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Sample records for 2-3 times weekly

  1. Using Weekly Weather Forecast for Real-Time Irrigation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Wang, D.; Hejazi, M.

    2008-12-01

    Irrigation scheduling determines the timing and amount of water applied to an irrigated cropland during the crop growing season. Through a case study with Havana Lowlands region, Illinois, this study addresses two questions: 1) how can we consider the uncertainty of the weekly forecast for real-time irrigation scheduling? 2) What is the economic value of the forecast for irrigation farmers? We propose a coupled simulation and optimization modeling approach. The simulation part adopts an existing soil-water-atmosphere-plant (SWAP) simulation model. The SWAP model simulates soil moisture, the key state variable for irrigation decision, at the current time (day) using observed weather data; meanwhile the model assimilates the daily updated weekly forecast to predict the soil moisture in the future week. The weekly time window moves forward from the beginning to the end of the crop season. The optimization model is formulated as a multiple-stage stochastic optimization model that is based on weather forecast scenarios characterized by probabilities. The multiple-stage decisions are the deterministic water application at the current day ("what to do now") and the application scenarios associated with probabilities in each of the 7 days within one week time horizon ("wait- and-see"). Based on the soil moisture provided by the simulation model and empirical irrigation rules, irrigation water application is determined by the optimization model implemented with a genetic algorithm (GA). The modeling approach is tested with five years (2002-2006), which include two dry years, two normal years and one wet year, with the rainfall in the crop growth season ranging from 230mm to 410mm. The value of forecast is shown to be different across dry, normal, and wet years. In the year of 2002, observed irrigation scheduling is available. Thus the optimized irrigation scheduling is compared to the observed regarding the net crop profit and irrigation water saving.

  2. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  3. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence.

  4. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  5. Building School Culture One Week at a Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoul, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Use Friday Focus memos to motivate and engage your staff every week, and help create a school culture focused on the growth of students "and" teachers. Easy to understand and implement, Friday Focus memos offer an effective and efficient way to improve student learning, staff development, and school culture from within. Written by educational…

  6. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.; Nielsen, Mette Ø.; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. Methods Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychoticnaive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences of fractional anisotropy (FA) using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and anatomic region of interest (ROI)–based analyses. Subsequently, patients underwent 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. We repeated the examinations after 6 weeks. Results We included 38 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 38 controls in our analysis, and 28 individuals in each group completed the study. At baseline, whole brain TBSS analyses revealed lower FA in patients in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right cingulum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right corticospinal tract (CT). Fractional anisotropy in the right ATR correlated with positive symptoms (z = 2.64, p = 0.008). The ROI analyses showed significant associations between positive symptoms and FA of the frontal fasciculi, specifically the right arcuate fasciculus (z = 2.83, p = 0.005) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (z = −3.31, p = 0.001). At re-examination, all correlations between positive symptoms and frontal fasciculi had resolved. Fractional anisotropy in the ATR increased more in patients than in controls (z = −4.92, p < 0.001). The amisulpride dose correlated positively with FA changes in the right CT (t = 2.52, p = 0.019). Limitations Smoking and a previous diagnosis of substance abuse were potential confounders. Long-term effects of amisulpride on white

  7. Effects of 6-Times-Weekly Versus 3-Times-Weekly Hemodialysis on Depressive Symptoms and Self-reported Mental Health: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Trials

    PubMed Central

    Unruh, Mark L.; Larive, Brett; Chertow, Glenn M; Eggers, Paul W.; Garg, Amit X.; Gassman, Jennifer; Tarallo, Maria; Finkelstein, Fredric O.; Kimmel, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis frequently exhibit poor mental health. We studied the effects of frequent in-center and nocturnal hemodialysis on depressive symptoms and self-reported mental health. Study Design 1-year randomized-controlled clinical trials. Setting & Participants Hemodialysis centers in the United States and Canada. A total of 332 patients were randomized to frequent (six times per week) as compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in the Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Daily (n=245) and Nocturnal (n=87) Trials. Intervention Daily Trial was a trial of frequent (six times per week), as compared with conventional (three times per week) in-center hemodialysis. The Nocturnal Trial assigned patients to either frequent nocturnal hemodialysis (six times per week) or conventional hemodialysis (three times per week). Outcomes Self-reported depressive symptoms and mental health. Measurements Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the mental health composite (MHC) score and emotional subscale of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The MHC score is derived by summarizing these domains of the RAND 36-Item Health Survey: emotional, role emotional, energy/fatigue, and social functioning scales. Results In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent as compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis demonstrated no significant change over 12 months in adjusted mean BDI (−1.9 ± 0.7 vs. −0.6 ± 0.7; p=0.2), but experienced clinically significant improvements in adjusted mean MHC (3.7 ± 0.9 vs. 0.2 ± 1.0; P<0.01) and the emotional subscale (5.2 ± 1.6 vs. −0.3 ± 1.7; p=0.01). In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant changes among subjects randomized to nocturnal as compared with conventional hemodialysis on the same metrics. Limitations The trial interventions were not blinded. Conclusions Frequent in-center hemodialysis, as compared with conventional in

  8. Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week

    PubMed Central

    Room, Robin; Mäkelä, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific. PMID:21553132

  9. Interlibrary Loan Time Study at I. D. Weeks Library, University of South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprules, Marcia L.

    This report describes a study designed to improve the interlibrary loan service offered by the I. D. Weeks Library at the University of South Dakota (USD); the study which examined both the actual time elapsed in filling interlibrary loan requests and the causes for delays. An introduction to the problem is provided; the library staffing and…

  10. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  11. Time course of natural heat acclimatization in well-trained cyclists during a 2-week training camp in the heat.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, A; Nybo, L; Nørgaard, S J; Jensen, M V; Bonne, T; Racinais, S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the time course of physiological adaptations and their relationship with performance improvements during 2 weeks of heat acclimatization. Nine trained cyclists completed 2 weeks of training in naturally hot environment (34 ± 3 °C; 18 ± 5% relative humidity). On days 1, 6, and 13, they performed standardized heat response tests (HRT-1, 2, 3), and 43.4-km time trials in the heat (TTH-1, 2, 3) were completed on days 2, 7, and 14. Within the first 5-6 days, sweat sodium concentration decreased from 75 ± 22 mmol/L to 52 ± 24 mmol/L, sweat rate increased (+20 ± 15%), and resting hematocrit decreased (-5.6 ± 5.4%), with no further changes during the remaining period. In contrast, power output during TTHs gradually improved from TTH-1 to TTH-2 (+11 ± 8%), and from TTH-2 to TTH-3 (+5 ± 4%). Individual improvements in performance from TTH-1 to TTH-2 correlated with individual changes in hematocrit (assessed after the corresponding HRT; r = -0.79, P < 0.05), however, were not related to changes in performance from TTH-2 to TTH-3. In trained athletes, sudomotor and hematological adaptations occurred within 5-6 days of training, whereas the additional improvement in performance after the entire acclimatization period did not relate to changes in these parameters.

  12. Predicting the start week of respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks using real time weather variables

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a major cause of bronchiolitis, has a large impact on the census of pediatric hospitals during outbreak seasons. Reliable prediction of the week these outbreaks will start, based on readily available data, could help pediatric hospitals better prepare for large outbreaks. Methods Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier models were constructed using weather data from 1985-2008 considering only variables that are available in real time and that could be used to forecast the week in which an RSV outbreak will occur in Salt Lake County, Utah. Outbreak start dates were determined by a panel of experts using 32,509 records with ICD-9 coded RSV and bronchiolitis diagnoses from Intermountain Healthcare hospitals and clinics for the RSV seasons from 1985 to 2008. Results NB models predicted RSV outbreaks up to 3 weeks in advance with an estimated sensitivity of up to 67% and estimated specificities as high as 94% to 100%. Temperature and wind speed were the best overall predictors, but other weather variables also showed relevance depending on how far in advance the predictions were made. The weather conditions predictive of an RSV outbreak in our study were similar to those that lead to temperature inversions in the Salt Lake Valley. Conclusions We demonstrate that Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier models based on weather data available in real time have the potential to be used as effective predictive models. These models may be able to predict the week that an RSV outbreak will occur with clinical relevance. Their clinical usefulness will be field tested during the next five years. PMID:21044325

  13. Weekly Solutions of Time-Variable Gravity from 1993 to 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F.; Chinn, D.; Le Bail, K.; Zelensky, N.; Melachroinos, S.; Beall, J.

    2011-01-01

    The GRACE mission has been highly successful in determining the time-variable gravity field of the Earth, producing monthly or even more frequent solutions (cf. 10-day) solutions using both spherical harmonics and mascons. However the GRACE time series only commences in 2002 - 2003 and a gap of several years may occur in the series before a GRACE follow-on satellite is launched. Satellites tracked by SLR and DORIS have also been used to study time variations in the Earth's gravitational field. These include (most recently) the solutions of Cox and Chao (2002), Cheng et al. (2004, 2007) and Lemoine et al. (2007). In this paper we discuss the development of a new time series of low degree spherical harmonic fields based on the available SLR, DORIS and GPS data. We develop simultaneous solutions for both the geocenter and the low degree harmonics up to 5x5. The solutions integrate data from SLR geodetic satellites (e.g., Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Larets, Westpac), altimetry satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2), and satellites tracked solely by DORIS (e.g. SPOT2-5). We discuss some pertinent aspects of the satellite-specific modeling. We include altimeter crossovers in the weekly solutions where feasible and time permits. The resulting geocenter time series is compared with geophysical model predictions and other independently-derived solutions. Over the GRACE time period the fidelity and consistency with the GRACE solutions are presented.

  14. Investigation of Noises in GPS Time Series: Case Study on Epn Weekly Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klos, Anna; Bogusz, Janusz; Figurski, Mariusz; Kosek, Wieslaw; Gruszczynski, Maciej

    2014-05-01

    The noises in GPS time series are stated to be described the best by the combination of white (Gaussian) and power-law processes. They are mainly the effect of mismodelled satellite orbits, Earth orientation parameters, atmospheric effects, antennae phase centre effects, or of monument instability. Due to the fact, that velocities of permanent stations define the kinematic reference frame, they have to fulfil the requirement of being stable at 0.1 mm/yr. The previously performed researches showed, that the wrong assumption of noise model leads to the underestimation of velocities and their uncertainties from 2 up to even 11, especially in the Up direction. This presentation focuses on more than 200 EPN (EUREF Permanent Network) stations from the area of Europe with various monument types (concrete pillars, buildings, metal masts, with or without domes, placed on the ground or on the rock) and coordinates of weekly changes (GPS weeks 0834-1459). The topocentric components (North, East, Up) in ITRF2005 which come from the EPN Re-Processing made by the Military University of Technology Local Analysis Centre (MUT LAC) were processed with Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) using CATS software. We have assumed the existence of few combinations of noise models (these are: white, flicker and random walk noise with integer spectral indices and power-law noise models with fractional spectral indices) and investigated which of them EPN weekly time series are likely to follow. The results show, that noises in GPS time series are described the best by the combination of white and flicker noise model. It is strictly related to the so-called common mode error (CME) that is spatially correlated error being one of the dominant error source in GPS solutions. We have assumed CME as spatially uniform, what was a good approximation for stations located hundreds of kilometres one to another. Its removal with spatial filtering reduces the amplitudes of white and flicker noise by a

  15. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  16. Modelling gambling time and economic assignments to weekly trip behaviour to gambling venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. G. V.; Marshall, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    The study of gambling and its socio-economic structures should be an area of growing interest to a society-relevant geography. In Australia, electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have dominated recent gambling industry growth. As EGMs have diffused through the urban hierarchy, there is a growing recognition that EGM distribution often correlates with levels of socio-economic status. Marshall and Baker (2002) showed that a similar EGM socio-economic assignment model evolved in the capital cities of Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, even though these cities have substantially different historical and legislative EGM environments. This paper looks at a related space-time model in the context of trip-making to gaming venues, relative to an Index of Economic Resources from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A simulation of the model predicts different types of gambling behaviour. It also shows that venue hours can affect time-economic trip behaviour. The model is then applied to EGM gambling data gathered in an urban hierarchy on the north coast of New South Wales, Australia. The results define a gaussian-type low involvement ‘recreational random’ gambling for patrons, whereas for more involved gamblers (in terms of time spent gambling), there are discrete behavioural periods over the week for a wider economic cohort. This leads to the possibility of a spectrum of time-economic EGM gambling assignments for participating households in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas.

  17. US stock market efficiency over weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    In financial markets, the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that price returns are serially uncorrelated sequences. In other words, prices should follow a random walk behavior. Recent developments in evolutionary economic theory (Lo, 2004) have tailored the concept of adaptive market hypothesis (AMH) by proposing that market efficiency is not an all-or-none concept, but rather market efficiency is a characteristic that varies continuously over time and across markets. Within the AMH framework, this work considers the Dow Jones Index Average (DJIA) for studying the deviations from the random walk behavior over time. It is found that the market efficiency also varies over different time scales, from weeks to years. The well-known detrended fluctuation analysis was used for the characterization of the serial correlations of the return sequences. The results from the empirical showed that interday and intraday returns are more serially correlated than overnight returns. Also, some insights in the presence of business cycles (e.g., Juglar and Kuznets) are provided in terms of time variations of the scaling exponent.

  18. 2-weekly docetaxel: issues for clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Massari, F; Maines, F; Bria, E; Galligioni, E; Caffo, O; Tortora, G

    2015-01-01

    In the phase III trial comparing 2 docetaxel schedules (3-weekly versus 2-weekly) as first-line chemotherapy for CRPC, recently published in The Lancet Oncology, fewer serious adverse events, particularly hematologic toxicities, and longer times on treatment, in favor of the 2-weekly regimen are reported.1,2,3 PMID:25456569

  19. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  20. Time series of weekly TRF realizations from laser ranging to LAGEOS 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlis, E.

    2003-04-01

    The JCET/GSFC Associate Analysis Center for the International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) has for many years generated weekly solutions for the Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF) on the basis of satellite laser ranging (SLR) data from LAGEOS 1 and 2. A complete series of such solutions has been generated in the form of SINEX files, suitable for combination with similar results from other techniques. We present here the results of a new re-analysis of the expanded data set 1993 to present, for the definition of the TRF and its crust-fixed orientation (EOP). The TRF plays an important role in the multi-technique monitoring of temporal variations in the gravitational field and its very low degree and order components, as well as changes in the inertia tensor as a result of angular momentum exchanges in the Earth system. This work is being done in the framework of the ILRS Pilot Project for, amongst other things, the precise estimation of the EOP from SLR data in a routine fashion, and the combination of various contributions (SLR and others) into a single, robust and consistent realization. The SLR data were reduced using NASA Goddard’s GEODYN/SOLVE II software. We will discuss our solution for the TRF, EOP and the geocenter, compare them to results from other techniques, and give examples of results obtained through the combination of such series.

  1. Immunocastrated male pigs: effect of 4 v. 6 weeks time post second injection on performance, carcass quality and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aluwé, M; Degezelle, I; Depuydt, L; Fremaut, D; Van den Broeke, A; Millet, S

    2016-09-01

    Immunocastration or vaccination against boar taint can be used as alternative for surgical castration of male piglets. The vaccine is administrated twice. After the second vaccination (V2), the pigs behave like barrows instead of boars and their feed intake increases which may result in a lower lean meat percentage. The timing of V2 is therefore crucial to find the right balance between the advantages of entire males and barrows. In this study, we evaluated the effect of time post second injection within the advised time frame (4 v. 6 weeks before slaughter) on behaviour, performance, carcass and meat quality of immunocastrated male pigs. In total, 180 animals (hybrid sow×Piétrain): 60 gilts, 60 male pigs vaccinated 6 weeks before slaughter (IM-6) and 60 male pigs vaccinated 4 weeks before slaughter (IM-4), all slaughtered at comparable slaughter weights. After 20 weeks of age, IM-6 showed more inactive behaviour at the expense of playing and aggressive behaviour. Daily feed intake (DFI), daily gain (DG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Gilts had a lower DFI and DG in the late finishing phase and a higher FCR overall compared with both IM groups. Gilts showed a higher lean meat content compared with both IM groups. Earlier vaccination increased dressing percentage, which could partly be explained by the lower weight of the gastrointestinal tract, but not by testes weight. Meat quality traits and palatability did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Vaccination of immunocastrates at 6 compared with 4 weeks before slaughter improved the calmness in the stable and the dressing percentage, while maintaining performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26957130

  2. Oxymetazoline nasal spray three times daily for four weeks in normal subjects is not associated with rebound congestion or tachyphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, H; Foo, T H; Djazaeri, B; Duncombe, P; Mackay, I S; Durham, S R

    2003-09-01

    Topical decongestants are available over the counter and provide rapid relief of nasal obstruction for conditions of short duration, for example the common cold. Manufacturers' recommendations are that topical decongestants should not be used regularly for more than 1 week in view of the risk of rebound mucosal hyperaemia with persistent nasal obstruction and refractoriness to further effects of decongestants. For this reason we performed a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial in 30 normal adult subjects with 0.05% oxymetazoline nasal spray 2 sprays (0.1 ml/spray) to each nostril 3 times daily over an extended period of 4 weeks. Degree of nasal blockage was assessed before and after 4 weeks treatment and for 2 weeks following discontinuation of treatment. Outcome measures included diary symptom scores and measurements of nasal peak inspiratory flow, airway resistance (using posterior active rhinomanometry) and volume (using acoustic rhinometry). Nasal patency was assessed at baseline and 15 minutes after oxymetazoline challenge at each clinic visit. Results demonstrated no significant increases in subjective nasal blockage throughout the 6 weeks study period in either oxymetazoline- or placebo-treated subjects. No significant differences were observed between groups for baseline measurements of nasal peak inspiratory flow, airway resistance or volume at each clinic visit. A highly significant decongestant effect of oxymetazoline was observed at each clinic visit with changes in all 3 measurements for both treatment groups, again with no significant differences between groups. In summary, in normal subjects, we identified no significant nasal blockage or impaired decongestant response to oxymetazoline following 4 weeks treatment with oxymetazoline compared to matched placebo nasal spray.

  3. Effect of Eight Weekly Aerobic Training Program on Auditory Reaction Time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taskin, Cengiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of study was to examine the effect of eight weekly aerobic exercises on auditory reaction time and MaxVO[subscript 2] in visual impairments. Forty visual impairment children that have blind 3 classification from the Turkey, experimental group; (age = 15.60 ± 1.10 years; height = 164.15 ± 4.88 cm; weight = 66.60 ± 4.77 kg) for twenty…

  4. Recess Activities of the Week (RAW): Promoting Free Time Physical Activity to Combat Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Christina D.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Partidge, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity and inactivity levels among young Americans have risen steadily over the last few decades, and has become a major concern. Participation in regular physical activity helps prevent excess adiposity in children and youth. Recess is a regularly occurring period of time in school children's days which is an opportunity to help them…

  5. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  6. The effects of weekly exercise time on VO2max and resting metabolic rate in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Mi-Na; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effect of individual weekly exercise time on resting metabolic rate and VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), which are important components of individual health indexes. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to divide the participants into groups based on average weekly walking. Resting metabolic rate was measured using a respiratory gas analyzer. Graded exercise tests were conducted using a treadmill, and the modified Bruce protocol was used as an exercise test method. [Results] VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and resting metabolic rate were significantly different among the groups. [Conclusion] Average weekly exercise time affected VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold, all of which are indicators of individual physical ability and health. These values increased as the individual amount of exercise increased. In addition, VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold were found to be closely correlated. These findings were consistent with the results of similar previous studies. PMID:27190483

  7. The effects of weekly exercise time on VO2max and resting metabolic rate in normal adults.

    PubMed

    Gim, Mi-Na; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effect of individual weekly exercise time on resting metabolic rate and VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), which are important components of individual health indexes. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to divide the participants into groups based on average weekly walking. Resting metabolic rate was measured using a respiratory gas analyzer. Graded exercise tests were conducted using a treadmill, and the modified Bruce protocol was used as an exercise test method. [Results] VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and resting metabolic rate were significantly different among the groups. [Conclusion] Average weekly exercise time affected VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold, all of which are indicators of individual physical ability and health. These values increased as the individual amount of exercise increased. In addition, VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold were found to be closely correlated. These findings were consistent with the results of similar previous studies.

  8. Time-dependency of mice lung recovery after a 4-week exposure to traffic or biomass air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Oliveira, Vinícius Rosa; Barcellos, Bárbara Chaves; Moreira, Dayse Kelly Molina; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependency of lung recovery after 3 intranasal instillations per week during four weeks of distilled water (C groups) or particles (15μg) from traffic (U groups) or biomass burning (B groups) was observed in BALB/c mice. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est), viscoelastic component of elastance (ΔE), lung resistive (ΔP1) and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous (ΔP2) pressures] and histology were analyzed 1 (C1, U1, B1), 2 (C2, U2, B2), 7 (C7, U7, B7) or 14 days (C14, U14, B14) after the last instillation. Est, ΔE, ΔP1 and ΔP2 were higher in U1 and B1 than in C1, returning to control values at day 2, except for ΔP1 that normalized after 7 days. Alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index and alveolar lesion were larger in U1 and B1 than in C1, however collapse returned to baseline at 7 days, while the others normalized in 2 days. A 4-week exposure to U and B induced lung impairment that resolved 7 days after the last exposure.

  9. Time-dependency of mice lung recovery after a 4-week exposure to traffic or biomass air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Oliveira, Vinícius Rosa; Barcellos, Bárbara Chaves; Moreira, Dayse Kelly Molina; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependency of lung recovery after 3 intranasal instillations per week during four weeks of distilled water (C groups) or particles (15μg) from traffic (U groups) or biomass burning (B groups) was observed in BALB/c mice. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est), viscoelastic component of elastance (ΔE), lung resistive (ΔP1) and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous (ΔP2) pressures] and histology were analyzed 1 (C1, U1, B1), 2 (C2, U2, B2), 7 (C7, U7, B7) or 14 days (C14, U14, B14) after the last instillation. Est, ΔE, ΔP1 and ΔP2 were higher in U1 and B1 than in C1, returning to control values at day 2, except for ΔP1 that normalized after 7 days. Alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index and alveolar lesion were larger in U1 and B1 than in C1, however collapse returned to baseline at 7 days, while the others normalized in 2 days. A 4-week exposure to U and B induced lung impairment that resolved 7 days after the last exposure. PMID:27179431

  10. Display of Glucose Distributions by Date, Time of Day, and Day of Week: New and Improved Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is a need for improved methods for display of glucose distributions to facilitate comparisons by date, time of day, day of the week, and other variables for data obtained using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Method Stacked bar charts are utilized for multiple ranges of glucose values, e.g., very low, low, borderline low, target range, borderline high, high, and very high. Glucose ranges for these categories can be defined by the user, e.g., <40, 40–70, 71–80, 81–140, 141–180, 181–250, and 251–400 mg/dl. Glucose distributions can be displayed by time of day, in relation to meals, by date, or by day of week. The graphic display can be generated using general purpose spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel or with special purpose software. Result Stacked bar charts are extremely compact and effective. They facilitate comparison of multiple days, multiple time segments within a day, preprandial and postprandial glucose levels, days of the week, treatment periods, patients, and groups of patients. They are superior to use of pie charts in terms of compactness and in their ability to facilitate comparisons using multiple criteria and multiple subsets of the data. One can identify episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia and can display standard errors of estimates of percentages. Interpretation of these graphs is readily learned and requires minimal training. Conclusion Use of stacked bar charts is generally superior to use of pie charts for display of glucose distributions and can potentially facilitate the analysis and interpretation of SMBG and CGM data. PMID:20144393

  11. Influence of timing on electrodiagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome in the first six weeks: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rajabally, Yusuf A; Hiew, Fu Liong; Winer, John B

    2015-10-15

    The effect of timing is uncertain on the electrophysiology of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). On this may however depend the usefulness of systematic serial studies performed at specific time intervals. We retrospectively analyzed records of 118 consecutive patients with GBS from Birmingham, U.K. (2001-2012), studied between 0-14days, or, 15-42days post-onset using new criteria which we recently proposed [4]. Rates of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) (p=0.45), axonal GBS (p=0.32) and equivocal forms (p=0.46) were similar for both timings. Similarly, no significant differences between timings were observed using Hadden et al.'s criteria. Proportions were comparable to published serial studies for both timings, for AIDP (p=0.25; p=0.10) and axonal GBS (p=0.73; p=0.56) but were higher than with serial studies for equivocal forms in patients studied on days 0-14 (p=0.012), although not in those studied on days 15-42 (p=0.17). This suggests that over the initial 6weeks post-onset, timing fails to influence subtype proportions in a large GBS cohort, irrespective of criteria used. Repeat studies appear therefore unlikely to be helpful when systematically performed within this time frame, except in equivocal cases. The benefit of repeat studies remains possible at other times but may need to be individualized, and requires future prospective evaluation.

  12. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    PubMed

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  13. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women

    PubMed Central

    Guessogo, Wiliam R.; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H.; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B.; Messina Ondoua, Regine T.; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S.; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  14. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    PubMed

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation.

  15. Accuracy of sea level predictions with lead time of one week: a comparison between Prognocean and MyOcean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierczynska, Malgorzata; Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    There exist several systems which produce sea level forecasts in real time, with lead times ranging from hours to two weeks in the future. One of the recently developed solutions is Prognocean, the system that has been built and implemented at the University of Wroclaw, Poland. Its main feature is that it uses simple time series models to predict sea level anomaly maps, and does it for lead times ranging from 1 to 14 days with daily update. The empirical data-based models are fitted in real time both to individual grids (polynomial-harmonic model, polynomial-harmonic model combined with autoregressive model, polynomial-harmonic model combined with threshold autoregressive model) and to numerous grids forming a spatial latitude x longitude window of 3˚ x 5˚ (polynomial-harmonic model combined with multivariate autoregressive model). Although their simplicity, the approaches have already been shown to produce sea level anomaly predictions of reasonable accuracy. However, none of the analyses targeted at the comparative study which would present the skills of the Prognocean system against a background of the performance of other systems that use physically-based models. This study aims to fill this gap by comparing Prognocean-based predictions for one week into the future with the corresponding prognoses calculated by MyOcean. The reader is provided with the objectively-calculated set of statistics, presented as maps, which describes prediction errors (mean absolute error, root mean square error, index of agreement) and prediction skills (prediction efficiency, coefficient of determination) of the two systems. The exercise enables to compare the skills of the approaches, and the gridwise comparison allows one to identify areas of superior performance of each system.

  16. Time Variable Gravity from Weekly Solutions from 1993 to 2010 using SLR and DORIS data and Comparisons with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, D. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Le Bail, K.; Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    GRACE has been routinely monitoring the time-variable gravity field of the Earth since 2003 with either periodic solutions expressed as spherical harmonics or mascons. GRACE can resolve time-variable gravity to between degree 40 and 60, however the time series may be interrupted prior to the launch of a GRACE-2 spacecraft. A suite of satellites tracked by SLR, DORIS and also GPS has been in orbit for many years, and with these satellites it is possible to construct a time series of low degree spherical harmonics over several decades. We have recently reprocessed SLR and DORIS data from 1993 to 2010 using ITRF2008 and have developed weekly solutions based on SLR data to Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Larets, TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, the SPOT satellites, and Jason-2. The new C20 solutions compare favorably to independent SLR solutions, however the annual amplitude in the SLR solutions is greater than in the annual amplitude of the C20 recoveries from GRACE-derived solutions. For non-zonal low degree coefficients, the GRACE and SLR time series seem in reasonable agreement over the time period where the data are in common. We summarize the current status of the processing, and the quality of the solutions that have been obtained thus far, and provide a perspective on future work that remains to be done.

  17. Improvement rate of acute otitis media caused by Haemophilus influenzae at 1 week is significantly associated with time to recovery.

    PubMed

    Yano, Hisakazu; Yamazaki, Yoshitaka; Qin, Liang; Okitsu, Naohiro; Yahara, Koji; Irimada, Mihoko; Hirakata, Yoichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common upper respiratory tract infection in childhood. Children with AOM were enrolled at Tohoku Rosai Hospital between July 2006 and June 2011 if their middle ear fluid cultures after tympanocentesis yielded only Haemophilus influenzae. The susceptibilities of the isolates to ampicillin were determined, and microtiter biofilm assays and invasion assays using BEAS-2B cells were performed. The association between these bacterial characteristics and clinical relapses of AOM and treatment failures was evaluated. Seventy-four children (39 boys and 35 girls) with a median age of 1 year (interquartile range [IQR], 0.25 to 2 years) were enrolled. Among 74 H. influenzae isolates, 37 showed intermediate resistance or resistance to ampicillin (MIC, ≥ 2 μg/ml). In the microtiter biofilm assay, the median optical density at 600 nm (OD600) was 0.68 (IQR, 0.24 to 1.02), and 70 isolates formed biofilms. The median invasion rate was 15% (IQR, 0 to 10%), and 46 isolates invaded BEAS-2B cells. Relapses and treatment failures occurred in 19 and 6 children, respectively. There was no significant difference in the invasion rates between patients with and those without relapses or treatment failures. Also, there was no significant association between biofilm formation and relapse or treatment failure. The improvements in the severity scores after 1 week were significantly associated with the recovery time (P < 0.0001). We did not identify any significant association between relapse or treatment failure and bacterial factors. AOM has a multifactorial etiology, and this may explain why we could not find a significant association. An improvement in the severity score after 1 week of treatment may be a useful predictor of the outcome of AOM.

  18. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Diego A; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G; Aon, Miguel A; Marin, Raúl H; Kembro, Jackelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×10(6) data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa. PMID:27271772

  19. Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Long; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies show that fast climate response on time scales of less than a month can have important implications for long-term climate change. In this study, we investigate climate response on the time scale of days to weeks to a step-function quadrupling of atmospheric CO2 and contrast this with the response to a 4% increase in solar irradiance. Our simulations show that significant climate effects occur within days of a stepwise increase in both atmospheric CO2 content and solar irradiance. Over ocean, increased atmospheric CO2 warms the lower troposphere more than the surface, increasing atmospheric stability, moistening the boundary layer, and suppressing evaporation and precipitation. In contrast, over ocean, increased solar irradiance warms the lower troposphere to a much lesser extent, causing a much smaller change in evaporation and precipitation. Over land, both increased CO2 and increased solar irradiance cause rapid surface warming that tends to increase both evaporation and precipitation. However, the physiological effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on plant stomata reduces plant transpiration, drying the boundary layer and decreasing precipitation. This effect does not occur with increased solar irradiance. Therefore, differences in climatic effects from CO2 versus solar forcing are manifested within days after the forcing is imposed.

  20. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Diego A; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G; Aon, Miguel A; Marin, Raúl H; Kembro, Jackelyn M

    2016-06-07

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×10(6) data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa.

  1. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Diego A.; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G.; Aon, Miguel A.; Marin, Raúl H.; Kembro, Jackelyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×106 data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa. PMID:27271772

  2. Differences in parenting stress between married and single first time mothers at six to eight weeks after birth.

    PubMed

    Copeland, Debra; Harbaugh, Bonnie Lee

    2005-01-01

    Parenting stress has been shown to affect relationships between mothers and their infants. Single mothers may experience more parenting stress due to exposure to stressors that are unique to their environment. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine the differences between married and single first-time mothers on the Parenting Stress Index/Short Form (PSI/SF Abidin, 1995). A convenience sample of 22 single and 52 married first-time mothers were recruited from postpartum units in two large metropolitan hospitals in the southeastern United States. During hospitalization, participants completed a demographic sheet and at six weeks postpartum, were mailed the PSI/SF. T-tests were assessed for differences between mean scores. Study findings indicate significant differences between single and married first-time mothers on the Parental Distress subscale (t = -3.468, p = .001), the Difficult Child subscale (t = -2.032, p = .046), and Defensive Responding subscale (t = -3.720, p = .000), with single mothers consistently scoring higher than married mothers; however, there was not a significant statistical difference between mothers on the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction subscale (t = -1.290, p = .201). Overall, single mothers scored higher on the Total Parenting Stress scores of the PSI/SF than married mothers (t = -2.858, p = .005), suggesting that single women experience more stress as a new mother than married new mothers. It is important to understand the specific stressors of new, single mothers and to develop nursing interventions that decrease parenting stress in single mothers.

  3. Design of peptide substrates for nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence assays of proteases: 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene as a noninvasive fluorophore.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Andreas; Florea, Mara; Roth, Doris; Enderle, Thilo; Nau, Werner M

    2007-01-15

    Fluorescence protease assays were investigated with peptide substrates containing a 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene-labeled asparagine (Dbo) as a fluorescent amino acid. The special characteristic of the fluorophore Dbo is its exceedingly long fluorescence lifetime (ca. 300 ns in water under air), which allows the use of nanosecond time-resolved fluorescence (Nano-TRF) detection to efficiently suppress shorter-lived background emission. In addition, the natural amino acids tryptophan and tyrosine can be employed as intramolecular fluorescence quenchers, which facilitates substrate design. Fourteen synthetic peptide substrates (composed of 2-19 amino acids) and five enzymes (trypsin, pepsin, carboxypeptidase A, leucine aminopeptidase, and chymotrypsin) were investigated and, in all 28 examined combinations, enzymatic activity was detected by monitoring the increase in steady state fluorescence with time and determining the reaction rates as kcat/Km values, which ranged from 0.2 to 80x10(6) M-1 min-1. The results suggest an excellent compatibility of the very small and hydrophilic fluorescent probe Dbo with solid-phase peptide synthesis and the investigated proteases. For all 14 peptides the fluorescence lifetimes before and after enzymatic cleavage were measured and Nano-TRF measurements were performed in 384-well microplates. The fluorescence lifetimes of the different peptides provide the basis for the rational design of Dbo-based fluorescent substrates for protease assays. Measurements in Nano-TRF mode revealed, in addition to efficient suppression of background fluorescence, an increased differentiation between cleaved and uncleaved substrate. The Dbo-based assays can be adapted for high-throughput screening.

  4. ISS Update: Final Week for Long Time Flight Director Paul Dye – 01.11.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot sits down with Flight Director Paul Dye in the Station Flight Control Room. In his final week as a flight director, Dye discusses his experiences from the beginning ...

  5. The timing of compositionally-zoned magma reservoirs and mafic 'priming' weeks before the 1912 Novarupta-Katmai rhyolite eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Brad S.; Costa, Fidel; Herrin, Jason S.; Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-10-01

    The June, 6, 1912 eruption of more than 13 km3 of dense rock equivalent (DRE) magma at Novarupta vent, Alaska was the largest of the 20th century. It ejected >7 km3 of rhyolite, ∼1.3 km3 of andesite and ∼4.6 km3 of dacite. Early ideas about the origin of pyroclastic flows and magmatic differentiation (e.g., compositional zonation of reservoirs) were shaped by this eruption. Despite being well studied, the timing of events that led to the chemically and mineralogically zoned magma reservoir remain poorly known. Here we provide new insights using the textures and chemical compositions of plagioclase and orthopyroxene crystals and by reevaluating previous U-Th isotope data. Compositional zoning of the magma reservoir likely developed a few thousand years before the eruption by several additions of mafic magma below an extant silicic reservoir. Melt compositions calculated from Sr contents in plagioclase fill the compositional gap between 68 and 76% SiO2 in whole pumice clasts, consistent with uninterrupted crystal growth from a continuum of liquids. Thus, our findings support a general model in which large volumes of crystal-poor rhyolite are related to intermediate magmas through gradual separation of melt from crystal-rich mush. The rhyolite is incubated by, but not mixed with, episodic recharge pulses of mafic magma that interact thermochemically with the mush and intermediate magmas. Hot, Mg-, Ca-, and Al-rich mafic magma intruded into, and mixed with, deeper parts of the reservoir (andesite and dacite) multiple times. Modeling the relaxation of the Fe-Mg concentrations in orthopyroxene and Mg in plagioclase rims indicates that the final recharge event occurred just weeks prior to the eruption. Rapid addition of mass, volatiles, and heat from the recharge magma, perhaps aided by partial melting of cumulate mush below the andesite and dacite, pressurized the reservoir and likely propelled a ∼10 km lateral dike that allowed the overlying rhyolite to reach the

  6. A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 pm and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day, this…

  7. A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 p.m. and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day,…

  8. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Affect, Stress, and Binge-Purge Behaviors: Day of Week and Time of Day Effects in the Natural Environment

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Joshua M.; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Sliwinski, Martin J.; Crosby, Ross D.; Engel, Scott G.; Mitchell, James E.; Calogero, Rachel M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The present study examined ecological momentary assessments of binge/vomit behavior, mood, and type and severity of stressors in a sample of 133 women with bulimia nervosa. Method Participants completed an ecological momentary assessment protocol for a period of 2 weeks. Results Mixed-effects and multilevel logistic models revealed significant variation across time of day and day of the week in the occurrence of binging, vomiting, positive and negative affect, and the severity and types of stressful events. Discussion These findings explicate how momentary and daily experiences vary in the natural environments of women with bulimia nervosa, and document critical time periods for intervention. PMID:19115371

  9. Forgiveness Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Art

    1984-01-01

    Carefully orchestrated public relations and publicity campaign at Free Library of Philadelphia motivated an estimated 35,000 patrons to return almost 160,000 overdues during "no fines" week. Coverage by radio stations, newspapers, and television aided recovery of materials including rare 1910 score of a Rachmaninoff symphony which was 31 years…

  10. Incubation time of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex sputum cultures in BACTEC MGIT 960: 4weeks of negative culture is enough for physicians to consider alternative diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Ogwang, Sam; Mubiri, Paul; Bark, Charles M; Joloba, Moses L; Boom, W Henry; Johnson, John L

    2015-10-01

    We retrospectively analyzed time to detection of 3747 positive MGIT sputum cultures at a laboratory in a country with heavy burden of tuberculosis. Ninety-nine percent of diagnostic cultures turned positive within 28days, suggesting that physicians may consider alternative diagnoses if sputum cultures remain negative after 4weeks of incubation.

  11. Are the Effects of Early Pubertal Timing on the Initiation of Weekly Alcohol Use Mediated by Peers and/or Parents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the link between early pubertal timing and initiation of weekly alcohol use is mediated by changes in perceived parental alcohol-specific rule setting and changes in perceived proportion of drinkers in the peer group. Longitudinal data including 3 annual waves were used to estimate the hazard for adolescents to initiate…

  12. Can Helical Peptides Unwind One Turn at a Time? - Controlled Conformational Transitions in α,β(2,3)-Hybrid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Balamurugan, Dhayalan; Muraleedharan, Kannoth M

    2015-06-22

    Unfolding of helical trans-β(2,3) -hybrid peptides with (α-β)n α composition, when executed by increasing solvent polarity or temperature, proceeded in a systematic manner with the turns unwinding sequentially; C-terminal region of these peptides were first to unwind and the process propagated towards N terminus with more and more β residues equilibrating from the gauche to the anti rotameric state across Cα-Cβ . This is evidenced by clear change in their Cβ H signal splitting, (3)JCαH-CβH values, and sequential disappearance of i,i+2 NOEs.

  13. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  14. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  15. Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

  16. Prospects for Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Subseasonal (2-Week to 2-Month) Times Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Dole, Randall; vandenDool, Huug; Suarez, Max; Waliser, Duane

    2002-01-01

    This workshop, held in April 2002, brought together various Earth Sciences experts to focus on the subseasonal prediction problem. While substantial advances have occurred over the last few decades in both weather and seasonal prediction, progress in improving predictions on these intermediate time scales (time scales ranging from about two weeks to two months) has been slow. The goals of the workshop were to get an assessment of the "state of the art" in predictive skill on these time scales, to determine the potential sources of "untapped" predictive skill, and to make recommendations for a course of action that will accelerate progress in this area. One of the key conclusions of the workshop was that there is compelling evidence for predictability at forecast lead times substantially longer than two weeks. Tropical diabatic heating and soil wetness were singled out as particularly important processes affecting predictability on these time scales. Predictability was also linked to various low-frequency atmospheric "phenomena" such as the annular modes in high latitudes (including their connections to the stratosphere), the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, and the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). The latter, in particular, was highlighted as a key source of untapped predictability in the tropics and subtropics, including the Asian and Australian monsoon regions.

  17. Incidence of restenosis after successful coronary angioplasty: a time-related phenomenon. A quantitative angiographic study in 342 consecutive patients at 1, 2, 3, and 4 months.

    PubMed

    Serruys, P W; Luijten, H E; Beatt, K J; Geuskens, R; de Feyter, P J; van den Brand, M; Reiber, J H; ten Katen, H J; van Es, G A; Hugenholtz, P G

    1988-02-01

    Data from experimental, clinical, and pathologic studies have suggested that the process of restenosis begins very early after coronary angioplasty. The present study was performed to determine prospectively the incidence of restenosis with use of the four National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the 50% or greater diameter stenosis criteria, as well as a criterion based on a decrease of 0.72 mm or more in minimal luminal diameter. Patients were recatheterized at 30, 60, 90, or 120 days after successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). After PTCA all patients received 10 mg nifedipine three to six times a day and aspirin once a day until repeat angiography. Of 400 consecutive patients in whom PTCA was successful (less than 50% diameter stenosis), 342 underwent quantitative angiographic follow-up (86%) by use of an automated edge-detection technique. A wide variation in the incidence of restenosis was found dependent on the criterion applied. The incidence of restenosis proved to be progressive to at least the third month for all except NHLBI criterion II. At 4 months a further increase in the incidence of restenosis was observed when defined as a decrease of 0.72 mm or more in minimal luminal diameter, whereas the criteria based on percentage diameter stenosis showed a variable response. The lack of overlap between the different restenosis criteria applied affirms the arbitrary nature of angiographic definitions currently in use. Restenosis should be assessed by repeat angiography, and preferably ascertained according to the change in absolute quantitative measurements of the luminal diameter.

  18. SU-E-J-229: Quantitative Assessment for Timely Adaptive Re-Planning Using Weekly Dose Monitoring for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P; Li, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with head and neck (HN) cancer, mid-course adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is a common practice in our institution to accommodate anatomic changes. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether dose re-calculation on weekly verification images can provide quantitative assessment for timely adaptive re-planning with daily image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: We retrospectively selected sixty daily verification images acquired on CT-on-rail/CBCT from ten HN patients. These image sets were typically a week apart. Among these patients, six patients received a mid-course ART. Contours of the tumors and organ-at-risks (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on each verification CT. After placing the treatment iso-center on the verification CTs according to the recorded clinical shifts, daily dose was re-calculated with the same beam configuration as the original plan. For the purpose of this study, electron densities for both verification CTs and planning CTs were set to 1.0 g/cm3. Results: Two patients had D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose for more than three fractions due to remarkable tumor volume shrinkages. D-max of the spinal cord exceeded a tolerance of 45 Gy for four fractions in additional two patients. D-mean of the parotid increased within 25% of the planned value. D-max of the brainstem and D-mean of the oral cavity did not show significant variation. If the re-planning criteria included D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose and D-max of the spinal cord > 45 Gy, two out ten patients required ART at week 2 and two patients required ART at week 3, respectively. Conclusion: Weekly dose monitoring with re-calculation on verification images can provide quantitative dose guidance for timely adaptive re-planning. Future work will include accumulative dose analysis for the decision of adaptive re-planning. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical Solutions.

  19. Time Course of Recovery Showing Initial Prefrontal Cortex Changes at 16 weeks, Extended to Subcortical Changes by Three years in Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyu; Lu, Lisa H.; Wu, Minjie; Stevens, Michael; Wegbreit, Ezra; Fitzgerald, Jacklynn; Levitan, Bryn; Shankman, Stewart; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Developmental changes at the interface of affective and cognitive systems are examined over a three year period in pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Methods Thirteen participants with PBD and 10 healthy controls (HC) matched on demographics and IQ were scanned at baseline, 16 weeks, and after three years. All patients received pharmacotherapy based on a medication algorithm. A pediatric affective color matching paradigm was used to probe cognitive processing under emotional challenge. Results Behavioral data illustrated that patients in PBD group were slower in response time at baseline, but normalized by three years. On fMRI analyses at baseline, in response to emotional vs. neutral words, patients with PBD showed greater activation, relative to HC, in the right dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and amygdala, ventral lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and ventral striatum. The increased activation in cortical areas in the PBD group normalized with no differences from HC by 16 weeks. By three years, normalization was observed in not only the cortical, but also the subcortical regions such as amygdala and striatum. Limitations These preliminary findings need to be replicated with a larger sample, although it can be challenging to obtain large samples for longitudinal studies. Conclusions Greater activation in fronto-striatal and fronto-limbic circuits were observed in unmedicated patients with PBD. With systematic pharmacotherapy for patients with PBD, the time course of recovery was characterized by initial prefrontal changes at 16 weeks, which extended to subcortical normalization at three years. These preliminary findings illustrated that, following appropriate treatment coupled with normal brain development, patients with PBD showed normalization in brain function. PMID:23517886

  20. Real-time forecasting at weekly timescales of the SST and SLA of the Ligurian Sea with a satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ÁLvarez, A.; Orfila, A.; Tintoré, J.

    2004-03-01

    Satellites are the only systems able to provide continuous information on the spatiotemporal variability of vast areas of the ocean. Relatively long-term time series of satellite data are nowadays available. These spatiotemporal time series of satellite observations can be employed to build empirical models, called satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) systems, to forecast certain aspects of future ocean states. SOFT systems can predict satellite-observed fields at different timescales. The forecast skill of SOFT systems forecasting the sea surface temperature (SST) at monthly timescales has been extensively explored in previous works. In this work we study the performance of two SOFT systems forecasting, respectively, the SST and sea level anomaly (SLA) at weekly timescales, that is, providing forecasts of the weekly averaged SST and SLA fields with 1 week in advance. The SOFT systems were implemented in the Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea). Predictions from the SOFT systems are compared with observations and with the predictions obtained from persistence models. Results indicate that the SOFT system forecasting the SST field is always superior in terms of predictability to persistence. Minimum prediction errors in the SST are obtained during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, the biggest differences between the performance of SOFT and persistence models are found during summer and autumn. These changes in the predictability are explained on the basis of the particular variability of the SST field in the Ligurian Sea. Concerning the SLA field, no improvements with respect to persistence have been found for the SOFT system forecasting the SLA field.

  1. The generalized STAR(1,1) modeling with time correlated errors to red-chili weekly prices of some traditional markets in Bandung, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisa Fadlilah F., I.; Mukhaiyar, Utriweni; Fahmi, Fauzia

    2015-12-01

    The observations at a certain location may be linearly influenced by the previous times of observations at that location and neighbor locations, which could be analyzed by Generalized STAR(1,1). In this paper, the weekly red-chili prices secondary-data of five main traditional markets in Bandung are used as case study. The purpose of GSTAR(1,1) model is to forecast the next time red-chili prices at those markets. The model is identified by sample space-time ACF and space-time PACF, and model parameters are estimated by least square estimation method. Theoretically, the errors' independency assumption could simplify the parameter estimation's problem. However, practically that assumption is hard to satisfy since the errors may be correlated each other's. In red-chili prices modeling, it is considered that the process has time-correlated errors, i.e. martingale difference process, instead of follow normal distribution. Here, we do some simulations to investigate the behavior of errors' assumptions. Although some of results show that the behavior of the errors' model are not always followed the martingale difference process, it does not corrupt the goodness of GSTAR(1,1) model to forecast the red-chili prices at those five markets.

  2. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brian J.; MacInnis, Martin J.; Skelly, Lauren E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Gibala, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. Methods Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6). SIT involved 3x20-second ‘all-out’ cycle sprints (~500W) interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W). Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W. Results Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both). Insulin sensitivity index (CSI), determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002) and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10−4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013) (p<0.05). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001). The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99), CSI (p = 0.63) and CS (p = 0.97). Conclusions Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PMID:27115137

  3. Variation in the human lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange frequency as a function of time: results of daily and twice-weekly sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Christensen, M.L.; Strout, C.L.; McGee, K.A.; Carrano, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The variation in lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was investigated in healthy nonsmokers who were not taking any medication. Two separate studies were undertaken. In the first, blood was drawn from four women twice a week for 8 weeks. These donors recorded the onset and termination of menstruation and times of illness. In the second study, blood was obtained from two women and two men for 5 consecutive days on two separate occasions initiated 14 days apart. Analysis of the mean SCE frequencies in each study indicated that significant temporal variation occurred in each donor, and that more variation occurred in the longer study. Some of the variation was found to be associated with the menstrual cycle. In the daily study, most of the variation appeared to be random, but occasional day-to-day changes occurred that were greater than those expected by chance. To determine how well a single SCE sample estimated the pooled mean for each donor in each study, the authors calculated the number of samples that encompassed that donor's pooled mean within 1 or more standard errors. For both studies, about 75% of the samples encompassed the pooled mean within 2 standard errors. An analysis of high-frequency cells (HFCs) was also undertaken. The results for each study indicate that the proportion of HFCs, compared with the use of Fisher's Exact test, is significantly more constant than the means, which were compared by using the t-test. These results coupled with our previous work suggest that HFC analysis may be the method of choice when analyzing data from human population studies.

  4. Decreasing the frequency of energy supplementation from daily to three times weekly impairs growth and humoral immune response of preconditioning beef steers.

    PubMed

    Artioli, L F A; Moriel, P; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2015-11-01

    We evaluated the effects of frequency of energy supplementation on growth and measurements of innate and humoral immune responses of preconditioning beef steers following vaccination. Angus steers ( = 24; 221 ± 6.3 kg; 177 ± 4 d of age) were weaned on d -7 and kept in a single drylot pen with free access to tall fescue hay and concentrate DMI at 0.5% of BW (50:50 mix of soyhulls and corn gluten pellets; DM basis) from d -7 to 0. On d 0, steers were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 feedlot pens (3 steers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens (4 pens/treatment) and consisted of steers provided daily free access to ground tall fescue hay and similar weekly concentrate DMI (1% of BW times 7 d), which was divided and offered either daily (S7) or 3 times weekly (S3; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) from d 0 to 42. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42, after 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Steers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), and clostridium on d 7 and 21. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein on d -7 and 4 h after concentrate supplementation on d 0, 7, 8, 9, 10, 14, 21, 22, 23, 24, 28, 35, and 42. Steers offered concentrate daily had greater ( ≤ 0.02) BW on d 42, overall ADG, and total DMI, but similar ( = 0.14) G:F, than S3 steers. On days that S7 and S3 steers were offered concentrate, total DMI was greater and hay DMI was less for S3 vs. S7 steers ( ≤ 0.05). On days that only S7 steers were supplemented, hay DMI was greater, but total DMI was less for S3 vs. S7 steers ( ≤ 0.05). Mean CP and NEg intake were greater ( ≤ 0.03) for S7 vs. S3 steers. Plasma cortisol concentrations on d 7 and 28, and mean plasma haptoglobin concentrations, but not liver mRNA expression of haptoglobin ( = 0.75), were greater for S3 vs. S7 steers ( ≤ 0.03). Plasma IGF-1 concentrations on d 0 and urea nitrogen on d 1 and 3, relative to vaccination

  5. Effects of Six versus Three Times per Week Hemodialysis on Physical Performance, Health, and Functioning: Frequent Hemodialysis Network (FHN) Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Larive, Brett; Painter, Patricia; Kaysen, George A.; Lindsay, Robert M.; Nissenson, Allen R.; Unruh, Mark L.; Rocco, Michael V.; Chertow, Glenn M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Relatively little is known about the effects of hemodialysis frequency on the disability of patients with ESRD. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined changes in physical performance and self-reported physical health and functioning among subjects randomized to frequent (six times per week) compared with conventional (three times per week) hemodialysis in both the Frequent Hemodialysis Network daily (n=245) and nocturnal (n=87) trials. The main outcome measures were adjusted change in scores over 12 months on the short physical performance battery (SPPB), RAND 36-item health survey physical health composite (PHC), and physical functioning subscale (PF) based on the intention to treat principle. Results Overall scores for SPPB, PHC, and PF were poor relative to population norms and in line with other studies in ESRD. In the Daily Trial, subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis experienced no significant change in SPPB (adjusted mean change of −0.20±0.19 versus −0.41±0.21, P=0.45) but experienced significant improvement in PHC (3.4±0.8 versus 0.4±0.8, P=0.009) and a relatively large change in PF that did not reach statistical significance. In the Nocturnal Trial, there were no significant differences among subjects randomized to frequent compared with conventional hemodialysis in SPPB (adjusted mean change of −0.92±0.44 versus −0.41±0.43, P=0.41), PHC (2.7±1.4 versus 2.1±1.5, P=0.75), or PF (−3.1±3.5 versus 1.1±3.6, P=0.40). Conclusions Frequent in-center hemodialysis compared with conventional in-center hemodialysis improved self-reported physical health and functioning but had no significant effect on objective physical performance. There were no significant effects of frequent nocturnal hemodialysis on the same physical metrics. PMID:22422538

  6. Solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane

    SciTech Connect

    Krzymien, M.E. )

    1993-04-01

    The solubility of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) in acetone, acetonitrile, benzene, cyclohexanone, N,N-dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, 1,4-dioxane, 2-ethoxyethanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone, tetrahydrofuran, toluene, and water at 5, 15, 25, and 35 C has been determined. The concentration of DMNB was measured by capillary gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The relative standard deviation of the measurements was between about 1% and 7%.

  7. Six-week time series of eddy covariance CO2 flux at Mammoth Mountain, California: performance evaluation and role of meteorological forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, Jennifer; Lewicki, J.L.; Fischer, M.L.; Hilley, G.E.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09/08/2006 to 10/24/2006) by the eddy covariance (EC) technique at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK), Mammoth Mountain, CA, a site with complex terrain and high, spatially heterogeneous CO{sub 2} emission rates. EC CO{sub 2} fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (mean = 1346 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). Using footprint modeling, EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the chamber method on a grid repeatedly over a 10-day period. Half-hour EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were moderately correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.42) with chamber fluxes, whereas average-daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were well correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.70) with chamber measurements. Average daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were correlated with both average daily wind speed and atmospheric pressure; relationships were similar to those observed between chamber CO{sub 2} fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R{sup 2} = 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance closure fell within the range observed in many investigations conducted in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Results indicate that despite complexities presented by the HLTK, EC can be reliably used to monitor background variations in volcanic CO{sub 2} fluxes associated with meteorological forcing, and presumably changes related to deeply derived processes such as volcanic activity.

  8. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  9. The Effect of Three Times a Week Glatiramer Acetate on Cerebral T1 Hypointense Lesions in Relapsing‐Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Michael G.; Ramasamy, Deepa P.; Davis, Mat D.; Steinerman, Joshua R.; Khan, Omar

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Two definitions of T1 hypointense (T1H) lesions can be derived from pre‐contrast images: those that may or may not have a corresponding gadolinium‐enhancing correlate on post‐contrast images (T1H total), and those that are simultaneously non‐gadolinium‐enhancing on post‐contrast scans (T1H non‐enhancing). To determine the differences in lesion evolution between these two T1H definitions, we examined the effect of glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three times weekly subcutaneous injection (GA40) on the number of new or enlarging T1H total and T1H non‐enhancing lesions in patients with relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). METHODS The Phase III GALA study randomized 1404 RRMS subjects 2:1 to receive GA40 or placebo for 12 months. MRI scans were obtained at baseline and at months 6 and 12. Cumulative numbers of T1H total and of T1H non‐enhancing lesions were analyzed using an adjusted negative binomial regression model. A total of 1,357 patients had MRI data collected at either the month 6 or month 12 visit. RESULTS Among the 1,357 patients with MRI scans performed at either the month 6 or month 12 visit, 883 treated with GA40 developed an adjusted cumulative mean of 1.72 T1H total lesions versus 2.62 in 440 placebo controls (risk ratio, .66; 95% CI, .54‐.80; P < .0001). On T1H non‐enhanced scans, GA40‐treated patients developed an adjusted cumulative mean of 1.35 T1H non‐enhancing lesions versus 1.91 in placebo controls (risk ratio, .71; CI, .58‐.87; P = .0009). CONCLUSIONS GA40 significantly reduced the number of new or enlarging T1H total lesions and T1H non‐enhancing lesions compared with placebo. Although the treatment effect magnitude was comparable with both definitions, the use of T1H non‐enhancing lesions may be more relevant for more uniform standardization in future clinical trials. PMID:26394270

  10. Concentration-and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to twelve weeks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (AsD is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to ASi in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concen...

  11. a week in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  12. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  13. Concentration- and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Clewell, H J; Thomas, R S; Kenyon, E M; Hughes, M F; Adair, B M; Gentry, P R; Yager, J W

    2011-10-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As(i)) is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to As(i) in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concentrations of 0.5, 2, 10, and 50 mg As/l. Urinary bladders were analyzed using gene expression microarrays. A consistent reversal was observed in the direction of gene expression change: from predominantly decreased expression at 1 week to predominantly increased expression at 12 weeks. These results are consistent with evidence from in vitro studies of an acute adaptive response that is suppressed on longer exposure due to downregulation of Fos. Pathways with the highest enrichment in gene expression changes were associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, inflammation, and proliferation. Benchmark dose (BMD) analysis determined that the lowest median BMD values for pathways were above 5 mg As/l, despite the fact that pathway enrichment was observed at the 0.5 mg As/l exposure concentration. This disparity may result from the nonmonotonic nature of the concentration-responses for the expression changes of a number of genes, as evidenced by the much fewer gene expression changes at 2 mg As/l compared with lower or higher concentrations. Pathway categories with concentration-related gene expression changes included cellular morphogenesis, inflammation, apoptosis/survival, cell cycle control, and DNA damage response. The results of this study provide evidence of a concentration-dependent transition in the mode of action for the subchronic effects of As(i) in mouse bladder cells in the vicinity of 2 mg As(i)/l.

  14. Time-course investigation of infection with a low virulent Pasteurella multocida strain in normal and immune-suppressed 12-week-old free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Mbuthia, P G; Njagi, L W; Nyaga, P N; Bebora, L C; Minga, U; Christensen, J P; Olsen, J E

    2011-12-01

    Twelve-week-old indigenous chickens, either immune-suppressed using dexamethasone (IS) or non-immune-suppressed (NIS), were challenged with a low virulent strain, Pasteurella multocida strain NCTC 10322(T), and developed clinical signs and pathological lesions typical of chronic fowl cholera. NIS birds demonstrated much more severe signs of fowl cholera than IS birds. With few exceptions, signs recorded in IS and NIS birds were of the same types, but significantly milder in the IS birds, indicating that immune suppression does not change the course of infection but rather the severity of signs in fowl cholera. P. multocida signals by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) were observed between 1 h and 14 days in the lungs, trachea, air sacs, liver, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and caecal tonsils, while signals from other organs mostly were observed after 24 h. More organs had FISH signals in NIS birds than in IS birds and at higher frequency per organ. Many organs were positive by FISH even 14 days post infection, and it is suggested that these organs may be likely places for long-term carriage of P. multocida following infection. The present study has demonstrated the spread of P. multocida in different tissues in chickens and distribution of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera, and pointed to a decrease of pathology in IS birds. Since dexamethasone mostly affects heterophils, the study suggests that these cells play a role in the development of lesions associated with chronic fowl cholera in chickens.

  15. Body composition changes in men and women after 2-3 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Price, D. C.; Newsom, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several parameters of body composition were measured in eight men before and after 14 days of continuous recumbency, and in eight women before and after 17 days of recumbency. The parameters measured included body weight, body water, body potassium, plasma volume, and plasma protein concentrations. From these, values were derived for body fat content, lean body mass, body mass, and circulating plasma proteins. In general, the men and women responded similarly to continuous recumbency. Characteristically, there was significant reduction of plasma volume and body potassium in both groups. The women showed a significant reduction in circulating plasma protein, entirely in the albumin fraction; a similar change was observed in the men. The women, but not the men, showed a significant increase in circulating fibrinogen. Both men and women lost body cell mass, while body fat content remained the same or tended to increase slightly. It is expected that similar changes would occur in weightlessness. It is further concluded that women should tolerate the weightlessness of space flight physiologically as well as men.

  16. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  17. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  18. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  19. A Week of Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colasacco, Jenne

    2011-01-01

    Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

  20. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  1. World breastfeeding week.

    PubMed

    Coleridge, Hannah-Lee

    2003-08-01

    'Breastfeeding in a globalised world for peace and justice' is the theme of this year's World Breastfeeding Week, which is to be held at the beginning of August. This article explores the aims of the campaign, the obstacles and benefits of globalisation and the activities that are being held around the world.

  2. 25 CFR 2.3 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Applicability. 2.3 Section 2.3 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROCEDURES AND PRACTICE APPEALS FROM ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS § 2.3... administrative appeal procedure applicable to a specific type of decision....

  3. 43 CFR 3190.2-3 - Audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Audit. 3190.2-3 Section 3190.2-3 Public... and Gas Inspections: General § 3190.2-3 Audit. In maintaining financial records relating to the funds... tribes and contractors shall comply with generally accepted accounting principles and audit...

  4. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  5. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  6. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  8. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization.

  9. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization. PMID:23356996

  10. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  11. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-04-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  12. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  13. 76 FR 29139 - World Trade Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011 World Trade Week, 2011 By the President of the United... interdependent. World Trade Week is a time to highlight the vital connection between the global economy and...

  14. 78 FR 24321 - National Volunteer Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-09867 Filed 4-23-13... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8960 of April 19, 2013 National Volunteer Week, 2013 By the President of the... accept certain obligations to one another. National Volunteer Week is a time to renew that...

  15. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  16. Family planning week in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Antarsh, L

    1997-01-01

    More than 600 events, including disco dances, seminars, and training courses for health professionals, took place during National Family Planning Week, held throughout Ukraine this year from May 26 to June 1. The events were announced on the radio, television, and in newspapers in every region of the country. The following are among the events which took place during the week: physicians gave presents and contraceptives to mothers of newborn infants in maternity hospitals in Dnipropetrovsk; loudspeakers blared messages about family planning in the most crowded streets of Sevastopol, Crimea; family planning rooms and centers opened in 8 districts of Rivninska; and every region of the country held an official opening ceremony. Many of the events had a special focus upon youth, with more than 200 events for adolescents. For more than 6 months, a special multi-ministry coordinating committee worked closely with AVSC to make this first-time event a reality. Public awareness of family planning increased as a result of the Week. Ukraine's Ministry of Health is looking forward to holding the event again next year with or without the support of outside agencies. PMID:12349011

  17. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  18. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  19. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  20. Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Delivery, and Postpartum Care Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks • What is a “medically indicated” delivery? • What is ... the baby grow and develop during the last weeks of pregnancy? • What are the risks for babies ...

  1. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  2. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    DOEpatents

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  3. Effect of glatiramer acetate three-times weekly on the evolution of new, active multiple sclerosis lesions into T1-hypointense "black holes": a post hoc magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael; Barkay, Hadas; Steinerman, Joshua R; Knappertz, Volker; Khan, Omar

    2015-03-01

    Conversion of active lesions to black holes has been associated with disability progression in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and represents a complementary approach to evaluating clinical efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess the conversion of new active magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions, identified 6 months after initiating treatment with glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three-times weekly (GA40) or placebo, to T1-hypointense black holes in subjects with RRMS. Subjects received GA40 (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461) for 12 months. MRI was obtained at baseline and Months 6 and 12. New lesions were defined as either gadolinium-enhancing T1 or new T2 lesions at Month 6 that were not present at baseline. The adjusted mean numbers of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a negative binomial model; adjusted proportions of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Of 1,292 subjects with complete MRI data, 433 (50.3 %) GA-treated and 247 (57.2 %) placebo-treated subjects developed new lesions at Month 6. Compared with placebo, GA40 significantly reduced the mean number (0.31 versus 0.45; P = .0258) and proportion (15.8 versus 19.6 %; P = .006) of new lesions converting to black holes. GA significantly reduced conversion of new active lesions to black holes, highlighting the ability of GA40 to prevent tissue damage in RRMS. PMID:25542295

  4. Effect of glatiramer acetate three-times weekly on the evolution of new, active multiple sclerosis lesions into T1-hypointense "black holes": a post hoc magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael; Barkay, Hadas; Steinerman, Joshua R; Knappertz, Volker; Khan, Omar

    2015-03-01

    Conversion of active lesions to black holes has been associated with disability progression in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and represents a complementary approach to evaluating clinical efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess the conversion of new active magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions, identified 6 months after initiating treatment with glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three-times weekly (GA40) or placebo, to T1-hypointense black holes in subjects with RRMS. Subjects received GA40 (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461) for 12 months. MRI was obtained at baseline and Months 6 and 12. New lesions were defined as either gadolinium-enhancing T1 or new T2 lesions at Month 6 that were not present at baseline. The adjusted mean numbers of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a negative binomial model; adjusted proportions of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Of 1,292 subjects with complete MRI data, 433 (50.3 %) GA-treated and 247 (57.2 %) placebo-treated subjects developed new lesions at Month 6. Compared with placebo, GA40 significantly reduced the mean number (0.31 versus 0.45; P = .0258) and proportion (15.8 versus 19.6 %; P = .006) of new lesions converting to black holes. GA significantly reduced conversion of new active lesions to black holes, highlighting the ability of GA40 to prevent tissue damage in RRMS.

  5. The Iceman's last weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Konrad

    1994-06-01

    The author presents the archaeological, botanical and anatomical of medical evidence relating to the events of the last few days of the Iceman's life. The unfinished arrows and the half-completed bow indicate that he had lost his weapons and was in the process of re-arming himself. The quiver and the two primed arrows show clear signs of damage that has been proved to originate from before entombment in the ice of Hauslabjoch. An intravital series of fractured ribs and atrophic changes to the humerus on the same side of the body are also indicative of a violent conflict. The presence of threshing and winnowing fragments proves that, shortly before his death, the Iceman spent some time in a human settlement in which the grain crop was threshed. The theory is therefore proposed that shortly before his death the Iceman suffered some personal catastrophe involving damage to his possessions and physical injury. He fled in the direction of the inner Ötz Valley, a region of high alpine pastures he may have been familiar with from summer transhumance. Just beyond the ridge of the main Alpine chain he was caught by a sudden fall in temperature and snowfall, which he did not survive.

  6. An evidence-based approach to nurses week celebrations.

    PubMed

    Hensinger, Barbara; Parry, Juanita; Calarco, Margaret M; Fuhrmann, Sarah

    2008-04-01

    It is time to examine nurses week investments. With expenses increasingly scrutinized, healthcare leaders require data-driven decisions. Managing by instinct and intuition is both inadequate and reckless. This survey of 727 registered nurses identifies celebratory options for nurses week that nurses find meaningful. Knowing what registered nurses value will guide approaches to an effective nurses week activity planning. PMID:18403990

  7. Weekly Paclitaxel in the Adjuvant Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sparano, Joseph A.; Wang, Molin; Martino, Silvana; Jones, Vicky; Perez, Edith A.; Saphner, Tom; Wolff, Antonio C.; Sledge, George W.; Wood, William C.; Davidson, Nancy E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND We compared the efficacy of two different taxanes, docetaxel and paclitaxel, given either weekly or every 3 weeks, in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. METHODS We enrolled 4950 women with axillary lymph node–positive or high-risk, lymph node–negative breast cancer. After randomization, all patients first received 4 cycles of intravenous doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide at 3-week intervals and were then assigned to intravenous paclitaxel or docetaxel given at 3-week intervals for 4 cycles or at 1-week intervals for 12 cycles. The primary end point was disease-free survival. RESULTS As compared with patients receiving standard therapy (paclitaxel every 3 weeks), the hazard ratio for disease-free survival was 1.27 among those receiving weekly paclitaxel (P = 0.006), 1.23 among those receiving docetaxel every 3 weeks (P = 0.02), and 1.09 among those receiving weekly docetaxel (P = 0.29) (with a hazard ratio >1 favoring the groups receiving experimental therapy). As compared with standard therapy, weekly paclitaxel was also associated with improved survival (hazard ratio, 1.32; P = 0.01). An exploratory analysis of a subgroup of patients whose tumors expressed no human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 protein found similar improvements in disease-free and overall survival with weekly paclitaxel treatment, regardless of hormone-receptor expression. Grade 2, 3, or 4 neuropathy was more frequent with weekly paclitaxel than with paclitaxel every 3 weeks (27% vs. 20%). CONCLUSIONS Weekly paclitaxel after standard adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide improves disease-free and overall survival in women with breast cancer. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00004125.) PMID:18420499

  8. Weekly petroleum status report. Data for week ended, October 21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) provides timely information on the petroleum supply situation in the context of historical information, selected prices, and forecasts. The WPSR is intended to provide up-to-date information to the industry, the press, planners, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments. It is published each Thursday by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and excerpts of the data are available electronically after 9:00 a.m. Wednesday. The data contained in this report are based on company submissions for the week ending 7:00 a.m. the preceding Friday. For some weeks which include holidays, publication of the WPSR is delayed by 1 day. The WPSR is not published during 1 of the last 2 weeks of the year depending upon which day of the week Christmas occurs.

  9. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  10. Adult Learners' Week in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John

    2002-01-01

    Promotional materials and activities for Australia's Adult Learners Week, which are shaped by a variety of stakeholders , include media strategies and a website. Activities are evaluated using a market research company and website and telephone hotline statistics. (SK)

  11. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper.

  12. Validating SMAP L2/3 Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, T. J.; Colliander, A.; Bindlish, R.; Chan, S.; Das, N. N.; Entekhabi, D.; Kim, S.; Chen, F.; Crow, W. T.; Burgin, M. S.; Asanuma, J.; Berg, A. A.; Cosh, M. H.; Caldwell, T. G.; Martínez-Fernández, J.; Pacheco, A. M.; Su, Z.; Thibeault, M.; Walker, J. P.; Njoku, E. G.; Yueh, S. H.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission entered its one year calibration and validation (cal/val) phase in May, 2015. This began with a focus on instrument measurements, brightness temperature and backscatter, and has now evolved to the geophysical products that include three different spatial resolutions of Level 2/3 surface soil moisture (36, 9, and 3 km) and freeze-thaw state. The goal is to provide validated products by May, 2016. SMAP utilizes five methodologies in soil moisture cal/val: core validation sites, sparse networks of in situ sensors, inter-comparisons with products from other satellite programs, inter-comparisons with model-based products, and field campaigns. Each methodology has a role in the process. Examples of each methodology will be presented including recent field campaigns. The evaluation of the beta version will the explained and plans for the providing the validated products presented.

  13. Dad’s Last Week

    PubMed Central

    DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    I had intended to spend our spring break week in Montana with my kids and my dad, going to parks and museums together. Instead, I spent the week in the hospital, helping my dad make end-of-life choices and learning more about the importance of communication in health care settings and the preciousness of close relationships in life. I am a better person and a better physician because my dad trusted me to be there while he was dying. During his last week, I was grateful to have spent years studying medicine and years getting to know my dad. This combination of professional and personal knowledge enabled me to help him choose his own end-of-life path. As someone who does not like hospitals, I have always wondered why I became a doctor; now I know. PMID:27185000

  14. 45 CFR 1220.2-3 - Procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... other serious consequences to the volunteer or the retention of an attorney prior to arraignment is... become payable to the volunteer. In the case of a grassroots sponsor of full-time volunteers which is not... office shall notify the General Counsel, giving all facts and circumstances at that time known to...

  15. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  16. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  17. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration in the red blood cells of anaemic pregnant women in various periods of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G; Zachara, B; Krajewski, J

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intraerythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) concentration in anaemic (haemoglobin concentration below 10.5 g/100 ml blood) and in normal pregnant women (haemoglobin concentration above 12.5 g/100 ml blood). The authors showed that the 2,3-DPG concentration increased systematically between the 16th and 42nd weeks of pregnancy, both in the control group and in pregnant women with anaemia. However, in the group of anaemic pregnant women the 2,3-DPG concentration was higher in each stage of pregnancy. PMID:6629145

  18. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation on the nature of the electronic transitions involved in the nonlinear optical response of [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Sgamelotti, Antonio; Cariati, Franco; Roberto, Dominique; Tessore, Francesca; Ugo, Renato

    2006-02-14

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations on the nature and role of the absorption bands involved in the nonlinear optical response of the complexes [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = T1, T2; T1 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, T2 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NMe2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine). Geometry optimizations, performed without any symmetry constraints, confirm a twisting of the -C6H4-p-NBu2 moiety with respect to the plane of the chelated terpyridine. Despite this lack of strong pi interaction, TDDFT excited states calculations of the electronic spectrum in solution provide evidence of a relevant role of the NBu2 donor group in the low-energy LMCT band at 911 nm. Calculations also show that the two bands at higher energy (508 and 455 nm) are not attributable only to LMCT and ILCT transitions but to a mixing of ILCT/MLCT and ILCT/pi-pi* transitions, respectively. The 911 nm LMCT band, appearing at lower wavelength of the second harmonic (670 nm) of the EFISH experiment, controls the negative value of the second-order NLO response. This is confirmed by our calculations of the static component beta0(zzz) of the quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor, showing a large positive value. In addition we have found that the increase of the dipole moment upon excitation occurs, in all the characterized transitions, along the dipole moment axis, thus explaining why the EFISH and solvatochromic experimental values of the quadratic hyperpolarizability agree as sign and value. PMID:16437181

  19. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  20. Six Week Slavery Novel Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    Developed in conjunction with a graduate course and used in classrooms with all types of learners, this paper presents a 6-week unit of study on slavery based on two adolescent novels--"NIGHTJOHN" by Gary Paulson and "My Name Is not Angelica" by Scott O'Dell. After a brief introduction to the unit, the paper presents the 14 activities of the unit:…

  1. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  2. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  3. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone…

  4. 75 FR 29391 - National Safe Boating Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8524 of May 20, 2010 National Safe Boating Week, 2010 By the President of the... spend time on the water, let us recommit during National Safe Boating Week to practicing safe...

  5. 23 CFR 635.118 - Payroll and weekly statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contract provisions for the project, are to be retained by the STD for the time period pursuant to 49 CFR... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll and weekly statements. 635.118 Section 635.118... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.118 Payroll and weekly statements. For all...

  6. Eating patterns in French subjects studied by the "weekly food diary" method.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A; de Castro, J M

    1999-02-01

    The "weekly food diary" was translated and adapted for use by French subjects. This validated method requires subjects to record every food and drink intake over 1 week, with several descriptors of the physical, psychological and social circumstances. Ten male [age 23. 6+/-2.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.7+/-0.6] and 16 female (age 23.3+/-0.6 years, BMI 20+/-0.6) students completed four weekly diaries over 1 year, one per season. Data were processed using a specially designed software. Breakfast was important, (about 400 kcalories). Lunch and dinner were almost equal in energy content but alcohol was consumed mainly with dinner. Meal size correlated positively with premeal hunger, number of people present, duration of premeal interval and time of day. Postmeal satiety correlated positively with meal size, aftermeal stomach content, and negatively with time of day, postmeal hunger and duration of sleep the preceding night. These observations allow hypotheses to be developed about mechanisms of intake in a French population and cross-cultural comparisons to be made.

  7. High Production of 2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) by Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 via Optimizing Fermentation Conditions and Overexpressing 2,3-BD Synthesis Genes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Taeyeon; Cho, Sukhyeong; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Lee, Jinwon; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Biological production of 2,3-butandiol (2,3-BD) has received great attention as an alternative to the petroleum-based 2,3-BD production. In this study, a high production of 2,3-BD in fed-batch fermentation was investigated with a newly isolated bacterium designated as Raoultella ornithinolytica B6. The isolate produced 2,3-BD as the main product using hexoses (glucose, galactose, and fructose), pentose (xylose) and disaccharide (sucrose). The effects of temperature, pH-control schemes, and agitation speeds on 2,3-BD production were explored to optimize the fermentation conditions. Notably, cell growth and 2,3-BD production by R. ornithinolytica B6 were higher at 25°C than at 30°C. When three pH control schemes (no pH control, pH control at 7, and pH control at 5.5 after the pH was decreased to 5.5 during fermentation) were tested, the best 2,3-BD titer and productivity along with reduced by-product formation were achieved with pH control at 5.5. Among different agitation speeds (300, 400, and 500 rpm), the optimum agitation speed was 400 rpm with 2,3-BD titer of 68.27 g/L, but acetic acid was accumulated up to 23.32 g/L. Further enhancement of the 2,3-BD titer (112.19 g/L), yield (0.38 g/g), and productivity (1.35 g/L/h) as well as a significant reduction of acetic acid accumulation (9.71 g/L) was achieved by the overexpression of homologous budABC genes, the 2,3-BD-synthesis genes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to 2,3-BD. This is the first report presenting a high 2,3-BD production by R.ornithinolytica which has attracted little attention with respect to 2,3-BD production, extending the microbial spectrum of 2,3-BD producers. PMID:27760200

  8. Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s.

    PubMed

    Oseki, Yosuke; Fujitsuka, Mamoru; Hara, Michihiro; Cai, Xichen; Ie, Yutaka; Aso, Yoshio; Majima, Tetsuro

    2005-06-01

    Photophysical properties of oligo(2,3-thienyleneethynylene)s (nTE, n denotes the number of thiophene rings, n = 2, 3) in benzene were investigated using steady-state, time-resolved fluorescence, and transient absorption spectroscopies. For 2TE, generation of the radiative S2 and nonradiative S1 states was confirmed. Upon excitation, the S2 state was initially generated and deactivated to the S1 state within 10 ps. The S1 state exhibited the transient absorption band at 470 nm, of which the lifetime was estimated to be 5.3 ns. In the case of 3TE, on the other hand, it was revealed that the radiative S1 state with a transient absorption peak at 650 nm was generated upon excitation. The T1 states of nTE were generated from the S1 states. The quantum yields were estimated to be 0.52 and 0.54 for 2TE and 3TE, respectively. Extremely fast reactions in the higher triplet excited state were indicated for both 2TE and 3TE.

  9. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  11. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  12. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  13. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION AGENCY RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any...) Unless otherwise specifically referenced, the procedures in this part do not apply to hearings in 10...

  14. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  15. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  16. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2109 Step 2+3. The Regional Administrator may award a Step 2+3 grant which will provide the Federal share of an allowance under appendix B and...

  17. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2202 Step 2+3 projects. (a) Prior to initiating action to acquire eligible real property, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  18. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  20. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  3. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  4. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  5. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and use. In developed camping and...

  6. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  7. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  8. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  9. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  10. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  11. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  12. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine.

    PubMed

    Kargotich, S; Keast, D; Goodman, C; Bhagat, C I; Joske, D J L; Dawson, B; Morton, A R

    2007-03-01

    The distinction between positive and negative training adaptation is an important prerequisite in the identification of any marker for monitoring training in athletes. To investigate the glutamine responses to progressive endurance training, twenty healthy males were randomly assigned to a training group or a non-exercising control group. The training group performed a progressive (3 to 6 x 90 minute sessions per week at 70 % V.O (2max)) six-week endurance training programme on a cycle ergometer, while the control group did not participate in any exercise during this period. Performance assessments (V.O (2max) and time to exhaustion) and resting blood samples (for haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, cortisol, ferritin, creatine kinase, glutamine, uric acid and urea analysis) were obtained prior to the commencement of training (Pre) and at the end of week 2, week 4 and week 6. The training group showed significant improvements in time to exhaustion (p < 0.01), and V.O (2max) (p < 0.05) at all time points (except week 2 for V.O (2max)), while the control group performance measures did not change. In the training group, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than pretraining values at week 2 and 4, as percentage changes in plasma volume indicated a significant (p < 0.01) haemodilution (+ 6 - 9 %) was present at week 2, 4 and 6. No changes were seen in the control group. In the training group, plasma glutamine (week 2, 4 and 6), creatine kinase (week 2 and 4), uric acid (week 2 and 4) and urea (week 2 and 4) all increased significantly from pretraining levels. No changes in cortisol or ferritin were found in the training group and no changes in any blood variables were present in the control group. Plasma glutamine was the only blood variable to remain significantly above pretraining (966 +/- 32 micromol . 1 (-1)) levels at week 6 (1176 +/- 24 micromol . 1 (-1); p < 0.05) The elevation seen here in glutamine levels, after 6

  13. The Four Day School Week. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Can four-day school weeks help districts save money? How do districts overcome the barriers of moving to a four-day week? What is the effect of a four-day week on students, staff and the community? This paper enumerates the benefits for students and teachers of four-day school weeks. Recommendations for implementation of a four-day week are also…

  14. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  15. Prediction of relapse within eight weeks after an acute asthma exacerbation in adults.

    PubMed

    McCarren, M; McDermott, M F; Zalenski, R J; Jovanovic, B; Marder, D; Murphy, D G; Kampe, L M; Misiewicz, V M; Rydman, R J

    1998-02-01

    Associations between historical, presenting, and treatment-related characteristics and relapse within 8 weeks after a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation were studied in a cohort of 284 adult asthmatics. Data were collected prospectively, and a multivariate model was developed and internally validated. Within 10 days, only 8% had relapsed, increasing to 45% by 8 weeks. Three variables that could be identified at the time of discharge were independently associated with relapse. These included: having made three or more visits to an emergency department in the prior 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4); difficulty performing work or activities as a result of physical health in the 4 weeks prior (HR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-4.3); discontinuing hospital-based treatment for the exacerbation within 24 hours without having achieved a peak expiratory flow rate of at least 50% of predicted (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.1). These risk factors may help to identify patients with poorly controlled asthma in need of more intensive and comprehensive management. PMID:9474071

  16. Subsidence at the Weeks Island SPR Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Weeks Island SPR site over the last 16+ years has been studied and analyzed. The subsidence rate is not constant with time and while the subsidence rate may have increased slightly during the past several years, recently the rate has increased more dramatically. The most recent increase comes at a time when the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage mine had been emptied of oil and was in the process of being refilled with brine. Damage to surface structures that has been observed during the past 12-18 months is attributed to the continued subsidence and dtierential subsidence across structures. The recent greater subsidence rates were unanticipated according to analysis results and will be used to aid further subsidence model development.

  17. The gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Rogelio; Lagos, Néstor; Lattes, Karinna; Azolas, Carlos García Rodrigo; Bocic, Gunther; Cuneo, Aldo; Chiong, Hector; Jensen, Cristian; Henríquez, Ana I; Fernández, Cristian

    2004-01-01

    The primary clinical symptom of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is acute paralytic illness produced by paralyzing toxins. Paralytic shellfish poison is formed by a mixture of phycotoxins and their toxicity is due to its reversible binding to a receptor site on the voltage-gated sodium channel on excitable cells, thus blocking neuronal transmission. We studied the effect of the gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers by local infiltration in the anal internal sphincter of healthy voluntary adults in order to reduce anal tone. The toxin was injected after prior clinical evaluation, anoscopy and anorectal manometry. Post injection clinical examination, electromyography and anorectal manometry were performed. Resting and voluntary contraction pressures were measured and the anorectal inhibitory and anocortical reflexes were tested by manometry. Blood and urine samples were obtained from each participant, and hemogram, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis were done both before and one week after the injection. This study shows, for the first time, that gonyautoxin 2/3 reduces the anal tone by relaxing the anal sphincters in 100 % of the participants. Manometric recordings showed a significant decrease in anal maximal voluntary contraction pressure after the toxin injection, dropping to 55.2+/-6.2 % and 47.0+/-6.8% (Mean Value+/-Std.Dev.) of the baseline values at 2 minutes and at 24 hours respectively after the injection. Post-injection electromyography showed that activity of the muscle was abolished. We conclude that local administration of gonyautoxin 2/3 to the anal sphincter produces immediate relaxation and a statistically significant decrease in the anal tone (p <0.001). PMID:15515965

  18. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS § 2.3 Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special rule in another subpart or other part...

  19. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  20. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  1. 'Heat Dome' Not Budging Until Week's End

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160083.html 'Heat Dome' Not Budging Until Week's End Eastern part of country still in its ... not be budging before the end of the week, weather forecasters said Tuesday. "With no strong pushes ...

  2. Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, John F.; Davis, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    APPA, through its Code Advocacy Task Force (CATF), is active with code organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This article reviews some of the recent work on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, by the CATF and some members of the NFPA 25 Technical…

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  4. Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Travis

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

  5. Four-Day Week Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    What does research say about the four-day week as an alternative school schedule? More than 100 districts in at least 12 states currently use a four-day week alternative schedule. Most are located in rural areas, serve less than 1000 students, and made the move to a shorter school week with longer instructional days for financial reasons. Although…

  6. The 4 Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Ai

    2006-01-01

    Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1080 hours per year of instructional time for secondary schools and 990 instructional hours for elementary schools. The 1080 hours equate to six hours per day for 180 days. The 990 hours equate to five and one-half hours per day. Up to 24 hours may be counted for parent-teacher conferences, staff…

  7. Twice weekly prophylactic therapy in haemophilia A.

    PubMed Central

    Aronstam, A; Kirk, P J; McHardy, J; Culver-James, J W; McLellan, D S; Turk, P; Rainsford, S G; Slattery, M

    1977-01-01

    Factor VIII-containing materials were administered to four severely affected haemophiliacs twice weekly in doses calculated to raise the factor VIII level to either 15% or 30% of average normal. The pooled results from those patients with statistically similar baseline bleeding frequencies showed a significant reduction in bleeding frequency on both doses in the first 48 hours. The 30% dose produced a more significant reduction than the 15% dose in the first 24 hours, but there was no significant difference between the two doses in the second 24 hours. It appears that to reduce the bleeding frequency of severely affected haemophiliacs by 60% would require a two-and-a-half-fold increase in therapeutic materials. A 90% reduction would need nine times the amount of material currently in use. PMID:320230

  8. Schwann Cells Metabolize Extracellular 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP.

    PubMed

    Verrier, Jonathan D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Jackson, Edwin K

    2015-08-01

    The 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (3',5'-cAMP→5'-AMP→adenosine) and the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway (2',3'-cAMP→2'-AMP/3'-AMP→adenosine) are active in the brain. Oligodendrocytes participate in the brain 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway via their robust expression of 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase; converts 2',3'-cAMP to 2'-AMP). Because Schwann cells also express CNPase, it is conceivable that the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway exists in the peripheral nervous system. To test this and to compare the 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway to the 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway in Schwann cells, we examined the metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP, 2'-AMP, 3'-AMP, 3',5'-cAMP, and 5'-AMP in primary rat Schwann cells in culture. Addition of 2',3'-cAMP (3, 10, and 30 µM) to Schwann cells increased levels of 2'-AMP in the medium from 0.006 ± 0.002 to 21 ± 2, 70 ± 3, and 187 ± 10 nM/µg protein, respectively; in contrast, Schwann cells had little ability to convert 2',3'-cAMP to 3'-AMP or 3',5'-cAMP to either 3'-AMP or 5'-AMP. Although Schwann cells slightly converted 2',3'-cAMP and 2'-AMP to adenosine, they did so at very modest rates (e.g., 5- and 3-fold, respectively, more slowly compared with our previously reported studies in oligodendrocytes). Using transected myelinated rat sciatic nerves in culture medium, we observed a time-related increase in endogenous intracellular 2',3'-cAMP and extracellular 2'-AMP. These findings indicate that Schwann cells do not have a robust 3',5'-cAMP-adenosine pathway but do have a 2',3'-cAMP-adenosine pathway; however, because the pathway mostly involves 2'-AMP formation rather than 3'-AMP, and because the conversion of 2'-AMP to adenosine is slow, metabolism of 2',3'-cAMP mostly results in the accumulation of 2'-AMP. Accumulation of 2'-AMP in peripheral nerves postinjury could have pathophysiological consequences. PMID:25998049

  9. 40 CFR 35.2202 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.2202 Section 35.2202 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE...) Before initiating procurement action for the building of the project, a Step 2+3 grantee shall submit...

  10. 10 CFR 960.4-2-3 - Rock characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rock characteristics. 960.4-2-3 Section 960.4-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE... environment and (2) the requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60.113 for radionuclide releases from the...

  11. 43 CFR 3811.2-3 - Lands in Indian reservations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... governing the mineral leasing of Indian lands are found in 25 CFR Chapter I Subchapter I. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in Indian reservations. 3811.2-3... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-3 Lands in Indian reservations. All lands...

  12. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  13. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  14. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  15. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a land... proposal. (b) The submission of a proposal gives no right to use the public lands....

  16. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  17. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  18. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  19. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  20. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT..., stove, barrier, litter receptacle or other campground equipment....

  1. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  2. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  3. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability increases after long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; de Weijer, Barbara A; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke M; Janssen, Ignace; Berends, Frits J; van de Laar, Arnold; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Booij, Jan; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-07-01

    In several studies reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability was reported in obese subjects compared to lean controls. Whether this is a reversible phenomenon remained uncertain. We previously determined the short-term effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on striatal D2/3R availability (using [(123)I]IBZM SPECT) in 20 morbidly obese women. Striatal D2/3R availability was lower compared to controls at baseline, and remained unaltered after 6 weeks, despite significant weight loss. To determine whether long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss normalizes striatal D2/3R binding, we repeated striatal D2/3R binding measurements at least 2 years after RYGB in 14 subjects of the original cohort. In addition, we assessed long-term changes in body composition, eating behavior and fasting plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose. Mean body mass index declined from 46±7kg/m(2) to 32±6kg/m(2), which was accompanied by a significant increase in striatal D2/3R availability (p=0.031). Striatal D2/3R availability remained significantly reduced compared to the age-matched controls (BMI 22±2kg/m(2); p=0.01). Changes in striatal D2/3R availability did not correlate with changes in body weight/fat, insulin sensitivity, ghrelin or leptin levels. Scores on eating behavior questionnaires improved and changes in the General Food Craving Questionnaire-State showed a borderline significant correlation with changes in striatal D2/3R availability. These findings show that striatal D2/3R availability increases after long-term bariatric-surgery induced weight loss, suggesting that reduced D2/3R availability in obesity is a reversible phenomenon. PMID:27184782

  4. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  5. The effect of 8-week plyometric training on leg power, jump and sprint performance in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ozbar, Nurper; Ates, Seda; Agopyan, Ani

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 8-week plyometric training (PT) on the leg power and jump and sprint performance in female soccer players. Eighteen female soccer players from Women Second League (age = 18.2 ± 2.3 years, height = 161.3 ± 5.4 cm, body mass = 56.6 ± 7.2 kg) were randomly assigned to control (n = 9) and plyometric (n = 9) groups. Both groups continued together with regular technical and tactical soccer training for 4 days a week. Additionally, the plyometric group underwent PT for 8 weeks, 1 day per week, 60-minute session duration. During the 8-week period, the control group was hindered from any additional conditioning training. All players' jumps (triple hop, countermovement jump, and standing broad jump), running speed (20 m), and peak power were evaluated before and after 8 weeks. No significant difference was found between the groups at pretest variables (p > 0.05). Significant improvements were found in the posttest of both the groups (p ≤ 0.05), except for 20-m sprint test in the control group (p > 0.05). Triple hop distance, countermovement jump, standing broad jump, peak power, and 20-m sprint test values were all significantly improved in the plyometric group, compared with the control group (p ≤ 0.05). We concluded that short duration PT is an improved important component of athletic performance in female soccer players. The results indicate that safe, effective, and alternative PT can be useful to strength and conditioning coaches, especially during competition season where less time is available for training.

  6. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]dichloropropene in rats after inhalation.

    PubMed

    Bond, J A; Medinsky, M A; Dutcher, J S; Henderson, R F; Cheng, Y S; Mewhinney, J A; Birnbaum, L S

    1985-03-30

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. Human exposure potential exists during manufacture of the chemicals or during bulk handling activities. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-[14C]DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-[14C]DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25 degrees C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of 14C (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of 14C in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (means +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of 14C feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (means +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-[14C]DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-[14C]DCP or 14CO2, respectively. Concentrations of 14C in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of 14C were seen. 14C was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-[14C]DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of 14C immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the 14C in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of 14C from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted.

  7. Disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)dichloropropene in rats after inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.A.; Medinsky, M.A.; Dutcher, J.S.; Henderson, R.F.; Cheng, Y.S.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    2,3-Dichloropropene (2,3-DCP) is a constituent of some commercially available preplant soil fumigants for the control of plant parasitic nematodes. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the disposition and metabolism of 2,3-( UC)DCP in rats after inhalation. Male Fischer-344 rats were exposed nose-only to a vapor concentration of 250 nmol 2,3-( UC)DCP/liter air (7.5 ppm; 25C, 620 Torr) for 6 hr. Blood samples were taken during exposure, and urine, feces, expired air, and tissues were collected for up to 65 hr after exposure. Urinary excretion was the major route of elimination of UC (55% of estimated absorbed 2,3-DCP). Half-time for elimination of UC in urine was 9.8 +/- 0.05 hr (anti x +/- SE). Half-time for elimination of UC feces (17% of absorbed 2,3-DCP) was 12.9 +/- 0.14 hr (anti x +/- SE). Approximately 1 and 3% of the estimated absorbed 2,3-( UC)DCP were exhaled as either 2,3-( UC)DCP or UCO2, respectively. Concentrations of UC in blood increased during 240 min of exposure, after which no further increases in blood concentration of UC were seen. UC was widely distributed in tissues analyzed after a 6-hr exposure of rats to 2,3-( UC)DCP. Urinary bladder (150 nmol/g), nasal turbinates (125 nmol/g), kidneys (84 nmol/g), small intestine (61 nmol/g), and liver (35 nmol/g) were tissues with the highest concentrations of UC immediately after exposure. Over 90% of the UC in tissues analyzed was 2,3-DCP metabolites. Half-times for elimination of UC from tissues examined ranged from 3 to 11 hr. The data from this study indicate that after inhalation 2,3-DCP is metabolized in tissues and readily excreted. 21 references. 2 figures, 4 tables.

  8. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  9. Cycloadditions of Noncomplementary Substituted 1,2,3-Triazines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope of the [4 + 2] cycloaddition reactions of substituted 1,2,3-triazines, bearing noncomplementary substitution with electron-withdrawing groups at C4 and/or C6, is described. The studies define key electronic and steric effects of substituents impacting the reactivity, mode (C4/N1 vs C5/N2), and regioselectivity of the cycloaddition reactions of 1,2,3-triazines with amidines, enamines, and ynamines, providing access to highly functionalized heterocycles. PMID:25222918

  10. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  11. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  12. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  13. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of...

  14. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26720... October 13, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8732--Fire Prevention Week, 2011 Proclamation 8733...; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8732 of October 7, 2011 Fire Prevention Week, 2011...

  15. Using the Weekly Newspaper in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Sharon; Kendall, Stuart

    Intended for teachers in all subject areas at the elementary and secondary school levels, this booklet contains a variety of activities involving the use of the weekly newspaper as a teaching aid. Following a list of features of a weekly newspaper that make it suitable for classroom instruction, the activities are presented for elementary and…

  16. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-17948 Filed 7-19... July 20, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11... President ] Proclamation 8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the...

  17. 75 FR 28183 - World Trade Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8521 of May 12, 2010 World Trade Week, 2010 By the President of the United.... World Trade Week is an opportunity for us to reaffirm the importance of trade to our Nation's...

  18. 75 FR 29393 - Small Business Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12755 Filed 5-25-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8525 of May 20, 2010 Small Business Week, 2010 By the President of the United... new private sector jobs. During Small Business Week, we reaffirm our support for America's...

  19. 75 FR 71005 - American Education Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29516 Filed 11-19-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Education Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Education is essential to our success as both a people and a Nation. During American Education Week, we rededicate...

  20. 75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29729 Filed 11-23-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Like generations before them... Family Week, we celebrate the resilient spirit of America's families and their role in building...

  1. 78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8983 of May 17, 2013 World Trade Week, 2013 By the President of the United... Week, we recognize workers, growers, and entrepreneurs nationwide who share that ambition, and...

  2. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-9017 Filed 4-11-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... April 12, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former Prisoner of...

  3. 78 FR 69749 - American Education Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-28018 Filed 11-19-13; 11:15 am... November 20, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 9058--American Education Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... American Education Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Education...

  4. 77 FR 69733 - National Family Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-28457 Filed 11-20... Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The bonds that tie us to our... strength of character in their children. This week, we celebrate the unity and compassion that keep...

  5. 76 FR 71445 - American Education Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-29938 Filed... November 17, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8753--American Education Week, 2011 #0; #0; #0... American Education Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Ensuring...

  6. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-17984 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8541 of July 16, 2010 Captive Nations Week... and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the third week of July of each year...

  7. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  8. 75 FR 20891 - National Volunteer Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-9415 Filed... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8500 of April 16, 2010 National Volunteer Week, 2010 By the President of the... country. This week, we recognize their enduring contributions and encourage more Americans, especially...

  9. 76 FR 28623 - Small Business Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-12307 Filed... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8673 of May 12, 2011 Small Business Week... to work hard enough, you can succeed in our country. This week, we honor and celebrate...

  10. 77 FR 68045 - American Education Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-27922 Filed 11-14-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8904 of November 9, 2012 American Education Week, 2012 By the President of... Nation's economic prosperity and civic life. This week, we reaffirm our national mission of educating...

  11. 76 FR 20215 - National Volunteer Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8837 Filed 4-11-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's story has been... they see a need. During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the profound impact of volunteers...

  12. 77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-12880 Filed 5-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8827 of May 21, 2012 World Trade Week, 2012 By the President of the United... demand for goods and services designed and produced by Americans. During World Trade Week, we...

  13. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  14. The Effects of a Four-Week Summer Bridge Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ami, Carlon G.

    This study reports the results of the pre and post mathematics test administered to student participants of the 2001 Summer Bridge Program, sponsored by the Minority Engineering, Mathematics and Science Department (MEMS) at the University of New Mexico (UNM). There was a four-week time span between the administration of the standardized test,…

  15. Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie…

  16. [Incremental approach to hemodialysis: twice a week, or once weekly hemodialysis combined with low-protein low-phosphorus diet?].

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Caria, Stefania; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-01

    The start of dialysis treatment is a critical step in the care management of chronic renal failure patients. When hemodialysis is performed three times a week, rapid loss of kidney function and of urine volume output generally occur and this represents an unfavorable prognostic factor. Instead, reducing frequency of hemodialysis sessions, as well as peritoneal dialysis, can contribute to a lesser decrease of residual renal function. Unfortunately, the existing protocols for an incremental hemodialysis approach are not particularly common and they are generally limited to a twice a week hemodialysis schedule. In addition to clinical and economic reasons, an incremental approach to ESRD also contributes to better social and psychological adaptation by the patients to the dramatic change in living conditions linked to the maintenance dialysis treatment. In patients who have attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, a once weekly dialysis schedule combined with low-protein, low-phosphorus, normal to high energy diet in the remaining six days of the week can be implemented in selected patients. In our experience, this kind of program produced important clinical results and reduction in costs and hospitalization. When compared with a three times a week dialysis schedule, a greater protection of residual renal function and of urine volume output, lower increase in 2 microglobulin, better control of phosphorus and less consumption of phosphate binders and erythropoietin were observed. Careful clinical monitoring and nutrition is essential for the safety and optimization of infrequent hemodialysis. Long-term follow-up analysis shows favorable effects on the overall survival. Furthermore, twice a week hemodialysis is not the only option for an incremental approach of dialysis commencing. In patients who have a good attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, its arrangement with a program of once weekly dialysis represents a real and effective alternative. PMID

  17. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  18. Laparoscopic Removal of Abdominal Cerclage at 19 Weeks' Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ashlyn; Soper, David E.

    2013-01-01

    We discuss laparoscopic removal of an abdominal cerclage in a 39-year-old woman, gravida 4, para 0, abortus 3, who presented at 19 weeks' gestation with ruptured membranes. This patient had a failed previous vaginal cerclage. An abdominal cerclage was performed at the time of abdominal myomectomy. A subsequent pregnancy was diagnosed, with ruptured membranes at 19 weeks' gestation, and the patient opted for pregnancy termination. After laparoscopic removal of the cerclage, cervical laminaria were placed, and the patient underwent an uncomplicated dilation and curettage procedure the following day. PMID:23743392

  19. Practice It: Create a Weekly Activity Plan | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    At the beginning of the week, create an activity plan to help you reach your goals. Start by identifying your goals for the week. Based on your goals, write down when you are going to exercise and what you are going to do. If something comes up that keeps you from exercising on one of your selected days, try to find another day (or time) as a make-up. Having a routine is important but so is the ability to adapt your schedule as needed.

  20. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  2. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  3. 40 CFR 35.2109 - Step 2+3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Step 2+3. 35.2109 Section 35.2109 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL... or less according to the most recent U.S. Census; (b) The total Step 3 building cost is estimated...

  4. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  5. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  6. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  7. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  8. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  9. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  10. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the performance of any federally assisted alcohol and drug abuse program. The regulations specify: (1)...

  11. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  12. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  13. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  14. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... disaggregations thereof); (2) The treatment works has an estimated total step 3 construction cost of $2 million...

  15. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of Ag2 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Pol, A.; Reijersen, E. J.; de Boer, E.; Wasowicz, T.; Michalik, J.

    A highly resolved EPR spectrum of the silver trimer 109Ag2+3, present in 109Ag1-NaA zeolite, has been measured. The spectrum is characterized by an axially symmetric spin Hamiltonian having and for each of the 109Ag nuclei tMPH0037_images.

  16. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  17. 43 CFR 3436.2-3 - Exchange procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Land Exchanges: Alluvial Valley Floors § 3436.2-3 Exchange procedures. (a) Any person meeting the... owner of the coal deposit underlying an alluvial valley floor identify Federal coal deposits that are... deposit underlying or near an alluvial valley floor, the Secretary shall proceed as though there were...

  18. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  19. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  2. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  3. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  4. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  5. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  6. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2003: Lesson Plans for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    The United States Mint 50 State Quarters Program launched a 10-year initiative in 1999, commemorating each of the nation's states in the order they were admitted into the Union. Approximately every 10 weeks (5 times a year) through 2008, a new limited-edition quarter that displays an individual state's design is released into general circulation.…

  7. Elementary Physical Education Weekly Lesson Plan. Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anchorage Borough School District, AK.

    This curriculum guide is for the teaching of physical education to kindergarten students. Teaching procedures, warm-up activities, safety procedures, modifications, and athletic equipment needed are described for each of the specific activities in the weekly lesson plans. (CJ)

  8. This Week @ NASA - 11/5/10

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Postponement of Mission STS-133 tops the billboard on This Week @ NASA. Also, EPOXI meets a Comet, NASA and LEGO build a future together, Administrator Bolden heralds ten years of ISS, KSC Twee...

  9. Application of a liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry (LC/MS) method to the biodistribution and excretion studies of novel 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo (2', 3': 2, 3) betulinic acid (DRF-4012) in tumour-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Gautam; Singh, Manoj Kumar; Awasthi, Anshumali; Singh, Anu T; Jaggi, Manu; Ahmad, Farhan J

    2013-06-01

    Novel betulinic acid derivative 5'-chloro-2, 3-didehydroindolo [2', 3': 2, 3] betulinic acid (DRF-4012) is a new effective lupane type triterpenes with greater anticancer activity and efficacy than betulinic acid and currently under advanced preclinical investigation phase. In this study, a sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometric (LC/MS) method has been developed for the determination of DRF-4012 in tumour-bearing mice plasma, urine, feces and tissues (liver, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, stomach, thigh muscle, kidneys, urinary bladder, small intestine and tumour). Biodistribution and excretion studies were performed for DRF-4012 nanoparticle (30 mg/kg body weight) after intravenous (i.v.) injection in tumour-bearing mice. DRF-4012 rapidly distributed throughout the body. After 0.5 h, tumour showed the second highest concentration, which was nearly half of the liver. After 4 and 24 h, the highest concentration of DRF-4012 was found in tumour indicating its retention in tumour site for a longer time. Excretion studies revealed that very low amount of unchanged DRF-4012 was observed in urine and primarily excreted through fecal route. This study may be useful to explain the manner in which DRF-4012 can inhibit tumour growth without apparent toxicity and preclinical/clinical evaluation of this potential antitumour agent.

  10. Winter fuels report, week ending December 7, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  11. Winter fuels report, week ending November 30, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-06

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cites; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (CAS No. 1746-01-6) in Swiss-Webster Mice (Dermal Study).

    PubMed

    1982-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin occurs as a highly toxic impurity found in herbicides containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-T- derivatives, as well as in other chemicals synthesized using 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The herbicide 2,4,5-T has been marketed in the United States since 1948. Production increased sharply between 1960 and 1970 when a 1:1 mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a defoliant in Vietnam under the names of "herbicide agent orange, herbicide orange, agent orange, and orange". During this 10-year period, about 106 million pounds of 2,4,5-T were sprayed. A carcinogenesis bioassay was conducted by applying an acetone suspension of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the clipped backs of 30 male and female Swiss-Webster mice 3 days per week for 99 or 104 weeks. Similar groups were pretreated with 1 application of 50 &mgr;g dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in 0.1 ml acetone 1 week before TCDD administration began. Female mice received 0.005 &mgr;g TCDD per application, and the male mice received 0.001 &mgr;g TCDD. As vehicle controls, 45 mice of each sex received 0.1 ml acetone three times per week. Thirty animals of each sex were used as untreated controls. Throughout the bioassay, mean body weights of the male and female mice administered TCDD, or TCDD following DMBA, were essentially the same as those of the corresponding vehicle control group. Mean body weights of dosed and vehicle control groups of males were less thanthose of the untreated control group throughout the study; for the females, mean body weights were less than the untreated controls during the first 80 weeks. In female mice, the incidences of fibrosarcoma in the integumentary system in dosed groups with TCDD were significantly (P=0.007) higher than that in the corresponding controls (2/41, 5%; 8/27, 30%). An increase in the same tumor type, although not statistically significant (P=0.084), was also observed in

  13. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (CAS No. 1746-01-6) in Swiss-Webster Mice (Dermal Study).

    PubMed

    1982-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin occurs as a highly toxic impurity found in herbicides containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-T- derivatives, as well as in other chemicals synthesized using 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The herbicide 2,4,5-T has been marketed in the United States since 1948. Production increased sharply between 1960 and 1970 when a 1:1 mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a defoliant in Vietnam under the names of "herbicide agent orange, herbicide orange, agent orange, and orange". During this 10-year period, about 106 million pounds of 2,4,5-T were sprayed. A carcinogenesis bioassay was conducted by applying an acetone suspension of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the clipped backs of 30 male and female Swiss-Webster mice 3 days per week for 99 or 104 weeks. Similar groups were pretreated with 1 application of 50 &mgr;g dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in 0.1 ml acetone 1 week before TCDD administration began. Female mice received 0.005 &mgr;g TCDD per application, and the male mice received 0.001 &mgr;g TCDD. As vehicle controls, 45 mice of each sex received 0.1 ml acetone three times per week. Thirty animals of each sex were used as untreated controls. Throughout the bioassay, mean body weights of the male and female mice administered TCDD, or TCDD following DMBA, were essentially the same as those of the corresponding vehicle control group. Mean body weights of dosed and vehicle control groups of males were less thanthose of the untreated control group throughout the study; for the females, mean body weights were less than the untreated controls during the first 80 weeks. In female mice, the incidences of fibrosarcoma in the integumentary system in dosed groups with TCDD were significantly (P=0.007) higher than that in the corresponding controls (2/41, 5%; 8/27, 30%). An increase in the same tumor type, although not statistically significant (P=0.084), was also observed in

  14. The effect of intermittent use of occlusal splint devices on sleep bruxism: a 4-week observation with a portable electromyographic recording device.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, H; Tsukiyama, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Koyano, K

    2015-04-01

    This randomised controlled study investigated the effect of intermittent use of occlusal splints on sleep bruxism compared with that of continuous use by measuring masseter muscle electromyographic activity using a portable electromyographic recording system. Twenty bruxers were randomly allocated to the continuous group and intermittent group. Subjects in the continuous group wore stabilisation splints during sleep for 29 nights continuously, whereas those in the intermittent group wore splints during sleep every other week, that is they used splints on the 1st-7th, 15th-21st and 29th nights. Electromyographic activity of the masseter muscle during sleep was recorded for the following six time points: before (baseline), immediately after, and 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after the insertion of a stabilisation splint. The number of nocturnal masseter electromyographic events, duration and the total activity of sleep bruxism were analysed. In the continuous group, nocturnal masseter electromyographic events were significantly reduced immediately and 1 week after the insertion of the stabilisation splint, and duration was reduced immediately after the insertion (P < 0·05, Dunnett's test), but no reduction was observed at 2, 3 and 4 weeks after insertion. In the intermittent group, nocturnal masseter electromyographic events and duration were significantly reduced immediately after and also 4 weeks after insertion of the stabilisation splint (P < 0·05, Dunnett's test). The obtained results of the present exploratory trial indicate that the intermittent use of stabilisation splints may reduce sleep bruxism activity for a longer period compared with that of continuous use.

  15. Radioimmunoassay for quantitation of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran

    SciTech Connect

    Luster, M.I.; Albro, P.W.; Chae, K.; Lawson, L.D.; Corbett, J.T.; McKinney, J.D.

    1980-08-01

    A radioimmunoassay is described for the determination of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) in commercial preparations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as well as environmental samples including animal tissues. A feature of the assay method is the use of nonionic detergent to solubilize the hydrophobic dibenzofurans in a manner permitting their binding to antibodies. The detection limits of the assay range between 20 pg and 4.0 ng of 2,3,7,8-TCDF. Extensive cross-reactivity studies indicated that the antiserum was fairly specific for TCDF although some cross-reactivity was found to structurally similar compounds. Values for TCDF in various Aroclors and animal tissues by radioimmunoassay correlated with those obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The radioimmunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening and should be simple enough to be performed in most clinical laboratories. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  16. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  17. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Enrichment and properties of an anaerobic mixed culture reductively dechlorinating 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene to 1,3-dichlorobenzene

    SciTech Connect

    Holliger, C.; Schraa, G.; Stams, A.J.M.; Zehnder, A.J.B. )

    1992-05-01

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (QCB), all three isomers of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene (1,2,3-TCB), and 1,2,4-TCB were reductively dechlorinated by enrichment cultures in the presence of lactate, glucose, ethanol, or isopropanol as the electron donor. The enrichment cultures originated from percolation columns filled with Rhine River sediment in which dechlorination of TCBs and dichlorobenzenes (DCBs) occurred. A stable consortium obtained by transfer on lactate as the energy and carbon source in the presence of 1,2,3-TCB dechlorinated this isomer stoichiometrically to 1,3-DCB. Dechlorinating activity could only be maintained when an electron donor was added. Lactate, ethanol, and hydrogen appeared to be the best substrates. Optimal temperature and pH for dechlorination were 30 C and 7.2, respectively. The specificity of the enrichment on lactate and 1,2,3-TCB was tested after approximately 60 transfers (after 2.5 years). HCB and QCB were stoichiometrically dechlorinated to 1,3,5-TCB and minor amounts of 1,2,4-TCB. 1,3,5-TCB was the sole product formed from 1,2,3,5-TeCB, while 1,2,3,4-TeCB and 1,2,4,5-TeCB were converted to 1,2,4-TCB. 1,2,4-TCB, 1,3,5-TCB, and the three isomers of DCB were not dechlorinated during 4 weeks of incubation. For further enrichment of the 1,2,3-TCB-dechlorinating bacteria, a two-liquid-phase (hexadecane-water) system was used with hydrogen as the electron donor and 1,2,3-TCB or CO[sub 2] as the electron acceptor. Methanogens and acetogens were the major substrate-competing (H[sub 2]-CO[sub 2]) microorganisms in the two-liquid-phase system.

  19. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Moore, Sheila A; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  20. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E; Moore, Sheila A; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  1. Application of enzymatic apple pomace hydrolysate to production of 2,3-butanediol by alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059.

    PubMed

    Białkowska, Aneta M; Gromek, Ewa; Krysiak, Joanna; Sikora, Barbara; Kalinowska, Halina; Jędrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Marzena; Kubik, Celina; Lang, Siegmund; Schütt, Fokko; Turkiewicz, Marianna

    2015-12-01

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) synthesis by a nonpathogenic bacterium Bacillus licheniformis NCIMB 8059 from enzymatic hydrolysate of depectinized apple pomace and its blend with glucose was studied. In shake flasks, the maximum diol concentration in fed-batch fermentations was 113 g/L (in 163 h, from the hydrolysate, feedings with glucose) while in batch processes it was around 27 g/L (in 32 h, from the hydrolysate and glucose blend). Fed-batch fermentations in the 0.75 and 30 L fermenters yielded 87.71 g/L 2,3-BD in 160 h, and 72.39 g/L 2,3-BD in 94 h, respectively (from the hydrolysate and glucose blend, feedings with glucose). The hydrolysate of apple pomace, which was for the first time used for microbial 2,3-BD production is not only a source of sugars but also essential minerals. PMID:26445877

  2. Activities across Nation Mark National Chemistry Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Ernest, Ed.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes national and local activities done during National Chemistry Week including chemistry demonstrations, shopping center exhibits, contests, and museum exhibits. Discusses the supplementary material about chemistry in selected editions of 16 newspapers, "Solution for the Future." Presents many pictures showing those activities. (YP)

  3. 76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... everywhere. Such brave actions led to the birth of our Nation, the fall of the Soviet Union, and countless other achievements that have shaped our world. During Captive Nations Week, we remember the men and women throughout the world still suffering under oppressive regimes, and we underscore our commitment...

  4. 78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ...- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24498 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9034 of October 4, 2013 Fire Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Fires take more...

  5. 77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-25228 Filed 10-11-12; 8:45... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every year, fires in...

  6. What to Do in Week One?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormeli, Rick

    2016-01-01

    Although teachers can build positive relationships with students throughout the school year, the first weeks are crucial, writes Wormeli. They set the tone and conditions for the year ahead, creating a more effective teaching and learning enterprise for everyone. Wormeli tells how, as a middle school teacher, he set a goal of learning the names of…

  7. [Seventh National Population Week in Rwanda, 1993].

    PubMed

    Munyanziza, B

    1993-08-01

    The 1993 National Population Week opened in the commune of Rutare on August 2 and ended in Gikongoro in the commune of Rwamiko on August 6. Its goal was to sensitize all levels of the population to Rwanda's demographic problems through an IEC (information, education, communication) program while respecting the individual liberty, and the moral and religious beliefs of couples. On the first day of the population education campaign, the mayors of each commune along with its elite presided over a meeting to discuss implementation of the campaign, the sociodemographic situation at the commune level (especially at the household level), and the importance of family planning in family health. During August 2-5 at the commune level, the communal elite and the abakangurambagas presided over sensitization meetings, conference-debates, educational discussions, home visits, theatrical sessions, songs and dances, orientation to health centers, and recruitment of family planning acceptors. On the last day, development technicians working in the commune, teachers, students, religious leaders, abakangurambagas, political party leaders, and mass media journalists, all of whom took part in the week's activities, met at the communal office to evaluate the week's activities and to amass resolutions and recommendations. The mayor closed the 1993 edition of the National Population Week after the evaluation.

  8. A 4-Day Work Week That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kenneth; Timmerman, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Describes Navarro College's (Corsicana, TX) program to reduce kilowatt hour consumption through alternative energy sources and energy costs through transition to a four-day/40-hour work week. Presents results of studies of employee performance levels, community response, and the cost effectiveness of the program. Lists benefits for the student,…

  9. First Few Weeks on Campus. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, college and university campuses and communities brace for the onslaught of new and returning students. For first-year students, anecdotal evidence suggests that the first six weeks of enrollment are critical to success. Because many students initiate heavy drinking during these early days of college, the potential exists for excessive…

  10. Science week: May 11”17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    National Science Week, an event launched last year by the National Science Foundation (NSF), will be observed thi s year from May 11 to May 17, 1986. In support of this effort, NSF is urging individuals or organizations to sponsor science and math competitions or fairs, arrange "open house" events at research facilities, organize educational programs and scientific demonstrations, and arrange or participate in other activities. National Science Week is intended to increase public awareness and understanding of science and technology and to encourage young people in the United States to become more involved with and consider careers in science and mathematics. Educational packets will be made available to schools, public libraries, and science museums. The corporate sponsors of National Science Week are the Amoco Foundation, the Atlantic Richfield Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company Foundation, the DuPont Company, the Eastman Kodak Company, the General Electric Foundation, and IBM. For more information, write to National Science Week '86, c/o National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 1-800-227-SEEK).

  11. Telling the Public--It's Science Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an opportunity to engage the public in demonstrating and explaining some aspects of science. About 10 years ago, the author met Peter Evennett in the ASE Conference exhibition. Peter was a member of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society and currently its president. As a contribution to "Science Week" (which dates back…

  12. The Four-Day School Week. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This paper provides an overview of the 4-day school week being utilized by 36 school districts in Colorado. These districts, which tend to be rural and sparsely populated, schedule 7.5 hours per day for 144 days of school instead of the normal 6 hours for 180 days. Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1,080 hours per year of…

  13. Monoisoamyl 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid attenuates arsenic induced toxicity: behavioral and neurochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Ram Kumar, M; Flora, S J S; Reddy, G R

    2013-07-01

    Chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water is associated with skin lesions, neurological effects, hypertension and high risk of cancer. The treatment in use at present employs administration of thiol chelators, such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) which are compromised with number of limitations due to their lipophobic nature. To address this problem, therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), an analog of DMSA having lipophilic character, was examined against chronic arsenic poisoning in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally exposed to arsenic (2mg sodium arsenite/kg body weight) for 10 weeks followed by treatment with MiADMSA (50mg/kg, orally, once daily for 5 consecutive days). As-exposed rats showed significant differences in behavioral functions (open field behavior, total locomotor activity, grip strength and exploratory behavior) and water maze learning. Further, the biochemical studies performed on three brain regions (cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus) also showed significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with a concomitant decrease in the oxidative stress marker enzymes Mn-superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The alterations were more pronounced in cortex compared to cerebellum and hippocampus. The results showed that MiADMSA significantly reversed the As-induced alterations in behavior and biochemical variables suggestive of oxidative injury.

  14. Pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ellingboe, J W; Antane, M; Nguyen, T T; Collini, M D; Antane, S; Bender, R; Hartupee, D; White, V; McCallum, J; Park, C H

    1994-02-18

    A series of pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidine angiotensin II (A II) antagonists was synthesized and tested for antagonism of A II. Compounds with a biphenylyltetrazole pharmacophore and small alkyl groups at the 2- and 4-positions of the pyridopyrimidine ring were found to be the most potent in an AT1 receptor binding assay and in blocking the A II pressor response in anesthetized, ganglion-blocked A II-infused rats. 5,8-Dihydro-2,4-dimethyl-8-[(2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) [1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methyl]pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7(6H)-one (4a) was one of the more potent compounds in the binding assay and was the most efficacious compound in the A II-infused rat model. Further study of 4a in Goldblatt (2K-1C) rats showed the compound to have oral bioavailability and to be an efficacious and potent compound in a high renin form of hypertension.

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances.

  16. Conversion of 2,3-butanediol to butadiene

    DOEpatents

    Lilga, Michael A.; Frye, Jr, John G.; Lee, Suh-Jane; Albrecht, Karl O.

    2016-09-06

    A composition comprising 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a catalyst comprising (a) M.sub.xO.sub.y wherein M is a rare earth metal, a group IIIA metal, Zr, or a combination thereof, and x and y are based upon an oxidation state of M, or (b) M.sup.3.sub.a(PO.sub.4).sub.b where M.sup.3 is a group IA, a group IIA metal, a group IIIA metal, or a combination thereof, and a and b are based upon the oxidation state of M.sup.3. Embodiments of the catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y may further include M.sup.2, wherein M.sup.2 is a rare earth metal, a group IIA metal, Zr, Al, or a combination thereof. In some embodiments, 2,3-butanediol is dehydrated to methyl vinyl carbinol and/or 1,3-butadiene by a catalyst comprising M.sub.xO.sub.y, and the methyl vinyl carbinol is subsequently dehydrated to 1,3-butadiene by exposure to a solid acid catalyst.

  17. Metabolism, mitochondrial uptake and toxicity of 2', 3'-dideoxycytidine.

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, L; Serafini, S; Schiavano, G F; Casabianca, A; Vallanti, G; Chiarantini, L; Magnani, M

    1999-01-01

    2',3'-Dideoxycytidine (ddCyd) is a prescription anti-retroviral drug that causes mitochondrial toxicity and peripheral neuropathy. ddCyd is actively phosphorylated by cytosolic deoxycytidine kinase and nucleoside (di)phosphate kinase to the 5'-triphosphate derivative. However, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (ddCDP-choline) was also found in human cells incubated with ddCyd. In this paper we show that ddCDP-choline is produced from dideoxyCTP (ddCTP) and phosphocholine by phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase. dCTP and CTP appear to activate this synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner. Although ddCTP and ddCDP-choline can both enter the mitochondria, ddCDP-choline uptake is more efficient than ddCTP uptake. These data suggest that ddCDP- choline is the ddCyd metabolite that is probably responsible for mitochondrial toxicity. The uptake of ddCTP and ddCDP-choline by mitochondria is inhibited by 3.0 mM l-carnitine in the cell-free system investigated; when added to U937 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 microM ddCyd, 3.0 mM l-carnitine partially abrogated the mitochondrial toxicity of ddCyd. PMID:10585881

  18. Weekly to Interannual Variations of Sea-Ice Draft at the North Pole Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A 2-year time series of sea-ice draft D(t) was estimated from measurements made by Upward Looking Sonars (ULS) from 10 April, 2001 to 21 April, 2003. The moorings were located at the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO: 89.56 N, 66.65 E in year 1; 89.45 N, 53.63 E in year 2). Sample statistics and probability density distributions (PDFs) of D(t) have been estimated by grouping the data in nonoverlapping, two-week intervals with probability weighting proportional to the ice speed recorded simultaneously by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). In the first year the sample mean draft varied from 3.7 meters in early April to 2.3 meters in late August, with an overall annual mean of 3.0 meters. The sample mean draft estimated for 15 September, 2001 is 2.3 meters, a value near the middle of the seasonally adjusted estimates derived from submarine sonar profiles near the North Pole in the 1990's (Rothrock, et al., 1999). The evolution of modal draft in year 1 lags behind the sample mean, with extrema of 2.3 meters in late June, 2001 and 1.6 meters in early January, 2002. The open water fraction (OWF), estimated by counting ice drafts smaller than .05 meters, exceeded 1 percent from mid-June to early October, and for a brief period in late December. The maximum OWF of 13 percent occurred in July, 2001. The mean ice draft was larger throughout most of the second year, especially in summer. The sample mean ice draft for 15 September, 2002 is 3.2 meters, i.e. 90 cm greater than in the preceding year, and just outside the envelope of the Rothrock values for the 1990's. Analysis of the ice draft time series, monthly mean maps of multiyear ice concentration estimated from SSM/I data, and monthly mean anomaly maps of sea level pressure suggests that ice advection played a major role in these interannual differences.

  19. PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

  20. Does Shortening the School Week Impact Student Performance? Evidence from the Four-Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, D. Mark; Walker, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    School districts use a variety of policies to close budget gaps and stave off teacher layoffs and furloughs. More schools are implementing four-day school weeks to reduce overhead and transportation costs. The four-day week requires substantial schedule changes as schools must increase the length of their school day to meet minimum instructional…

  1. Access to transport for women with hypovolemic shock differs according to weeks of pregnancy☆

    PubMed Central

    Butrick, Elizabeth; Penn, Amy; Itakura, Kaoru; Mkumba, Gricelia; Winter, Kelly; Amafumba, Rhoda; Miller, Suellen

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether women with hypovolemic shock secondary to obstetric hemorrhage are transported to referral hospitals differently depending on weeks of pregnancy in Zambia. Methods In a retrospective study, transport type, wait time, and transit time were assessed for women with obstetric hemorrhage and hypovolemic shock transported from 26 primary health centers to three referral hospitals during 2007–2011. A mean arterial pressure of less than 60 mm Hg was used to indicate severe shock. Women were split into two categories on the basis of the number of weeks of pregnancy (<24 weeks vs ≥24 weeks). Results Overall, 616 women were included. Mode of transport differed significantly by group (P<0.001). 414 (93.0%) of 445 women at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more were transported by ambulance versus 114 (66.7%) of 171 women at less than 24 weeks. Among those in severe shock, 106 (93.0%) of 114 women at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more were transported in ambulances versus 26 (52.0%) of 50 women at less than 24 weeks (P<0.001). Conclusion Women at 24 weeks of pregnancy or more were given preference for ambulance transport even when signs of shock were equivalent. Policy-makers aiming to lower maternal mortality need to address transport issues regardless of the etiology of hemorrhage or week of pregnancy. PMID:25022343

  2. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  3. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W.; Moore, Sheila A.; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  4. Ligand Migration in Human Indoleamine-2,3 Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Nienhaus, Karin; Nickel, Elena; Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru; Nienhaus, G. Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), a monomeric heme enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative degradation of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) and other indoleamine derivatives. Its activity follows typical Michaelis–Menten behavior only for L-Trp concentrations up to 50 µM; a further increase in the concentration of L-Trp causes a decrease in the activity. This substrate inhibition of hIDO is a result of the binding of a second L-Trp molecule in an inhibitory substrate binding site of the enzyme. The molecular details of the reaction and the inhibition are not yet known. In the following, we summarize the present knowledge about this heme enzyme. PMID:21445845

  5. Does 2,3-butanedione monoxime inhibit nonmuscle myosin?

    PubMed

    Forer, Arthur; Fabian, Lacramioara

    2005-04-01

    BDM (2,3-butanedione monoxime) has been used extensively to inhibit nonmuscle myosin. However, recent articles raise the question of what BDM actually does, because of experiments in which BDM did not affect the actin-activated ATPase of nonmuscle myosins. We describe results that indicate that BDM indeed inhibits motility due to nonmuscle myosins: in many different cells BDM has the same effects as anti-actin agents and/or as other anti-myosin agents, and BDM slows or stops the sliding between actin filaments and myosin in vitro. We discuss how the two sets of apparently contradictory results might be resolved, and we suggest possible experiments that might clarify the contradictory interpretations. PMID:15868207

  6. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  7. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  8. Deexcitation of helium 2 3S, 2 1S, and 2 3P atoms at Ar and Xe films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oró, D. M.; Soletsky, P. A.; Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Walters, G. K.

    1994-06-01

    Measurements of ejected electron energy distributions are used in conjunction with electron spin labeling techniques to probe the mechanisms by which He(2 3S), He(2 1S), and He(2 3P) atoms are deexcited at Ar and Xe films adsorbed on a cooled Cu(100) substrate. The data for both surfaces contain features similar to those observed in gas-phase Penning ionization, indicating that ejection results, in part, from Auger deexcitation, i.e., surface Penning ionization. For Xe, however, additional features are observed that can be attributed to resonance ionization of an incident excited atom followed by neutralization of the resulting He+ ion through an interaction that involves neighboring Xe atoms in the film. Indeed, the Xe data provide an exceptional example of a surface at which Auger deexcitation and resonance ionization occur in parallel with one another, with a branching ratio that changes significantly as the internal energy of the incident atoms increases. The ejected electron yield from both Ar and Xe films is substantially higher than for clean Cu(100), indicating that such films might form the basis of an efficient thermal-energy helium metastable-atom detector.

  9. Energy week `96 - PETRO-SAFE

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Proceedings of the Petro-Safe Energy Week Conference and Exhibition held January 29-February 2, 1996 in Houston, Texas are presented. A separate abstract was prepared for 53 papers for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database. The papers covered such topics as environmental issues in the petroleum industry, process safety management, waste and remediation issues, safety issues, and health, safety, and environemental training issues.

  10. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  11. Twelve- and 52-week safety of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler in patients with persistent asthma

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Gordon; Taveras, Herminia; Iverson, Harald; O’Brien, Christopher; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluate the safety of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI), a novel, inhalation-driven device that does not require coordination of actuation with inhalation, in patients with persistent asthma. Methods: We report pooled safety data from two 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, repeat-dose, parallel-group studies and the 12-week double-blind phase of a 52-week multicenter safety study as well as safety data from the 40-week open-label phase of the 52-week safety study. In each study, eligible patients aged ≥12 years with persistent asthma received placebo MDPI or albuterol MDPI 180 µg (2 inhalations × 90 µg/inhalation) 4 times/day for 12 weeks. In the 40-week open-label phase of the 52-week safety study, patients received albuterol MDPI 180 μg (2 inhalations × 90 μg/inhalation) as needed (PRN). Results: During both 12-week studies and the 12-week double-blind phase of the 52-week study, adverse events were more common with placebo MDPI (50%; n = 333) than albuterol MDPI (40%; n = 321); most frequent were upper respiratory tract infection (placebo MDPI 11%, albuterol MDPI 10%), nasopharyngitis (6%, 5%), and headache (6%, 4%). Incidences of β2-agonist-related events (excluding headache) during the pooled 12-week dosing periods were low (≤1%) in both groups. The safety profile with albuterol MDPI PRN during the 40-week open-label phase [most frequent adverse events: nasopharyngitis (12%), sinusitis (11%), upper respiratory tract infection (9%)] was similar to that observed during the 12-week pooled analysis. Conclusions: The safety profile of albuterol MDPI 180 μg in these studies was comparable with placebo MDPI and consistent with the well-characterized profile of albuterol in patients with asthma. PMID:26369589

  12. Species differences in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity and biotransformation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, J.M.; Olson, J.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1988-02-01

    Rainbow trout, yellow perch, carp, bluegill, largemouth bass, and bullhead were treated with graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1, 5, 25, or 125 micrograms/kg) or vehicle, ip. The lethal potency of TCDD tended to be greater in yellow perch, carp, and bullhead than in the other three species (LD50 80 days post-treatment, 3-5 versus 10-16 micrograms/kg, respectively). All species treated with the highest dose of TCDD (125 micrograms/kg) displayed a latency period of 1-4 weeks prior to death; longer latency periods were produced by lower lethal doses. Effects of TCDD treatment on body weight were both species-dependent and dose-dependent. Fin necrosis was observed in all fish species; however, cutaneous hemorrhage was observed only in TCDD-treated perch, carp, and bluegill, and cutaneous hyperpigmentation only in TCDD-treated carp and largemouth bass. Gallbladder bile was analyzed for TCDD and its metabolites 7 days after fish were injected with (/sup 14/C)TCDD (60 micrograms/kg, ip). At least three TCDD metabolites in addition to the parent compound were found in the gallbladder bile of all six species. In addition, the retention time of the major biliary TCDD metabolite (determined by HPLC) was similar in all species except yellow perch. Beta-Glucuronidase treatment of the bile from largemouth bass and bluegill suggested that at least two of the TCDD metabolites were glucuronide conjugates. Thus, species differences exist in the lethal potency, signs of overt toxicity, and biotransformation of TCDD among freshwater fish.

  13. Weekly vs. Every-3-Week Paclitaxel and Carboplatin for Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, J.K.; Brady, M.F.; Penson, R.T.; Huang, H.; Birrer, M.J.; Walker, J.L.; DiSilvestro, P.A.; Rubin, S.C.; Martin, L.P.; Davidson, S.A.; Huh, W.K.; O’Malley, D.M.; Boente, M.P.; Michael, H.; Monk, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND A dose-dense weekly schedule of paclitaxel (resulting in a greater frequency of drug delivery) plus carboplatin every 3 weeks or the addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel and carboplatin administered every 3 weeks has shown efficacy in ovarian cancer. We proposed to determine whether dose-dense weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin would prolong progression-free survival as compared with paclitaxel and carboplatin administered every 3 weeks among patients receiving and those not receiving bevacizumab. METHODS We prospectively stratified patients according to whether they elected to receive bevacizumab and then randomly assigned them to receive either paclitaxel, administered intravenously at a dose of 175 mg per square meter of body-surface area every 3 weeks, plus carboplatin (dose equivalent to an area under the curve [AUC] of 6) for six cycles or paclitaxel, administered weekly at a dose of 80 mg per square meter, plus carboplatin (AUC, 6) for six cycles. The primary end point was progression-free survival. RESULTS A total of 692 patients were enrolled, 84% of whom opted to receive bevacizumab. In the intention-to-treat analysis, weekly paclitaxel was not associated with longer progression-free survival than paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks (14.7 months and 14.0 months, respectively; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.06; P = 0.18). Among patients who did not receive bevacizumab, weekly paclitaxel was associated with progression-free survival that was 3.9 months longer than that observed with paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks (14.2 vs. 10.3 months; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.95; P = 0.03). However, among patients who received bevacizumab, weekly paclitaxel did not significantly prolong progression-free survival, as compared with paclitaxel administered every 3 weeks (14.9 months and 14.7 months, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.20; P = 0.60). A test for

  14. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  15. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  16. Can One Hour Per Week of Therapy Lead to Lasting Changes in Young Children with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Colombi, Costanza; Rogers, Sally J.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in attention, communication, imitation, and play skills reduce opportunities for children with autism to learn from natural interactive experiences that occur throughout the day. These developmental delays are already present by the time these children reach the toddler period. The current study provided a brief 12 week, 1 hour per week,…

  17. Participation in a Twelve-Week Moderate Exercise Program--Selected Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, G. B. Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Adults (N=142) who engaged in a 12-week moderate exercise program requiring the maintenance of training state exercise heart rates for a minimum of 20 minutes, 3 times a week, experienced an improvement in cardiovascular functioning regardless of age and/or sex. (Author/IAH)

  18. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  19. Identification of cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate in Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 culture.

    PubMed

    Bordeleau, Emily; Oberc, Christopher; Ameen, Eve; da Silva, Amanda Mendes; Yan, Hongbin

    2014-09-15

    Cytidine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cCMP) and uridine 2',3'-cyclic monophosphate (2',3'-cUMP) were isolated from Pseudomonas fluorescens pfo-1 cell extracts by semi-preparative reverse phase HPLC. The structures of the two compounds were confirmed by NMR and mass spectroscopy against commercially available authentic samples. Concentrations of both intracellular and extracellular 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP were determined. Addition of 2',3'-cCMP and 2',3'-cUMP to P. fluorescens pfo-1 culture did not significantly affect the level of biofilm formation in static liquid cultures. PMID:25139571

  20. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  1. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  2. A HARPS view on K2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Astudillo-Defru, N.; Bonfils, X.; Forveille, T.; Santerne, A.; Albrecht, S.; Barros, S. C. C.; Bouchy, F.; Delfosse, X.; Demangeon, O.; Diaz, R. F.; Hébrard, G.; Mayor, M.; Neves, V.; Rojo, P.; Santos, N. C.; Wünsche, A.

    2015-09-01

    K2 space observations recently found that three super-Earths transit the nearby M dwarf K2-3. The apparent brightness and the small physical radius of their host star rank these planets amongst the most favourable for follow-up characterisations. The outer planet orbits close to the inner edge of the habitable zone and might become one of the first exoplanets searched for biomarkers using transmission spectroscopy. We used the HARPS velocimeter to measure the mass of the planets. The mass of planet b is 8.4 ± 2.1 M⊕, while our determination of those planets c and d are affected by the stellar activity. With a density of 4.32+2.0-0.76 g cm-3, planet b is probably mostly rocky, but it could contain up to 50% water. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope under the program ID 191-C0873 at Cerro La Silla (Chile).Appendix A is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  4. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  5. Ferryl derivatives of human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changyuan; Yeh, Syun-Ru

    2011-06-17

    The critical role of the ferryl intermediate in catalyzing the oxygen chemistry of monooxygenases, oxidases, or peroxidases has been known for decades. In contrast, its involvement in heme-based dioxygenases, such as human indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (hIDO), was not recognized until recently. In this study, H(2)O(2) was used as a surrogate to generate the ferryl intermediate of hIDO. Spectroscopic data demonstrate that the ferryl species is capable of oxidizing azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) but not L-Trp. Kinetic studies reveal that the conversion of the ferric enzyme to the ferryl intermediate facilitates the L-Trp binding rate by >400-fold; conversely, L-Trp binding to the enzyme retards the peroxide reaction rate by ∼9-fold, because of the significant elevation of the entropic barrier. The unfavorable entropic factor for the peroxide reaction highlights the scenario that the structure of hIDO is not optimized for utilizing H(2)O(2) as a co-substrate for oxidizing L-Trp. Titration studies show that the ferryl intermediate possesses two substrate-binding sites with a K(d) of 0.3 and 440 μM and that the electronic properties of the ferryl moiety are sensitive to the occupancy of the two substrate-binding sites. The implications of the data are discussed in the context of the structural and functional relationships of the enzyme. PMID:21502325

  6. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  7. Earth Science Week is coming soon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, Pranoti M.

    2012-10-01

    AGU along with other societies, federal agencies, and organizations is participating in Earth Science Week (ESW), being held 14-20 October 2012 (http://www.earthsciweek.org/index.html). This year's theme, "Discovering careers in the Earth sciences," encourages young people everywhere to explore the natural world and learn about the geosciences. To find out more about how you can participate in ESW by planning an event, go to http://www.earthsciweek.org/forplanners/index.html. To learn about ESW events taking place in your area, visit http://www.earthsciweek.org/eventsnearyou/index.html.

  8. Winter fuels report, week ending December 21, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD), I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 34 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Internet Reporting of Weekly Physical Activity Behaviors: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Tyson; Frierson, Georita M.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Morrow, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet. Methods The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 800 women weekly for an average of 3 years. Results With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples. Conclusions This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods. PMID:20683095

  10. Winter fuels report: Week ending October 19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-25

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on the US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 pm on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB).

  11. Joint Eglin Acoustic Week III Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Conner, David A.; Smith, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    A series of three flight tests have been conducted at an Eglin Air Force Base remote test range located in the Florida panhandle. The first was the "Acoustics Week" flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustic Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. The most recent was the Eglin Acoustic Week III test conducted in August-September 2007. This series of tests acquired acoustic data for a number of rotary and fixed wing aircraft and are used to generate noise semi-spheres used in predicting the acoustic footprint for prescribed flight operations. This extensive database can be used to determine the impact of flight operations on communities around a terminal area as well as for prediction code validations. Another valuable use of the semi-spheres is determining the long-range propagation of noise for civilian and military purposes. This paper describes the third test in this series. Data described in this report were acquired during testing of the MD-902 and Mi-8M aircraft. In addition, data acquired during a set of atmospheric propagation tests is also described.

  12. The effect of Tembusu virus infection in different week-old Cherry Valley breeding ducks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjian; Dou, Yanguo; Ti, Jinfeng; Wang, Aihua; Cheng, Binghua; Zhang, Xin; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-08-30

    To study the effect of Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection on Cherry Valley Breeding ducks of different ages, 350 five-week-old ducks were divided into 14 groups. Ducks in seven experimental group were respectively infected with 1.265×10(5) mean embryo lethal dose (ELD50) of TMUV-AHQY strain (in 4.2mL) by intravenous route. Ducks in control groups were inoculated with Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) in the same way. Clinical symptoms, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads and serum antibodies were detected and recorded for 20days after infection. Some ducks infected at 7 and 21 week s of age showed severe clinical symptoms including depression and inappetence, and no obvious clinical symptoms were seen in other week-old infected ducks. Severe gross lesions including hepatomegaly, meningeal congestion, myocardial hemorrhage, intestinal, myocardial and pulmonary edema were observed in ducks infected at 7, 18 and 21 weeks of age. No or mild gross lesions were observed in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. The main microscopic lesions including hyperaemia, degeneration and necrosis of different cells and inflammatory cellular infiltration mainly consisting of mononuclear cells or lymphocytes were observed in ducks infected at 7 and 21 week of age. But relatively intact structures and rare lymphocytic infiltration were presented in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. Viral antigen was more frequently observed in organ slices collected from 7 week-old infected ducks and few positive staining was found in 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Less viral loads in different tissues and swabs were detected by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The level of viral loads in the tissues of ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age was very lower than that of ducks infected at 7 and 21 weeks of age. Meanwhile, less viral copy numbers were detected in swab samples collected from 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Ducks infected at 14-week-old developed significantly

  13. The effect of Tembusu virus infection in different week-old Cherry Valley breeding ducks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjian; Dou, Yanguo; Ti, Jinfeng; Wang, Aihua; Cheng, Binghua; Zhang, Xin; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-08-30

    To study the effect of Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection on Cherry Valley Breeding ducks of different ages, 350 five-week-old ducks were divided into 14 groups. Ducks in seven experimental group were respectively infected with 1.265×10(5) mean embryo lethal dose (ELD50) of TMUV-AHQY strain (in 4.2mL) by intravenous route. Ducks in control groups were inoculated with Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) in the same way. Clinical symptoms, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads and serum antibodies were detected and recorded for 20days after infection. Some ducks infected at 7 and 21 week s of age showed severe clinical symptoms including depression and inappetence, and no obvious clinical symptoms were seen in other week-old infected ducks. Severe gross lesions including hepatomegaly, meningeal congestion, myocardial hemorrhage, intestinal, myocardial and pulmonary edema were observed in ducks infected at 7, 18 and 21 weeks of age. No or mild gross lesions were observed in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. The main microscopic lesions including hyperaemia, degeneration and necrosis of different cells and inflammatory cellular infiltration mainly consisting of mononuclear cells or lymphocytes were observed in ducks infected at 7 and 21 week of age. But relatively intact structures and rare lymphocytic infiltration were presented in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. Viral antigen was more frequently observed in organ slices collected from 7 week-old infected ducks and few positive staining was found in 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Less viral loads in different tissues and swabs were detected by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The level of viral loads in the tissues of ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age was very lower than that of ducks infected at 7 and 21 weeks of age. Meanwhile, less viral copy numbers were detected in swab samples collected from 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Ducks infected at 14-week-old developed significantly

  14. Phase I trial of a new nitrosourea, CGP 6809, given every 2 weeks.

    PubMed

    Creaven, P J; Cowens, J W; Huben, R; Petrelli, N; Karakousis, C; Traynor, D

    1989-01-01

    A phase I study was carried out on a new water-soluble nitrosourea, 6-deoxy-3,5 di-O-methyl 6-(3 methyl-3-nitrosoureido)-alpha-D-glucofuranoside (EDMN, CGP 6809), given every 2 weeks. A total of 18 patients received doses of 1, 2, 3, and 3.75 g/m2 as a 2- to 5-h infusion. Toxicity principally involved nausea and vomiting, hepatotoxicity, and abdominal pain. There was no evidence of cumulative toxicity. The dose of 3.75 g/m2 was not exceeded because in a previous phase I study, 4.5 g/m2 every 6 weeks was not tolerated; the recommended dose for phase II studies is 3.75 g/m2 every 2 weeks.

  15. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  16. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  17. Structural stability of the Weeks Island oil repository

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1994-06-01

    A 3-D finite element analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the SPR upper and lower oil storage levels at Weeks Island. The mechanical analysis predicted stresses and strains from which pillar stability was inferred using a fracture criterion developed from previous testing of Weeks Island salt. This analysis simulated the sequential mining of the two levels and subsequent oil fill of the mine. The predicted subsidence rates compare well to those measured over the past few years. Predicted failure mechanisms agree with observations made at the time the mine was being modified for oil storage. The modeling technique employed here treats an infinite array of pillars and is a reasonable representation of the behavior at the center of the mine. This analysis predicts that the lower level pillars, at the center of the mine, have fractured and their stability at this time is questionable. Localized pillar fracturing is predicted and implies that the mine is entering a phase of continual time dependent deterioration. Continued and expanded monitoring of the facility and development of methods to assess and predict its behavior are more important now than ever.

  18. ARP2/3-dependent growth in the plant kingdom: SCARs for life

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, Makoto; Zhang, Chunhua; Szymanski, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    In the human experience SCARs (suppressor of cAMP receptors) are permanent reminders of past events, not always based on bad decisions, but always those in which an interplay of opposing forces leaves behind a clear record in the form of some permanent watery mark. During plant morphogenesis, SCARs are important proteins that reflect an unusual evolutionary outcome, in which the plant kingdom relies heavily on this single class of actin-related protein (ARP) 2/3 complex activator to dictate the time and place of actin filament nucleation. This unusually simple arrangement may serve as a permanent reminder that cell shape control in plants is fundamentally different from that of crawling cells in mammals that use the power of actin polymerization to define and maintain cell shape. In plant cells, actin filaments indirectly affect cell shape by determining the transport properties of organelles and cargo molecules that modulate the mechanical properties of the wall. It is becoming increasingly clear that polarized bundles of actin filaments operate at whole cell spatial scales to organize the cytoplasm and dictate the patterns of long-distance intracellular transport and secretion. The number of actin-binding proteins and actin filament nucleators that are known to participate in the process of actin network formation are rapidly increasing. In plants, formins and ARP2/3 are two important actin filament nucleators. This review will focus on ARP2/3, and the apparent reliance of most plant species on the SCAR/WAVE (WASP family verprolin homologous) regulatory complex as the sole pathway for ARP2/3 activation. PMID:23802001

  19. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  20. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  1. 3 CFR 8440 - Proclamation 8440 of October 19, 2009. National Character Counts Week, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... selflessly serving others, inspiring and encouraging younger generations to develop the compassion... forward time and again to adapt and lead in an ever-changing world. National Character Counts week is...

  2. 77 FR 15371 - Announcement of Call for Collaborating Partners for National Women's Health Week

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... improving their physical and mental health and preventing disease. With the 2012 theme ``It's Your Time... longer, healthier, and happier life. For more information about National Women's Health Week,...

  3. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  4. Arts Week: A Canadian School Celebrates the Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Charlene A.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the program called "Arts Week" that demonstrates the importance of the arts in the lives of students at West Point Gray Academy in Vancouver (British Columbia). Describes Arts Week and discusses the process of creating Arts Week. States that Art Week was a success. (CMK)

  5. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  6. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  7. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  8. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  9. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  10. Reflections on a Week in Oxford

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Tara

    2012-04-01

    When Bob asked me a couple of days ago to give this talk, he said it should be ``pithy and wise.'' When I spoke to Aris the next day he said it should be ``informal and funny.'' Then Elizabeth spoke to me and said it would be great if it was ``controversial and challenging.'' I mentioned to Aris just before dinner that I had put a talk together, and he said ``Oh, you've written a talk-I thought it would be something more spontaneous!'' Faced with an obviously impossible spec, I did what any reasonable programmer would do and rewrote the spec myself. So what I'm going to talk about this evening is a reflection on my week in Oxford.

  11. After Opportunity's First Drive in Six Weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to obtain this image at the end of a drive on the rover's 1,271st sol, or Martian day (Aug. 21, 2007).

    Due to sun-obscuring dust storms limiting the rover's supply of solar energy, Opportunity had not driven since sol 1,232 (July 12, 2007). On sol 1,271, after the sky above Opportunity had been gradually clearing for more than two weeks, the rover rolled 13.38 meters (44 feet). Wheel tracks are visible in front of the rover because the drive ended with a short test of driving backwards.

    Opportunity's turret of four tools at the end of the robotic arm fills the center of the image. Victoria Crater, site of the rover's next science targets, lies ahead.

  12. Review of Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 (2007).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard

    2009-06-01

    Reviews the book, Whole person healthcare, Volumes 1, 2, & 3 by I. A. Serlin, M. A. DiCowden, K. Rockefeller, S. Brown, J. Sonke-Henderson, R. Brandman, and J. Graham-Pole (2007). With the more-than-1,000-page tour de force titled Whole Person Healthcare, Ilene Serlin, current president of the San Francisco Psychological Association, has purposefully edited a three-volume series aimed at humanizing the fields of psychotherapy and health care. Throughout the series, all of the authors carry the message that integrative treatment strategies in psychotherapy and health care are more valuable than reductionist "treat the symptom rather than the person" approaches as a way to humanize patient-client interaction. Whole Person Healthcare persuasively presents the principle reasons for integrating human-centered strategies into psychotherapeutic and health care practices. Volume 1 of the series, Humanizing Healthcare, sets the tone for the other two volumes, providing a conceptual scaffold for framing humanistic and positive psychological theories within an applied health care setting. Volume 2 of the series, Psychology, Spirituality, and Health, focuses on presenting concrete, evidence-based examples of integrative therapeutic techniques such as imagery and visualization, meditation, meaning finding, prayer and psychospiritual practices, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong. Volume 3 of the series, The Arts and Health, provides a critically important contribution to the field because the art therapies are so often forgotten in the world of managed health care. Volume 3 gives evidence-based examples of the valuable contributions of artistic interactions within therapeutic contexts. The collection of readings in Whole Person Healthcare covers a wide spectrum of modern healing approaches, and this series is a must for any practitioner of integrative, holistic therapies. However, there are two practical barriers of note. First is cost: The price is too steep for most readers

  13. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  14. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  15. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  16. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  17. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    diarrhea virus, nonstructural protein NS2-3 is of critical importance to switch between these processes. While free NS3 is essential for RNA replication, uncleaved NS2-3, which accumulates over time in the infected cell, is required for virion morphogenesis. In contrast, the virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus is independent from uncleaved NS2-NS3. Here, we demonstrate that pestiviruses can adapt to virion morphogenesis in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3 by just two amino acid exchanges. While the mechanism behind this gain of function remains elusive, the fact that it can be achieved by such minor changes is in line with the assumption that an ancestral virus already used this mechanism but lost it in the course of adapting to a new host/infection strategy. PMID:26355097

  18. Contribution of Intracolumnar Layer 2/3-to-Layer 2/3 Excitatory Connections in Shaping the Response to Whisker Deflection in Rat Barrel Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Sarid, Leora; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Gidon, Albert; Sakmann, Bert; Segev, Idan

    2015-01-01

    This computational study integrates anatomical and physiological data to assess the functional role of the lateral excitatory connections between layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal cells (PCs) in shaping their response during early stages of intracortical processing of a whisker deflection (WD). Based on in vivo and in vitro recordings, and 3D reconstructions of connected pairs of L2/3 PCs, our model predicts that: 1) AMPAR and NMDAR conductances/synapse are 0.52 ± 0.24 and 0.40 ± 0.34 nS, respectively; 2) following WD, connection between L2/3 PCs induces a composite EPSPs of 7.6 ± 1.7 mV, well below the threshold for action potential (AP) initiation; 3) together with the excitatory feedforward L4-to-L2/3 connection, WD evoked a composite EPSP of 16.3 ± 3.5 mV and a probability of 0.01 to generate an AP. When considering the variability in L4 spiny neurons responsiveness, it increased to 17.8 ± 11.2 mV; this 3-fold increase in the SD yielded AP probability of 0.35; 4) the interaction between L4-to-L2/3 and L2/3-to-L2/3 inputs is highly nonlinear; 5) L2/3 dendritic morphology significantly affects L2/3 PCs responsiveness. We conclude that early stages of intracortical signaling of WD are dominated by a combination of feedforward L4–L2/3 and L2/3–L2/3 lateral connections. PMID:24165834

  19. Winter fuels report. Week ending, January 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-23

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: (1) distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a U.S. level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a U.S. level; (2) propane net production, imports and stocks on a U.S. level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; (3) natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the U.S. and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; (4) residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; (5) crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the U.S. and selected cities; and (6) a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and U.S. total heating degree-days by city. The distillate fuel oil and propane supply data are collected and published weekly. The data are based on company submissions for the week ending 7:00 a.m. for the preceding Friday. Weekly data for distillate fuel oil are also published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Monthly data for distillate fuel oil and propane are published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly. The residential pricing information is collected by the EIA and the State Energy Offices on a semimonthly basis for the EIA/State Heating Oil and Propane Program. The wholesale price comparison data are collected daily and are published weekly. Residential heating fuel prices are derived from price quotes for home delivery of No. 2 fuel oil and propane. As such, they reflect prices in effect on the dates shown. Wholesale heating oil and propane prices are estimates using a sample of terminal quotes to represent average State prices on the dates given.

  20. The impact of alternate weekly collections on waste arisings.

    PubMed

    Williams, I D; Cole, C

    2013-02-15

    Residual waste is commonly collected separately from recyclable and organic materials. Different forms of collection and disposal are used internationally since regional or municipal authorities have to adapt to their own circumstances. Many authorities have adopted an alternate weekly collection (AWC) of residual waste and recyclables to force/encourage householders to recycle; however, the degree to which they achieve waste reduction has yet to be reliably quantified. This study reports on how the introduction of AWCs affects household waste arisings. The paper evaluates single and dual stream collection methods and compares their performance with the previous system. Household waste collection trials were conducted between March and June 2009 in England (Lichfield). The trials examined changes to frequency of collection, type of container issued, amounts of sorting required of residents, household participation and productivity levels. A survey of households was completed before any changes were implemented. The quantity of recyclates collected was examined for 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. The study showed that the AWC scheme positively impacted on recycling rates and household behaviour, with no adverse impacts on public participation, household waste arisings or the local environment. No public health problems were reported. Both trials saw an increase in the quantities of recyclates collected per household during the trial period compared to the same period of time in the previous year. The dual stream performed better than the single stream, collecting an average of 5.94 kg/hh/week compared to an average of 5.63 kg/hh/week. The single stream system showed a greater increase in the weight of material collected (0.53 kg/hh/week vs. 0.48 kg/hh/week). Participation and set-out rates showed an increase during the trial period. The single stream option (comingled materials in one container) outperformed the dual stream service. The reduction in costs and improved

  1. Efficacy of periodic centrifugation of primates during 4-week head-down tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Krotov, V. P.; Vil-Viliams, I. F.; Lobachik, V. I.

    2001-08-01

    Creation of artificial force of gravity (AFG) to counteract the negative consequences of microgravity in manned space missions of extended duration is one of the high-priority problems of space biology and medicine. However, there are a number of especial effects of AFG (namely, structural changes in muscles and bones, and some other system) which need implantation of electrodes and sensors and are possible only with animals. That is why it is of particular interest to make studies with monkeys whose reactions to changed gravity bear much resemblance with human (1). The purpose of the investigation was development of a protocol of periodic gravity loads as a countermeasure against the hypokinetic syndrome in Macaca mulatta. Two series of experiments were performed. In the series, animals were split into two groups of 6 species each who were motor restrained with the head end tilted downward at 5° (HDT) for 28 days. Monkeys of group-2 were periodically subjected to centrifugation (HDT+G). During the first series of experiments rotation was conducted in the +Gz direction at g-loads from 1.2 to 1.6 units for 30-40 minutes 4-5 times a week. In the second series, g-load was equal to 1.2 units and the animals were rotated 30 min. 2-3 time a week. The criterion of g-training protocol efficacy was a test +Gz run at 3 units for 30 s. during which functioning of the cardiovascular systems and its controls was evaluated. The test run was performed prior to and after HDT. Following HDT the animals of group HDT+G were more resistant to the test than their counterparts who had not been trained on the centrifuge. Data of the investigation imply that following HDT and HDT+G alike reduced the amount of total bodily fluids (by approximately 5%), the intracellular component (approximately 4%), and plasma volume (by 6-7%). Yet, there are radical differences between the groups in the levels of reduction in extracellular fluids (by 11% and 6.5%, respectively, P<0,05) and the

  2. Synaptic circuit abnormalities of motor-frontal layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in a mutant mouse model of Rett syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lydia; Shepherd, Gordon M. G.

    2010-01-01

    Motor and cognitive functions are severely impaired in Rett syndrome (RTT). Here, we examined local synaptic circuits of layer 2/3 (L2/3) pyramidal neurons in motor-frontal cortex of male hemizygous MeCP2-null mice at 3–4 weeks of age. We mapped local excitatory input to L2/3 neurons using glutamate uncaging and laser scanning photostimulation, and compared synaptic input maps recorded from MeCP2-null and wild type (WT) mice. Local excitatory input was significantly reduced in the mutants. The strongest phenotype was observed for lateral (horizontal, intralaminar) inputs, that is, L2/32/3 inputs, which showed a large reduction in MeCP2−/y animals. Neither the amount of local inhibitory input to these L2/3 pyramidal neurons nor their intrinsic electrophysiological properties differed by genotype. Our findings provide further evidence that excitatory networks are selectively reduced in RTT. We discuss our findings in the context of recently published parallel studies using selective MeCP2 knockdown in individual L2/3 neurons. PMID:20138994

  3. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  4. Dose Estimation from Daily and Weekly Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrouchov, G.

    2001-11-16

    Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses (yearly dose of record). It is usually assumed that the dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. In our previous work with weekly data, a probability distribution was used to describe an individual's dose during a specific period of time and statistical methods were developed for estimating it from weekly film dosimetry data. This study showed that the yearly dose of record systematically underestimates doses for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors. The results of this evaluation raise serious questions about the suitability of the yearly dose of record for direct use in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. Here, we extend our previous work to use full information in Pocket meter data and develop the Data Synthesis for Individual Dose Estimation (DSIDE) methodology. Although the DSIDE methodology in this study is developed in the context of daily and weekly data to produce a cumulative yearly dose estimate, in principle it is completely general and can be extended to other time period and measurement combinations. The new methodology takes into account the ''measurement error'' that is produced by the film and pocket-meter dosimetry systems, the biases introduced by policies that lead to recording left-censored doses as zeros, and other measurement and recording practices. The DSIDE method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at ORNL for the years 1945 to 1955. First, the rigorous addition of daily pocket-meter information shows that the negative bias is generally more severe than was reported in our work based on weekly film data only, however, the amount of bias also varies

  5. Professional Development and National Science Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the events that took place at the Primary Science Seminar held by the Science Teachers' Association of Western Australia (STAWA). Features instructions for seven time-related activities taught at the seminar including Sundials, Water Clock, Sand Timer, Pendulum, Tornado Timer, Marble Timer, and A Matter of Timing. (WRM)

  6. Temporal scattering and response software users' manual: Version 2. 3

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.

    1992-06-01

    This manual gives complete information on how to use the TSAR electromagnetic analysis software. Included are descriptions of input files, the details of how these files affect the problem, and output data specifications. What is not included is the theory of the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) algorithm or details of the TSAR implementation of it. This manual assumes that readers are sufficiently familiar with FDTD that they only need the how to'' knowledge presented here. This is a reference manual rather than a tutorial manual. To help new users become familiar with the TSAR software, a set of example problems is included with the TSAR distribution.

  7. Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project: Off Base 10, Working with Years, Months, Weeks, Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Fern S.; Kingston, Neldon

    Developed by the Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project, the manual presents an instructional program to teach mainstreamed handicapped elementary school students how to tell and compute time in terms of years, months, weeks, and days. In addition to the basic time facts, the lessons cover carrying or borrowing with off-base-10 time facts, and…

  8. Graded Smad2/3 Activation Is Converted Directly into Levels of Target Gene Expression in Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Mavrakis, Konstantinos J.; Goggolidou, Paraskevi; Norris, Dominic P.; Episkopou, Vasso

    2009-01-01

    The Transforming Growth Factor (TGF) β signalling family includes morphogens, such as Nodal and Activin, with important functions in vertebrate development. The concentration of the morphogen is critical for fate decisions in the responding cells. Smad2 and Smad3 are effectors of the Nodal/Activin branch of TGFβ signalling: they are activated by receptors, enter the nucleus and directly transcribe target genes. However, there have been no studies correlating levels of Smad2/3 activation with expression patterns of endogenous target genes in a developmental context over time. We used mouse Embryonic Stem (ES) cells to create a system whereby levels of activated Smad2/3 can be manipulated by an inducible constitutively active receptor (Alk4*) and an inhibitor (SB-431542) that blocks specifically Smad2/3 activation. The transcriptional responses were analysed by microarrays at different time points during activation and repression. We identified several genes that follow faithfully and reproducibly the Smad2/3 activation profile. Twenty-seven of these were novel and expressed in the early embryo downstream of Smad2/3 signalling. As they responded to Smad2/3 activation in the absence of protein synthesis, they were considered direct. These immediate responsive genes included negative intracellular feedback factors, like SnoN and I-Smad7, which inhibit the transcriptional activity of Smad2/3. However, their activation did not lead to subsequent repression of target genes over time, suggesting that this type of feedback is inefficient in ES cells or it is counteracted by mechanisms such as ubiquitin-mediated degradation by Arkadia. Here we present an ES cell system along with a database containing the expression profile of thousands of genes downstream of Smad2/3 activation patterns, in the presence or absence of protein synthesis. Furthermore, we identify primary target genes that follow proportionately and with high sensitivity changes in Smad2/3 levels over 15–30

  9. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  10. The acute, developmental, genetic and inhalation toxicology of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf).

    PubMed

    Tveit, Ann; Rusch, George M; Muijser, Hans; Tegelenbosch-Schouten, Mariska-M

    2013-10-01

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is being developed as a refrigerant because it has a very low global warming potential (less than 10), as contrasted to the hydrofluorocarbons, which is intended to replace with values of over 500. Several toxicology studies were conducted to develop a toxicology profile for this material. There was no lethality in mice and rats receiving single 4-hour exposures up to 101,850 or 405,800 ppm, respectively. Additionally, there was no mortality or clinical signs of toxicity when rabbits were exposed to 100,000 ppm for 1 hour. Exposures up to 120,000 ppm did not induce cardiac sensitization to adrenalin in dogs. Rats were exposed to HFO-1234yf at levels of 5000, 20,000 and 50,000 ppm 6 hours/day 5 days/week for 2 weeks and at levels of 5000, 15,000 and 50,000 ppm for 4 weeks and for 90 days. No treatment-related adverse effects were noted in these studies. HFO-1234yf was not genotoxic in a mouse and a rat micronucleus assay, and unscheduled DNA synthesis assay and was not clastogenic in human lymphocytes. HFO-1234yf was mutagenic to Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 and Escherichia coli (WP2 uvrA) at concentrations of 20% and higher in the presence of metabolic activation only. There were no biologically significant effects in a rat developmental toxicity study with exposures up to 50,000 ppm.

  11. Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

  12. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  13. Liquid chromatographic resolution of 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines on a chiral stationary phase based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Areum; Choi, Hee Jung; Jin, Kab Bong; Hyun, Myung Ho

    2011-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic chiral stationary phase (CSP) based on (+)-(18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid was applied for the first time to the resolution of biologically important 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. The unusual resolution of cyclic secondary amino compounds on a chiral crown ether-based CSP was quite successful with the use of a mixture of methanol-acetonitrile-triethylamine at a ratio of 30/70/0.5 (v/v/v) as a mobile phase. From the chromatographic behaviours for the resolution of seven 1-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines, the steric bulkiness of the 1-phenyl ring at the chiral center of analytes was concluded to play an important role in the chiral recognition.

  14. Effect of tocopherol on biochemical blood parameters in pleuritis-induced rats treated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin.

    PubMed

    Całkosiński, Ireneusz; Rosińczuk-Tonderys, Joanna; Bronowicka-Szydełko, Agnieszka; Dzierzba, Katarzyna; Bazan, Justyna; Dobrzyński, Maciej; Majda, Jacek; Gamian, Andrzej

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tocopherol on pleuritis-induced rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Rats were treated with a single TCDD dose of 5 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) and then for 3 weeks they were daily supplemented with tocopherol at a dose of 30 mg/kg b.w. The inflammation was initiated by intrapleural injection of a single dose of 1% carrageenin solution in a volume of 0.15 ml. Changes in biochemical blood parameters were measured three times at the 24th, 72nd and 120th hour of pleuritis and the blood was collected from 20 animals of each group of rats (group with the control inflammation; group treated with TCDD and with control inflammation; group treated with TCDD, supplemented with tocopherol and with the inflammation). The following biochemical parameters were measured: tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, procollagen, telopeptide, fibrinogen, cholesterol, urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT) and alanine aminotransferase (AlAT). Daily supplementation of tocopherol caused significant changes in the level of TNF, IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, urea, creatinine, AspAT and AlAT. According to the results of these studies, we suggest that tocopherol supplementation in high doses could act as a protective treatment to improve liver metabolism.

  15. Hypertension, Cardiac Hypertrophy, and Impaired Vascular Relaxation Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin are Associated with Increased Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Phillip G.; Huwe, Janice K.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases the incidence of human cardiovascular disease are not known. We investigated the degree to which cardiovascular disease develops in mice following subchronic TCDD exposure. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were dosed with vehicle or 300 ng TCDD/kg by oral gavage three times per week for 60 days. Blood pressure was recorded by radiotelemetry and aortic endothelial function was assessed by acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation. Mean arterial pressure of TCDD-exposed mice was increased significantly by day 4 and between days 7–10, 25–35, and 45–60 with two periods of normalization on days 11–24 and days 36–39. Consistent with a prolonged period of systemic hypertension, heart weight was increased and was associated with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Significant increases in superoxide production also were observed in the kidney, heart, and aorta of TCDD-exposed mice. Furthermore, increased aortic superoxide resulted in endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in TCDD-exposed mice, which was restored by tempol, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic. Our model is the first to definitely demonstrate that sustained AhR activation by TCDD increases blood pressure and induces cardiac hypertrophy, which may be mediated, in part, by increased superoxide. PMID:18850075

  16. Developmental characteristics in sustained fetal tachycardia in 30 to 41 weeks of gestation.

    PubMed

    Shono, H; Muro, M; Shono, M; Ito, Y; Uchiyama, A; Sugimori, H

    1998-05-29

    The aim of the present study is to reveal gestational age-related changes in sustained foetal tachycardia (SFT). 24 h fetal heart rate (FHR) recordings were made on 102 normal pregnant women in 30-41 weeks of gestation. SFT was defined as an increase for 20 or more beats per minute from the FHR-baseline persisting for more than 20 min. In the results, SFTs in 38-39 weeks started during night-time (1900-0700) more frequently than during day-time (0700-1900) (P < 0.01, by chi-square test). The rate and duration were 0% and 0 min in 30-31 weeks of gestation, and increased to 85% and 114 min in 40-41 weeks, respectively. Two critical points were detected by a piecewise linear regression analysis: in the rate between 34-35 weeks and 36-37 weeks, and in the duration between 38-39 to 40-41 weeks. We conclude that gestational age-related changes in SFT depend on the developmental stages.

  17. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base). PMID:21068687

  18. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base).

  19. 13-week oral toxicity study of vinyl laurate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ben A R; Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2015-02-01

    Vinyl laurate (VL) is used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer, a component of chewing gum base. The safety of VL was examined in a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. VL was administered in corn coil by daily gavage (5 ml/kg bw/d) to four main groups (10 rats/sex) at doses of 0 (vehicle only), 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. The control and high-dose group comprised an additional 5 rats/sex which were kept untreated for a further 4 weeks until sacrifice (recovery groups). In addition to standard parameters, male and female fertility parameters were determined as well. There were no mortalities and treatment-related clinical signs. Neurobehavioral observations and motor activity assessment, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weights, feed and water intakes, blood cell counts, coagulation time, standard clinical chemical parameters and urinalyses, absolute and relative organ weights at the end of the treatment as well as macroscopic examination at necropsy and microscopic examination of standard organs and tissues did not show any treatment-related changes. Female and male fertility parameters (estrus cyclicity, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, sperm motility and morphology) were not affected by the treatment. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for VL was determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d, i.e. the highest dose level tested. PMID:25445296

  20. Delivering Twins At 37 Weeks May Help Prevent Stillbirths

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160834.html Delivering Twins at 37 Weeks May Help Prevent Stillbirths If babies share placenta, delivery should probably occur a week earlier, research suggests To use the sharing features ...

  1. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  2. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  3. Time course for recovery of peak aerobic power after blood donation.

    PubMed

    Judd, Tyler B; Cornish, Stephen M; Barss, Trevor S; Oroz, Irina; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2011-11-01

    Peak aerobic power (VO2peak) is decreased after blood donation, but the time course for full recovery is unknown. We measured VO2peak and exercise time to fatigue before and weekly for 4 weeks after 450-ml blood donation at a blood donor clinic, to determine the time course of recovery. Twelve moderately active individuals (2 women, 10 men; 24.3 ± 5.2 years) of average aerobic fitness (based on their VO2peak relative to normative values) completed VO2peak exercise tests before donation, the day after donation, and at weekly intervals for 4 weeks after donation. VO2peak was determined by an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. At baseline, mean absolute and relative VO2peak values were 4.06 ± 0.92 L·min(-1) and 46.6 ± 7.0 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively. VO2peak was significantly decreased on day 1 (3.85 ± 0.89 L·min(-1); 44.0 ± 6.5 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and during week 2 (3.91 ± 0.97 L·min(-1); 44.5 ± 7.2 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) after blood donation (p < 0.05), and recovered at week 3 after donation. Time to fatigue and peak heart rate were not significantly affected by blood donation. We conclude that blood donation causes a significant decrease in VO2peak for between 2 and 3 weeks. The practical application of this study is that aerobic power in people of average fitness will be decreased, up to 3 weeks after donating blood. Despite this, there is no effect of blood donation on performance as measured by time to fatigue during an incremental test on a cycle ergometer.

  4. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  5. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  6. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 60, Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  7. The 4-Day School Week. The Informed Educator Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donis-Keller, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This "Informed Educator" examines the use of a 4-day school week as a way to reduce expenses while using limited resources most effectively. Discussion focuses on various models of 4-day week schedules, what to do during the fifth day, and how 4-day school weeks affect extracurricular activities. Detailed discussion of financial savings, student…

  8. 78 FR 30723 - National Safe Boating Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-12399 Filed 5-21-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... May 22, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 8981--National Safe Boating Week, 2013 Proclamation 8982--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013 Proclamation 8983--World Trade Week, 2013 Proclamation...

  9. 77 FR 31143 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-12876 Filed 5-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295... May 24, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8824--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012 Proclamation 8825--National Safe Boating Week, 2012 Proclamation 8826--National Small Business Week,...

  10. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  11. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 60, Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  12. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  13. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  14. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  15. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  16. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  17. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  18. Development of a Mutant Strain of Bacillus polymyxa Showing Enhanced Production of 2,3-Butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Mallonee, D. H.; Speckman, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic α-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant. PMID:16347522

  19. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  20. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  1. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  2. Structural analysis of the transitional state of Arp2/3 complex activation by two actin-WCAs

    PubMed Central

    Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Kast, David J.; Dominguez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Actin filament nucleation and branching by Arp2/3 complex is activated by nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), whose C-terminal WCA region contains binding sites for actin (W) and Arp2/3 complex (CA). It is debated whether one or two NPFs are required for activation. Here, we present conclusive evidence in support of the two-NPF model and show that actin plays a crucial role in the interactions of two mammalian NPFs, N-WASP and WAVE2, with Arp2/3 complex. Competition between actin-WCA and glia maturation factor (GMF) for binding to Arp2/3 complex suggests that during activation the first actin monomer binds at the barbed end of Arp2. Based on distance constrains obtained by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we define the relative position of the two actin-WCAs on Arp2/3 complex and propose an atomic model of the 11-subunit transitional complex. PMID:24518936

  3. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  4. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-08-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05-0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000-40 000 Ω cm(2)) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1-3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks.

  5. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  6. Ovarian Features after 2 Weeks, 3 Weeks and 4 Weeks Transdermal Testosterone Gel Treatment and Their Associated Effect on IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of of transdermal testosterone gel (TTG) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and IVF outcomes and ovarian morphology according to pretreatment duration in poor responders. A total of 120 women were recruited for this pilot study. They were randomized into control, 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks TTG treatment groups. For three TTG treatment groups, 12.5 mg TTG was applied daily for 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks in preceding period of study stimulation cycle. After 3 weeks of TTG pretreatment, significant increase of antral follicle count (AFC) and significant decreases of mean follicular diameter (MFD) and resistance index (RI) value of ovarian stromal artery were observed (p=0.026, p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). The total dose of rhFSH administered for COS significantly decreased after 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment both compared with control group (p<0.001, p<0.001). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes were significanty higher in 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment groups than control group (p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of oocytes retrieved; p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of mature oocytes). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were increased only in 4 weeks TTG treatment group compared with control group (p=0.030 and p=0.042, respectively). These data demonstrated that TTG pretreatment for 3 to 4 weeks increases AFC and ovarian stromal blood flow, thereby potentially improving the ovarian response to COS and IVF outcome in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:25949183

  7. Cortical Reorganisation during a 30-Week Tinnitus Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine M; Ibrahim, Ronny K; Mathur, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is characterised by the conscious perception of a phantom sound. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic tinnitus have disrupted sound-evoked cortical tonotopic maps, time-shifted evoked auditory responses, and altered oscillatory cortical activity. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) compare sound-evoked brain responses and cortical tonotopic maps in individuals with bilateral tinnitus and those without tinnitus; and (ii) investigate whether changes in these sound-evoked responses occur with amelioration of the tinnitus percept during a 30-week tinnitus treatment program. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 12 bilateral tinnitus participants and 10 control normal-hearing subjects reporting no tinnitus were recorded at baseline, using 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz tones presented monaurally at 70 dBSPL through insert tube phones. For the tinnitus participants, MEG recordings were obtained at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30- week time points during tinnitus treatment. Results for the 500 Hz and 1000 Hz sources (where hearing thresholds were within normal limits for all participants) showed that the tinnitus participants had a significantly larger and more anteriorly located source strengths when compared to the non-tinnitus participants. During the 30-week tinnitus treatment, the participants' 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source strengths remained higher than the non-tinnitus participants; however, the source locations shifted towards the direction recorded from the non-tinnitus control group. Further, in the left hemisphere, there was a time-shifted association between the trajectory of change of the individual's objective (source strength and anterior-posterior source location) and subjective measures (using tinnitus reaction questionnaire, TRQ). The differences in source strength between the two groups suggest that individuals with tinnitus have enhanced central gain which is not significantly influenced by the tinnitus

  8. Cortical Reorganisation during a 30-Week Tinnitus Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Catherine M.; Ibrahim, Ronny K.; Mathur, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is characterised by the conscious perception of a phantom sound. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic tinnitus have disrupted sound-evoked cortical tonotopic maps, time-shifted evoked auditory responses, and altered oscillatory cortical activity. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) compare sound-evoked brain responses and cortical tonotopic maps in individuals with bilateral tinnitus and those without tinnitus; and (ii) investigate whether changes in these sound-evoked responses occur with amelioration of the tinnitus percept during a 30-week tinnitus treatment program. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 12 bilateral tinnitus participants and 10 control normal-hearing subjects reporting no tinnitus were recorded at baseline, using 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz tones presented monaurally at 70 dBSPL through insert tube phones. For the tinnitus participants, MEG recordings were obtained at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30- week time points during tinnitus treatment. Results for the 500 Hz and 1000 Hz sources (where hearing thresholds were within normal limits for all participants) showed that the tinnitus participants had a significantly larger and more anteriorly located source strengths when compared to the non-tinnitus participants. During the 30-week tinnitus treatment, the participants’ 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source strengths remained higher than the non-tinnitus participants; however, the source locations shifted towards the direction recorded from the non-tinnitus control group. Further, in the left hemisphere, there was a time-shifted association between the trajectory of change of the individual’s objective (source strength and anterior-posterior source location) and subjective measures (using tinnitus reaction questionnaire, TRQ). The differences in source strength between the two groups suggest that individuals with tinnitus have enhanced central gain which is not significantly influenced by the

  9. Bisecting and behavior: lateral inattention predicts 8-week academic performance.

    PubMed

    Drake, Roger A

    2002-10-01

    Converging evidence supports a left hemisphere role in defensive repression and sensation seeking. This led to the hypothesis that students with a relatively active left hemisphere would perform poorly during 8 weeks of a college class. The measure of relative hemispheric activation was the visual line-bisecting task given early in the course. The hypothesis was supported. Previous evidence that activation asymmetry is stable over time was supported because the single measurement of line bisecting was a longitudinal predictor of multiple behaviors. A temporal pattern of increasing correlation between the bisecting and performance measures favors a feedback repression model. Alternative explanations based on sensation seeking, subject-matter repression, and cooperation were considered but not eliminated.

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  11. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...

  12. 40 CFR 35.935-4 - Step 2+3 projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Step 2+3 projects. 35.935-4 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.935-4 Step 2+3 projects. A grantee which has received step 2=3 grant assistance must make submittals required...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  19. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  20. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  1. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  2. 14 CFR Sec. 2-3 - Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distribution of revenues and expenses within entities. Sec. 2-3 Section 2-3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-3 Distribution of revenues and expenses...

  3. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  4. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  5. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  6. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  7. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10140 - Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10140 Phosphoric acid, tin (2+) salt (2:3). (a) Chemical substance and...+) salt (2:3) (PMN P-06-33, CAS No. 15578-32-2) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  13. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  14. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  15. Modeling and forecasting of KLCI weekly return using WT-ANN integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Wei-Thong; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Hussain, Saiful Izzuan; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    The forecasting of weekly return is one of the most challenging tasks in investment since the time series are volatile and non-stationary. In this study, an integrated model of wavelet transform and artificial neural network, WT-ANN is studied for modeling and forecasting of KLCI weekly return. First, the WT is applied to decompose the weekly return time series in order to eliminate noise. Then, a mathematical model of the time series is constructed using the ANN. The performance of the suggested model will be evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The result shows that the WT-ANN model can be considered as a feasible and powerful model for time series modeling and prediction.

  16. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  17. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: LONGITUDINAL NATURAL HISTORY OBSERVATIONS OVER 48 WEEKS FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Mcdonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine M; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects ≥5 years with nonsense mutations were followed for 48 weeks in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ataluren. Placebo arm data (N = 57) provided insight into the natural history of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Evaluations performed every 6 weeks included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), and quantitative strength using hand-held myometry. Results: Baseline age (≥7 years), 6MWD, and selected TFT performance are strong predictors of decline in ambulation (Δ6MWD) and time to 10% worsening in 6MWD. A baseline 6MWD of <350 meters was associated with greater functional decline, and loss of ambulation was only seen in those with baseline 6MWD <325 meters. Only 1 of 42 (2.3%) subjects able to stand from supine lost ambulation. Conclusion: Findings confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the 6MWD as the most accepted primary clinical endpoint in ambulatory DMD trials. PMID:23681930

  18. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of...

  19. Production of 2,3-butanediol from xylose by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Jung; Seo, Seung-Oh; Park, Yong-Cheol; Jin, Yong-Su; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2014-12-20

    2,3-Butanediol (2,3-BD) production from xylose that is abundant in lignocellulosic hydrolyzate would make the production of 2,3-BD more sustainable and economical. Saccharomyces cerevisiae can produce only trace amounts of 2,3-BD, but also cannot ferment xylose. Therefore, it is necessary to introduce both 2,3-BD production and xylose assimilation pathways into S. cerevisiae for producing 2,3-BD from xylose. A pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc)-deficient mutant (SOS4) was used as a host in order to increase carbon flux toward 2,3-BD instead of ethanol. The XYL1, XYL2, and XYL3 genes coding for xylose assimilating enzymes derived from Scheffersomyces stipitis were introduced into the SOS4 strain to enable xylose utilization. Additionally, the alsS and alsD genes from Bacillus subtilis and endogenous BDH1 gene were overexpressed to increase 2,3-BD production from xylose. As a result, the resulting strain (BD4X) produced 20.7g/L of 2,3-BD from xylose with a yield of 0.27g 2,3-BD/g xylose. The titer of 2,3-BD from xylose increased up to 43.6g/L under a fed-batch fermentation. The BD4X strain produced (R, R)-2,3-BD dominantly (>97% of the total 2,3-BD) with trace amounts of meso-2,3-BD. These results suggest that S. cerevisiae might be a promising host for producing 2,3-BD from lignocellulosic biomass for industrial applications.

  20. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Duy T.; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G.

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  1. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo.

  2. Arp2/3-mediated F-actin formation controls regulated exocytosis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duy T; Masedunskas, Andrius; Weigert, Roberto; Ten Hagen, Kelly G

    2015-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton plays crucial roles in many cellular processes, including regulated secretion. However, the mechanisms controlling F-actin dynamics in this process are largely unknown. Through 3D time-lapse imaging in a secreting organ, we show that F-actin is actively disassembled along the apical plasma membrane at the site of secretory vesicle fusion and re-assembled directionally on vesicle membranes. Moreover, we show that fusion pore formation and PIP2 redistribution precedes actin and myosin recruitment to secretory vesicle membranes. Finally, we show essential roles for the branched actin nucleators Arp2/3- and WASp in the process of secretory cargo expulsion and integration of vesicular membranes with the apical plasma membrane. Our results highlight previously unknown roles for branched actin in exocytosis and provide a genetically tractable system to image the temporal and spatial dynamics of polarized secretion in vivo. PMID:26639106

  3. The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) in TCDD-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Cheng Catsby.

    1989-01-01

    Halogenated aryl hydrocarbon(HAH)-induced porphyria is caused by alteration of porphyrin metabolism and results in the accumulation of hepatic and urinary porphyrins. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (75 {mu}/kg) caused significant increases of hepatic porphyrin levels in C57BL/6 male, female and ovariectomized female, and C57BL/10 male mice 3 weeks after treatment. In contrast, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) was inactive at a dose of 750 {mu}mol/kg. Cotreatment with MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD (75 {mu}g/kg) resulted in partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyrin accumulation in female but not in male mice. In female C57BL/6 mice, 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyria was accompanied by the induction of hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and the inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) activity. MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) did not significantly affect these enzyme activities. In coadministration studies, MCDF partially antagonized 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatic porphyrin accumulation but did not affect the activities of hepatic AHH, EROD or UROD. These results demonstrate that the induction of the monooxygenase enzyme activities and the inhibition of UROD activity by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the development of porphyria are not coordinately regulated in C57BL/6 female mice. In cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, 2,3,7,8-TCDD caused a significant increase in porphyrin levels and induced AHH and EROD activities. MCDF and Aroclor 1254 partially antagonized the 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced AHH and EROD activities but not the porphyrin accumulation.

  4. Real-Time Study of Prostate Intrafraction Motion During External Beam Radiotherapy With Daily Endorectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Stefan; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Plastaras, John P.; Deville, Curtiland; Bar Ad, Voika; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate intrafraction prostate motion during radiofrequency-guided prostate radiotherapy with implanted electromagnetic transponders when daily endorectal balloon (ERB) is used. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction prostate motion from 24 patients in 787 treatment sessions was evaluated based on three-dimensional (3D), lateral, cranial-caudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) displacements. The mean percentage of time with 3D, lateral, CC, and AP prostate displacements >2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm in 1 minute intervals was calculated for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Correlation between the mean percentage time with 3D prostate displacement >3 mm vs. treatment week was investigated. Results: The percentage of time with 3D prostate movement >2, 3, and 4 mm increased with elapsed treatment time (p < 0.05). Prostate movement >5 mm was independent of elapsed treatment time (p = 0.11). The overall mean time with prostate excursions >3 mm was 5%. Directional analysis showed negligible lateral prostate motion; AP and CC motion were comparable. The fraction of time with 3D prostate movement >3 mm did not depend on treatment week of (p > 0.05) over a 4-minute mean treatment time. Conclusions: Daily endorectal balloon consistently stabilizes the prostate, preventing clinically significant displacement (>5 mm). A 3-mm internal margin may sufficiently account for 95% of intrafraction prostate movement for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Directional analysis suggests that the lateral internal margin could be further reduced to 2 mm.

  5. Non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) decreases functional disorders in cytotoxic brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Häntzschel, A; Andreas, K

    2000-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors were found to be involved in development of functional disorders caused by hexachlorophene. In order to specify the role of glutamate receptors we studied the protective effects of the selective antagonist of the kainate/(+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor/channel 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2, 3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide disodium (NBQX) and of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil tartrate on coordinative motor behaviour of adult male Wistar rats as assessed in a simple 'ladder-test'. Neurotoxic injury of the cerebrum after hexachlorophene administration and putative amelioration after treatment with test substances was demonstrated histologically. Hexachlorophene-induced motor disturbance remitted spontaneously when stopping the noxis, but remittance occurred significantly earlier when NBQX [0.45 and 0.6 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)] was applied as well. Ifenprodil (0.15 to 1.2 mg/kg) did not improve the motor function. Vacuolation of white matter of the whole cerebrum was observed after 3 weeks of treatment with hexachlorophene. These morphological alterations caused by hexachlorophene treatment [central nervous system (CNS) vacuolation] spontaneously revert only after 5-6 weeks. The 5-day duration with test substances was too short for remission of vacuolation which thus may not apply to the situation after treatment with glutamate antagonists, despite improvement of motor function. The results suggest that kainate/AMPA receptor channels are at least partially involved in the mechanism of brain damage induced by hexachlorophene, however, the polyamine binding site of the NMDA receptor evidently is not involved. PMID:10663390

  6. Effects of Improvac and Bopriva on the testicular function of boars ten weeks after immunization.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Nicholas; Crouch, Spencer; Pearl, Christopher A

    2013-11-30

    This study investigated the effects of Improvac and Bopriva, two anti-GnRF immunization products, on testicular function in boars. We predicted that both products would diminish testicular function; however, we specifically tested the hypothesis that the duration of efficacy for Bopriva would be longer than that of Improvac. Animals were immunized with either Improvac or Bopriva and then observed ten weeks after the second injection. Serum GnRF antibody titers rose after the second injection and peaked approximately two weeks later. At the same time testosterone concentrations decreased to undetectable levels and remained below assay detection for at least six weeks. At approximately eight weeks, testosterone began to increase in animals treated with Improvac though levels remained decreased in Bopriva treated animals throughout the ten weeks. Daily sperm production at 10 weeks was significantly reduced in both treatment groups; however, the reduction was greater in Bopriva treated boars. Examination of testes of both treatments revealed incomplete spermatogenesis with impaired spermatid production and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter. These findings were universal in Bopriva treated animals, but Improvac treated animals exhibited morphologies intermediate between Bopriva treated animals and control boars. Overall testicular function in Bopriva boars remained suppressed ten weeks post-immunization while Improvac boars appeared to be recovering. PMID:24139761

  7. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  8. [Effect of rhG-CSF on blood coagulation in beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron].

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Han, Qin-Fang; Liu, Xiao-Lan; Xing, Shuang; Xiong, Guo-Lin; Xie, Ling; Zhao, Yan-Fang; Yu, Zu-Yin; Ding, Yi-Bo; Zhao, Zhen-Hu; Cong, Yu-Wen; Luo, Qing-Liang

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of recombinant human granulocyte stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) on blood coagulation of beagles irradiated by 2.3 Gy neutron so as to provide new therapy for blood coagulation disorder after neutron irradiation. 10 beagles were exposed to 2.3 Gy neutron, and then randomly assigned into supportive care group and rhG-CSF-treated group. The rhG-CSF-treated cohorts were injected subcutaneously with rhG-CSF (10 µg/kg·d) beginning at the day of exposure for 21 consecutive days. Peripheral blood platelet counts were examined once every two days. In vitro platelet aggregation test, thromboelastography and blood clotting tetrachoric tests were also performed. The results indicated that the blood clotting system of irradiated dogs was in hypercoagulable state in the early days after 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation, and became hypocoagulable at crisis later and were mainly on intrinsic coagulation pathway. Blood fibrinogen increased markedly during the course of disease, while platelet counts and aggregation function were decreased remarkably. rhG-CSF administered daily could correct hypercoagulable state induced by 2.3 Gy neutron irradiation at the early time post exposure, shortened the thromboplastin generation time and clotting formation, down-regulated the abnormal high fibrinogen in blood, and improved platelet aggregation function. It is concluded that rhG-CSF can improve coagulation disorders of irradiated dogs.

  9. Pharmacological and haematological results of rat skin burn injury treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4.

    PubMed

    Malakyan, Margarita H; Bajinyan, Sergey A; Abrahamyan, Armenuhi K; Petrosyan, Zhasmena H; Harutyunyan, Nektar K; Badiryan, Vardush A; Sorenson, John R J

    2004-01-01

    This research was performed to determine whether or not treatment of burn-injured rats with Cu(II)2(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)4(Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4) facilitated recovery from burn-injury. Four groups of adult male rats received a standard skin burn 1 h before an initial subcutaneous treatment which was continued daily for three days with either 0, 5, 10 or 20micromol Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4/kg body mass. A fifth group was given no treatment. A sixth group served as a non-burn-injured non-treated normal control group. At 3 h and on days 1, 2, 3, 7 and 14 post-burn-injury blood samples were obtained from rats in all groups for the determination of leukocyte, platelet and erythrocyte counts, clotting times, hemoglobin and hematocrit values. Total protein and middle mass peptides in plasma, as well as plasma lipid and erythrocyte membrane peroxidation products were determined on days 7 and 14. Burn wound healing and body mass were determined daily from day 0 to 6 with a notation of crust rejection by day 14. Treatment with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 produced effects consistent with a facilitation of Cu-dependent immune-mediated physiological inflammatory responses to burn injury. It is concluded that treatment of burn injury with Cu(II)2(3,5-DIPS)4 supports Cu-dependent physiological responses involved in overcoming burn injury, which may have been further optimized by continued treatment beyond day 2, the last day of treatment. PMID:15901413

  10. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: A combined experimental and theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M.; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C6H3B(OH)2F2) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm-1) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm-1) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. 13C and 1H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  11. Elucidating Key Motifs Required for Arp2/3-Dependent and Independent Actin Nucleation by Las17/WASP

    PubMed Central

    Urbanek, Agnieszka N.; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I.

    2016-01-01

    Actin nucleation is the key rate limiting step in the process of actin polymerization, and tight regulation of this process is critical to ensure actin filaments form only at specific times and at defined regions of the cell. Arp2/3 is a well-characterised protein complex that can promote nucleation of new filaments, though its activity requires additional nucleation promotion factors (NPFs). The best recognized of these factors are the WASP family of proteins that contain binding motifs for both monomeric actin and for Arp2/3. Previously we demonstrated that the yeast WASP homologue, Las17, in addition to activating Arp2/3 can also nucleate actin filaments de novo, independently of Arp2/3. This activity is dependent on its polyproline rich region. Through biochemical and in vivo analysis we have now identified key motifs within the polyproline region that are required for nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, and have addressed the role of the WH2 domain in the context of actin nucleation without Arp2/3. We have also demonstrated that full length Las17 is able to bind liposomes giving rise to the possibility of direct linkage of nascent actin filaments to specific membrane sites to which Las17 has been recruited. Overall, we propose that Las17 functions as the key initiator of de novo actin filament formation at endocytic sites by nucleating, elongating and tethering nascent filaments which then serve as a platform for Arp2/3 recruitment and function. PMID:27637067

  12. Elucidating Key Motifs Required for Arp2/3-Dependent and Independent Actin Nucleation by Las17/WASP.

    PubMed

    Allwood, Ellen G; Tyler, Joe J; Urbanek, Agnieszka N; Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Actin nucleation is the key rate limiting step in the process of actin polymerization, and tight regulation of this process is critical to ensure actin filaments form only at specific times and at defined regions of the cell. Arp2/3 is a well-characterised protein complex that can promote nucleation of new filaments, though its activity requires additional nucleation promotion factors (NPFs). The best recognized of these factors are the WASP family of proteins that contain binding motifs for both monomeric actin and for Arp2/3. Previously we demonstrated that the yeast WASP homologue, Las17, in addition to activating Arp2/3 can also nucleate actin filaments de novo, independently of Arp2/3. This activity is dependent on its polyproline rich region. Through biochemical and in vivo analysis we have now identified key motifs within the polyproline region that are required for nucleation and elongation of actin filaments, and have addressed the role of the WH2 domain in the context of actin nucleation without Arp2/3. We have also demonstrated that full length Las17 is able to bind liposomes giving rise to the possibility of direct linkage of nascent actin filaments to specific membrane sites to which Las17 has been recruited. Overall, we propose that Las17 functions as the key initiator of de novo actin filament formation at endocytic sites by nucleating, elongating and tethering nascent filaments which then serve as a platform for Arp2/3 recruitment and function. PMID:27637067

  13. Molecular structure investigation and spectroscopic studies on 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid: a combined experimental and theoretical analysis.

    PubMed

    Karabacak, Mehmet; Kose, Etem; Atac, Ahmet; Ali Cipiloglu, M; Kurt, Mustafa

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the characterization of 2,3-difluorophenylboronic acid (abbreviated as 2,3-DFPBA, C(6)H(3)B(OH)(2)F(2)) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman UV-Vis, (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and the FT-Raman spectrum (3500-10 cm(-1)) in the solid phase were recorded for 2,3-DFPBA. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA that dissolved in water and ethanol were recorded in the range of 200-400 nm. There are four possible conformers for this molecule. The computational results diagnose the most stable conformer of the 2,3-DFPBA as the trans-cis form. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained for all four conformers from DFT (B3LYP) with 6-311++G (d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the experimental results and total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. We obtained good consistency between experimental and theoretical spectra. (13)C and (1)H NMR chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, absorption wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, were performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. Finally the calculation results were analyzed to simulate infrared, Raman, NMR and UV spectra of the 2,3-DFPBA which show good agreement with observed spectra. PMID:22902933

  14. Proteomic changes at 8 weeks after infection are associated with chronic liver pathology in experimental schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Bhagyashree; Jordan, T William; Secor, W Evan; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2012-03-16

    Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection can present as a moderate or severe disease, termed intestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, respectively. Similarly, either moderate splenomegaly or hypersplenomegaly syndrome develops in CBA/J mice by 20weeks of infection and is similar to intestinal or hepatosplenic schistosomiasis respectively. Using this mouse model and two-dimensional differential in gel electrophoresis, the liver proteomic signatures of uninfected mice and mice infected for 6, 8, 12, or 20weeks were compared, and significant protein spots identified using mass spectrometry. We found the greatest number of changes at 12weeks suggesting that this period represents the peak time of change. Pathway analysis identified specific proteins and pathways that correlated to the pathological changes indicative of severe disease, and these pathways were involved as early as 8weeks after infection. These findings provide insight into the development of severe liver pathology in schistosomiasis and may aid in developing biomarkers for hepatosplenic schistosomiasis.

  15. Graduate student voice use and vocal efficiency in an opera rehearsal week: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schloneger, Matthew J

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this case study was to document graduate voice students' (N=2) voice use before, during, and after an intense week of opera rehearsals through (1) acquired Ambulatory Phonation Monitor (APM) data, (2) daily surveys, (3) participant activity logs, (4) three administrations of the Singing Voice Handicap Index (SVHI), and (5) pre- and post-stroboscopic laryngeal examinations. Two female graduate students, both of whom were cast in a university production of Stravinsky's The Rake's Progress (stage names Anne and Baba) and both of whom served as graduate teaching assistants in voice, wore APMs during waking hours for 9 days, including two pretest baseline days, a 5-day intensive rehearsal week just before the opera production week, and 2 baseline days after opera performances were completed. Mean phonation time dose percentages (Dt) and daily distance dose averages (Dd) were similar between the pre- and posttest periods and the intensive week. Disaggregation of acquired data by four types of activities (opera rehearsals, personal practice time, voice teaching time, and nonrehearsal or teaching time) indicated that the highest mean Dts and Dds were acquired during personal practice time and voice teaching time. Daily surveys and SVHI data as well as the pre- and post-stroboscopies indicated no notable changes occurring in vocal health. Results indicated that these singers were conscious about their voice use during periods of extensive performance demands. However, high vocal doses during voice teaching times suggest that these individuals might benefit from teacher voice care education.

  16. Final report on Weeks Island Monitoring Phase : 1999 through 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2005-05-01

    This Final Report on the Monitoring Phase of the former Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facility details the results of five years of monitoring of various surface accessible quantities at the decommissioned facility. The Weeks Island mine was authorized by the State of Louisiana as a Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage facility from 1979 until decommissioning of the facility in 1999. Discovery of a sinkhole over the facility in 1992 with freshwater inflow to the facility threatened the integrity of the oil storage and led to the decision to remove the oil, fill the chambers with brine, and decommission the facility. Thereafter, a monitoring phase, by agreement between the Department of Energy and the State, addressed facility stability and environmental concerns. Monitoring of the surface ground water and the brine of the underground chambers from the East Fill Hole produced no evidence of hydrocarbon contamination, which suggests that any unrecovered oil remaining in the underground chambers has been contained. Ever diminishing progression of the initial major sinkhole, and a subsequent minor sinkhole, with time was verification of the response of sinkholes to filling of the facility with brine. Brine filling of the facility ostensively eliminates any further growth or new formation from freshwater inflow. Continued monitoring of sinkhole response, together with continued surface surveillance for environmental problems, confirmed the intended results of brine pressurization. Surface subsidence measurements over the mine continued throughout the monitoring phase. And finally, the outward flow of brine was monitored as a measure of the creep closure of the mine chambers. Results of each of these monitoring activities are presented, with their correlation toward assuring the stability and environmental security of the decommissioned facility. The results suggest that the decommissioning was successful and no contamination of the

  17. Weekly Cycle of Lightning: Evidence of Storm Invigoration by Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2009-01-01

    We have examined summertime 1998 2009 U.S. lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to look for weekly cycles in lightning activity. As was found by Bell et al. (2008) for rain over the southeast U.S., there is a significant weekly cycle in afternoon lightning activity that peaks in the middle of the week there. The weekly cycle appears to be reduced over population centers. Lightning activity peaks on weekends over waters near the SE U.S. The statistical significance of weekly cycles over the western half of the country is generally small. We found no evidence of a weekly cycle of synoptic-scale forcing that might explain these patterns. The lightning behavior is entirely consistent with the explanation suggested by Bell et al. (2008) for the cycles in rainfall and other atmospheric data from the SE U.S., that aerosols can cause storms to intensify in humid, convectively unstable environments.

  18. SYNTHESIS AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF NEW 5H-INDOLO[2,3-B]QUINOLINE O-AMINOGLYCOSIDES.

    PubMed

    Badowska-Rosłonek, Katarzyna; Ciesielska, Agnieszka; Switalska, Marta; Piskozub, Małgorzata; Peczyńska-Czoch, Wanda; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Kaczmarek, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Novel 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline O-aminoglycosides were synthesized in order to check the hypothesis that the construction of hybrids composed of the active 5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline chromophore and daunosaminyl or acosaminyl moiety may result in the cytotoxic activity of the obtained derivatives that is much higher than the one of the parent DIMIQ (5,11-dimethyl-5H-indolo[2,3-b]quinoline) and 6H-indoloquinoline analogs. Actually, 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides showed the anti-proliferative activity in vitro against human lung adenocarcinoma A549, breast cancer MCF-7, melanoma Hs294T, promyelocytic leukemia HL-60, uterine sarcoma MES-SA and colon cancer LoVo cell lines, which was 10 times higher than that of the 6H-analogs and comparable to the one of the referential DIMIQ. Unexpectedly, it appeared that except for HL-60/MX2 (P-gp-independent and topoisomerase II-dependent resistance), other MDR tumor cell lines (LoVo/DX. P-gp-dependent, MRP-, LRP-dependent multidrug resistance) and MES-SA/DX5 (P-gp-dependent resistance to doxorubicin) are also resistant to the 5H-indolo[2,3-b]indoloquinoline O-aminoglycosides tested. This is surprising because 6H-analogs, in general, 10 times less active against non-MDR tumor cell lines, as well as the DIMIQ itself, are able to overcome drug resistance in all MDR cell lines examined. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds against tumor cell lines and against normal cells (mice fibroblasts BALB/3T3) was comparable. PMID:27476287

  19. The effect of 48 weeks of aerobic exercise training on cutaneous vasodilator function in post-menopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Sharp, Lisa; Stephenson, Claire; Patwala, Ashish Y; George, Keith P; Goldspink, David F; Tim Cable, N

    2010-04-01

    Skin blood flow (SkBF) and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation decline with ageing and can be reversed with exercise training. We tested whether 48 weeks of training could improve SkBF and endothelial function in post-menopausal females; 20 post-menopausal subjects completed the study. SkBF was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/blood pressure. Resting CVC was measured at 32 degrees C and peak CVC at 42 degrees C. Cutaneous endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilatations were determined by the iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. All assessments described were performed at entry (week 0), and after 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of training. Resting CVC measures did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the study. Peak CVC increased (P < 0.05) after 24 weeks (7.2 +/- 1.2 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.4 AU mmHg(-1)) and at the 36- and 48-week assessments (13.0 +/- 1.7 and 14.9 +/- 2.1 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Responses to ACh also increased (P < 0.05) at the 24-week assessment (5.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 8.55 +/- 2.3 AU mmHg(-1)) and increased further at the 36 and 48-week assessments (11.6 +/- 3.7 and 13.2 +/- 3.9 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Cutaneous responses to SNP increased (P < 0.05) after 36 weeks (8.7 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.02 +/- 2.23 AU mmHg(-1) at 36 weeks). VO(2max) increased after 12 weeks (23.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 25.4 +/- 0.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and improved (P < 0.05) further throughout the study (31.6 +/- 1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) at week 48). Aerobic exercise produces positive adaptations in the cutaneous vasodilator function to local heating as well as in cutaneous endothelial and endothelial-independent vasodilator mechanisms. Aerobic capacity was also significantly improved. These adaptations were further enhanced with progressive increases in exercise intensity.

  20. Meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and monoisoamyl DMSA effect on gallium arsenide induced pathological liver injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Flora, S J S; Dubey, Rupa; Kannan, G M; Chauhan, R S; Pant, B P; Jaiswal, D K

    2002-06-01

    The effect of meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and monoisoamyl DMSA (MiADMSA) on gallium arsenide (GaAs) induced liver damage was studied. The oral feeding rat model was used in this study. The animals were exposed to 10 mg/kg GaAs, orally, once daily, 5 days a week for 24 weeks and treated thereafter with single oral daily dose of either 0.3 mmol/kg DMSA or MiADMSA for two course of 5 days treatment. The animals were sacrificed thereafter. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS). Liver damage was assessed by number of biochemical variables and by light microscopy. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) beside reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration was measured in blood. Exposure to GaAs produced a significant reduction in GSH while, increased the oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentration. Hepatic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase activity increased significantly while level of serum transaminase increased moderately. Gallium arsenide exposure also produced marked hepatic histopathological lesions. Overall, treatment with MiADMSA proved to be better than DMSA in the mobilization of arsenic and in the turnover of some of the above mentioned GaAs sensitive biochemical alterations. Histopathological lesions also, responded more favorably to chelation treatment with MiADMSA than DMSA.

  1. [Children's diseases in the columns of "The Weekly Medicine"].

    PubMed

    Marek, Anna

    2005-01-01

    "The Weekly Medicine", the first scientific weekly journal, was published in Warsaw in the years 1847-1868. Its editor and publisher was L. Natanson. The weekly comprised original works, translations from foreign periodicals, books reviews, correspondence, biographies and reports from for example the Warsaw Medical Society. A lot of attention devoted to sickness from birth till adult. In "The Weekly Medicine" wrote polish authors and were very articles translations from foreign periodicals. Authors talked about younger children's illnesses: hydrocephalus, conjunctivitis, thrush, diarrhoea, convulsions, pleurisy, liver cancer, syphilis and teething. In articles have been descriptioned sickness and treatmented. Information about children's illnesses creating basis to develop independent pediatrics science.

  2. Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hassoun, E.; d'Argy, R.; Dencker, L.

    1984-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDBF) was administered in single doses (0.1-0.8 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally to pregnant C57BL mice on d 10, 11, 12, or 13 of gestation. A dose-dependent increase was observed in the frequency of fetal resorptions and fetal death, especially in the earlier stages (d 10-11). Cleft palate and hydronephrosis as well appeared in a dose-dependent manner, with a peak in sensitivity after administration on d 11-12. TCDBF given at a dose level of 0.1 mg/kg body weight on d 12 of gestation (only dose- and stage-tested) produced a marked thymic hypoplasia as well. A few cases of general hydrops occurred. The pattern of malformations and time of sensitivity corresponded well to that observed earlier after administration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; ED50 approx. = 25 ..mu..g/kg) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachloroazoxybenzene (TCAOB; ED50 approx. = 6 mg/kg), two congeners of TCDBF, indicating common mechanisms of action of this family of compounds. Ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) is an important enzyme in cell proliferation and growth with a high activity in embryonic tissues. Liver ODC activity has previously been found to be stimulated by TCDD in weanling mice. However, this enzyme was not found to be stimulated in fetal and placental tissues, but slightly in maternal kidney after treatment with TCDBF in teratogenic doses. It is possible that the ODC activity increases under certain conditions only, on administration of TCDD and its congeners. 40 references, 3 tables, 3 figures.

  3. meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid and prevention of arsenite embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Domingo, J L; Bosque, M A; Piera, V

    1991-08-01

    meso-2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), an antidote for the treatment of experimental and human poisoning by a number of heavy metals, has been reported to reduce the lethality of animals poisoned with arsenic more effectively than 2,3-dimercaptopropanol. In the present study, the effect of DMSA on arsenite-induced embryotoxic and teratogenic effects was evaluated in mice. In a first experiment, a series of four DMSA injections was administered sc to pregnant Swiss mice immediately after a single ip injection of 12 mg/kg of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) given on Day 10 of gestation, and at 24, 48, and 72 hr thereafter. DMSA effectiveness was assessed at dosage levels of 0, 80, 160, and 320 mg/kg/day. Treatment with DMSA significantly reduced the embryolethality and the incidence of gross external and skeletal malformations and variations provoked by NaAsO2. Based on these findings, the effect of increasing the time interval between acute arsenite exposure and initiation of DMSA therapy was investigated in a second experiment. On Day 10 of gestation, DMSA (320 mg/kg) was administered sc to pregnant mice at 0, 0.25, 0.50, 1, 4, or 12 hr after a 12-mg/kg ip dose of NaAsO2. Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity derived from NaAsO2 exposure were significantly reduced when DMSA was given during the first hour after NaAsO2 injection. According to these results, a delay between acute arsenite intoxication and DMSA treatment should be avoided to have a practical beneficial effect on the arsenite exposed conceptus.

  4. An extended dynamic model of Lactococcus lactis metabolism for mannitol and 2,3-butanediol production.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rafael S; Hartmann, Andras; Gaspar, Paula; Neves, Ana R; Vinga, Susana

    2014-03-01

    Biomedical research and biotechnological production are greatly benefiting from the results provided by the development of dynamic models of microbial metabolism. Although several kinetic models of Lactococcus lactis (a Lactic Acid Bacterium (LAB) commonly used in the dairy industry) have been developed so far, most of them are simplified and focus only on specific metabolic pathways. Therefore, the application of mathematical models in the design of an engineering strategy for the production of industrially important products by L. lactis has been very limited. In this work, we extend the existing kinetic model of L. lactis central metabolism to include industrially relevant production pathways such as mannitol and 2,3-butanediol. In this way, we expect to study the dynamics of metabolite production and make predictive simulations in L. lactis. We used a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with approximate Michaelis-Menten-like kinetics for each reaction, where the parameters were estimated from multivariate time-series metabolite concentrations obtained by our team through in vivo Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). The results show that the model captures observed transient dynamics when validated under a wide range of experimental conditions. Furthermore, we analyzed the model using global perturbations, which corroborate experimental evidence about metabolic responses upon enzymatic changes. These include that mannitol production is very sensitive to lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the wild type (W.T.) strain, and to mannitol phosphoenolpyruvate: a phosphotransferase system (PTS(Mtl)) in a LDH mutant strain. LDH reduction has also a positive control on 2,3-butanediol levels. Furthermore, it was found that overproduction of mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase (MPD) in a LDH/PTS(Mtl) deficient strain can increase the mannitol levels. The results show that this model has prediction capability over new experimental conditions and offers promising

  5. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Burke, Sarah; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David

    2010-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband system (APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with four pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and 13 less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  6. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2012-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  7. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; van Straten, Willem; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Wang, Jingbo; Levin, Yuri

    2013-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  8. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Champion, David; Burke, Sarah; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan

    2009-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with three pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and more than half less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  9. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2011-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  10. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Hotan, Aidan; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Champion, David; You, Xiaopeng; Burke, Sarah

    2009-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with three pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and more than half less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  11. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Wang, Jingbo; Levin, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  12. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2012-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CASPSR; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  13. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Hotan, Aidan; Jenet, Rick; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; You, Xiaopeng

    2008-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB2, PDFB3) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR soon) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we are getting the world's best pulsar timing precision, with four pulsars having rms residuals of less than 200 ns and more than half less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  14. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Hobbs, George; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Burke, Sarah; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David

    2010-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision, with four pulsars having rms residuals of less than or about 100 ns and 13 less than 1 microsecond. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project.

  15. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2011-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  16. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm.

  17. BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Tong; Yu, Qi; Zhou, Qi-Sheng; Zhao, Xiao; Liu, Zhao-Yang; Cui, Wei-Zheng; Liu, Qing-Xin

    2016-02-15

    Axon guidance is critical for proper wiring of the nervous system. During the neural development, the axon guidance molecules play a key role and direct axons to choose the correct way to reach the target. Robo, as the receptor of axon guidance molecule Slit, is evolutionarily conserved from planarians to humans. However, the function of Robo in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, remained unknown. In this study, we cloned robo2/3 from B. mori (Bmrobo2/3), a homologue of robo2/3 in Tribolium castaneum. Moreover, BmRobo2/3 was localized in the neuropil, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of Bmrobo2/3 resulted in the longitudinal connectives forming closer to the midline. These data demonstrate that BmRobo2/3 is required for axon guidance in the silkworm. PMID:26625973

  18. 3 CFR 8821 - Proclamation 8821 of May 14, 2012. Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012 8821 Proclamation 8821 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8821 of May 14, 2012 Proc. 8821 Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012By the President of.... For the first time, this new system will give our Nation’s police officers and first responders...

  19. Chronic flexibility improvement after 12 week of stretching program utilizing the ACSM recommendations: hamstring flexibility.

    PubMed

    Sainz de Baranda, P; Ayala, F

    2010-06-01

    The ACSM flexibility training recommendations emphasize proper stretching of muscles supporting the major joints, but there is a little evidence to support this recommendation in terms of effectiveness, and which stretching parameters (technique and single stretch duration) are more adequate. A randomized controlled clinical trial design was use to investigate whether the ACSM flexibility training recommendation parameters improve hip flexion range of motion. A total of 173 subjects, 122 men (21.3+/-2.5 years; 176.33+/-8.35 cm; 74.42+/-10.80 kg) and 51 women (20.7+/-1.6 years; 163.43+/-6.57 cm; 60.12+/-7.88 kg), classified as recreationally active young adult university students were randomly assigned to 1 of 7 groups: 1 control group (no stretching) or 1 of 6 stretching groups. All stretching groups performed 12 weeks of flexibility training with a consistent stretch daily dose (180 s) and frequency (3 days per week) parameters and different stretch technique (passive or active) and single stretch duration (15, 30, or 45 s). Hip flexion passive range of motion (PROM) was determined through the bilateral straight-leg raise test before, during (at 4 and 8 weeks), and after the program (12 weeks). All stretching groups performed hip flexion PROM after flexibility training. A significant improvement was identified in mean PROM for each stretching group, but no significant differences were found between stretch technique and single stretch duration (p>0.05). The control group's mean PROM decreased (Delta PROM: -0.08 degrees, 95% confidence interval [CI]=-2.3 to 5.3), whereas all stretching groups increased PROM (Delta PROM: 15.14 degrees, 95% CI=10.19 to 23.56) in hip flexion after 12 weeks of stretching (p<0.05). The present study suggests that the current ACSM flexibility training recommendations are effective for improving hip flexion ROM in recreationally active young adults.

  20. Comparison of pollutant concentrations from weekly discrete versus composite samples for residential dry-weather runoff.

    PubMed

    Pitton, B J L; Dodge, L L; Gan, J; Greco, S E; Haver, D L; Lee, E; Majcherek, T J; Oki, L R

    2016-09-15

    As urbanization has increased, so has degradation of urban streams. Urban water quality monitoring has focused on storm runoff sampling, but in arid climates, dry-weather runoff is a significant contributor of pollutants to aquatic systems. The majority of dry-weather runoff studies sample a small window of the entire dry-season. For this study constituent concentrations were compared using two sampling protocols. The first protocol repeatedly collected samples on the same day of the week at the same time of day. The second protocol collected samples during two week-long intensive sampling events consisting of sample collection every hour for 24 h for seven consecutive days. The two protocols were compared to determine if sampling at the same time of the week was representative of the entire week. For nitrate, total phosphorous, fipronil, permethrin, total organic carbon, and total suspended solids, sampling at the same time was not representative of the weekly mean; however, variability was observed between sites and constituents. For those constituent concentrations with significant differences seen between the two protocols, load adjustment factors (LAF) were determined, using a ratio of treatment means, and employed to adjust dry-season load estimates. Future work should include determining if LAF values can be used at similar sites excluded from the study or for similar constituents from the current sampling sites. PMID:27192386

  1. The effects of water-level fluctuations on weekly tree growth in a southeastern USA swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Keeland, B.D.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Annual growth of wetland trees has been shown to be related to variations in hydrologic regimes, however the relationship between water level fluctuations and tree growth season has not been documented. In a study of weekly growth patterns of three wetland tree species in a southeastern forested wetland, transfer function modeling was used to examine relationships between tree growth and the weekly changes in water levels and weekly changes in the atmospheric water balance (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration). An autoregressive-moving average model was fit to each time series of water-level changes (input series), and the selected model was then used to filter the tree-growth (output) time series. Cross-correlations between each input and output time series were examined and significant relationships between weekly changes in water levels and tree diameter were found for Nyssa sylvatica and Taxodium distichum trees growing at sites with periodic shallow flooding. There were no significant relationships between changing water levels and tree growth in areas with permanent flooding or soil saturation. Further, changes in growth of N. sylvatica, N. aquatica, and T. distichum were significantly cross-correlated with weekly changes in the atmospheric water balance at sites with either periodic or permanent flooding. 59 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Comparison of pollutant concentrations from weekly discrete versus composite samples for residential dry-weather runoff.

    PubMed

    Pitton, B J L; Dodge, L L; Gan, J; Greco, S E; Haver, D L; Lee, E; Majcherek, T J; Oki, L R

    2016-09-15

    As urbanization has increased, so has degradation of urban streams. Urban water quality monitoring has focused on storm runoff sampling, but in arid climates, dry-weather runoff is a significant contributor of pollutants to aquatic systems. The majority of dry-weather runoff studies sample a small window of the entire dry-season. For this study constituent concentrations were compared using two sampling protocols. The first protocol repeatedly collected samples on the same day of the week at the same time of day. The second protocol collected samples during two week-long intensive sampling events consisting of sample collection every hour for 24 h for seven consecutive days. The two protocols were compared to determine if sampling at the same time of the week was representative of the entire week. For nitrate, total phosphorous, fipronil, permethrin, total organic carbon, and total suspended solids, sampling at the same time was not representative of the weekly mean; however, variability was observed between sites and constituents. For those constituent concentrations with significant differences seen between the two protocols, load adjustment factors (LAF) were determined, using a ratio of treatment means, and employed to adjust dry-season load estimates. Future work should include determining if LAF values can be used at similar sites excluded from the study or for similar constituents from the current sampling sites.

  3. Insights of biosurfactant producing Serratia marcescens strain W2.3 isolated from diseased tilapia fish: a draft genome analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen with broad range of host ranging from vertebrates, invertebrates and plants. S. marcescens strain W2.3 was isolated from a diseased tilapia fish and it was suspected to be the causal agent for the fish disease as virulence genes were found within its genome. In this study, for the first time, the genome sequences of S. marcescens strain W2.3 were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Result Several virulent factors of S. marcescens such as serrawettin, a biosurfactant, has been reported to be regulated by N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS). In our previous studies, an unusual AHL with long acyl side chain was detected from this isolate suggesting the possibility of novel virulence factors regulation. This evokes our interest in the genome of this bacterial strain and hereby we present the draft genome of S. marcescens W2.3, which carries the serrawettin production gene, swrA and the AHL-based QS transcriptional regulator gene, luxR which is an orphan luxR. Conclusion With the availability of the whole genome sequences of S. marcescens W2.3, this will pave the way for the study of the QS-mediated genes expression in this bacterium. PMID:24148830

  4. Herschel protocluster survey: a search for dusty star-forming galaxies in protoclusters at z = 2-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Matsuda, Y.; Smail, Ian; Swinbank, A. M.; Hatsukade, B.; Umehata, H.; Tanaka, I.; Saito, T.; Iono, D.; Tamura, Y.; Kohno, K.; Erb, D. K.; Lehmer, B. D.; Geach, J. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Alexander, D. M.; Yamada, T.; Hayashino, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a Herschel/Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) survey of three protoclusters at z = 2-3 (2QZCluster, HS1700, SSA22). Based on the SPIRE colours (S350/S250 and S500/S350) of 250 μm sources, we selected high-redshift dusty star-forming galaxies potentially associated with the protoclusters. In the 2QZCluster field, we found a 4σ overdensity of six SPIRE sources around 4.5 arcmin (˜2.2 Mpc) from a density peak of H α emitters at z = 2.2. In the HS1700 field, we found a 5σ overdensity of eight SPIRE sources around 2.1 arcmin (˜1.0 Mpc) from a density peak of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 2.3. We did not find any significant overdensities in SSA22 field, but we found three 500 μm sources are concentrated 3 arcmin (˜1.4 Mpc) east to the Ly α emitters overdensity. If all the SPIRE sources in these three overdensities are associated with protoclusters, the inferred star formation rate densities are 103-104 times higher than the average value at the same redshifts. This suggests that dusty star formation activity could be very strongly enhanced in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters. Further observations are needed to confirm the redshifts of the SPIRE sources and to investigate what processes enhance the dusty star formation activity in z ˜ 2-3 protoclusters.

  5. Exo70 Stimulates the Arp2/3 Complex-mediated Actin Branching for Lamellipodia Formation and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianglan; Zhao, Yuting; Sun, Yujie; He, Bing; Yang, Changsong; Svitkina, Tatyana; Goldman, Yale E.; Guo, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Summary Directional cell migration requires the coordination of actin assembly and membrane remodeling. The exocyst is an octameric protein complex essential for exocytosis and plasma membrane remodeling [1,2]. A component of the exocyst, Exo70, directly interacts with the Arp2/3 complex, a core nucleating factor for the generation of branched actin networks for cell morphogenesis and migration [3-9]. Using in vitro actin polymerization assay and time-lapse TIRF microscopy, we found Exo70 functions as a kinetic activator of the Arp2/3 complex that promotes actin filament nucleation and branching. We further found that the effect of Exo70 on actin is mediated by promoting the interaction of Arp2/3 complex with WAVE2, a member of the N-WASP/WAVE family of nucleation promoting factors (NPFs). At the cellular level, the stimulatory effect of Exo70 on Arp2/3 is required for lamellipodia formation and maintaining directional persistence of cell migration. Our findings provide a novel mechanism for regulating actin polymerization and branching for effective membrane protrusion during cell morphogenesis and migration. PMID:22748316

  6. Comparison of Clinical Outcome Between Twice-Weekly and Thrice-Weekly Hemodialysis in Patients With Residual Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Hong, Yoo Ah; Yoon, Hye Eun; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Suk Young; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Residual kidney function (RKF) contributes to improved survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, it is not clear whether RKF allows a comparable survival rate in patients undergoing twice-weekly HD compared with thrice-weekly HD. We enrolled 685 patients from a prospective multicenter observational cohort. RKF and HD adequacy was monitored regularly over 3-year follow-up. Patients with RKF were divided into groups undergoing twice-weekly HD (n = 113) or thrice-weekly HD (n = 137). Patients without RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD (n = 435) were included as controls. Fluid balance and dialysis-associated characteristics were followed and clinical outcomes evaluated using all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events (CVE). In patients with RKF, baseline and follow-up RKF were significantly higher in patients undergoing twice-weekly HD than in those undergoing thrice-weekly HD. Total Kt/V urea (dialysis plus residual renal) in patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD was greater than or equal to those in patients with or without RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD. Compared with patients with RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD, patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD had no fluid excess, but their normalized protein catabolic rate became lower since 24-month follow up. In multivariable analyses, patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD had a noninferior risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34–2.01, P = 0.68) and of CVE (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.28–1.29, P = 0.19) compared with patients without RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD. However, this group showed an independent association with a greater risk of mortality compared with patients with RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.02–17.32, P = 0.04). In conclusion, patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD had an increased risk of mortality compared with those undergoing thrice-weekly HD. Decisions about twice-weekly

  7. Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and erythropoietic activity in rabbits with severe bleeding anaemia superimposed in the early post-natal fall in haemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Holter, P H; Refsum, H E

    1985-08-01

    Erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), whole blood haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and reticulocyte percentage (Rt) were determined before and after bleeding in two groups of suckling chinchilla rabbits. One group was subjected to severe bleeding on the 12th, 15th, 18th and 21st day after birth and studied for 3 weeks, while the other was studied during the first 24 h after one severe bleeding on the 18th day. In the first group Hb and Hct fell to 2.7 g . dl-1 and 11.5%, respectively, on the 25th day. The fall was accompanied by a marked rise in Rt and decline in MCHC, reaching maximum and minimum on the 29th day, and a simultaneous, temporary decline in 2,3-DPG. In the other group the acute bleeding was accompanied by a marked fall in Hb and Hct, but no change in Rt and MCHC. 2,3-DPG was unchanged 8 h after the bleeding, but showed a rise during the following 16 h, definitely beyond the normal rise at this age. It is concluded that severe bleeding anaemia induces a rise in erythrocyte 2,3-DPG synthesis. However, the effect of the acute rise in 2,3-DPG is far from sufficient to maintain the O2 delivery capacity of the blood, and is completely offset by the influence of a subsequent change in the erythrocyte population towards younger cells with low 2,3-DPG. PMID:4050480

  8. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  9. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.3031 - Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3... Substances § 721.3031 Boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as boric acid (H3BO3), zinc salt (2=3) (PMN...

  13. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, F.L.; Raymond, K.N.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to a compound of the formula given in the patent wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO[sub 3]H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes. No Drawings

  14. 2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and tetaaza cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L. [Martinez, CA; Raymond, Kenneth N. [Berkeley, CA

    1980-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  15. Process for preparing 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid amides of tetraazaalkanes and cycloalkanes

    DOEpatents

    Weitl, Frederick L.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    1985-01-01

    A compound of the formula: ##STR1## wherein X is hydrogen or a conventional electron-withdrawing group, particularly --SO.sub.3 H or a salt thereof; n is 2, 3, or 4; m is 2, 3, or 4; and p is 2 or 3. The present compounds are useful as specific sequestering agents for actinide (IV) ions. Also described is a method for the 2,3-dihydroxybenzamidation of azaalkanes.

  16. Astragaloside effect on TGF-β1, SMAD2/3, and α-SMA expression in the kidney tissues of diabetic KKAy mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaning; Lin, Chao; Ren, Qiang; Liu, Yunqi; Yang, Xiangdong

    2015-01-01

    Numerous cytokines participate in the occurrence and development of inflammation and renal interstitial fibrosis. Previous studies confirmed that TGF-β1 overexpressed in diabetic nephropathy. As a downstream signal protein of TGF-β1 family, SMAD has an important role in the process of α-SMA mediated renal interstitial fibrosis. This study aimed to study astragaloside effect on TGF-β1, SMAD2/3, and α-SMA expression in the kidney tissue of diabetic KKAy mice, to reveal its potential impact on renal interstitial fibrosis. 20 type II diabetic KKAy mice were randomly equally divided into model group and astragaloside group, while 10 male C57BL/6J mice were selected as the control. Astragaloside at 40 mg/(kg•d) was given when the KKAy mice fed with high-fat diet to 14 weeks old. The mice were killed at 24 weeks old and the kidney tissue samples were collected. Pathology morphological changes were observed. TGF-β1, SMAD2/3, and α-SMA expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry. Compared with control, mice kidney in model group appeared obvious fibrosis and up-regulated blood glucose level, TGF-β1, SMAD2/3, and α-SMA expression (P < 0.05). Mice in astragaloside group exhibited alleviated renal interstitial fibrosis compared with the model. Its blood glucose level, TGF-β1, SMAD2/3, and α-SMA expression levels were significantly lower than the model group (P < 0.05). Astragaloside can delay the renal fibrosis process in diabetic mice by influencing the TGF-β/SMADS signaling pathway and down-regulating TGF-β1, SMAD2/3, and α-SMA expression. PMID:26261569

  17. ODYSSEY MONO: effect of alirocumab 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks as monotherapy versus ezetimibe over 24 weeks.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eli M; McKenney, James M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9. The ODYSSEY MONO study was the first alirocumab Phase III study to test a previously unused dose of 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks in a population on no lipid-lowering therapy. A total of 103 patients were randomly assigned to alirocumab starting at 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks or ezetimibe 10 mg per os every day with alirocumab dose uptitration at 12 weeks based on achieved LDL-cholesterol level at week 8 and followed to week 24. At the week-24 primary end point, the alirocumab intent-to-treat group showed a 47.2% (least square [LS] mean) reduction in LDL-cholesterol compared with a 15.6% (LS mean) reduction with ezetimibe (LS mean difference of 31.6%; p < 0.0001). Safety parameters and adverse events were similar between the two groups. PMID:25606700

  18. A Thorough QTc Study Confirms Early Pharmacokinetics/QTc Modeling: A Supratherapeutic Dose of Omarigliptin, a Once-Weekly DPP-4 Inhibitor, Does Not Prolong the QTc Interval.

    PubMed

    Tatosian, Daniel A; Cardillo Marricco, Nadia; Glasgow, Xiaoli Shirley; DeGroot, Bruce; Dunnington, Katherine; George, Laura; Gendrano, Isaias Noel; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Swearingen, Dennis; Kauh, Eunkyung

    2016-09-01

    Omarigliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor being developed as a once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes. This double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, 3-period balanced crossover study definitively evaluated the effects of a supratherapeutic omarigliptin dose on QTc interval. Population-specific correction of QT interval (QTcP) was used for the primary analysis. Healthy subjects (n = 60) were enrolled and received treatments separated by a ≥4-week washout: (1) single-dose 25 mg omarigliptin (day 1), single-dose 175 mg omarigliptin (day 2); (2) placebo (day 1) followed by single-dose 400 mg moxifloxacin (day 2); (3) placebo (days 1 and 2). Day 2 QTcP intervals were analyzed. The primary hypothesis was supported if the 90%CIs for the least-squares mean differences between omarigliptin 175 mg and placebo in QTcP interval change from baseline were all < 10 milliseconds at every postdose point on day 2. The upper bounds of the 90%CIs for the differences (omarigliptin-placebo) in QTcP change from baseline for omarigliptin 175 mg were < 10 milliseconds at all postdose times on day 2. In conclusion, a supratherapeutic dose of omarigliptin does not prolong the QTcP interval to a clinically meaningful degree relative to placebo, confirming the results of the earlier concentration-QTc analysis. PMID:27627194

  19. Repeated dose toxicity and relative potency of 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 66) 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 67) compared to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for induction of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and thymic atrophy in female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hooth, Michelle J; Nyska, Abraham; Fomby, Laurene M; Vasconcelos, Daphne Y; Vallant, Molly; DeVito, Michael J; Walker, Nigel J

    2012-11-15

    In this study we assessed the relative toxicity and potency of the chlorinated naphthalenes 1,2,3,4,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 66) and 1,2,3,5,6,7-hexachloronaphthalene (PCN 67) relative to that of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Chemicals were administered in corn oil:acetone (99:1) by gavage to female Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats at dosages of 0 (vehicle), 500, 1500, 5000, 50,000 and 500,000 ng/kg (PCN 66 and PCN 67) and 1, 3, 10, 100, and 300 ng/kg (TCDD) for 2 weeks. Histopathologic changes were observed in the thymus, liver and lung of TCDD treated animals and in the liver and thymus of PCN treated animals. Significant increases in CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 associated enzyme activity were observed in all animals exposed to TCDD, PCN 66 and PCN 67. Dose response modeling of CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and thymic atrophy gave ranges of estimated relative potencies, as compared to TCDD, of 0.0015-0.0072, for PCN 66 and 0.00029-0.00067 for PCN 67. Given that PCN 66 and PCN 67 exposure resulted in biochemical and histopathologic changes similar to that seen with TCDD, this suggests that they should be included in the WHO toxic equivalency factor (TEF) scheme, although the estimated relative potencies indicate that these hexachlorinated naphthalenes should not contribute greatly to the overall human body burden of dioxin-like activity.

  20. Determination of the crystal structure of EntA, a 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sundlov, Jesse A; Garringer, Julie A; Carney, Jill M; Reger, Albert S; Drake, Eric J; Duax, William L; Gulick, Andrew M

    2006-07-01

    The Escherichia coli enterobactin synthetic cluster is composed of six proteins, EntA-EntF, that form the enterobactin molecule from three serine molecules and three molecules of 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). EntC, EntB and EntA catalyze the three-step synthesis of DHB from chorismate. EntA is a member of the short-chain oxidoreductase (SCOR) family of proteins and catalyzes the final step in DHB synthesis, the NAD+-dependent oxidation of 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid to DHB. The structure of EntA has been determined by multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion methods. Here, the 2.0 A crystal structure of EntA in the unliganded form is presented. Analysis of the structure in light of recent structural and bioinformatic analysis of other members of the SCOR family provides insight into the residues involved in cofactor and substrate binding.

  1. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis: Effect of sodium fluoride during five weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt was made to modify factors which promote disuse osteoporosis and thereby prevent it from occurring. Since fluoride is currently used to enhance bone formation in the treatment of low turnover osteoporosis, it was hypothesized that if the fluoride ion was available over a long period of time that it would slow the demonstrated loss of calcium by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. This study was used to determine whether oral medication with sodium F will modify or prevent 5 weeks of bed rest induced disuse osteoporosis, to determine the longitudinal effects of 5 weeks of bed rest on PTH, CT and calcitriol, to measure muscle volume changes and metabolic activity by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy during prolonged bed rest, to measure changes in peak muscle strength and fatigability, and to measure bone turnover in bone biopsies. Subjects were studied during 1 week of equilibration, 4 weeks of control ambulation, 5 weeks of bed rest, and 1 week of reambulation.

  2. Heart-rate-corrected QT interval evolution in premature infants during the first week of life.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Timothy J B; Ellsworth, Marc A; Carey, William A; Zubair, Adeel S; MacQueen, Brianna C; Colby, Christopher E; Ackerman, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    Automated monitoring of the QT interval is increasingly common in a variety of clinical settings. A better understanding of how the heart-rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) evolves in early postnatal life is needed before its clinical utility in neonates can be determined. This study aimed to use real-time bedside monitoring as a tool to describe the QTc evolution of premature neonates during the first week of life. All neonates born at a gestation age (GA) of 31 weeks or later and admitted to the level 2 intensive care nursery of the authors' institution between December 2012 and March 2013 were included in this study. The authors prospectively collected QTc values at 15-min intervals during the first week of life, then used two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare these data among three GA cohorts: 31 to <34 weeks (cohort A), 34 to <37 weeks (cohort B), and ≥37 weeks (cohort C). All the cohorts demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the 24-h average QTc during the first 3-4 days of life before reaching a stable baseline. No diurnal variation in the QTc was identified in any of the study patients. Marked variability and a progressive decline in the QTc of premature neonates occur during the first 3-4 days of life. Understanding this phenomenon is imperative when screening programs for the early detection of QT prolongation are considered.

  3. Bioavailability of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs to marine benthos from passaic river sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, N.I.; Pruell, R.J.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. Sandworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macoma nasuta) and shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to sediment from the Passaic River, New Jersey for up to 180 days. Worms accumulated the highest concentrations of these compounds. Uptake and depuration rates were slowest in the worms and most rapid in the clams.

  4. Controlling stereoselectivity by enzymatic and chemical means to access enantiomerically pure (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives☆

    PubMed Central

    Orden, Alejandro A.; Schrittwieser, Joerg H.; Resch, Verena; Mutti, Francesco G.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    A chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of enantiomerically pure novel alkaloids (1S,3R)-1-benzyl-2,3-dimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines is presented. The key steps are the biocatalytic stereoselective reductive amination of substituted 1-phenylpropan-2-one derivatives to yield chiral amines employing microbial ω-transaminases, and the diastereoselective reduction of a Bischler–Napieralski imine intermediate by catalytic hydrogenation in the presence of palladium on charcoal, leading exclusively to the desired cis-isomer. PMID:24503964

  5. Practical and Efficient Synthesis of α-Aminophosphonic Acids Containing 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroquinoline or 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisoquinoline Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Mario; Arizpe, Alicia; Sayago, Fracisco J; Jiménez, Ana I; Cativiela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    We report here a practical and efficient synthesis of α-aminophosphonic acid incorporated into 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline heterocycles, which could be considered to be conformationally constrained analogues of pipecolic acid. The principal contribution of this synthesis is the introduction of the phosphonate group in the N-acyliminium ion intermediates, obtained from activation of the quinoline and isoquinoline heterocycles or from the appropriate δ-lactam with benzyl chloroformate. Finally, the hydrolysis of phosphonate moiety with simultaneous cleavage of the carbamate afforded the target compounds. PMID:27589713

  6. Change in gastric emptying eight weeks after endoscopic submucosal dissection in patients with early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Sato, Masaki; Nakamura, Jun; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gastric emptying after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in gastric emptying from before ESD to 8 weeks after ESD. Methods: In total, 54 patients with early gastric cancer were enrolled in this study. A breath test with carbon 13 (13C) was conducted before ESD and at 1 and 8 weeks after ESD. The Tlag and T1/2 values were analyzed at each time point. The primary outcomes were the changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 and 8 weeks after ESD. The secondary outcomes were the factors associated with the changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values. Results: Gastric emptying was delayed at 1 and 8 weeks after ESD compared with before ESD (Tlag P = 0.002, P < 0.001; T1/2 P = 0.005, P = 0.001, respectively). The changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 week after ESD were greater for proximal stomach lesions than for distal stomach lesions (P = 0.028, P < 0.001). Proximal stomach lesions were identified as the significant factor that influenced changes in the Tlag and T1/2 values from before ESD to 1 week after ESD in the multivariate analyses (Tlag P = 0.003, T1/2 P = 0.005). Conclusions: ESD induced delayed gastric emptying until 8 weeks after ESD. Proximal stomach lesions were also associated with decreased emptying 1 week after ESD. PMID:27227121

  7. Twice-weekly and incremental hemodialysis treatment for initiation of kidney replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Unruh, Mark; Zager, Philip G; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Bargman, Joanne M; Chen, Jing; Sankarasubbaiyan, Suresh; Shah, Gaurang; Golper, Thomas; Sherman, Richard A; Goldfarb, David S

    2014-08-01

    Mortality is highest in the first months of maintenance hemodialysis (HD) therapy. In many Western countries, patients who transition to kidney replacement therapy usually begin thrice-weekly HD regardless of their level of residual kidney function (RKF). RKF is a major predictor of survival. RKF may decline more rapidly with thrice-weekly HD treatments, is associated with a reduced need for dialytic solute clearance, and is an important factor in the prescription of peritoneal dialysis. In this article, we review the concept of incremental HD, in which weekly dialysis dose, in particular HD treatment frequency, is based on a variety of clinical factors, such as RKF (including urine output > 0.5 L/d), volume status, cardiovascular symptoms, body size, potassium and phosphorus levels, nutritional status, hemoglobin level, comorbid conditions, hospitalizations, and health-related quality of life. These 10 clinical criteria may identify which patients might benefit from beginning maintenance HD therapy twice weekly. Periodic monitoring of these criteria will determine the timing for increasing dialysis dose and frequency. We recognize that twice-weekly HD represents a major paradigm shift for many clinicians and jurisdictions. Therefore, we propose conducting randomized controlled trials of twice-weekly versus thrice-weekly HD to assess the potential of twice-weekly HD to improve survival and health-related quality of life while simultaneously reducing costs, protecting fragile vascular accesses, and optimizing resource use during the first year of hemodialysis therapy. Such incremental and individualized HD therapy may prove to be the most appropriate approach for transitioning to dialytic therapy.

  8. I.D. Weeks Library: Guide to Library Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Univ., Vermillion. I.D. Weeks Library.

    This document is a guide to library resources in the I. D. Weeks Library at the University of South Dakota, Vermillion. The guide was designed to accompany an academic library instruction course, "Use of Library Resources, A & S 111." The purpose of the course is to familiarize students with the facilities of the I. D. Weeks Library; to acquaint…

  9. Foreign Language Week: A Successful Public Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschke, Claus

    A detailed description is presented of a foreign language (FL) week project that was organized and executed by the Houston Area Teachers of Foreign Languages (HATFL) during the 1979-80 academic year. The document describes the preparation activities of the organizing committee, the pre-foreign language week advertising campaigns, the design of…

  10. 76 FR 49645 - National Health Center Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-20497 Filed 8-9-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... August 10, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8698--National Health Center Week, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Health Center Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Across...

  11. 75 FR 48853 - National Health Center Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010... Proclamation 8545--National Health Center Week, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal...;The President ] Proclamation 8545 of August 5, 2010 National Health Center Week, 2010 By the...

  12. 77 FR 58297 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-23299 Filed 9-18-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8865 of September 14, 2012 National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2012 By the.... During National Farm Safety and Health Week, we celebrate agricultural workers' vital contributions...

  13. 75 FR 58281 - National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-24096 Filed 9-22-10; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8565 of September 17, 2010 National Farm Safety and Health Week, 2010 By the... around the globe. As we celebrate National Farm Safety and Health Week, we recognize the...

  14. 59 FR- National Gang Violence Prevention Week, 1994

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-09-13

    ... States of America the two hundred and nineteenth. (Presidential Sig.) > [FR Doc. 94-22846 Filed 9-12-94... Proclamation 6717-- National Gang Violence Prevention Week, 1994 Presidential Documents Federal Register Vol..., 1994 National Gang Violence Prevention Week, 1994 By the President of the United States of America...

  15. 46 CFR 122.720 - Weekly maintenance and inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weekly maintenance and inspections. 122.720 Section 122.720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING... Operational Readiness, Maintenance, and Inspection of Lifesaving Equipment § 122.720 Weekly maintenance...

  16. 76 FR 27597 - National Women's Health Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11748 Filed 5-10-11... May 11, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8670--National Women's Health Week, 2011 Proclamation... ] Proclamation 8670 of May 6, 2011 National Women's Health Week, 2011 By the President of the United States...

  17. 76 FR 25525 - National Charter Schools Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-11067 Filed 5-4-11; 8:45 am] Billing...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8664 of April 29, 2011 National Charter Schools Week, 2011 By the President of... administrators. During National Charter Schools Week, we recognize these institutions of learning and renew...

  18. 76 FR 29131 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-12546 Filed 5-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... May 19, 2011 Part V The President Proclamation 8674--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2011 Proclamation 8675--National Defense Transportation Day and National Transportation Week, 2011 Proclamation...

  19. 75 FR 10991 - National Consumer Protection Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-5291 Filed 3-9-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Protection Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every day, American... their financial well-being and our Nation's economic stability. National Consumer Protection Week...

  20. 75 FR 29389 - National Hurricane Preparedness Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12753 Filed 5-25-10... Preparedness Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each year during... National Hurricane Preparedness Week, I urge individuals, families, communities, and businesses to...