355097

  5. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-2'-3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine in woodchucks.

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, P; Boudinot, F D; Chu, C K; Tennant, B C; Baldwin, B H; Schinazi, R F

    1996-01-01

    The woodchuck (Marmota monax) has proven to be a suitable animal model for studying hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection owing to similarities in the course of infection between woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in woodchucks and HBV in humans. (-)-beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC; lamivudine) is a nucleoside analog which has demonstrated antiviral activity against HBV as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 3TC following intravenous and oral administration of 20 mg of 3TC per kg of body weight to woodchucks. Following intravenous administration, the concentrations of 3TC in plasma declined, with a terminal half-life of 2.84 +/- 0.85 h (mean +/- standard deviation). The systemic clearance and steady-state volume of distribution of 3TC were 0.22 +/- 0.078 liters/h/kg and 0.75 +/- 0.13 liters/kg, respectively. The renal clearance of the nucleoside analog was 0.063 +/- 0.016 liters/h/kg. The oral bioavailability of 3TC ranged from 18 to 54%. Allometric relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and body weight developed by Hussey et al. (E.K. Hussey, K.H. Donn, M.J. Daniel, S.T. Hall, A.J. Harker, and G.L. Evans, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 34:975-977, 1994) were augmented by including data from woodchucks, monkeys (S.M. Blaney, M.J. Daniel, A.J. Harker, K. Godwin, and F.M. Balis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2779-2782, 1995), and additional data from rats (P. Rajagopalan, L. Moore, C.K. Chu, R.F. Schinazi, and F.D. Boudinot, submitted for publication). Interspecies scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3TC demonstrated a good correlation between clearance (0.74 . W0.76 [where W is body weight]; r = 0.93; P < 0.025), apparent volume of distribution (1.62 . W0.81; r = 0.98; P < 0.005), and steady-state volume of distribution (1.09 . W0.94; r = 0.99; P < 0.05) and species body weight. The allometric relationships for clearance and volume of distribution at steady

  6. Switching 70Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single crystal by 3 MHz bipolar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shiyang; Chen, Zhaojiang; Cao, Wenwu

    2016-06-01

    Polarization switching and associated electromechanical property changes at 3.0 MHz were investigated with and without a direct current (dc) bias for [001]c poled 0.70Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.30PbTiO3 single crystal. The results showed that the coercive field under a bipolar pulse at 3.0 MHz is 2.75 times as large as conventional defined Ec (2.58 kV/cm at 0.1 Hz), and a dc bias can further enlarge the driving field. Our results point to an innovative transducer operating mechanism at high frequencies since one could drive the crystal under much larger fields at high frequencies to produce much stronger signals from a small array element for deeper penetration imaging.

  7. r-1,t-2,3,c-4-Tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene in human urine: a potential biomarker for assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Chen, Menglan; Yagi, Haruhiko; Jerina, Donald M; Carmella, Steven G

    2003-12-01

    Individual differences in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may influence cancer risk. This has been investigated in many studies using genotyping approaches, but the results to date have been inconsistent. We propose that carcinogen metabolite phenotyping would be a more reliable way to determine the role of host metabolism in PAH-related cancer. Many PAHs are metabolically activated by formation of bay-region diol epoxides. Phenanthrene, generally considered to be noncarcinogenic, is the simplest PAH with a bay region and is metabolized to diol epoxides by the same enzymes and with the same stereochemistry as the prototypic carcinogenic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. The major end product of this metabolic activation pathway is r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, anti-PheT). We have developed a method for the analysis of trans, anti-PheT in human urine. r-1,t-2,4,c-3-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, syn-PheT) was used as internal standard. After hydrolysis by beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase, solid phase extraction, and high-performance liquid chromatography collection, the sample was silylated and analyzed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring at m/z 372. The resulting chromatograms were remarkably clean and trans, anti-PheT was readily detected in all human urine samples. Levels of trans, anti-PheT were 791 +/- 363 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 20) in psoriasis patients treated with a PAH-containing ointment, 25.7 +/- 16.8 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 32) in coke oven workers exposed to PAH, 4.58 +/- 2.95 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 31) in smokers, and 1.51 +/- 1.15 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 30) in nonsmokers. Levels of trans, anti-PheT correlated with levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of coke oven workers, smokers, and nonsmokers. Thus, trans, anti-PheT appears to be an excellent biomarker of PAH uptake. Levels

  8. 24-Month-Old Children with Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Paul L.; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher-quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  9. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts. PMID:23776706

  10. 24-Month-Old Children With Larger Oral Vocabularies Display Greater Academic and Behavioral Functioning at Kindergarten Entry.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Maczuga, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Data were analyzed from a population-based, longitudinal sample of 8,650 U.S. children to (a) identify factors associated with or predictive of oral vocabulary size at 24 months of age and (b) evaluate whether oral vocabulary size is uniquely predictive of academic and behavioral functioning at kindergarten entry. Children from higher socioeconomic status households, females, and those experiencing higher quality parenting had larger oral vocabularies. Children born with very low birth weight or from households where the mother had health problems had smaller oral vocabularies. Even after extensive covariate adjustment, 24-month-old children with larger oral vocabularies displayed greater reading and mathematics achievement, increased behavioral self-regulation, and fewer externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors at kindergarten entry. PMID:26283023

  11. Larger Right Posterior Parietal Volume in Action Video Game Experts: A Behavioral and Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM) Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K.; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts. PMID:23776706

  12. Lateralization produced by interaural intensitive disparities appears to be larger for high- vs low-frequency stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Leslie R.; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to report the results of a study indicating that a given magnitude of interaural intensitive disparity (IID) produced a larger extent of laterality, as measured via an acoustic pointer, for stimuli centered at 4 kHz than for stimuli centered at 500 Hz. The data and their analysis, taken together, suggest that the findings reflect true across-frequency differences rather than being manifestations of response-related factors. PMID:21302976

  13. Dermal absorption and short-term biological impact in hairless mice from sunscreens containing zinc oxide nano- or larger particles

    PubMed Central

    Oytam, Yalchin; Kirby, Jason K.; Gomez-Fernandez, Laura; Baxter, Brent; McCall, Maxine J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown no, or very limited, skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens, yet concerns remain about their safety compared to larger particles. Here, we assessed the comparative dermal absorption of a traceable form of Zn (68Zn) from 68ZnO nano-sized and larger particles in sunscreens. Sunscreens were applied to the backs of virgin or pregnant hairless mice over four days. Control groups received topical applications of the sunscreen formulation containing no ZnO particles, or no treatment. Major organs were assessed for changes in 68Zn/64Zn ratios, 68Zn tracer and total Zn concentrations. Short-term biological impact was assessed by measuring levels of serum amyloid A in blood, and by performing whole-genome transcriptional profiling on livers from each group. Increased concentrations of 68Zn tracer were detected in internal organs of mice receiving topical applications of 68ZnO (nano-sized and larger particles), as well as in fetal livers from treated dams, compared with controls. Furthermore, concentrations of 68Zn in organs of virgin mice treated with sunscreen containing 68ZnO nanoparticles were found to be significantly higher than in mice treated with sunscreen containing larger 68ZnO particles. However, no ZnO-mediated change in total Zn concentration in any of the major organs was observed. Thus, despite 68Zn absorption, which may have been in the form of soluble 68Zn species or 68ZnO particles (not known), Zn homeostasis was largely maintained, and the presence of ZnO particles in sunscreen did not elicit an adverse biological response in the mice following short-term topical applications. PMID:24266363

  14. A proof that tidal heating in a synchronous rotation is always larger than in an asymptotic nonsynchronous rotation state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levrard, B.

    2008-02-01

    In a recent paper, Wisdom [Wisdom, J., 2008. Icarus, 193, 637-640] derived concise expressions for the rate of tidal dissipation in a synchronously rotating body for arbitrary orbital eccentricity and obliquity. He provided numerical evidence than the derived rate is always larger than in an asymptotic nonsynchronous rotation state at any obliquity and eccentricity. Here, I present a simple mathematical proof of this conclusion and show that this result still holds for any spin-orbit resonance.

  15. Larger red-shift in optical emissions obtained from the thin films of globular proteins (BSA, lysozyme) - polyelectrolyte (PAA) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talukdar, Hrishikesh; Kundu, Sarathi; Basu, Saibal

    2016-09-01

    Globular proteins (lysozyme and BSA) and polyelectrolyte (sodium polyacrylic acid) are used to form protein-polyelectrolyte complexes (PPC). Out-of-plane structures of ≈30-60 nm thick PPC films and their surface morphologies have been studied by using X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy, whereas optical behaviors of PPC and protein conformations have been studied by using UV-vis, photoluminescence and FTIR spectroscopy respectively. Our study reveals that thin films of PPC show a larger red-shift of 23 and 16 nm in the optical emissions in comparison to that of pure protein whereas bulk PPC show a small blue-shift of ≈3 nm. A small amount of peak-shift is found to occur due to the heat treatment or concentration variation of the polyelectrolyte/protein in bulk solution but cannot produce such film thickness independent larger red-shift. Position of the emission peak remains nearly unchanged with the film thickness. Mechanism for such larger red-shift has been proposed.

  16. Running, hopping and trotting: tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system favors larger animals.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Giovanni A; Legramandi, Mario A

    2015-10-01

    A long-lasting challenge in comparative physiology is to understand why the efficiency of the mechanical work done to maintain locomotion increases with body mass. It has been suggested that this is due to a more elastic step in larger animals. Here, we show in running, hopping and trotting animals, and in human running during growth, that the resonant frequency of the bouncing system decreases with increasing body mass and is, surprisingly, independent of species or gait. Step frequency roughly equals the resonant frequency in trotting and running, whereas it is about half the resonant frequency in hopping. The energy loss by elastic hysteresis during loading and unloading the bouncing system from its equilibrium position decreases with increasing body mass. Similarity to a symmetrical bounce increases with increasing body mass and, for a given body mass, seems to be maximal in hopping, intermediate in trotting and minimal in running. We conclude that: (1) tuning step frequency to the resonant frequency of the bouncing system coincides with a lower hysteresis loss in larger, more-compliant animals; (2) the mechanism of gait per se affects similarity with a symmetrical bounce, independent of hysteresis; and (3) the greater efficiency in larger animals may be due, at least in part, to a lower hysteresis loss. PMID:26347555

  17. Effect of Motor Impairment on Analgesic Efficacy of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in a Rat Model of Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dourado, Margarida; Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Monteiro, Clara; Galhardo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic. There is a lack of acceptance of this effect in both preclinical and clinical settings, despite several studies showing that D2/3 agonists induce antinociception. Some authors raised the hypothesis that this antinociceptive effect is enhanced by dopamine-related changes in voluntary initiation of movement. However, the extent to which D2/3 modulation changes locomotion at analgesic effective doses is still an unresolved question. In the present work, we performed a detailed dose-dependent analysis of the changes that D2/3 systemic modulation have on voluntary locomotor activity and response to four separate tests of both thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity in adult rats. Using systemic administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole, and of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride, we found that modulation of D2/3 receptors impairs locomotion and exploratory activity in a dose-dependent manner across the entire range of tested dosages. None of the drugs were able to consistently diminish either thermal or mechanical pain perception when administered at lower concentrations; on the other hand, the larger concentrations of raclopride (0.5–1.0 mg/kg) strongly abolished pain responses, and also caused severe motor impairment. Our results show that administration of both agonists and antagonists of dopaminergic D2/3 receptors affects sensorimotor behaviors, with the effect over

  18. Effect of Motor Impairment on Analgesic Efficacy of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors in a Rat Model of Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Dourado, Margarida; Cardoso-Cruz, Helder; Monteiro, Clara; Galhardo, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Testing the clinical efficacy of drugs that also have important side effects on locomotion needs to be properly designed in order to avoid erroneous identification of positive effects when the evaluation depends on motor-related tests. One such example is the evaluation of analgesic role of drugs that act on dopaminergic receptors, since the pain perception tests used in animal models are based on motor responses that can also be compromised by the same substances. The apparent analgesic effect obtained by modulation of the dopaminergic system is still a highly disputed topic. There is a lack of acceptance of this effect in both preclinical and clinical settings, despite several studies showing that D2/3 agonists induce antinociception. Some authors raised the hypothesis that this antinociceptive effect is enhanced by dopamine-related changes in voluntary initiation of movement. However, the extent to which D2/3 modulation changes locomotion at analgesic effective doses is still an unresolved question. In the present work, we performed a detailed dose-dependent analysis of the changes that D2/3 systemic modulation have on voluntary locomotor activity and response to four separate tests of both thermal and mechanical pain sensitivity in adult rats. Using systemic administration of the dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist quinpirole, and of the D2/3 antagonist raclopride, we found that modulation of D2/3 receptors impairs locomotion and exploratory activity in a dose-dependent manner across the entire range of tested dosages. None of the drugs were able to consistently diminish either thermal or mechanical pain perception when administered at lower concentrations; on the other hand, the larger concentrations of raclopride (0.5-1.0 mg/kg) strongly abolished pain responses, and also caused severe motor impairment. Our results show that administration of both agonists and antagonists of dopaminergic D2/3 receptors affects sensorimotor behaviors, with the effect over

  19. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans using a Brønsted base/thiourea bifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Barrios Antúnez, Diego-Javier; Greenhalgh, Mark D; Fallan, Charlene; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-07-26

    The diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (15 examples, up to 96 : 4 dr, 95 : 5 er) via intramolecular Michael addition has been developed using keto-enone substrates and a bifunctional tertiary amine-thiourea catalyst. This methodology was extended to include non-activated ketone pro-nucleophiles for the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indane and 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives. PMID:27387095

  20. SORPTION OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14 C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD) to Soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. ncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (foc) from 0.0066 to...

  1. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  2. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs in marine sediments and biota: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River (PR), New Jersey. Organisms were exposed to PR sediments for up to 180 days in the laboratory. In addition, sediments and associated infauna from the New York Bight were collected and analyzed for the same suite of chemical compounds.

  3. Accuracy and computational efficiency of real-time subspace propagation schemes for the time-dependent density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Varga, Kalman

    2016-05-01

    Time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) has become successful for its balance of economy and accuracy. However, the application of TDDFT to large systems or long time scales remains computationally prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the numerical stability and accuracy of two subspace propagation methods to solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations with finite and periodic boundary conditions. The bases considered are the Lánczos basis and the adiabatic eigenbasis. The results are compared to a benchmark fourth-order Taylor expansion of the time propagator. Our results show that it is possible to use larger time steps with the subspace methods, leading to computational speedups by a factor of 2-3 over Taylor propagation. Accuracy is found to be maintained for certain energy regimes and small time scales.

  4. Accuracy and computational efficiency of real-time subspace propagation schemes for the time-dependent density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Russakoff, Arthur; Li, Yonghui; He, Shenglai; Varga, Kalman

    2016-05-28

    Time-dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) has become successful for its balance of economy and accuracy. However, the application of TDDFT to large systems or long time scales remains computationally prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the numerical stability and accuracy of two subspace propagation methods to solve the time-dependent Kohn-Sham equations with finite and periodic boundary conditions. The bases considered are the Lánczos basis and the adiabatic eigenbasis. The results are compared to a benchmark fourth-order Taylor expansion of the time propagator. Our results show that it is possible to use larger time steps with the subspace methods, leading to computational speedups by a factor of 2-3 over Taylor propagation. Accuracy is found to be maintained for certain energy regimes and small time scales. PMID:27250297

  5. Atomic parameters for the 2{p}^{5}3p\\;{}^{2}{[3/2]}_{2}-2{p}^{5}3s\\;{}^{2}{[3/2]}_{2}^{o} transition of Ne I relevant in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiguang; Godefroid, Michel; Wang, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    We calculated the magnetic dipole hyperfine interaction constants and the electric field gradients of 2{p}53p{}2{[3/2]}2 and 2{p}53s{}2[3/2{]}2o levels of Ne I by using the multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock method. The electronic factors contributing to the isotope shifts were also estimated for the λ =614.5 {{nm}} transition connecting these two states. Electron correlation and relativistic effects including the Breit interaction were investigated in detail. Combining with recent measurements, we extracted the nuclear quadrupole moment values for 20Ne and 23Ne with a smaller uncertainty than the current available data. Isotope shifts in the 2{p}53p{}2{[3/2]}2-2{p}53s{}2[3/2{]}2o transition based on the present calculated field- and mass-shift parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values. However, the field shifts in this transition are two or three orders of magnitude smaller than the mass shifts, making rather difficult to deduce changes in nuclear-charge mean-square radii. According to our theoretical predictions, we suggest using instead transitions connecting levels arising from the 2p53s configuration to the ground state, for which the normal mass shift and specific mass shift contributions counteract each other, producing relatively small mass shifts that are only one order of magnitude larger than relatively large field shifts, especially for the 2{p}53s{}2[1/2{]}1o-2{p}6{}1{S}0 transition.

  6. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: a mechanism of the antitumor activity of interferon. gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Y.; Edelstein, M.P.; Duch, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    The antiproliferative effects of interferon ..cap alpha.. (IFN-..cap alpha..) and interferon ..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..) were found to be cell-dependent. Among the human cell lines examined, IFN-..gamma.. had a greater antiproliferative effect against cell lines that exhibited induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, such as the KB oral carcinoma or WiDr colon adenocarcinoma, than against those that lacked the enzyme activity, such as the SW480 colon adenocarcinoma of NCI-H128 small-cell lung carcinoma. Induction of this dioxygenase showed a clear temporal relationship with increased metabolism of L-tryptophan and the depletion of this amino acid in the culture medium. While 70-80% of L-tryptophan remained in the medium of IFN-..cap alpha..- or vehicle-treated cells, virtually all of this amino acid was depleted in the medium of the IFN-..gamma..-treated group following 2-3 days of culture. Supplementing the growth medium with additional L-tryptophan reversed the antiproliferative effect of IFN-..gamma.. against KB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The antiproliferative effects of IFN-..cap alpha.. and IFN-..gamma.. on SW480 and NCI-H128 cells, which are independent of the dioxygenase activity, and the inability of added L-tryptophan to reverse the effects of IFN-..gamma.. in WiDr cells suggest multiple mechanisms of action of the IFNs. The data show that the antiproliferative effect of IFN-..gamma.. through induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, with a consequent L-tryptophan deprivation, is an effective means of regulating cell growth.

  7. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  8. The larger mammal fauna from the Lower Paleolithic Schöningen Spear site and its contribution to hominin subsistence.

    PubMed

    Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Buhrs, Elfi; Verheijen, Ivo

    2015-12-01

    The locality Schöningen (Germany) is an important source of knowledge about Lower Paleolithic hominin subsistence. The locality includes a series of sites dated to the late Middle Pleistocene with a Holsteinian (MIS 11) and Reinsdorf Interglacial (MIS 9) age. One of the youngest sites is Schöningen 13 II-4, the Spear Horizon site also known as the Horse Butchery site. The organic remains excavated here are exceptionally well-preserved as they were embedded in anaerobic, waterlogged sediments in an area where the groundwater is rich in calcium carbonate. The fossil assemblage is ideal for the study of patterns in hominin interference with the mammalian species encountered at the site. The vertebrate record is extensive and very diverse. The fossil larger carnivore guild of the Spear Horizon faunal assemblage includes saber-toothed cat, fox, and wolf. Herbivores are represented by an elephant species, two equid species, two rhinoceros species, two cervid species, and two large bovid species. Evidence of hominin interference presents itself as either marks on skeletal remains related to the use of bones as knapping tools or hammers, or as marks that indicate butchering activities such as skinning, dismembering, defleshing, filleting, and marrow extraction. The humerus of the saber-toothed cat clearly shows that the bone has been used as a knapping tool. The fossil remains of the other larger carnivores do not show any signs of hominin interference or exploitation. This also applies to the limited number of elephant and rhinoceros remains found at the site. The large horse Equus mosbachensis dominates the larger mammal record and played a major role in hominin subsistence. Marks on the horse bones indicate that a large number of carcasses have been butchered. Traces on the fossil remains of both red deer (Cervus elaphus) and the large bovids also indicate exploitation by Lower Paleolithic hominins. PMID:26607346

  9. Females Have Larger Ratio of Second-to-Fourth Digits Than Males in Four Species of Salamandridae, Caudata.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Mikołaj; Kubicka, Anna Maria; Tryjanowski, Piotr; Hromada, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) denotes the relative length of the second and fourth digits. It is considered to be a suitable biomarker of the in utero balance of fetal sex hormones, which affect early development of individuaĺs behavioral and morphological characteristics. In recent decades, digit ratio attracted a great attention in biology and psychology. However, for unmasking the biological basis of the phenomenon, extensive studies on non-human animals are necessary. Despite it was hypothesized that digit ratio is well conserved in all Tetrapoda, and there exist studies on mammals, birds, and reptiles, there are only two such study on anuran amphibians. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the 2D:4D in the most basal salamanders, Caudata. We have studied digit ratio in four species of newts: Triturus cristatus, Mesotriton alpestris, Lissotriton montandoni, and Lissotriton vulgaris, using museum collection. We used computerized measuring of each limbś photos. We have found out that, in M. alpestris, females 2D:4D of all four limbs were significantly larger than in males. In L. montandoni and L. vulgaris, only 2D:4D of rear limbs significantly differed, in females being larger. In T. cristatus, digit ratios of males and females did not statistically differ. Thus, the results confirmed our hypothesis that at least in M. alpestris, L. montandoni, and L. vulgaris, females seem to have larger 2D:4D comparing to males, the pattern known from most mammals and opposite to birds, reptiles and anuran amphibians. PMID:25704339

  10. Low local recurrence rate without postmastectomy radiation in node-negative breast cancer patients with tumors 5 cm and larger

    SciTech Connect

    Floyd, Scott R.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Haffty, Bruce G.; Goldberg, Saveli; Niemierko, Andrzej; Raad, Rita Abi; Oswald, Mary J.; Sullivan, Timothy; Strom, Eric A.; Powell, Simon N.; Katz, Angela; Taghian, Alphonse G. . E-mail: ataghian@partners.org

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: To assess the need for adjuvant radiotherapy following mastectomy for patients with node-negative breast tumors 5 cm or larger. Methods and Materials: Between 1981 and 2002, a total of 70 patients with node-negative breast cancer and tumors 5 cm or larger were treated with mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapies but without radiotherapy at three institutions. We retrospectively assessed rates and risk factors for locoregional failure (LRF), overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) in these patients. Results: With a median follow-up of 85 months, the 5-year actuarial LRF rate was 7.6% (95% confidence interval, 3%-16%). LRF was primarily in the chest wall (4/5 local failures), and lymphatic-vascular invasion (LVI) was statistically significantly associated with LRF risk by the log-rank test (p = 0.017) and in Cox proportional hazards analysis (p 0.038). The 5-year OS and DFS rates were 83% and 86% respectively. LVI was also significantly associated with OS and DFS in both univariate and multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This series demonstrates a low LRF rate of 7.6% among breast cancer patients with node-negative tumors 5 cm and larger after mastectomy and adjuvant systemic therapy. Our data indicate that further adjuvant radiation therapy to increase local control may not be indicated by tumor size alone in the absence of positive lymph nodes. LVI was significantly associated with LRF in our series, indicating that patients with this risk factor require careful consideration with regard to further local therapy.

  11. BIOAVAILABILITY OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCBS TO MARINE BENTHOS FROM PASSAIC RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macom...

  12. Synthesis and properties of new derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, H; Bartoszko-Malik, A; Zawisza, T

    1990-01-01

    Condensation of diethyl 2-amino-6-methylpyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate with phenyl or cyclohexyl isocyanates gave the corresponding derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine- 5-carboxylate[(V), (VI)]. Alkylation of (V) and (VI) afforded the corresponding N-1 substituted derivatives (XI-XIX). PMID:2337441

  13. Neuregulin Facilitates Nerve Regeneration by Speeding Schwann Cell Migration via ErbB2/3-Dependent FAK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Shyu, Ming-Kwang; Tseng, Guo-Fang; Liu, Chiung-Hui; Chang, Hung-Shuo; Lan, Chyn-Tair; Hsu, Wen-Ming; Liao, Wen-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate migration of Schwann cells (Sc) is crucial for axon-guidance in the regenerative process after peripheral nerve injury (PNI). Considering neuregulin-erbB-FAK signaling is an essential pathway participating in the regulation of Sc migration during development, the present study is aimed to examine whether neuregulin would exert its beneficial effects on adult following PNI and further determine the potential changes of downstream pathway engaged in neuro-regeneration by both in vitro and in vivo approaches. Methodology and Principal Findings Cultured RSC96 cells treated with neuregulin were processed for erbB2/3 immunofluorescence and FAK immunoblotings. The potential effects of neuregulin on Sc were assessed by cell adherence, spreading, and migration assays. In order to evaluate the functional significance of neuregulin on neuro-regeneration, the in vivo model of PNI was performed by chronic end-to-side neurorrhaphy (ESN). In vitro studies indicated that after neuregulin incubation, erbB2/3 were not only expressed in cell membranes, but also distributed throughout the cytoplasm and nucleus of RSC96 cells. Activation of erbB2/3 was positively correlated with FAK phosphorylation. Neuregulin also increases Sc adherence, spreading, and migration by 127.2±5.0%, 336.8±3.0%, and 80.0±5.7%, respectively. As for in vivo study, neuregulin significantly accelerates the speed of Sc migration and increases Sc expression in the distal stump of injured nerves. Retrograde labeling and compound muscle action potential recordings (CMAP) also showed that neuregulin successfully facilitates nerve regeneration by eliciting noticeably larger CMAP and promoting quick re-innervation of target muscles. Conclusions As neuregulin successfully improves axo-glial interaction by speeding Sc migration via the erbB2/3-FAK pathway, therapeutic use of neuregulin may thus serve as a promising strategy to facilitate the progress of nerve regeneration after PNI. PMID:23301073

  14. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-08-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05-0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000-40 000 Ω cm(2)) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1-3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  15. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  16. Childhood Maltreatment Is Associated with Larger Left Thalamic Gray Matter Volume in Adolescents with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Song, Ming; Jiang, Tianzi; Li, Zexuan; Lu, Shaojia; Wu, Weiwei; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Background Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common anxiety disorder that usually begins in adolescence. Childhood maltreatment is highly prevalent and increases the possibility for developing a variety of mental disorders including anxiety disorders. An earlier age at onset of GAD is significantly related to maltreatment in childhood. Exploring the underpinnings of the relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent onset GAD would be helpful in identifying the potential risk markers of this condition. Methods Twenty-six adolescents with GAD and 25 healthy controls participated in this study. A childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) was introduced to assess childhood maltreatment. All subjects underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Results Significantly larger gray matter volumes of the right putamen were observed in GAD patients compared to healthy controls. In addition, a significant diagnosis-by-maltreatment interaction effect for the left thalamic gray matter volume was revealed, as shown by larger volumes of the left thalamic gray matter in GAD patients with childhood maltreatment compared with GAD patients without childhood maltreatment as well as with healthy controls with/without childhood maltreatment. A significant positive association between childhood maltreatment and left thalamic gray matter volume was only seen in GAD patients. Conclusions These findings revealed an increased volume in the subcortical regions in adolescent GAD, and the alterations in the left thalamus might be involved in the association between childhood maltreatment and the occurrence of GAD. PMID:23951265

  17. Combined Ethanol Injection Therapy and Radiofrequency Ablation Therapy in Percutaneous Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Larger than 4 cm

    SciTech Connect

    Vallone, Paolo; Catalano, Orlando Izzo, Francesco; Siani, Alfredo

    2006-08-15

    Background. Optimal treatment of large-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still debated, because percutaneous ablation therapies alone do not always achieve complete necrosis. Objective. To report our experience in the treatment of patients with HCC larger than 4 cm in diameter by combined percutaneous ethanol injection and radiofrequency thermal ablation. Methods. In a 5-year period there were 40 consecutive patients meeting the inclusion criteria (24 men and 16 women; age range 41-72 years, mean 58 years). These subjects had a single HCC larger than 4 cm. Twelve subjects also had one or two additional nodules smaller than 4 cm (mean 1.2 nodules per patient). Patients were submitted to one to three sessions consisting of ethanol injection at two opposite tumor poles (mean 12 ml) and then of radiofrequency application through one or two electrodes placed at the tumor center (mean treatment duration 30 min). Results. Complete necrosis was obtained in all cases with one to three sessions (mean 1.3 sessions per patient). All patients experienced pain and fever but one only subject had a major complication requiring treatment (abscess development and fistulization). Overall follow-up was 7-69 months. Two patients showed local recurrence and 9 developed new etherotopic HCC nodules. Seven subjects died during follow-up while 33 were free from recurrence 8-69 months after treatment. Conclusion. A combination of ethanol injection and radiofrequency ablation is effective in the treatment of large HCC.

  18. Podocyte-Specific GLUT4-Deficient Mice Have Fewer and Larger Podocytes and Are Protected From Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzman, Johanna; Jauregui, Alexandra N.; Merscher-Gomez, Sandra; Maiguel, Dony; Muresan, Cristina; Mitrofanova, Alla; Diez-Sampedro, Ana; Szust, Joel; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Villarreal, Rodrigo; Pedigo, Christopher; Molano, R. Damaris; Johnson, Kevin; Kahn, Barbara; Hartleben, Bjoern; Huber, Tobias B.; Saha, Jharna; Burke, George W.; Abel, E. Dale; Brosius, Frank C.; Fornoni, Alessia

    2014-01-01

    Podocytes are a major component of the glomerular filtration barrier, and their ability to sense insulin is essential to prevent proteinuria. Here we identify the insulin downstream effector GLUT4 as a key modulator of podocyte function in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Mice with a podocyte-specific deletion of GLUT4 (G4 KO) did not develop albuminuria despite having larger and fewer podocytes than wild-type (WT) mice. Glomeruli from G4 KO mice were protected from diabetes-induced hypertrophy, mesangial expansion, and albuminuria and failed to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. In order to investigate whether the protection observed in G4 KO mice was due to the failure to activate mTOR, we used three independent in vivo experiments. G4 KO mice did not develop lipopolysaccharide-induced albuminuria, which requires mTOR activation. On the contrary, G4 KO mice as well as WT mice treated with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin developed worse adriamycin-induced nephropathy than WT mice, consistent with the fact that adriamycin toxicity is augmented by mTOR inhibition. In summary, GLUT4 deficiency in podocytes affects podocyte nutrient sensing, results in fewer and larger cells, and protects mice from the development of DN. This is the first evidence that podocyte hypertrophy concomitant with podocytopenia may be associated with protection from proteinuria. PMID:24101677

  19. Wear resistance of the biocompatible phospholipid polymer-grafted highly cross-linked polyethylene liner against larger femoral head.

    PubMed

    Moro, Toru; Takatori, Yoshio; Kyomoto, Masayuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Kawaguchi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Masami; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Oshima, Hirofumi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-07-01

    The use of larger femoral heads to prevent the dislocation of artificial hip joints has recently become more common. However, concerns about the subsequent use of thinner polyethylene liners and their effects on wear rate have arisen. Previously, we prepared and evaluated the biological and mechanical effects of a novel highly cross-linked polyethylene (CLPE) liner with a nanometer-scaled graft layer of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC). Our findings showed that the PMPC-grafted particles were biologically inert and caused no subsequent bone resorptive responses and that the PMPC-grafting markedly decreased wear in a hip joint simulator. However, the metal or ceramic femoral heads used in this previous study had a diameter of 26 mm. Here, we investigated the wear-resistance of the PMPC-grafted CLPE liner with a 40-mm femoral head during 10 × 10(6) cycles of loading in the hip joint simulator. The results provide preliminary evidence that the grafting markedly decreased gravimetric wear rate and the volume of wear particles, even when coupled with larger femoral heads. Thus, we believe the PMPC-grafting will prolong artificial hip joint longevity both by preventing aseptic loosening and by improving the stability of articular surface. PMID:25764495

  20. Contributions of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase to the conversion of D-tryptophan to nicotinamide analyzed by using tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Akihiro; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contribution percentage of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) to the conversion of D-tryptophan to nicotinamide in TDO-knockout mice. The calculated percentage conversions indicated that TDO and IDO oxidized 70 and 30%, respectively, of the dietary L-tryptophan. These results indicate that both TDO and IDO biosynthesize nicotinamide from D-tryptophan and L-tryptophan in mice. PMID:25035993

  1. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  2. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  3. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  4. Forgetting is regulated via Musashi-mediated translational control of the Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Nils; Vukojevic, Vanja; Peter, Fabian; Milnik, Annette; Fastenrath, Matthias; Fenyves, Bank Gabor; Hieber, Petra; Demougin, Philippe; Vogler, Christian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2014-03-13

    A plastic nervous system requires the ability not only to acquire and store but also to forget. Here, we report that musashi (msi-1) is necessary for time-dependent memory loss in C. elegans. Tissue-specific rescue demonstrates that MSI-1 function is necessary in the AVA interneuron. Using RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (IP), we found that MSI-1 binds to mRNAs of three subunits of the Arp2/3 actin branching regulator complex in vivo and downregulates ARX-1, ARX-2, and ARX-3 translation upon associative learning. The role of msi-1 in forgetting is also reflected by the persistence of learning-induced GLR-1 synaptic size increase in msi-1 mutants. We demonstrate that memory length is regulated cooperatively through the activation of adducin (add-1) and by the inhibitory effect of msi-1. Thus, a GLR-1/MSI-1/Arp2/3 pathway induces forgetting and represents a novel mechanism of memory decay by linking translational control to the structure of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. PMID:24630719

  5. The role of placental indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Munn et al. made a scientific observation of major biological importance. For the first time they showed that in the mammal the fetus does survive an immune attack mounted by the mother, and that the mechanism responsible for the survival depends on the fetus and placenta 'actively' defending itself from attack by maternal T cells by means of an enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.42) dependent localised depletion of L-tryptophan. These findings raise critical questions for disease and its prevention during human pregnancy. Specifically, the role of this mechanism (discovered in mouse) in the human, and the extent to which defective activation of this process is responsible for major clinical diseases are unknown. Therefore some key facts about this enzyme expressed in the human placenta have been studied in order to test whether Munn et al.'s findings in mouse are met for human pregnancy. This short review attempts to describe our experimental work on human placental indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. PMID:24328005

  6. Evolution of the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifera in the Tethyan Himalaya of Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinghai; Willems, Helmut; Ding, Lin

    2013-07-01

    The Paleocene-Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) in the far eastern Neo-Tethyan Ocean of Tibet still remain poorly known. Here, we present a novel, high-resolution larger foraminiferal biozonation from the shallow-water limestones in Tibet, which will improve our current understanding of the larger foraminiferal evolution in the eastern Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Based on one continuous section at Tingri and three separate sections at Gamba, ten Shallow Benthic Zones (SBZ 1-10) have been designated in Tibet by following the principle of Oppel Zone. In contrast to those in Europe, the Paleocene LBFs in Tibet are characterized by high diversification of Lockhartia, Kathina, Daviesina, Miscellanea, Ranikothalia, and Operculina and show progressively increasing diversity of genera and species during SBZ 2-5. Adult dimorphism and large shell size of some LBFs as well as differentiation of the diversity between genera and species initiated as early as SBZ 3. It suggests that the occurrence of the Larger Foraminifera Turnover (LFT) was probably not synchronous in the entire Neo-Tethyan Ocean, because in Europe, the LFT was generally thought to occur at the beginning of SBZ 5. During the Early Eocene, the LBFs in Tibet decreased markedly on the generic level and increased on the species level, and some new genera ( Alveolina, Orbitolites, Nummulites, Assilina, Discocyclina) have gained predominance in Tibet. It is nearly identical to the evolution of the LBFs in Europe and indicates a high-degree homogenization of the LBFs in the entire Neo-Tethyan Ocean. Furthermore, the Paleocene-Eocene (P-E) boundary in shallow-water environments has been clearly identified by us, and it is situated in the upper part of SBZ 5 and associated with no evident biotic turnover of shallow benthic foraminiferal communities. The possible diachroneity of the LFT in the Neo-Tethyan Ocean and the evident lagging of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) behind the LFT imply that the LFT

  7. Structural and physical properties of the ferromagnetic tris-dithiooxalato compounds, A[M(II)Cr(III)(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)], with A(+) = N(n-C(n)()H(2)(n)(+1))(4)(+) (n = 3-5) and P(C(6)H(5))(4)(+) and M(II) = Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Justin M; Carling, Simon G; Visser, Dirk; Day, Peter; Hautot, Dimitri; Long, Gary J

    2003-02-24

    The structural and magnetic properties of the tris-dithiooxalato salts, A[M(II)Cr(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)], have been investigated with A(+) = PPh(4)(+), N(n-C(n)()H(2)(n)()(+1))(4)(+), with n = 3-5, where M(II) is Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni. With the exception of A[MnCr(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)], all the salts are ferromagnets with Curie temperatures, T(c), between 5 and 16 K. In contrast to the corresponding oxalates which are ferromagnetic, the A[MnCr(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)] compounds are paramagnetic above 2 K. Powder neutron diffraction studies of d(20)-PPh(4)[FeCr(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)] indicate that no structural phase transitions occur between 2.4 and 285 K and that the coefficient of linear expansion is four times larger for the c-axis than for the a-axis. The crystal structure refined from powder neutron diffraction data confirms the honeycomb layer arrangement observed in the related bimetallic tris-oxalate salts. The Mössbauer spectra reveal that the iron(II) in PPh(4)[FeCr(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)] is coordinated mainly to six oxygen atoms of the dithiooxalato ligand but with a minor component of sulfur coordination that increases with aging of the sample; the iron(II) is high-spin in both cases. Powder neutron diffraction profiles of d(20)-PPh(4)[FeCr(C(2)S(2)O(2))(3)] below T(c) show magnetic intensity with a q = 0 propagation vector, confirming the presence of ferromagnetic order. PMID:12588130

  8. Testing the snake-detection hypothesis: larger early posterior negativity in humans to pictures of snakes than to pictures of other reptiles, spiders and slugs

    PubMed Central

    Van Strien, Jan W.; Franken, Ingmar H. A.; Huijding, Jorg

    2014-01-01

    According to the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell, 2006), fear specifically of snakes may have pushed evolutionary changes in the primate visual system allowing pre-attentional visual detection of fearful stimuli. A previous study demonstrated that snake pictures, when compared to spiders or bird pictures, draw more early attention as reflected by larger early posterior negativity (EPN). Here we report two studies that further tested the snake detection hypothesis. In Study 1, we tested whether the enlarged EPN is specific for snakes or also generalizes to other reptiles. Twenty-four healthy, non-phobic women watched the random rapid serial presentation of snake, crocodile, and turtle pictures. The EPN was scored as the mean activity at occipital electrodes (PO3, O1, Oz, PO4, O2) in the 225–300 ms time window after picture onset. The EPN was significantly larger for snake pictures than for pictures of the other reptiles. In Study 2, we tested whether disgust plays a role in the modulation of the EPN and whether preferential processing of snakes also can be found in men. 12 men and 12 women watched snake, spider, and slug pictures. Both men and women exhibited the largest EPN amplitudes to snake pictures, intermediate amplitudes to spider pictures and the smallest amplitudes to slug pictures. Disgust ratings were not associated with EPN amplitudes. The results replicate previous findings and suggest that ancestral priorities modulate the early capture of visual attention. PMID:25237303

  9. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, A K; van Wieren, S E; van Langevelde, F; Fuller, A; Hetem, R S; Meyer, L; de Bie, S; Prins, H H T

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size-eland, blue wildebeest and impala-is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change. PMID:23417331

  10. The larger mammal fossil assemblage from JK2, Bed III, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania: implications for the feeding behavior of Homo erectus.

    PubMed

    Pante, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the type and amount of animal proteins consumed by Homo erectus, a species distinguished from its predecessors by more human-like brain and body proportions and its association with more advanced stone tool technology. Here I present an interpretation of the feeding behavior of African H. erectus based upon the first taphonomic analysis of the larger mammal fossil assemblage from the JK2 site, Bed III, Olduvai Gorge. Results indicate that both hominins and carnivores consumed some flesh and bone marrow at the site. A low incidence of percussion marking suggests hominins did not break all long bones in the assemblage. Relatively high carnivore tooth mark frequencies and low cut mark frequencies independently suggest that both hominins and carnivores had access to flesh, while specimens that are both tooth- and butchery-marked demonstrate occasional hominin and carnivore feeding from the same carcass. Together, the bone surface modification data suggest a mixed and possibly time-averaged taphonomic history for the assemblage with at least some carcasses accessed by hominins early in the consumption sequence and others only by carnivores. The results for the JK2 assemblage contribute to a growing literature concerning the feeding behavior of African H. erectus, a species that appears to have relied on carcass foods to meet some of the nutritional demands of its larger brain and body size. PMID:23273772

  11. Larger antelopes are sensitive to heat stress throughout all seasons but smaller antelopes only during summer in an African semi-arid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, A. K.; van Wieren, S. E.; van Langevelde, F.; Fuller, A.; Hetem, R. S.; Meyer, L.; de Bie, S.; Prins, H. H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress can limit the activity time budget of ungulates due to hyperthermia, which is relevant for African antelopes in ecosystems where temperature routinely increases above 40 °C. Body size influences this thermal sensitivity as large bodied ungulates have a lower surface area to volume ratio than smaller ungulates, and therefore a reduced heat dissipation capacity. We tested whether the activity pattern during the day of three antelope species of different body size—eland, blue wildebeest and impala—is negatively correlated with the pattern of black globe temperature (BGT) during the day of the ten hottest days and each season in a South African semi-arid ecosystem. Furthermore, we tested whether the larger bodied eland and wildebeest are less active than the smaller impala during the hottest days and seasons. Our results show that indeed BGT was negatively correlated with the diurnal activity of eland, wildebeest and impala, particularly during summer. During spring, only the activity of the larger bodied eland and wildebeest was negatively influenced by BGT, but not for the smallest of the three species, the impala. We argue that spring, with its high heat stress, coupled with poor forage and water availability, could be critical for survival of these large African antelopes. Our study contributes to understanding how endothermic animals can cope with extreme climatic conditions, which are expected to occur more frequently due to climate change.

  12. The fluorescence properties of aerosol larger than 0.8 μm in an urban and a PBA-dominated location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabey, A. M.; Stanley, W. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Kaye, P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Dual-wavelength Ultraviolet light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) measurements were performed on ambient environmental aerosol in Manchester, UK (urban city centre, winter) and Borneo, Malaysia (remote, tropical), which are taken to represent environments with negligible and significant primary biological aerosol (PBA) influences, respectively. Single-particle fluorescence intensity and optical equivalent diameter were measured with a Wide Issue Bioaerosol Sensor, version 3 (WIBS3) in the diameter range 0.8 μm≤DP≤20 μm for 2-3 weeks and filters were analysed using energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, which revealed mostly non-PBA dominated particle sizes larger than 1 μm in Manchester. The WIBS3 features three fluorescence channels: Fluorescence excited at 280 nm is recorded at 310-400 nm and 400-600 nm and fluorescence excited at 370 nm is detected at 400-600 nm. In Manchester the primary size mode of fluorescent and non-fluorescent material was at 1.2 μm. In Borneo non-fluorescent material peaked at 1.2 μm and fluorescent at 3-4 μm. The fluorescence intensity at 400-600 nm generally increased with DP at both sites, as did the 310-400 nm intensity in Borneo. In Manchester the 310-400 m fluorescence decreased at DP>4 μm, suggesting this channel offers additional discrimination between fluorescent particle types. Finally, the ratio of fluorescence intensity in two pairs of channels was investigated as a function of particle diameter and this varied significantly between the two environments, demonstrating that the fluorescent aerosol in each can in principle be distinguished using a combination of fluorescence and elastic scattering measurements.

  13. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  14. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  17. 45 CFR 2.3 - Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... PARTY § 2.3 Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. No employee or...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  20. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. 177.841... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.841 Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. (See also § 177... by other appropriate method, and the marking removed. (b) (c) Division 2.3 (poisonous gas)...

  1. Genome Sequence of meso-2,3-Butanediol-Producing Strain Serratia marcescens ATCC 14041

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Li, Kun; Su, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strain ATCC 14041 was found to be an efficient meso-2,3-butanediol (meso-2,3-BD) producer from glucose and sucrose. Here we present a 5.0-Mb assembly of its genome. We have annotated 4 coding sequences (CDSs) for meso-2,3-BD fermentation and 2 complete operons including 6 CDSs for sucrose utilization. PMID:24948764

  2. CARDIOPATHIC EFFECT OF 1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE AFTER SUBACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) is an industrial water contaminant with potential for human exposure by the oral route. The systemic toxicology of 1,2,3-TCP was evaluated after subacute or subchronic exposure in male and female Sprague Dawley rate. Animals were treated with 0....

  3. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  4. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  6. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  7. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  8. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  9. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  10. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  14. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  15. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  16. TaGS5-3A, a grain size gene selected during wheat improvement for larger kernel and yield.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lin; Li, Tian; Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Yuquan; Chen, Xinhong; Zhang, Xueyong

    2016-05-01

    Grain size is a dominant component of grain weight in cereals. Earlier studies have shown that OsGS5 plays a major role in regulating both grain size and weight in rice via promotion of cell division. In this study, we isolated TaGS5 homoeologues in wheat and mapped them on chromosomes 3A, 3B and 3D. Temporal and spatial expression analysis showed that TaGS5 homoeologues were preferentially expressed in young spikes and developing grains. Two alleles of TaGS5-3A, TaGS5-3A-T and TaGS5-3A-G were identified in wheat accessions, and a functional marker was developed to discriminate them. Association analysis revealed that TaGS5-3A-T was significantly correlated with larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight. Biochemical assays showed that TaGS5-3A-T possesses a higher enzymatic activity than TaGS5-3A-G. Transgenic rice lines overexpressing TaGS5-3A-T also exhibited larger grain size and higher thousand kernel weight than TaGS5-3A-G lines, and the transcript levels of cell cycle-related genes in TaGS5-3A-T lines were higher than those in TaGS5-3A-G lines. Furthermore, systematic evolution analysis in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheat showed that TaGS5-3A underwent strong artificial selection during wheat polyploidization events and the frequency changes of two alleles demonstrated that TaGS5-3A-T was favoured in global modern wheat cultivars. These results suggest that TaGS5-3A is a positive regulator of grain size and its favoured allele TaGS5-3A-T exhibits a larger potential application in wheat high-yield breeding. PMID:26480952

  17. Inositol 1,2,3-trisphosphate and inositol 1,2- and/or 2,3-bisphosphate are normal constituents of mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, C J; French, P J; Moore, A J; Nilsson, T; Berggren, P O; Bunce, C M; Kirk, C J; Michell, R H

    1995-01-01

    1. An inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) distinct from Ins(1,4,5)P3 and Ins(1,3,4)P3, which we previously observed in myeloid and lymphoid cells [French, Bunce, Stephens, Lord, McConnell, Brown, Creba and Michell (1991) Proc R. Soc. London B 245, 193-201; Bunce, French, Allen, Mountford, Moore, Greaves, Michell and Brown (1993) Biochem. J. 289, 667-673], is present in WRK1 rat mammary tumour cells and pancreatic endocrine beta-cells. 2. It has been identified as Ins(1,2,3)P3 by a combination of oxidation to ribitol, a structurally diagnostic polyol, and ammoniacal hydrolysis to identified inositol monophosphates. 3. Ins(1,2,3)P3 concentration in HL60 cells changed little during stimulation by ATP or fMetLeuPhe or during neutrophilic or monocytic differentiation, and Ins(1,2,3)P3 was unresponsive to vasopressin in WRK1 cells. 4. Ins(1,2,3)P3 was usually more abundant than Ins(1,4,5)P3, often being present at concentrations between approximately 1 microM and approximately 10 microM. 5. HL60, WRK-1 and lymphoid cells also contain Ins(1,2)P2 or Ins(2,3)P2, or a mixture of these two enantiomers, as a major InsP2 species. 6. Ins(1,2,3)P3 and Ins(1,2)P2/Ins(2,3)P2 are readily detected in cells labelled for long periods, but not in acutely labelled cells. This behaviour resembles that of InsP6, the most abundant cellular inositol polyphosphate that includes the 1,2,3-trisphosphate motif, which also achieves isotopic equilibrium with inositol only slowly. 7. Ins(1,2,3)P3 is the major InsP3 that accumulates during metabolism of InsP6 by WRK-1 cell homogenates. 8. Possible metabolic relationships between Ins(1,2,3)P3, Ins(1,2)P2/Ins(2,3)P2 and other inositol polyphosphates in cells, and a possible role for Ins(1,2,3)P3 in cellular iron handling, are considered. PMID:7887911

  18. Examining the form-function relationship of convective organization and the larger scale with observations and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Emily Marie

    This work uses a two-pronged approach to study the form-function relationship of convective organization and the larger scale. Form is simply the visual shape of convection and function is how the convection and larger scale interact. First, CloudSat observations are used to study cloud modulation during the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Second, a cloud systems resolving model (CSRM) with parameterized large-scale dynamics is used to examine how convective organization affects the interdependence of convection and the larger-scale. Using CloudSat observations, cloud type, total cloud cover, and temperature and moisture evolution are document across MJO phases. Deep cloud types were classified as wide or narrow as a proxy for designating organized and unorganized convective systems. For locally defined phases, the MJO exhibits a familiar progression of cloud types from shallow clouds mixed with deep, isolated convection in the growing stages of the MJO, to deep, widespread, organized convection during the mature stages, to more anvil dominated conditions during the decay stages. Comparison to the convectively coupled Kelvin wave reveals both wave types exhibit similar cloud type evolution, though, the MJO was found to be modulated more by moisture variation, while the Kelvin wave was modulated more by temperature variations. In terms of globally defined MJO phases, the wide deep precipitating systems were modulated more than other cloud types by MJO phases, with the well-known progression of cloud cover from the Indian Ocean to the central Pacific. The narrow deep precipitating systems only propagated from the Indian Ocean to the Maritime Continent. The modeling component of this work involved periodic domains, where convective organization was controlled by adding shear to a three-dimensional (3D) isotropic CSRM domain or by altering the 3D domain to be longer and narrower, until eventually becoming a 2D domain. Snapshots of convective activity in various

  19. Mesorbitolina (Cretaceous larger foraminifera) from the Yezo Group in Hokkaido, Japan and its stratigraphic and paleobiogeographic significance

    PubMed Central

    Iba, Yasuhiro; Sano, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an Aptian (Early Cretaceous) larger foraminiferal species Orbitolina (Mesorbitolina) parva from the limestone olistoliths in the lower part of the Yezo Group in the Yubari–Ashibetsu area, central Hokkaido and from limestone pebbles in the lowermost part of the Yezo Group in the Nakagawa area, northern Hokkaido. This is the first report of this species from the circum-North Pacific regions. Based on its occurrences, the shallow-marine carbonates, re-deposited in the lower part of the Yezo Group, are precisely assigned in age to the Late Aptian. Comparison of the lower part of the Yezo Group in central and northern Hokkaido indicates differences of the Aptian–Albian depositional history between the two areas. This study reveals that after Late Aptian, Mesogean key taxa (typical Cretaceous Tethyan biota) demised in the Northwest Pacific. PMID:25792785

  20. Dechlorination of 1,2,3-trichloropropane by zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, R.M.; Gillham, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the dechlorination of aqueous 1,2,3-trichloropropane in the presence of zero-valent iron. Using flow-through column procedures, the rate of dechlorination was significantly enhanced by the presence of iron, with the half life decreasing in proportion to the iron surface area to solution volume ratio. Unlike previous results obtained for chlorinated C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} compounds, half-lives increased significantly over time, at rates ranging from 5.0 to 13.9 minutes per pore volume of water passed through the column. No accumulation of chlorinated products of degradation was detected, and the principal products of degradation were Cl{sup -} and propene. The products of degradation and the trends in pH suggest reductive dechlorination and dehydrochlorination to be the degradation mechanisms.