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Sample records for 2-3 times longer

  1. 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene No Longer Regulated as a Volatile Organic Compound

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Environmental Protection Agency has issued a final rule that identified 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (also known as HFO-1234yf) as a chemical compound that will no longer be regulated as a VOC under the Clean Air Act.

  2. Observation Impacts for Longer Forecast Lead-Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, R.; Gelaro, R.; Todling, R.

    2013-12-01

    Observation impact on forecasts evaluated using adjoint-based techniques (e.g. Langland and Baker, 2004) are limited by the validity of the assumptions underlying the forecasting model adjoint. Most applications of this approach have focused on deriving observation impacts on short-range forecasts (e.g. 24-hour) in part to stay well within linearization assumptions. The most widely used measure of observation impact relies on the availability of the analysis for verifying the forecasts. As pointed out by Gelaro et al. (2007), and more recently by Todling (2013), this introduces undesirable correlations in the measure that are likely to affect the resulting assessment of the observing system. Stappers and Barkmeijer (2012) introduced a technique that, in principle, allows extending the validity of tangent linear and corresponding adjoint models to longer lead-times, thereby reducing the correlations in the measures used for observation impact assessments. The methodology provides the means to better represent linearized models by making use of Gaussian quadrature relations to handle various underlying non-linear model trajectories. The formulation is exact for particular bi-linear dynamics; it corresponds to an approximation for general-type nonlinearities and must be tested for large atmospheric models. The present work investigates the approach of Stappers and Barkmeijer (2012)in the context of NASA's Goddard Earth Observing System Version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric data assimilation system (ADAS). The goal is to calculate observation impacts in the GEOS-5 ADAS for forecast lead-times of at least 48 hours in order to reduce the potential for undesirable correlations that occur at shorter forecast lead times. References [1]Langland, R. H., and N. L. Baker, 2004: Estimation of observation impact using the NRL atmospheric variational data assimilation adjoint system. Tellus, 56A, 189-201. [2] Gelaro, R., Y. Zhu, and R. M. Errico, 2007: Examination of various

  3. Longer incubation times for yeast fungemia: importance for presumptive treatment.

    PubMed

    Paugam, André; Ancelle, Thierry; Lortholary, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2014-10-01

    Isolation rates of Candida glabrata at ≤2 days were 8.9% and 34.8% at >2 days; for Cryptococcus neoformans, they were 0.9% and 8.6%, respectively (1741 fungemia analyzed). An incubation time >2 days supports candins as presumptive treatment for C. glabrata, keeping in mind the risk of Cryptococcus fungemia.

  4. Longer treatment time and slower ultrafiltration in hemodialysis: associations with reduced mortality in the DOPPS.

    PubMed

    Saran, R; Bragg-Gresham, J L; Levin, N W; Twardowski, Z J; Wizemann, V; Saito, A; Kimata, N; Gillespie, B W; Combe, C; Bommer, J; Akiba, T; Mapes, D L; Young, E W; Port, F K

    2006-04-01

    Longer treatment time (TT) and slower ultrafiltration rate (UFR) are considered advantageous for hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study included 22,000 HD patients from seven countries in the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS). Logistic regression was used to study predictors of TT > 240 min and UFR > 10 ml/h/kg bodyweight. Cox regression was used for survival analyses. Statistical adjustments were made for patient demographics, comorbidities, dose of dialysis (Kt/V), and body size. Europe and Japan had significantly longer (P < 0.0001) average TT than the US (232 and 244 min vs 211 in DOPPS I; 235 and 240 min vs 221 in DOPPS II). Kt/V increased concomitantly with TT in all three regions with the largest absolute difference observed in Japan. TT > 240 min was independently associated with significantly lower relative risk (RR) of mortality (RR = 0.81; P = 0.0005). Every 30 min longer on HD was associated with a 7% lower RR of mortality (RR = 0.93; P < 0.0001). The RR reduction with longer TT was greatest in Japan. A synergistic interaction occurred between Kt/V and TT (P = 0.007) toward mortality reduction. UFR > 10 ml/h/kg was associated with higher odds of intradialytic hypotension (odds ratio = 1.30; P = 0.045) and a higher risk of mortality (RR = 1.09; P = 0.02). Longer TT and higher Kt/V were independently as well as synergistically associated with lower mortality. Rapid UFR during HD was also associated with higher mortality risk. These results warrant a randomized clinical trial of longer dialysis sessions in thrice-weekly HD.

  5. Polyp detection rate in transverse and sigmoid colon significantly increases with longer withdrawal time during screening colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Nagamu; Yoshida, Toshifumi; Bessyo, Rieko; Yoneno, Kazuaki; Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Ogata, Haruhiko; Kanai, Takanori; Sugino, Yoshinori; Iwao, Yasushi

    2017-01-01

    Background The guidelines for colonoscopy present withdrawal time (WT) and adenoma detection rate (ADR) as the quality indicator. The purpose of this retrospective study is to analyze the predicting factors with polyp detection rate (PDR) as a surrogate for ADR by using comprehensive health checkup data, and assess the correlation between PDR per each colonic segment and WT, and factors influencing WT. Methods One thousand and thirty six consecutive health checkup cases from April 2015 to March 2016 were enrolled in this study, and 880 subjects who undertook colonoscopy without polyp removal or biopsy were divided into the two groups (polyp not detected group vs polyp detected group). The two groups were compared by subjects and clinical characteristics with univariate analysis followed by multivariate analysis. Colonoscopies with longer WT (≥ 6 min) and those with shorter WT (< 6 min) were compared by PDR per each colonic segment, and also by subjects and clinical characteristics. Results A total of 1009 subjects included two incomplete colonoscopies (CIR, 99.9%) and overall PDR was 35.8%. A multiple logistic regression model demonstrated that age, gender, and WT were significantly related factors for polyp detection (odds ratio, 1.036; 1.771; 1.217). PDR showed a linear increase as WT increased from 3 min to 9 min (r = 0.989, p = 0.000) and PDR with long WT group was higher than that with short WT group per each colonic segment, significantly in transverse (2.3 times, p = 0.004) and sigmoid colon (2.1 times, p = 0.001). Not only bowel preparation quality but also insertion difficulty evaluated by endoscopist were significant factors relating with WT (odds ratio, 3.811; 1.679). Conclusion This study suggests that endoscopists should be recommended to take more time up to 9 min of WT to observe transverse and sigmoid colon, especially when they feel no difficulty during scope insertion. PMID:28328936

  6. Specimen origin, type and testing laboratory are linked to longer turnaround times for HIV viral load testing in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Chipungu, Geoffrey; Kim, Andrea A.; Sarr, Abdoulaye; Ali, Hammad; Mwenda, Reuben; Nkengasong, John N.; Singer, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Background Efforts to reach UNAIDS’ treatment and viral suppression targets have increased demand for viral load (VL) testing and strained existing laboratory networks, affecting turnaround time. Longer VL turnaround times delay both initiation of formal adherence counseling and switches to second-line therapy for persons failing treatment and contribute to poorer health outcomes. Methods We utilized descriptive statistics and logistic regression to analyze VL testing data collected in Malawi between January 2013 and March 2016. The primary outcomes assessed were greater-than-median pretest phase turnaround time (days elapsed from specimen collection to receipt at the laboratory) and greater-than-median test phase turnaround time (days from receipt to testing). Results The median number of days between specimen collection and testing increased 3-fold between 2013 (8 days, interquartile range (IQR) = 6–16) and 2015 (24, IQR = 13–39) (p<0.001). Multivariable analysis indicated that the odds of longer pretest phase turnaround time were significantly higher for specimen collection districts without laboratories capable of conducting viral load tests (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 5.16; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 5.04–5.27) as well as for Malawi’s Northern and Southern regions. Longer test phase turnaround time was significantly associated with use of dried blood spots instead of plasma (aOR = 2.30; 95% CI = 2.23–2.37) and for certain testing months and testing laboratories. Conclusion Increased turnaround time for VL testing appeared to be driven in part by categorical factors specific to the phase of turnaround time assessed. Given the implications of longer turnaround time and the global effort to scale up VL testing, addressing these factors via increasing efficiencies, improving quality management systems and generally strengthening the VL spectrum should be considered essential components of controlling the HIV epidemic. PMID:28235013

  7. Western scrub-jays allocate longer observation time to more valuable information.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Arii; Grodzinski, Uri; Clayton, Nicola S

    2014-07-01

    When humans mentally reconstruct past events and imagine future scenarios, their subjective experience of mentally time travelling is accompanied by the awareness of doing so. Despite recent popularity of studying episodic memory in animals, such phenomenological consciousness has been extremely difficult to demonstrate without agreed behavioural markers of consciousness in non-linguistic subjects. We presented western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) with a task requiring them to allocate observing time between two peepholes to see food being hidden in either of two compartments, one where observing the hiding location was necessary to later relocate the food, and another where food could easily be found without watching. Jays first separately experienced these consequences of possessing information in each compartment and subsequently, once given a choice, made more looks and spent more time looking into the compartment where information was necessary than into the compartment where it was unnecessary. Thus, the jays can collect information to solve a future problem. Moreover, they can differentiate sources of information according to their potential value and modify behaviour to efficiently collect important, usable information. This is the first evidence of metacognition in a species that passes the behavioural criteria for both retrospective and prospective mental time travel.

  8. How Do Students React to Longer Instruction Time? Evidence from Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meroni, Elena Claudia; Abbiati, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects on achievement, study behaviours and attitudes of an intervention providing extra instruction time in language and in mathematics in lower secondary schools in Southern Italy. We use a difference-in-differences strategy and compare two contiguous cohorts of students enrolled in the same class for two consecutive…

  9. Longer Contact Times Increase Cross-Contamination of Enterobacter aerogenes from Surfaces to Food.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Robyn C; Schaffner, Donald W

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cross-contamination from surfaces to food can contribute to foodborne disease. The cross-contamination rate of Enterobacter aerogenes on household surfaces was evaluated by using scenarios that differed by surface type, food type, contact time (<1, 5, 30, and 300 s), and inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer). The surfaces used were stainless steel, tile, wood, and carpet. The food types were watermelon, bread, bread with butter, and gummy candy. Surfaces (25 cm(2)) were spot inoculated with 1 ml of inoculum and allowed to dry for 5 h, yielding an approximate concentration of 10(7) CFU/surface. Foods (with a 16-cm(2) contact area) were dropped onto the surfaces from a height of 12.5 cm and left to rest as appropriate. Posttransfer, surfaces and foods were placed in sterile filter bags and homogenized or massaged, diluted, and plated on tryptic soy agar. The transfer rate was quantified as the log percent transfer from the surface to the food. Contact time, food, and surface type all had highly significant effects (P < 0.000001) on the log percent transfer of bacteria. The inoculum matrix (tryptic soy broth or peptone buffer) also had a significant effect on transfer (P = 0.013), and most interaction terms were significant. More bacteria transferred to watermelon (∼0.2 to 97%) than to any other food, while the least bacteria transferred to gummy candy (∼0.1 to 62%). Transfer of bacteria to bread (∼0.02 to 94%) was similar to transfer of bacteria to bread with butter (∼0.02 to 82%), and these transfer rates under a given set of conditions were more variable than with watermelon and gummy candy.

  10. Myosin MgADP release rate decreases at longer sarcomere length to prolong myosin attachment time in skinned rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Bertrand C W; Breithaupt, Jason J; Awinda, Peter O

    2015-12-15

    Cardiac contractility increases as sarcomere length increases, suggesting that intrinsic molecular mechanisms underlie the Frank-Starling relationship to confer increased cardiac output with greater ventricular filling. The capacity of myosin to bind with actin and generate force in a muscle cell is Ca(2+) regulated by thin-filament proteins and spatially regulated by sarcomere length as thick-to-thin filament overlap varies. One mechanism underlying greater cardiac contractility as sarcomere length increases could involve longer myosin attachment time (ton) due to slowed myosin kinetics at longer sarcomere length. To test this idea, we used stochastic length-perturbation analysis in skinned rat papillary muscle strips to measure ton as [MgATP] varied (0.05-5 mM) at 1.9 and 2.2 μm sarcomere lengths. From this ton-MgATP relationship, we calculated cross-bridge MgADP release rate and MgATP binding rates. As MgATP increased, ton decreased for both sarcomere lengths, but ton was roughly 70% longer for 2.2 vs. 1.9 μm sarcomere length at maximally activated conditions. These ton differences were driven by a slower MgADP release rate at 2.2 μm sarcomere length (41 ± 3 vs. 74 ± 7 s(-1)), since MgATP binding rate was not different between the two sarcomere lengths. At submaximal activation levels near the pCa50 value of the tension-pCa relationship for each sarcomere length, length-dependent increases in ton were roughly 15% longer for 2.2 vs. 1.9 μm sarcomere length. These changes in cross-bridge kinetics could amplify cooperative cross-bridge contributions to force production and thin-filament activation at longer sarcomere length and suggest that length-dependent changes in myosin MgADP release rate may contribute to the Frank-Starling relationship in the heart.

  11. Tropical Rainfall Variability on Interannual-to-Interdecadal/Longer-Time Scales Derived from the GPCP Monthly Product

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Guojun; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Curtis, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global and large regional rainfall variations and possible long-term changes are examined using the 26-year (1979-2004) GPCP monthly dataset (Adler et al., 2003). Our emphasis is to discriminate among variations due to ENSO, volcanic events, and possible long-term climate changes in the tropics. Although the global linear change of precipitation in the data set is near zero during the time period, an increase in tropical rainfall is noted, with a weaker decrease over northern hemisphere middle latitudes. Focusing on the tropics (25degS-25degN), the data set indicates an upward trend (0.06 mm/day/decade) and a downward trend (-0.02 mm/day/decade) over tropical ocean and land, respectively. This corresponds to an about 4.9% increase (ocean) and 1.6% decrease (land) during the entire 26-year time period. Techniques are applied to isolate and quantify variations due to ENSO and two major volcanic eruptions (El Chichon, March 1982; Pinatubo, June 1991) in order to examine longer time-scale changes. The ENSO events generally do not impact the tropical total rainfall, but, of course, induce significant anomalies with opposite signs over tropical land and ocean. The impact of the two volcanic eruptions is estimated to be about a 5% reduction in tropical rainfall over both land and ocean. A modified data set (with ENSO and volcano effects removed) retains the same approximate linear change slopes, but with reduced variance, thereby increasing the confidence levels associated with the long-term rainfall changes in the tropics 2

  12. Perforation of the IVC: Rule Rather Than Exception After Longer Indwelling Times for the Guenther Tulip and Celect Retrievable Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Durack, Jeremy C. Westphalen, Antonio C.; Kekulawela, Stephanie; Bhanu, Shiv B.; Avrin, David E.; Gordon, Roy L.; Kerlan, Robert K.

    2012-04-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to assess the incidence, magnitude, and impact upon retrievability of vena caval perforation by Guenther Tulip and Celect conical inferior vena cava (IVC) filters on computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Methods: Guenther Tulip and Celect IVC filters placed between July 2007 and May 2009 were identified from medical records. Of 272 IVC filters placed, 50 (23 Guenther Tulip, 46%; 27 Celect, 54%) were retrospectively assessed on follow-up abdominal CT scans performed for reasons unrelated to the filter. Computed tomography scans were examined for evidence of filter perforation through the vena caval wall, tilt, or pericaval tissue injury. Procedure records were reviewed to determine whether IVC filter retrieval was attempted and successful. Results: Perforation of at least one filter component through the IVC was observed in 43 of 50 (86%) filters on CT scans obtained between 1 and 880 days after filter placement. All filters imaged after 71 days showed some degree of vena caval perforation, often as a progressive process. Filter tilt was seen in 20 of 50 (40%) filters, and all tilted filters also demonstrated vena caval perforation. Transjugular removal was attempted in 12 of 50 (24%) filters and was successful in 11 of 12 (92%). Conclusions: Longer indwelling times usually result in vena caval perforation by retrievable Guenther Tulip and Celect IVC filters. Although infrequently reported in the literature, clinical sequelae from IVC filter components breaching the vena cava can be significant. We advocate filter retrieval as early as clinically indicated and increased attention to the appearance of IVC filters on all follow-up imaging studies.

  13. Symptoms and patient factors associated with longer time to diagnosis for colorectal cancer: results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Fiona M; Emery, Jon D; Mendonca, Silvia; Hall, Nicola; Morris, Helen C; Mills, Katie; Dobson, Christina; Bankhead, Clare; Johnson, Margaret; Abel, Gary A; Rutter, Matthew D; Hamilton, William; Rubin, Greg P

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study is to investigate symptoms, clinical factors and socio-demographic factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) diagnosis and time to diagnosis. Methods: Prospective cohort study of participants referred for suspicion of CRC in two English regions. Data were collected using a patient questionnaire, primary care and hospital records. Descriptive and regression analyses examined associations between symptoms and patient factors with total diagnostic interval (TDI), patient interval (PI), health system interval (HSI) and stage. Results: A total of 2677 (22%) participants responded; after exclusions, 2507 remained. Participants were diagnosed with CRC (6.1%, 56% late stage), other cancers (2.0%) or no cancer (91.9%). Half the cohort had a solitary first symptom (1332, 53.1%); multiple first symptoms were common. In this referred population, rectal bleeding was the only initial symptom more frequent among cancer than non-cancer cases (34.2% vs 23.9%, P=0.004). There was no evidence of differences in TDI, PI or HSI for those with cancer vs non-cancer diagnoses (median TDI CRC 124 vs non-cancer 138 days, P=0.142). First symptoms associated with shorter TDIs were rectal bleeding, change in bowel habit, ‘feeling different' and fatigue/tiredness. Anxiety, depression and gastro-intestinal co-morbidities were associated with longer HSIs and TDIs. Symptom duration-dependent effects were found for rectal bleeding and change in bowel habit. Conclusions: Doctors and patients respond less promptly to some symptoms of CRC than others. Healthcare professionals should be vigilant to the possibility of CRC in patients with relevant symptoms and mental health or gastro-intestinal comorbidities. PMID:27490803

  14. Machine perfusion following static cold storage preservation in kidney transplantation: donor-matched pair analysis of the prognostic impact of longer pump time.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Gaetano; Gaynor, Jeffrey J; Sageshima, Junichiro; Roth, David; Kupin, Warren; Guerra, Giselle; Tueros, Lissett; Zarak, Alberto; Hanson, Lois; Ganz, Susan; Chen, Linda; Ruiz, Phillip; Livingstone, Alan S; Burke, George W

    2012-01-01

    The impact of machine perfusion (MP) time on kidney transplant outcome is mixed in previous studies using multivariable analyses. In an analysis of 66 pairs of donor-matched adult, first transplant recipients (N = 132) with identical donor characteristics except for pump time, tests of association of shorter versus longer pump time (first versus second kidney removed) by delayed graft function(DGF), slow graft function(SGF), and biopsy proven acute rejection(BPAR) were performed using McNemar's test. Freedom-from-BPAR, graft and patient survival, and renal function were also compared. Mean ± SD pump times for paired recipients with first and second kidneys were 22.7 ± 7.3 h and 31.2 ± 7.9 h, respectively (mean difference: 8.5 ± 4.5 h, P < .000001). There was no significant impact of pump time on DGF or SGF, with discordant pairs favoring less SGF with longer pump time (N.S.). The incidence of BPAR during the first 12 months post-transplant yielded a borderline difference favoring longer pump time (P = .09), and freedom-from-BPAR during the first 12 months was significantly more favorable for longer pump times (95% vs. 84%, P = 0.04). No differences were observed in graft and patient survival, and renal function. While offering significantly favorable protection from BPAR, this analysis of donor-matched recipient pairs corroborates longer MP (pump) times having no unfavorable effect on other clinical outcomes.

  15. Whole-plant capacitance, embolism resistance and slow transpiration rates all contribute to longer desiccation times in woody angiosperms from arid and wet habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low water potentials in xylem can result in damaging levels of cavitation, yet little is understood about which hydraulic traits have most influence in delaying the onset of hydraulic dysfunction during periods of drought. We examined three traits contributing to longer desiccation times in excised ...

  16. A unifying view of climate change in the Sahel linking intra-seasonal, interannual and longer time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, A.; Salack, S.; Lodoun, T.; Ali, A.; Gaye, A. T.; Ndiaye, O.

    2013-06-01

    We propose a re-interpretation of the oceanic influence on the climate of the African Sahel that is consistent across observations, 20th century simulations and 21st century projections, and that resolves the uncertainty in projections of precipitation change in this region: continued warming of the global tropical oceans increases the threshold for convection, potentially drying tropical land, but this ‘upped ante’ can be met if sufficient moisture is supplied in monsoon flow. In this framework, the reversal to warming of the subtropical North Atlantic, which is now out-pacing warming of the global tropical oceans, provides that moisture, and explains the partial recovery in precipitation since persistent drought in the 1970s and 1980s. We find this recovery to result from increases in daily rainfall intensity, rather than in frequency, most evidently so in Senegal, the westernmost among the three Sahelian countries analyzed. Continuation of these observed trends is consistent with projections for an overall wetter Sahel, but more variable precipitation on all time scales, from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal.

  17. Determinant parameters and components in the storage of virgin olive oil. Prediction of storage time beyond which the oil is no longer of "extra" quality.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, F; Fernández, J L

    2002-01-30

    This work studies the changes in the quality indices standardized by the European Union, together with the evolution of the oxidative stability and sterols, polyphenols, alpha-tocopherol, pigments, and fatty acids contents throughout the storage of Picual and Hojiblanca olive cultivar "extra" virgin olive oils at 2 degrees C + darkness and 30 degrees C + illumination. Only two quality indices (K(270) and sensory evaluation) indicate the loss of the extra quality of the oil during storage, and there is an excellent correlation between initial stability and the time to reach the limit of K(270) > 0.25 (after which the oil quality is no longer of "extra" quality). This time can be predicted with an error of <10%, which is of great commercial interest and previously unknown. Also unknown until now is that the changes in polyphenols, pigments, and alpha-tocopherol with storage time follow first-order kinetics.

  18. Time-course and mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity in layers 2/3 and 5 of the barrel cortex

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that ocular dominance plasticity in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex exhibits a form of homeostatic plasticity that is related to synaptic scaling and depends on TNFα. In this study, we tested whether a similar form of plasticity was present in layer 2/3 of the barrel cortex and, therefore, whether the mechanism was likely to be a general property of cortical neurons. We found that whisker deprivation could induce homeostatic plasticity in layer 2/3 of barrel cortex, but not in a mouse strain lacking synaptic scaling. The time-course of homeostatic plasticity in layer 2/3 was similar to that of L5 regular spiking (RS) neurons (L5RS), but slower than that of L5 intrinsic bursting (IB) neurons (L5IB). In layer 5, the strength of evoked whisker responses and ex vivo miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) amplitudes showed an identical time-course for homeostatic plasticity, implying that plasticity at excitatory synapses contacting layer 5 neurons is sufficient to explain the changes in evoked responses. Spontaneous firing rate also showed homeostatic behaviour for L5IB cells, but was absent for L5RS cells over the time-course studied. Spontaneous firing rate homeostasis was found to be independent of evoked response homeostasis suggesting that the two depend on different mechanisms. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Integrating Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity’. PMID:28093546

  19. Time-course and mechanisms of homeostatic plasticity in layers 2/3 and 5 of the barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Glazewski, Stanislaw; Greenhill, Stuart; Fox, Kevin

    2017-03-05

    Recent studies have shown that ocular dominance plasticity in layer 2/3 of the visual cortex exhibits a form of homeostatic plasticity that is related to synaptic scaling and depends on TNFα. In this study, we tested whether a similar form of plasticity was present in layer 2/3 of the barrel cortex and, therefore, whether the mechanism was likely to be a general property of cortical neurons. We found that whisker deprivation could induce homeostatic plasticity in layer 2/3 of barrel cortex, but not in a mouse strain lacking synaptic scaling. The time-course of homeostatic plasticity in layer 2/3 was similar to that of L5 regular spiking (RS) neurons (L5RS), but slower than that of L5 intrinsic bursting (IB) neurons (L5IB). In layer 5, the strength of evoked whisker responses and ex vivo miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents (mEPSCs) amplitudes showed an identical time-course for homeostatic plasticity, implying that plasticity at excitatory synapses contacting layer 5 neurons is sufficient to explain the changes in evoked responses. Spontaneous firing rate also showed homeostatic behaviour for L5IB cells, but was absent for L5RS cells over the time-course studied. Spontaneous firing rate homeostasis was found to be independent of evoked response homeostasis suggesting that the two depend on different mechanisms.This article is part of the themed issue 'Integrating Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity'.

  20. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  1. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  2. Time to unrelated donor leukocyte infusion is longer, but incidence of GVHD and overall survival are similar for recipients of unrelated DLI compared to matched sibling DLI.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anita J; Vassilev, Pavel; Loren, Alison W; Luger, Selina M; Reshef, Ran; Gill, Saar; Smith, Jacqueline; Goldstein, Steven C; Hexner, Elizabeth; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Porter, David; Frey, Noelle V

    2016-06-01

    Donor leukocyte infusion (DLI) is used to treat relapsed leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT). Data comparing outcomes after unrelated DLI (uDLI) to matched sibling DLI (msDLI) are scant. We performed a retrospective analysis to assess differences in time to administer uDLI versus msDLI, and impact on outcomes. Fifty three patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after allogeneic HCT received uDLI (n = 18) or msDLI (n = 35) from 2000 to 2011. Median time from relapse to uDLI request was 15 days (range 0-66). Median time from relapse to uDLI was 56 days versus 40 days for msDLI patients (p = 0.034). 35% of msDLI and 44% of uDLI patients developed acute GVHD (p = 0.50). There was no significant difference in Grade C/D GVHD among uDLI and msDLI (28% and 21%, p = 0.58) or median OS after DLI between uDLI and msDLI (95 versus 75 days, p = 0.76). For patients with relapsed acute leukemia and MDS after allogeneic HCT, time from relapse to uDLI was longer than to msDLI, but incidence of GVHD and overall survival were similar. Access to uDLI does not appear to be a barrier to DLI administration. Outcomes unfortunately remain poor regardless of donor source.

  3. Even! But No Longer Odd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    With hundreds of K-12 schools routinely offering online courses, the idea of a full-time virtual school is no longer as outlandish as it once may have seemed. Thanks to giant improvements in technology and the quality of their academic instruction, most virtual schools now hold a trump card they had not possessed: credibility. "There were…

  4. Peri-implant bone tissues around retrieved human implants after time periods longer than 5 years: a retrospective histologic and histomorphometric evaluation of 8 cases.

    PubMed

    Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano; Mangano, Carlo; Shibli, Jamil A; Vantaggiato, Giovanni; Frosecchi, Massimo; Di Chiara, Claudio; Perrotti, Vittoria

    2014-01-01

    Only rarely, it is possible to find in the literature histological reports of human retrieved implants, especially after several years of functional loading. These implants can help us in understanding the reactions of peri-implant bone. The aim of this study was to perform a histologic and histomorphometric analysis of the peri-implant tissues behavior and of the bone-titanium interface in titanium dental implants retrieved from patients after time periods longer than 5 years. The archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Dental School of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy were searched for human dental implants, retrieved after a loading period of more than 5 years. A total of 8 implants were found: 3 of these had been retrieved after 5 years, 1 after 6 years, one after 10 years, 1 after 14 years, 1 after 18 years, 1 after 22 years. Only the bone to implant contact in the three best threads was evaluated. Compact, mature, lamellar bone, with few and small marrow spaces, was present around the implants. Osteons with Haversian canals were present inside some threads, in close proximity to the interface, at both cortical and trabecular regions. Other osteons had a direction perpendicular to the direction of the long axis of the implants. Numerous reversal lines were present. At higher magnification, no gaps or fibrous, connective tissues were present at the interface. The BIC of the three best threads for all implants varied from 94 to 100 %.In conclusion, within the limitations of the present report histology showed that implants with different surfaces all presented the potential to maintain osseointegration over a long period, with a continuous remodeling at the interface, as indicated by the presence of reversal lines.

  5. Living Longer in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Emma; Diaz, Claudia; Fu, Mary Manqing; Kapteyn, Arie; Pierson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This analysis of aging and income security in Mexico establishes that the older population in Mexico is increasing quickly and that this population is especially vulnerable to poverty. Mexican citizens are living longer and overall have experienced an improvement in the quality of life compared to that of prior generations. However, this study demonstrates that social improvements are not affecting the daily lives of all persons equally. The authors attempt to uncover and highlight those differences. One of the primary challenges facing Mexico is a growing older population. The demographic transition in Mexico combined with the lack of formal sources of income in retirement place many older persons in a state of financial insecurity. The information contained in this study and the proposed policy research areas are intended to enlarge the portfolio of options for older Mexicans. The authors analyze wealth and sources of income during retirement, the relationship between health and wealth, urban and rural disparities, and the impact of migration spells to the United States on wealth accumulation and health insurance in Mexico. PMID:28083208

  6. Transient Supersaturation Supports Drug Absorption from Lipid-Based Formulations for Short Periods of Time, but Ongoing Solubilization Is Required for Longer Absorption Periods.

    PubMed

    Crum, Matthew F; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Pouton, Colin W; Porter, Christopher J H

    2017-02-06

    The current studies sought to explore the impact of drug supersaturation and precipitation during the dispersion and digestion of lipid-based formulations (LBFs), on in vivo absorption using a coupled in vitro digestion-in vivo perfusion absorption model. Fenofibrate absorption was evaluated from a number of LBFs with different solubilization and supersaturation capacities, and conditions at the absorptive membrane manipulated by changing perfusion conditions, intestine segment lengths, and by the conduct of experiments in the presence or absence of suspended/precipitated drug. LBF dispersion and digestion resulted in varying periods of supersaturation across the different formulations. Even fleeting (5-10 min) periods of supersaturation were able to drive flux across a perfused 10 cm intestinal segment for up to 60 min, although over longer infusion periods (60-80 min) flux dropped in the absence of ongoing drug solubilization and supersaturation. In contrast, the presence or absence of precipitated/suspended drug, had little impact on drug flux. When perfused intestinal segment lengths were extended, the role of initial supersaturation was attenuated and ongoing solubilization conditions became the primary driver of absorptive flux. The data suggest that for highly permeable drugs such as fenofibrate, a short period of supersaturation at the absorptive membrane may be sufficient to drive absorptive drug flux in spite of significant drug precipitation on formulation dispersion or digestion in vitro. In contrast, where longer periods of absorption are required, for example, at higher doses, the requirement for ongoing solubilization and supersaturation becomes more apparent.

  7. Test--retest stability of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale and the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia in chronic pain over a longer period of time.

    PubMed

    Lamé, Inge E; Peters, Madelon L; Kessels, Alfons G; Van Kleef, Maarten; Patijn, Jacob

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the test-retest stability of the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK) and their subscales in chronic pain patients over relatively long period of times like those that are most often seen in clinical practice. Fifty non-malignant chronic pain patients filled out the PCS and TSK twice with a mean interval between testing of 52 days. Both assessment instruments showed sufficient test-retest stability, even with long time intervals between testing.

  8. Ozone-Temperature Diurnal and Longer Term Correlations, in the Lower Thermosphere, Mesosphere and Stratosphere, Based on Measurements from SABER on TIMED

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Frank T.; Mayr, Hans G.; Russell, James M., III; Mlynczak, Martin G.

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of mutual ozone-temperature variations can provide useful information on their interdependencies relative to the photochemistry and dynamics governing their behavior. Previous studies have mostly been based on satellite measurements taken at a fixed local time in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere. For these data, it is shown that the zonal mean ozone amounts and temperatures in the lower stratosphere are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated in the upper stratosphere and in the lower mesosphere. The negative correlation, due to the dependence of photochemical reaction rates on temperature, indicates that ozone photochemistry is more important than dynamics in determining the ozone amounts. In this study, we provide new results by extending the analysis to include diurnal variations over 24 hrs of local time, and to larger spatial regimes, to include the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT). The results are based on measurements by the SABER instrument on the TIMED satellite. For mean variations (i.e., averages over local time and longitude) in the MLT, our results show that there is a sharp reversal in the correlation near 80 km altitude, above which the ozone mixing ratio and temperature are mostly positively correlated, while they are mostly negatively correlated below 80 km. This is consistent with the view that above -80 km, effects due to dynamics are more important compared to photochemistry. For diurnal variations, both the ozone and temperature show phase progressions in local time, as a function of altitude and latitude. For temperature, the phase progression is as expected, as they represent migrating tides. For day time ozone, we also find regular phase progression in local time over the whole altitude range of our analysis, 25 to 105 km, at least for low latitudes. This was not previously known, although phase progressions had been noted by us and by others at lower altitudes. For diurnal

  9. Assessment of second- and third-order ionospheric effects on regional networks: case study in China with longer CMONOC GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liansheng; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Chen, Hua; Wang, Kaihua; Ma, Yifang

    2017-02-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system analysis and have been proposed to become a standard part of precise GPS data processing. In this research, we apply HOI delay corrections to the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China's (CMONOC) data processing (from January 2000 to December 2013) and furnish quantitative results for the effects of HOI on CMONOC coordinate time series. The results for both a regional reference frame and global reference frame are analyzed and compared to clarify the HOI effects on the CMONOC network. We find that HOI corrections can effectively reduce the semi-annual signals in the northern and vertical components. For sites with lower semi-annual amplitudes, the average decrease in magnitude can reach 30 and 10 % for the northern and vertical components, respectively. The noise amplitudes with HOI corrections and those without HOI corrections are not significantly different. Generally, the HOI effects on CMONOC networks in a global reference frame are less obvious than the results in the regional reference frame, probably because the HOI-induced errors are smaller in comparison to the higher noise levels seen when using a global reference frame. Furthermore, we investigate the combined contributions of environmental loading and HOI effects on the CMONOC stations. The largest loading effects on the vertical displacement are found in the mid- to high-latitude areas. The weighted root mean square differences between the corrected and original weekly GPS height time series of the loading model indicate that the mass loading adequately reduced the scatter on the CMONOC height time series, whereas the results in the global reference frame showed better agreements between the GPS coordinate time series and the environmental loading. When combining the effects of environmental loading and HOI corrections, the results with the HOI corrections reduced

  10. Assessment of second- and third-order ionospheric effects on regional networks: case study in China with longer CMONOC GPS coordinate time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Liansheng; Jiang, Weiping; Li, Zhao; Chen, Hua; Wang, Kaihua; Ma, Yifang

    2016-09-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) delays are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system analysis and have been proposed to become a standard part of precise GPS data processing. In this research, we apply HOI delay corrections to the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China's (CMONOC) data processing (from January 2000 to December 2013) and furnish quantitative results for the effects of HOI on CMONOC coordinate time series. The results for both a regional reference frame and global reference frame are analyzed and compared to clarify the HOI effects on the CMONOC network. We find that HOI corrections can effectively reduce the semi-annual signals in the northern and vertical components. For sites with lower semi-annual amplitudes, the average decrease in magnitude can reach 30 and 10 % for the northern and vertical components, respectively. The noise amplitudes with HOI corrections and those without HOI corrections are not significantly different. Generally, the HOI effects on CMONOC networks in a global reference frame are less obvious than the results in the regional reference frame, probably because the HOI-induced errors are smaller in comparison to the higher noise levels seen when using a global reference frame. Furthermore, we investigate the combined contributions of environmental loading and HOI effects on the CMONOC stations. The largest loading effects on the vertical displacement are found in the mid- to high-latitude areas. The weighted root mean square differences between the corrected and original weekly GPS height time series of the loading model indicate that the mass loading adequately reduced the scatter on the CMONOC height time series, whereas the results in the global reference frame showed better agreements between the GPS coordinate time series and the environmental loading. When combining the effects of environmental loading and HOI corrections, the results with the HOI corrections reduced

  11. Longer dialysis session length is associated with better intermediate outcomes and survival among patients on in-center three times per week hemodialysis: results from the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS)

    PubMed Central

    Tentori, Francesca; Zhang, Jinyao; Li, Yun; Karaboyas, Angelo; Kerr, Peter; Saran, Rajiv; Bommer, Juergen; Port, Friedrich; Akiba, Takashi; Pisoni, Ronald; Robinson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Background Longer dialysis session length (treatment time, TT) has been associated with better survival among hemodialysis (HD) patients. The impact of TT on clinical markers that may contribute to this survival advantage is not well known. Methods Using data from the international Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study, we assessed the association of TT with clinical outcomes using both standard regression analyses and instrumental variable approaches. The study included 37 414 patients on in-center HD three times per week with prescribed TT from 120 to 420 min. Results Facility mean TT ranged from 214 min in the USA to 256 min in Australia–New Zealand. Accounting for country effects, mortality risk was lower for patients with longer TT {hazard ratio for every 30 min: all-cause mortality: 0.94 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.92–0.97], cardiovascular mortality: 0.95 (95% CI: 0.91–0.98) and sudden death: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.88–0.98)}. Patients with longer TT had lower pre- and post-dialysis systolic blood pressure, greater intradialytic weight loss, higher hemoglobin (for the same erythropoietin dose), serum albumin and potassium and lower serum phosphorus and white blood cell counts. Similar associations were found using the instrumental variable approach, although the positive associations of TT with weight loss and potassium were lost. Conclusions Favorable levels of a variety of clinical markers may contribute to the better survival of patients receiving longer TT. These findings support longer TT prescription in the setting of in-center, three times per week HD. PMID:22431708

  12. Sea level fluctuations in central California at subtidal to decadal and longer time scales with implications for San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, H.F.; Noble, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Sea level elevations from near the mouth of San Francisco Bay are used to describe the low-frequency variability of forcing of the coastal ocean on the Bay at a variety of temporal scales. About 90% of subtidal fluctuations in sea level in San Francisco Bay are driven by the sea level variations in the coastal ocean that propagate into the Bay at the estuary mouth. We use the 100-year sea level record available at San Francisco to document a 1.9 mm/yr mean sea level rise, and to determine fluctuations related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and other climatic events. At time scales greater than 1 year, ENSO dominates the sea level signal and can result in fluctuations in sea level of 10-15 cm. Alongshore wind stress data from central California are also analyzed to determine the impact of changes in coastal elevation at the mouth of San Francisco Bay within the synoptic wind band of 2-30 days. At least 40% of the subtidal fluctuations in sea level of the Bay are tied to the large-scale regional wind field affecting sea level variations in the coastal ocean, with little local, direct wind forcing of the Bay itself. The majority of the subtidal sea level fluctuations within the Bay that are not related to the coastal ocean sea level signal are forced by an east-west sea level gradient resulting from tidally induced variations in sea level at specific beat frequencies that are enhanced in the northern reach of the Bay. River discharge into the Bay through the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta also contributes to the east-west gradient, but to a lesser degree. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. X-ray absorption resonances near L2,3-edges from real-time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Marius; Konecny, Lukas; Gao, Bin; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-09-21

    The solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the relativistic Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix formalism is presented and used to calculate X-ray absorption cross sections. Both dynamical relaxation effects and spin-orbit corrections are included, as demonstrated by calculations of the X-ray absorption of SF6 near the sulfur L2,3-edges. We also propose an analysis facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions from real-time simulations, and a selective perturbation that eliminates nonphysical excitations that are artifacts of the finite basis representation.

  14. The duration of disgusted and fearful faces is judged longer and shorter than that of neutral faces: the attention-related time distortions as revealed by behavioral and electrophysiological measurements

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Liu, Yunzhe; Wang, Xiaochun; Chen, Yuming; Luo, Yuejia

    2014-01-01

    Time perception has been shown to be altered by emotions. This study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of two threat-related emotions on the judgment of time intervals in the range of 490–910 ms. We demonstrated that disgust and fear have distinct influences on time perception. At the behavioral level, disgusted faces were estimated longer and fearful faces were estimated shorter (i.e., the generalization gradient for the disgusted faces was shifted left while the generalization gradient for the fearful faces was shifted right) when compared with neutral faces. Accordingly, the contingent negative variation, an online ERP index of timing, displayed larger area in disgust and smaller area in fear conditions when compared with neutral condition (disgust = 1.94 ± 2.35 μV•s, neutral = 1.40 ± 2.5 μV•s, and fear = 1.00 ± 2.26 μV•s). These findings indicated that specific neural mechanisms may underlie the attention effects of different subtypes of threat-related emotions on timing; compared with neutral faces, fearful faces are likely to attract more attentional resources while disgusted faces may attract less attentional resources for emotional processing. The major contribution of the current study is to provide neural correlates of fear vs. disgust divergence in the aspect of time perception and to demonstrate beyond the behavioral level that the categorization of threat-related emotions should be refined so to highlight the adaptability of the human defense system. PMID:25221488

  15. A Window into Longer Lasting Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    2016-11-29

    There’s a new tool in the push to engineer rechargeable batteries that last longer and charge more quickly. An X-ray microscopy technique recently developed at Berkeley Lab has given scientists the ability to image nanoscale changes inside lithium-ion battery particles as they charge and discharge. The real-time images provide a new way to learn how batteries work, and how to improve them. The method was developed at Berkeley Lab’s Advanced Light Source, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, by a team of researchers from the Department of Energy’s SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Berkeley Lab, Stanford University, and other institutions.

  16. Development and validation of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays to detect elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Jeffrey J; Nofs, Sally A; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S; Ling, Paul D

    2012-12-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5log(10) concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness.

  17. Longer Life for Steel Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    IC 531 is a coating manufactured and marketed by Inorganic Coatings, Inc. The coating was developed by Goddard to protect structures at Kennedy Space Center. It is a high ratio potassium silicate formula. The coating is water based, nontoxic, and nonflammable. It generates no volatile organic compounds nor hazardous chemical waste, and bonds to steel in 30 minutes. At the present time, no one can say for sure how long IC 531's effective lifetime is. Some of the original Goddard test applications of 1976 are still going strong after lengthy exposure to the Sun, salt and moisture. Says IC in company literature: 'IC 531 offers virtually permanent protection for steel. We predict it will protect structures for well beyond 25 years. If necessary, it is infinitely maintainable; if damaged, it can easily be touched up with more IC 531.'

  18. Relearn Faster and Retain Longer.

    PubMed

    Mazza, Stéphanie; Gerbier, Emilie; Gustin, Marie-Paule; Kasikci, Zumrut; Koenig, Olivier; Toppino, Thomas C; Magnin, Michel

    2016-10-01

    Both repeated practice and sleep improve long-term retention of information. The assumed common mechanism underlying these effects is memory reactivation, either on-line and effortful or off-line and effortless. In the study reported here, we investigated whether sleep-dependent memory consolidation could help to save practice time during relearning. During two sessions occurring 12 hr apart, 40 participants practiced foreign vocabulary until they reached a perfect level of performance. Half of them learned in the morning and relearned in the evening of a single day. The other half learned in the evening of one day, slept, and then relearned in the morning of the next day. Their retention was assessed 1 week later and 6 months later. We found that interleaving sleep between learning sessions not only reduced the amount of practice needed by half but also ensured much better long-term retention. Sleeping after learning is definitely a good strategy, but sleeping between two learning sessions is a better strategy.

  19. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  20. Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…

  1. Large-brained mammals live longer.

    PubMed

    González-Lagos, C; Sol, D; Reader, S M

    2010-05-01

    Many mammals have brains substantially larger than expected for their body size, but the reasons for this remain ambiguous. Enlarged brains are metabolically expensive and require elongated developmental periods, and so natural selection should have favoured their evolution only if they provide counterbalancing advantages. One possible advantage is facilitating the construction of behavioural responses to unusual, novel or complex socio-ecological challenges. This buffer effect should increase survival rates and favour a longer reproductive life, thereby compensating for the costs of delayed reproduction. Here, using a global database of 493 species, we provide evidence showing that mammals with enlarged brains (relative to their body size) live longer and have a longer reproductive lifespan. Our analysis supports and extends previous findings, accounting for the possible confounding effects of other life history traits, ecological and dietary factors, and phylogenetic autocorrelation. Thus, these findings provide support for the hypothesis that mammals counterbalance the costs of affording large brains with a longer reproductive life.

  2. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  3. Giant Intergalactic Gas Stream Longer Than Thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A giant stream of gas flowing from neighbor galaxies around our own Milky Way is much longer and older than previously thought, astronomers have discovered. The new revelations provide a fresh insight on what started the gaseous intergalactic streamer. The astronomers used the National Science Foundation's Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to fill important gaps in the picture of gas streaming outward from the Magellanic Clouds. The first evidence of such a flow, named the Magellanic Stream, was discovered more than 30 years ago, and subsequent observations added tantalizing suggestions that there was more. However, the earlier picture showed gaps that left unanswered whether this other gas was part of the same system. "We now have answered that question. The stream is continuous," said David Nidever, of the University of Virginia. "We now have a much more complete map of the Magellanic Stream," he added. The astronomers presented their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Washington, DC. The Magellanic Clouds are the Milky Way's two nearest neighbor galaxies, about 150,000 to 200,000 light-years distant from the Milky Way. Visible in the Southern Hemisphere, they are much smaller than our Galaxy and may have been distorted by its gravity. Nidever and his colleagues observed the Magellanic Stream for more than 100 hours with the GBT. They then combined their GBT data with that from earlier studies with other radio telescopes, including the Arecibo telescope in Puerto Rico, the Parkes telescope in Australia, and the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. The result shows that the stream is more than 40 percent longer than previously known with certainty. One consequence of the added length of the gas stream is that it must be older, the astronomers say. They now estimate the age of the stream at 2.5 billion years. The revised size and age of the Magellanic Stream also provides a new potential explanation for how the flow got started

  4. Non-fibrillar beta-amyloid abates spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses in layer 2/3 of the neocortex by targeting postsynaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Shemer, Isaac; Holmgren, Carl; Min, Rogier; Fülöp, Livia; Zilberter, Misha; Sousa, Kyle M; Farkas, Tamás; Härtig, Wolfgang; Penke, Botond; Burnashev, Nail; Tanila, Heikki; Zilberter, Yuri; Harkany, Tibor

    2006-04-01

    Cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) stems from the progressive dysfunction of synaptic connections within cortical neuronal microcircuits. Recently, soluble amyloid beta protein oligomers (Abeta(ol)s) have been identified as critical triggers for early synaptic disorganization. However, it remains unknown whether a deficit of Hebbian-related synaptic plasticity occurs during the early phase of AD. Therefore, we studied whether age-dependent Abeta accumulation affects the induction of spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses on neocortical layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells in the APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mouse model of AD. Synaptic potentiation at excitatory synapses onto L2/3 pyramidal cells was significantly reduced at the onset of Abeta pathology and was virtually absent in mice with advanced Abeta burden. A decreased alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA)/N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated current ratio implicated postsynaptic mechanisms underlying Abeta synaptotoxicity. The integral role of Abeta(ol)s in these processes was verified by showing that pretreatment of cortical slices with Abeta((25-35)ol)s disrupted spike-timing-dependent synaptic potentiation at unitary connections between L2/3 pyramidal cells, and reduced the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents therein. A robust decrement of AMPA, but not NMDA, receptor-mediated currents in nucleated patches from L2/3 pyramidal cells confirmed that Abeta(ol)s perturb basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission by affecting postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Inhibition of AMPA receptor desensitization by cyclothiazide significantly increased the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials evoked by afferent stimulation, and rescued synaptic plasticity even in mice with pronounced Abeta pathology. We propose that soluble Abeta(ol)s trigger the diminution of synaptic plasticity in neocortical pyramidal cell networks during early

  5. Atomic weights: no longer constants of nature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Holden, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    Many of us were taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis have changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature

  6. An approach for longer lifetime MCFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Hayano, Takuro

    1996-12-31

    For entering into commercialization of MCFC power plants in the beginning of the 21st century, we will devote to research for increasing lifetime as long as 40,000 hours with cell performance decay rate of 0.25 %/1000hrs as the target in FY 1999. This paper will discuss on our approach for longer lifetime MCFCs through electrolyte-loss management and NiO precipitation management as well as micro-structural control of electrodes and matrix plates. Cell voltage decay rate will be estimated by simulation through series of experiments on accelerated conditions.

  7. Atomic Weights No Longer Constants of Nature

    SciTech Connect

    Coplen, T.B.; Holden, N.

    2011-03-01

    Many of us grew up being taught that the standard atomic weights we found in the back of our chemistry textbooks or on the Periodic Table of the Chemical Elements hanging on the wall of our chemistry classroom are constants of nature. This was common knowledge for more than a century and a half, but not anymore. The following text explains how advances in chemical instrumentation and isotopic analysis has changed the way we view atomic weights and why they are no longer constants of nature.

  8. Comparative Study of Ultraviolet Laser-Based Time-Resolved Photoacoustic Fingerprint Spectra and Thermal Decomposition Mechanisms of Energetic 1,2,3-1H-Triazole Derivatives Under Controlled Pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Rao, Konda Srinivasa; Chaudhary, Anil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    We report the comparative study of photoacoustic (PA) fingerprint spectra, thermal decomposition, and stability mechanism of some phenyl and bis series energetic compounds named 1-(2-methoxy,-3,5-dinitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole ( S5), 1-(3-methoxy, 2, 6 dinitrophenyl) 1H-1, 2, 3 triazole ( S10), 1-(4-nitrophenyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole ( S8), and 2,6-bis ((4-(nitromethyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)methyl) pyridine ( S9). Fourth harmonic wavelength, i.e., 266 nm of pulse duration 7 ns and 10 Hz repetition rate obtained from Q-switched Nd: YAG laser, was used to record the thermal PA spectra of these compounds under controlled pyrolysis condition in the range of 30-350 ℃. The PA fingerprint spectra are produced due to entire molecule vapor along with principal functional byproduct NO2 molecule. NO2 molecule is a major gas released during thermal decomposition due to weakest nature of C-NO2 bond. Further, NO2 molecules are involved in photodissociation process due to π*← n transition and converted into NO molecules inside the PA cell due to excitation by 266 nm wavelength. The combined results of PA and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) spectra along with thermo gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) data confirm the thermal decomposition mechanism process that can be completed in multiple steps. In addition, GC-MS spectra also confirm the release of NO and NO2 molecules. The effect of incident laser energy and data acquisition time has been carried out for understanding the behavior of acoustic modes. Finally, the thermal quality factor "Q" is measured to test the stability of compounds.

  9. Early Improvement in Psychosocial Function Predicts Longer-Term Symptomatic Remission in Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Manish K.; Minhajuddin, Abu; Greer, Tracy L.; Carmody, Thomas; Rush, Augustus John

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between early change in psychosocial function independent of depression severity and longer-term symptomatic remission. Participants of Combining Medications to Enhance Depression Outcomes trial were randomly selected for model selection (n = 334) and validation (n = 331). Changes in psychosocial function (Work and Social Adjustment Scale, WSAS) from baseline to week 6 were assessed and two data-driven sub-groups of WSAS change were identified in the randomly selected model selection half. Results of analyses to predict symptomatic remission at 3 and 7 months were validated for these sub-groups in the second half (validation sample). From baseline to week 6, psychosocial function improved significantly even after adjusting for depression severity at each visit and select baseline variables (age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, income, employment, depression onset before age 18, anxious features, and suicidal ideation), treatment-arm, and WSAS score. The WSAS change patterns identified two (early improvement and gradual change) subgroups. After adjusting for baseline variables and remission status at week 6, participants with early improvement in the second half (validation sample) had greater remission rates than those with gradual change at both 3 (3.3 times) and 7 months (2.3 times) following acute treatment initiation. In conclusion, early improvement in psychosocial function provides a clinically meaningful prediction of longer-term symptomatic remission, independent of depression symptom severity. PMID:28030546

  10. Therapeutic Manuka Honey: No Longer So Alternative

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Dee A.; Blair, Shona E.; Cokcetin, Nural N.; Bouzo, Daniel; Brooks, Peter; Schothauer, Ralf; Harry, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal honey research is undergoing a substantial renaissance. From a folklore remedy largely dismissed by mainstream medicine as “alternative”, we now see increased interest by scientists, clinical practitioners and the general public in the therapeutic uses of honey. There are a number of drivers of this interest: first, the rise in antibiotic resistance by many bacterial pathogens has prompted interest in developing and using novel antibacterials; second, an increasing number of reliable studies and case reports have demonstrated that certain honeys are very effective wound treatments; third, therapeutic honey commands a premium price, and the honey industry is actively promoting studies that will allow it to capitalize on this; and finally, the very complex and rather unpredictable nature of honey provides an attractive challenge for laboratory scientists. In this paper we review manuka honey research, from observational studies on its antimicrobial effects through to current experimental and mechanistic work that aims to take honey into mainstream medicine. We outline current gaps and remaining controversies in our knowledge of how honey acts, and suggest new studies that could make honey a no longer “alternative” alternative. PMID:27148246

  11. Rolling stones and turbulent eddies: why the bigger live longer and travel farther

    PubMed Central

    Bejan, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the discovery that even the simplest, oldest and most prevalent forms of evolutionary movement—rolling bodies and whirls of turbulence—exhibit the same body-size effect on life time and life travel as the evolutionary movement united by the body-size effect so far: animals, rivers, vehicles, jets and plumes. In short, the bigger should last longer and travel farther. For rolling bodies, the life span (t) and the life travel (L) should increase with the body mass (M) raised to the powers 1/6 and 1/3, respectively. The number of rolls during this movement is constant, independent of body size. For an eddy of turbulence, t should increase with the eddy mass (M) raised to the power 2/3, while L should increase with M2/3 times the bulk speed of the turbulent stream that carries the eddy. The number of rolls during the eddy life span is a constant independent of eddy size. PMID:26883787

  12. The Dissertation Can No Longer Be Defended

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Stacey

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation is broken, many scholars agree. Rethinking the academic centerpiece of a graduate education is an obvious place to start if, as many people believe, Ph.D. programs are in a state of crisis. Universities face urgent calls to reduce the time it takes to complete degrees, reduce attrition, and do more to prepare doctoral candidates…

  13. Time-dependent magnetoelectric effect in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 heterostructure: A ferromagnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue-Lei; Chen, Qian-Ping; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Pan, Liqing; Sun, Young

    2013-08-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance with applied electric fields has been used to investigate the magnetoelectric effect in a Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 heterostructure. The out-of-plane magnetoelectric effect follows a butterfly behavior in response to electric field, consistent with the linear piezoelectric strain-mediated mechanism. In contrast, the in-plane magnetoelectric effect exhibits a loop-like dependence on electric field. In addition, a relaxation of the in-plane resonant field has been observed after the ferroelectric domains are switched. The loop-like feature and the time-dependent response suggest that the in-plane magnetoelectric coupling involves the 109° switching and relaxation of ferroelectric domains.

  14. Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover from Brain Injury

    MedlinePlus

    ... Why Some Kids Take Longer to Recover From Brain Injury Scans reveal white-matter decline after some ... 15, 2017 WEDNESDAY, March 15, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Brain scans may reveal which children will take longer ...

  15. Effect of longer battery life on small bowel capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ou, George; Shahidi, Neal; Galorport, Cherry; Takach, Oliver; Lee, Terry; Enns, Robert

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine if longer battery life improves capsule endoscopy (CE) completion rates. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed at a tertiary, university-affiliated hospital in Vancouver, Canada. Patients who underwent CE with either PillCam™ SB2 or SB2U between 01/2010 and 12/2013 were considered for inclusion. SB2 and SB2U share identical physical dimensions but differ in their battery lives (8 h vs 12 h). Exclusion criteria included history of gastric or small bowel surgery, endoscopic placement of CE, interrupted view of major landmarks due to technical difficulty or significant amount of debris, and repeat CE using same system. Basic demographics, comorbidities, medications, baseline bowel habits, and previous surgeries were reviewed. Timing of major landmarks in CE were recorded, and used to calculate gastric transit time, small bowel transit time, and total recording time. A complete CE study was defined as visualization of cecum. Transit times and completion rates were compared. RESULTS: Four hundred and eight patients, including 208 (51.0%) males, were included for analysis. The mean age was 55.5 ± 19.3 years. The most common indication for CE was gastrointestinal bleeding (n = 254, 62.3%), followed by inflammatory bowel disease (n = 86, 21.1%). There was no difference in gastric transit times (group difference 0.90, 95%CI: 0.72-1.13, P = 0.352) and small bowel transit times (group difference 1.07, 95%CI: 0.95-1.19, P = 0.261) between SB2U and SB2, but total recording time was about 14% longer in the SB2U group (95%CI: 10%-18%, P < 0.001) and there was a corresponding trend toward higher completion rate (88.2% vs 93.2%, OR = 1.78, 95%CI 0.88-3.63, P = 0.111). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of positive findings (OR = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.64-1.51, P = 0.918). CONCLUSION: Extending the operating time of CE may be a simple method to improve completion rate although it does not affect the rate of positive findings. PMID

  16. Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy Study of the Coordination Chemistry of a Hydrophilic CHON [1,2,3-Triazol-4-yl]pyridine Ligand with Cm(III) and Eu(III).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christoph; Mossini, Eros; Macerata, Elena; Mariani, Mario; Arduini, Arturo; Casnati, Alessandro; Geist, Andreas; Panak, Petra J

    2017-02-20

    The complexation of Cm(III) and Eu(III) with the novel i-SANEX complexing agent 2,6-bis[1-(propan-1-ol)-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]pyridine (PTD) was studied by time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS). The formation of 1:3, 1:2, and 1:1 metal/ligand complexes was identified upon increasing PTD concentration in 10(-3) mol/L HClO4 and in 0.44 mol/L HNO3 solutions. For all these complexes, stability constants were determined at different acid concentrations. Though under the extraction conditions proposed for an An/Ln separation process, that is, for 0.08 mol/L PTD in 0.44 mol/L HNO3, 1:3 complexes represent the major species, a significant fraction of 1:2 complexes was found. This is caused by ligand protonation, and results in lower Eu(III)/Am(III) separation factors compared to SO3-Ph-BTP, until now considered the i-SANEX reference ligand. Focused extraction studies performed at lower proton concentration, where the 1:3 complex is formed exclusively, confirm this assumption.

  17. Longer sleep durations are positively associated with finishing place during a national multi-day netball competition.

    PubMed

    Juliff, Laura E; Halson, Shona L; Hebert, Jeffrey; Forsyth, Peta L; Peiffer, Jeremiah J

    2017-01-20

    Sleep is often regarded as the single best recovery strategy available to an athlete, yet little is known about the quality and quantity of sleep in athletes during multi-day competitions. The present study objectively evaluated sleep characteristics of athletes during a national netball tournament. Using wrist actigraphy monitors and sleep diaries 42 netballers from four state teams were monitored for the duration of a tournament (6 days) and 12 days prior in home environments. Significant differences were found between teams based on final competition standings, suggesting enhanced sleep characteristics in athlete's whose team finished higher in the tournament standings. The top two placed teams when compared with the lower two placed teams slept longer (8:02 ± 36:43; 7:01 ± 27:33), had greater time in bed (9:03 ± 0:52; 7:59 ± 0:54) and reported enhanced subjective sleep ratings (2.6 ± 0.5; 2.3 ± 0.6). Sleep efficiency was no different between teams. A strong correlation (r = -0.68) was found indicating longer sleep durations during competition were associated with higher final tournament positions. Encouraging athletes to aim for longer sleep durations in competition, where possible, may influence the outcome in tournament style competitions.

  18. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 010F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 1,2,3 - TRICHLOROPROPANE ( CAS No . 96 - 18 - 4 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC i DISCLAIMER This document ha

  19. Education and Training: Is There Any Longer a Useful Distinction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Paul; Laurent, John

    1990-01-01

    Although education and training were distinct concepts when Taylorism dominated the workplace, it is no longer appropriate to separate them. Today's highly competitive environment requires the education of a flexible, multiskilled workforce, not training for narrowly defined employment tasks. (SK)

  20. Healthy Diet May Mean Longer Life for Kidney Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Healthy Diet May Mean Longer Life for Kidney Patients Study found eating lots of fruit, vegetables, fish, ... available evidence to drive clinical decision-making by patients and doctors on whole dietary approaches in chronic ...

  1. 2. WARHEADING BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. WARHEADING BUILDING, RIGHT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING WEST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  2. 3. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WARHEADING BUILDING, REAR SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  3. 4. WARHEADING BUILDING, LEFT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WARHEADING BUILDING, LEFT SIDE, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING EAST. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  4. 1. WARHEADING BUILDING, FRONT, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WARHEADING BUILDING, FRONT, CENTER OF BERM, NO LONGER IN EXISTENCE, LOOKING NORTH. - NIKE Missile Base SL-40, Warheading Building, South end of launch area, west of Generator Building No. 3, Hecker, Monroe County, IL

  5. More Dreams in Longer Night: United States China Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT MORE DREAMS IN LONGER NIGHT: UNITED STATES CHINA POLICY by Lieutenant Colonel Troy L. Dixon United States Air Force...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE More Dreams in Longer Night United States China... UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) U.S. Army War College,Carlisle Barracks,Carlisle,PA,17013-5050 8. PERFORMING

  6. LWIR pupil imaging and longer-term calibration stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeVan, Paul D.; Sakoglu, Ünal

    2016-09-01

    A previous paper described LWIR pupil imaging, and an improved understanding of the behavior of this type of sensor for which the high-sensitivity focal plane array (FPA) operated at higher flux levels includes a reversal in signal integration polarity. We have since considered a candidate methodology for efficient, long-term calibration stability that exploits the following two properties of pupil imaging: (1) a fixed pupil position on the FPA, and (2) signal levels from the scene imposed on significant but fixed LWIR background levels. These two properties serve to keep each pixel operating over a limited dynamic range that corresponds to its location in the pupil and to the signal levels generated at this location by the lower and upper calibration flux levels. Exploiting this property for which each pixel of the Pupil Imager operates over its limited dynamic range, the signal polarity reversal between low and high flux pixels, which occurs for a circular region of pixels near the upper edges of the pupil illumination profile, can be rectified to unipolar integration with a two-level non-uniformity correction (NUC). Images corrected real-time with standard non-uniformity correction (NUC) techniques, are still subject to longer-term drifts in pixel offsets between recalibrations. Long-term calibration stability might then be achieved using either a scene-based non-uniformity correction approach, or with periodic repointing for off-source background estimation and subtraction. Either approach requires dithering of the field of view, by sub-pixel amounts for the first method, or by large off-source motions outside the 0.38 milliradian FOV for the latter method. We report on the results of investigations along both these lines.

  7. Revisiting Academic Capitalism in Canada: No Longer the Exception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalfe, Amy Scott

    2010-01-01

    In "Academic Capitalism: Politics, Policies, and the Entrepreneurial University" (1997), Slaughter and Leslie found that Canada showed signs of resisting academic capitalism. Changes in postsecondary education funding policies and the emergence of new commercialization initiatives are evidence that Canada is certainly no longer, and…

  8. 16. A LONGER VIEW OF THE SAME LAMP STANDARD, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. A LONGER VIEW OF THE SAME LAMP STANDARD, SHOWING THE OCTAGONAL PEBBLE AGGREGATE SHAFT. - County Line Bridge, Spanning St. Joseph River at State Route 219, 0.6 mile south of U.S. Route 20, Osceola, St. Joseph County, IN

  9. No Longer Guaranteed...Global Positioning System Alternative Necessary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    enemy position and movement. The military’s use of the global positioning system ( GPS ) has created a sig- nificant military advantage in accurate...2003 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2003 to 00-00-2003 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE No Longer Guaranteed... Global positioning system alternative...access, there are now no sufficiently secure, jam-resistant, precision positioning devices or systems . Accordingly, there is a need for a non- GPS

  10. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  11. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  12. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  13. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  14. 39 CFR 2.3 - Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offices. 2.3 Section 2.3 Postal Service UNITED... (ARTICLE II) § 2.3 Offices. The principal office of the Postal Service is located in Washington, DC, with such regional and other offices and places of business as the Postmaster General establishes from...

  15. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  16. 39 CFR 2.3 - Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Offices. 2.3 Section 2.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE GENERAL AND TECHNICAL PROVISIONS (ARTICLE II) § 2.3 Offices. The principal office of the Postal Service is located in Washington, DC,...

  17. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  18. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  19. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  20. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  1. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  2. Scalable video compression using longer motion compensated temporal filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golwelkar, Abhijeet V.; Woods, John W.

    2003-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) subband/wavelet coding using a motion compensated temporal filter (MCTF) is emerging as a very effective structure for highly scalable video coding. Most previous work has used two-tap Haar filters for the temporal analysis/synthesis. To make better use of the temporal redundancies, we are proposing an MCTF scheme based on longer biorthogonal filters. We show a lifting based coder capable of subpixel accurate motion compensation. If we retain the fixed size GOP structure of the Haar filter MCTFs, we need to use symmetric extensions at both ends of the GOP. This gives rise to loss of coding efficiency at the GOP boundaries resulting in significant PSNR drops there. This performance can be considerably improved by using a 'sliding window,' in place of the GOP block. We employ the 5/3 filter and its non-orthogonality causes PSNR variation, which can be reduced by employing filter-based weighting coefficients. Overall the longer filters have a higher coding gain than the Haar filters and show significant improvement in average PSNR at high bit rates. However, a doubling in the number of motion vectors to be transmitted, translates to a drop in PSNR at the lower video bit rates.

  3. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  4. U32: Vehicle Stability and Dynamics: Longer Combination Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Petrolino, Joseph; Spezia, Tony; Arant, Michael; Broshears, Eric; Chitwood, Caleb; Colbert, Jameson; Hathaway, Richard; Keil, Mitch; LaClair, Tim J; Pape, Doug; Patterson, Jim; Pittro, Collin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the safety and stability of longer combination vehicles (LCVs), in particular a triple trailer combination behind a commercial tractor, which has more complicated dynamics than the more common tractor in combination with a single semitrailer. The goal was to measure and model the behavior of LCVs in simple maneuvers. Example maneuvers tested and modeled were single and double lane changes, a gradual lane change, and a constant radius curve. In addition to test track data collection and a brief highway test, two computer models of LCVs were developed. One model is based on TruckSim , a lumped parameter model widely used for single semitrailer combinations. The other model was built in Adams software, which more explicitly models the geometry of the components of the vehicle, in terms of compliant structural members. Among other results, the models were able to duplicate the experimentally measured rearward amplification behavior that is characteristic of multi-unit combination vehicles.

  5. Fringe tracking at longer wavelengths using near- and mid-IR integrated optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthusubramanian, Balaji; Labadie, Lucas; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Tepper, Jan; Minardi, Stefano; Diener, Romina

    2016-08-01

    Fringe tracking at longer wavelengths is advantageous for its larger Fried parameter (R0) and longer coherence time (τ0). The fringe trackers which are currently available at the VLTi (Finito, FSU, Gravity, etc.) tracks fringes at the near infrared wavelengths (H and K bands). In our work we try to explore the possibilities to track near and mid- infrared fringes using GLS based laser written integrated optics beam combiners. We simulate the atmospheric optical path difference (OPD) using Kolmogorov/Von-Karman atmospheric turbulence statistics. We also include the measured the piston noise generated due to the instrumental vibrations. Using the resulting OPD time series we can estimate the sensitivity of the fringe tracker at the L band.

  6. Symmetry Lasts Longer Than Random, but Only for Brief Presentations

    PubMed Central

    Makin, Alexis D. J.; Palumbo, Letizia; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit emotional content or physical image properties (e.g., luminance, size, and numerosity) alter subjective duration. Palumbo recently demonstrated that the presence or absence of abstract reflectional symmetry also influenced subjective duration. Here, we explored this phenomenon further by varying the type of symmetry (reflection or rotation) and the objective duration of stimulus presentation (less or more than 1 second). Experiment 1 used a verbal estimation task in which participants estimated the presentation duration of reflection, rotation symmetry, or random square-field patterns. Longer estimates were given for reflectional symmetry images than rotation or random, but only when the image was presented for less than 1 second. There was no difference between rotation and random. These findings were confirmed by a second experiment using a paired-comparison task. This temporal distortion could be because reflection has positive valence or because it is processed efficiently be the visual system. The mechanism remains to be determined. We are relatively sure, however, that reflectional patterns can increase subjective duration in the absence of explicit semantic content, and in the absence of changes in the size, luminance, or numerosity in the images. PMID:27895887

  7. Older adults with higher income or marriage have longer telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yung-Chieh; Lung, For-Wey

    2013-01-01

    Background: telomere length has been used to represent biological ageing and is found to be associated with various physiological, psychological and social factors. Objective: to explore the effects of income and marriage on leucocyte telomere length in a representative sample of older adults. Design and subjects: cross-sectional analysis among 298 adults, aged 65–74, randomly selected from the community by census. Methods: telomere length was measured by quantitative PCR. Participants provided information on sociodemographics, physical illness and completed questionnaires rating mental state and perceived neighbourhood experience. Results: telomere length was negatively associated with lower income [coefficient −0.141 (95% CI: −0.244 to −0.020), P = 0.021] and positively associated with the marital status [coefficient 0.111 (95% CI: −0.008 to 0.234), P = 0.067] when controlling for gender, age, educational level, physical diseases (including diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular disease and Parkinson's disease), depressive symptoms, minor mental symptoms, cognitive impairment and perceived neighbourhood experience (including social support, perceived security and public facilities). Conclusions: these results indicate that older adults with higher income or being married have longer telomeres when other sociodemographics, physical diseases, mental status and neighbourhood experience are adjusted. PMID:22951603

  8. Symmetry Lasts Longer Than Random, but Only for Brief Presentations.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Ruth; Makin, Alexis D J; Palumbo, Letizia; Bertamini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that explicit emotional content or physical image properties (e.g., luminance, size, and numerosity) alter subjective duration. Palumbo recently demonstrated that the presence or absence of abstract reflectional symmetry also influenced subjective duration. Here, we explored this phenomenon further by varying the type of symmetry (reflection or rotation) and the objective duration of stimulus presentation (less or more than 1 second). Experiment 1 used a verbal estimation task in which participants estimated the presentation duration of reflection, rotation symmetry, or random square-field patterns. Longer estimates were given for reflectional symmetry images than rotation or random, but only when the image was presented for less than 1 second. There was no difference between rotation and random. These findings were confirmed by a second experiment using a paired-comparison task. This temporal distortion could be because reflection has positive valence or because it is processed efficiently be the visual system. The mechanism remains to be determined. We are relatively sure, however, that reflectional patterns can increase subjective duration in the absence of explicit semantic content, and in the absence of changes in the size, luminance, or numerosity in the images.

  9. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  10. A Growing and Expanding Earth is no Longer Questionable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2008-05-01

    The young age of today's oceans is absolute proof that the Earth has been growing and expanding for the past 250 million years. Today, these young oceans now cover approximately 71% of Earth's surface and have added about 40% to its size. That fact, alone, is proof that Kant's nebular hypothesis is false, and that the Earth has been increasing in size and mass for the past 250 million years. Growth and expansion of the Earth can no longer be refuted. Ocean sediments cored from basaltic basement floors by the Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) and its successors confirm that all of today's oceans are relatively young and could not have been present when the planet was first created, as postulated by Kant's nebular hypothesis (1755), modified by Laplace in 1796, which holds that the Earth and other planets were created approximately 4.6 billion years ago with their present sizes and chemical composition. The nebular hypothesis has no evidence to support it and is easily disproved. This discovery has immense consequences for current scientific beliefs, primarily the concepts of plate tectonics and subduction to maintain a static Earth diameter. Plate tectonics philosophy is basically correct, but its mechanism of subduction will prove to be the most avoidable and egregious error in the history of geophysics. A new cosmological concept called Accreation (creation by accretion) is offered to replace Kant's false philosophy of creation of the Earth and Solar System. Accreation, fundamentally, is based on the known daily influx of large tonnages of meteorites, particles and dust from outer space. An age for the Earth is impossible to estimate because a plausible starting point cannot be determined. Scientists of the world must face up to other erroneous hypotheses generated by Kant's false philosophy and recognize that a paradigm shift equal to that wrought by Copernicus is now in order. The benefits to scientific knowledge are inestimable, and science will henceforth be

  11. Couples With Obesity May Take Longer to Achieve Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Health. The findings appear online in Human Reproduction. "A lot of studies on fertility and body ... Couples' body composition and time-to-pregnancy. Human Reproduction, doi:10.1093/humrep/dex001 ### About the Eunice ...

  12. Longer Gestation among Children Born Full Term Influences Cognitive and Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Espel, Emma V.; Glynn, Laura M.; Sandman, Curt A.; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-01-01

    Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37–41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development. PMID:25423150

  13. Loving-Kindness Meditation practice associated with longer telomeres in women.

    PubMed

    Hoge, Elizabeth A; Chen, Maxine M; Orr, Esther; Metcalf, Christina A; Fischer, Laura E; Pollack, Mark H; De Vivo, Immaculata; Simon, Naomi M

    2013-08-01

    Relatively short telomere length may serve as a marker of accelerated aging, and shorter telomeres have been linked to chronic stress. Specific lifestyle behaviors that can mitigate the effects of stress might be associated with longer telomere lengths. Previous research suggests a link between behaviors that focus on the well-being of others, such as volunteering and caregiving, and overall health and longevity. We examined relative telomere length in a group of individuals experienced in Loving-Kindness Meditation (LKM), a practice derived from the Buddhist tradition which utilizes a focus on unselfish kindness and warmth towards all people, and control participants who had done no meditation. Blood was collected by venipuncture, and Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Quantitative real time PCR was used to measure relative telomere length (RTL) (Cawthon, 2002) in fifteen LKM practitioners and 22 control participants. There were no significant differences in age, gender, race, education, or exposure to trauma, but the control group had a higher mean body mass index (BMI) and lower rates of past depression. The LKM practitioners had longer RTL than controls at the trend level (p=.083); among women, the LKM practitioners had significantly longer RTL than controls, (p=.007), which remained significant even after controlling for BMI and past depression. Although limited by small sample size, these results offer the intriguing possibility that LKM practice, especially in women, might alter RTL, a biomarker associated with longevity.

  14. Longer gestation among children born full term influences cognitive and motor development.

    PubMed

    Espel, Emma V; Glynn, Laura M; Sandman, Curt A; Davis, Elysia Poggi

    2014-01-01

    Children born preterm show persisting impairments in cognitive functioning, school achievement, and brain development. Most research has focused on implications of birth prior to 37 gestational weeks; however, the fetal central nervous system continues to make fundamental changes throughout gestation. Longer gestation is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality even among infants born during the period clinically defined as full term (37-41 gestational weeks). The implications of shortened gestation among term infants for neurodevelopment are poorly understood. The present study prospectively evaluates 232 mothers and their full term infants (50.4% male infants) at three time points across the first postnatal year. We evaluate the association between gestational length and cognitive and motor development. Infants included in the study were full term (born between 37 and 41 weeks gestation). The present study uses the combination of Last Menstrual Period (LMP) and early ultrasound for accurate gestational dating. Hierarchical Linear Regression analyses revealed that longer gestational length is associated with higher scores on the Bayley scales of mental and motor development at 3, 6 and 12 months of age after considering socio-demographic, pregnancy, and infant-level covariates. Findings were identical using revised categories of early, term, and late term proposed by the Working Group for Defining Term Pregnancy. Our findings indicate that longer gestation, even among term infants, benefits both cognitive and motor development.

  15. Genetically predicted longer telomere length is associated with increased risk of B-cell lymphoma subtypes.

    PubMed

    Machiela, Mitchell J; Lan, Qing; Slager, Susan L; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Teras, Lauren R; Camp, Nicola J; Cerhan, James R; Spinelli, John J; Wang, Sophia S; Nieters, Alexandra; Vijai, Joseph; Yeager, Meredith; Wang, Zhaoming; Ghesquières, Hervé; McKay, James; Conde, Lucia; de Bakker, Paul I W; Cox, David G; Burdett, Laurie; Monnereau, Alain; Flowers, Christopher R; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela R; Giles, Graham G; Melbye, Mads; Gu, Jian; Jackson, Rebecca D; Kane, Eleanor; Purdue, Mark P; Vajdic, Claire M; Albanes, Demetrius; Kelly, Rachel S; Zucca, Mariagrazia; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Lawrence, Charles; Hutchinson, Amy; Zhi, Degui; Habermann, Thomas M; Link, Brian K; Novak, Anne J; Dogan, Ahmet; Asmann, Yan W; Liebow, Mark; Thompson, Carrie A; Ansell, Stephen M; Witzig, Thomas E; Tilly, Hervé; Haioun, Corinne; Molina, Thierry J; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Glimelius, Bengt; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roos, Göran; Bracci, Paige M; Riby, Jacques; Smith, Martyn T; Holly, Elizabeth A; Cozen, Wendy; Hartge, Patricia; Morton, Lindsay M; Severson, Richard K; Tinker, Lesley F; North, Kari E; Becker, Nikolaus; Benavente, Yolanda; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Foretova, Lenka; Maynadie, Marc; Staines, Anthony; Lightfoot, Tracy; Crouch, Simon; Smith, Alex; Roman, Eve; Diver, W Ryan; Offit, Kenneth; Zelenetz, Andrew; Klein, Robert J; Villano, Danylo J; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Yawei; Holford, Theodore R; Turner, Jenny; Southey, Melissa C; Clavel, Jacqueline; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo; Kaaks, Rudolph; Boeing, Heiner; Tjønneland, Anne; Angelucci, Emanuele; Di Lollo, Simonetta; Rais, Marco; De Vivo, Immaculata; Giovannucci, Edward; Kraft, Peter; Huang, Jinyan; Ma, Baoshan; Ye, Yuanqing; Chiu, Brian C H; Liang, Liming; Park, Ju-Hyun; Chung, Charles C; Weisenburger, Dennis D; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Salles, Gilles; Glenn, Martha; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Curtin, Karen; Wu, Xifeng; Smedby, Karin E; de Sanjose, Silvia; Skibola, Christine F; Berndt, Sonja I; Birmann, Brenda M; Chanock, Stephen J; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2016-04-15

    Evidence from a small number of studies suggests that longer telomere length measured in peripheral leukocytes is associated with an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, these studies may be biased by reverse causation, confounded by unmeasured environmental exposures and might miss time points for which prospective telomere measurement would best reveal a relationship between telomere length and NHL risk. We performed an analysis of genetically inferred telomere length and NHL risk in a study of 10 102 NHL cases of the four most common B-cell histologic types and 9562 controls using a genetic risk score (GRS) comprising nine telomere length-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This approach uses existing genotype data and estimates telomere length by weighing the number of telomere length-associated variant alleles an individual carries with the published change in kb of telomere length. The analysis of the telomere length GRS resulted in an association between longer telomere length and increased NHL risk [four B-cell histologic types combined; odds ratio (OR) = 1.49, 95% CI 1.22-1.82,P-value = 8.5 × 10(-5)]. Subtype-specific analyses indicated that chronic lymphocytic leukemia or small lymphocytic lymphoma (CLL/SLL) was the principal NHL subtype contributing to this association (OR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.93-3.51,P-value = 4.0 × 10(-10)). Significant interactions were observed across strata of sex for CLL/SLL and marginal zone lymphoma subtypes as well as age for the follicular lymphoma subtype. Our results indicate that a genetic background that favors longer telomere length may increase NHL risk, particularly risk of CLL/SLL, and are consistent with earlier studies relating longer telomere length with increased NHL risk.

  16. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  17. Are US Great Plains Droughts Predictable on Seasonal and Longer Time Scales?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The United States has experienced numerous episodes of unusually dry conditions lasting anywhere from months to several years. In this talk, I will examine the predictability of such episodes and the physical mechanisms controlling the variability of the summer climate of the continental United States. The analysis is based on ensembles of multi-year simulations and seasonal hindcasts generated with the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) General Circulation Model.

  18. Are Droughts in the United States Great Plains Predictable on Seasonal and Longer Time Scales?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried D.; Suarez, M.; Pegion, P.; Kistler, M.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The United States Great Plains has experienced numerous episodes of unusually dry conditions lasting anywhere from months to several years, In this presentation, we will examine the predictability of such episodes and the physical mechanisms controlling the variability of the summer climate of the continental United States. The analysis is based on ensembles of multi-year simulations and seasonal hindcasts generated with the NASA Seasonal to-Interannual Prediction Project (NSIPP-1) General Circulation Model.

  19. Break-out afterburner ion acceleration in the longer laser pulse length regime

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Fernndez, J. C.; Jung, D.; Henig, A.; Bowers, K. J.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-06-15

    Kinetic simulations of break-out-afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration from nm-scale targets are examined in a longer pulse length regime than studied previously. It is shown that when the target becomes relativistically transparent to the laser, an epoch of dramatic acceleration of ions occurs that lasts until the electron density in the expanding target reduces to the critical density in the non-relativistic limit. For given laser parameters, the optimal target thickness yielding the highest maximum ion energy is one in which this time window for ion acceleration overlaps with the intensity peak of the laser pulse. A simple analytic model of relativistically induced transparency is presented for plasma expansion at the time-evolving sound speed, from which these times may be estimated. The maximum ion energy attainable is controlled by the finite acceleration volume and time over which the BOA acts.

  20. Break-out afterburner ion acceleration in the longer laser pulse length regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.; Albright, B. J.; Jung, D.; Shah, R. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Bowers, K. J.; Henig, A.; Fern´ndez, J. C.; Hegelich, B. M.

    2011-06-01

    Kinetic simulations of break-out-afterburner (BOA) ion acceleration from nm-scale targets are examined in a longer pulse length regime than studied previously. It is shown that when the target becomes relativistically transparent to the laser, an epoch of dramatic acceleration of ions occurs that lasts until the electron density in the expanding target reduces to the critical density in the non-relativistic limit. For given laser parameters, the optimal target thickness yielding the highest maximum ion energy is one in which this time window for ion acceleration overlaps with the intensity peak of the laser pulse. A simple analytic model of relativistically induced transparency is presented for plasma expansion at the time-evolving sound speed, from which these times may be estimated. The maximum ion energy attainable is controlled by the finite acceleration volume and time over which the BOA acts.

  1. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  2. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  3. Longer term effects of New York State's law on drivers' handheld cell phone use

    PubMed Central

    McCartt, A; Geary, L

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether substantial short term declines in drivers' use of handheld cell phones, after a state ban, were sustained one year later. Design: Drivers' daytime handheld cell phone use was observed in four New York communities and two Connecticut communities. Observations were conducted one month before the ban, shortly after, and 16 months after. Driver gender, estimated age, and vehicle type were recorded for phone users and a sample of motorists. Intervention: Effective 1 November 2001, New York became the only state in the United States to ban drivers' handheld cell phone use. Connecticut is an adjacent state without such a law. Sample: 50 033 drivers in New York, 28 307 drivers in Connecticut. Outcome measures: Drivers' handheld cell phone use rates in New York and Connecticut and rates by driver characteristics. Results: Overall use rates in Connecticut did not change. Overall use in New York declined from 2.3% pre-law to 1.1% shortly after (p<0.05). One year later, use was 2.1%, higher than immediately post-law (p<0.05) and not significantly different from pre-law. Initial declines in use followed by longer term increases were observed for males and females, drivers younger than 60, and car and van drivers; use patterns varied among the four communities. Publicity declined after the law's implementation. No targeted enforcement efforts were evident. Cell phone citations issued during the first 15 months represented 2% of all traffic citations. Conclusions: Vigorous enforcement campaigns accompanied by publicity appear necessary to achieve longer term compliance with bans on drivers' cell phone use. PMID:14760020

  4. K+-induced twitch potentiation is not due to longer action potential.

    PubMed

    Yensen, Craig; Matar, Wadih; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an increased duration of the action potential contributes to the K+-induced twitch potentiation at 37 degrees C. Twitch contractions were elicited by field stimulation, and action potentials were measured with conventional microelectrodes. For mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, twitch force was greater at 7-13 mM K+ than at 4.7 mM (control). For soleus muscle, twitch force potentiation was observed between 7 and 11 mM K+. Time to peak and half-relaxation time were not affected by the increase in extracellular K+ concentration in EDL muscle, whereas both parameters became significantly longer in soleus muscle. Decrease in overshoot and prolongation of the action potential duration observed at 9 and 11 mM K+ were mimicked when muscles were respectively exposed to 25 and 50 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX; used to partially block Na+ channels). Despite similar action potentials, twitch force was not potentiated by TTX. It is therefore suggested that the K+-induced potentiation of the twitch in EDL muscle is not due to a prolongation of the action potential and contraction time, whereas a longer contraction, especially the relaxation phase, may contribute to the potentiation in soleus muscle.

  5. Transient Micromotors That Disappear When No Longer Needed.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chuanrui; Karshalev, Emil; Li, Jinxing; Soto, Fernando; Castillo, Roxanne; Campos, Isaac; Mou, Fangzhi; Guan, Jianguo; Wang, Joseph

    2016-11-22

    Transient self-destroyed micromotors that autonomously disappear in biological media at controlled rates upon completing their task, without leaving a toxic residue, are presented. The propulsion and degradation characteristics of the self-destroyed Mg/ZnO, Mg/Si, and Zn/Fe Janus micromotors and single-component Zn micromotors are described. The degradation of the Janus micromotors relies on the different corrosion rates of their core-shell components. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry measurements are used to probe the time-dependent degradation of the different constituents of the micromotors. The toxicity of the transient micromotors is discussed toward their potential use in biomedical applications. This concept of transient micromotors offers considerable potential for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  6. Economic impact of longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Gadler, Fredrik; Ding, Yao; Verin, Nathalie; Bergius, Martin; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Russell, Mason W

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to quantify the impact that longer battery life of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) devices has on reducing the number of device replacements and associated costs of these replacements from a Swedish health care system perspective. Methods An economic model based on real-world published data was developed to estimate cost savings and avoided device replacements for CRT-Ds with longer battery life compared with devices with industry-standard battery life expectancy. Base-case comparisons were performed among CRT-Ds of three manufacturers – Boston Scientific Corporation, St. Jude Medical, and Medtronic – over a 6-year time horizon, as per the available clinical data. As a sensitivity analysis, we evaluated CRT-Ds as well as single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-VR) and dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD-DR) devices over a longer 10-year period. All costs were in 2015 Swedish Krona (SEK) discounted at 3% per annum. Results Base-case analysis results show that up to 603 replacements and up to SEK 60.4 million cumulative-associated costs could be avoided over 6 years by using devices with extended battery life. The pattern of savings over time suggests that savings are modest initially but increase rapidly beginning in the third year of follow-up with each year’s cumulative savings two to three times the previous year. Evaluating CRT-D, ICD-VR, and ICD-DR devices together over a longer 10-year period, the sensitivity analysis showed 2,820 fewer replacement procedures and associated cost savings of SEK 249.3 million for all defibrillators with extended battery life. Conclusion Extended battery life is likely to reduce device replacements and associated complications and costs, which may result in important cost savings and a more efficient use of health care resources as well as a better quality of life for heart failure patients in Sweden. PMID:27826203

  7. "I no longer believe": did Freud abandon the seduction theory?

    PubMed

    Ahbel-Rappe, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Recent accounts of the seduction theory and the question of its abandonment have emphasized the continuity of Freud's work before and after the seduction theory, claiming that Freud did not abandon his concern with the event of seduction but rather came to appreciate that an understanding of fantasy was also essential. This claim is challenged. It is shown that Freud did abandon the passionate concerns of his seduction theory for the most part; that he left behind his early interest in reconstructing unconscious infantile incest and focused instead on later, conscious seduction; that he at times clearly reduced apparent paternal incest to fantasy; that he turned away from the phenomenology of incest he had begun to develop; and that he theoretically nullified the value of the difference between real and fantasied seduction. It is also shown that, contrary to a persistent concern in psychoanalytic history, attention to actual seduction need not detract from the essential psychoanalytic concern with fantasy and infantile sexuality. Thinking about incest specifically illuminates the capacity for fantasizing, the core of the Freudian psyche. In this way the intuition of the seduction theory that there is something of distinctive psychoanalytic significance about incest finds support.

  8. Stress induced telomere shortening: longer life with less mutations?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mutations accumulate as a result of DNA damage and imperfect DNA repair machinery. In higher eukaryotes the accumulation and spread of mutations is limited in two primary ways: through p53-mediated programmed cell death and cellular senescence mediated by telomeres. Telomeres shorten at every cell division and cell stops dividing once the shortest telomere reaches a critical length. It has been shown that the rate of telomere attrition is accelerated when cells are exposed to DNA damaging agents. However the implications of this mechanism are not fully understood. Results With the help of in silico model we investigate the effect of genotoxic stress on telomere attrition and apoptosis in a population of non-identical replicating cells. When comparing the populations of cells with constant vs. stress-induced rate of telomere shortening we find that stress induced telomere shortening (SITS) increases longevity while reducing mutation rate. Interestingly, however, the effect takes place only when genotoxic stresses (e.g. reactive oxygen species due to metabolic activity) are distributed non-equally among cells. Conclusions Our results for the first time show how non-equal distribution of metabolic load (and associated genotoxic stresses) combined with stress induced telomere shortening can delay aging and minimize mutations. PMID:24580844

  9. No longer a solo practice: how physician leaders lead.

    PubMed

    Kusy, M; Essex, L N; Marr, T J

    1995-12-01

    The authors conducted a national study to determine the factors associated with the success of physician leaders. They utilized the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI) and a demographic survey followed by individual interviews with respondents. Data analysis revealed several implications for the selection, training, management, and career development of physician leaders. The results suggest that: Physician leadership training should have a strong focus on the "human side" of management, including negotiation, organizational "politics," conflict resolution, team building, and motivation. Data management and finance should be a focus represented in the curriculum. Mentoring relationships should be developed as an aspiring physician leader pursues a career shift. Self assessment, including an analysis of style, strengths, best potential organizational fit, and specific areas of strength and weakness should be an integral part of the development of an aspiring physician leader. Screening mechanisms to ascertain a physician's motivation to move toward a full-time leadership role should be developed to ensure appropriate intent. To facilitate this implication, more effective assessment tools need to be developed.

  10. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established.

  11. The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction.

    PubMed

    Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski; Sloane, Douglas M; Aiken, Linda H

    2012-11-01

    Extended work shifts of twelve hours or longer are common and even popular with hospital staff nurses, but little is known about how such extended hours affect the care that patients receive or the well-being of nurses. Survey data from nurses in four states showed that more than 80 percent of the nurses were satisfied with scheduling practices at their hospital. However, as the proportion of hospital nurses working shifts of more than thirteen hours increased, patients' dissatisfaction with care increased. Furthermore, nurses working shifts of ten hours or longer were up to two and a half times more likely than nurses working shorter shifts to experience burnout and job dissatisfaction and to intend to leave the job. Extended shifts undermine nurses' well-being, may result in expensive job turnover, and can negatively affect patient care. Policies regulating work hours for nurses, similar to those set for resident physicians, may be warranted. Nursing leaders should also encourage workplace cultures that respect nurses' days off and vacation time, promote nurses' prompt departure at the end of a shift, and allow nurses to refuse to work overtime without retribution.

  12. Long-term lithium treatment in bipolar disorder is associated with longer leukocyte telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Martinsson, L; Wei, Y; Xu, D; Melas, P A; Mathé, A A; Schalling, M; Lavebratt, C; Backlund, L

    2013-01-01

    Telomere shortening is a hallmark of aging and has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and chronic somatic, as well as psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and depression. Additionally, antidepressants have been found to protect against telomere shortening. However, pharmacological telomere studies are lacking in bipolar disorder (BD). Therefore, the objective of this study was to explore telomere length (TL) in patients with BD in the context of lithium treatment. We determined TL by quantitative real-time PCR using peripheral blood leukocytes. Participants were outpatients diagnosed with BD type 1 or 2 (n=256) and healthy controls (n=139). Retrospective case–control and case–case study designs were applied. Lithium response (LiR) was scored using the Alda-Scale. Lithium-treated BD patients overall, as well as those on lithium monotherapy, had 35% longer telomeres compared with controls (P<0.0005, partial η2=0.13). TL correlated positively with lithium treatment duration of >30 months (P=0.031, R2=0.13) and was negatively associated with increasing number of depressive episodes (P<0.007). BD patients responding well to lithium treatment had longer telomeres than those not responding well. This is the first study to report a positive effect of long-term lithium treatment on TL. Importantly, longer TL was also associated with a better LiR in BD patients. These data suggest that lithium exerts a protective effect against telomere shortening especially when therapeutically efficacious. We hypothesize that induction of telomerase activity may be involved in LiR in BD. PMID:23695236

  13. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  14. Do OSCAR winners live longer than less successful peers? A reanalysis of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Huszti, Ella; Hanley, James A

    2006-09-05

    In an article published in Annals of Internal Medicine in 2001, Redelmeier and Singh reported that Academy Award-winning actors and actresses lived almost 4 years longer than their less successful peers. However, the statistical method used to derive this statistically significant difference gave winners an unfair advantage because it credited an Oscar winner's years of life before winning toward survival subsequent to winning. When the authors of the current article reanalyzed the data using methods that avoided this "immortal time" bias, the survival advantage was closer to 1 year and was not statistically significant. The type of bias in Redelmeier and Singh's study is not limited to longevity comparisons of persons who reach different ranks within their profession; it can, and often does, occur in nonexperimental studies of life- or time-extending benefits of medical interventions. The current authors suggest ways in which researchers and readers may avoid and recognize this bias.

  15. How Are They Now? Longer Term Effects of eCoaching through Online Bug-in-Ear Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Marcia L.; Schumacker, Randall E.; Gregg, Madeleine; Howard, Pamela W.; Gable, Robert A.; Zigmond, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    In this study, using mixed methods, we investigated the longer term effects of eCoaching through advanced online bug-in-ear (BIE) technology. Quantitative data on five dependent variables were extracted from 14 participants' electronically archived video files at three points in time--Spring 1 (i.e., baseline, which was the first semester of…

  16. [The technology of fast spectral reconstruction in the longer optical path difference PEM-FTS].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min-Juan; Wang, Zhao-Ba; Wang, Zhi-Bin; Li, Xiao; Li, Shi-Wei; Li, Jin-Hua

    2014-07-01

    The optical path difference of the photoelastic modulator Fourier transform spectrometers (PEM-FTS) changes rapidly and nonlinearly, while the instrument preserves the speed as high as about 10(5) interferograms per second, so that the interferograms of PEM-FTS are sampled by equal interval. In order to fleetly and accurately reconstruct these spectrums, the principle of PEM-FTS and accelerated NUFFT algorithm were studied in the present article. The accelerating NUFFT algorithm integrates interpolation based on convolution kernel and fast Fourier transform (FFT). And the velocity and precision of the algorithm are affected by the type and parameter tau of kernel function, the single-side spreading distance q and the oversampling ratio micro, and so on. In the paper these parameters were analysed, under the condition N = 1 024, q = 10, micro = 2 and tau = 1 x 10(-6) in the Gaussian scaling factor, and the accelerated NUFFT algorithm was applied to the longer optical path difference PEM-FTS to rebuild the spectrums of 632. 8 nm laser and Xenon lamp, The frequency error of the rebuilt spectrums of 632.8 nm laser is less than 0.013 52, the spent time of interpolation is less than 0.267 s. the velocity is fast and the error is less. The accelerated nonuniform fast Fourier transform is fit for the longer optical path difference PEM-FTS.

  17. Prospective Memory Deficits in Ecstasy Users: Effects of Longer Ongoing Task Delay Interval

    PubMed Central

    WEINBORN, MICHAEL; WOODS, STEVEN PAUL; NULSEN, CLAIRE; PARK, KATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    Ecstasy use has been associated with neurotoxicity and neurocognitive impairment in a variety of domains, including prospective memory (ProM), which involves the delayed execution of a previously encoded intention in response to a specific cue. The present study adopted the multiprocess theory of ProM to evaluate the hypothesis that ecstasy users would evidence differentially impaired ProM on longer versus shorter ongoing task delays. Ecstasy (n = 31) users, high-risk alcohol users (n = 21) and healthy nonusers (n = 31) completed the short (2-min) and long (15-min) delay ProM scales of the Memory for Intentions Screening Test. Results showed a significant group by ProM delay interaction, such that ecstasy users performed comparably to the comparison groups on short-delay trials, but were impaired on long-delay ProM, particularly for time-based cues. Among the ecstasy users, long-delay ProM was positively associated with risky decision-making, but not with retrospective memory or other aspects of executive functions. These findings suggest that ecstasy users may be particularly susceptible to deficits in strategic target monitoring and maintenance of cue-intention pairings over longer ProM delays. Findings are discussed in the context of their potential everyday functioning (e.g., academic, vocational) and treatment implications for ecstasy users. PMID:22047194

  18. Achieving more frequent and longer dialysis for the majority: wearable dialysis and implantable artificial kidney devices.

    PubMed

    Fissell, William H; Roy, Shuvo; Davenport, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    The long-term survival for many chronic kidney failure patients who remain treated by dialysis in economically advanced countries remains similar to that of those with solid-organ malignancy, despite a disproportionate amount of health-care expenditure. As such, the current paradigm of three times weekly in-center hemodialysis for 4 h or shorter sessions needs to change to improve patient outcomes. Although more frequent and longer dialysis sessions have been reported to improve cardiovascular risk surrogates and short-term outcomes, these options are only practically available to a very small fraction of the total dialysis population. As such, radically new approaches are required to improve patient outcomes and quality of life for the majority of dialysis patients. Currently, two different approaches are being developed, wearable devices based on current dialysis techniques and more futuristic implantable devices modeled on the natural nephron.

  19. Targeted treatment trials for tuberous sclerosis and autism: no longer a dream.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa

    2012-10-01

    Genetic disorders that present with a high incidence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) offer tremendous potential both for elucidating the underlying neurobiology of ASD and identifying therapeutic drugs and/or drug targets. As a result, clinical trials for genetic disorders associated with ASD are no longer a hope for the future but rather an exciting reality whose time has come. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is one such genetic disorder that presents with ASD, epilepsy, and intellectual disability. Cell culture and mouse model experiments have identified the mTOR pathway as a therapeutic target in this disease. This review summarizes the advantages of using TSC as model of ASD and the recent advances in the translational and clinical treatment trials in TSC.

  20. Implementation of active steering on longer combination vehicles for enhanced lateral performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharrazi, Sogol; Lidberg, Mathias; Roebuck, Richard; Fredriksson, Jonas; Odhams, Andrew

    2012-12-01

    A steering-based controller for improving lateral performance of longer combination vehicles (LCVs) is proposed. The controller steers the axles of the towed units to regulate the time span between the driver steering and generation of tyre lateral forces at the towed units and consequently reduces the yaw rate rearward amplification (RWA) and offtracking. The open-loop effectiveness of the controller is evaluated with simulations and its closed loop or driver in the loop effectiveness is verified on a test track with a truck-dolly-semitrailer test vehicle in a series of single- and double-lane change manoeuvres. The developed controller reduces the yaw rate RWA and offtracking considerably without diminishing the manoeuvrability. Furthermore, as a byproduct, it decreases the lateral acceleration RWA moderately. The obtained safety improvements by the proposed controller can promote the use of LCVs in traffic which will result in the reduction of congestion problem as well as environmental and economic benefits.

  1. The protective effect of longer duration of breastfeeding against pregnancy-associated triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    ElShmay, Wael M.

    2016-01-01

    Parity associated breast cancer (PABC) often diagnosed within the 2-5 years after a full term pregnancy. PABC is usually present with more advanced, poorly differentiated, high-grade cancers that show shorter time to progression and often of the triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. Data from around the world show that pregnancy-associated TNBC is independently associated with poor survival, underscoring the impact of the pregnant breast microenvironment on the biology and consequently the prognosis of these tumors. Although it is not yet clear, a link between pregnancy-associated TNBCs and lack or shorter duration of breastfeeding (not pregnancy per se) has been proposed. Here, we present epidemiological and experimental evidence for the protective effect of longer duration of lactation against pregnancy-associated TNBCs, and propose a putative molecular mechanism for this protective effect and its effect in eliminating any potential TNBC precursors from the breast by the end of the natural breast involution. PMID:27248476

  2. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, S. J.; Breckenridge, R. P.; Burns, D. E.

    2003-02-25

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone's back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: (a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; (b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; (c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and (d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated

  3. Testing, Modeling, and Monitoring to Enable Simpler, Cheaper, Longer-Lived Surface Caps

    SciTech Connect

    Piet, Steven James; Breckenridge, Robert Paul; Burns, Douglas Edward

    2003-02-01

    Society has and will continue to generate hazardous wastes whose risks must be managed. For exceptionally toxic, long-lived, and feared waste, the solution is deep burial, e.g., deep geological disposal at Yucca Mtn. For some waste, recycle or destruction/treatment is possible. The alternative for other wastes is storage at or near the ground level (in someone’s back yard); most of these storage sites include a surface barrier (cap) to prevent downward water migration. Some of the hazards will persist indefinitely. As society and regulators have demanded additional proof that caps are robust against more threats and for longer time periods, the caps have become increasingly complex and expensive. As in other industries, increased complexity will eventually increase the difficulty in estimating performance, in monitoring system/component performance, and in repairing or upgrading barriers as risks are managed. An approach leading to simpler, less expensive, longer-lived, more manageable caps is needed. Our project, which started in April 2002, aims to catalyze a Barrier Improvement Cycle (iterative learning and application) and thus enable Remediation System Performance Management (doing the right maintenance neither too early nor too late). The knowledge gained and the capabilities built will help verify the adequacy of past remedial decisions, improve barrier management, and enable improved solutions for future decisions. We believe it will be possible to develop simpler, longer-lived, less expensive caps that are easier to monitor, manage, and repair. The project is planned to: a) improve the knowledge of degradation mechanisms in times shorter than service life; b) improve modeling of barrier degradation dynamics; c) develop sensor systems to identify early degradation; and d) provide a better basis for developing and testing of new barrier systems. This project combines selected exploratory studies (benchtop and field scale), coupled effects accelerated aging

  4. Gait changes in a line of mice artificially selected for longer limbs

    PubMed Central

    Sparrow, Leah M.; Pellatt, Emily; Yu, Sabrina S.; Raichlen, David A.; Pontzer, Herman

    2017-01-01

    In legged terrestrial locomotion, the duration of stance phase, i.e., when limbs are in contact with the substrate, is positively correlated with limb length, and negatively correlated with the metabolic cost of transport. These relationships are well documented at the interspecific level, across a broad range of body sizes and travel speeds. However, such relationships are harder to evaluate within species (i.e., where natural selection operates), largely for practical reasons, including low population variance in limb length, and the presence of confounding factors such as body mass, or training. Here, we compared spatiotemporal kinematics of gait in Longshanks, a long-legged mouse line created through artificial selection, and in random-bred, mass-matched Control mice raised under identical conditions. We used a gait treadmill to test the hypothesis that Longshanks have longer stance phases and stride lengths, and decreased stride frequencies in both fore- and hind limbs, compared with Controls. Our results indicate that gait differs significantly between the two groups. Specifically, and as hypothesized, stance duration and stride length are 8–10% greater in Longshanks, while stride frequency is 8% lower than in Controls. However, there was no difference in the touch-down timing and sequence of the paws between the two lines. Taken together, these data suggest that, for a given speed, Longshanks mice take significantly fewer, longer steps to cover the same distance or running time compared to Controls, with important implications for other measures of variation among individuals in whole-organism performance, such as the metabolic cost of transport. PMID:28243533

  5. Slower Perception Followed by Faster Lexical Decision in Longer Words: A Diffusion Model Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oganian, Yulia; Froehlich, Eva; Schlickeiser, Ulrike; Hofmann, Markus J.; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of stimulus length on reaction times (RTs) in the lexical decision task are the topic of extensive research. While slower RTs are consistently found for longer pseudo-words, a finding coined the word length effect (WLE), some studies found no effects for words, and yet others reported faster RTs for longer words. Moreover, the WLE depends on the orthographic transparency of a language, with larger effects in more transparent orthographies. Here we investigate processes underlying the WLE in lexical decision in German-English bilinguals using a diffusion model (DM) analysis, which we compared to a linear regression approach. In the DM analysis, RT-accuracy distributions are characterized using parameters that reflect latent sub-processes, in particular evidence accumulation and decision-independent perceptual encoding, instead of typical parameters such as mean RT and accuracy. The regression approach showed a decrease in RTs with length for pseudo-words, but no length effect for words. However, DM analysis revealed that the null effect for words resulted from opposing effects of length on perceptual encoding and rate of evidence accumulation. Perceptual encoding times increased with length for words and pseudo-words, whereas the rate of evidence accumulation increased with length for real words but decreased for pseudo-words. A comparison between DM parameters in German and English suggested that orthographic transparency affects perceptual encoding, whereas effects of length on evidence accumulation are likely to reflect contextual information and the increase in available perceptual evidence with length. These opposing effects may account for the inconsistent findings on WLEs. PMID:26779075

  6. Nutrition label use is associated with lower longer-term diabetes risk in US adults.

    PubMed

    Kollannoor-Samuel, Grace; Shebl, Fatma M; Hawley, Nicola L; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2017-03-29

    Background: Regular nutrition label use may have important long-term health implications. To our knowledge, the role of nutrition label use in protecting against the development of chronic diseases was unexplored prospectively before this study.Objective: We tested the association between nutrition label use and risk of a future diabetes diagnosis in a multiethnic US cohort.Design: Data from the ongoing National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (NLSY79) were analyzed. From 2002 (baseline) to 5 follow-up time points (2004-2012), 7150 diabetes-free, multiethnic young adults were prospectively followed for a diagnosis of incident diabetes. Nutrition label use, diabetes diagnosis, time to diabetes diagnosis, and all covariates were self-reported.Results: Between January 2002 and September 2013, 430 participants (6.0%) were diagnosed with diabetes. A weighted, multivariable, extended Cox regression was conducted, which suggested that in nutrition label users, the HR of diabetes diagnosis risk decreased significantly with time (P-nutrition label use × time interaction < 0.05) compared with risk in nutrition label nonusers.Conclusions: There is an association between nutrition label use and diabetes risk in the longer term. However, additional longitudinal research with a robust dietary intake assessment is needed to test this hypothesis.

  7. Oxidation of hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone by human myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Burner, U; Krapfenbauer, G; Furtmüller, P G; Regelsberger, G; Obinger, C

    2000-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase is very susceptible to reducing radicals because the reduction potential of the ferric/ferrous redox couple is much higher compared with other peroxidases. Semiquinone radicals are known to reduce heme proteins. Therefore, the kinetics and spectra of the reactions of p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone with compounds I and II were investigated using both sequential-mixing stopped-flow techniques and conventional spectrophotometric measurements. At pH 7 and 15 degrees C the rate constants for compound I reacting with p-hydroquinone, 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone were determined to be 5.6+/-0.4 x 10(7) M(-1)s(-1), 1.3+/-0.1 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1) and 3.1+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. The corresponding reaction rates for compound II reduction were calculated to be 4.5+/-0.3 x 10(6) M(-1)s(-1), 1.9+/-0.1 x 10(5) M(-1)s(-1) and 4.5+/-0.2 x 10(4) M(-1)s(-1), respectively. Semiquinone radicals, produced by compounds I and II in the classical peroxidation cycle, promote compound III (oxymyeloperoxidase) formation. We could monitor formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase as well as its direct transition to compound II by addition of molecular oxygen. Formation of ferrous myeloperoxidase is shown to depend strongly on the reduction potential of the corresponding redox couple benzoquinone/semiquinone. With 2,3-dimethylhydroquinone and 2,3,5-trimethylhydroquinone as substrate, myeloperoxidase is extremely quickly trapped as compound III. These MPO-typical features could have potential in designing specific drugs which inhibit the production of hypochlorous acid and consequently attenuate inflammatory tissue damage.

  8. Engineering Klebsiella oxytoca for efficient 2, 3-butanediol production through insertional inactivation of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiao-Jun; Huang, He; Zhu, Jian-Guo; Ren, Lu-Jing; Nie, Zhi-Kui; Du, Jun; Li, Shuang

    2010-02-01

    Ethanol was a major byproduct of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) fermentation by Klebsiella oxytoca ME-UD-3. In order to achieve a high efficiency of 2,3-BD production, K. oxytoca mutants deficient in ethanol formation were successfully constructed by replace the aldA gene coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase with a tetracycline resistance cassette. The results suggested that inactivation of aldA led to a significantly improved 2,3-BD production. The carbon flux to 2,3-BD was enhanced by eliminating the byproducing ethanol and at the same time reducing the accumulation of another byproduct acetoin. At last, by fed-batch culturing of the mutant, the final 2,3-BD titer up to 130 g/l with the productivity of 1.63 g/l.h and the 2,3-BD yield relative to glucose of 0.48 g/g was obtained.

  9. Entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker to longer-than-24-h days

    PubMed Central

    Gronfier, Claude; Wright, Kenneth P.; Kronauer, Richard E.; Czeisler, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    Entrainment of the circadian pacemaker to the light:dark cycle is necessary for rhythmic physiological functions to be appropriately timed over the 24-h day. Nonentrainment results in sleep, endocrine, and neurobehavioral impairments. Exposures to intermittent bright light pulses have been reported to phase shift the circadian pacemaker with great efficacy. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that a modulated light exposure (MLE) with bright light pulses in the evening would entrain subjects to a light:dark cycle 1 h longer than their own circadian period (τ). Twelve subjects underwent a 65-day inpatient study. Individual subject's circadian period was determined in a forced desynchrony protocol. Subsequently, subjects were released into 30 longer-than-24-h days (daylength of τ + 1 h) in one of three light:dark conditions: (i) ≈25 lux; (ii) ≈100 lux; and (iii) MLE: ≈25 lux followed by ≈100 lux, plus two 45-min bright light pulses of ≈9,500 lux near the end of scheduled wakefulness. We found that lighting levels of ≈25 lux were insufficient to entrain all subjects tested. Exposure to ≈100 lux was sufficient to entrain subjects, although at a significantly wider phase angle compared with baseline. Exposure to MLE was able to entrain the subjects to the imposed sleep–wake cycles but at a phase angle comparable to baseline. These results suggest that MLE can be used to entrain the circadian pacemaker to non-24-h days. The implications of these findings are important because they could be used to treat circadian misalignment associated with space flight and circadian rhythm sleep disorders such as shift-work disorder. PMID:17502598

  10. 2('),3(')-didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are degraded to furfuryl alcohol under acidic conditions.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junxing; Ray, Adrian S; Mathew, Judy S; Anderson, Karen S; Chu, Chung K; Schinazi, Raymond F

    2004-05-03

    2('),3(')-Didehydro-2('),3(')-dideoxynucleosides are clinically relevant antiviral agents. These nucleosides could be degraded under acidic conditions. Acidic stability studies showed the D4N had the following increasing stability order: D4G

  11. Superparamagnetic anisotropic nano-assemblies with longer blood circulation in vivo: a highly efficient drug delivery carrier for leukemia therapy.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fei; Tian, Jilai; Hu, Ke; Zheng, Xiawen; Sun, Jianfei; Yan, Caiyun; Yao, Juan; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2016-10-06

    Leukemia, unlike solid tumors, has no definite shape and spreads throughout the whole circulatory system, therefore the therapy of leukemia requires medication to stay longer in the circulatory system. Anisotropic nanoparticles, showing longer blood circulating life than that of isotropic nanoparticles reported in previous research, meet the demands of leukemia therapy. Based on this strategy, superparamagnetic anisotropic nano-assemblies (SANs) were fabricated and loaded with vincristine (VCR) to form VCR-SANs. When compared to the same dose of VCR-loaded isotropic nano-assemblies (SINs), the decrease in the leukocytes count and the positive expression ratio of CD13 in the VCR-SANs group were 19.38% and 16.4%, respectively, which indicated the improved anti-leukemia activity of the VCR-SANs. From the results of the pharmacokinetics study, the VCR-SANs remarkably held the amount of drug removed from the whole body per unit time half of the isotropic group and the concentration of drug in blood plasma against time was 2.1 times the isotropic group, demonstrating the rapid and sustained release behavior and longer blood circulation when combined with the results of in vivo tissue distribution studies. In summary, anisotropic nano-assemblies were found to be more promising than isotropic nano-assemblies via our in vivo and in vitro examinations.

  12. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  13. [Medical Care for Refugees by the Public Health Services: Always Ready--But for How Much Longer?].

    PubMed

    Tinnemann, P; Gundlach, F; Nitschke, H; Bunte, A; Teichert, U

    2016-04-01

    Refugees continue seeking sanctuary in Germany and it can reasonably be expected that their health will be affected by the conditions they lived in before and during flight. Ensuring nationwide care for refugees should be demand oriented, effective and efficient, which requires tackling mostly similar challenges a community level in a consistent manner. The aim must be providing adequate medical care based on the principle of respect for human dignity and ensuring public health standards. Within the currently situation, this basic expectations are often not sufficiently met. Generally accepted national standards, longer-term strategies and sustainable care are not yet achieved noticeably by public health services in Germany.To warrant permanent and sustainable high-quality medical care for refugees, local networks of involved institutions should be established with a longer-term perspective. Moreover, the financially eroded and personnel thinned public health service will only be able to fulfil statutory requirements and expectations of the local, state and federal policy makers for a limited amount of time only. Safeguarding that services are coping with the size of challenges over longer periods of time and anchoring the acquired expertise of medical care for refugees within the public health services, requires immediately better financial and personnel resources. Then the public health services will be a reliable partner supporting all people in Germany, particularly those that require subsidiary and socially-compensatory supply.

  14. Longer combination vehicles (LCVS) economics versus public safety. Research report, August 1991-April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, V.H.

    1992-04-01

    Global production will require transport companies to time deliveries in order to meet assembly requirements using components shipped from many areas of the world. To be competitive, we must use every available means of technology at our disposal. Longer Combination Vehicles (LCVS) increase our transportation productivity. They have operated safely in 20 states, and in some cases for more than 30 years. In my opinion, the Transportation Bill of 1991 prohibited the expanded use of LCVs because the federal government thought it to be the politically correct thing to do. They certainly did not have any convincing evidence to support their stand. I believe the states' Departments of Transportation should be allowed to decide the LCV issue on a state-by-state basis. And, the federal government should provide general oversight. I predict that the trucking industry will prove that LCVs are a safe and economical means of distributing products. And, eventually the 1991 Federal mandate restructing their expansion will be lifted. States will be given the authority to approve LCV use on their highway system.

  15. 124Iodine: A Longer-Life Positron Emitter Isotope—New Opportunities in Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Notaristefano, Antonio; Restuccia, Antonino; Ferrari, Cristina; Rubini, Domenico; Altini, Corinna

    2014-01-01

    124Iodine (124I) with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of 124I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with 124I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of 124I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with 124I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of 124I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with 124I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on 124I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields. PMID:24895600

  16. 124 Iodine: a longer-life positron emitter isotope-new opportunities in molecular imaging.

    PubMed

    Cascini, Giuseppe Lucio; Niccoli Asabella, Artor; Notaristefano, Antonio; Restuccia, Antonino; Ferrari, Cristina; Rubini, Domenico; Altini, Corinna; Rubini, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    (124)Iodine ((124)I) with its 4.2 d half-life is particularly attractive for in vivo detection and quantification of longer-term biological and physiological processes; the long half-life of (124)I is especially suited for prolonged time in vivo studies of high molecular weight compounds uptake. Numerous small molecules and larger compounds like proteins and antibodies have been successfully labeled with (124)I. Advances in radionuclide production allow the effective availability of sufficient quantities of (124)I on small biomedical cyclotrons for molecular imaging purposes. Radioiodination chemistry with (124)I relies on well-established radioiodine labeling methods, which consists mainly in nucleophilic and electrophilic substitution reactions. The physical characteristics of (124)I permit taking advantages of the higher PET image quality. The availability of new molecules that may be targeted with (124)I represents one of the more interesting reasons for the attention in nuclear medicine. We aim to discuss all iodine radioisotopes application focusing on (124)I, which seems to be the most promising for its half-life, radiation emissions, and stability, allowing several applications in oncological and nononcological fields.

  17. Microbiological and abiotic processes in modelling longer-term marine corrosion of steel.

    PubMed

    Melchers, Robert E

    2014-06-01

    Longer term exposure of mild steel in natural (biotic) waters progresses as a bimodal function of time, both for corrosion mass loss and for pit depth. Recent test results, however, found this also for immersion in clean fresh, almost pure and triply distilled waters. This shows chlorides or microbiological activity is not essential for the electrochemical processes producing bimodal behaviour. It is proposed that the first mode is aerobic corrosion that eventually produces a non-homogeneous corroded surface and rust coverage sufficient to allow formation of anoxic niches. Within these, aggressive autocatalytic reduction then occurs under anoxic abiotic conditions, caused by sulfide species originating from the MnS inclusions typical in steels. This is consistent with Wranglen's model for abiotic anoxic crevice and pitting corrosion without external aggressive ions. In biotic conditions, metabolites from anaerobic bacterial activity within and near the anoxic niches provides additional (sulfide) species to contribute to the severity of corrosion. Limited observational evidence that supports this hypothesis is given but further investigation is required to determine all contributor(s) to the cathodic current for the electrochemical reaction. The results are important for estimating the contribution of microbiological corrosion in infrastructure applications.

  18. More americans living longer with cardiovascular disease will increase costs while lowering quality of life.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Ankur; Gaziano, Thomas A; Weinstein, Milton C; Cutler, David

    2013-10-01

    In the past several decades, some risk factors for cardiovascular disease have improved, while others have worsened. For example, smoking rates have dropped and treatment rates for cardiovascular disease have increased-factors that have made the disease less fatal. At the same time, Americans' average body mass index and incidence of diabetes have increased as the population continues to live longer-factors that have made cardiovascular disease more prevalent. To assess the aggregate impact of these opposing trends, we used the nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves from 1973 to 2010 to forecast total cardiovascular disease risk and prevalence from 2015 to 2030. We found that continued improvements in cardiovascular disease treatment and declining smoking rates will not outweigh the influence of increasing population age and obesity on cardiovascular disease risk. Given an aging population, an obesity epidemic, and declining mortality from the disease, the United States should expect to see a sharp rise in the health care costs, disability, and reductions in quality of life associated with increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease. Policies that target the treatment of high blood pressure and cholesterol and the reduction of obesity will be necessary to curb the imminent spike in cardiovascular disease prevalence.

  19. Emotion self-regulation and empathy depend upon longer stimulus exposure.

    PubMed

    Ikezawa, Satoru; Corbera, Silvia; Wexler, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    Observation of others in pain induces positive elevation (pain effect) in late event-related potentials (ERP). This effect is associated with top-down attention regulating processes. It has previously been shown that stimulus exposure duration can affect top-down attentional modulation of response to threat-related stimuli. We investigated the effect of exposure duration on ERP response to others in pain. Two late ERP components, P3 and late positive potentials (LPP), from 18 healthy people were measured while they viewed pictures of hands in painful or neutral situations for either 200 or 500 ms, during two task conditions (pain judgment and counting hands). P3 and LPP pain effects during the pain judgment condition were significantly greater with 500 ms than 200 ms stimulus presentation. Ours is the first study to suggest that engagement of empathy-related self-regulatory processes reflected in late potentials requires longer exposure to the pain-related stimulus. Although this is important information about the relationship between early sensory and subsequent brain processing, and about engagement of self-regulatory processes, the neural basis of this time-dependence remains unclear. It might be important to investigate the relationship between stimulus duration and empathic response in clinical populations where issues of self-regulation, empathic response and speed of information processing exist.

  20. Longer leukocyte telomeres are associated with ultra-endurance exercise independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; Nelson, Christopher P; O'Brien, Brendan J; Nankervis, Scott A; Denniff, Matthew; Harvey, Jack T; Marques, Francine Z; Codd, Veryan; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Samani, Nilesh J; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Charchar, Fadi J

    2013-01-01

    Telomere length is recognized as a marker of biological age, and shorter mean leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is unclear whether repeated exposure to ultra-endurance aerobic exercise is beneficial or detrimental in the long-term and whether it attenuates biological aging. We quantified 67 ultra-marathon runners' and 56 apparently healthy males' leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) using real-time quantitative PCR. The ultra-marathon runners had 11% longer telomeres (T/S ratio) than controls (ultra-marathon runners: T/S ratio = 3.5±0.68, controls: T/S ratio = 3.1±0.41; β = 0.40, SE = 0.10, P = 1.4×10(-4)) in age-adjusted analysis. The difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P = 2.2×10(-4)). The magnitude of this association translates into 16.2±0.26 years difference in biological age and approximately 324-648bp difference in leukocyte telomere length between ultra-marathon runners and healthy controls. Neither traditional cardiovascular risk factors nor markers of inflammation/adhesion molecules explained the difference in leukocyte telomere length between ultra-marathon runners and controls. Taken together these data suggest that regular engagement in ultra-endurance aerobic exercise attenuates cellular aging.

  1. Distal and Proximal Influences on the Risk of Extramarital Sex: A Prospective Study of Longer Duration Marriages

    PubMed Central

    DeMaris, Alfred

    2012-01-01

    Previous models of the risk of extramarital sex (EMS) rely largely on cross-section samples and retrospective reporting. This may well conflate causes with consequences of EMS in the same model. Instead, this study employs panel data with an event-history approach to re-assess the influences on the risk of EMS. The sample consists of 1,270 married respondents, with no prior history of EMS, who were followed up in five subsequent surveys spanning a 20-year period. The quality of the conjugal bond emerged as a paramount influence on the outcome. The hazard of EMS was higher for respondents who had ever experienced a trial separation, reported marital violence, scored higher on a marital instability index, or spent less time in activities with the spouse. The risk of EMS was lower the longer respondents had been married at baseline, the longer the duration since baseline, and the greater the respondent's religiosity. PMID:19387889

  2. 27 CFR 11.34 - Products which may no longer be lawfully sold.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... where, due to a change in regulation or administrative procedure over which the trade buyer or an affiliate of the trade buyer has no control, a particular size or brand is no longer permitted to be sold....

  3. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  4. Post-sleep inertia performance benefits of longer naps in simulated nightwork and extended operations.

    PubMed

    Mulrine, Hannah M; Signal, T Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Gander, Philippa H

    2012-11-01

    Operational settings involving shiftwork or extended operations require periods of prolonged wakefulness, which in conjunction with sleep loss and circadian factors, can have a negative impact on performance, alertness, and workplace safety. Napping has been shown to improve performance and alertness after periods of prolonged wakefulness and sleep loss. Longer naps may not only result in longer-lasting benefits but also increase the risk of sleep inertia immediately upon waking. The time course of performance after naps of differing durations is thus an important consideration in weighing the benefits and risks of napping in workplace settings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of nap opportunities of 20, 40, or 60 min for maintaining alertness and performance 1.5-6 h post-nap in simulated nightwork (P1) or extended operations (P2). Each protocol included 12 participants in a within-subjects design in a controlled laboratory environment. After a baseline 8 h time-in-bed, healthy young males (P1 mean age 25.1 yr; P2 mean age 23.2 yr) underwent either ≈ 20 h (P1) or ≈ 30 h (P2) of sleep deprivation on four separate occasions, followed by nap opportunities of 0, 20, 40, and 60 min. Sleep on the baseline night and during the naps was recorded polysomnographically. During the nap opportunities, sleep onset latency was short and sleep efficiency was high. A greater proportion of slow-wave sleep (SWS) was obtained in nap opportunities of 40 and 60 min compared with 20 min. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep occurred infrequently. A subjective sleepiness rating (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale, KSS), 2-Back Working Memory Task (WMT), and Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT) were completed 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h post-nap. The slowest 10% of PVT responses were significantly faster after 40 and 60 min naps compared with a 20 min (P1) or no (P2) nap. There were significantly fewer PVT lapses after 40 and 60 min naps compared with no nap (P2), and

  5. Immediate and longer-term stressors and the mental health of Hurricane Ike survivors.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Tracy, Melissa; Cerdá, Magdalena; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    Previous research has documented that individuals exposed to more stressors during disasters and their immediate aftermath (immediate stressors) are at risk of experiencing longer-term postdisaster stressors. Longer-term stressors, in turn, have been found to play a key role in shaping postdisaster psychological functioning. Few studies have simultaneously explored the links from immediate to longer-term stressors, and from longer-term stressors to psychological functioning, however. Additionally, studies have inadequately explored whether postdisaster psychological symptoms influence longer-term stressors. In the current study, we aimed to fill these gaps. Participants (N = 448) were from population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors and completed assessments 2-5 months (Wave 1), 5-9 months (Wave 2) and 14-18 months (Wave 3) postdisaster. Through path analysis, we found that immediate stressors, assessed at Wave 1, were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 stressors, which in turn were positively associated with Wave 2 and Wave 3 posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms. Wave 2 posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with Wave 3 stressors, and Wave 1 depressive symptoms were positively associated with Wave 2 stressors. The findings suggest that policies and interventions can reduce the impact of disasters on mental health by preventing and alleviating both immediate and longer-term postdisaster stressors.

  6. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  7. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  8. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  9. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  11. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  12. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or...

  13. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  14. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  15. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  16. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  17. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  18. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  19. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or...

  20. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  6. The effect of longer-term creatine supplementation on elite swimming performance after an acute creatine loading.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, A S; Cooke, C B; King, R F; Hood, C; Denison, T; Wainwright, B G; Havenetidis, K

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an acute creatine loading (25 g per day for 4 days) and longer-term creatine supplementation (5 g of creatine or 5 g of placebo per day for 2 months) on the performance of 22 elite swimmers during maximal interval sessions. After the acute creatine loading, the mean of the average interval swim times for all swimmers (n = 22) improved (44.3+/-16.5 s before vs. 43.7+/-16.3 s after supplementation; P<0.01). Three of the 22 swimmers did not respond positively to supplementation. After 2 months of longer-term creatine supplementation or placebo, neither group showed a significant change in swimming performance (38.7+/-13.5 s before vs. 38.7+/-14.1 s after for the creatine group; 48.7+/-18.0 s before vs. 48.7+/-18.1 s after for the placebo group). We conclude that, in elite swimmers, 4 days of acute creatine loading improves swimming performance significantly when assessed by maximal interval sessions. However, longer-term supplementation for 2 months (5 g of creatine per day) did not benefit significantly the creatine group compared with the placebo group.

  7. CO2 lidar observations of Mount Pinatubo debris: FIRE 2 and longer-term measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinson, David H.; Post, Madison J.; Grund, Christian J.

    1993-01-01

    The volcanic debris in the stratosphere from the June 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo first appeared over the NOAA Wave Propagation Laboratory (WPL) field site near Boulder, Colorado (40.15 N, 105.23 W), in July of 1991. The presence of the Pinatubo cloud has allowed us to characterize both the tropospheric and stratospheric aerosol backscatter using the NOAA/WPL CO2 Doppler lidar. The lidar has measured vertical backscatter profiles at lambda = 10.59 mu m for over a decade. Analysis of this dense set of profiles reveals the effects of atmospheric and microphysical processes during the buildup and decay of Mt. Pinatubo's clouds. Further information on the NOAA lidar, specifically calibrations using a hard target, can be found in Post and Cupp (1990). We present results of those measurements for June 15, 1991, through December 31, 1992. During that period of longer-term measurements, WPL took part in FIRE II (First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment II), from November 12 through December 8, 1991, measuring vertical backscatter profiles almost daily. One of the mechanisms for purging stratospheric aerosols is tropopause folding, which occurs in cold-core extratropical cyclones. Tropospheric mass loading occurs during folding events which can substantially increase the amount of ice nuclei in the upper troposphere, and may affect the formation of cirrus in that region. Spring and fall are prominent times for tropopause folding events because of the migration of the subtropical and polar jet streams during the transition seasons. Sassen has suggested that the volcanic aerosols from Pinatubo played a role in the formation of cirrus during FIRE II, particularly during a period of moist subtropical flow on December 5-6, 1991.

  8. Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits.

    PubMed

    Herman, Sonja L; Smith, Derek T

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a dynamic-stretching warm-up (DWU) intervention performed daily over 4 weeks positively influenced power, speed, agility, endurance, flexibility, and strength performance measures in collegiate wrestlers when compared to a static-stretching warm-up (SWU) intervention. Twenty-four male National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I wrestlers were randomly assigned to complete either a 4-week treatment condition (DWU) (n = 11) or an active control condition (SWU) (n = 13) prior to their daily preseason practices. Anthropometric and performance measures were conducted before and after the 4-week experimental period (i.e., DWU or SWU). Measures included peak torque of the quadriceps and hamstrings, medicine ball underhand throw, 300-yd shuttle, pull-ups, push-ups, sit-ups, broad jump, 600-m run, sit-and-reach test, and trunk extension test. Wrestlers completing the 4-week DWU intervention had several performance improvements, including increases in quadriceps peak torque (11%), broad jump (4%), underhand medicine ball throw (4%), sit-ups (11%), and push-ups (3%). A decrease in the average time to completion of the 300-yd shuttle (-2%) and the 600-m run (-2.4%) was suggestive of enhanced muscular strength, endurance, agility, and anaerobic capacity in the DWU group. In contrast to the DWU intervention, there was no observed improvement in the SWU group for peak torque of the quadriceps, broad jump, 300-yd shuttle run, medicine ball underhand throw for distance, sit-ups, push-ups, or 600-m run, and decrements in some performance measures occurred. The findings suggest that incorporation of this specific 4-week DWU intervention into the daily preseason training regimen of wrestlers produced longer-term or sustained power, strength, muscular endurance, anaerobic capacity, and agility performance enhancements.

  9. Radiation-induced degradation of aqueous 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiewicz, Malgorzata; Chmielewski, Andrzej G.; Getoff, Nikola

    2006-02-01

    The degradation of aqueous 2,3-dihydroxynaphthaline (2,3-DHN) under the influence of γ-ray was investigated under various experimental conditions. Using 2.5×10 -5 mol L -1 2,3-DHN in aerated media (pH=6-6.8) an initial degradation yield, Gi-(2,3-DHN)=0.32 was obtained, whereas in solutions saturated with N 2O the yield come to Gi-(2,3-DHN)=0.50. In airfree media the substrate decomposition was negligible. Possible reaction mechanisms are presented. Further, the rate constant, k(OH+2,3-DHN)=2.14×10 10 L mol -1 s -1 was determined by competition reactions with PNDA.

  10. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  11. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  12. Spectroscopic identification of dichlorobenzyl radicals: Jet-cooled 2,3-dichlorobenzyl radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, Sang Youl; Yoon, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Kuk

    2015-07-01

    The vibronically excited but jet-cooled 2,3-dichlorobenzyl radical was generated from the corona discharge of precursor 2,3-dichlorotoluene seeded in a large amount of carrier gas He using a pinhole-type glass nozzle. From an analysis of the visible vibronic emission spectrum observed, we obtained the electronic energy of the D1 → D0 transition and vibrational mode frequencies in the D0 state of the 2,3-dichlorobenzyl radical by comparing the observation with the results of ab initio calculations. In addition, we discussed substituent effect of Cls on electronic transition energy in terms of substituent orientation for the first time.

  13. Can longer forest harvest intervals increase summer streamflow for salmon recovery?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mashel Streamflow Modeling Project in the Mashel River Basin, Washington, is using a watershed-scale ecohydrological model to assess whether longer forest harvest intervals can remediate summer low flow conditions that have contributed to sharply reduced runs of spawning Chin...

  14. Perceptions of Committed Marriages in African American Heterosexual Couples Married 25 Years and Longer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Moshae

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and provide insight into meanings and factors that contribute to healthy committed marriages among African American heterosexual married couples. This study explored the experiences of couples who had been married for 25 years and longer. This qualitative study was conducted using a…

  15. Fruit flies with additional expression of the elongation factor EF-1 alpha live longer.

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, J C; Walldorf, U; Hug, P; Gehring, W J

    1989-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the decrease in protein synthesis that accompanies aging is preceded by a decrease in elongation factor EF-1 alpha protein and mRNA. Here we show that Drosophila transformed with a P-element vector containing an EF-1 alpha gene under control of hsp70 regulatory sequences have a longer life-span than control flies. Images PMID:2508089

  16. Why Are Written Picture Naming Latencies (Not) Longer than Spoken Naming?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perret, Cyril; Laganaro, Marina

    2013-01-01

    The comparison between spoken and handwritten production in picture naming tasks represents an important source of information for building models of cognitive processes involved in writing. Studies using this methodology systematically reported longer latencies for handwritten than for spoken production. To uncover the origin of this difference…

  17. No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal: Race and Class in Elite College Admission and Campus Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2009-01-01

    Against the backdrop of today's increasingly multicultural society, are America's elite colleges admitting and successfully educating a diverse student body? "No Longer Separate, Not Yet Equal" pulls back the curtain on the selective college experience and takes a rigorous and comprehensive look at how race and social class impact each stage--from…

  18. 5 CFR 890.1008 - Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length. 890.1008 Section 890.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Mandatory Debarments § 890.1008 Mandatory debarment...

  19. 5 CFR 890.1008 - Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Mandatory debarment for longer than the minimum length. 890.1008 Section 890.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Sanctions Imposed Against Health Care Providers Mandatory Debarments § 890.1008 Mandatory debarment...

  20. Dissemination of English Culture in Chinua Achebe's "No Longer at Ease"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrinjooee, Bahman; Khatar, Shahla

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Chinua Achebe's (1930-2013) "No Longer at Ease" (1960) which depicts the dissemination of English culture in Nigeria and its effects on the life and identity of Obi Okonkwo, the Western educated male protagonist. The focus of this paper is on the dissemination of English culture and submission of Nigerian culture in…

  1. The Future Is More than Just Tomorrow: Higher Education, the Economy and the Longer Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossick, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary the author reflects on longer-term issues facing higher education in the context of recession and crisis in public finance. The views expressed are written from a personal perspective with the aim of stimulating and encouraging a wider and ongoing debate around the themes presented. The author draws upon the findings of three…

  2. Precision frequency measurements of He,43 2 3P→3 3D transitions at 588 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Pei-Ling; Peng, Jin-Long; Hu, Jinmeng; Feng, Yan; Wang, Li-Bang; Shy, Jow-Tsong

    2016-12-01

    We report the frequency measurements of the 2 3P→3 3D transitions in He,43 at 588 nm using an optical frequency comb stabilized laser system. The Doppler-free spectra of the 2 3P→3 3D transitions are demonstrated in an rf discharged sealed-off helium cell using intermodulated fluorescence spectroscopy. The measured absolute frequency of the 4He2 3P0→3 3D1 transition is 510 059 755.352(28) MHz, which is more precise than the previous measurement by two orders of magnitude. The ionization energies of the 4He2 3P0 and 2 3S1 states can be derived from our result and agree very well with the previous experimental values. More importantly, the Lamb shift of the 2 3S1 state can be deduced to be 4057.086(34) MHz, which is two times more precise than the previous result. In addition, the absolute frequencies of the 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D1,3 /2 , 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D1,1 /2 , and 2 3P0,1 /2→3 3D2,3 /2 transitions in 3He are measured. Our precision surpasses the theoretical calculations by more than one to two orders of magnitude. The hyperfine separations of the 3 3D states in 3He and the frequency differences between 4He and 3He transitions are also presented.

  3. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Qualifications and Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of grazing preference...

  4. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  5. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  6. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  7. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  8. 43 CFR 4610.2-3 - Approval of lease; renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of lease; renewal. 4610.2-3 Section 4610.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) LEASES OF GRAZING LAND-PIERCE ACT...

  9. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND...

  10. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND...

  11. 43 CFR 3140.2-3 - Application requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application requirements. 3140.2-3 Section 3140.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND...

  12. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...

  13. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS...

  14. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO...

  15. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3 Section 3811.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO...

  16. Determination of 2,3-dibromopropanol in air.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, G

    1987-09-01

    One of the starting materials for the preparation of TRIS-BP (tris-2,3-dibromopropanol phosphate), which is used in the treatment of fabrics and various materials to make them nonflammable, is 2,3-dibromopropanol. Because of the reported toxic nature of its parent phosphate compound, 2,3-dibromopropanol recently has been used by itself as a fire retardant. The manufacture and use of 2,3-dibromopropanol as a fire retardant, however, have been a matter of great concern in the workplace because of its mutagenic, carcinogenic and nephrotoxic nature. A sensitive air sampling and analytical method has been developed as part of a complete field survey protocol. This paper describes the development of an air sampling and gas-liquid chromatographic analysis procedure for 2,3-dibromopropanol. The detection limit for the method is 5 microg per sample and the relative standard deviation for the method is 5%.

  17. Spatial and temporal variations in landscape evolution: historic and longer-term sediment flux through global catchments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Craddock, William H.; Romans, Brian W.; Fildani, Andrea; Gosai, Mayur

    2013-01-01

    Sediment generation and transport through terrestrial catchments influence soil distribution, geochemical cycling of particulate and dissolved loads, and the character of the stratigraphic record of Earth history. To assess the spatiotemporal variation in landscape evolution, we compare global compilations of stream gauge–derived () and cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN)–derived (predominantly 10Be; ) denudation of catchments (mm/yr) and sediment load of rivers (Mt/yr). Stream gauges measure suspended sediment loads of rivers during several to tens of years, whereas CRNs provide catchment-integrated denudation rates at 102–105-yr time scales. Stream gauge–derived and CRN-derived sediment loads in close proximity to one another (<500 km) exhibit broad similarity ( stream gauge samples; CRN samples). Nearly two-thirds of CRN-derived sediment loads exceed historic loads measured at the same locations (). Excessive longer-term sediment loads likely are a result of longer-term recurrence of large-magnitude sediment-transport events. Nearly 80% of sediment loads measured at approximately the same locations exhibit stream gauge loads that are within an order of magnitude of CRN loads, likely as a result of the buffering capacity of large flood plains. Catchments in which space for deposition exceeds sediment supply have greater buffering capacity. Superior locations in which to evaluate anthropogenic influences on landscape evolution might be buffered catchments, in which temporary storage of sediment in flood plains can provide stream gauge–based sediment loads and denudation rates that are applicable over longer periods than the durations of gauge measurements. The buffering capacity of catchments also has implications for interpreting the stratigraphic record; delayed sediment transfer might complicate the stratigraphic record of external forcings and catchment modification.

  18. New compounds hybrids 1h-1,2,3-triazole-quinoline against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Boechat, Núbia; Ferreira, Maria de Lourdes G; Pinheiro, Luiz C S; Jesus, Antônio M L; Leite, Milene M M; Júnior, Carlos C S; Aguiar, Anna C C; de Andrade, Isabel M; Krettli, Antoniana U

    2014-09-01

    Malaria is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases in the world. The global importance of this disease, current vector control limitations, and the absence of an effective vaccine make the use of therapeutic antimalarial drugs the main strategy to control malaria. Chloroquine is a cost-effective antimalarial drug with a relatively robust safety profile, or therapeutic index. However, chloroquine is no longer used alone to treat patients with Plasmodium falciparum due to the emergence and spread of chloroquine-resistant strains, which have also been reported for Plasmodium vivax. However, the activity of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives against chloroquine-sensitive and chloroquine-resistant strains of P. falciparum has been reported in the literature. To enhance the anti-P. falciparum activity of quinoline derivatives, we synthesized 11 new quinoline-1H-1,2,3-triazole hybrids with different substituents in the 4-positions of the 1H-1,2,3-triazole ring, which were assayed against the W2-chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum clone. Six compounds exhibited activity against the P. falciparum W2 clone, chloroquine-resistant, with IC50 values ranging from 1.4 to 46 μm. None of these compounds was toxic to a normal monkey kidney cell line, thus exhibiting good selectivity indexes, as high 351 for one compound (11).

  19. Longer latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection predicts olfactory neural disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kikuta, Shu; Matsumoto, Yu; Kuboki, Akihito; Nakayama, Tsuguhisa; Asaka, Daiya; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Kojima, Hiromi; Sakamoto, Takashi; Akinori, Kashio; Kanaya, Kaori; Ueha, Rumi; Kagoya, Ryoji; Nishijima, Hironobu; Toma-Hirano, Makiko; Kikkawa, Yayoi; Kondo, Kenji; Tsunoda, Koichi; Miyaji, Tempei; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori; Mori, Kensaku; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    A near loss of smell may result from conductive and/or neural olfactory disorders. However, an olfactory test to selectively detect neural disorders has not been established. We investigated whether onset latency of sensory response to intravenous odor injection can detect neural disorders in humans and mice. We showed that longer preoperative onset latency of odor recognition to intravenous odor in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis predicted worse recovery of olfactory symptoms following sinus surgery. The onset latency of the olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) response to intravenous odor using synaptopHluorin signals from OSN axon terminals was delayed in mice with reduced numbers of OSNs (neural disorder) but not with increased mucus or blocked orthonasal pathways (conductive disorders). Moreover, the increase in onset latency correlated with the decrease in mature OSN numbers. Longer onset latency to intravenous odor injection is a useful biomarker for presence and severity of olfactory disorders with neural etiology. PMID:27734933

  20. Does telomere elongation lead to a longer lifespan if cancer is considered?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masa, Michael; Cebrat, Stanisław; Stauffer, Dietrich

    2006-05-01

    As cell proliferation is limited due to the loss of telomere repeats in DNA of normal somatic cells during division, telomere attrition can possibly play an important role in determining the maximum life span of organisms as well as contribute to the process of biological ageing. With computer simulations of cell culture development in organisms, which consist of tissues of normal somatic cells with finite growth, we obtain an increase of life span and life expectancy for longer telomeric DNA in the zygote. By additionally considering a two-mutation model for carcinogenesis and indefinite proliferation by the activation of telomerase, we demonstrate that the risk of dying due to cancer can outweigh the positive effect of longer telomeres on the longevity.

  1. 76 FR 20760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of Longer Time...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... Their Business Plan Is To Buy and Hold Commodities April 8, 2011. On October 15, 2010, The NASDAQ Stock... (``CSCs'') that have indicated that their business plan is to buy and hold commodities. The proposed rule..., standards for listing securities of companies whose business plan is to buy and hold commodities. \\9\\...

  2. Iatrogenic Iliac Artery Rupture: Emergency Management by Longer Stent-Graft on a Shorter Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Trehan, Vijay; Nigam, Arima; Ramakrishnan, S.

    2007-02-15

    Rupture of an iliac artery during percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is a rare but potentially devastating complication. We report a case of iatrogenic external iliac artery rupture that was successfully treated by temporary balloon occlusion followed by endovascular stent graft placement in an unusual manner. Limited availability of the hardware necessitated the use of a longer bare stent graft mounted on a relatively shorter balloon.

  3. Does a Longer Delay in Fixation of Talus Fractures Cause Osteonecrosis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Does a Longer Delay in Fixation of Talus Fractures Cause Osteonecrosis ? CPT Jaime L. Bellamy, DO,1 CDR John J. Keeling, MD,2 Joseph Wenke, PhD,3 LTC...and development of osteonecrosis and posttraumatic arthritis. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry was queried by ICD-9 codes for talus fractures...Soldiers, ages 18 to 40, with talus fracture between 2001 and 2008 were included. Radiographs identified the injury type, Hawkins sign, osteonecrosis , and

  4. Condensed-Phase Photochemical Processes in Titan's Aerosols and Surface: The Role of Longer Wavelength Photochemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Jacovi, Ronen; Lignell, Antti; Couturier, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    We will discuss photochemical properties of Titan's organic molecules in the condensed phase as solid aerosols or surface material, from small linear polyyenes (polyacetylenes and polycyanoacetylenes) such as C2H2, C4N2, HC5N, etc. In particular we will focus on photochemistry caused by longer wavelength UV-VIS photons (greater than 250 nm) photons that make it through Titan's atmosphere to the haze region (approximately 100 km) and on to the surface of Titan.

  5. OPAT for cellulitis: its benefits and the factors that predispose to longer treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Moore, E; Bousfield, R

    2016-06-01

    This retrospective study investigated the demographics and treatment outcomes of patients with cellulitis receiving outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) between 2010 and 2014 in Cambridge University Hospitals. The rate of treatment failure (as indicated by the readmission to hospital) was low, at 5.5%. Risk factors associated with a longer duration of OPAT treatment included: immunosuppression, peripheral vascular disease, obesity, lymphoedema, previous cellulitis and diabetes.

  6. Parenting across Racial and Class Lines: Assortative Mating Patterns of New Parents Who Are Married, Cohabiting, Dating or No Longer Romantically Involved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joshua R.; Harknett, Kristen

    2006-01-01

    We examine the assortative mating patterns of new parents who are married, cohabiting, romantically involved and no longer romantically involved. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, we find that relationship status at the time of a birth depends mainly on father's race rather than on whether mother and father's…

  7. Synthesis of genistein 2,3-anhydroglycoconjugates -- potential antiproliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Goj, Katarzyna; Rusin, Aleksandra; Szeja, Wiesław; Kitel, Radosław; Komor, Roman; Grynkiewicz, Grzegorz

    2012-01-01

    The title compounds, variously protected 2.3-anhydrosugars linked with genistein through an alkyl chain, were synthesized in a sequence of reactions. First step involved Ferrier rearragement of 3,4-di-O-acetyl-L-rhamnal with 3-bromopropanol to obtain 2,3-unsaturated bromoalkylglycosides. The next step was epoxidation with m-CPBA and finally these compounds were connected with genistein in reaction of 7-O-genistein tetra-butylamonium salt with 2,3-anhydro bromoalkylglycosides. Obtained glycoconjugates differ in orientation of an oxirane ring and the protecting group in a sugar moiety. All compounds were tested in vitro for antiproliferative potential in cancer cells.

  8. The Longer You Stay, the Worse Your Health? A Critical Review of the Negative Acculturation Theory among Asian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Ro, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the health patterns of immigrants with longer residence in the United States, as this reveals the health consequences of integration processes. The negative acculturation effect has been the dominant interpretation of duration patterns, despite empirical and theoretical uncertainties about this assumption. This theory assumes that immigrant health declines with longer residence in the United States because of poorer health behaviors and health risks that reflect Americanized lifestyles. This paper reviews the empirical support for the negative acculturation theory among Asian immigrants to determine if and when it is an appropriate interpretation for duration patterns. I conclude that empirical inconsistencies and methodological issues limit the negative acculturation theory as the primary interpretation for duration patterns. First, there is no consistent evidence that health behaviors decline with time. There is also substantial group heterogeneity in duration patterns as well as heterogeneity across health outcomes. The literature has not adequately addressed methodological shortcomings, such as confounding by cohort effects or non-linear duration patterns. Length of residence in the United States is still an important aspect of Asian immigrant health, but the mechanisms of this relationship are still understudied. I propose alternative frameworks between duration and health that consider environmental influences and end with future research directions to explore research gaps. PMID:25111874

  9. The longer you stay, the worse your health? A critical review of the negative acculturation theory among Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie

    2014-08-08

    Researchers have become increasingly interested in the health patterns of immigrants with longer residence in the United States, as this reveals the health consequences of integration processes. The negative acculturation effect has been the dominant interpretation of duration patterns, despite empirical and theoretical uncertainties about this assumption. This theory assumes that immigrant health declines with longer residence in the United States because of poorer health behaviors and health risks that reflect Americanized lifestyles. This paper reviews the empirical support for the negative acculturation theory among Asian immigrants to determine if and when it is an appropriate interpretation for duration patterns. I conclude that empirical inconsistencies and methodological issues limit the negative acculturation theory as the primary interpretation for duration patterns. First, there is no consistent evidence that health behaviors decline with time. There is also substantial group heterogeneity in duration patterns as well as heterogeneity across health outcomes. The literature has not adequately addressed methodological shortcomings, such as confounding by cohort effects or non-linear duration patterns. Length of residence in the United States is still an important aspect of Asian immigrant health, but the mechanisms of this relationship are still understudied. I propose alternative frameworks between duration and health that consider environmental influences and end with future research directions to explore research gaps.

  10. Weather Knowledge: No Longer the Privilege of Meteorologists and Weather Services - Information and the Overturning of the Gods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, V. C.

    2006-05-01

    The advances in communications technology, sharing of data and information, are enabling the development of knowledge that was impossible a decade ago. A prime example is Meteorology students, regardless of their location, are now able to access and use massive amounts of current and historic hydro-meteorological data. This ability was the province of national weather services with their so expensive equipment in the not too distant past. Now, one only needs inexpensive personal computers and access to the Internet (with the help and vision of groups like Unidata) to study phenomena that affect society. There is no longer a need to operate expensive ground stations to be able to analyze satellite imagery, etc. Investigations of atmospheric phenomena are no longer restricted to students of Meteorology. Learners in diverse disciplines and increasingly amateurs are joining a vibrantly expanding community. There was a time when a medical doctor was a god. Now, as technology has allowed us to become better informed, we are increasingly capable of questioning diagnoses and making truly informed decisions. This talk will reflect the author's experience, thoughts, and some perspectives for the future, on "the extension of free and open information sharing in the pursuit of incubating international collaborations".

  11. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties;

  12. Technical Fact Sheet – 1,2,3-Trichloropropane (TCP)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet, developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Federal Facilities Restoration and Reuse Office (FFRRO), provides a brief summary of the contaminant 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP), including physical and chemical properties

  13. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  14. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  15. Nonlinear realizations of the W(2)3 algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Gribanov, V.; Krivonos, S.; Pashnev, A.

    1994-08-01

    In this Letter we consider the nonlinear realizations of the classical Polyakov's algebra W(2)3. The coset space method and the covariant reduction procedure allow us to deduce the Boussinesq equation with interchanged space and evolution coordinates. By adding one more space coordinate and introducing two copies of the W(2)3 algebra, the same method yields the sl(3, R) Toda lattice equations.

  16. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  17. Not later, but longer: sleep, chronotype and light exposure in adolescents with remitted depression compared to healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Keller, Lena Katharina; Grünewald, Barbara; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2017-03-29

    The relationship between sleep and adolescent depression is much discussed, but still not fully understood. One important sleep variable is self-selected sleep timing, which is also referred to as chronotype. Chronotype is mostly regulated by the circadian clock that synchronises the internal time of the body with the external light dark cycle. A late chronotype as well as a misalignment between internal time and external time such as social jetlag has been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms in adults. In this study, we investigated whether adolescents with remitted depression differ from healthy controls in terms of chronotype, social jetlag and other sleep-related variables. For this purpose, we assessed chronotype and social jetlag with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ), subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and used continuous wrist-actimetry over 31 consecutive days to determine objective sleep timing. Given the potentially mediating effect of light on chronotype and depressive symptoms, we measured light exposure with a light sensor on the actimeter. In our sample, adolescents with remitted depression showed similar chronotypes and similar amounts of social jetlag compared to controls. However, patients with remitted depression slept significantly longer on work-free days and reported a worse subjective sleep quality than controls. Additionally, light exposure in remitted patients was significantly higher, but this finding was mediated by living in a rural environment. These findings indicate that chronotype might be modified during remission, which should be further investigated in longitudinal studies.

  18. Extending 3D Near-Cloud Corrections from Shorter to Longer Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshak, Alexander; Evans, K. Frank; Varnai, Tamas; Guoyong, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations have shown a positive correlation between cloud amount and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) that can be explained by the humidification of aerosols near clouds, and/or by cloud contamination by sub-pixel size clouds and the cloud adjacency effect. The last effect may substantially increase reflected radiation in cloud-free columns, leading to overestimates in the retrieved AOT. For clear-sky areas near boundary layer clouds the main contribution to the enhancement of clear sky reflectance at shorter wavelengths comes from the radiation scattered into clear areas by clouds and then scattered to the sensor by air molecules. Because of the wavelength dependence of air molecule scattering, this process leads to a larger reflectance increase at shorter wavelengths, and can be corrected using a simple two-layer model. However, correcting only for molecular scattering skews spectral properties of the retrieved AOT. Kassianov and Ovtchinnikov proposed a technique that uses spectral reflectance ratios to retrieve AOT in the vicinity of clouds; they assumed that the cloud adjacency effect influences the spectral ratio between reflectances at two wavelengths less than it influences the reflectances themselves. This paper combines the two approaches: It assumes that the 3D correction for the shortest wavelength is known with some uncertainties, and then it estimates the 3D correction for longer wavelengths using a modified ratio method. The new approach is tested with 3D radiances simulated for 26 cumulus fields from Large-Eddy Simulations, supplemented with 40 aerosol profiles. The results showed that (i) for a variety of cumulus cloud scenes and aerosol profiles over ocean the 3D correction due to cloud adjacency effect can be extended from shorter to longer wavelengths and (ii) the 3D corrections for longer wavelengths are not very sensitive to unbiased random uncertainties in the 3D corrections at shorter wavelengths.

  19. Consuming breakfast and exercising longer during high school increases bone mineral density in young adult men.

    PubMed

    Ishimoto, Yuyu; Yoshida, Munehito; Nagata, Keiji; Yamada, Hiroshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Noriko

    2013-05-01

    We examined the bone mineral densities (BMDs) of young adult men and analyzed the factors associated with BMD differences. Between 1993 and 2002, all male freshmen in the Wakayama Medical University, Japan were recruited into the present study, which included a self-administrated questionnaire survey, anthropometric measurements, and BMD measurements of the spine and hip. Of a total of 387 freshmen, 382 (98.7 %; mean age, 20.3 years; age range, 18-29 years) completed the study. The mean BMDs of the spine (L2-4) and femoral neck (FN) were 1.21 (standard deviation, 0.13) g/cm(2) and 1.12 (0.14) g/cm(2), respectively. The L2-4 BMDs were not associated with age, while FN BMDs were significantly inversely associated with age. The BMDs at L2-4 and FN were significantly associated with body mass index (BMI). After adjustment for age and BMI, multivariate regression analysis indicated that BMDs at L2-4 and FN were associated with current longer exercise duration (L2-4, p = 0.024; FN, p = 0.001), those at L2-4 with milk intake (p = 0.024), and those at FN with consuming breakfast (p = 0.004). Similarly, habits of consuming breakfast and exercising longer (on a weekly basis) during high school were linked with significantly higher L2-4 and FN BMDs. High-impact activities during high school significantly influenced the later BMDs. In conclusion, to maximize peak bone mass, consuming breakfast and completing a longer duration of stronger exercise in the late high school years for at least 10 h per week is recommended.

  20. Longer storage of auditory than of visual information in the rabbit brain: evidence from dorsal hippocampal electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Astikainen, Piia; Ruusuvirta, Timo; Korhonen, Tapani

    2005-01-01

    Whereas sensory memory in humans has been found to store auditory information for a longer time than visual information, it is unclear whether this is the case also in other species. We recorded hippocampal event-related potentials (ERPs) in awake rabbits exposed to occasional changes in a repeated 50-ms acoustic (1000 versus 2000 Hz) and visual (vertical versus horizontal orientation) stimulus. Three intervals (500, 1500, or 3000 ms) between stimulus repetitions were applied. Whereas acoustic changes significantly affected ERPs with the repetition intervals of 500 and 1500 ms, visual changes did so only with the repetition interval of 500 ms. Our finding, thus, suggests a similarity in sensory processing abilities between human and non-human mammals.

  1. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  2. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  3. Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    King, A. E.; Lopez-Garcia, J. A.; Cumberbatch, M.

    1992-01-01

    1. The rat spinal cord in vitro has been used to assess the effect of 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) on the dorsal root evoked extracellular ventral root reflex (DR-VRR) and the intracellular excitatory postsynaptic potential (e.p.s.p.) in ventral horn neurones and motoneurones. 2. CNQX (1-5 microM) produces a selective and dose-dependent reduction in the amplitude of the monosynaptic component of the DR-VRR recorded from lumbar spinal segments. 3. With low intensity dorsal root stimulation CNQX selectively attenuates the amplitude of the short latency intracellular e.p.s.p. (70% reduction, P < 0.005) and its rise-time (75%, P < 0.01) without affecting the half-time to decay. 4. When high intensity stimulation is used CNQX significantly attenuates the amplitude of the e.p.s.p. (56%, P < 0.005), rise-time (76%, P < 0.01) and abolishes the short latency spike. In addition longer latency synaptic components are attenuated and the half-time to decay significantly reduced (47%, P < 0.005). 5. The results with CNQX are compared to D-aminophosphonovalerate and discussed in relation to the recruitment of low versus high threshold afferents. The data supports an involvement of non-NMDA receptors in transmission through both mono- and polysynaptic pathways in the ventral horn. PMID:1358390

  4. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L.E.P.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance of hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16–25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3–6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness. PMID:26749569

  5. Generation of mice with longer and better preserved telomeres in the absence of genetic manipulations

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Elisa; Muñoz-Lorente, Miguel A.; Tejera, Agueda M.; Ortega, Sagrario; Blasco, Maria A.

    2016-01-01

    Although telomere length is genetically determined, mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells with telomeres of twice the normal size have been generated. Here, we use such ES cells with ‘hyper-long' telomeres, which also express green fluorescent protein (GFP), to generate chimaeric mice containing cells with both hyper-long and normal telomeres. We show that chimaeric mice contain GFP-positive cells in all mouse tissues, display normal tissue histology and normal survival. Both hyper-long and normal telomeres shorten with age, but GFP-positive cells retain longer telomeres as mice age. Chimaeric mice with hyper-long telomeres also accumulate fewer cells with short telomeres and less DNA damage with age, and express lower levels of p53. In highly renewing compartments, such as the blood, cells with hyper-long telomeres are longitudinally maintained or enriched with age. We further show that wound-healing rates in the skin are increased in chimaeric mice. Our work demonstrates that mice with functional, longer and better preserved telomeres can be generated without the need for genetic manipulations, such as TERT overexpression. PMID:27252083

  6. Longer prime presentation decreases picture-word cross-domain priming.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, Kiyofumi; Kimura, Yusuke; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A short prime presentation has been shown to provide a greater priming magnitude, whereas a longer prime presentation results in a lower priming magnitude. In Experiment 1, we attempted to replicate the decrease of priming using word stimuli. Words were presented in both prime and test sessions, and participants judged whether each stimulus was natural or manmade. In Experiment 2, we employed a cross-domain priming paradigm to assess the impact of prime duration on non-perceptual processes. Pictures were presented in prime sessions, and their semantically matched words were presented in test sessions. We did not observe a significant decrease in priming in Experiment 1. However, we found that 2000 ms of prime exposure led to weaker cross-domain priming when compared with 250 ms of the exposure in Experiment 2. The results suggest that the longer presentation of pictures causes a non-perceptual adaptation effect. This effect may occur at conceptual, linguistic, and/or response-related levels.

  7. Radioimmunoimaging with longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides: potentials and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Brechbiel, Martin W.

    2012-01-01

    Radioimmunoimaging and therapy has been an area of interest for several decades. Steady progress has been made towards clinical translation of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Tremendous advances have been made in imaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET). However, these advances have so far eluded routine translation into clinical radioimmunoimaging applications due to the mismatch between the short half-lives of routinely used positron-emitting radionuclides such as 18F versus the pharmacokinetics of most intact monoclonal antibodies of interest. The lack of suitable positron-emitting radionuclides that match the pharmacokinetics of intact antibodies has generated interest in exploring the use of longer-lived positron emitters that are more suitable for radioimmunoimaging and dosimetry applications with intact monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we examine the opportunities and challenges of radioimmunoimaging with select longer-lived positron-emitting radionuclides such as 124I, 89Zr and 86Y with respect to radionuclide production, ease of radiolabeling intact antibodies, imaging characteristics, radiation dosimetry and clinical translation potential. PMID:19125647

  8. Molecular dynamics of polymer crystallization revisited: Crystallization from the melt and the glass in longer polyethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takashi

    2013-08-01

    Molecular mechanisms of the steady-state growth of the chain folded lamella and the cold crystallization across the glass transition temperature Tg are investigated by molecular dynamics simulation for a system of long polyethylene (PE)-like polymers made of 512 united atoms C512. The present paper aims to reconsider results of our previous simulations for short PE-like polymers C100 by carrying out very long simulations up to 1 μs for more realistic systems of much longer chains, thereby to establish the firm molecular image of chain-folded crystallization and clarify the specific molecular process of cold crystallization. We observe that the chain-folded lamella shows fast thickening-growth keeping marked tapered growth front. Despite the fast growth in much longer chains, the fold-surface is found to be predominantly of adjacent-reentry. Detailed inspections of the molecular pathway give an insightful image that can explain the apparently contradicting results. In addition, the fold-structure with specific spatial heterogeneity is found to give rise to heterogeneous mobility within the crystalline region. On the other hand, investigations of the cold crystallization during slow heating of the glassy film across Tg is found to give a granular texture made of small crystallites. The crystallites are found to nucleate preferentially near the free surfaces having lower Tg, and to be dominantly edge-on showing a definite tendency to orient their chain axes parallel to the free surface.

  9. Superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in the treatment of the chronic, infected wounds.

    PubMed

    Białoszewski, Dariusz; Kowalewski, Michał

    2003-10-30

    Background. Ozone therapy - i.e. the treatment of patients by a mixture of oxygen and ozone - has been used for many years as a method ancillary to basic treatment, especially in those cases in which traditional treatment methods do not give satisfactory results, e.g. skin loss in non-healing wounds, ulcers, pressure sores, fistulae, etc. Material and methods. In the Department of Phisiotherapy of the Medical Faculty and the Department of the Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Locomotor System at the Medical University of Warsaw in the period from January 2001 until November 2002, 23 patients with heavy,chronic, antibiotic resistants septic complications after trauma, surgical procedures and secundary skin infetions were treated with ozone. The ozone therapy was administered using an authorial technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone application. Results. In the wounds of the all experienced patients the inhibition of septic processes and wound healing was much faster than normal. Conclusions. Our data confirm the advantages wich result from the technique of superficially, longer, intermittent ozone theraphy in combined treatment for septic complications in the soft tissue, especially in the locomotor system. These technique makes posttraumatic infections and promotes quicker healing of post-surgical and post-traumal complications - chronic septic infections. This method also lowers the cost of antibiotic therapy and is sometimes the only available auxiliary technique to support surgical procedures.

  10. Modification of the GS LT Paired-end Library Protocol for Constructing Longer Insert Size Libraries

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Ze; Peng, Ze; Hamilton, Matthew; Ting, Sara; Tu, Hank; Goltsman, Eugene; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Cheng, Jan-Fang

    2008-05-22

    Paired-end library sequencing has been proven useful in scaffold construction during de novo assembly of genomic sequences. The ability of generating mate pairs with 8 Kb or greater insert sizes is especially important for genomes containing long repeats. While the current 454 GS LT Paired-end library preparation protocol can successfully construct libraries with 3 Kb insert size, it fails to generate longer insert sizes because the protocol is optimized to purify shorter fragments. We have made several changes in the protocol in order to increase the fragment length. These changes include the use of Promega column to increase the yield of large size DNA fragments, two gel purification steps to remove contaminated short fragments, and a large reaction volume in the circularization step to decrease the formation of chimeras. We have also made additional changes in the protocol to increase the overall quality of the libraries. The quality of the libraries are measured by a set of metrics, which include levels of redundant reads, linker positive, linker negative, half linker reads, and driver DNA contamination, and read length distribution, were used to measure the primary quality of these libraries. We have also assessed the quality of the resulted mate pairs including levels of chimera, distribution of insert sizes, and genome coverage after the assemblies are completed. Our data indicated that all these changes have improved the quality of the longer insert size libraries.

  11. Longer-term increased cortisol levels in young people with mental health problems.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Kareen; Lin, Ashleigh; Reniers, Renate L E P; Wood, Stephen J

    2016-02-28

    Disturbance of hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis activity is commonly reported in a range of mental disorders in blood, saliva and urine samples. This study aimed to look at longer-term cortisol levels and their association with clinical symptoms. Hair strands of 30 young people (16-25 years) presenting with mental health problems (Mage±SD=21±2.4, 26 females) and 28 healthy controls (HC, Mage±SD=20±2.9, 26 females) were analyzed for cortisol concentrations, representing the past 6 months prior to hair sampling. Clinical participants completed an assessment on psychiatric symptoms, functioning and lifestyle factors. All participants completed the Perceived Stress Scale. Hair cortisol concentrations representing the past 3 (but not 3-6) months were significantly increased in clinical participants compared to HC. Perceived stress in the past month was significantly higher in clinical participants compared to HC, but not significantly correlated with hair cortisol. Hair cortisol levels were not significantly associated with any other measures. Hair segment analyses revealed longer-term increased levels of cortisol in the past 3 months in early mental health problems. Further insight into the role of cortisol on the pathogenesis of mental illnesses requires longitudinal studies relating cortisol to psychopathology and progression of illness.

  12. A longer climate memory carried by soil freeze-thaw processes in Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumura, Shinji; Yamazaki, Koji

    2012-12-01

    The climate memory of a land surface generally persists for only a few months, but analysis of surface meteorological data revealed a longer-term climate memory carried by soil freeze-thaw processes in Siberia. Surface temperature variability during the snowmelt season corresponds reasonably well with that in the summer of the following year, when most stations show a secondary autocorrelation peak. The surface temperature memory is thought to be stored as variations in the amount of snowmelt water held in the soil, and through soil freezing, which emerges as latent heat variations in the near-surface atmosphere during soil thawing approximately one year later. The ground conditions are dry in the longer-term climate memory regions, such as eastern Siberia, where less snow cover (higher surface air temperature) in spring results in less snowmelt water or lower soil moisture in the summer. Consequently, through soil freezing, it will require less latent heat to thaw in the summer of the following year, resulting in higher surface air temperature. In addition to soil moisture and snow cover, soil freeze-thaw processes can also act as agents of climate memory in the near-surface atmosphere.

  13. Production of 2,3-butanediol by a low-acid producing Klebsiella oxytoca NBRF4.

    PubMed

    Han, Sung-Hyuk; Lee, Jung-Eun; Park, Kyungmoon; Park, Yong-Cheol

    2013-01-25

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a value-added chemical with great potential for the industrial production of synthetic rubber, plastic and solvent. For microbial production of 2,3-BDO, in this study, Klebsiella oxytoca NBRF4 was constructed by chemical mutation and screening against NaBr, NaBrO(3) and fluoroacetate. Among metabolic enzymes involved in the production of lactate, acetate and 2,3-BDO, K. oxytoca NBRF4 possessed 1.2 times lower specific activities of lactate dehydrogenase and phosphotransacetylase, and 22% higher specific acetoin reductase activity than the K. oxytoca ATCC43863 control strain. A series of batch fermentations in a defined medium and application of a statistical tool of response surface method led to the determination of optimal culture conditions: 10% dissolved oxygen level, pH 4.3 and 38°C. The actual results of batch fermentation at the optimal conditions using 44 g/L glucose were coincident with the predetermined values: 14.4 g/L 2,3-BDO concentration, 0.32 g/g yield. To increase 2,3-BDO titer, fed-batch fermentation of K. oxytoca NBRF4 was performed by an intermittent feeding of 800 g/L glucose to control its concentration around 5-20 g/L in the culture broth. Finally, 34.2g/L 2,3-BDO concentration and 0.35 g/g yield were obtained without organic acid production in 70 hours of the fed-batch culture, which were 2.4 and 1.2 times higher than those of the batch fermentation using 44 g/L glucose.

  14. AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    ER D C/ G SL T R- 14 -3 8 Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation G eo te ch ni ca l a nd...Airfield Damage Repair Modernization Program ERDC/GSL TR-14-38 September 2014 AM2 3-4 Alternate Lay Pattern Evaluation Timothy W. Rushing, Lyan...brickwork pattern. Therefore, the 3-4 alternate lay pattern was designed to allow Marines to use any mats on hand to fill in designated portions of the

  15. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  16. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P.; Smirnov, Ivan V.; McCoy, Lucie S.; Hansen, Helen M.; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S.; Madsen, Nils R.; Bracci, Paige M.; Pico, Alexander R.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S.; Chang, Susan M.; Prados, Michael D.; Jenkins, Robert B.; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Wiencke, John K.; Wrensch, Margaret R.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82×10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48×10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83×10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis. PMID:26646793

  17. Longer genotypically-estimated leukocyte telomere length is associated with increased adult glioma risk.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kyle M; Codd, Veryan; Rice, Terri; Nelson, Christopher P; Smirnov, Ivan V; McCoy, Lucie S; Hansen, Helen M; Elhauge, Edward; Ojha, Juhi; Francis, Stephen S; Madsen, Nils R; Bracci, Paige M; Pico, Alexander R; Molinaro, Annette M; Tihan, Tarik; Berger, Mitchel S; Chang, Susan M; Prados, Michael D; Jenkins, Robert B; Wiemels, Joseph L; Samani, Nilesh J; Wiencke, John K; Wrensch, Margaret R

    2015-12-15

    Telomere maintenance has emerged as an important molecular feature with impacts on adult glioma susceptibility and prognosis. Whether longer or shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is associated with glioma risk remains elusive and is often confounded by the effects of age and patient treatment. We sought to determine if genotypically-estimated LTL is associated with glioma risk and if inherited single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with LTL are glioma risk factors. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we assessed differences in genotypically-estimated relative LTL in two independent glioma case-control datasets from the UCSF Adult Glioma Study (652 patients and 3735 controls) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (478 non-overlapping patients and 2559 controls). LTL estimates were based on a weighted linear combination of subject genotype at eight SNPs, previously associated with LTL in the ENGAGE Consortium Telomere Project. Mean estimated LTL was 31bp (5.7%) longer in glioma patients than controls in discovery analyses (P = 7.82x10-8) and 27bp (5.0%) longer in glioma patients than controls in replication analyses (1.48x10-3). Glioma risk increased monotonically with each increasing septile of LTL (O.R.=1.12; P = 3.83x10-12). Four LTL-associated SNPs were significantly associated with glioma risk in pooled analyses, including those in the telomerase component genes TERC (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.03-1.28) and TERT (O.R.=1.39; 95% C.I.=1.27-1.52), and those in the CST complex genes OBFC1 (O.R.=1.18; 95% C.I.=1.05-1.33) and CTC1 (O.R.=1.14; 95% C.I.=1.02-1.28). Future work is needed to characterize the role of the CST complex in gliomagenesis and further elucidate the complex balance between ageing, telomere length, and molecular carcinogenesis.

  18. Longer Duration of Diabetes Strongly Impacts Fracture Risk Assessment: The Manitoba BMD Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, Sumit R.; Lix, Lisa M.; Morin, Suzanne N.; Johansson, Helena; Oden, Anders; McCloskey, Eugene V.; Kanis, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Type 2 diabetes is associated with a higher risk for major osteoporotic fracture (MOF) and hip fracture than predicted by the World Health Organization fracture risk assessment (FRAX) tool. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the impact of diabetes duration on fracture risk. Methods: Using a clinical dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry registry linked with the Manitoba administrative databases, we identified all women age 40 years or older with 10 or more years of prior health care coverage undergoing hip dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements (1996–2013). Incident MOF and incident hip fractures were each studied over 7 years. Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for FRAX (FRAX adjusted) and then FRAX plus comorbidity, falls, osteoporosis therapy, or insulin (fully adjusted). FRAX calibration was assessed comparing observed vs predicted probabilities. Results: There were 49 098 women without and 8840 women with diabetes (31.4% >10 y duration; 20.1% 5–10 y; 23.7% <5 y; 24.8% new onset). In FRAX-adjusted analyses, only duration longer than 10 years was associated with a higher risk for MOF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–1.66), and this was similar in the fully adjusted models (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.17–1.54). In contrast, a higher risk for hip fracture was seen for all durations in a dose-dependent fashion (eg, FRAX adjusted HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.71–2.59 for duration >10 y vs HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.03–1.69 for new onset). FRAX significantly underestimated the MOF risk (calibration ratio 1.24, 95% CI 1.08–1.39) and hip fracture risk (1.93, 95% CI 1.50–2.35) in those with a diabetes duration longer than 10 years. Conclusion: Diabetes is a FRAX-independent risk factor for MOF only in women with a long duration of diabetes, but diabetes increases hip fracture risk, regardless of duration. Those with diabetes longer than 10 years are at particularly high risk of fracture, and this elevated risk is

  19. UNTREATED TRANSIENT LONGER THAN 7-DAY CHAT, CIRCADIAN HYPER-AMPLITUDE TENSION, IN A 7-YEAR PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZKOPFF, O.; CORNÉLISSEN, G.; HALPIN, C.; KATINAS, G.; SIEGELOVÁ, J.; FIŠER, B.; DUŠEK, J.; HALBERG, F.

    2008-01-01

    The case report presented herein aims at promoting the awareness in medical, notably cardiological, practice of the importance of, first, collecting at least a week-long record of around-the-clock measurements of blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) (and a much longer record if the 7 day record so indicates) and, second, of analysing the data chronobiologically in the light of reference values specified as a function of time, gender and age as a minimum. In addition to diagnosing deviations in a chronome (time structure)-adjusted mean value, a chronobiological approach identifies abnormalities in the variability of BP and/or HR, gauged by the circadian characteristics (double amplitude and acrophase, measures of the extent and timing of predictable change within a cycle) and by the standard deviation. A woman in presumably good health was 60 years of age at the start of intermittent monitoring over a 7 year span. The case report illustrates the extent to which a decision based on single BP readings and even on 24 hour averages may be misleading. Treatment based on an initial week-long monitoring may benefit from continued long-term monitoring. PMID:19018290

  20. Costs and longer-term savings of parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Conduct disorders are the most common psychiatric disorders in children and may persist into adulthood in about 50% of cases. The costs to society are high and impact many public sector agencies. Parenting programmes have been shown to positively affect child behaviour, but little is known about their potential long-term cost-effectiveness. We therefore estimate the costs of and longer-term savings from evidence-based parenting programmes for the prevention of persistent conduct disorder. Methods A decision-analytic Markov model compares two scenarios: 1) a 5-year old with clinical conduct disorder receives an evidence-based parenting programme; 2) the same 5-year old does not receive the programme. Cost-savings analysis is performed by comparing the probability that conduct disorder persists over time in each scenario, adopting both a public sector and a societal perspective. If the intervention is successful in reducing persistent conduct disorder, cost savings may arise from reduced use of health services, education support, social care, voluntary agencies and from crimes averted. Results Results strongly suggest that parenting programmes reduce the chance that conduct disorder persists into adulthood and are cost-saving to the public sector within 5-8 years under base case conditions. Total savings to society over 25 years are estimated at £16,435 per family, which compares with an intervention cost in the range of £952-£2,078 (2008/09 prices). Conclusions Effective implementation of evidence-based parenting programmes is likely to yield cost savings to the public sector and society. More research is needed to address evidence gaps regarding the current level of provision, longer-term effectiveness and questions of implementation, engagement and equity. PMID:21999434

  1. Caudally directed Inferior facetal and transfacetal screws for C1-C2 and C1-2-3 fixation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul

    2017-01-13

    An alternative caudally directed C2 inferior facetal screw is described. Such screw insertion can form the axial stabilization point in cases undergoing atlantoaxial lateral mass plate/rod and screw fixation and those undergoing C1-2and C1-2-3 spinal fixation. The C2 screw courses from the medial point of pedicle-laminar junction and travels caudally and laterally towards the C2-3 articulation. Deploying a longer screw that traverses in a transarticular fashion into the facetal mass of C3 vertebra one can perform C1-2-3 stabilization.Sixteen patients underwent C2 inferior facetal or C2-3 transarticular screw in combination with C1 screw for atlantoaxial fixation. Three of these patients with multilevel spinal instability underwent atlantoaxial and C2-3 fixation using the discussed technique. The technical issues, anatomical subtleties and indication for the use of the C2 inferior facetal screws are discussed. With an average follow-up of 9 months, all screws have successfully provided stability that resulted in arthrodesis of the treated spinal segments. Caudally directed C2 inferior facetal screw can enhance the armamentarium of the surgeon, provide an alternative to conventional techniques or a bailout option and add to safety of the procedure of atlantoaxial lateral mass fixation in anatomically challenged situations.

  2. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  3. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  4. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  5. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  6. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  7. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  8. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  9. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  10. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  11. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  12. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  13. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  14. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  15. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  16. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  17. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  18. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  19. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  1. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  2. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  3. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section); (2) Disclosures which may be made with written patient consent and the form of the written consent in subpart C; (3) Disclosures which may be made without written patient consent or an authorizing... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  4. Lifetime measurement of the metastable 2 3P 0 state in He-like uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toleikis, S.; Manil, B.; Bednarz, G.; Berdermann, E.; Beyer, H. F.; Bosch, F.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Gumberidze, A.; Indelicato, P.; Kozhuharov, C.; Liesen, D.; Marrus, R.; Mokler, P. H.; Stachura, Z.; Stöhlker, T.; Warczak, A.

    2005-07-01

    The lifetime of the 2 3P0 state in He-like uranium has been measured in a beam-foil time-of-flight experiment at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung accelerator facility with the result τ(2 3P0) = 58.2(9.5) ps. With the measured lifetime it is possible to derive a value of Δ E2s Lamb = 76. 3 ± 20. 6 eV for the n = 2 Lamb shift in uranium.

  5. Extraversion predicts longer survival in gorillas: an 18-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; Gartner, Marieke C; Gold, Kenneth C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2013-02-07

    Personality plays an important role in determining human health and risk of earlier death. However, the mechanisms underlying those associations remain unknown. We moved away from testing hypotheses rooted in the activities of modern humans, by testing whether these associations are ancestral and one side of a trade-off between fitness costs and benefits. We examined personality predictors of survival in 283 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) followed for 18 years. We found that of four gorilla personality dimensions--dominance, extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness--extraversion was associated with longer survival. This effect could not be explained by demographic information or husbandry practices. These findings suggest that understanding how extraversion and other personality domains influence longevity requires investigating the evolutionary bases of this association in nonhuman primates and other species.

  6. Ocean surface temperature variability: Large model–data differences at decadal and longer periods

    PubMed Central

    Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST variability between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST variability obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST variability that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in variability are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical variability at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change. PMID:25385623

  7. Consumption, Retirement and Social Security: Evaluating the Efficiency of Reform that Encourages Longer Careers*

    PubMed Central

    Laitner, John; Silverman, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyzes a Social Security reform in which individuals no longer face the OASI payroll tax after, say, age 54 or a career of 34 years, and their subsequent earnings have no bearing on their benefits. We first estimate parameters of a life–cycle model. Our specification includes non-separable preferences and possible disability. It predicts a consumption–expenditure change at retirement. We use the magnitude of the expenditure change, together with households’ retirement–age decisions, to identify key structural parameters. The estimated magnitude of the change in consumption–expenditure depends importantly on the treatment of consumption by adult children of the household. Simulations indicate that the reform could increase retirement ages one year or more, equivalent variations could average more than $4,000 per household, and income tax revenues per household could increase by more than $14,000. PMID:23729902

  8. VEP in neglect patients have longer latencies for luminance but not for chromatic patterns.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, D; Angelelli, P; De Luca, M; Burr, D C

    1996-02-29

    In patients with unilateral neglect, visual evoked potentials (VEP) to stimuli displayed in the left visual field are delayed compared with responses to right visual field stimuli. In the present study, 10 patients with right brain damage and neglect were tested with contrast-reversed sinusoidal gratings, modulated either in luminance or in chromaticity. For gratings of luminance contrast modulated over relatively high temporal frequencies (4-10.5 Hz), latencies of VEP were about 30 ms longer for stimuli presented to the contralesional (left) visual field than to the field ipsilateral to the lesion. For equiluminant stimuli modulated at relatively low temporal frequencies (1-4 Hz), however, latency was the same for both hemifields. As this condition activates predominately the parvocellular pathway the results are consistent with our previous suggestion that the delay observed with luminance stimuli in neglect patients results from selective disruption of the faster response of the magnocellular pathway.

  9. Ocean surface temperature variability: large model-data differences at decadal and longer periods.

    PubMed

    Laepple, Thomas; Huybers, Peter

    2014-11-25

    The variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) at multidecadal and longer timescales is poorly constrained, primarily because instrumental records are short and proxy records are noisy. Through applying a new noise filtering technique to a global network of late Holocene SST proxies, we estimate SST variability between annual and millennial timescales. Filtered estimates of SST variability obtained from coral, foraminifer, and alkenone records are shown to be consistent with one another and with instrumental records in the frequency bands at which they overlap. General circulation models, however, simulate SST variability that is systematically smaller than instrumental and proxy-based estimates. Discrepancies in variability are largest at low latitudes and increase with timescale, reaching two orders of magnitude for tropical variability at millennial timescales. This result implies major deficiencies in observational estimates or model simulations, or both, and has implications for the attribution of past variations and prediction of future change.

  10. Short arms and talking eggs: Why we should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John P; Blumberg, Mark S; McMurray, Bob; Robinson, Scott R; Samuelson, Larissa K; Tomblin, J Bruce

    2009-08-01

    The nativist-empiricist debate and the nativist commitment to the idea of core knowledge and endowments that exist without relevant postnatal experience continue to distract attention from the reality of developmental systems. The developmental systems approach embraces the concept of epigenesis, that is, the view that development emerges via cascades of interactions across multiple levels of causation, from genes to environments. This view is rooted in a broader interpretation of experience and an appreciation for the nonobvious nature of development. We illustrate this systems approach with examples from studies of imprinting, spatial cognition, and language development, revealing the inadequacies of the nativist-empiricist debate and the inconvenient truths of development. Developmental scientists should no longer abide the nativist-empiricist debate and nativists' ungrounded focus on origins. Rather, the future lies in grounding our science in contemporary theory and developmental process.

  11. Extraversion predicts longer survival in gorillas: an 18-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Alexander; Gartner, Marieke C.; Gold, Kenneth C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality plays an important role in determining human health and risk of earlier death. However, the mechanisms underlying those associations remain unknown. We moved away from testing hypotheses rooted in the activities of modern humans, by testing whether these associations are ancestral and one side of a trade-off between fitness costs and benefits. We examined personality predictors of survival in 283 captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) followed for 18 years. We found that of four gorilla personality dimensions—dominance, extraversion, neuroticism and agreeableness—extraversion was associated with longer survival. This effect could not be explained by demographic information or husbandry practices. These findings suggest that understanding how extraversion and other personality domains influence longevity requires investigating the evolutionary bases of this association in nonhuman primates and other species. PMID:23222443

  12. Why the bigger live longer and travel farther: animals, vehicles, rivers and the winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejan, Adrian

    2012-08-01

    Here we show that constructal-law physics unifies the design of animate and inanimate movement by requiring that larger bodies move farther, and their movement on the landscape last longer. The life span of mammals must scale as the body mass (M) raised to the power 1/4, and the distance traveled during the lifetime must increase with body size. The same size effect on life span and distance traveled holds for the other flows that move mass on earth: atmospheric and oceanic jets and plumes, river basins, animals and human operated vehicles. The physics is the same for all flow systems on the landscape: the scaling rules of ``design'' are expressions of the natural tendency of all flow systems to generate designs that facilitate flow access. This natural tendency is the constructal law of design and evolution in nature. Larger bodies are more efficient movers of mass on the landscape.

  13. Dissecting the roles of local packing density and longer-range effects in protein sequence evolution.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Amir; Wilke, Claus O

    2016-06-01

    What are the structural determinants of protein sequence evolution? A number of site-specific structural characteristics have been proposed, most of which are broadly related to either the density of contacts or the solvent accessibility of individual residues. Most importantly, there has been disagreement in the literature over the relative importance of solvent accessibility and local packing density for explaining site-specific sequence variability in proteins. We show that this discussion has been confounded by the definition of local packing density. The most commonly used measures of local packing, such as contact number and the weighted contact number, represent the combined effects of local packing density and longer-range effects. As an alternative, we propose a truly local measure of packing density around a single residue, based on the Voronoi cell volume. We show that the Voronoi cell volume, when calculated relative to the geometric center of amino-acid side chains, behaves nearly identically to the relative solvent accessibility, and each individually can explain, on average, approximately 34% of the site-specific variation in evolutionary rate in a data set of 209 enzymes. An additional 10% of variation can be explained by nonlocal effects that are captured in the weighted contact number. Consequently, evolutionary variation at a site is determined by the combined effects of the immediate amino-acid neighbors of that site and effects mediated by more distant amino acids. We conclude that instead of contrasting solvent accessibility and local packing density, future research should emphasize on the relative importance of immediate contacts and longer-range effects on evolutionary variation. Proteins 2016; 84:841-854. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  15. The Geometry of Almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagerschnig, Katja; Willse, Travis

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the classic problem of existence of Einstein metrics in a given conformal structure for the class of conformal structures inducedf Nurowski's construction by (oriented) (2, 3, 5) distributions. We characterize in two ways such conformal structures that admit an almost Einstein scale: First, they are precisely the oriented conformal structures c that are induced by at least two distinct oriented (2, 3, 5) distributions; in this case there is a 1-parameter family of such distributions that induce c. Second, they are characterized by the existence of a holonomy reduction to SU(1, 2), SL(3, R), or a particular semidirect product SL(2, R) ltimes Q_+, according to the sign of the Einstein constant of the corresponding metric. Via the curved orbit decomposition formalism such a reduction partitions the underlying manifold into several submanifolds and endows each ith a geometric structure. This establishes novel links between (2, 3, 5) distributions and many other geometries - several classical geometries among them - including: Sasaki-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues in dimension 5; Kähler-Einstein geometry and its paracomplex and null-complex analogues, Fefferman Lorentzian conformal structures, and para-Fefferman neutral conformal structures in dimension 4; CR geometry and the point geometry of second-order ordinary differential equations in dimension 3; and projective geometry in dimension 2. We describe a generalized Fefferman construction that builds from a 4-dimensional Kähler-Einstein or para-Kähler-Einstein structure a family of (2, 3, 5) distributions that induce the same (Einstein) conformal structure. We exploit some of these links to construct new examples, establishing the existence of nonflat almost Einstein (2, 3, 5) conformal structures for which the Einstein constant is positive and negative.

  16. Synergistic antitumor effect with indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase inhibition and temozolomide in a murine glioma model.

    PubMed

    Hanihara, Mitsuto; Kawataki, Tomoyuki; Oh-Oka, Kyoko; Mitsuka, Kentaro; Nakao, Atsuhito; Kinouchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), a key enzyme of tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, is involved in tumor-derived immune suppression through depletion of Trp and accumulation of the metabolite kynurenine, resulting in inactivation of natural killer cells and generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs). It has been reported that high expression of IDO in cancer cells is associated with suppression of the antitumor immune response and is consistent with a poor prognosis. Thus, IDO may be a therapeutic target for malignant cancer. The authors have recently shown that IDO expression is markedly increased in human glioblastoma and secondary glioblastoma with malignant change, suggesting that IDO targeting may also have therapeutic potential for patients with glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of IDO inhibition and to examine the synergistic function of IDO inhibitor and temozolomide (TMZ) in a murine glioma model. METHODS Murine glioma GL261 cells and human glioma U87 cells were included in this study. The authors used 3 mouse models to study glioma cell growth: 1) a subcutaneous ectopic model, 2) a syngeneic intracranial orthotopic model, and 3) an allogenic intracranial orthotopic model. IDO inhibition was achieved via knockdown of IDO in GL261 cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) and through oral administration of the IDO inhibitor, 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-MT). Tumor volume in the subcutaneous model and survival time in the intracranial model were evaluated. RESULTS In the subcutaneous model, oral administration of 1-MT significantly suppressed tumor growth, and synergistic antitumor effects of 1-MT and TMZ were observed (p < 0.01). Mice containing intracranially inoculated IDO knockdown cells had a significantly longer survival period as compared with control mice (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that IDO expression is implicated in immunosuppression and tumor progression in glioma cells. Therefore, combining IDO

  17. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  18. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  19. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  20. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  1. 44 CFR 65.14 - Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... local flood protection systems no longer provide base flood protection. 65.14 Section 65.14 Emergency... HAZARD MITIGATION National Flood Insurance Program IDENTIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPECIAL HAZARD AREAS § 65.14 Remapping of areas for which local flood protection systems no longer provide base...

  2. The hidden season: growing season is 50% longer below than above ground along an arctic elevation gradient.

    PubMed

    Blume-Werry, Gesche; Wilson, Scott D; Kreyling, Juergen; Milbau, Ann

    2016-02-01

    There is compelling evidence from experiments and observations that climate warming prolongs the growing season in arctic regions. Until now, the start, peak, and end of the growing season, which are used to model influences of vegetation on biogeochemical cycles, were commonly quantified using above-ground phenological data. Yet, over 80% of the plant biomass in arctic regions can be below ground, and the timing of root growth affects biogeochemical processes by influencing plant water and nutrient uptake, soil carbon input and microbial activity. We measured timing of above- and below-ground production in three plant communities along an arctic elevation gradient over two growing seasons. Below-ground production peaked later in the season and was more temporally uniform than above-ground production. Most importantly, the growing season continued c. 50% longer below than above ground. Our results strongly suggest that traditional above-ground estimates of phenology in arctic regions, including remotely sensed information, are not as complete a representation of whole-plant production intensity or duration, as studies that include root phenology. We therefore argue for explicit consideration of root phenology in studies of carbon and nutrient cycling, in terrestrial biosphere models, and scenarios of how arctic ecosystems will respond to climate warming.

  3. Click chemistry: 1,2,3-triazoles as pharmacophores.

    PubMed

    Agalave, Sandip G; Maujan, Suleman R; Pore, Vandana S

    2011-10-04

    The copper(I)-catalyzed 1,2,3-triazole-forming reaction between azides and terminal alkynes has become the gold standard of 'click chemistry' due to its reliability, specificity, and biocompatibility. Applications of click chemistry are increasingly found in all aspects of drug discovery; they range from lead finding through combinatorial chemistry and target-templated in vitro chemistry, to proteomics and DNA research by using bioconjugation reactions. The triazole products are more than just passive linkers; they readily associate with biological targets, through hydrogen-bonding and dipole interactions. The present review will focus mainly on the recent literature for applications of this reaction in the field of medicinal chemistry, in particular on use of the 1,2,3-triazole moiety as pharmacophore.

  4. 1,2,3-Triazolium-Based Peptoid Oligomers.

    PubMed

    Aliouat, Hafida; Caumes, Cécile; Roy, Olivier; Zouikri, Mohamed; Taillefumier, Claude; Faure, Sophie

    2017-02-22

    The cis-directing effect of the 1,2,3-triazolium-type side chain was studied on dimeric peptoid models with various patterns: αα, αβ, βα and ββ. Low influences of the sequence and of the solvent were observed, the cis conformation of the amide carrying the triazolium ranging from 83 to 94% in proportion. The synthesis of peptoid homooligomers with four or eight pendant 1,2,3-triazolium side chains is described. α-, β- and α,β-peptoids carrying propargyl groups were subjected to CuAAC reaction using alkyl azides, and the resulting triazoles were quaternized providing well-defined multitriazolium platforms. The influence of the counteranion (PF6(-), BF4(-) or I(-)) on the conformation was also studied.

  5. Health Risk Assessment Approach for 2,3,7,8 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects various organ systems and is probably carcinogenic as well. The report documents the methodologies utilized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in its development of health risk assessment from exposure to TCDD. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is one of the most toxic and environmentally stable pollutants. In addition to various toxic effects, TCDD has been found to cause teratogenic, fetocidal, reproductive and carcinogenic effects in animals. In humans it adversely affects various organ systems and is probably carcinogenic as well.

  6. Longer coronary anastomosis provides lower energy loss in coronary artery bypass grafting.

    PubMed

    Tsukui, Hiroyuki; Shinke, Manabu; Park, Young Kwang; Yamazaki, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Distal anastomosis technique affects graft patency and long-term outcomes in coronary artery bypass grafting, however, there is no standard for the appropriate length of distal anastomosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether longer distal anastomosis provides higher quality of distal anastomosis and better hemodynamic patterns. Off pump CABG training simulator, YOUCAN (EBM Corporation, Japan), was used for distal anastomosis model. Two lengths of distal anastomosis model (10 versus 4 mm) were prepared by end-to-side anastomosis technique. After CT scan constructed three-dimensional inner shape of distal anastomosis, computational flow dynamics (CFD) was used to analyze hemodynamic patterns. The working flow was defined as Newtonian fluid with density of 1050 kg/m(3) and viscosity of 4 mPa s. The boundary condition was set to 100 mmHg at inlet, 50 ml/min at outlet, and 100 % stenosis of proximal coronary artery. Three-dimensional CT imaging showed quality of distal anastomosis in 10 mm model was more uniform without vessel wall inversion or kinking compared to 4 mm model. Anastomotic flow area was significantly larger in 10 mm model than that in 4 mm model (28.67 ± 4.91 versus 8.89 ± 3.18 mm(2), p < 0.0001). Anastomotic angle was significantly smaller in 10 mm model compared to 4 mm model (10.2 ± 5.65° versus 20.6 ± 3.31°, p < 0.0001). CFD analysis demonstrated 10 mm model had streamlined flow with smooth graft curvature, whereas 4 mm model had abrupt blood flow direction changes with flow separation at the toe. 10 mm model had significantly lower energy loss than 4 mm model (34.78 ± 6.90 versus 77.10 ± 21.47 μW, p < 0.0001). Longer distal anastomosis provided higher quality of distal anastomosis, larger anastomotic flow area, smaller anastomotic angle, and smoother graft curvatures. These factors yielded lower energy loss at distal anastomosis.

  7. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate and ATP dissociate erythrocyte membrane skeletons.

    PubMed

    Sheetz, M P; Casaly, J

    1980-10-25

    Since ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate cause an increase in the lateral mobility of integral membrane proteins in the erythrocyte (Schindler, M., Koppel, D., and Sheetz, M. P. (1980) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 77, 1457-1461), we have studied their effects on the membrane skeletal complex or shell (composed of spectrin, actin, and bands 4.1 (78,000 daltons) and 4.9 (50,000 daltons)) and its interaction with the erythrocyte membrane. Both phosphate compounds dissociated the delipidated shell complex, with half-maximal dissociation at 2.5 mM 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and 8 mM ATP, whereas equivalent concentrations of EDTA did not. Concomitant with complex dissociation, spectrin was solubilized but band 4.1 and actin remained in a complexed or polymeric form. When proteins which were involved in linking spectrin to the membrane were present on the shell, higher concentrations of the phosphate compounds still dissociated the complex but less spectrin was solubilized. Treatment of erythrocyte membranes with the same phosphate compounds caused membrane vesiculation but no proteins were solubilized. We suggest that ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, at concentrations which are normally present in erythrocytes, can weaken associations in the shell but will not dissociate the complex from membrane attachment sites.

  9. The best triathletes are older in longer race distances - a comparison between Olympic, Half-Ironman and Ironman distance triathlon.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Raphael; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (i) to determine the age of peak triathlon performance for world class athletes competing in Olympic, Half-Ironman and Ironman distance races and (ii) to investigate a potential change in the age of the annual fastest athletes across years. Data of ages and race times of all finishers in the international top races over the three distances between 2003 and 2013 were collected and the annual top ten women and men were analysed using linear, non-linear and hierarchical multivariate regression analyses. The age of peak male performance was 27.1 ± 4.9 years in the Olympic, 28.0 ± 3.8 years in the Half-Ironman and 35.1 ± 3.6 years in the Ironman distance and the age of peak male performance was higher in the Ironman compared to the Olympic (p < 0.05) and the Half-Ironman distance (p < 0.05) triathlon. The age of peak female performance was 26.6 ± 4.4 years in the Olympic, 31.6 ± 3.4 years in the Half-Ironman and 34.4 ± 4.4 years in the Ironman distance and the age of peak female performance was lower in the Olympic compared to the Half-Ironman (p < 0.05) and Ironman distance (p < 0.05) triathlon. The age of the annual top ten women and men remained unchanged over the last decade in the Half-Ironman and the Ironman distance. In the Olympic distance, however, the age of the annual top ten men decreased slightly. To summarize, the age of peak triathlon performance was higher in the longer triathlon race distances (i.e. Ironman) and the age of the annual top triathletes remained mainly stable over the last decade. With these findings top athletes competing at world class level can plan their career more precisely as they are able to determine the right time in life to switch from the shorter (i.e. Olympic distance) to the longer triathlon race distances (i.e. Half-Ironman and Ironman) in order to continuously compete in triathlon races at world class level.

  10. Wait and consult times for primary healthcare services in central Mozambique: a time-motion study

    PubMed Central

    Wagenaar, Bradley H.; Gimbel, Sarah; Hoek, Roxanne; Pfeiffer, James; Michel, Cathy; Cuembelo, Fatima; Quembo, Titos; Afonso, Pires; Gloyd, Stephen; Lambdin, Barrot H.; Micek, Mark A.; Porthé, Victoria; Sherr, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Background We describe wait and consult times across public-sector clinics and identify health facility determinants of wait and consult times. Design We observed 8,102 patient arrivals and departures from clinical service areas across 12 public-sector clinics in Sofala and Manica Provinces between January and April 2011. Negative binomial generalized estimating equations were used to model associated health facility factors. Results Mean wait times (in minutes) were: 26.1 for reception; 43.5 for outpatient consults; 58.8 for antenatal visits; 16.2 for well-child visits; 8.0 for pharmacy; and 15.6 for laboratory. Mean consultation times (in minutes) were: 5.3 for outpatient consults; 9.4 for antenatal visits; and 2.3 for well-child visits. Over 70% (884/1,248) of patients arrived at the clinic to begin queuing for general reception prior to 10:30 am. Facilities with more institutional births had significantly longer wait times for general reception, antenatal visits, and well-child visits. Clinics in rural areas had especially shorter wait times for well-child visits. Outpatient consultations were significantly longer at the smallest health facilities, followed by rural hospitals, tertiary/quaternary facilities, compared with Type 1 rural health centers. Discussion The average outpatient consult in Central Mozambique lasts 5 min, following over 40 min of waiting, not including time to register at most clinics. Wait times for first antenatal visits are even longer at almost 1 h. Urgent investments in public-sector human resources for health alongside innovative operational research are needed to increase consult times, decrease wait times, and improve health system responsiveness. PMID:27580822

  11. Monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance: when MGUS is no longer undetermined or insignificant.

    PubMed

    Leung, Nelson; Bridoux, Frank; Hutchison, Colin A; Nasr, Samih H; Cockwell, Paul; Fermand, Jean-Paul; Dispenzieri, Angela; Song, Kevin W; Kyle, Robert A

    2012-11-22

    Multiple myeloma is the most frequent monoclonal gammopathy to involve the kidney; however, a growing number of kidney diseases associated with other monoclonal gammopathies are being recognized. Although many histopathologic patterns exist, they are all distinguished by the monoclonal immunoglobulin (or component) deposits. The hematologic disorder in these patients is more consistent with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) than with multiple myeloma. Unfortunately, due to the limitations of the current diagnostic schema, they are frequently diagnosed as MGUS. Because treatment is not recommended for MGUS, appropriate therapy is commonly withheld. In addition to end-stage renal disease, the persistence of the monoclonal gammopathy is associated with high rates of recurrence after kidney transplantation. Preservation and restoration of kidney function are possible with successful treatment targeting the responsible clone. Achievement of hematologic complete response has been shown to prevent recurrence after kidney transplantation. There is a need for a term that properly conveys the pathologic nature of these diseases. We think the term monoclonal gammopathy of renal significance is most helpful to indicate a causal relationship between the monoclonal gammopathy and the renal damage and because the significance of the monoclonal gammopathy is no longer undetermined.

  12. Brain necrosis after fractionated radiation therapy: Is the halftime for repair longer than we thought?

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Edward T.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To derive a radiobiological model that enables the estimation of brain necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy rates for a variety of fractionation schemes, and to compare repair effects between brain and spinal cord. Methods: Sigmoidal dose response relationships for brain radiation necrosis and spinal cord myelopathy are derived from clinical data using nonlinear regression. Three different repair models are considered and the repair halftimes are included as regression parameters. Results: For radiation necrosis, a repair halftime of 38.1 (range 6.9-76) h is found with monoexponential repair, while for spinal cord myelopathy, a repair halftime of 4.1 (range 0-8) h is found. The best-fit alpha beta ratio is 0.96 (range 0.24-1.73)Conclusions: A radiobiological model that includes repair corrections can describe the clinical data for a variety of fraction sizes, fractionation schedules, and total doses. Modeling suggests a relatively long repair halftime for brain necrosis. This study suggests that the repair halftime for late radiation effects in the brain may be longer than is currently thought. If confirmed in future studies, this may lead to a re-evaluation of radiation fractionation schedules for some CNS diseases, particularly for those diseases where fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy is used.

  13. Longer lithium exposure is associated with better white matter integrity in older adults with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gildengers, Ariel G.; Butters, Meryl A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Marron, Megan M.; Emanuel, James; Anderson, Stewart J.; Weissfeld, Lisa A.; Becker, James T.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and structural brain abnormalities. In human and non-human studies, lithium has been related to neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. We explored whether lithium treatment is related to better brain integrity and cognitive function in older adults with BD. Methods We examined cognitive and neuroimaging data in 58 individuals with BD mean (SD) age 64.5 (9.8) years and 21 mentally healthy comparators (“controls”) of similar age and education. Subjects received comprehensive neurocognitive assessment and structural brain imaging, examining total gray matter volume, overall white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy), and total white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden. Results In comparison to controls, subjects with BD had worse overall cognitive performance, lower total gray matter volume, and lower white matter integrity. Among BD subjects, longer duration of lithium treatment was related to higher white matter integrity after controlling for age and vascular disease burden, but not with better cognitive performance. Conclusions Lithium treatment appears to be related to better brain integrity in older individuals with BD, in particular in those who take it long-term. While intriguing, these findings need to be confirmed in a larger sample. PMID:25257942

  14. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Yu-He; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-Bo; Xu, Xiao-Niu; Wang, Zhi-Gao; Wang, Shu-Dong

    2017-02-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers.

  15. Fibroblasts From Longer-Lived Species of Primates, Rodents, Bats, Carnivores, and Birds Resist Protein Damage.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Andrew M; Lehr, Marcus; Kohler, William J; Han, Melissa L; Miller, Richard A

    2015-07-01

    Species differ greatly in their rates of aging. Among mammalian species life span ranges from 2 to over 60 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species of animals differ from those of short-lived animals in their defenses against protein damage. In parallel studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, birds, and species from the Laurasiatheria superorder (bats, carnivores, shrews, and ungulates), we find associations between species longevity and resistance of proteins to oxidative stress after exposure to H(2)O(2) or paraquat. In addition, baseline levels of protein carbonyl appear to be higher in cells from shorter-lived mammals compared with longer-lived mammals. Thus, resistance to protein oxidation is associated with species maximal life span in independent clades of mammals, suggesting that this cellular property may be required for evolution of longevity. Evaluation of the properties of primary fibroblast cell lines can provide insights into the factors that regulate the pace of aging across species of mammals.

  16. Microwave processing of lunar soil for supporting longer-term surface exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, V.; Lim, S.; Anand, M.

    2016-11-01

    The future of human space exploration will inevitably involve longer-term stays and possibly permanent settlement on the surfaces of other planetary bodies. It will, therefore, be advantageous or perhaps even necessary to utilise local resources for building an infrastructure for human habitation on the destination planetary body. In this context human lunar exploration is the next obvious step. Lunar soil is regarded as an ideal feedstock for lunar construction materials. However, significant gaps remain in our knowledge and understanding of certain chemical and physical properties of lunar soil, which need to be better understood in order to develop appropriate construction techniques and materials for lunar applications. This article reviews our current understanding of the dielectric behaviour of lunar soil in the microwave spectrum, which is increasingly recognised as an important topic of research in the Space Architecture field. Although the coupling between the lunar soil and microwave energy is already recognised, considerable challenges must be overcome before microwave processing could be used as a main fabrication method for producing robust structures on the Moon. We also review the existing literature on the microwave processing of lunar soil and identify three key research areas where future efforts are needed to make significant advances in understanding the potential of microwave processing of lunar soil for construction purposes.

  17. Species with a chemical defence, but not chemical offence, live longer.

    PubMed

    Hossie, T J; Hassall, C; Knee, W; Sherratt, T N

    2013-07-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses for ageing generally predict that delayed senescence should evolve in organisms that experience lower extrinsic mortality. Thus, one might expect species that are highly toxic or venomous (i.e. chemically protected) will have longer lifespans than related species that are not likewise protected. This remarkable relationship has been suggested to occur in amphibians and snakes. First, we show that chemical protection is highly conserved in several lineages of amphibians and snakes. Therefore, accounting for phylogenetic autocorrelation is critical when conservatively testing evolutionary hypotheses because species may possess similar longevities and defensive attributes simply through shared ancestry. Herein, we compare maximum longevity of chemically protected and nonprotected species, controlling for potential nonindependence of traits among species using recently available phylogenies. Our analyses confirm that longevity is positively correlated with body size in both groups which is consistent with life-history theory. We also show that maximum lifespan was positively associated with chemical protection in amphibian species but not in snakes. Chemical protection is defensive in amphibians, but primarily offensive (involved in prey capture) in snakes. Thus, we find that although chemical defence in amphibians favours long life, there is no evidence that chemical offence in snakes does the same.

  18. Fibroblasts From Longer-Lived Species of Primates, Rodents, Bats, Carnivores, and Birds Resist Protein Damage

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Andrew M.; Lehr, Marcus; Kohler, William J.; Han, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Species differ greatly in their rates of aging. Among mammalian species life span ranges from 2 to over 60 years. Here, we test the hypothesis that skin-derived fibroblasts from long-lived species of animals differ from those of short-lived animals in their defenses against protein damage. In parallel studies of rodents, nonhuman primates, birds, and species from the Laurasiatheria superorder (bats, carnivores, shrews, and ungulates), we find associations between species longevity and resistance of proteins to oxidative stress after exposure to H2O2 or paraquat. In addition, baseline levels of protein carbonyl appear to be higher in cells from shorter-lived mammals compared with longer-lived mammals. Thus, resistance to protein oxidation is associated with species maximal life span in independent clades of mammals, suggesting that this cellular property may be required for evolution of longevity. Evaluation of the properties of primary fibroblast cell lines can provide insights into the factors that regulate the pace of aging across species of mammals. PMID:25070662

  19. Long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests no longer benefits soil C accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Yu-he; Guo, Ke; Fang, Shi-bo; Xu, Xiao-niu; Wang, Zhi-gao; Wang, Shu-dong

    2017-01-01

    It is widely recognized that the long-term growth of forests benefits biomass carbon (C) sequestration, but it is not known whether the long-term growth of forests would also benefit soil C sequestration. We selected 79 representative soil profiles and investigated the influence of the forest stand age on the soil C dynamics of three soil layers (0–10, 10–20 and 20–30 cm) in temperate broadleaved forests in East China. The results suggest that the soil C density in temperature broadleaved forests significantly changes with the stand age, following a convex parabolic curve. At an early stand age, the soil C density usually increases, reaching its peak value at a pre-mature stand age (approximately 50 years old). At later stand ages, the soil C density usually decreases. Therefore, our results reveal a turning point in the soil C density at a pre-mature stand age. The long-term growth of temperate broadleaved forests after pre-mature stand age no longer benefits soil C accumulation, probably promotes topsoil C loss. In addition, we found that the soil C density in the upper soil layer usually changes with the forest stand development more significantly than that in deeper soil layers. PMID:28176873

  20. An exploration of the longer-term impacts of community participation in rural health services design.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Jane; Currie, Margaret; Kenny, Amanda; Munoz, Sarah-Anne

    2015-09-01

    This article explores what happened, over the longer term, after a community participation exercise to design future rural service delivery models, and considers perceptions of why more follow-up actions did or did not happen. The study, which took place in 2014, revisits three Scottish communities that engaged in a community participation research method (2008-2010) intended to design rural health services. Interviews were conducted with 22 citizens, healthcare practitioners, managers and policymakers all of whom were involved in, or knew about, the original project. Only one direct sustained service change was found - introduction of a volunteer first responder scheme in one community. Sustained changes in knowledge were found. The Health Authority that part-funded development of the community participation method, through the original project, had not adopted the new method. Community members tended to attribute lack of further impact to low participation and methods insufficiently attuned to the social nuances of very small rural communities. Managers tended to blame insufficient embedding in the healthcare system and issues around power over service change and budgets. In the absence of convincing formal community governance mechanisms for health issues, rural health practitioners tended to act as conduits between citizens and the Health Authority. The study provides new knowledge about what happens after community participation and highlights a need for more exploration.

  1. Increasing summer drying in North American ecosystems in response to longer nonfrozen periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parida, Bikash R.; Buermann, Wolfgang

    2014-08-01

    In snow-dominated northern ecosystems, spring warming is predicted to decrease water availability later in the season and recent findings suggest that corresponding negative impacts on plant productivity and wildfire frequency are already observable. Here we estimate the overall vulnerability of North American ecosystems to warming-related seasonal shifts in hydrology through identifying robust interannual linkages between nonfrozen periods, peak-to-late summer vegetation greenness, and an indicator of drought for 1982-2010. Our results show that longer nonfrozen periods earlier in the year are persistently associated with declines in peak-to-late summer greenness and moisture availability across large portions of North America. Hereby, vulnerabilities increase markedly across the dominant land covers with decreasing annual precipitation rates, lowering contributions of summer rainfall, and increasing altitude. The implications are that in a warmer world, seasonal hydrological shifts may emerge as a leading factor for summer drought in relatively dry temperate-forested ecosystems and across the northern high latitudes.

  2. [Living longer, with more disease and less disability; trends in public health 2000-2030].

    PubMed

    Hoeymans, Nancy; Harbers, Maartje M; Hilderink, Henk B M

    2014-01-01

    The Dutch Public Health Status and Foresight report 2014 explores the future of public health in the Netherlands, using a trend scenario and four future scenarios. The trend scenario provides projections until 2030, based on the trends over the last decades and assuming the policy stays the same. After many years the unfavourable trends in lifestyle seem to have ended: the percentage of smokers is decreasing and the percentage of people who are overweight is no longer increasing. Life expectancy will continue to increase, but the differences between socioeconomic groups will not become smaller. Demographic changes (rise in the ageing population) and improvements in health care will contribute to an increase in the number of chronically ill which will increase from 5.3 million in 2011 to 7 million in 2030. However, most people with a chronic disease feel healthy, have no disabilities and participate fully in society. Health care expenditures rose from 9.5% of the GDP in 2000 to 14% in 2012. How this growth will continue in the next years is uncertain.

  3. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats

    PubMed Central

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-01-01

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed ‘jamming’ and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats’ response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats’ response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap. PMID:26702045

  4. Increasing persistency in lay and stabilising egg quality in longer laying cycles. What are the challenges?

    PubMed Central

    Bain, M. M.; Nys, Y.; Dunn, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the past 50 years, selection starting initially at the breed level and then using quantitative genetics coupled with a sophisticated breeding pyramid, has resulted in a very productive hybrid for a variety of traits associated with egg production.One major trait currently being developed further is persistency of lay and the concept of the “long life” layer. Persistency in lay however cannot be achieved without due consideration of how to sustain egg quality and the health and welfare of the birds in longer laying cycles. These multiple goals require knowledge and consideration of the bird’s physiology, nutritional requirements, which vary depending on age and management system, reproductive status and choice of the selection criteria applied.The recent advent of molecular genetics offers considerable hope that these multiple elements can be balanced for the good of all in the industry including the hens.The “long life” layer, which will be capable of producing 500 eggs in a laying cycle of 100 weeks, is therefore on the horizon, bringing with it the benefits of a more efficient utilisation of diminishing resources, including land, water, raw materials for feed as well as a reduction in waste, and an overall reduced carbon footprint. PMID:26982003

  5. Calling louder and longer: how bats use biosonar under severe acoustic interference from other bats.

    PubMed

    Amichai, Eran; Blumrosen, Gaddi; Yovel, Yossi

    2015-12-22

    Active-sensing systems such as echolocation provide animals with distinct advantages in dark environments. For social animals, however, like many bat species, active sensing can present problems as well: when many individuals emit bio-sonar calls simultaneously, detecting and recognizing the faint echoes generated by one's own calls amid the general cacophony of the group becomes challenging. This problem is often termed 'jamming' and bats have been hypothesized to solve it by shifting the spectral content of their calls to decrease the overlap with the jamming signals. We tested bats' response in situations of extreme interference, mimicking a high density of bats. We played-back bat echolocation calls from multiple speakers, to jam flying Pipistrellus kuhlii bats, simulating a naturally occurring situation of many bats flying in proximity. We examined behavioural and echolocation parameters during search phase and target approach. Under severe interference, bats emitted calls of higher intensity and longer duration, and called more often. Slight spectral shifts were observed but they did not decrease the spectral overlap with jamming signals. We also found that pre-existing inter-individual spectral differences could allow self-call recognition. Results suggest that the bats' response aimed to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and not to avoid spectral overlap.

  6. GC-MS and GC-IRD analysis of 2-, 3- and 4-methylmethamphetamine and 2-, 3- and 4-methylamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sean; Blakey, Karen; Rands-Trevor, Karen

    2012-07-10

    4-Methylmethamphetamine has been detected in samples submitted for analysis in several states throughout Australia. Six ring substituted methyl isomers of methamphetamine and amphetamine were synthesised and analysed. As the regioisomeric 2-, 3- and 4-methylmethamphetamine and 2-, 3- and 4-methylamphetamine have virtually identical mass spectra, the use of MS is an ineffective technique to discriminate between these closely related compounds. We set out to determine whether the regioisomers could be differentiated by a combination of GC-MS, acetyl derivatisation and GC-IRD. We demonstrate that the three isomers of methylmethamphetamine and methylamphetamine can be separated by GC, and a combination of acetyl derivatisation and vapour phase IR can identify the specific ring substituted compound.

  7. Slower Decline in C-Reactive Protein after an Inflammatory Insult Is Associated with Longer Survival in Older Hospitalised Patients

    PubMed Central

    Goodbrand, James A.; Donnan, Peter T.; McGilchrist, Mark M.; Frost, Helen; McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Witham, Miles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhancing biological resilience may offer a novel way to prevent and ameliorate disease in older patients. We investigated whether changes in C-reactive protein (CRP), as a dynamic marker of the acute inflammatory response to diverse stressors, may provide a way to operationalize the concept of resilience in older adults. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether such changes could predict prognosis by identifying which individuals are at greater risk of 6-month mortality. Methods Analysis of prospective, routinely collected datasets containing data on hospitalization, clinical chemistry and rehabilitation outcomes for rehabilitation inpatients between 1999 and 2011. Maximum CRP response during acute illness and CRP recovery indices (time and slope of CRP decay to half maximum, and to <50mg/L if peak values were greater than 50mg/L) was derived from biochemistry data. 6-month survival plots were conducted on quartiles of CRP recovery indices. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test univariate and multivariate predictors of 6-month mortality. Covariates included age, sex, number of medications, serum calcium, haemoglobin level, renal function, and the presence of previous myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic heart failure, COPD and diabetes. Results 3723 patients, mean age 84 years, were included. 1535 (41%) were male and 733 (20%) died during six-month follow-up. The lower an individual’s peak CRP reading, and the longer the time taken for their CRP to fall, the better their 6-month survival. The time for CRP to reach half of its maximum value was the best dynamic CRP index of survival (HR 0.93 per week, 95% CI 0.89 to 0.98; p = 0.004); this remained significant even after adjustment for maximum CRP level and covariates listed above. Conclusion CRP recovery indices are associated with survival in older people; further work is required to explain differences in physiology between patients with a fast and slow CRP recovery. PMID:27467771

  8. Longer and less overlapping food webs in anthropogenically disturbed marine ecosystems: confirmations from the past.

    PubMed

    Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs.

  9. Longer and Less Overlapping Food Webs in Anthropogenically Disturbed Marine Ecosystems: Confirmations from the Past

    PubMed Central

    Saporiti, Fabiana; Bearhop, Stuart; Silva, Laura; Vales, Damián G.; Zenteno, Lisette; Crespo, Enrique A.; Aguilar, Alex; Cardona, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The human exploitation of marine resources is characterised by the preferential removal of the largest species. Although this is expected to modify the structure of food webs, we have a relatively poor understanding of the potential consequences of such alteration. Here, we take advantage of a collection of ancient consumer tissues, using stable isotope analysis and SIBER to assess changes in the structure of coastal marine food webs in the South-western Atlantic through the second half of the Holocene as a result of the sequential exploitation of marine resources by hunter-gatherers, western sealers and modern fishermen. Samples were collected from shell middens and museums. Shells of both modern and archaeological intertidal herbivorous molluscs were used to reconstruct changes in the stable isotopic baseline, while modern and archaeological bones of the South American sea lion Otaria flavescens, South American fur seal Arctocephalus australis and Magellanic penguin Spheniscus magellanicus were used to analyse changes in the structure of the community of top predators. We found that ancient food webs were shorter, more redundant and more overlapping than current ones, both in northern-central Patagonia and southern Patagonia. These surprising results may be best explained by the huge impact of western sealing on pinnipeds during the fur trade period, rather than the impact of fishing on fish populations. As a consequence, the populations of pinnipeds at the end of the sealing period were likely well below the ecosystem's carrying capacity, which resulted in a release of intraspecific competition and a shift towards larger and higher trophic level prey. This in turn led to longer and less overlapping food webs. PMID:25076042

  10. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish.

    PubMed

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation.

  11. The Initial Rate of C Substrate Utilization and Longer-Term Soil C Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeff L.; Bell, Jennifer M.; Bolton, Harvey; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2007-12-01

    Increasing soil C storage is viewed as a legitimate mechanism to offset current increases in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources. However, microbial transformation and turnover of soil carbon inputs will influence the magnitude of net soil C storage. The purpose of this study was to investigate several simple model C compounds to determine their decomposition rates in soil and the relationship between their initial decomposition rate and longer-term C sequestration. Pure 14C compounds of glucose, acetate, arginine, oxalate, phenylalanine and urea were incubated in soil for 125 days at 24 and 34oC. Respired 14CO2 and specific activity was quantitatively measured every day for 15 days and residual soil 14C after 125 days. At both temperatures, the percent 14C remaining in the soil after 125 days of incubation was positively and significantly correlated with the percent substrate utilized in the first day. For the two temperatures, the correlation of total 14CO2 and specific activity was significant (R2=.86,.78) as was the percent remaining after 125 days (C34oC = 0.75 x C24oC, R2 = 0.90). The 14C in the microbial biomass ranged from 4-15% after 15 days and declined through day 125 contributing significantly to the 14C evolved. Priming of 12C SOM was negative at day 3 but became positive, reaching a maximum on day 12, the total increase in soil C from substrates was greater than the primed C. The data support the concept that the more rapidly a substrate is initially mineralized the more persistent it will be in the soil.

  12. Length Is Associated with Pain: Jellyfish with Painful Sting Have Longer Nematocyst Tubules than Harmless Jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Kitatani, Ryuju; Yamada, Mayu; Kamio, Michiya; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    A large number of humans are stung by jellyfish all over the world. The stings cause acute pain followed by persistent pain and local inflammation. Harmful jellyfish species typically cause strong pain, whereas harmless jellyfish cause subtle or no pain. Jellyfish sting humans by injecting a tubule, contained in the nematocyst, the stinging organ of jellyfish. The tubule penetrates into the skin leading to venom injection. The detailed morphology of the nematocyst tubule and molecular structure of the venom in the nematocyst has been reported; however, the mechanism responsible for the difference in pain that is caused by harmful and harmless jellyfish sting has not yet been explored or explained. Therefore, we hypothesized that differences in the length of the nematocyst tubule leads to different degrees of epithelial damage. The initial acute pain might be generated by penetration of the tubule, which stimulates pain receptor neurons, whilst persistent pain might be caused by injection of venom into the epithelium. To test this hypothesis we compared the lengths of discharged nematocyst tubules from harmful and harmless jellyfish species and evaluated their ability to penetrate human skin. The results showed that the harmful jellyfish species, Chrysaora pacifica, Carybdea brevipedalia, and Chironex yamaguchii, causing moderate to severe pain, have nematocyst tubules longer than 200 μm, compared with a jellyfish species that cause little or no pain, Aurelia aurita. The majority of the tubules of harmful jellyfishes, C. yamaguchii and C. brevipedalia, were sufficiently long to penetrate the human epidermis and physically stimulate the free nerve endings of Aδ pain receptor fibers around plexuses to cause acute pain and inject the venom into the human skin epithelium to cause persistent pain and inflammation. PMID:26309256

  13. Longer thaw seasons increase nitrogen availability for leaching during fall in tundra soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Claire C.; Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Varner, Ruth K.; Bowden, William B.

    2016-06-01

    Climate change has resulted in warmer soil temperatures, earlier spring thaw and later fall freeze-up, resulting in warmer soil temperatures and thawing of permafrost in tundra regions. While these changes in temperature metrics tend to lengthen the growing season for plants, light levels, especially in the fall, will continue to limit plant growth and nutrient uptake. We conducted a laboratory experiment using intact soil cores with and without vegetation from a tundra peatland to measure the effects of late freeze and early spring thaw on carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange, methane (CH4) emissions, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (N) leaching from soils. We compared soil C exchange and N production with a 30 day longer seasonal thaw during a simulated annual cycle from spring thaw through freeze-up and thaw. Across all cores, fall N leaching accounted for ˜33% of total annual N loss despite significant increases in microbial biomass during this period. Nitrate ({{{{NO}}}3}-) leaching was highest during the fall (5.33 ± 1.45 mg N m-2 d-1) following plant senescence and lowest during the summer (0.43 ± 0.22 mg N m-2 d-1). In the late freeze and early thaw treatment, we found 25% higher total annual ecosystem respiration but no significant change in CH4 emissions or DOC loss due to high variability among samples. The late freeze period magnified N leaching and likely was derived from root turnover and microbial mineralization of soil organic matter coupled with little demand from plants or microbes. Large N leaching during the fall will affect N cycling in low-lying areas and streams and may alter terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem nitrogen budgets in the arctic.

  14. Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased lower body explosive strength during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Artero, Enrique G; Ortega, Francisco B; España-Romero, Vanesa; Labayen, Idoia; Huybrechts, Inge; Papadaki, Angeliki; Rodriguez, Gerardo; Mauro, Beatrice; Widhalm, Kurt; Kersting, Mathilde; Manios, Yannis; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Sjöström, Michael; Gottrand, Frederic; Castillo, Manuel J; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2010-11-01

    Our aim in this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric strength, and explosive strength during adolescence. A total of 2567 adolescents (1426 girls) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study aged 12.5-17.5 y were included. Information about duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding was obtained retrospectively by means of a parental questionnaire. The 20-m shuttle run, handgrip strength, and standing long jump tests were used to assess physical fitness. Significant differences among the categories of breastfeeding duration were tested using ANCOVA after adjusting for a set of potential confounders: gestational and current age, birth weight, sexual maturation, fat mass, fat-free mass, maternal education, parental weight status, country, smoking behavior, and days of vigorous physical activity. Longer breastfeeding (either any or exclusive) was associated with a higher performance in the standing long jump test in both boys and girls (P < 0.001), regardless of fat mass, fat-free mass, and the rest of potential confounders. In adolescents who were breastfed for 3-5 mo or ≥6 mo, the risk of having a standing long jump performance below the 5th percentile was reduced by half compared with those who were never breastfed [odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.30-0.96, P < 0.05; and OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.74, P < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest a role of breastfeeding in determining lower body explosive strength during adolescence.

  15. Development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer service lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.C.; DePoorter, G.L.; Munoz, D.R.

    1991-02-01

    We have initiated a three phase investigation of the development of high performance refractory fibers with enhanced insulating properties and longer usable lifetimes. This report presents the results of the first phase of the study, performed from Aug. 1989 through Feb. 1991, which shows that significant energy saving are possible through the use of high temperature insulating fibers that better retain their efficient insulating properties during the service lifetime of the fibers. The remaining phases of this program include the pilot scale development and then full scale production feasibility development and evaluation of enhanced high temperature refractory insulting fibers. This first proof of principle phase of the program presents a summary of the current use patterns of refractory fibers, a laboratory evaluation of the high temperature performance characteristics of selected typical refractory fibers and an analysis of the potential energy savings through the use of enhanced refractory fibers. The current use patterns of refractory fibers span a wide range of industries and high temperature furnaces within those industries. The majority of high temperature fiber applications are in furnaces operating between 2000 and 26000{degrees}F. The fibers used in furnaces operating within this range provide attractive thermal resistance and low thermal storage at reasonable cost. A series of heat treatment studies performed for this phase of the program has shown that the refractory fibers, as initially manufactured, have attractive thermal conductivities for high temperature applications but the fibers go through rapid devitrification and subsequent crystal growth upon high temperature exposure. Development of improved fibers, maintaining the favorable characteristics of the existing as-manufactured fibers, could save between 1 and 4% of the energy consumed in high temperature furnaces using refractory fibers.

  16. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Short and Standard-Length Consent Forms for a Genetic Cohort Study: Is Longer Better?

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Kenji; Lie, Reidar K.; Turin, Tanvir C.; Kita, Yoshikuni

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the amount of detail in informed consent documents has increased over time and the documents have therefore become very long, there is little research on whether longer informed consent documents actually result in (1) better informed research subjects or (2) higher consent rates. We therefore conducted an add-on randomized controlled trial to the Takashima Study, a prospective Japanese population-based genetic cohort study, to test the hypothesis that a shorter informed consent form would satisfy both of the above goals. Methods Standard (10 459 words, 11 pages) and short (3602 words, 5 pages) consent forms in Japanese were developed and distributed using cluster-randomization to 293 potential cohort subjects living in 9 medico-social units and 288 subjects in 8 medico-social units, respectively. Results Few differences were found between the 2 groups with regard to outcome measures, including participants’ self-perceived understanding, recall of information, concerns, voluntariness, trust, satisfaction, sense of duty, and consent rates. Conclusions A short informed consent form was no less valid than a standard form with regard to fulfilling ethical requirements and securing the scientific validity of research. PMID:22447213

  18. Weight gain as a surrogate marker of longer survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Weight loss (WL), as a key step of the irreversible and fatal cancer-related anorexia cachexia syndrome is present to some degree in 80% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients upon diagnosis which has been clearly proved to negatively alter patients’ performance status, quality of life (QOL), response to treatment, and prognosis. However, WL is not a problem encountered only upon diagnosis but is also commonly reported during the course of aggressive chemotherapy, radiotherapy (RT) and particularly the concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT) which may further diminish QOL measures and clinical outcomes. In general, the NSCLC literature has concentrated on WL during the treatment course, but recent studies have demonstrated that it is possible to preserve or even experience weight gain (WG) during or just short after the discontinuation of various cancer treatments in approximately 40% to 45% NSCLC patients. Considering the fact that recent evidence suggest a prognostic and predictive role for WG in anticipation of longer survival times and better response rates in weight gainers, this current manuscript will specifically aim to realize the actual value of WG in locally advanced and metastatic NSCLC patients which may potentially be added to the conventional prognostic and predictive factors as a novel surrogate marker of outcomes in such patients. PMID:27826583

  19. Application of enzymatic apple pomace hydrolysate to production of 2,3-butanediol by alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059.

    PubMed

    Białkowska, Aneta M; Gromek, Ewa; Krysiak, Joanna; Sikora, Barbara; Kalinowska, Halina; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Kubik, Celina; Lang, Siegmund; Schütt, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis by a nonpathogenic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059 from enzymatic hydrolysate of depectinized apple pomace and its blend with glucose was studied. In shake flasks, the maximum diol concentration in fed-batch fermentations was 113 g/L (in 163 h, from the hydrolysate, feedings with glucose) while in batch processes it was around 27 g/L (in 32 h, from the hydrolysate and glucose blend). Fed-batch fermentations in the 0.75 and 30 L fermenters yielded 87.71 g/L 2,3-BD in 160 h, and 72.39 g/L 2,3-BD in 94 h, respectively (from the hydrolysate and glucose blend, feedings with glucose). The hydrolysate of apple pomace, which was for the first time used for microbial 2,3-BD production is not only a source of sugars but also essential minerals.

  20. The Partial Aminolysis of (NPF2)3 or 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-12-01

    as (NPC1 2)3 ~ , with primary or secondary amines or with alkoxides or aryl - oxides have b:en studied in detail.2 Under suitable reaction conditions...reactions between II and n—butylamine carried out in the presence of lithium bromide gave products that were virtually identical to those fo rmed in...g, 0.006 ml) in 10 ml of TN! was added to a solution of sodium phenoxide (prepared from 11.04 g (0.48 aol) sodium and 58.7 g (0.62 aol) of phenol in

  1. Diastereoselective synthesis of 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptanes.

    PubMed

    Farran, Daniel; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Kirsch, Peer; O'Hagan, David

    2009-09-18

    A stereocontrolled synthesis of alkanes containing five contiguous fluorine atoms is presented. The compounds were prepared by sequential fluorination of diastereoisomeric alcohol-diepoxides. The chemistry involved epoxide ring-opening with HF.NEt(3) and deshydroxyfluorination reactions of free alcohols with Deoxo-Fluor. The fluorination reactions were all highly stereospecific, with all five fluorines being incorporated in three sequential steps. Three different diastereoisomers of the 2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoroheptyl motif were prepared as heptane-1,7-diol derivatives, a structural format amenable for incorporation of the vicinal pentafluoro scaffold into larger molecular architectures.

  2. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  3. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  4. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  5. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  6. 40 CFR 266.255 - When is your LLMW no longer eligible for the storage and treatment conditional exemption?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... has met the requirements of your NRC or NRC Agreement State license for decay-in-storage and can be disposed of as non-radioactive waste, then the conditional exemption for storage no longer applies. On...

  7. 50 CFR 80.137 - What if real property is no longer useful or needed for its original purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Real Property § 80.137 What if real property is no longer useful or...

  8. 50 CFR 80.137 - What if real property is no longer useful or needed for its original purpose?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE-WILDLIFE SPORT FISH... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Real Property § 80.137 What if real property is no longer useful or...

  9. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  10. ?`Caos en la Resonancia 2:3 con Urano?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, S.; Nicotra, M. A.

    The 2:3 resonace with Uranus and 3:2 with Neptune define limits in the semi -major axis interval, where some objects like 7066 Nessus (semi-major axis 24.456 au) has been observed. In this contribution, we describe the dynamics of a mass-less test particle near the critical value of the semi-major axis for each resonance. We analize the structure of the phase space in each case, using the restricted three-body planar approach, for different values of the Jacobi constant. Although this aproximation does not reflect the whole complexity of this region, it constitutes a good first solution, since there are not first or second order orbital resonances with the major planets. For the 2:3 resonance with Uranus, we find a smooth curve of quasi-periodical orbits surrounding the periodic orbit corresponding to the critical value of the semi-major axis. This region is also surrounded by chaotic orbits, probably due to the presence of other conmensurabilities of first or second order with Uranus. At the internal resonance 3:2 with Neptune, the structure of the section surfaces varies with the value of the C constant. In general, periodic orbits are found for the critical semi-major axis, but for other values of the Jacobi constant, which are obtained modifying the eccentricity of the particle orbit, the region is not closed anymore, so the test particle crosses the Neptune orbit, and escapes from this region.

  11. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  12. A Reanalysis for the Seasonal and Longer-Period Cycles and the Trends in Middle Atmosphere Temperature from the HALOE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remsberg, Ellis E.

    2007-01-01

    Previously published analyses for the seasonal and longer-period cycles in middle atmosphere temperature versus pressure (or T(p)) from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) are extended to just over 14 years and updated to properly account for the effects of autocorrelation in its time series of zonally-averaged data. The updated seasonal terms and annual averages are provided, and they can be used to generate temperature distributions that are representative of the period 1991-2005. QBO-like terms have also been resolved and are provided, and they exhibit good consistency across the range of latitudes and pressure-altitudes. Further, exploratory analyses of the residuals from each of the 221 time series have yielded significant 11-yr solar cycle (or SC-like) and linear trend terms at a number of latitudes and levels. The amplitudes of the SC-like terms for the upper mesosphere agree reasonably with calculations of the direct solar radiative effects for T(p). Those SC amplitudes increase by about a factor of 2 from the lower to the upper mesosphere and are also larger at the middle than at the low latitudes. The diagnosed cooling trends for the subtropical latitudes are in the range, -0.5 to -1.0 K/decade, which is in good agreement with the findings from models of the radiative effects on pressure surfaces due to known increases in atmospheric CO2. The diagnosed trends are somewhat larger than predicted with models for the upper mesosphere of the northern hemisphere middle latitudes.

  13. HexSim Networks: Spatial IBMs are no longer just for the birds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legally protected animal populations are exposed to pesticides, the type and concentration of which vary extensively across space and time. Individuals from these populations are also simultaneously subjected to multiple other human-caused disturbance regimes such as landscape c...

  14. Characterization of clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses from wild birds possessing atypical hemagglutinin polybasic cleavage sites.

    PubMed

    Usui, Tatsufumi; Soda, Kosuke; Tomioka, Yukiko; Ito, Hiroshi; Yabuta, Toshiyo; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Otsuki, Koichi; Ito, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2017-02-01

    Since 2014, clade 2.3.4.4 H5 subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) have been distributed worldwide. These viruses, which were reported to be highly virulent in chickens by intravenous inoculation, have a consensus HPAI motif PLRERRRKR at the HA cleavage site. However, two-clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8 viruses which we isolated from wild migratory birds in late 2014 in Japan possessed atypical HA cleavage sequences. A swan isolate, Tottori/C6, had a novel polybasic cleavage sequence, PLGERRRKR, and another isolate from a dead mandarin duck, Gifu/01, had a heterogeneous mixture of consensus PLRERRRKR and variant PLRERRRRKR sequences. The polybasic HA cleavage site is the prime virulence determinant of AIVs. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the pathogenicity of these H5N8 isolates in chickens by intravenous inoculation. When 10(6) EID50 of these viruses were intravenously inoculated into chickens, the mean death time associated with Tottori/C6 was substantially longer (>6.1 days) than that associated with Gifu/01 (2.5 days). These viruses had comparable abilities to replicate in tissue culture cells in the presence and absence of exogenous trypsin, but the growth of Tottori/C6 was hampered. These results indicate that the novel cleavage motif of Tottori/C6 did not directly affect the infectivity of the virus, but Tottori/C6 caused attenuated pathogenicity in chickens because of hampered replication efficiency. It is important to test for the emergence of diversified HPAIVs, because introduction of HPAIVs with a lower virulence like Tottori/C6 might hinder early detection of affected birds in poultry farms.

  15. DNA damage induced by 4,6,8,9-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one, a new furocoumarin analog: photochemical mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bordin, F; Baccichetti, F; Marzano, C; Carlassare, F; Miolo, G; Chilin, A; Guiotto, A

    2000-03-01

    Some photochemical and photobiological properties of 4,6,8,9-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one (HFQ) were studied in comparison with its isomer 1,4,6,8-tetramethyl-2H-furo[2,3-h]quinolin-2-one (FQ) and 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP). The HFQ photobinds to DNA forming furan-side monoadducts (MAHFQ) that have molecular structure very similar to those of FQ (MAFQ). Unlike MA8-MOP and MAFQ, MAHFQ no longer photoreact. The HFQ, like FQ, produces moderate amounts of singlet oxygen but no superoxide anions. The HFQ and FQ induce numbers of DNA-protein cross-links (DPC), much more plentiful than those of 8-MOP (about two and seven times, respectively) but no interstrand cross-links. The mechanism of DPC formation was studied in vivo in mammalian cells by alkaline elution and in vitro using a new test mixing histones and DNA from calf thymus. The latter is a very useful technique for the double irradiation protocol. The DNA (or histones) are separately exposed to a first UVA dose in the presence of the sensitizer; then, after its unbound molecules have been removed, histones (or DNA) are added to assemble the chromatin-like complex that is irradiated again. According to in vitro and in vivo methods, DPC appear to be formed by FQ and 8-MOP by a biphotonic process that starts with monoadduct induction in DNA, followed by their conversion into DPC. In the resulting lesions, the sensitizer molecule forms a covalent bridge between the two macromolecules (DPC at length greater than zero). Instead, HFQ induces DPC by a monophotonic process; thus, HFQ is probably not a physical part of the bridge between DNA and proteins, which may be linked together directly, like DPC at zero length induced by UVC.

  16. Molecules in focus: indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    King, Nicholas J C; Thomas, Shane R

    2007-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme enzyme that initiates the oxidative degradation of the least abundant, essential amino acid, l-tryptophan, along the kynurenine pathway. The local cellular depletion of l-tryptophan that results may enable the host to inhibit the growth of various infectious pathogens in vivo. However, over the past decade, it has become increasingly apparent that IDO also represents an important immune control enzyme. Thus, cells expressing IDO, seemingly paradoxically, are capable of suppressing local T cell responses to promote immune tolerance under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions of medical importance, including infectious diseases, foetal rejection, organ transplantation, neuropathology, inflammatory and auto-immune disorders and cancer. In this review, we briefly outline the biochemical properties of IDO, its known and hypothetical functions and the medical implications for inhibition or induction of IDO and/or its downstream catabolites in health and disease.

  17. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  18. Elastic Behavior of Y-1-2-3/SILVER Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhar, S.; Reddy, R. Ravinder; Reddy, P. Venugopal; Mulay, V. N.

    A series of Y-1-2-3/Ag high Tc superconducting composites have been prepared using the sol-gel method by sintering at three different sintering temperatures, viz. 910°C, 945°C, and 975°C. After the usual characterization by XRD, electrical resistance, bulk density, and porosity measurements, the longitudinal (V1) and shear wave (Vs) velocities were measured by the pulse transmission technique. Using the experimental data, several elasticity parameters such as Young's modulus (E), rigidity modulus (G), etc. were evaluated. The variation of elastic constants with dopant concentration has been explained in terms of the binding forces between various atoms of the superconductor. A linear relationship between the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) and the Debye temperature (θD) has also been obtained.

  19. 1-Do-decyl-indoline-2,3-dione.

    PubMed

    Qachchachi, Fatima-Zahrae; Ouazzani Chahdi, Fouad; Misbahi, Houria; Bodensteiner, Michael; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2014-02-01

    The structure of the title compound, C20H29NO2, is isotypic to that of its homologue 1-octylindoline-2,3-dione. The indoline ring and the two carbonyl-group O atoms are approximately coplanar, the largest deviation from the mean plane being 0.0760 (10) Å. The mean plane through the fused-ring system is nearly perpendicular to the mean plane passing through the 1-dodecyl chain [dihedral angle = 77.69 (5)°]. All C atoms of the dodecyl group are in an anti-periplanar arrangement. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  20. Metabolism of allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide and estragole 2',3'-oxide in the isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed

    Luo, G; Guenthner, T M

    1995-02-01

    The metabolism of allylbenzene 2',3'-oxide, estragole 2',3'-oxide, allylbenzene and estragole was studied in the isolated perfused rat liver. Formation of dihydrodiol and glutathione conjugate metabolites was detected for both epoxides and the presence of dihydrodiol metabolites after perfusion of allylbenzene or estragole indicated the formation of allylic epoxide intermediates in the intact liver. A comparison of elimination kinetics for parent compounds and epoxides indicated that epoxides were relatively rapidly detoxified and probably do not accumulate on formation in vivo. Acute toxicity of epoxides, measured as the release of alanine aminotransferase activity into the perfusate, or genetic toxicity, determined as covalent binding of radiolabeled epoxide to DNA, were not observed. It was concluded that both epoxide hydrolases and glutathione S-transferases can effectively detoxify the allylic epoxides derived from either allylbenzene or estragole and effectively prevent cellular or genetic toxicity of these reactive intermediates. Epoxide hydrolases appear to play the major role in the detoxication of these epoxides in vivo.

  1. Spacewatch Astrometry of Asteroids and Comets with the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m Telescopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotti, James V.; McMillan, Robert S.; Larsen, Jeffrey A.

    2014-11-01

    We use the Bok 2.3-m and Mayall 4-m telescopes on Kitt Peak to improve knowledge of the orbits and magnitudes of high priority classes of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) and other small bodies in need of recovery that cannot be reached with the Spacewatch 0.9-m and 1.8-m telescopes. Targets include NEOs with potential close encounters with Earth (Virtual Impactors; VIs), future targets of radar, NEOs previously detected by NEOWISE with orbits or albedos suggesting potential for cometary activity, potential destinations for spacecraft, returning NEOs with hard-won albedos and diameters determined by NEOWISE, and faint Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs). Notable targets successfully recovered include the Earth Trojan 2010 TK7 and the faint almost-lost VI 2011 BY24 discovered by NEOWISE. Between 2010 June 6 and 2014 July 23 the MPC accepted 1316 lines of astrometry by us with these telescopes on 207 different NEOs including 84 PHAs. We made 343 observations of PHAs with V>=22. Our average arc extension on large PHAs (with H<=17.75) is 184 days, which is 2x longer than the next most effective observing station. Recently with all four telescopes Spacewatch has made 39% of all the observations of PHAs that were fainter than V=22 at the time of measurement. This count is twice that of the next most productive station in that measure. The faintest V magnitude we have observed so far is 24.4 and the smallest solar elongation angle at which we have observed is 46 degrees. Our work with the Mayall and Bok telescopes has been determined by the Minor Planet Center (MPC) to provide "dramatic improvement" to NEO orbits (T. Spahr, 2014 private communication). Support of Spacewatch was/is from JPL subcontract 100319 (2010-2011), NASA/NEOO grants NNG06GJ42G, NNX11AB52G, NNX12AG11G, NNX13AP99G, NNX14AL13G, and NNX14AL14G, the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, the Brinson Foundation of Chicago, IL, the estates of R. S. Vail and R. L. Waland, and other private donors. We are also indebted

  2. Imatinib withdrawal syndrome and longer duration of imatinib have a close association with a lower molecular relapse after treatment discontinuation: the KID study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Eun; Choi, Soo Young; Song, Hye-Young; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Choi, Mi-Yeon; Park, Joon Seong; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Zang, Dae Young; Oh, Sukjoong; Kim, Hawk; Do, Young Rok; Kwak, Jae-Yong; Kim, Jeong-A; Kim, Dae-Young; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Lee, Won Sik; Chang, Myung Hee; Park, Jinny; Kwon, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wook

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the Korean Imatinib Discontinuation Study was to identify predictors for safe and successful imatinib discontinuation. A total of 90 patients with a follow-up of ≥12 months were analyzed. After a median follow-up of 26.6 months after imatinib discontinuation, 37 patients lost the major molecular response. The probability of sustained major molecular response at 12 months and 24 months was 62.2% and 58.5%, respectively. All 37 patients who lost major molecular response were retreated with imatinib therapy for a median of 16.9 months, and all achieved major molecular response again at a median of 3.9 months after resuming imatinib therapy. We observed newly developed or worsened musculoskeletal pain and pruritus in 27 (30%) patients after imatinib discontinuation. Imatinib withdrawal syndrome was associated with a higher probability of sustained major molecular response (P=0.003) and showed a trend for a longer time to major molecular response loss (P=0.098). Positivity (defined as ≥ 17 positive chambers) of digital polymerase chain reaction at screening and longer imatinib duration before imatinib discontinuation were associated with a higher probability of sustained major molecular response. Our data demonstrated that the occurrence of imatinib withdrawal syndrome after imatinib discontinuation and longer duration of imatinib were associated with a lower rate of molecular relapse. In addition, minimal residual leukemia measured by digital polymerase chain reaction had a trend for a higher molecular relapse. (Trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01564836).

  3. Longer and More Frequent Mid-Atlantic Heat Waves by Mid-Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewall, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    the century; the duration of the longest summer heat wave increased by up to 14 days at mid-century and up to 48 days by the end of the century. Both scenarios suggest that, in the 21st century, the most populous sector of the mid-Atlantic region will experience more and longer heat waves than in the latter part of the 20th century, with heat waves under the B1 scenario being most intense at mid-century (2055 - 2064 average) and those under the A1FI scenario being most intense at the end of the century (2090 - 2099 average). By suggesting a greater incidence of heat waves in the coming century, these results imply that planning in the highly populous mid-Atlantic region should include ensuring both adequate cooling capacity in the built environment and sufficient utilities to support such a substantial increase in summer cooling.

  4. Estimates of the half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in Vietnam veterans of operation ranch hand

    SciTech Connect

    Pirkle, J.L.; Wolfe, W.H.; Patterson, D.G.; Needham, L.L.; Philips, D.L. ); Michalek, J.E.; Miner, J.C.; Peterson, M.R. )

    1989-01-01

    A half-life of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD; commonly known as dioxin) in serum has been measured in 36 Air Force Vietnam Veterans of Operation Ranch Hand, which was the operation that aerially sprayed the herbicide Agent Orange in Vietnam. From serum specimens taken in 1982 and 1987, the median half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in these Ranch Hand veterans was found to be 7.1 yr (95% confidence interval about the median of 5.8-9.6 yr). These veterans reported no civilian exposure to dioxin or herbicides. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the 1982 serum specimens from these veterans ranged from 16.9 to 423 parts per trillion on a lipid weight basis. The half-life estimates were not associated with the concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD in the 1982 serum specimens. This half-life of 7.1 yr is much longer than the half-life of 2,3,7,8-TCDD reported in animals but is consistent with recent evidence from other human exposures to 2,3,7,8-TCDD.

  5. Efficient microwave assisted synthesis of novel 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose derivatives by cycloaddition reaction of sucrose azides and terminal alkynes.

    PubMed

    Potewar, Taterao M; Petrova, Krasimira T; Barros, M Teresa

    2013-09-20

    Novel 1-(1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-deoxy-sucros-6'-yl)-4-substituted-1,2,3-triazoles were synthesized by microwave assisted copper catalyzed 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of sucrose derived azides with terminal alkynes in excellent yields and in short reaction times. The compound 1',2,3,3',4,4',6-hepta-O-acetyl-6'-azido-6'-deoxy-sucrose was regioselectively synthesized from sucrose by improved procedure and used for the cycloadditions. By combining carbohydrate and 1,2,3-triazole structural motifs, a library of 1,2,3-triazole-sucrose conjugates have been obtained.

  6. The Health Trade-Off of Rural Residence for Impaired Older Adults: Longer Life, More Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, James N.; Laditka, Sarah B.; Olatosi, Bankole; Elder, Keith T.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Years lived with and without physical impairment are central measures of public health. Purpose: We sought to determine whether these measures differed between rural and urban residents who were impaired at the time of a baseline measurement. We examined 16 subgroups defined by rural/urban residence, gender, race, and education. Methods:…

  7. Transitions, Inventories and Aspirations. New Learners and Their Longer-Term Learning Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Robert; Allan, Robert; Jensen, Kathrine

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, Personal Development Planning (PDP) is now an important part of a student's time at university. Its aim is to help students develop skills that will help them at university and in the workplace. However, research has shown that students do not always engage with this element of the curriculum. The aim of this article is to report on an…

  8. A longer vernal window: the role of winter coldness and snowpack in driving spring transitions and lags.

    PubMed

    Contosta, Alexandra R; Adolph, Alden; Burchsted, Denise; Burakowski, Elizabeth; Green, Mark; Guerra, David; Albert, Mary; Dibb, Jack; Martin, Mary; McDowell, William H; Routhier, Michael; Wake, Cameron; Whitaker, Rachel; Wollheim, Wilfred

    2017-04-01

    Climate change is altering the timing and duration of the vernal window, a period that marks the end of winter and the start of the growing season when rapid transitions in ecosystem energy, water, nutrient, and carbon dynamics take place. Research on this period typically captures only a portion of the ecosystem in transition and focuses largely on the dates by which the system wakes up. Previous work has not addressed lags between transitions that represent delays in energy, water, nutrient, and carbon flows. The objectives of this study were to establish the sequence of physical and biogeochemical transitions and lags during the vernal window period and to understand how climate change may alter them. We synthesized observations from a statewide sensor network in New Hampshire, USA, that concurrently monitored climate, snow, soils, and streams over a three-year period and supplemented these observations with climate reanalysis data, snow data assimilation model output, and satellite spectral data. We found that some of the transitions that occurred within the vernal window were sequential, with air temperatures warming prior to snow melt, which preceded forest canopy closure. Other transitions were simultaneous with one another and had zero-length lags, such as snowpack disappearance, rapid soil warming, and peak stream discharge. We modeled lags as a function of both winter coldness and snow depth, both of which are expected to decline with climate change. Warmer winters with less snow resulted in longer lags and a more protracted vernal window. This lengthening of individual lags and of the entire vernal window carries important consequences for the thermodynamics and biogeochemistry of ecosystems, both during the winter-to-spring transition and throughout the rest of the year.

  9. Facial expression recognition takes longer in the posterior superior temporal sulcus than in the occipital face area.

    PubMed

    Pitcher, David

    2014-07-02

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a face-selective region in the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (rpSTS) that responds more strongly during facial expression recognition tasks than during facial identity recognition tasks, but precisely when the rpSTS begins to causally contribute to expression recognition is unclear. The present study addressed this issue using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In Experiment 1, repetitive TMS delivered over the rpSTS of human participants, at a frequency of 10 Hz for 500 ms, selectively impaired a facial expression task but had no effect on a matched facial identity task. In Experiment 2, participants performed the expression task only while double-pulse TMS (dTMS) was delivered over the rpSTS or over the right occipital face area (rOFA), a face-selective region in lateral occipital cortex, at different latencies up to 210 ms after stimulus onset. Task performance was selectively impaired when dTMS was delivered over the rpSTS at 60-100 ms and 100-140 ms. dTMS delivered over the rOFA impaired task performance at 60-100 ms only. These results demonstrate that the rpSTS causally contributes to expression recognition and that it does so over a longer time-scale than the rOFA. This difference in the length of the TMS induced impairment between the rpSTS and the rOFA suggests that the neural computations that contribute to facial expression recognition in each region are functionally distinct.

  10. Glucose and 2,3-butanediol-paired syntheses in undivided flow reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K.

    1985-01-01

    Paired synthesis, an energy-efficient electrochemical process, was applied to two biomass derived feedstocks. Sorbitol and calcium gluconate were produced by pairing electrochemical reduction of glucose with indirect electrogenerated bromine oxidation of glucose. The optimum electrode materials and operating conditions for the paired synthesis are: Raney nickel powder cathode, a packed bed anode of graphite chips, an initial glucose concentration of 1.6 M, a 0.4 M calcium bromide electrolyte, ca. pH 7, 60/sup 0/C, applied current of 25 mA per gram of cathode material, a solution velocity of 0.08 cm/sec, a six-minute residence time outside the reactor and parallel electrolyte solution and current flow. The 2,3-butanediol paired synthesis consisted of oxidation of acetoin by electrogenerated bromine at the anode followed by the electro-reduction of acetoin to 2-butanone at the cathode. The high boiling 2,3-butanediol is converted to the low boiling 2-butanone via the paired synthesis, which facilitates the recovery process. The optimum electrode materials and operating conditions for the 2,3-butanediol paired synthesis are: an amalgamated zinc cathode, a packed bed anode of graphite chips, 1 M 2,3-butanediol, 0.02 M acetoin, 1 M NaBr, ca. pH 7, 20/sup 0/C, 1.4 mA/cm/sup 2/ cathode current density, 1 mA/cm/sup 2/ anode current density, 0.04 cm/sec solution velocity, 4 minute residence time outside the reactor, and parallel electrolyte solution and current flow.

  11. Development of a longer range standoff millimetre wave radar concealed threat detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, Nicholas J.; Southgate, Matthew J.; Andrews, David A.; Rezgui, Nacer D.; Harmer, Stuart W.; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-05-01

    A millimeter wave (75 - 110 GHz) polarimetric radar system (MiRTLE) has been developed for the detection of threat objects, such as guns, knives, or explosive devices, which have been concealed under clothing upon the human body. The system uses a Gaussian lens antenna to enable operation at stand-off ranges up to 25 meters. By utilizing ultra-wideband Swept Frequency Continuous Wave Radar very high range resolution (~ 10mm) is realized. The system is capable of detecting objects positioned in front of the body and of measuring the range of a target. By interpretation of the scattered waveform, the presence of a wide spectrum of threat items concealed on the human body may be detected. Threat detection is autonomously rendered by application of a neural network to the scattered time domain, polarimetric radar returns and the system may be taught to alarm or reject certain classes of objects; this allows for highly specific or broad spectrum threat detection. The radar system is portable and operator steerable allowing standoff monitoring of moving human targets in real time. Rapid (1ms) sweep times and fast signal acquisition and processing allow decisions to be made at video frame rates (30 fps) and integrated directly to a video feed providing the operator with a field of view and facilitating aiming. Performance parameters for detection of guns and simulated explosive devices are presented for ranges up to 25 meters.

  12. When existence is not futile: The influence of mortality salience on the longer-is-better effect.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Simon; Spina, Melissa R; Arndt, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    This research examines how death reminders impact the valuation of objects of various ages. Building from the existence bias, the longer-is-better effect posits that which exists is good and that which has existed for longer is better. Integrating terror management theory, it was reasoned that mortality reminders fostering a motivation to at least symbolically transcend death would lead participants to evaluate older object more positively as they signal robustness of existence. Participants were reminded of death (vs. control) and evaluated new, 20-, or 100-year-old objects. Results indicated death reminders resulted in greater valuation of older objects. Findings are discussed with implications for terror management theory, the longer-is-better effect, ageism, materialism, and consumer behaviour.

  13. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  14. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  15. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  16. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  17. Exploratory Literature Meta-Analysis to Characterize the Relationship Between Early and Longer Term Body Weight Loss for Antiobesity Compounds.

    PubMed

    Plock, Nele; Bax, Leon; Lee, Douglas; DeManno, Deborah; Lahu, Gezim; Pfister, Marc

    2017-01-01

    The presented analysis was performed to characterize the relationship between treatment-related early (week 4) and longer term (3-6 months) weight loss to understand the potential utility of 4-week proof-of-mechanism studies in the early decision-making process during clinical development of new antiobesity compounds. A regression-based meta-analysis was performed leveraging publically available clinical outcomes data to (1) characterize the within-trial relationship between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss and (2) identify and quantify key covariate effects on this relationship. Data from 89 randomized clinical trials with 209 treatment arms, representing observations from 54 461 patients and 9 treatments, were available for the meta-analysis. Results indicated that (1) there is a correlation between treatment-related early and longer term body weight loss (r > 0.9), (2) baseline body weight influences the relationship between early and longer term weight loss, whereas comorbidity such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, class of drugs including GLP-1 analogues and the antiobesity compounds lorcaserin or phentermine/topiramate showed no significant effects on this relationship. The model was externally evaluated with data from the investigational compound beloranib, for which longer term weight loss could be successfully predicted based on early response data. Based on these results, the identified strong relationship between treatment-related early and longer term weight loss appears to be independent of mechanism of action. Thus, findings from this analysis can optimize design of clinical studies and facilitate development of new anti-obesity compounds.

  18. What Can We No Longer Say About The A.D. 1857 Fort Tejon Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akciz, S. O.; Grant Ludwig, L.; Arrowsmith, R.; Zielke, O.; Noriega, G. R.

    2009-12-01

    The 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake is the largest historically recorded earthquake in southern California. It ruptured a distance of more than 300 kilometers from near Parkfield to Wrightwood. While paleoseismological data from Wrightwood and Pallett Creek sites (near the SE-end of the 1857 rupture) indicated century-long average recurrence intervals for the Mojave section of the 1857-rupture, geomorphic-offset and slip-per-event studies from the Carrizo section suggested infrequent (every 250-450 years) ruptures similar to the 1857 earthquake. Because these observations influence existing fault behavior models which generally rely heavily upon the 1857-biased Carrizo segment characterization, we have refined and expanded the past earthquake record along the Carrizo section at the Bidart Fan site. Between 2005-2009, we excavated 16 new trenches, compiled relevant paleoclimate data for southern California for the past 1000 years, and reanalyzed earthquake-related geomorphological features with the recently collected B4 LiDAR topography. Our observations indicate that since A.D. 1280: (1) Seven earthquakes ruptured the Carrizo section. (2) Average time interval between the earthquakes is <100 years. (3) 217 years is the longest possible time interval between earthquakes within this time period. (4) 1857-offsets in the Carrizo section were only ~5 meters and there is no indication that an earlier earthquake with a larger offset occurred. (5) Slip associated with the 1857 earthquake was relatively uniform with a broad peak at about 5-6 m. (6) There is no compelling evidence for the characterization of the Carrizo and Mojave segments as defined in earlier studies by high slip gradients and different recurrence intervals.

  19. Impact of cryptic female choice on insemination success: Larger sized and longer copulating male squid ejaculate more, but females influence insemination success by removing spermatangia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriyosi; Yoshida, Masa-Aki; Kasugai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In polyandrous mating systems, sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC) are well recognized as postcopulatory evolutionary forces. However, it remains challenging to separate CFC from sperm competition and to estimate how much CFC influences insemination success because those processes usually occur inside the female's body. The Japanese pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, is an ideal species in which to separate CFC from sperm competition because sperm transfer by the male and sperm displacement by the female can be observed directly at an external location on the female's body. Here, we counted the number of spermatangia transferred to, removed from, and remaining on the female body during single copulation episodes. We measured behavioral and morphological characteristics of the male, such as duration of copulation and body size. Although males with larger body size and longer copulation time were capable of transferring larger amounts of sperm, females preferentially eliminated sperm from males with larger body size and shorter copulation time by spermatangia removal; thus, CFC could attenuate sperm precedence by larger males, whereas it reinforces sperm precedence by males with longer copulation time. Genetic paternity analysis revealed that fertilisation success for each male was correlated with remaining sperm volume that is adjusted by females after copulation.

  20. “When” Does Picture Naming Take Longer Than Word Reading?

    PubMed Central

    Valente, Andrea; Pinet, Svetlana; Alario, F.-Xavier; Laganaro, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Differences between the cognitive processes involved in word reading and picture naming are well established (e.g., visual or lexico-semantic stages). Still, it is commonly thought that retrieval of phonological forms is shared across tasks. We report a test of this second hypothesis based on the time course of electroencephalographic (EEG) neural activity, reasoning that similar EEG patterns might index similar processing stages. Seventeen participants named objects and read aloud the corresponding words while their behavior and EEG activity were recorded. The latter was analyzed from stimulus onset onward (stimulus-locked analysis) and from response onset backward (response-locked analysis), using non-parametric statistics and the spatio-temporal segmentation of ERPs. Behavioral results confirmed that reading entails shorter latencies than naming. The analysis of EEG activity within the stimulus-to-response period allowed to distinguish three phases, broadly successive. Early on, we observed identical distribution of electric field potentials (i.e., topographies) albeit with large amplitude divergences between tasks. Then, we observed sustained cross-task differences in topographies accompanied by extended amplitude differences. Finally, the two tasks again revealed the same topographies, with significant cross-task delays in their onsets and offsets, and still significant amplitude differences. In the response-locked ERPs, the common topography displayed an offset closer to response articulation in word reading compared with picture naming, that is the transition between the offset of this shared map and the onset of articulation was significantly faster in word reading. The results suggest that the degree of cross-task similarity varies across time. The first phase suggests similar visual processes of variable intensity and time course across tasks, while the second phase suggests marked differences. Finally, similarities and differences within the third phase

  1. Trials of Improved Practices (TIPs): A Strategy for Making Long-Lasting Nets Last Longer?

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Steven A.; Paredes Olórtegui, Maribel; Leontsini, Elli; Ramal Asayag, César; Scott, Kerry; Winch, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) use is a proven malaria prevention method. Mass distribution has greatly expanded LLIN access in sub-Saharan Africa, but a gap remains between LLIN ownership and use. Furthermore, LLINs wear out more quickly than anticipated. This paper suggests a participatory research strategy—trials of improved practices (TIPs)—that could identify locally appropriate approaches to prolonging net life and increasing effective use. We used TIPs to overcome barriers to optimal net use in the Peruvian Amazon. Working with 15 families in three villages, we tested home treatment of cotton nets, use of an alternative netting fabric, and alternative washing and care instructions. TIPs helped confirm feasibility of these interventions. Although our findings are time- and context-specific, TIPs could help improve consistency and effectiveness of current LLIN use and prolong net lifespan in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere. This would help maximize the value of shrinking donor resources for malaria. PMID:23530074

  2. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and sleep disorders: no longer strangers in the night.

    PubMed

    Schiza, Sophia; Mermigkis, Charalampos; Margaritopoulos, George A; Daniil, Zoi; Harari, Sergio; Poletti, Venerino; Renzoni, Elizabetta A; Torre, Olga; Visca, Dina; Bouloukaki, Isolde; Sourvinos, George; Antoniou, Katerina M

    2015-06-01

    The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is continuously increasing in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and, for the first time, the recent IPF guidelines recognise OSA as an important associated comorbidity that can affect patient's survival. Thus, it becomes conceivable that clinicians should refer patients with newly diagnosed IPF to sleep centres for the diagnosis and treatment of OSA as well as for addressing issues regarding the reduced compliance of patients with continuous positive airway pressure therapy. The discovery of biomarkers common to both disorders may help early diagnosis, institution of the most appropriate treatment and follow-up of patients. Better understanding of epigenetic changes may provide useful information about pathogenesis and, possibly, development of new drugs for a dismal disease like IPF.

  3. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape.

  4. Results of a Longer Term NDACC Measurements Comparison Campaign at Mauna Loa Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, Thomas J.; Twigg, Laurence W.; Sumnicht, Grant K.; Leblanc, Thierry; Barnes, John

    2016-06-01

    Between November, 2015 and January, 2015, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a pair of lidar instruments at the NOAA facility at Mauna Loa on the Big Island of Hawaii (Lat. 19.5N, Lon. 155.5 W, Altitude 3.397 km). Measurements were made during six different four week periods during this time period by both the NASA GSFC Stratospheric Ozone Lidar (STROZ) and the Aerosol and Temperature (ATL) lidar. Also making measurements were the JPL Stratospheric Ozone Lidar and the NOAA Aerosol and Water Vapor Lidar. All instruments participate and archive data with the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. Measurement comparisons were made among various instruments in accordance with the standard intercomparison protocols of the NDACC.

  5. Intact connecting filaments change length in 2.3-nm quanta.

    PubMed

    Blyakhman, F; Tourovskaya, A; Pollack, G H

    2000-01-01

    In isolated titin molecules, length changes may occur in discrete steps (Tskhovrebova et al., 1997; Rief et al., 1997). The extent to which such steps are preserved in the intact muscle-filament lattice has remained unclear. We carried out experiments on single isolated insect-flight-muscle myofibrils in which thin filaments had been functionally removed either by stretch beyond overlap or by a "rigor-stretch" protocol, leaving the connecting (titin) filaments as the sole length-absorbing agent. The myofibril was released or stretched by a motor in ramp-like fashion. The time course of length change in the single sarcomere was stepwise. The same was true for half-sarcomere lengths. The presence of steps at the sarcomere level implies that parallel filaments step synchronously, with high cooperativity. Step sizes showed a consistent distribution: The smallest size was approximately 2.3 nm, and others were integer multiples of that value. Similar results were found for stretch and release. To our knowledge, the approximately 2.3-nm step quantum is the smallest consistent biomechanical event ever demonstrated. This quantum is an order of magnitude smaller than anticipated from the folding/unfolding of a complete Ig- or fibronectin-like domain, and may imply that folding occurs in sub-domain increments. The 2.3-nm incremental length change corresponds to a single turn of the domains' beta sheet.

  6. Production of 2,3-butanediol from acid hydrolysates of Jatropha hulls with Klebsiella oxytoca.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Qun; Fang, Zhen; Guo, Feng; Yang, Lin-bin

    2012-03-01

    Jatropha hulls were successfully for the first time used as raw materials for the production of 2,3-butanediol via dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis and fermentation with Klebsiella oxytoca. Two-step hydrolysis was used to effectively hydrolyze the hulls at 150°C after pretreatment. In the first-step, hemicellulose was hydrolyzed under mild conditions (0.5h, 1.5% acid) to avoid secondary decomposition. The remained cellulose was further hydrolyzed in the second-step under severer conditions (1h, 4% acid). After hydrolysis, total hydrolysis yield was 64%, which was much higher than that (37%) from the first-step. Maximum yields of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin in flask experiments were 35.6% and 41.4% from the hydrolysates of the first- and second-step hydrolysis, equivalent to 71.2% and 82.8% of the theoretical values, respectively. Similar yields were obtained in a controlled bioreactor but with higher productivities. Jatropha hulls are attractive raw materials for the production of 2,3-butanediol with high yield.

  7. Do women spend longer on wait lists for coronary bypass surgery? Analysis of a population-based registry in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Adrian R; Sobolev, Boris G; Kuramoto, Lisa; Hayden, Robert; MacLeod, Stuart M

    2007-01-01

    Background Studies have shown patients who are delayed for surgical cardiac revascularization are faced with increased risks of symptom deterioration and death. This could explain the observation that operative mortality among persons undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) is higher among women than men. However, in jurisdictions that employ priority wait lists to manage access to elective cardiac surgery, there is little information on whether women wait longer than men for CABG. It is therefore difficult to ascertain whether higher operative mortality among women is due to biological differences or to delayed access to elective CABG. Methods Using records from a population-based registry, we compared the wait-list time between women and men in British Columbia (BC) between 1990 and 2000. We compared the number of weeks from registration to surgery for equal proportions of women and men, after adjusting for priority, comorbidity and age. Results In BC in the 1990s, 9,167 patients aged 40 years and over were registered on wait lists for CABG and spent a total of 136,071 person-weeks waiting. At the time of registration for CABG, women were more likely to have a comorbid condition than men. We found little evidence to suggest that women waited longer than men for CABG after registration, after adjusting for comorbidity and age, either overall or within three priority groups. Conclusion Our findings support the hypothesis that higher operative mortality during elective CABG operations observed among women is not due to longer delays for the procedure. PMID:17683535

  8. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2/3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2/3+ cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2/3+ neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism that is

  9. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2015-12-15

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2(/)3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2(/)3(+) cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2(/)3(+) neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism

  10. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  11. 42 CFR 60.59 - Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school. 60.59 Section 60.59 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.59 Records and...

  12. 42 CFR 60.59 - Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school. 60.59 Section 60.59 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.59 Records and...

  13. 42 CFR 60.59 - Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school. 60.59 Section 60.59 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.59 Records and...

  14. 42 CFR 60.59 - Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Records and Federal access after a school is no longer a HEAL school. 60.59 Section 60.59 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS HEALTH EDUCATION ASSISTANCE LOAN PROGRAM The School § 60.59 Records and...

  15. 20 CFR 411.220 - What if my ticket is no longer assigned to an EN or State VR agency?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EN or State VR agency? 411.220 Section 411.220 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION THE TICKET TO WORK AND SELF-SUFFICIENCY PROGRAM Suspension of Continuing Disability Reviews for Beneficiaries... (2) Your EN went out of business, is no longer approved to participate as an EN in the Ticket to...

  16. 77 FR 58604 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period.... On July 25, 2012, BOX Options Exchange LLC (``Exchange'') filed with the Securities and Exchange... Period (``PIP'')) with respect to the execution of quotes and orders that are on the BOX Book prior...

  17. 76 FR 61121 - Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Joint Industry Plan; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on the... Commission (``Commission''), pursuant to Section 11A of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (``Act''),\\1\\ and... June 1, 2011.\\4\\ The Commission received 18 comments on the proposed Plan.\\5\\ \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78k-1....

  18. 76 FR 29809 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change Relating to the Formation of a Joint Venture Between the Exchange... Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''), pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the Securities...

  19. 77 FR 77152 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change Deleting NYSE MKT Rules 95(c) and (d)--Equities and Related Supplementary Material December 21, 2012. On October 26, 2012, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'') filed with...

  20. 78 FR 36290 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change Amending NYSE MKT Rule 104--Equities To Codify Certain Traditional... Amendments to Other Rules June 11, 2013. On April 9, 2013, NYSE MKT LLC (the ``Exchange'') filed with...

  1. 77 FR 57171 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-17

    ... Financial Markets Association, dated August 22, 2012; Mark Shelton, Group Managing Director and General... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC; Notice of Designation of a Longer... September 12, 2012. On July 23, 2012, The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC (``NASDAQ'' or ``Exchange'') filed...

  2. 5 CFR 875.411 - May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative? 875.411 Section 875.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE...

  3. 5 CFR 875.411 - May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative? 875.411 Section 875.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE...

  4. 5 CFR 875.411 - May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative? 875.411 Section 875.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE...

  5. 5 CFR 875.411 - May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative? 875.411 Section 875.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE...

  6. 78 FR 75434 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for... Order To Comprehensively Update Rules Related to the Exchange's Order Types and Modifiers December 5...'s order types and modifiers. The proposed rule change was published for comment in the...

  7. 78 FR 18377 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; National Stock Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for Commission Action on Proposed Rule Change To Adopt a New Order Type Called the ``Auto-Ex Only... new order type called the ``Auto-Ex Only'' Order. The proposed rule change was published for...

  8. Alarm effectiveness no longer a national patient safety goal for hospitals: ECRI questions wisdom of JCAHO change.

    PubMed

    2004-11-01

    For 2005, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is no longer including alarm safety among its National Patient Safety Goals. JCAHO states that it has taken this action to keep the list of 2005 goals manageable. ECRI believes that removing the goal sends the wrong message to hospitals.

  9. 77 FR 64180 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Y-Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Designation of a Longer Period for... August 14, 2012, BATS Y-Exchange, Inc. (the ``Exchange'' or ``BYX'') filed with the Securities...

  10. Mutual Adaptation: Enhancing Longer-Term Sustainability of Cross-Cultural In-Service Teacher Training Initiatives in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Chunmei

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports on a study that examines decisive factors for longer-term sustainability of cross-cultural teacher training initiatives in China. It focuses on teacher trainees' perspectives of a Sino-British adult education English language teaching project based in Central China. Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews were employed to…

  11. 5 CFR 875.411 - May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May I continue my coverage when I am no longer a qualified relative? 875.411 Section 875.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL LONG TERM CARE INSURANCE...

  12. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  13. Lopinavir/r no longer recommended as a first-line regimen: a comparative effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    Potard, Valérie; Rey, David; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Mokhtari, Saadia; Pradier, Christian; Rozenbaum, Willy; Brun-Vezinet, Françoise; Costagliola, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We compared the effectiveness of tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) combined with either lopinavir/r (LPV/r) or another recommended third drug in the 2010 French guidelines in antiretroviral-naïve patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy in 2004–2008 in the French Hospital Database on HIV. Methods The outcomes were stop or switch of the third component, viral load (VL) <500 copies/ml, an increase of at least 100 CD4 cells/mm3, AIDS-defining event and non-AIDS-defining hospitalization or death. Propensity scores were estimated by logistic regression based on the clinical centre and other confounders. In each clinical centre, each patient initiating LPV/r was matched with a patient initiating another third drug (efavirenz or atazanavir/r) and having a close propensity score. Cox's proportional hazards models were then used, with treatment as covariate. Time was right-censored at four years. Results 1269 patients started LPV/r plus TDF/FTC, and 890 could be matched to 890 patients receiving another third drug. Baseline characteristics were well balanced between these two groups. LPV/r was associated with a higher risk of third drug stop (hazard ratio (HR): 1.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.42–2.00) and with less rapid viral suppression (HR: 0.83; 95% CI, 0.72–0.95). There was no difference in the time required for a CD4 cell increment of at least 100/mm3, or to the occurrence of an AIDS-defining event. Non-AIDS-defining hospitalizations or deaths were more frequent with LPV/r (HR: 1.79; 95% CI, 1.33–2.39). Conclusions For first-line therapy, in this observational setting, TDF/FTC plus LPV/r were less durable than TDF/FTC plus another recommended third drug, led to a less rapid viral suppression and were associated with a higher risk of non-AIDS morbidity. PMID:25261780

  14. Longer growing seasons shift grassland vegetation towards more-productive species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridley, Jason D.; Lynn, Josh S.; Grime, J. P.; Askew, A. P.

    2016-09-01

    Despite advances in plant functional ecology that provide a framework for predicting the responses of vegetation to environmental change, links between plant functional strategies and elevated temperatures are poorly understood. Here, we analyse the response of a species-rich grassland in northern England to two decades of temperature and rainfall manipulations in the context of the functional attributes of 21 coexisting species that represent a large array of resource-use strategies. Three principal traits, including body size (canopy height), tissue investment (leaf construction cost), and seed size, varied independently across species and reflect tradeoffs associated with competitiveness, stress tolerance, and colonization ability. Unlike past studies, our results reveal a strong association between functional traits and temperature regime; species favoured by extended growing seasons have taller canopies and faster assimilation rates, which has come at the expense of those species of high tissue investment. This trait-warming association was three times higher in deep soils, suggesting species shifts have been strongly mediated by competition. In contrast, vegetation shifts from rainfall manipulations have been associated only with tissue investment. Functional shifts towards faster growing species in response to warming may be responsible for a marginal increase in productivity in a system that was assumed to be nutrient-limited.

  15. Longer application of kinesio taping would be beneficial for exercise-induced muscle damage

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jooyoung; Kim, Seunghwan; Lee, Joohyung

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio taping (KT) has been widely used to prevent muscle pain and to improve range of motion in clinical settings. However, no previous research has examined how long KT should be applied to muscle following damaging exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the duration of KT application on markers of muscle damage following eccentric exercise. Thirty-two male subjects participated in the study and were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: control (CON), KT-post, KT-30 min, or KT-24 hr. Eccentric exercise consisted of 2 sets of 25 contractions of elbow flexors using the non-dominant arm. Maximal isometric strength, muscle soreness (SOR), range of motion, and creatine kinase activity were measured before, immediately after, and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after exercise. The KT-24 hr group showed lesser muscle damage and a faster recovery time than the CON and KT-post groups. Both the KT-30 min and KT-24 hr groups showed lesser SOR than CON and KT-post groups. These findings suggested that prolonged application of KT had a positive effect on markers of muscle damage. PMID:27807525

  16. Roles of bone marrow cells in skeletal metastases: no longer bystanders.

    PubMed

    Park, Serk In; Soki, Fabiana N; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-12-01

    Bone serves one of the most congenial metastatic microenvironments for multiple types of solid tumors, but its role in this process remains under-explored. Among many cell populations constituting the bone and bone marrow microenvironment, osteoblasts (originated from mesenchymal stem cells) and osteoclasts (originated from hematopoietic stem cells) have been the main research focus for pro-tumorigenic roles. Recently, increasing evidence further elucidates that hematopoietic lineage cells as well as stromal cells in the bone marrow mediate distinct but critical functions in tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis and apoptosis in the bone microenvironment. This review article summarizes the key evidence describing differential roles of bone marrow cells, including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), megakaryocytes, macrophages and myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the development of metastatic bone lesions. HSCs promote tumor growth by switching on angiogenesis, but at the same time compete with metastatic tumor cells for occupancy of osteoblastic niche. Megakaryocytes negatively regulate the extravasating tumor cells by inducing apoptosis and suppressing proliferation. Macrophages and myeloid cells have pro-tumorigenic roles in general, suggesting a similar effect in the bone marrow. Hematopoietic and stromal cell populations in the bone marrow, previously considered as simple by-standers in the context of tumor metastasis, have distinct and active roles in promoting or suppressing tumor growth and metastasis in bone. Further investigation on the extended roles of bone marrow cells will help formulate better approaches to treatment through improved understanding of the metastatic bone microenvironment.

  17. Leveling the Playing Field: Longer Acquaintance Predicts Reduced Assortative Mating on Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Lucy L; Eastwick, Paul W; Finkel, Eli J

    2015-07-01

    Clear empirical demonstrations of the theoretical principles underlying assortative mating remain elusive. This article examines a moderator of assortative mating--how well couple members knew each other before dating--suggested by recent findings related to market-based (i.e., competition) theories. Specifically, competition is pervasive to the extent that people achieve consensus about who possesses desirable qualities (e.g., attractiveness) and who does not. Because consensus is stronger earlier in the acquaintance process, assortative mating based on attractiveness should be stronger among couples who formed a relationship after a short period rather than a long period of acquaintance. A study of 167 couples included measures of how long partners had known each other before dating and whether they had been friends before dating, as well as coders' ratings of physical attractiveness. As predicted, couples revealed stronger evidence of assortative mating to the extent that they knew each other for a short time and were not friends before initiating a romantic relationship.

  18. Beyond H {sub 0} and q {sub 0}: Cosmology is no longer just two numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Neben, Abraham R.; Turner, Michael S.

    2013-06-01

    For decades, H {sub 0} and q {sub 0} were the quest of cosmology, as they promised to characterize our 'world model' without reference to a specific cosmological framework. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that q {sub 0} cannot be directly measured using distance indicators with both accuracy (without offset away from its true value) and precision (small error bar). While H {sub 0} can be measured with accuracy and precision, to avoid a small bias in its direct measurement (of order 5%) we demonstrate that the pair H {sub 0} and Ω {sub M} (assuming flatness and w = –1) is a better choice of two parameters, even if our world model is not precisely ΛCDM. We illustrate this with analysis of the Constitution set of supernovae and indirectly infer q {sub 0} = –0.57 ± –0.04. Finally, we show that it may be possible to directly determine q {sub 0} with both accuracy and precision using the time dependence of redshifts ('redshift drift').

  19. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  20. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  1. AUV Mapping and ROV Sampling of Ridges and Seamounts: No Longer Wandering Around in the Dark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paduan, J. B.; Clague, D. A.; Dreyer, B. M.; Caress, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    Exploration by submersible has been described as akin to dangling from a helicopter, at night, in a snowstorm, with a flashlight. Until recently, the divers were further hampered by not knowing where they were: the best bathymetric maps had resolution the length of a football field, and detailed maps could be constructed only after considerable investment in ship time to deploy and calibrate long baseline networks on the sea floor. Since then, maps have greatly improved with the use of high-frequency multibeam sonars flown close to the bottom, reliable navigation systems on the vehicles and surface ships, and sophisticated software to process the data. Our submersible dives are now guided, and older dives reinterpreted, using 1-meter resolution maps made with the MBARI Mapping AUV. We have utilized this combo at 7 sites along NE Pacific mid-ocean ridges, 3 seamounts off California, and 2 back-arc volcanoes in the Lau Basin. Among these, on the northern Cleft Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, four ROV dives were conducted over six years on a 30 km-long section of the ridge axis that was mapped with the AUV in two 18-hour surveys in 2009. Our experiences there will be used to illustrate advantages and challenges of studying the sea floor armed with better maps. The AUV maps are at a resolution where individual sulfide chimneys, lava pillars, eruptive fissures, lava channels and flow margins can be distinguished. Inflated flows and tectonically faulted seamounts can be examined in detail. Characteristic progressions in flow morphology from eruptive fissures through collapsed channels to pillowed margins can be traced along lava flow units. Relative age relationships can be determined from truncations of flow channels and tectonic fractures. The ROV's HD camera and array of samplers permit ground-truthing and refining of our interpretations of the maps. The mapped relationships of flows allow us to focus ROV sampling efforts and give wider context to the camera

  2. When the Eyes No Longer Lead: Familiarity and Length Effects on Eye-Voice Span

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Casaca, Luís; Petersson, Karl M.; Faísca, Luís

    2016-01-01

    During oral reading, the eyes tend to be ahead of the voice (eye-voice span, EVS). It has been hypothesized that the extent to which this happens depends on the automaticity of reading processes, namely on the speed of print-to-sound conversion. We tested whether EVS is affected by another automaticity component – immunity from interference. To that end, we manipulated word familiarity (high-frequency, low-frequency, and pseudowords, PW) and word length as proxies of immunity from interference, and we used linear mixed effects models to measure the effects of both variables on the time interval at which readers do parallel processing by gazing at word N + 1 while not having articulated word N yet (offset EVS). Parallel processing was enhanced by automaticity, as shown by familiarity × length interactions on offset EVS, and it was impeded by lack of automaticity, as shown by the transformation of offset EVS into voice-eye span (voice ahead of the offset of the eyes) in PWs. The relation between parallel processing and automaticity was strengthened by the fact that offset EVS predicted reading velocity. Our findings contribute to understand how the offset EVS, an index that is obtained in oral reading, may tap into different components of automaticity that underlie reading ability, oral or silent. In addition, we compared the duration of the offset EVS with the average reference duration of stages in word production, and we saw that the offset EVS may accommodate for more than the articulatory programming stage of word N. PMID:27853446

  3. Age determination and validation studies of marine fishes: do deep-dwellers live longer?

    PubMed

    Cailliet, G M; Andrews, A H; Burton, E J; Watters, D L; Kline, D E; Ferry-Graham, L A

    2001-04-01

    Age determination and validation studies on deep-water marine fishes indicate they are difficult to age and often long-lived. Techniques for the determination of age in individual fish includes growth-zone analysis of vertebral centra, fin rays and spines, other skeletal structures, and otoliths (there are three sets of otoliths in most bony fish semicircular canals, each of which is made of calcium carbonate). Most have regular increments deposited as the fish (and its semicircular canals) grows. The most commonly used otolith for age determination is the largest one called the sagitta. Age validation techniques include: (1) tag-recapture, often combined with oxytetracycline injection and analysis in growth-zones of bone upon recapture; (2) analysis of growth-zones over time; and (3) radiometric approaches utilizing a known radioactive decay series as an independent chronometer in otoliths from bony fishes. We briefly summarize previous studies using these three validation approaches and present results from several of our radiometric studies on deep-water, bony fishes recently subjected to expanding fisheries. Radiometric age validation results are presented for four species of scorpaenid fishes (the bank, Sebastes rufus, and bocaccio, S. paucispinis, rockfishes, and two thornyhead species, Sebastolobus altivelis and S. alascanus). In addition, our analysis of scorpaenids indicates that longevity increases exponentially with maximum depth of occurrence. The reason that the deep-water forms of scorpaenid fishes are long-lived is uncertain. Their longevity, however, may be related to altered physiological processes relative to environmental parameters like low temperature, high pressures, low light levels, low oxygen, and poor food resources.

  4. Atmospheric Parameter Climatologies from AIRS: Monitoring Short-, and Longer-Term Climate Variabilities and 'Trends'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    The AIRS instrument is currently the best space-based tool to simultaneously monitor the vertical distribution of key climatically important atmospheric parameters as well as surface properties, and has provided high quality data for more than 5 years. AIRS analysis results produced at the GODDARD/DAAC, based on Versions 4 & 5 of the AIRS retrieval algorithm, are currently available for public use. Here, first we present an assessment of interrelationships of anomalies (proxies of climate variability based on 5 full years, since Sept. 2002) of various climate parameters at different spatial scales. We also present AIRS-retrievals-based global, regional and 1x1 degree grid-scale "trend"-analyses of important atmospheric parameters for this 5-year period. Note that here "trend" simply means the linear fit to the anomaly (relative the mean seasonal cycle) time series of various parameters at the above-mentioned spatial scales, and we present these to illustrate the usefulness of continuing AIRS-based climate observations. Preliminary validation efforts, in terms of intercomparisons of interannual variabilities with other available satellite data analysis results, will also be addressed. For example, we show that the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) interannual spatial variabilities from the available state-of-the-art CERES measurements and from the AIRS computations are in remarkably good agreement. Version 6 of the AIRS retrieval scheme (currently under development) promises to further improve bias agreements for the absolute values by implementing a more accurate radiative transfer model for the OLR computations and by improving surface emissivity retrievals.

  5. When the Eyes No Longer Lead: Familiarity and Length Effects on Eye-Voice Span.

    PubMed

    Silva, Susana; Reis, Alexandra; Casaca, Luís; Petersson, Karl M; Faísca, Luís

    2016-01-01

    During oral reading, the eyes tend to be ahead of the voice (eye-voice span, EVS). It has been hypothesized that the extent to which this happens depends on the automaticity of reading processes, namely on the speed of print-to-sound conversion. We tested whether EVS is affected by another automaticity component - immunity from interference. To that end, we manipulated word familiarity (high-frequency, low-frequency, and pseudowords, PW) and word length as proxies of immunity from interference, and we used linear mixed effects models to measure the effects of both variables on the time interval at which readers do parallel processing by gazing at word N + 1 while not having articulated word N yet (offset EVS). Parallel processing was enhanced by automaticity, as shown by familiarity × length interactions on offset EVS, and it was impeded by lack of automaticity, as shown by the transformation of offset EVS into voice-eye span (voice ahead of the offset of the eyes) in PWs. The relation between parallel processing and automaticity was strengthened by the fact that offset EVS predicted reading velocity. Our findings contribute to understand how the offset EVS, an index that is obtained in oral reading, may tap into different components of automaticity that underlie reading ability, oral or silent. In addition, we compared the duration of the offset EVS with the average reference duration of stages in word production, and we saw that the offset EVS may accommodate for more than the articulatory programming stage of word N.

  6. Vasosensory responses elicited by Indian red scorpion venom last longer than capsaicin-induced responses.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjeev K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2008-11-01

    The present study was conducted to compare the time-related cardiorespiratory changes occurring after the injection of Mesobuthus tamulus (BT; 1 mg/kg) venom and capsaicin (1.2 ng/kg) in the peripheral end of femoral artery in urethane anaesthetised rats. Blood pressure (BP), electrocardiogram (for heart rate; HR) and respiratory movements were recorded for 60 min after venom/capsaicin intra-arterially. Minute ventilation (MV) was computed by using appropriate calibrations. After intraarterial injection of BT venom, there was immediate (within 2 sec) increase in respiratory rate (RR) and MV which reached to 40% within 30 sec, followed by a 40% decrease in RR without any change in MV. Further, there was sustained increase in RR (50%) and MV (65%) up to 60 min. The BP began to increase at 40 sec, peaking at 5 min (50%) and remained above the initial level up to 60 min. The bradycardiac response began after 5 min which peaked (50% of the initial) at 25 min and remained at that level up to 60 min. In capsaicin treated group, there was immediate hyperventilatory (increase in RR and MV) changes within 2 sec which returned to the initial level within 2 min and remained at that level up to 60 min. The capsaicin-induced hypotensive response began within 5 sec which returned to the initial level by 5 min and remained at that level throughout. Capsaicin did not produce any change in HR. These observations suggest that intraarterial injection of BT venom produces prolonged cardiorespiratory alterations as compared to the capsaicin-induced responses.

  7. Longer sleep duration associates with lower adiposity gain in adult short sleepers.

    PubMed

    Chaput, J-P; Després, J-P; Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this longitudinal, observational study was to verify whether a favorable change in sleep duration over 6 years could impact objective indicators of adiposity in adults aged 18-64 years. Short-duration sleepers (≤6 h per day; n=43) at baseline were divided into two groups: (i) those who increased their sleep duration to a 'healthy' length of 7-8 h per day at year 6 (mean increase: 1.52±0.66 h per day; n=23); and (ii) those who maintained their short sleep duration habits (mean change: -0.11±0.38 h per day; n=20). Adult individuals who reported sleeping 7-8 h per day at both baseline and year 6 (n=173) were used as a control group. Change in adiposity indicators for each sleep-duration group was compared by analysis of covariance. We observed that the two short-sleep-duration groups had similar baseline characteristics. However, short-duration sleepers who maintained their short sleep duration experienced a greater increase in body mass index (BMI) (difference: 1.1±0.36 kg m(-2), P<0.05) and fat mass (difference: 2.4±0.64 kg, P<0.05) over the 6-year follow-up period than short-duration sleepers who increased their sleep duration, even after adjustment for relevant covariates. We did not observe any significant difference in adiposity changes between the control group and short-duration sleepers who increased their sleep duration. This study suggests for the first time that shifting sleep duration from a short to a healthier length is associated with an attenuation of fat mass gain.

  8. A New Pre-employment Functional Capacity Evaluation Predicts Longer-Term Risk of Musculoskeletal Injury in Healthy Workers

    PubMed Central

    Burgess-Limerick, Robin; Peeters, Geeske

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study. Objective. To determine if a job-specific pre-employment functional assessment (PEFA) predicts musculoskeletal injury risk in healthy mineworkers. Summary of Background Data. Traditional methods of pre-employment screening, including radiography and medical screenings, are not valid predictors of occupational musculoskeletal injury risk. Short-form job-specific functional capacity evaluations are increasing in popularity, despite limited evidence of their ability to predict injury risk in healthy workers. Methods. Participants were recruited from an Australian coal mine between 2002 and 2009 as part of the hiring process. At baseline, participants were screened with the JobFit System PEFA, and classified as PEFA 1 if they met job demands and PEFA>1, if not. Males who completed the PEFA and were employed were included. Injury data from company records were coded for body part, mechanism, and severity. The relationship between PEFA classification and time to first injury was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustments for department and post hoc stratification for time (0–1.3 yr, 1.3–6 yr). Results. Of the 600 participants (median age, 37 yr, range, 17.0–62.6 yr), 427 scored PEFA 1. One hundred ninety-six sprain/strain injuries were reported by 121 workers, including 35 back injuries from manual handling. Significant differences between PEFA groups were found in time to first injury for all injury types during the long term (any injury: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.4–3.9; manual handling injury: HR = 3.3, CI = 1.6–7.2; any back injury: HR = 3.3, CI = 1.6–6.6; back injuries from manual handling HR = 5.8, CI = 2.0–16.7), but not during the short term. An area under the receiver operator curve value of 0.73 (CI = 0.61–0.86) demonstrated acceptable predictive ability for back injuries from manual handling during the long term. Conclusion. JobFit System

  9. Preferences for a potential longer-acting injectable contraceptive: perspectives from women, providers, and policy makers in Kenya and Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Tolley, Elizabeth E; McKenna, Kevin; Mackenzie, Caroline; Ngabo, Fidele; Munyambanza, Emmanuel; Arcara, Jennet; Rademacher, Kate H; Lendvay, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Between 1995 and 2005, injectable use doubled worldwide. However, discontinuation rates remain high, partly because of side effects but also because of missed appointments for reinjection. A longer-acting injectable (LAI) may improve compliance by reducing the required number of reinjection visits, thereby reducing unintentional discontinuation. This study examined acceptability of LAI characteristics comprising the target product profile (TPP). Methods: In 2012, we conducted qualitative case studies in Kenya and Rwanda, consisting of 19 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 177 current, previous, or never users of injectables and 46 in-depth interviews (IDIs) with providers, program implementers, and policy makers. FGDs and IDIs assessed current injectable experiences; attitudes toward potential LAI products; and perceptions of TPP attributes, including ranking preferences for the most and least important characteristics. In addition, we obtained completed electronic surveys from 28 international family planning opinion leaders about the perceived need for an LAI, important product characteristics, and challenges to LAI development or introduction. Results: Many FGD participants and interviewees spontaneously expressed strong interest in an LAI, but there was some variation in TPP preferences. The majority of participants ranked effectiveness as the most important TPP attribute. Providers were generally more concerned about side effects than potential users; some potential users suggested that side effects were related less to the product than to their own body chemistry and that side effects were acceptable as long as they did not last a long time or disrupt daily activities. Women and providers, especially in Kenya, preferred a method with a predictable return to fertility. Some participants associated amenorrhea with delayed or reduced fertility. Most women and providers preferred delivery of the LAI in a single, prepackaged, disposable injection

  10. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Barbara H; Bonafede, Machaon M; Watson, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is approximately $140,048 in the United States, placing stroke among the top 10 most costly conditions among Medicare beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to describe the health-care resource utilization and costs in the year following hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Methods This retrospective claims analysis quantifies utilization and costs following inpatient admission for AIS among the commercially insured and Medicare beneficiaries in the Truven Health databases. Patients who were 18 years or older and continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an AIS event occurring (index) between January 2009 and December 2012 were identified. Patients with AIS in the year preindex were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated at admission and in the preindex, respectively. Direct costs, readmissions, and inpatient length of stay (LOS) were described in the year postindex. Results The eligible populations comprised 20,314 commercially insured patients and 31,037 Medicare beneficiaries. Average all-cause costs were $61,354 and $44,929 (commercial and Medicare, respectively) in the first year after the AIS. Approximately 50%–55% of total 12-month costs were incurred between day 31 and day 365 following the incident AIS. One quarter (24.6%) of commercially insured patients and 38.8% of Medicare beneficiaries were readmitted within 30 days with 16.6% and 71.7% (commercial and Medicare, respectively) of those having a principal diagnosis of AIS. The average AIS-related readmission length of stay was nearly three times that of the initial hospitalization for both commercially insured patients (3.8 vs 10.8 days) and Medicare beneficiaries (4.0 vs 10.8 days). Conclusion In addition to the substantial costs of the initial hospitalization of an AIS, these costs double within the year following this event. Given the high cost associated with AIS, new interventions

  11. Exposure to Inorganic Arsenic Is Associated with Increased Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number and Longer Telomere Length in Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ameer, Syeda S.; Xu, YiYi; Engström, Karin; Li, Huiqi; Tallving, Pia; Nermell, Barbro; Boemo, Analia; Parada, Luis A.; Peñaloza, Lidia G.; Concha, Gabriela; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to inorganic arsenic (iAs) through drinking water causes cancer. Alterations in mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNAcn) and telomere length in blood have been associated with cancer risk. We elucidated if arsenic exposure alters mtDNAcn and telomere length in individuals with different arsenic metabolizing capacity. Methods: We studied two groups in the Salta province, Argentina, one in the Puna area of the Andes (N = 264, 89% females) and one in Chaco (N = 169, 75% females). We assessed arsenic exposure as the sum of arsenic metabolites [iAs, methylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA)] in urine (U-As) using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hydride generation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Efficiency of arsenic metabolism was expressed as percentage of urinary metabolites. MtDNAcn and telomere length were determined in blood by real-time PCR. Results: Median U-As was 196 (5–95 percentile: 21–537) μg/L in Andes and 80 (5–95 percentile: 15–1637) μg/L in Chaco. The latter study group had less-efficient metabolism, with higher %iAs and %MMA in urine compared with the Andean group. U-As was significantly associated with increased mtDNAcn (log2 transformed to improve linearity) in Chaco (β = 0.027 per 100 μg/L, p = 0.0085; adjusted for age and sex), but not in Andes (β = 0.025, p = 0.24). U-As was also associated with longer telomere length in Chaco (β = 0.016, p = 0.0066) and Andes (β = 0.0075, p = 0.029). In both populations, individuals with above median %iAs showed significantly higher mtDNAcn and telomere length compared with individuals with below median %iAs. Conclusions: Arsenic was associated with increased mtDNAcn and telomere length, particularly in individuals with less-efficient arsenic metabolism, a group who may have increased risk for arsenic-related cancer. PMID:27597942

  12. Pathway of actin filament branch formation by Arp2/3 complex revealed by single-molecule imaging

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Benjamin A.; Daugherty-Clarke, Karen; Goode, Bruce L.; Gelles, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Actin filament nucleation by actin-related protein (Arp) 2/3 complex is a critical process in cell motility and endocytosis, yet key aspects of its mechanism are unknown due to a lack of real-time observations of Arp2/3 complex through the nucleation process. Triggered by the verprolin homology, central, and acidic (VCA) region of proteins in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) family, Arp2/3 complex produces new (daughter) filaments as branches from the sides of preexisting (mother) filaments. We visualized individual fluorescently labeled Arp2/3 complexes dynamically interacting with and producing branches on growing actin filaments in vitro. Branch formation was strikingly inefficient, even in the presence of VCA: only ∼1% of filament-bound Arp2/3 complexes yielded a daughter filament. VCA acted at multiple steps, increasing both the association rate of Arp2/3 complexes with mother filament and the fraction of filament-bound complexes that nucleated a daughter. The results lead to a quantitative kinetic mechanism for branched actin assembly, revealing the steps that can be stimulated by additional cellular factors. PMID:23292935

  13. Determinants of longer job tenure among home care aides: what makes some stay on the job while others leave?

    PubMed

    Butler, Sandra S; Brennan-Ing, Mark; Wardamasky, Sara; Ashley, Alison

    2014-03-01

    An inadequate supply of direct care workers and a high turnover rate in the workforce has resulted in a "care gap" in our long-term care system. As people are increasingly choosing community-based care, retention of home care workers is particularly important. The mixed-method study described herein explored determinants of longer job tenure for home care aides (n = 261). Study participants were followed for 18 months, completing two mail surveys and one telephone interview each. Predictors of longer job tenure included older age, living rurally, lower physical function, higher wages, a greater sense of autonomy on the job, and less frequent feelings of personal accomplishment. Thematic analysis of telephone interviews revealed long-term stayers to be less concerned about low wages and inconsistent hours than those who left their jobs within a year; both groups of workers reported high levels of job satisfaction. Policy implications of study findings are discussed.

  14. Anaerobic biodegradation of longer-chain n-alkanes coupled to methane production in oil sands tailings.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Tariq; Penner, Tara; Semple, Kathleen; Foght, Julia M

    2011-07-01

    Extraction of bitumen from mined oil sands ores produces enormous volumes of tailings that are stored in settling basins (current inventory ≥ 840 million m(3)). Our previous studies revealed that certain hydrocarbons (short-chain n-alkanes [C(6)-C(10)] and monoaromatics [toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene]) in residual naphtha entrained in the tailings are biodegraded to CH(4) by a consortium of microorganisms. Here we show that higher molecular weight n-alkanes (C(14), C(16), and C(18)) are also degraded under methanogenic conditions in oil sands tailings, albeit after a lengthy lag (~180 d) before the onset of methanogenesis. Gas chromatographic analyses showed that the longer-chain n-alkanes each added at ~400 mg L(-1) were completely degraded by the resident microorganisms within ~440 d at ~20 °C. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of clone libraries implied that the predominant pathway of longer-chain n-alkane metabolism in tailings is through syntrophic oxidation of n-alkanes coupled with CO(2) reduction to CH(4). These studies demonstrating methanogenic biodegradation of longer-chain n-alkanes by microbes native to oil sands tailings may be important for effective management of tailings and greenhouse gas emissions from tailings ponds.

  15. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  16. 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase activity determined using an image analyzer detection system.

    PubMed

    Jacks, A S; Jones, M A

    1990-02-01

    The activity of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase (CNPase) was assayed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and an image analyzer detection system. The assay system was used to study a possible inhibitory effect by aminoguanidine on CNPase specific activity. One advantage of using a fixed-time HPTLC system over a real-time spectrophotometric system for an enzyme activity study was that apparent inhibition of the enzyme due to interference of the assay system (chromophore inhibition, etc.) was avoided. In addition, due to the increased accuracy of the image analyzer over conventional methods of TLC plate analysis, a rapid and more accurate measurement of HPTLC plates was possible which required only nanomole amounts of substrate. Also, a digital image of each plate analyzed was stored indefinitely in the computer's memory for future reference. The measurements of CNPase specific activity made using this system compared favorably to those found in recent literature.

  17. War No Longer Exists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    population centers is also not a new phenomenon. Constantinople was first sacked by Christians in 1204, then by the Ottomans in 1453. Oliver Cromwell...this-day-in-history/ sack -of-lawrence-kansas (accessed February 7, 2012). 48 82 Lowell Thomas’ multimedia show in 1919-1924 was seen by more

  18. No Longer Invisible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Cornell

    2014-01-01

    In a real teaching and learning community of learners, the belief exists that all can and will learn, that the teacher has the ability to connect new information with the knowledge base of each student, and that students will become empowered to make their own connections. This premise is built on a foundation that sees each student as a unique…

  19. Community College No Longer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluviose, David

    2008-01-01

    Community colleges have long been the destination of choice for immigrants seeking English-language skills, older nontraditional students seeking flexible class schedules, and students needing remediation to fill the gaps left by substandard K-12 schools. Nevertheless, many community colleges have expanded transfer-focused offerings in recent…

  20. Live Healthy, Live Longer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Health Screening Healthy Living About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  1. A computational study of vicinal fluorination in 2,3-difluorobutane: implications for conformational control in alkane chains.

    PubMed

    Fox, Stephen J; Gourdain, Stephanie; Coulthurst, Anton; Fox, Clare; Kuprov, Ilya; Essex, Jonathan W; Skylaris, Chris-Kriton; Linclau, Bruno

    2015-01-19

    A comprehensive conformational analysis of both 2,3-difluorobutane diastereomers is presented based on density functional theory calculations in vacuum and in solution, as well as NMR experiments in solution. While for 1,2-difluoroethane the fluorine gauche effect is clearly the dominant effect determining its conformation, it was found that for 2,3-difluorobutane there is a complex interplay of several effects, which are of similar magnitude but often of opposite sign. As a result, unexpected deviations in dihedral angles, relative conformational energies and populations are observed which cannot be rationalised only by chemical intuition. Furthermore, it was found that it is important to consider the free energies of the various conformers, as these lead to qualitatively different results both in vacuum and in solvent, when compared to calculations based only on the electronic energies. In contrast to expectations, it was found that vicinal syn-difluoride introduction in the butane and by extension, longer hydrocarbon chains, is not expected to lead to an effective stabilisation of the linear conformation. Our findings have implications for the use of the vicinal difluoride motif for conformational control.

  2. Lysine 2,3-aminomutase. Support for a mechanism of hydrogen transfer involving S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Baraniak, J; Moss, M L; Frey, P A

    1989-01-25

    The conversion of L-lysine to L-beta-lysine is catalyzed by lysine 2,3-aminomutase. The reaction involves the interchange of the 2-amino group of lysine with a hydrogen at carbon 3. As such the reaction is formally analogous to adenosylcobalamin-dependent rearrangements. However, the enzyme does not contain and is not activated by this coenzyme. Instead it contains iron and pyridoxal phosphate and is activated by S-adenosylmethionine. Earlier experiments implicated adenosyl-C-5' of S-adenosylmethionine in the hydrogen transfer mechanism, apparently in a role similar or analogous to that of adenosyl moiety of adenosylcobalamin in the B12-dependent rearrangements. The question of whether both hydrogens or only one hydrogen at adenosyl-C-5' participate in the hydrogen-transfer process has been addressed by carrying out the lysine 2,3-aminomutase reaction with S-[5'-3H] adenosylmethionine in the presence of 10 times its molar concentration of enzyme. Under these conditions all of the tritium appeared in lysine and beta-lysine, showing that C-5'-hydrogens participate. To determine whether hydrogen transfer is compulsorily intermolecular and intramolecular, various molar ratios of [3,3-2H2]lysine and unlabeled lysine were submitted to the action of lysine 2,3-aminomutase under conditions in which 10-15% conversion to beta-lysine occurred. Mass spectral analysis of the beta-lysine for monodeutero and dideutero species showed conclusively that hydrogen transfer is both intramolecular and intermolecular. The results quantitatively support our postulate that activation of the enzyme involves a transformation of S-adenosylmethionine into a form that promotes the generation of an adenosyl-5' free radical, which abstracts hydrogen from lysine to form 5'-deoxyadenosine as an intermediate.

  3. Spectroscopy of the helium 2 3S 2 3P transition above 0.01 Tesla application to optical pumping studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtade, E.; Marion, F.; Nacher, P. J.; Tastevin, G.; Dohnalik, T.; Kiersnowski, K.

    2000-08-01

    Optical pumping of helium makes use of the 2 3S-2 3P transition at 1083 nm. We report on a study of this transition in magnetic fields up to 1.5 T. Based on these results, an optical method to measure nuclear polarisation in arbitrary field has been developed. Preliminary results on optical pumping at 0.1 T are presented.

  4. Visible light photoredox catalysis: synthesis of indazolo[2,3-a]quinolines from 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wen-Chung; Yang, Ding-Yah

    2013-09-20

    The synthesis of indazolo[2,3-a]quinoline derivatives in moderate to good yields from 2-(2-nitrophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines via visible light photoredox catalysis is reported. The reaction involves a novel ruthenium-catalyzed intramolecular formation of the N-N bond of the indazole ring.

  5. Effect of the inactivation of lactate dehydrogenase, ethanol dehydrogenase, and phosphotransacetylase on 2,3-butanediol production in Klebsiella pneumoniae strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) is a high-value chemical usually produced petrochemically but which can also be synthesized by some bacteria. To date, Klebsiella pneumoniae is the most powerful 2,3-BD producer which can utilize a wide range of substrates. However, many by-products are also produced by K. pneumoniae, such as ethanol, lactate, and acetate, which negatively regulate the 2,3-BD yield and increase the costs of downstream separation and purification. Results In this study, we constructed K. pneumoniae mutants with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ADH), and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) deletion individually by suicide vector conjugation. These mutants showed different behavior of production formation. Knock out of ldhA had little influence on the yield of 2,3-BD, whereas knock out of adhE or pta significantly improved the formation of 2,3-BD. The accumulation of the intermediate of 2,3-BD biosynthesis, acetoin, was decreased in all the mutants. The mutants were then tested in five different carbon sources and increased 2,3-BD was observed. Also a double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA was constructed which resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. In fed-batch culture this strain achieved more than 100 g/L 2,3-BD from glucose with a relatively high yield of 0.49 g/g. Conclusion 2,3-BD production was dramatically improved with the inactivation of adhE and pta. The inactivation of ldhA could advance faster cell growth and shorter fermentation time. The double mutant strain with deletion of adhE and ldhA resulted in accelerated fermentation and higher 2,3-BD production. These results provide new insights for industrial production of 2,3-BD by K. pneumoniae. PMID:24669952

  6. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  7. Relationship between chronic disturbance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in erythrocytes and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Kosenko, Elena A; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Kaminsky, Yury G

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders widely occurring among the elderly. The pathogenic mechanisms involved in the development of this disease are still unknown. In AD, in addition to brain, a number of peripheral tissues and cells are affected, including erythrocytes. In this study, we analyzed glycolytic energy metabolism, antioxidant status, glutathione, adenylate and proteolytic systems in erythrocytes from patients with AD and compared with those from age-matched controls and young adult controls. Glycolytic enzymes hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, bisphosphoglycerate mutase and bisphosphoglycerate phosphatase displayed lower activities in agematched controls, and higher activities in AD patients, as compared to those in young adult control subjects. In both aging and AD, oxidative stress is increased in erythrocytes whereas elevated concentrations of hydrogen peroxide and organic hydroperoxides as well as decreased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio and glutathione transferase activity can be detected. These oxidative disturbances are also accompanied by reductions in ATP levels, adenine nucleotide pool size and adenylate energy charge. Caspase-3 and calpain activities in age-matched controls and AD patients were about three times those of young adult controls. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels were significantly decreased in AD patients. Taken together these data suggest that AD patients are associated with chronic disturbance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate metabolism in erythrocytes. These defects may play a central role in pathophysiological processes predisposing elderly subjects to dementia.

  8. Forgetting is regulated via Musashi-mediated translational control of the Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Nils; Vukojevic, Vanja; Peter, Fabian; Milnik, Annette; Fastenrath, Matthias; Fenyves, Bank Gabor; Hieber, Petra; Demougin, Philippe; Vogler, Christian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2014-03-13

    A plastic nervous system requires the ability not only to acquire and store but also to forget. Here, we report that musashi (msi-1) is necessary for time-dependent memory loss in C. elegans. Tissue-specific rescue demonstrates that MSI-1 function is necessary in the AVA interneuron. Using RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (IP), we found that MSI-1 binds to mRNAs of three subunits of the Arp2/3 actin branching regulator complex in vivo and downregulates ARX-1, ARX-2, and ARX-3 translation upon associative learning. The role of msi-1 in forgetting is also reflected by the persistence of learning-induced GLR-1 synaptic size increase in msi-1 mutants. We demonstrate that memory length is regulated cooperatively through the activation of adducin (add-1) and by the inhibitory effect of msi-1. Thus, a GLR-1/MSI-1/Arp2/3 pathway induces forgetting and represents a novel mechanism of memory decay by linking translational control to the structure of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity.

  10. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  11. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  12. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  14. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  15. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  16. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  17. Metabotropic glutamate2/3 receptor agonism facilitates autonomic recovery after pharmacological panic challenge in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Agorastos, Agorastos; Demiralay, Cüneyt; Stiedl, Oliver; Muhtz, Christoph; Wiedemann, Klaus; Kellner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) are suggested to modulate anxiety, arousal, and stress including autonomic control. However, no study has investigated mGluR2/3-related effects on baseline autonomic activity and reactivity to emotional challenge in humans as yet. Using a double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, cross-over study design, we investigated the influence of a 1-week treatment with the mGluR2/3 agonist LY544344, prodrug of LY354740, on autonomic reactivity to a cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge in eight healthy young men. The main outcome measures were time and frequency domain heart rate variability parameters during baseline, CCK-4 challenge, and recovery. There was no evidence for LY544344-mediated effects on baseline and CCK-4 challenge vagal activity, but a significantly lower recovery low frequency (%) and low frequency/high frequency ratio in the LY544344 group, suggesting enhanced autonomic recovery. This pilot study provides first human data indicating that mGluR2/3 agonism is involved in autonomic responsiveness, suggesting an important role of mGluR2/3 in central autonomic regulation.

  18. Minor Postoperative Increases of Creatinine Are Associated with Higher Mortality and Longer Hospital Length of Stay in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kork, Felix; Balzer, Felix; Spies, Claudia D.; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ginde, Adit A.; Jankowski, Joachim; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical patients frequently experience postoperative increases in creatinine levels. The authors hypothesized that even small increases in postoperative creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Methods The authors examined the association of postoperative changes from preoperative baseline creatinine with all-cause in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) in a retrospective analysis of surgical patients at a single tertiary care center between January 2006 and June 2012. Results The data of 39,369 surgical patients (noncardiac surgery n = 37,345; cardiac surgery n = 2,024) were analyzed. Acute kidney injury (AKI)—by definition of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome group—was associated with a five-fold higher mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1 to 5.7; P < 0.001) and a longer HLOS of 5 days (P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, congestive heart failure, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative creatinine, exposure to radiocontrast agent, type of surgery, and surgical AKI risk factors. Importantly, even minor creatinine increases (Δcreatinine 25 to 49% above baseline but < 0.3 mg/dl) not meeting AKI criteria were associated with a two-fold increased risk of death (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P < 0.001) and 2 days longer HLOS (P < 0.001). This was more pronounced in noncardiac surgery patients. Patients with minor creatinine increases had a five-fold risk of death (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 20.3; P < 0.05) and a 3-day longer HLOS (P < 0.01) when undergoing noncardiac surgery. Conclusions Even minor postoperative increases in creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. These results emphasize the importance to find effective therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat even mild forms of postoperative kidney dysfunction to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26492475

  19. Workflows and the Role of Images for Virtual 3d Reconstruction of no Longer Extant Historic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münster, S.

    2013-07-01

    3D reconstruction technologies have gained importance as tools for the research and visualization of no longer extant historic objects during the last decade. Within such reconstruction processes, visual media assumes several important roles: as the most important sources especially for a reconstruction of no longer extant objects, as a tool for communication and cooperation within the production process, as well as for a communication and visualization of results. While there are many discourses about theoretical issues of depiction as sources and as visualization outcomes of such projects, there is no systematic research about the importance of depiction during a 3D reconstruction process and based on empirical findings. Moreover, from a methodological perspective, it would be necessary to understand which role visual media plays during the production process and how it is affected by disciplinary boundaries and challenges specific to historic topics. Research includes an analysis of published work and case studies investigating reconstruction projects. This study uses methods taken from social sciences to gain a grounded view of how production processes would take place in practice and which functions and roles images would play within them. For the investigation of these topics, a content analysis of 452 conference proceedings and journal articles related to 3D reconstruction modeling in the field of humanities has been completed. Most of the projects described in those publications dealt with data acquisition and model building for existing objects. Only a small number of projects focused on structures that no longer or never existed physically. Especially that type of project seems to be interesting for a study of the importance of pictures as sources and as tools for interdisciplinary cooperation during the production process. In the course of the examination the authors of this paper applied a qualitative content analysis for a sample of 26 previously

  20. The longer-term effects of human capital enrichment programs on poverty and inequality: Oportunidades in Mexico*

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Douglas; Todd, Petra E.

    2012-01-01

    Previous empirical research has shown that Mexico’s Oportunidades program has succeeded in increasing schooling and improving health of disadvantaged children. This paper studies the program’s potential longer-term consequences for the poverty and inequality of these children. It adapts methods developed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996) and incorporates existing experimental estimates of the program’s effects on human capital to analyze how Oportunidades will affect future earnings of program participants. We nonparametrically simulate earnings distributions, with and without the program, and predict that Oportunidades will increase future mean earnings but have only modest effects on poverty rates and earnings inequality. PMID:22577618

  1. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    PubMed

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P < 0.05). Neither rHVT-H5/2.2 nor standard HVT vaccine could be detected in samples collected from multiple tissues at different time points, indicting minimal levels of viral replication. In conclusion, although a minor effect on

  2. Novel pyrimidine-2,4-dione-1,2,3-triazole and furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2-one-1,2,3-triazole hybrids as potential anti-cancer agents: Synthesis, computational and X-ray analysis and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Gregorić, Tomislav; Sedić, Mirela; Grbčić, Petra; Tomljenović Paravić, Andrea; Kraljević Pavelić, Sandra; Cetina, Mario; Vianello, Robert; Raić-Malić, Silvana

    2017-01-05

    Regioselective 1,4-disubstituted 1,2,3-triazole tethered pyrimidine-2,4-dione derivatives (5-23) were successfully prepared by the copper(I)-catalyzed click chemistry. While known palladium/copper-cocatalyzed method based on Sonogashira cross-coupling followed by the intramolecular 5-endo-dig ring closure generated novel 6-alkylfuro[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2-one-1,2,3-triazole hybrids (24b-37b), a small library of their 5-alkylethynyl analogs (24a-37a) was synthesized and described for the first time by tandem terminal alkyne dimerization and subsequent 5-endo-trig cyclization, which was additionally corroborated with computational and X-ray crystal structure analyses. The nature of substituents on alkynes and thereof homocoupled 1,3-diynes predominantly influenced the ratio of the formed products in both pathways. In vitro antiproliferative activity of prepared compounds evaluated on five human cancer cell lines revealed that N,N-1,3-bis-(1,2,3-triazole)-5-bromouracil (5-7) and 5,6-disubstituted furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2-one-1,2,3-triazole 34a hybrids exhibited the most pronounced cytostatic acitivities against hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) and cervical carcinoma (HeLa) cells with higher potencies than the reference drug 5-fluorouracil. Cytostatic effect of pyrimidine-2,4-dione-1,2,3-triazole hybrid 7 in HepG2 cells could be attributed to the Wee-1 kinase inhibition and abolishment of sphingolipid signaling mediated by acid ceramidase and sphingosine kinase 1. Importantly, this compound proved to be a non-mitochondrial toxicant, which makes it a promising candidate for further lead optimization and development of a new and more efficient agent for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  10. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  11. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  15. 45 CFR 2.3 - Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION TESTIMONY BY EMPLOYEES AND PRODUCTION OF DOCUMENTS IN PROCEEDINGS WHERE THE UNITED STATES IS NOT A PARTY § 2.3 Policy on Presentation...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  17. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  1. Microbial hydroxylation of o-bromophenylacetic acid: synthesis of 4-substituted-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Prashant P; Nanduri, Venkata B; Pullockaran, Annie; Christie, Hamish; Mueller, Richard H; Patel, Ramesh N

    2008-08-01

    Microbial hydroxylation of o-bromophenylacetic acid provided 2-bromo-5-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. This enabled a route to the key intermediate 4-bromo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran for synthesizing a melatonin receptor agonist and sodium hydrogen exchange compounds. Pd-mediated coupling reactions of 4-bromo-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran provided easy access to the 4-substituted-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans.

  2. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  3. Community Unemployment and Disaster-Related Stressors Shape Risk for Posttraumatic Stress in the Longer-Term Aftermath of Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Sarah R; Sampson, Laura; Gruebner, Oliver; Galea, Sandro

    2016-10-01

    Persons living in communities with limited resources are at heightened risk of posttraumatic stress (PTS) after disasters, especially if they were highly exposed. The support deterrence desistence model and the conservation of resources theory suggest that this risk might increase in the longer-term aftermath of disasters. In the present study, we aimed to test this hypothesis. Two population-based samples of New York City residents in communities affected by Hurricane Sandy were surveyed at either 13-16 months (Time 1; n = 421) or 25-28 months (Time 2; n = 420) postdisaster. Participants reported on their exposure to disaster-related stressors and PTS. The percentage of residents who were unemployed in participants' census tracts was collected from the 2008-2012 American Community Survey. Multilevel models found that disaster-related stressors were more strongly associated with PTS for participants living in communities with high unemployment, but only at Time 2 (Est. = .58, SE = .21, p = .006). Mapping of community unemployment and disaster-related stressors suggested that communities in southern Brooklyn and Queens, and northeastern Staten Island were at particularly high risk for PTS at Time 2. The results suggest the need for ongoing support to economically disadvantaged communities in which residents have endured disaster-related stressors.

  4. Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-20

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.

  5. Dechlorination of 1,2,3-trichloropropane by zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Focht, R.M.; Gillham, R.W.

    1995-12-01

    This study investigated the dechlorination of aqueous 1,2,3-trichloropropane in the presence of zero-valent iron. Using flow-through column procedures, the rate of dechlorination was significantly enhanced by the presence of iron, with the half life decreasing in proportion to the iron surface area to solution volume ratio. Unlike previous results obtained for chlorinated C{sub 1} and C{sub 2} compounds, half-lives increased significantly over time, at rates ranging from 5.0 to 13.9 minutes per pore volume of water passed through the column. No accumulation of chlorinated products of degradation was detected, and the principal products of degradation were Cl{sup -} and propene. The products of degradation and the trends in pH suggest reductive dechlorination and dehydrochlorination to be the degradation mechanisms.

  6. Black bears with longer disuse (hibernation) periods have lower femoral osteon population density and greater mineralization and intracortical porosity.

    PubMed

    Wojda, Samantha J; Weyland, David R; Gray, Sarah K; McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Drummer, Thomas D; Donahue, Seth W

    2013-08-01

    Intracortical bone remodeling is persistent throughout life, leading to age related increases in osteon population density (OPD). Intracortical porosity also increases with age in many mammals including humans, contributing to bone fragility and fracture risk. Unbalanced bone resorption and formation during disuse (e.g., physical inactivity) also increases intracortical porosity. In contrast, hibernating bears are a naturally occurring model for the prevention of both age-related and disuse osteoporoses. Intracortical bone remodeling is decreased during hibernation, but resorption and formation remain balanced. Black bears spend 0.25-7 months in hibernation annually depending on climate and food availability. We found longer hibernating bears demonstrate lower OPD and higher cortical bone mineralization than bears with shorter hibernation durations, but we surprisingly found longer hibernating bears had higher intracortical porosity. However, bears from three different latitudes showed age-related decreases in intracortical porosity, indicating that regardless of hibernation duration, black bears do not show the disuse- or age-related increases in intracortical porosity which is typical of other animals. This ability to prevent increases in intracortical porosity likely contributes to their ability to maintain bone strength during prolonged periods of physical inactivity and throughout life. Improving our understanding of the unique bone metabolism in hibernating bears will potentially increase our ability to develop treatments for age- and disuse-related osteoporoses in humans.

  7. Rhenium and technetium tricarbonyl complexes of 1,4-Substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole bidentate 'click' ligands conjugated to a targeting RGD peptide.

    PubMed

    Connell, Timothy U; Hayne, David J; Ackermann, Uwe; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J; White, Jonathan M; Donnelly, Paul S

    2014-04-01

    New 1,4-substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligands with pendent phenyl isothiocyanate functional groups linked to the heterocycle through a short methylene or longer polyethylene glycol spacers were prepared and conjugated to a peptide containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid peptide motif. Rhenium and technetium carbonyl complexes, [M(CO)3 L(x) (py)](+) (where M = Re(I) or (99m) Tc(I) ; L(x)  = 1,4-substituted pyridyl-1,2,3-triazole ligands and py = pyridine) were prepared. One rhenium complex has been characterized by X-ray crystallography, and the luminescent properties of [M(CO)3 L(x) (py)](+) are reported.

  8. [Effect of rhG-CSF on blood coagulation in beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Han, Qin-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Xie, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Fang; Yu, Zu-Yin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Cong, Yu-Wen; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on blood coagulation of beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron so as to provide new therapy for blood coagulation disorder after neutron irradiation. 10 beagles were exposed to 2.3 Gy neutron, and then randomly assigned into supportive care group and rhG-CSF-treated group. The rhG-CSF-treated cohorts were injected subcutaneously with rhG-CSF (10 µg/kg·d) beginning at the day of exposure for 21 consecutive days. Peripheral blood platelet counts were examined once every two days. In vitro platelet aggregation test, thromboelastography and blood clotting tetrachoric tests were also performed. The results indicated that the blood clotting system of irradiated dogs was in hypercoagulable state in the early days after 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation, and became hypocoagulable at crisis later and were mainly on intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blood fibrinogen increased markedly during the course of disease, while platelet counts and aggregation function were decreased remarkably. rhG-CSF administered daily could correct hypercoagulable state induced by 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation at the early time post exposure, shortened the thromboplastin generation time and clotting formation, down-regulated the abnormal high fibrinogen in blood, and improved platelet aggregation function. It is concluded that rhG-CSF can improve coagulation disorders of irradiated dogs.

  9. Structural basis of Arp2/3 complex inhibition by GMF, Coronin, and Arpin

    PubMed Central

    Sokolova, Olga S.; Chemeris, Angelina; Guo, Siyang; Alioto, Salvatore L.; Gandhi, Meghal; Padrick, Shae; Pechnikova, Evgeniya; David, Violaine; Gautreau, Alexis; Goode, Bruce L.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Arp2/3 complex plays a central role in nucleating the branched actin filament arrays that drive cell migration, endocytosis, and other processes. To better understand Arp2/3 complex regulation, we used single particle electron microscopy to compare the structures of Arp2/3 complex bound to three different inhibitory ligands: GMF, Coronin, and Arpin. Although the three inhibitors have distinct binding sites on Arp2/3 complex, they each induced an ‘open’ nucleation-inactive conformation. Coronin promoted a standard (previously described) open conformation of Arp2/3 complex, with the N-terminal β-propeller domain of Coronin positioned near the p35/ARPC2 subunit of Arp2/3 complex. GMF induced two distinct open conformations of Arp2/3 complex, which correlated with two suggested binding sites for GMF. Further, GMF synergized with Coronin in inhibiting actin nucleation by Arp2/3 complex. Arpin, which uses VCA-related acidic (A) motifs to interact with the Arp2/3 complex, induced the standard open conformation, and two new masses appeared at positions near Arp2 and Arp3. Further, Arpin showed additive inhibitory effects on Arp2/3 complex with Coronin and GMF. Together, these data suggest that Arp2/3 complex conformation is highly polymorphic and that its activities can be controlled combinatorially by different inhibitory ligands. PMID:27939292

  10. Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Kim, Jin-Woo; Lee, Ye-Gi; Park, Yong-Cheol; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2017-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a work horse for production of valuable biofuels and biochemicals including 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO), a platform chemical with wide industrial applications for synthetic rubber, biosolvents and food additives. Recently, a cutting-edge technology of metabolic engineering has enabled S. cerevisiae to produce 2,3-BDO with high yield and productivity. These include (i) amplification of the 2,3-BDO biosynthetic pathway, (ii) redirection of carbon flux from ethanol or glycerol toward 2,3-BDO, and (iii) 2,3-BDO production from sugars derived from renewable biomass. These breakthroughs enforced S. cerevisiae to become a promising microbial host for production of 2,3-BDO.

  11. When to stop? Decision-making when children’s cancer treatment is no longer curative: a mixed-method systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children with cancer, parents, and clinicians, face difficult decisions when cure is no longer possible. Little is known about decision-making processes, how agreement is reached, or perspectives of different actors. Professionals voice concerns about managing parental expectations and beliefs, which can be contrary to their own and may change over time. We conducted the first systematic review to determine what constitutes best medico-legal practice for children under 19 years as context to exploring the perspectives of actors who make judgements and decisions when cancer treatment is no longer curative. Methods Theory-informed mixed-method thematic systematic review with theory development. Results Eight legal/ethical guidelines and 18 studies were included. Whilst there were no unresolved dilemmas, actors had different perspectives and motives. In line with guidelines, the best interests of the individual child informed decisions, although how different actors conceptualized ‘best interests’ when treatment was no longer curative varied. Respect for autonomy was understood as following child/parent preferences, which varied from case to case. Doctors generally shared information so that parents alone could make an informed decision. When parents received reliable information, and personalized interest in their child, they were more likely to achieve shared trust and clearer transition to palliation. Although under-represented in research studies, young people’s perspectives showed some differences to those of parents and professionals. For example, young people preferred to be informed even when prognosis was poor, and they had an altruistic desire to help others by participating in research. Conclusion There needs to be fresh impetus to more effectively and universally implement the ethics of professionalism into daily clinical practice in order to reinforce humanitarian attitudes. Ethical guidelines and regulations attempt to bring

  12. Condensed imidazo-1,2,4-azines. 15. Reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione

    SciTech Connect

    Kruglenko, V.P.; Gnidets, V.P.; Klyuev, N.A.; Povstyanoi, M.V.

    1987-10-01

    The reaction of 1,2-diaminobenzimidazole with 5-phenyl-2,3-dihydrofuran-2,3-dione in acetic acid gave a mixture of 2-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino (2,3-..cap alpha..)-benzimidazol-4H-3-one and 3-benzoylmethyl-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazol-1H-2-one, the intramolecular cyclization of which gave isomeric 2-phenylfuro-(5,4-e)- and 2-phenylfuro(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazoles. Only the corresponding furo(4,5-e)-1,2,4-triazino(2,3-..cap alpha..)benzimidazole was isolated when the reaction was carried out in sulfuric acid. The IR spectra of KBr pellets of the compounds were recorded with a UR-20 spectrometer. The electronic absorption spectra of solutions in dioxane were obtained with a Specord UV-vis spectrophotometer. The mass spectra were recorded with a Varian MAT-311a spectrometer. The quantum-chemical calculations were made by the Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) method with the standard parametrization.

  13. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: A combined experimental and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M.; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C6H3B(OH)2F2) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm-1) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm-1) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  14. Elucidating Key Motifs Required for Arp2/3-Dependent and Independent Actin Nucleation by Las17/WASP

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Agnieszka N.; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I.

    2016-01-01

    Actin nucleation is the key rate limiting step in the process of actin polymerization, and tight regulation of this process is critical to ensure actin filaments form only at specific times and at defined regions of the cell. Arp2/3 is a well-characterised protein complex that can promote nucleation of new filaments, though its activity requires additional nucleation promotion factors (NPFs). The best recognized of these factors are the WASP family of proteins that contain binding motifs for both monomeric actin and for Arp2/3. Previously we demonstrated that the yeast WASP homologue, Las17, in addition to activating Arp2/3 can also nucleate actin filaments de novo, independently of Arp2/3. This activity is dependent on its polyproline rich region. Through biochemical and in vivo analysis we have now identified key motifs within the polyproline region that are required for nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, and have addressed the role of the WH2 domain in the context of actin nucleation without Arp2/3. We have also demonstrated that full length Las17 is able to bind liposomes giving rise to the possibility of direct linkage of nascent actin filaments to specific membrane sites to which Las17 has been recruited. Overall, we propose that Las17 functions as the key initiator of de novo actin filament formation at endocytic sites by nucleating, elongating and tethering nascent filaments which then serve as a platform for Arp2/3 recruitment and function. PMID:27637067

  15. Longer-term Stream Nitrogen Dynamics after Wildfire and Salvage Harvesting: Implications for Management Concepts based on Trajectories of Post-disturbance Watershed Recovery.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Bladon, K. D.; Stone, M.; Williams, C.; Martens, A. M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Biogeochemical processes reflecting interaction of vegetation and hydrology govern long-term export of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon over successional time scales. While management concepts of watershed "recovery" from disturbance back towards pre-disturbance conditions are often considered over much shorter timescales, few studies have directly explored watershed biogeochemical responses to disturbance long enough to directly document the longer-term trajectory of responses to severe land disturbance on nitrogen export. The objectives of this study were to document both the initial magnitude and patterns of longer-term recovery of stream nitrogen after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire over nine years in front ranges of the Rocky Mountains in south-west Alberta, Canada. The study was conducted in seven instrumented catchments (4-14 km2), including burned, burned and salvage logged, and unburned (reference) conditions since 2004. Total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations and area-normalized yields were greater and more variable in burned and post-fire salvage logged catchments when compared with unburned catchments. Large initial increases in stream TN and NO3- production 1-3 years after both wildfire and post-fire salvage logging declined strongly to levels similar to, or below that of unburned watersheds 4-6 years after the fire, and continued to decline (although more slowly) 7-9 years after the wildfire. Post-fire salvage logging produced lower impacts on TN and NO3- in streams and these effects declined even more rapidly compared to the effects of wildfire alone. These changes closely corresponded to the early trajectory of establishment and rapid juvenile growth of post-fire regenerating forest vegetation in both catchment groups. While the concept of hydrologic recovery from disturbance is both a practical and meaningful concept for integrated landscape management for protection of forest water resources, the benchmark for

  16. Predictors of Current and Longer-Term Patterns of Abundance of American Pikas (Ochotona princeps) across a Leading-Edge Protected Area

    PubMed Central

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Biel, Mark; Belt, Jami

    2016-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane ‘mainlands’. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts. However, to date no studies have investigated habitat, distribution, and abundance of pikas across hundreds of sites within a remote wilderness area. Additionally, relatively little is known about whether climate acts most strongly on pikas through direct or indirect (e.g., vegetation-mediated) mechanisms. During 2007–2009, we collectively hiked >16,000 km throughout the 410,077-ha Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in an effort to identify topographic, microrefugial, and vegetative characteristics predictive of pika abundance. We identified 411 apparently pika-suitable habitat patches with binoculars (in situ), and surveyed 314 of them for pika signs. Ranking of alternative logistic-regression models based on AICc scores revealed that short-term pika abundances were positively associated with intermediate elevations, greater cover of mosses, and taller forbs, and decreased each year, for a total decline of 68% during the three-year study; whereas longer-term abundances were associated only with static variables (longitude, elevation, gradient) and were lower on north-facing slopes. Earlier Julian date and time of day of the survey (i.e., midday vs. not) were associated with lower observed pika abundance. We recommend that wildlife monitoring account for this seasonal and diel variation when surveying pikas. Broad-scale information on status and abundance determinants of montane mammals, especially

  17. Predictors of current and longer-term patterns of abundance of American pikas (Ochotona princeps) across a leading-edge protected area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moyer-Horner, Lucas; Beever, Erik A.; Johnson, Douglas H.; Beil, Mark; Belt, Jami

    2016-01-01

    American pikas (Ochotona princeps) have been heralded as indicators of montane-mammal response to contemporary climate change. Pikas no longer occupy the driest and lowest-elevation sites in numerous parts of their geographic range. Conversely, pikas have exhibited higher rates of occupancy and persistence in Rocky Mountain and Sierra Nevada montane ‘mainlands’. Research and monitoring efforts on pikas across the western USA have collectively shown the nuance and complexity with which climate will often act on species in diverse topographic and climatic contexts. However, to date no studies have investigated habitat, distribution, and abundance of pikas across hundreds of sites within a remote wilderness area. Additionally, relatively little is known about whether climate acts most strongly on pikas through direct or indirect (e.g., vegetation-mediated) mechanisms. During 2007–2009, we collectively hiked >16,000 km throughout the 410,077-ha Glacier National Park, Montana, USA, in an effort to identify topographic, microrefugial, and vegetative characteristics predictive of pika abundance. We identified 411 apparently pika-suitable habitat patches with binoculars (in situ), and surveyed 314 of them for pika signs. Ranking of alternative logistic-regression models based on AICc scores revealed that short-term pika abundances were positively associated with intermediate elevations, greater cover of mosses, and taller forbs, and decreased each year, for a total decline of 68% during the three-year study; whereas longer-term abundances were associated only with static variables (longitude, elevation, gradient) and were lower on north-facing slopes. Earlier Julian date and time of day of the survey (i.e., midday vs. not) were associated with lower observed pika abundance. We recommend that wildlife monitoring account for this seasonal and diel variation when surveying pikas. Broad-scale information on status and abundance determinants of montane mammals, especially

  18. Optimal Timing for Assessment of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Patients With Rectal Cancer: Do All Patients Benefit From Waiting Longer Than 6 Weeks?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Rodrigo O.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Sao Juliao, Guilherme P.; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Sousa, Afonso H.S.; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; Imperiale, Antonio R.; Lynn, Patricio B.; Proscurshim, Igor; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Ono, Carla Rachel; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the metabolic activity of rectal cancers at 6 and 12 weeks after completion of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([{sup 18}FDG]PET/CT) imaging and correlate with response to CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal adenocarcinoma treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT (54 Gy, 5-fluouracil-based) were prospectively studied ( (ClinicalTrials.org) identifier (NCT00254683)). All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies (at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks from CRT completion). Clinical assessment was at 12 weeks. Maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor was measured and recorded at each PET/CT study after 1 h (early) and 3 h (late) from {sup 18}FDG injection. Patients with an increase in early SUVmax between 6 and 12 weeks were considered 'bad' responders and the others as 'good' responders. Results: Ninety-one patients were included; 46 patients (51%) were 'bad' responders, whereas 45 (49%) patients were 'good' responders. 'Bad' responders were less likely to develop complete clinical response (6.5% vs. 37.8%, respectively; P=.001), less likely to develop significant histological tumor regression (complete or near-complete pathological response; 16% vs. 45%, respectively; P=.008) and exhibited greater final tumor dimension (4.3 cm vs. 3.3 cm; P=.03). Decrease between early (1 h) and late (3 h) SUVmax at 6-week PET/CT was a significant predictor of 'good' response (accuracy of 67%). Conclusions: Patients who developed an increase in SUVmax after 6 weeks were less likely to develop significant tumor downstaging. Early-late SUVmax variation at 6-week PET/CT may help identify these patients and allow tailored selection of CRT-surgery intervals for individual patients.

  19. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-01

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241. PMID:26753612

  20. Mechanism of 2,3-butanediol stereoisomers formation in a newly isolated Serratia sp. T241.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liaoyuan; Guo, Zewang; Chen, Jiebo; Xu, Quanming; Lin, Hui; Hu, Kaihui; Guan, Xiong; Shen, Yaling

    2016-01-12

    Serratia sp. T241, a newly isolated xylose-utilizing strain, produced three 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) stereoisomers. In this study, three 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (BDH1-3) and one glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) involved in 2,3-BD isomers formation by Serratia sp. T241 were identified. In vitro conversion showed BDH1 and BDH2 could catalyzed (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin into (2S,3S)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD, while BDH3 and GDH exhibited the activities from (3S)-acetoin and (3R)-acetoin to meso-2,3-BD and (2R,3R)-2,3-BD. Four encoding genes were assembled into E. coli with budA (acetolactate decarboxylase) and budB (acetolactate synthase), responsible for converting pyruvate into acetoin. E. coli expressing budAB-bdh1/2 produced meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD. Correspondingly, (2R,3R)-2,3-BD and meso-2,3-BD were obtained by E. coli expressing budAB-bdh3/gdh. These results suggested four enzymes might contribute to 2,3-BD isomers formation. Mutants of four genes were developed in Serratia sp. T241. Δbdh1 led to reduced concentration of meso-2,3-BD and (2S,3S)-2,3-BD by 97.7% and 87.9%. (2R,3R)-2,3-BD with a loss of 73.3% was produced by Δbdh3. Enzyme activity assays showed the decrease of 98.4% and 22.4% by Δbdh1 and Δbdh3 compared with the wild strain. It suggested BDH1 and BDH3 played important roles in 2,3-BD formation, BDH2 and GDH have small effects on 2,3-BD production by Serratia sp. T241.

  1. Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn: structural insights for longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rath, Timo; Baker, Kristi; Dumont, Jennifer A; Peters, Robert T; Jiang, Haiyan; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Lencer, Wayne I; Pierce, Glenn F; Blumberg, Richard S

    2015-06-01

    Nearly 350 IgG-based therapeutics are approved for clinical use or are under development for many diseases lacking adequate treatment options. These include molecularly engineered biologicals comprising the IgG Fc-domain fused to various effector molecules (so-called Fc-fusion proteins) that confer the advantages of IgG, including binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) to facilitate in vivo stability, and the therapeutic benefit of the specific effector functions. Advances in IgG structure-function relationships and an understanding of FcRn biology have provided therapeutic opportunities for previously unapproachable diseases. This article discusses approved Fc-fusion therapeutics, novel Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn-dependent delivery approaches in development, and how engineering of the FcRn-Fc interaction can generate longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics.

  2. Single-session interventions for problem gambling may be as effective as longer treatments: Results of a randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Toneatto, Tony

    2016-01-01

    Empirically supported treatments for problem gambling tend to be multimodal combining cognitive, behavior and motivational interventions. Since problem gamblers often prefer briefer treatments it is important that interventions adopt strategies that are optimally effective. In this study, 99 community-recruited problem gamblers (74% male, mean age: 47.5 years) were randomized to one of four treatments: six sessions of cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, and motivational therapy or a single-session intervention. The sample was followed up for 12 months post-treatment. In both the Intent-to-Treat and Completer statistical analyses, no significant group differences on key gambling variables (i.e., frequency, expenditures, severity) were found. All four treatments showed significant improvement as a result of treatment that endured throughout the follow-up period. These results, although preliminary, suggest that very brief, single-session interventions may be as effective as longer treatments.

  3. Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn: structural insights for longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Rath, Timo; Baker, Kristi; Dumont, Jennifer A.; Peters, Robert T.; Jiang, Haiyan; Qiao, Shuo-Wang; Lencer, Wayne I.; Pierce, Glenn F.; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 350 IgG-based therapeutics are approved for clinical use or are under development for many diseases lacking adequate treatment options. These include molecularly engineered biologicals comprising the IgG Fc-domain fused to various effector molecules (so-called Fc-fusion proteins) that confer the advantages of IgG, including binding to the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) to facilitate in vivo stability, and the therapeutic benefit of the specific effector functions. Advances in IgG structure-function relationships and an understanding of FcRn biology have provided therapeutic opportunities for previously unapproachable diseases. This article discusses approved Fc-fusion therapeutics, novel Fc-fusion proteins and FcRn-dependent delivery approaches in development, and how engineering of the FcRn–Fc interaction can generate longer-lasting and more effective therapeutics. PMID:24156398

  4. Ex Vivo Characterization of a Novel Iodine-123-Labelled Aminomethylchroman as a Potential Agonist Ligand for SPECT Imaging of Dopamine D2/3 Receptors.

    PubMed

    van Wieringen, Jan-Peter; de Bruin, Kora; Janssen, Henk M; Fransen, P Michel; Janssen, Anton G M; van Doremalen, Peter A; Michel, Martin C; Elsinga, Philip H; Booij, Jan

    2014-01-01

    For imaging of dopamine D2/3 receptors, agonist tracers are favoured over antagonists because they are more sensitive to detection of dopamine release and because they may selectively label the high-affinity receptor state. We have developed novel D2/3 receptor selective agonists that can be radiolabelled with [(123)I], which label is advantageous over most other labels, such as carbon-11, as it has a longer half-life. Particularly, we considered (R) N-[7-hydroxychroman-2-yl]-methyl 4-iodobenzyl amine (compound 1) as an attractive candidate for development as it shows high binding affinity to D2/3 receptors in vitro, and here we report on the characterization of this first [(123)I]-labelled D2/3 receptor agonist radiopharmaceutical intended for SPECT imaging. The appropriate tin precursor for [(123)I]-1 was developed and was successfully radiolabelled with iodine-123 giving a moderate yield (30-35%) and a good purity (>95%) for [(123)I]-1. In biodistribution experiments in Wistar rats intravenous injection of [(123)I]-1 resulted in a fast brain uptake, where the observed binding in the D2/3 receptor-rich striatum was slightly higher than that in the cerebellum 30 min to 4 h p.i. Storage phosphor imaging experiments, however, did not show specific D2/3 receptor binding. In conclusion, despite promising in vitro data for 1, neither specific ex vivo binding nor high signal-to-noise ratios were found in rodents for [(123)I]-1.

  5. The use of 137Cs to establish longer-term soil erosion rates on footpaths in the UK.

    PubMed

    Rodway-Dyer, S J; Walling, D E

    2010-10-01

    There is increasing awareness of the damage caused to valuable and often unique sensitive habitats by people pressure as degradation causes a loss of plant species, disturbance to wildlife, on-site and off-site impacts of soil movement and loss, and visual destruction of pristine environments. This research developed a new perspective on the problem of recreational induced environmental degradation by assessing the physical aspects of soil erosion using the fallout radionuclide caesium-137 ((137)Cs). Temporal sampling problems have not successfully been overcome by traditional research methods monitoring footpath erosion and, to date, the (137)Cs technique has not been used to estimate longer-term soil erosion in regard to sensitive recreational habitats. The research was based on-sites within Dartmoor National Park (DNP) and the South West Coast Path (SWCP) in south-west England. (137)Cs inventories were reduced on the paths relative to the reference inventory (control), indicating loss of soil from the path areas. The Profile Distribution Model estimated longer-term erosion rates (ca. 40 years) based on the (137)Cs data and showed that the combined mean soil loss for all the sites on 'paths' was 1.41 kg m(-2) yr(-1) whereas the combined 'off path' soil loss was 0.79 kg m(-2) yr(-1), where natural (non-recreational) soil redistribution processes occur. Recreational pressure was shown to increase erosion in the long-term, as greater soil erosion occurred on the paths, especially where there was higher visitor pressure.

  6. Sea Ice Back to 1850: A Longer Observational Record for Assimilation By Models and Use In Reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetterer, Florence; Walsh, John; Chapman, William; Stewart, J. Scott

    2016-04-01

    Gridded Monthly Sea Ice Extent and Concentration, 1850 Onward is the title of a new data set available from the U.S. National Snow and Ice Data Center. Observations from 13 historical sources such as whaling ship logs, compilations by naval oceanographers, and analyses by national ice services cover 1850 through 1978, while 1979-2013 ice concentration fields are derived from satellite passive microwave data. The sea ice concentration and source variables are provided in a NetCDF-4 file. The observation-based data product meets a need for longer records to use in reanalysis and climate diagnostic applications. It extends the record of an earlier version of this pan-Arctic data set that is heavily used by modelers, and improves upon it by incorporating newly available historical sources, using a more accurate data set for the satellite era, and by filling temporal gaps using an analog method. The resulting sea ice concentration fields have realistic values and variability throughout the record; in earlier versions, unvarying climatological values often fill gaps. The historical data vary greatly in their observational methods and came to us as both original data (e.g. a transcription of shipboard ice observations), or as observations to which some synthesis or analysis has already been applied (e.g. the Danish Meteorological Instituted yearbooks of charts). Each required different treatment before it could be used in our product, ranging from simple regridding to digitization and interpretation. The current version spans 1850-2013. With it, we can more confidently address questions like "Is the diminished ice cover of the past few years unique to the period since 1850?" And "Is the rapidity of the retreat of ice in the years since 2000 unique in the longer historical record?" We hope to continue improving the product with refinements to the gap filling method, additional historical sources, and assessment of the consistency of pre and post satellite period data, and

  7. 2,3-butanediol production from cellobiose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Nan, Hong; Seo, Seung-Oh; Oh, Eun Joong; Seo, Jin-Ho; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2014-06-01

    Production of renewable fuels and chemicals from cellulosic biomass is a critical step towards energy sustainability and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Microbial cells have been engineered for producing chemicals from cellulosic sugars. Among these chemicals, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) is a compound of interest due to its diverse applications. While microbial production of 2,3-BDO with high yields and productivities has been reported, there are concerns associated with utilization of potential pathogenic bacteria and inefficient utilization of cellulosic sugars. To address these problems, we engineered 2,3-BDO production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, especially from cellobiose, a prevalent sugar in cellulosic hydrolysates. Specifically, we overexpressed alsS and alsD from Bacillus subtilis to convert pyruvate into 2,3-BDO via α-acetolactate and acetoin in an engineered cellobiose fermenting S. cerevisiae. Under oxygen-limited conditions, the resulting strain was able to produce 2,3-BDO. Still, major carbon flux went to ethanol, resulting in substantial amounts of ethanol produced as a byproduct. To enhance pyruvate flux to 2,3-BDO through elimination of the pyruvate decarboxylation reaction, we employed a deletion mutant of both PDC1 and PDC5 for producing 2,3-BDO. When a cellobiose utilization pathway, consisting of a cellobiose transporter and intracellular β-glucosidase, and the 2,3-BDO producing pathway were introduced in a pyruvate decarboxylase deletion mutant, the resulting strain produced 2,3-BDO without ethanol production from cellobiose under oxygen-limited conditions. A titer of 5.29 g/l 2,3-BDO with a productivity of 0.22 g/l h and yield of 0.29 g 2,3-BDO/g cellobiose was attained. These results suggest the possibility of producing 2,3-BDO safely and sustainably from cellulosic hydrolysates.

  8. High-velocity stimulation evokes "dense" population response in layer 2/3 vibrissal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ranjbar-Slamloo, Yadollah; Arabzadeh, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    Supragranular layers of sensory cortex are known to exhibit sparse firing. In rodent vibrissal cortex, a small fraction of neurons in layer 2 and 3 (L2/3) respond to whisker stimulation. In this study, we combined whole cell recording and two-photon imaging in anesthetized mice and quantified the synaptic response and spiking profile of L2/3 neurons. Previous literature has shown that neurons across layers of vibrissal cortex are tuned to the velocity of whisker movement. We therefore used a broad range of stimuli that included the standard range of velocities (0-1.2 deg/ms) and extended to a "sharp" high-velocity deflection (3.8 deg/ms). Consistent with previous literature, whole cell recording revealed a sparse response to the standard range of velocities: although all recorded cells showed tuning to velocity in their postsynaptic potentials, only a small fraction produced stimulus-evoked spikes. In contrast, the sharp stimulus evoked reliable spiking in the majority of neurons. The action potential threshold of spikes evoked by the sharp stimulus was significantly lower than that of the spontaneous spikes. Juxtacellular recordings confirmed that application of sharp stimulus to single or multiple whiskers produced temporally precise spiking with minimal trial-to-trial spike count variability (Fano factors equal or close to the theoretical minimum). Two-photon imaging further confirmed that most neurons that were not responsive to the standard deflections responded to the sharp stimulus. Altogether, our results indicate that sparseness in L2/3 cortex depends on the choice of stimulus: strong single- or multiwhisker stimulation can induce the transition from sparse to "dense" population response.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In superficial layers of sensory cortex, only a small fraction of neurons fire most of the spontaneous and sensory evoked spikes. However, the functional relevance of such "sparse" activity remains unknown. We found that a "dense" population response is

  9. Cell-type-specific sub- and suprathreshold receptive fields of layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramids in rat primary visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Medini, P

    2011-09-08

    Connectivity of cortical pyramidal neurons is layer-specific in the primary visual cortex (V1) and this is thought to be reflected in different receptive field (RF) properties of layer 4 and layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons (L4Ps and L2/3Ps, respectively). However, it remains unclear how the two cell populations convert incoming visually driven synaptic inputs into action potential (AP) outputs. Here I compared postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and AP responses of L4Ps and L2/3Ps in the binocular portion of rat V1 by intrinsic optical imaging (IOI)-targeted whole-cell recordings followed by anatomical identification and dendritic reconstructions. L2/3Ps had about 2-fold longer dendritic branches and a higher number of branch points and endings in their apical portions. Functionally, L2/3Ps had more hyperpolarized resting potentials and lower rates of spontaneous APs (medians: 0.07 vs. 0.60 AP/s). PSP responses to optimally oriented moving bars were comparable in terms of amplitude (16.0±0.9 vs. 17.3±1.1 mV for L2/3Ps and L4Ps, respectively), reliability and size of the RF. The modulated component of subthreshold responses of L4Ps to optimal sinusoidal drifting gratings was larger and their PSP onset latency in response to bars flashed in the cell's RF center were shorter (60 vs. 86 ms). In contrast to the similarities of PSP responses to moving bars, AP responses of L2/3Ps were more sparse (medians: 0.7 vs. 2.9 APs/stimulus passage), less reliable, but sharper in terms of angular size. Based on the differences of subthreshold inputs, I conclude that L4Ps may receive mostly thalamic inputs, whereas L2/3Ps may receive both thalamic and cortical inputs from layer 4. The comparable subthreshold responses to moving bars are converted by L2/3Ps into sparser but sharper AP outputs possibly by cell-type-specific AP-generating mechanisms or differences in visually driven inhibitory inputs.

  10. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm.

  11. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine-triphosphate in cretins living at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Adams, W H

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) in the red cells of cretins and normal controls living at 3,700 m in the Nepal Himalayas has shown that 2,3-DPG and ATP levels were higher in the cretins. A negative correlation between hemoglobin and 2.3-DPG level was found. Chronic hypoxia appears to have provided the additional stress required to differentiate the significance of thyroid hormone deficiency in producing anemia from its effect on 2,3-DPG levels. If thyroid hormone is in fact one regulator of 2,3-DPG, the anemia of hypothyroidism appears to be more significant. This also suggest that the anemia of hypothyroidism, is at least in part, "pathologic" as opposed to "adaptive".

  12. Insights of biosurfactant producing Serratia marcescens strain W2.3 isolated from diseased tilapia fish: a draft genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen with broad range of host ranging from vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. S. marcescens strain W2.3 was isolated from a diseased tilapia fish and it was suspected to be the causal agent for the fish disease as virulence genes were found within its genome. In this study, for the first time, the genome sequences of S. marcescens strain W2.3 were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Result Several virulent factors of S. marcescens such as serrawettin, a biosurfactant, has been reported to be regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). In our previous studies, an unusual AHL with long acyl side chain was detected from this isolate suggesting the possibility of novel virulence factors regulation. This evokes our interest in the genome of this bacterial strain and hereby we present the draft genome of S. marcescens W2.3, which carries the serrawettin production gene, swrA and the AHL-based QS transcriptional regulator gene, luxR which is an orphan luxR. Conclusion With the availability of the whole genome sequences of S. marcescens W2.3, this will pave the way for the study of the QS-mediated genes expression in this bacterium. PMID:24148830

  13. Synthesis, antitubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities of 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mojahidul; Siddiqui, Anees A; Rajesh, Ramadoss

    2008-01-01

    A series of 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-ones has been synthesized. An appropriate aromatic hydrocarbon reacts with succinic anhydride in presence of AlCl3 to yield beta-aroyl propionic acid. The corresponding acid was cyclized with hydrazine hydrate to give 6-(substituted aryl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-pyridazinone, which was heated on steam bath with phosphorus(V) oxychloride to yield 3-chloro 6-substituted phenyl pyridazine. This intermediate after reaction with hydrazine hydrate was converted into 3-hydrazino-6-substituted phenyl pyridazine. The resulting product was converted into 6-substituted phenyl-2-(3'-substituted phenyl pyridazin-6'-yl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazin-3-one by reacting with substituted aroyl propionic acid. Spectral data (IR, NMR, mass spectra) confirmed the structures of the synthesized compounds. The synthesized compounds were investigated for their in vitro antitubercular, antifungal and antibacterial activities. The results indicated that the synthesized compounds have mild to potent activities with reference to their appropriate reference standards.

  14. Inhibitory effect of 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxynucleosides on infectivity, cytopathic effects, and replication of human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Hamamoto, Y; Nakashima, H; Matsui, T; Matsuda, A; Ueda, T; Yamamoto, N

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. In this report, we demonstrate the antiviral effect of nucleoside analogs 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (DHT) and 2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-dideoxycytidine (DHC) by using human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I-carrying MT-4 cells, which are extremely susceptible to HIV infection. These agents efficiently inhibited the cytopathic effects and expression of HIV-specific antigens in MT-4 cells after infection of the virus. Both DHT and DHC also strongly blocked viral replication as determined by our quantitative bioassay system using a plaque-forming assay. These antiviral effects were obtained at concentrations at which the drugs produced little or no toxicity and were comparable to those with 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine and 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. These findings warrant further investigation of the use of DHT and DHC for the treatment of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. PMID:3039911

  15. 40 CFR 63.1952 - When am I no longer required to comply with the requirements of this subpart if I own or operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the requirements of this subpart if I own or operate a bioreactor? 63.1952 Section 63.1952... longer required to comply with the requirements of this subpart if I own or operate a bioreactor? If you own or operate a landfill that includes a bioreactor, you are no longer required to comply with...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1952 - When am I no longer required to comply with the requirements of this subpart if I own or operate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with the requirements of this subpart if I own or operate a bioreactor? 63.1952 Section 63.1952... longer required to comply with the requirements of this subpart if I own or operate a bioreactor? If you own or operate a landfill that includes a bioreactor, you are no longer required to comply with...

  17. 20 CFR 416.986 - Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. 416.986 Section 416.986 Employees' Benefits... Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.986 Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. (a) If your vision does not meet the definition of blindness. If...

  18. 20 CFR 416.986 - Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. 416.986 Section 416.986 Employees' Benefits... Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.986 Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. (a) If your vision does not meet the definition of blindness. If...

  19. 20 CFR 416.986 - Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. 416.986 Section 416.986 Employees' Benefits... Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.986 Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. (a) If your vision does not meet the definition of blindness. If...

  20. 20 CFR 416.986 - Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. 416.986 Section 416.986 Employees' Benefits... Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.986 Why and when we will find that you are no longer entitled to benefits based on statutory blindness. (a) If your vision does not meet the definition of blindness. If...