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Sample records for 2-3 times weekly

  1. Using Weekly Weather Forecast for Real-Time Irrigation Scheduling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, X.; Wang, D.; Hejazi, M.

    2008-12-01

    Irrigation scheduling determines the timing and amount of water applied to an irrigated cropland during the crop growing season. Through a case study with Havana Lowlands region, Illinois, this study addresses two questions: 1) how can we consider the uncertainty of the weekly forecast for real-time irrigation scheduling? 2) What is the economic value of the forecast for irrigation farmers? We propose a coupled simulation and optimization modeling approach. The simulation part adopts an existing soil-water-atmosphere-plant (SWAP) simulation model. The SWAP model simulates soil moisture, the key state variable for irrigation decision, at the current time (day) using observed weather data; meanwhile the model assimilates the daily updated weekly forecast to predict the soil moisture in the future week. The weekly time window moves forward from the beginning to the end of the crop season. The optimization model is formulated as a multiple-stage stochastic optimization model that is based on weather forecast scenarios characterized by probabilities. The multiple-stage decisions are the deterministic water application at the current day ("what to do now") and the application scenarios associated with probabilities in each of the 7 days within one week time horizon ("wait- and-see"). Based on the soil moisture provided by the simulation model and empirical irrigation rules, irrigation water application is determined by the optimization model implemented with a genetic algorithm (GA). The modeling approach is tested with five years (2002-2006), which include two dry years, two normal years and one wet year, with the rainfall in the crop growth season ranging from 230mm to 410mm. The value of forecast is shown to be different across dry, normal, and wet years. In the year of 2002, observed irrigation scheduling is available. Thus the optimized irrigation scheduling is compared to the observed regarding the net crop profit and irrigation water saving.

  2. Time-dependent effects of repeated THC treatment on dopamine D2/3 receptor-mediated signalling in midbrain and striatum.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Benjamin B; Tsartsalis, Stergios; Dimiziani, Andrea; Millet, Philippe; Ginovart, Nathalie

    2016-09-15

    This study examined the time-course of alterations in levels and functional sensitivities of dopamine D2/3 receptors (D2/3R) during the course and up to 6 weeks following cessation of chronic treatment with Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in rats. THC treatment led to an increase in D2/3R levels in striatum, as assessed using [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO, that was readily observable after one week of treatment, remained stably elevated during the subsequent 2 weeks of treatment, but fully reversed within 2 weeks of THC discontinuation. THC-induced D2/3R alterations were more pronounced and longer lasting in the dopamine cell body regions of the midbrain, wherein [(3)H]-(+)-PHNO binding was still elevated at 2 weeks but back to control values at 6 weeks after THC cessation. Parallel analyses of the psychomotor effects of pre- and post-synaptic doses of quinpirole also showed a pattern of D2/3R functional supersensitivity indicative of more rapid subsidence in striatum than in midbrain following drug cessation. These results indicate that chronic THC is associated with a biochemical and functional sensitization of D2/3R signaling, that these responses show a region-specific temporal pattern and are fully reversible following drug discontinuation. These results suggest that an increased post-synaptic D2/3R function and a decreased DA presynaptic signaling, mediated by increased D2/3R autoinhibition, may predominate during distinct phases of withdrawal and may contribute both to the mechanisms leading to relapse and to cannabinoid withdrawal symptoms. The different rates of normalization of D2/3R function in striatum and midbrain may be critical information for the development of new pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. PMID:27233824

  3. Quiet time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3-3.6 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1973-01-01

    Flux gate magnetometer data from OGO 5 are presented that establish the existence of large field depressions under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 earth radii at all local times. For this study, flux gate data obtained near perigee during the period of approximately one year from Jan. 21, 1969, to Feb. 23, 1970, were used.

  4. Frontal fasciculi and psychotic symptoms in antipsychotic-naive patients with schizophrenia before and after 6 weeks of selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade

    PubMed Central

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H.; Raghava, Jayachandra M.; Nielsen, Mette Ø.; Rostrup, Egill; Glenthøj, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms are core clinical features of schizophrenia. We tested recent hypotheses proposing that psychotic, or positive, symptoms stem from irregularities in long-range white matter tracts projecting into the frontal cortex, and we predicted that selective dopamine D2/3 receptor blockade would restore white matter. Methods Between December 2008 and July 2011, antipsychoticnaive patients with first-episode schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent baseline examination with 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging and clinical assessments. We assessed group differences of fractional anisotropy (FA) using voxelwise tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and anatomic region of interest (ROI)–based analyses. Subsequently, patients underwent 6 weeks of antipsychotic monotherapy with amisulpride. We repeated the examinations after 6 weeks. Results We included 38 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 38 controls in our analysis, and 28 individuals in each group completed the study. At baseline, whole brain TBSS analyses revealed lower FA in patients in the right anterior thalamic radiation (ATR), right cingulum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and right corticospinal tract (CT). Fractional anisotropy in the right ATR correlated with positive symptoms (z = 2.64, p = 0.008). The ROI analyses showed significant associations between positive symptoms and FA of the frontal fasciculi, specifically the right arcuate fasciculus (z = 2.83, p = 0.005) and right superior longitudinal fasciculus (z = −3.31, p = 0.001). At re-examination, all correlations between positive symptoms and frontal fasciculi had resolved. Fractional anisotropy in the ATR increased more in patients than in controls (z = −4.92, p < 0.001). The amisulpride dose correlated positively with FA changes in the right CT (t = 2.52, p = 0.019). Limitations Smoking and a previous diagnosis of substance abuse were potential confounders. Long-term effects of amisulpride on white

  5. Effects of a 12-week strength training program on experimented fencers' movement time.

    PubMed

    Redondo, Juan C; Alonso, Cruz J; Sedano, Silvia; de Benito, Ana M

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 12-week strength training program on movement time (MT) on fencers of national level. Twelve male fencers were randomly divided into 2 groups: the control group (CG: N = 6; age, 22.3 ± 8.1 years) and the treatment group (TG: N = 6; age, 24.8 ± 7.2 years). The CG fencers followed the standard physical conditioning program, which was partially modified for the TG. The TG participated in a 12-week strength training program divided into 2 parts: maximal strength training, including weightlifting exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks) and explosive strength training, with combined weights and plyometric exercises (2 days a week for 6 weeks). Body mass, body fat, muscle mass, jumping ability, maximal strength, reaction time, and MT were measured on 4 separate occasions. The TG demonstrated significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in maximal strength and jumping ability after 6 weeks of training and in MT after 12 weeks. These improvements remained unaltered during the 4-week detraining period. It may be concluded that a 12-week strength training program can improve maximal and explosive strength, and these increases can be transferred to MT performance. However, fencers need time to transfer the gains. PMID:24942170

  6. Times to drink: cross-cultural variations in drinking in the rhythm of the week

    PubMed Central

    Room, Robin; Mäkelä, Pia; Benegal, Vivek; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hettige, Siri; Tumwesigye, Nazarius M.; Wilsnack, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The time of drinking in terms of daytime versus evening and weekday versus weekend is charted for regular drinkers in 14 countries in Europe, Asia, Latin America, Africa and Oceania. Methods national or regional adult population surveys from the GENACIS project. Results: The weekly rhythm of drinking varies greatly between societies. Drinking was generally more likely after 5 pm and on weekends. To this extent, alcohol consumption is now regulated by a universal clock. The relation of time of day and of the week of drinking to problems from drinking varied between societies. Drinking at specific times was more likely to predict problems among men than women, though for men the particular time varied, while weekday evenings were the most problematic time for women. The relation of drinking at a particular time to problems in part reflected that heavy drinkers were more likely to be drinking at that time. Conclusions There are commonalities across cultures in drinking by time of day and day of the week, but the implications of the timing for alcohol-related problems are fairly culture-specific. PMID:21553132

  7. Weekly Trends in Preschoolers’ Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Childcare

    PubMed Central

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine how the physical activity levels and sedentary time of preschoolers attending center-based childcare varied across the week. Sex differences were also explored. Participants (n = 101) wore Actical™ accelerometers (15 s epoch) for five consecutive days during childcare hours only. A multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate levels of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity across the five weekdays. Total physical activity (TPA) was analyzed separately in a univariate repeated measures ANOVA. Sex was entered as an additional between-subjects factor. Levels of sedentary time, LPA, and TPA across the week were found to be statistically significant, and can best be described by quadratic effects. Participants’ activity levels and sedentary time typically peaked mid-week. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time were not found to significantly differ based on sex. Childcare centers may benefit from the introduction and/or modification of active play-based programming and curricula, particularly at the start and end of the week where preschoolers’ activity levels tend to be lower. Additional investigations are required to confirm these findings. PMID:25809506

  8. Weekly trends in preschoolers' physical activity and sedentary time in childcare.

    PubMed

    Vanderloo, Leigh M; Tucker, Patricia

    2015-03-01

    This study sought to examine how the physical activity levels and sedentary time of preschoolers attending center-based childcare varied across the week. Sex differences were also explored. Participants (n=101) wore Actical™ accelerometers (15 s epoch) for five consecutive days during childcare hours only. A multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate levels of sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) physical activity across the five weekdays. Total physical activity (TPA) was analyzed separately in a univariate repeated measures ANOVA. Sex was entered as an additional between-subjects factor. Levels of sedentary time, LPA, and TPA across the week were found to be statistically significant, and can best be described by quadratic effects. Participants' activity levels and sedentary time typically peaked mid-week. Levels of physical activity and sedentary time were not found to significantly differ based on sex. Childcare centers may benefit from the introduction and/or modification of active play-based programming and curricula, particularly at the start and end of the week where preschoolers' activity levels tend to be lower. Additional investigations are required to confirm these findings. PMID:25809506

  9. Interlibrary Loan Time Study at I. D. Weeks Library, University of South Dakota.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprules, Marcia L.

    This report describes a study designed to improve the interlibrary loan service offered by the I. D. Weeks Library at the University of South Dakota (USD); the study which examined both the actual time elapsed in filling interlibrary loan requests and the causes for delays. An introduction to the problem is provided; the library staffing and…

  10. Spatial-Temporal Co-Circulation of Dengue Virus 1, 2, 3, and 4 Associated with Coinfection Cases in a Hyperendemic Area of Brazil: A 4-Week Survey.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Elisa H P; Figueiredo, Leandra B; Vilela, Ana P P; Rosa, Júlio C C; Oliveira, Jaquelline G; Zibaoui, Hassan M; Araújo, Valdelaine E M; Miranda, Daniela P J; Ferreira, Paulo C P; Abrahão, Jonatas S; Kroon, Erna G

    2016-05-01

    Dengue is currently regarded as a major public health problem worldwide. In a hyperendemic region during an outbreak, we detected the co-circulation of all Dengue virus (DENV) serotypes including two different genotypes of DENV-3 and DENV-4, and concurrent infections with up to three serotypes were identified in symptomatic patients. A total of 49 acute phase plasma samples from patients clinically suspected of dengue were collected during the 4 weeks of May 2013. DENV-1-4 was detected by reverse transcriptase semi-nested polymerase chain reaction in 33 samples (67.3%), of which 26 DNA fragments were sequenced. Twenty samples (76.9%) were identified with a single DENV serotype and six (23.1%) with more than one serotype. DENV-3 was the predominant serotype of the outbreak. On the basis of phylogenetic analyses, DENV-1 isolates belong to genotype V, DENV-2 to American-Asian genotype, DENV-3 to genotypes I and III, and DENV-4 to genotypes I and II. PMID:26976882

  11. Quiet-time magnetospheric field depression at 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugiura, M.

    1972-01-01

    Fluxgate magnetometer data obtained by OGO-5 near perigee were used to establish the existence of large field depressions in the magnetosphere under conditions of varying degree of disturbance at distances ranging from 2.3 to 3.6 R sub E at all local times. The results also provide the average delta B at these distances when Dst, as being derived at present, is zero.

  12. Predicting the start week of respiratory syncytial virus outbreaks using real time weather variables

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), a major cause of bronchiolitis, has a large impact on the census of pediatric hospitals during outbreak seasons. Reliable prediction of the week these outbreaks will start, based on readily available data, could help pediatric hospitals better prepare for large outbreaks. Methods Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier models were constructed using weather data from 1985-2008 considering only variables that are available in real time and that could be used to forecast the week in which an RSV outbreak will occur in Salt Lake County, Utah. Outbreak start dates were determined by a panel of experts using 32,509 records with ICD-9 coded RSV and bronchiolitis diagnoses from Intermountain Healthcare hospitals and clinics for the RSV seasons from 1985 to 2008. Results NB models predicted RSV outbreaks up to 3 weeks in advance with an estimated sensitivity of up to 67% and estimated specificities as high as 94% to 100%. Temperature and wind speed were the best overall predictors, but other weather variables also showed relevance depending on how far in advance the predictions were made. The weather conditions predictive of an RSV outbreak in our study were similar to those that lead to temperature inversions in the Salt Lake Valley. Conclusions We demonstrate that Naïve Bayes (NB) classifier models based on weather data available in real time have the potential to be used as effective predictive models. These models may be able to predict the week that an RSV outbreak will occur with clinical relevance. Their clinical usefulness will be field tested during the next five years. PMID:21044325

  13. Weekly Solutions of Time-Variable Gravity from 1993 to 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemoine, F.; Chinn, D.; Le Bail, K.; Zelensky, N.; Melachroinos, S.; Beall, J.

    2011-01-01

    The GRACE mission has been highly successful in determining the time-variable gravity field of the Earth, producing monthly or even more frequent solutions (cf. 10-day) solutions using both spherical harmonics and mascons. However the GRACE time series only commences in 2002 - 2003 and a gap of several years may occur in the series before a GRACE follow-on satellite is launched. Satellites tracked by SLR and DORIS have also been used to study time variations in the Earth's gravitational field. These include (most recently) the solutions of Cox and Chao (2002), Cheng et al. (2004, 2007) and Lemoine et al. (2007). In this paper we discuss the development of a new time series of low degree spherical harmonic fields based on the available SLR, DORIS and GPS data. We develop simultaneous solutions for both the geocenter and the low degree harmonics up to 5x5. The solutions integrate data from SLR geodetic satellites (e.g., Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Larets, Westpac), altimetry satellites (TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, Jason-1, Jason-2), and satellites tracked solely by DORIS (e.g. SPOT2-5). We discuss some pertinent aspects of the satellite-specific modeling. We include altimeter crossovers in the weekly solutions where feasible and time permits. The resulting geocenter time series is compared with geophysical model predictions and other independently-derived solutions. Over the GRACE time period the fidelity and consistency with the GRACE solutions are presented.

  14. The Online GVP/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report: Providing Timely Information About Worldwide Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayberry, G. C.; Guffanti, M. C.; Luhr, J. F.; Venzke, E. A.; Wunderman, R. L.

    2001-12-01

    The awesome power and intricate inner workings of volcanoes have made them a popular subject with scientists and the general public alike. About 1500 known volcanoes have been active on Earth during the Holocene, approximately 50 of which erupt per year. With so much activity occurring around the world, often in remote locations, it can be difficult to find up-to-date information about current volcanism from a reliable source. To satisfy the desire for timely volcano-related information the Smithsonian Institution and US Geological Survey combined their strengths to create the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report. The Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) has developed a network of correspondents while reporting worldwide volcanism for over 30 years in their monthly Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network. The US Geological Survey's Volcano Hazards Program studies and monitors volcanoes in the United States and responds (upon invitation) to selected volcanic crises in other countries. The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is one of the most popular sites on both organization's websites. The core of the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report is the brief summaries of current volcanic activity around the world. In addition to discussing various types of volcanism, the summaries also describe precursory activity (e.g. volcanic seismicity, deformation, and gas emissions), secondary activity (e.g. debris flows, mass wasting, and rockfalls), volcanic ash hazards to aviation, and preventative measures. The summaries are supplemented by links to definitions of technical terms found in the USGS photoglossary of volcano terms, links to information sources, and background information about reported volcanoes. The site also includes maps that highlight the location of reported volcanoes, an archive of weekly reports sorted by volcano and date, and links to commonly used acronyms. Since the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report's inception in November 2000, activity has been reported at

  15. US stock market efficiency over weekly, monthly, quarterly and yearly time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Aguilar-Cornejo, M.; Femat, R.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-11-01

    In financial markets, the weak form of the efficient market hypothesis implies that price returns are serially uncorrelated sequences. In other words, prices should follow a random walk behavior. Recent developments in evolutionary economic theory (Lo, 2004) have tailored the concept of adaptive market hypothesis (AMH) by proposing that market efficiency is not an all-or-none concept, but rather market efficiency is a characteristic that varies continuously over time and across markets. Within the AMH framework, this work considers the Dow Jones Index Average (DJIA) for studying the deviations from the random walk behavior over time. It is found that the market efficiency also varies over different time scales, from weeks to years. The well-known detrended fluctuation analysis was used for the characterization of the serial correlations of the return sequences. The results from the empirical showed that interday and intraday returns are more serially correlated than overnight returns. Also, some insights in the presence of business cycles (e.g., Juglar and Kuznets) are provided in terms of time variations of the scaling exponent.

  16. Modelling gambling time and economic assignments to weekly trip behaviour to gambling venues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, R. G. V.; Marshall, D. C.

    2005-12-01

    The study of gambling and its socio-economic structures should be an area of growing interest to a society-relevant geography. In Australia, electronic gaming machines (EGMs) have dominated recent gambling industry growth. As EGMs have diffused through the urban hierarchy, there is a growing recognition that EGM distribution often correlates with levels of socio-economic status. Marshall and Baker (2002) showed that a similar EGM socio-economic assignment model evolved in the capital cities of Sydney and Melbourne, Australia, even though these cities have substantially different historical and legislative EGM environments. This paper looks at a related space-time model in the context of trip-making to gaming venues, relative to an Index of Economic Resources from the Australian Bureau of Statistics. A simulation of the model predicts different types of gambling behaviour. It also shows that venue hours can affect time-economic trip behaviour. The model is then applied to EGM gambling data gathered in an urban hierarchy on the north coast of New South Wales, Australia. The results define a gaussian-type low involvement ‘recreational random’ gambling for patrons, whereas for more involved gamblers (in terms of time spent gambling), there are discrete behavioural periods over the week for a wider economic cohort. This leads to the possibility of a spectrum of time-economic EGM gambling assignments for participating households in metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas.

  17. Weekly cycles in peak time temperatures and urban heat island intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earl, Nick; Simmonds, Ian; Tapper, Nigel

    2016-07-01

    Regular diurnal and weekly cycles (WCs) in temperature provide valuable insights into the consequences of anthropogenic activity on the urban environment. Different locations experience a range of identified WCs and have very different structures. Two important sources of urban heat are those associated with the effect of large urban structures on the radiation budget and energy storage and those from the heat generated as a consequence of anthropogenic activity. The former forcing will remain relatively constant, but a WC will appear in the latter. WCs for specific times of day and the urban heat island (UHI) have not been analysed heretofore. We use three-hourly surface (2 m) temperature data to analyse the WCs of seven major Australian cities at different times of day and to determine to what extent one of our major city’s (Melbourne) UHI exhibits a WC. We show that the WC of temperature in major cities differs according to the time of day and that the UHI intensity of Melbourne is affected on a WC. This provides crucial information that can contribute toward the push for healthier urban environments in the face of a more extreme climate.

  18. Immunocastrated male pigs: effect of 4 v. 6 weeks time post second injection on performance, carcass quality and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aluwé, M; Degezelle, I; Depuydt, L; Fremaut, D; Van den Broeke, A; Millet, S

    2016-09-01

    Immunocastration or vaccination against boar taint can be used as alternative for surgical castration of male piglets. The vaccine is administrated twice. After the second vaccination (V2), the pigs behave like barrows instead of boars and their feed intake increases which may result in a lower lean meat percentage. The timing of V2 is therefore crucial to find the right balance between the advantages of entire males and barrows. In this study, we evaluated the effect of time post second injection within the advised time frame (4 v. 6 weeks before slaughter) on behaviour, performance, carcass and meat quality of immunocastrated male pigs. In total, 180 animals (hybrid sow×Piétrain): 60 gilts, 60 male pigs vaccinated 6 weeks before slaughter (IM-6) and 60 male pigs vaccinated 4 weeks before slaughter (IM-4), all slaughtered at comparable slaughter weights. After 20 weeks of age, IM-6 showed more inactive behaviour at the expense of playing and aggressive behaviour. Daily feed intake (DFI), daily gain (DG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Gilts had a lower DFI and DG in the late finishing phase and a higher FCR overall compared with both IM groups. Gilts showed a higher lean meat content compared with both IM groups. Earlier vaccination increased dressing percentage, which could partly be explained by the lower weight of the gastrointestinal tract, but not by testes weight. Meat quality traits and palatability did not differ significantly between IM-6 and IM-4. Vaccination of immunocastrates at 6 compared with 4 weeks before slaughter improved the calmness in the stable and the dressing percentage, while maintaining performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26957130

  19. How the Other 2/3 Live: Institutional Initiatives for Part-Time Faculty Assimilation in America's 2-Year Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Michael H.

    The number of part-time faculty employed in two-year colleges has risen dramatically in recent years, with current data indicating that 64% of two-year college faculty work part time. It is critical, therefore, that colleges ensure that part-time faculty are well integrated into the organizational culture. In assessing initiatives for helping…

  20. Recess Activities of the Week (RAW): Promoting Free Time Physical Activity to Combat Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Christina D.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Partidge, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity and inactivity levels among young Americans have risen steadily over the last few decades, and has become a major concern. Participation in regular physical activity helps prevent excess adiposity in children and youth. Recess is a regularly occurring period of time in school children's days which is an opportunity to help them…

  1. Changes in Substance Use during Times of Stress: College Students the Week before Exams.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Cohen, Dale J.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the contribution of situational factors to alcohol use during a naturally occurring high-stress time, 73 undergraduate students were studied. Contrary to the prediction of a simple tension-reduction model, results showed that students preferred to address heightened anxiety by studying to pass exams. Programmatic implications are…

  2. The effects of weekly exercise time on VO2max and resting metabolic rate in normal adults

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Mi-Na; Choi, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study examined the effect of individual weekly exercise time on resting metabolic rate and VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake), which are important components of individual health indexes. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy adults participated in this study. Questionnaires were used to divide the participants into groups based on average weekly walking. Resting metabolic rate was measured using a respiratory gas analyzer. Graded exercise tests were conducted using a treadmill, and the modified Bruce protocol was used as an exercise test method. [Results] VO2max, anaerobic threshold, and resting metabolic rate were significantly different among the groups. [Conclusion] Average weekly exercise time affected VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold, all of which are indicators of individual physical ability and health. These values increased as the individual amount of exercise increased. In addition, VO2max, resting metabolic rate, and anaerobic threshold were found to be closely correlated. These findings were consistent with the results of similar previous studies. PMID:27190483

  3. Time-space Variability of Weekly to Monthly Period Equatorial Waves in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T.; Farrar, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Data from satellite altimetry are used to characterize wavelike variability in the tropical Pacific Ocean at periods of days to two months. This period band is of interest because the space-time scales of oceanic equatorial waves at these frequencies have historically made adequate observation of the variability difficult. These waves have zonal scales that are very large (exceeding 3000 km) and meridional scales that are relatively short (~100 km), making in situ measurements difficult, and the short temporal scales pose challenges for observation with satellite altimeters because the wave periods are short compared to orbit repeat periods. As a result, there has been relatively little progress since the early 1980s in characterizing and understanding these equatorial inertia-gravity and mixed Rossby-gravity waves. In this analysis, we seek to exploit the long zonal length scales of these high-frequency equatorial waves in an analysis of satellite scatterometer and altimeter data to shed new light on the properties and dynamics of these waves. At periods of 2-14 days, there is clear evidence for the presence of several basin-scale equatorial wave modes, including mixed Rossby-gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves associated with baroclinic modes one and two. Here, we focus on equatorial Kelvin waves and mixed Rossby-gravity waves forced in the western Pacific, and examine their variability in time and space and their relation to wind.

  4. Time-Dependent Risk of Cancer After a Diabetes Diagnosis in a Cohort of 2.3 Million Adults.

    PubMed

    Dankner, Rachel; Boffetta, Paolo; Balicer, Ran D; Boker, Lital Keinan; Sadeh, Maya; Berlin, Alla; Olmer, Liraz; Goldfracht, Margalit; Freedman, Laurence S

    2016-06-15

    Using a time-dependent approach, we investigated all-site and site-specific cancer incidence in a large population stratified by diabetes status. The study analyzed a closed cohort comprised of Israelis aged 21-89 years, enrolled in a health fund, and followed from 2002 to 2012. Adjusting for age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, we calculated hazard ratios for cancer incidence using Cox regression separately for participants with prevalent and incident diabetes; the latter was further divided by time since diabetes diagnosis. Of the 2,186,196 individuals included in the analysis, 159,104 were classified as having prevalent diabetes, 408,243 as having incident diabetes, and 1,618,849 as free of diabetes. In both men and women, diabetes posed an increased risk of cancers of the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, endometrium, stomach, kidney, brain (benign), brain (malignant), colon/rectum, lung (all, adenocarcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma), ovary, and bladder, as well as leukemia, multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and breast cancer in postmenopausal women. No excess risk was observed for breast cancer in premenopausal women or for thyroid cancer. Diabetes was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Hazard ratios for all-site and site-specific cancers were particularly elevated during the first year following diabetes diagnosis. The findings of this large study with a time-dependent approach are consistent with those of previous studies that have observed associations between diabetes and cancer incidence. PMID:27257115

  5. Time-dependency of mice lung recovery after a 4-week exposure to traffic or biomass air pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli-Rocha, Flavia; Oliveira, Vinícius Rosa; Barcellos, Bárbara Chaves; Moreira, Dayse Kelly Molina; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Faffe, Débora Souza; Zin, Walter Araújo

    2016-08-01

    The time-dependency of lung recovery after 3 intranasal instillations per week during four weeks of distilled water (C groups) or particles (15μg) from traffic (U groups) or biomass burning (B groups) was observed in BALB/c mice. Lung mechanics [static elastance (Est), viscoelastic component of elastance (ΔE), lung resistive (ΔP1) and viscoelastic/inhomogeneous (ΔP2) pressures] and histology were analyzed 1 (C1, U1, B1), 2 (C2, U2, B2), 7 (C7, U7, B7) or 14 days (C14, U14, B14) after the last instillation. Est, ΔE, ΔP1 and ΔP2 were higher in U1 and B1 than in C1, returning to control values at day 2, except for ΔP1 that normalized after 7 days. Alveolar collapse, bronchoconstriction index and alveolar lesion were larger in U1 and B1 than in C1, however collapse returned to baseline at 7 days, while the others normalized in 2 days. A 4-week exposure to U and B induced lung impairment that resolved 7 days after the last exposure. PMID:27179431

  6. Display of Glucose Distributions by Date, Time of Day, and Day of Week: New and Improved Methods

    PubMed Central

    Rodbard, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is a need for improved methods for display of glucose distributions to facilitate comparisons by date, time of day, day of the week, and other variables for data obtained using self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM). Method Stacked bar charts are utilized for multiple ranges of glucose values, e.g., very low, low, borderline low, target range, borderline high, high, and very high. Glucose ranges for these categories can be defined by the user, e.g., <40, 40–70, 71–80, 81–140, 141–180, 181–250, and 251–400 mg/dl. Glucose distributions can be displayed by time of day, in relation to meals, by date, or by day of week. The graphic display can be generated using general purpose spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel or with special purpose software. Result Stacked bar charts are extremely compact and effective. They facilitate comparison of multiple days, multiple time segments within a day, preprandial and postprandial glucose levels, days of the week, treatment periods, patients, and groups of patients. They are superior to use of pie charts in terms of compactness and in their ability to facilitate comparisons using multiple criteria and multiple subsets of the data. One can identify episodes of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia and can display standard errors of estimates of percentages. Interpretation of these graphs is readily learned and requires minimal training. Conclusion Use of stacked bar charts is generally superior to use of pie charts for display of glucose distributions and can potentially facilitate the analysis and interpretation of SMBG and CGM data. PMID:20144393

  7. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women

    PubMed Central

    Guessogo, Wiliam R.; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H.; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B.; Messina Ondoua, Regine T.; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S.; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  8. Effect of 24-week repeated short-time walking based training program on physical fitness of black Cameroonian obese women.

    PubMed

    Guessogo, Wiliam R; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengue, Samuel H; Assomo Ndemba, Peguy B; Messina Ondoua, Regine T; Hamadou, André; Etoundi-Ngoa, Laurent S; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of a training program based on repetition of short-time walk sequences on cardiorespiratory response, physical performance and metabolic parameters in black Cameroonian obese women. One hundred thirty-nine obese women (body mass in-dex [BMI]>30 kg/m2) were divided into three groups: premenopausal (Pre-M; 39.7±7.9 yr; n=48), postmenopausal (Post-M; 55.0±2.5 yr; n=61) and control group (CONT; 48.7±9.4 yr; n=30). Only Pre-M and Post-M completed 24-week repeated short-time walking program. An-thropometric, cardiorespiratory, metabolic parameters, and the 6-min walk distance (6MWD) were measured at baseline (S1), 12 weeks follow-up (S2), and 2 days after the last session (S3). Significant changes were observed in weight, BMI, fatty mass and 6MWD in Pre-M and Post-M after 24 weeks. The waist and hip circumferences, percentages of water, muscle mass and bone mass changed in Post-M. Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein and forced expiratory volumes in 1 and 6 sec showed significant improvements in Pre-M and Post-M. High density lipoprotein increased only in Post-M (0.5±0.2 g/L vs 0.7±0.1 g/L, P=0.041). In conclusion, this training modality could constitute an option for obese women rehabilitation. PMID:27162770

  9. Accuracy of sea level predictions with lead time of one week: a comparison between Prognocean and MyOcean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swierczynska, Malgorzata; Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    There exist several systems which produce sea level forecasts in real time, with lead times ranging from hours to two weeks in the future. One of the recently developed solutions is Prognocean, the system that has been built and implemented at the University of Wroclaw, Poland. Its main feature is that it uses simple time series models to predict sea level anomaly maps, and does it for lead times ranging from 1 to 14 days with daily update. The empirical data-based models are fitted in real time both to individual grids (polynomial-harmonic model, polynomial-harmonic model combined with autoregressive model, polynomial-harmonic model combined with threshold autoregressive model) and to numerous grids forming a spatial latitude x longitude window of 3˚ x 5˚ (polynomial-harmonic model combined with multivariate autoregressive model). Although their simplicity, the approaches have already been shown to produce sea level anomaly predictions of reasonable accuracy. However, none of the analyses targeted at the comparative study which would present the skills of the Prognocean system against a background of the performance of other systems that use physically-based models. This study aims to fill this gap by comparing Prognocean-based predictions for one week into the future with the corresponding prognoses calculated by MyOcean. The reader is provided with the objectively-calculated set of statistics, presented as maps, which describes prediction errors (mean absolute error, root mean square error, index of agreement) and prediction skills (prediction efficiency, coefficient of determination) of the two systems. The exercise enables to compare the skills of the approaches, and the gridwise comparison allows one to identify areas of superior performance of each system.

  10. Time Variable Gravity from Weekly Solutions from 1993 to 2010 using SLR and DORIS data and Comparisons with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinn, D. S.; Lemoine, F. G.; Le Bail, K.; Luthcke, S. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Rowlands, D. D.; Sabaka, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    GRACE has been routinely monitoring the time-variable gravity field of the Earth since 2003 with either periodic solutions expressed as spherical harmonics or mascons. GRACE can resolve time-variable gravity to between degree 40 and 60, however the time series may be interrupted prior to the launch of a GRACE-2 spacecraft. A suite of satellites tracked by SLR, DORIS and also GPS has been in orbit for many years, and with these satellites it is possible to construct a time series of low degree spherical harmonics over several decades. We have recently reprocessed SLR and DORIS data from 1993 to 2010 using ITRF2008 and have developed weekly solutions based on SLR data to Lageos1, Lageos2, Starlette, Stella, Ajisai, Larets, TOPEX/Poseidon, Envisat, the SPOT satellites, and Jason-2. The new C20 solutions compare favorably to independent SLR solutions, however the annual amplitude in the SLR solutions is greater than in the annual amplitude of the C20 recoveries from GRACE-derived solutions. For non-zonal low degree coefficients, the GRACE and SLR time series seem in reasonable agreement over the time period where the data are in common. We summarize the current status of the processing, and the quality of the solutions that have been obtained thus far, and provide a perspective on future work that remains to be done.

  11. X-ray absorption resonances near L2,3-edges from real-time propagation of the Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix.

    PubMed

    Kadek, Marius; Konecny, Lukas; Gao, Bin; Repisky, Michal; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-09-21

    The solution of the Liouville-von Neumann equation in the relativistic Dirac-Kohn-Sham density matrix formalism is presented and used to calculate X-ray absorption cross sections. Both dynamical relaxation effects and spin-orbit corrections are included, as demonstrated by calculations of the X-ray absorption of SF6 near the sulfur L2,3-edges. We also propose an analysis facilitating the interpretation of spectral transitions from real-time simulations, and a selective perturbation that eliminates nonphysical excitations that are artifacts of the finite basis representation. PMID:26268195

  12. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Diego A; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G; Aon, Miguel A; Marin, Raúl H; Kembro, Jackelyn M

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×10(6) data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa. PMID:27271772

  13. Climate response to changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide and solar irradiance on the time scale of days to weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Long; Bala, Govindasamy; Caldeira, Ken

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies show that fast climate response on time scales of less than a month can have important implications for long-term climate change. In this study, we investigate climate response on the time scale of days to weeks to a step-function quadrupling of atmospheric CO2 and contrast this with the response to a 4% increase in solar irradiance. Our simulations show that significant climate effects occur within days of a stepwise increase in both atmospheric CO2 content and solar irradiance. Over ocean, increased atmospheric CO2 warms the lower troposphere more than the surface, increasing atmospheric stability, moistening the boundary layer, and suppressing evaporation and precipitation. In contrast, over ocean, increased solar irradiance warms the lower troposphere to a much lesser extent, causing a much smaller change in evaporation and precipitation. Over land, both increased CO2 and increased solar irradiance cause rapid surface warming that tends to increase both evaporation and precipitation. However, the physiological effect of increased atmospheric CO2 on plant stomata reduces plant transpiration, drying the boundary layer and decreasing precipitation. This effect does not occur with increased solar irradiance. Therefore, differences in climatic effects from CO2 versus solar forcing are manifested within days after the forcing is imposed.

  14. High resolution, week-long, locomotion time series from Japanese quail in a home-box environment

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán, Diego A.; Pellegrini, Stefania; Flesia, Ana G.; Aon, Miguel A.; Marin, Raúl H.; Kembro, Jackelyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns of locomotion reflect both resting periods and the movement from one place to another to satisfy physiological and behavioural needs. Locomotion is studied in diverse areas of biology such as chronobiology and physiology, as well as in biomathematics. Herein, the locomotion of 24 visually-isolated Japanese quails in their home-box environment was recorded continuously over a 6.5 days at a 0.5 s sampling rate. Three time series are presented for each bird: (1) locomotor activity, (2) distance ambulated, and (3) zone of the box where the bird is located. These high resolution, week-long, time series consisting of 1.07×106 data points represent, to our knowledge, a unique data set in animal behavior, and are publically available on FigShare. The data obtained can be used for analyzing dynamic changes of daily or several day locomotion patterns, or for comparison with existing or future data sets or mathematical models across different taxa. PMID:27271772

  15. The Time Factor in Mandarin Language Learning: The Four-Week Intensive versus the Regular High School Semester

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte

    2014-01-01

    This study compared two groups of high school students in their learning of a third-year Mandarin level 3 class under two conditions: an intensive four-week (85.5 hours) summer program and a 22-week (88 hours) regular semester program. Students in both conditions had been classmates through four semesters of Mandarin instruction and had similar…

  16. Profile of time-dependent VEGF upregulation in human pulmonary endothelial cells, HPMEC-ST1.6R infected with DENV-1, -2, -3, and -4 viruses.

    PubMed

    Azizan, Azliyati; Fitzpatrick, Kelly; Signorovitz, Aimee; Tanner, Richard; Hernandez, Heidi; Stark, Lillian; Sweat, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the upregulated expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in a pulmonary endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1.6R) infected with dengue virus serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4 (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4), was investigated. This cell line exhibits the major constitutive and inducible endothelial cell characteristics, as well as angiogenic response. Infection by all four DENV serotypes was confirmed by an observed cytopathic effect (CPE), as well as RT-PCR (reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction) assays. As we had previously reported, the DENV-infected HPMEC-ST1.6R cells exhibited an elongated cytoplasmic morphology, possibly representing a response to VEGF and activation of angiogenesis. In this study, increase in VEGF expression level at designated time points of 0, 8, 24, 96 and 192 hours post-infection was investigated, using a microbead-based Bio-Plex immunoassay. Increased level of VEGF expression in infected-HPMEC-ST1.6R was detected at 8 hours post-infection. Interestingly, VEGF expression level began to decrease up to 96 hours post-infection, after which an upsurge of increased VEGF expression was detected at 192 hours post-infection. This profile of VEGF upregulated expression pattern associated with DENV infection appeared to be consistent among all four DENV-serotypes, and was not observed in mock-infected cells. In this study, the expression level of VEGF, a well-established vascular permeabilizing agent was shown to be elevated in a time-dependent manner, and exhibited a unique dual-response profile, in a DENV-infected endothelial cell. The experimental observation described here provided additional insights into potential mechanism for VEGF-mediated vascular leakage associated with DENV, and support the idea that there are potential applications of anti-VEGF therapeutic interventions for prevention of severe DENV infections. PMID:19419573

  17. A Week in the Life of Full-Time Office Workers: Work Day and Weekend Light Exposure in Summer and Winter

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Stephanie J.; Molina, Thomas A.; Burgess, Helen J.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the light exposure in full-time office workers, who spend much of their workdays indoors. We examined the 24-hour light exposure patterns of 14 full-time office workers during a week in summer, and assessed their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO, a marker of circadian timing) at the end of the working week. Six workers repeated the study in winter. Season had little impact on the workers' schedules, as the timing of sleep, commute, and work did not vary by more than 30 minutes in the summer and winter. In both seasons, workers received significantly more morning light on workdays than weekends, due to earlier wake times and the morning commute. Evening light in the two hours before bedtime was consistently dim. The timing of the DLMO did not vary between season, and by the end of the working week, the workers slept at a normal circadian phase. PMID:25172304

  18. ISS Update: Final Week for Long Time Flight Director Paul Dye – 01.11.13

    NASA Video Gallery

    Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot sits down with Flight Director Paul Dye in the Station Flight Control Room. In his final week as a flight director, Dye discusses his experiences from the beginning ...

  19. Development and Validation of Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays to Detect Elephant Endotheliotropic Herpesviruses-2, 3, 4, 5, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Nofs, Sally; Peng, Rongsheng; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHV) can cause lethal hemorrhagic disease in both African and Asian elephants. At least seven EEHV types have been described, and sensitive real-time PCR tests have been developed for EEHV1A and 1B, which are associated with the majority of characterized Asian elephant deaths. Despite growing knowledge of the different EEHV types, the prevalence of each type within African and Asian elephants remains to be determined and there is considerable need for diagnostic tests to detect and discriminate between each EEHV species for clinical management of African and Asian elephants that develop illness from one or more of these viruses. To begin to address these issues, we developed real-time PCR assays for EEHV2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Overall, each assay had robust PCR efficiency, a dynamic linear range over 5 log10 concentrations, a limit of detection of 10 copies/test reaction with 100% sensitivity, and low intra- and inter-assay variability. Each assay proved to be specific for the EEHV targets for which it was designed, with the exception of EEHV3 and EEHV4, which was expected because of greater DNA sequence similarity between these two EEHV species than the others. These new tools will be useful for conducting surveys of EEHV prevalence within captive and range country elephants, for diagnostic testing of elephants with suspected EEHV-associated disease, and for managing the treatment of elephants with EEHV-induced illness. PMID:22842286

  20. Manipulating Carbohydrate Availability Between Twice-Daily Sessions of High-Intensity Interval Training Over 2 Weeks Improves Time-Trial Performance.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Andrew J; Myslik, Frank; MacInnis, Martin J; Percival, Michael E; Bishop, David; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Gibala, Martin J

    2015-10-01

    Commencing some training sessions with reduced carbohydrate (CHO) availability has been shown to enhance skeletal muscle adaptations, but the effect on exercise performance is less clear. We examined whether restricting CHO intake between twice daily sessions of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) augments improvements in exercise performance and mitochondrial content. Eighteen active but not highly trained subjects (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] = 44 ± 9 ml/kg/min), matched for age, sex, and fitness, were randomly allocated to two groups. On each of 6 days over 2 weeks, subjects completed two training sessions, each consisting of 5 × 4-min cycling intervals (60% of peak power), interspersed by 2 min of recovery. Subjects ingested either 195 g of CHO (HI-HI group: ~2.3 g/kg) or 17 g of CHO (HI-LO group: ~0.3 g/kg) during the 3-hr period between sessions. The training-induced improvement in 250-kJ time trial performance was greater (p = .02) in the HI-LO group (211 ± 66 W to 244 ± 75 W) compared with the HI-HI group (203 ± 53 W to 219 ± 60 W); however, the increases in mitochondrial content was similar between groups, as reflected by similar increases in citrate synthase maximal activity, citrate synthase protein content and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV protein content (p > .05 for interaction terms). This is the first study to show that a short-term "train low, compete high" intervention can improve whole-body exercise capacity. Further research is needed to determine whether this type of manipulation can also enhance performance in highly-trained subjects. PMID:25811132

  1. A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 p.m. and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day,…

  2. A Poll about Children and Weight: Crunch Time during the American Work and School Week--3 P.M. to Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public health challenge today, with complex roots interwoven into nearly every facet of American life. This poll addresses one narrow slice of this web: the challenges that families face during the "crunch time" of the work and school week, between 3 pm and the time children go to bed. Compared to the school day, this…

  3. [Time course of changes in gustatory function test results and subjective symptoms, and predictive factors for response in patients with taste disorder receiving 24-week zinc replacement treatment].

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Masafumi; Kurono, Yuichi; Inokuchi, Akira; Takeda, Noriaki; Aiba, Tsunemasa; Nin, Tomomi; Ikeda, Minoru

    2014-08-01

    In a taste disorder, an agreement between patients' complaints and gustatory function test results is not necessarily found both at the initial hospital visit and during the course of treatment; therefore, it is difficult to assess treatment responses and review treatment strategies based on the assessed treatment responses. The present study investigated the time course of changes in disc gustometry results and subjective symptom scores measured at 4-week intervals in 44 patients with a taste disorder who were considered eligible for zinc replacement treatment and who received polaprezinc at a dose of 150 mg/day (equivalent to a 34 mg/day dose of zinc) for up to 24 weeks. The study also examined the potential differences in treatment outcomes according to the predictive factors for response such as patient background and assessed disc gustometry results during the course of treatment. Results indicated that disc gustometry results and subjective symptom scores showed different time courses of changes. The response rate as measured by disc gustometry was 47.7% at week 12 of treatment, and showed a subsequent slow increase to 56.8% at week 24. On the other hand, subjective symptom scores showed a time-proportional improvement up to week 24. Among the patients included in the present study, a clear difference was found according to the presence or absence of an improving trend as determined by disc gustometry at week 12 of treatment, although there were no differences in ultimate treatment responses, including categories of taste disorder, according to patient background. Patients showing a trend toward improvement had significantly better treatment responses in terms of both ultimate response rates and subjective symptom scores, whereas patients showing no trend toward improvement were less likely to respond to the subsequent 12-week continued treatment. PMID:25255648

  4. Forgiveness Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Art

    1984-01-01

    Carefully orchestrated public relations and publicity campaign at Free Library of Philadelphia motivated an estimated 35,000 patrons to return almost 160,000 overdues during "no fines" week. Coverage by radio stations, newspapers, and television aided recovery of materials including rare 1910 score of a Rachmaninoff symphony which was 31 years…

  5. How Many Hours per Week Are Full-Time Community College Counselors Expected to Work? Evidence Indicates That in California No Uniform Load Exists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kester, Donald L.

    The purpose of this study was to discover the workload policy for full-time counselors at each California community college and to compare them to see what variability existed. The response rate to questionnaires sent to all California community colleges was 79 per cent. Workloads were found to range from 15 to 40 hours per week. It is believed…

  6. Are the Effects of Early Pubertal Timing on the Initiation of Weekly Alcohol Use Mediated by Peers and/or Parents? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the link between early pubertal timing and initiation of weekly alcohol use is mediated by changes in perceived parental alcohol-specific rule setting and changes in perceived proportion of drinkers in the peer group. Longitudinal data including 3 annual waves were used to estimate the hazard for adolescents to initiate…

  7. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  8. The relationship between low back pain and leisure time physical activity in a working population of cleaners - a study with weekly follow-ups for 1 year

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) are considered to be closely related, and clinical guidelines for the treatment of acute LBP recommend patients stay physically active. However, the documentation for this recommendation is sparse and based on studies involving patient populations. The purpose of the study was (1) to investigate the correlation between LBP and LTPA on a weekly basis over the course of a year in a high-risk group of cleaners; and (2) to investigate if maintaining LTPA during an episode of acute LBP has a positive effect on LBP intensity in the subsequent 4 weeks. Methods 188 cleaners consented to participate in a 52-week text message survey about hours of LTPA and intensity of LBP (from 0 to 9) over the previous 7 days. The correlation between LBP and LTPA was calculated by Pearson correlation coefficient. During an episode of acute LBP, a mixed effect logistic regression model was used to investigate whether cleaners who maintain LTPA have a lower pain intensity and higher probability of returning to initial pain intensity within the following four weeks compared with cleaners who decrease LTPA during acute LBP. Results The correlation between weekly LTPA and LBP data was negative, but numerically low (r = -0.069) and statistically insignificant (p = 0.08). Among the 82 cleaners experiencing at least one episode of acute LBP, those maintaining LTPA during an episode of acute LBP did not have a lower pain intensity (average LBP intensity difference between groups of 0.06; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of -0.417 to 0.539) or higher probability of returning to initial pain level (Odds ratio 1,02; 95% CI of 0.50 to 2.09) in the following four weeks compared with cleaners decreasing LTPA during acute LBP. Conclusions Hours of LTPA and intensity of LBP measured on a weekly basis throughout a year showed no close correlation. Maintaining LTPA during an episode of acute LBP did not result in a positive effect on

  9. Relief of Night-time Symptoms Associated With Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Following 4 Weeks of Treatment With Pantoprazole Magnesium: The Mexican Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Working Group

    PubMed Central

    Orr, William; Vargas-Romero, José Antonio; Remes-Troche, José María; Morales-Arámbula, Miguel; Soto-Pérez, Julio César; Mateos-Pérez, Gualberto; Sobrino-Cossío, Sergio; Teramoto-Matsubara, Oscar; López-Colombo, Aurelio; Orozco-Gamiz, Antonio; Saez-Ríos, Adolfo; Arellano-Plancarte, Araceli; Chiu-Ugalde, Jazmin; Tholen, Anne; Horbach, Silke; Lundberg, Lars; Fass, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To evaluate the effectiveness of pantoprazole magnesium (pantoprazole-Mg) 40 mg in the relief of esophageal and extra-esophageal symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), particularly night-time symptoms. Methods Patients (aged 18-50 years) with 3-month history of heartburn and/or acid regurgitation plus at least one other symptom in the last week were enrolled in a nationwide, prospective and observational study in Mexico. Patients received pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily during 4 weeks. Symptoms were assessed through a physician-administered structured interview and the patient-completed ReQuest in Practice™ questionnaire. Night-time GERD was defined as arousal from sleep during the night due to GERD-associated symptoms. Results Out of 4,343 patients included at basal visit, 3,665 were considered for the effectiveness per protocol analysis. At baseline, patients had a median of 8 GERD related symptoms. Patients with night-time GERD symptoms (42.7%) were more likely to have extra-esophageal symptoms (P < 0.001) than other GERD patients. Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg once daily for 4 weeks improved a broad range of GERD-associated symptoms from baseline (80% reduction on physicians assessments; 68-77% reduction on ReQuest in Practice™ dimensions), including both day- and night-time GERD symptoms; improvements were the greatest for extra-esophageal symptoms in patients with night-time symptoms. Pantoprazole-Mg was well tolerated. Conclusions Pantoprazole-Mg 40 mg significantly improved a broad range of esophageal and extra-esophageal GERD related symptoms including sleep disturbances, as well as well-being, in patients with daytime or night-time GERD, making it a good option for patients with GERD, especially when extra-esophageal and night-time symptoms are present. PMID:24466446

  10. Prospects for Improved Forecasts of Weather and Short-Term Climate Variability on Subseasonal (2-Week to 2-Month) Times Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Dole, Randall; vandenDool, Huug; Suarez, Max; Waliser, Duane

    2002-01-01

    This workshop, held in April 2002, brought together various Earth Sciences experts to focus on the subseasonal prediction problem. While substantial advances have occurred over the last few decades in both weather and seasonal prediction, progress in improving predictions on these intermediate time scales (time scales ranging from about two weeks to two months) has been slow. The goals of the workshop were to get an assessment of the "state of the art" in predictive skill on these time scales, to determine the potential sources of "untapped" predictive skill, and to make recommendations for a course of action that will accelerate progress in this area. One of the key conclusions of the workshop was that there is compelling evidence for predictability at forecast lead times substantially longer than two weeks. Tropical diabatic heating and soil wetness were singled out as particularly important processes affecting predictability on these time scales. Predictability was also linked to various low-frequency atmospheric "phenomena" such as the annular modes in high latitudes (including their connections to the stratosphere), the Pacific/North American (PNA) pattern, and the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO). The latter, in particular, was highlighted as a key source of untapped predictability in the tropics and subtropics, including the Asian and Australian monsoon regions.

  11. 2,3-Dichloropropanol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3 - Dichloropropanol ; CASRN 616 - 23 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  12. Time-dependent transcriptomic and biochemical responses of 6-formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are explained by AHR activation time.

    PubMed

    Farmahin, Reza; Crump, Doug; O'Brien, Jason M; Jones, Stephanie P; Kennedy, Sean W

    2016-09-01

    6-Formylindolo[3,2-b]carbazole (FICZ) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) are ligands of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and bind to the AHR with high affinity. Until recently, TCDD was considered to be the most potent AHR agonist, but several recent studies indicate that FICZ binds with greater affinity to the AHR than TCDD. To advance our understanding of the similarities and differences of the effects of FICZ and TCDD exposure in chicken embryo hepatocyte (CEH) cultures, we compared relative expression changes of 27 dioxin-responsive genes by the use of a chicken PCR array, porphyrin accumulation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity at different time points. In addition, an egg injection study was performed to assess the effects of FICZ on the developing chicken embryo. The results of the current study showed: (1) mean EROD-derived relative potency values for FICZ compared to TCDD changed as a function of time (i.e. 9, 0.004, 0.0008 and 0.00008 at 3, 8, 24, and 48h, respectively) in CEH cultures; (2) FICZ exposure did not result in porphyrin accumulation in CEH cultures; (3) concordance between gene expression profiles for FICZ and TCDD was time- and concentration-dependent, and (4) no mortality or morphological abnormalities were observed in chicken embryos injected with 0.87ng FICZ/g egg into the air cell. The results presented herein suggest that while FICZ and TCDD share similar molecular targets, transient versus sustained AHR activation by FICZ and TCDD result in differential transcriptomic responses. Moreover, rapid metabolism of FICZ in hepatocytes resulted in a significant decrease in the induction of EROD activity. PMID:27301797

  13. SU-E-J-229: Quantitative Assessment for Timely Adaptive Re-Planning Using Weekly Dose Monitoring for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shang, Q; Liu, H; Greskovich, J; Koyfman, S; Xia, P; Li, Z

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: For patients with head and neck (HN) cancer, mid-course adaptive radiation therapy (ART) is a common practice in our institution to accommodate anatomic changes. The aim of the study is to evaluate whether dose re-calculation on weekly verification images can provide quantitative assessment for timely adaptive re-planning with daily image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods: We retrospectively selected sixty daily verification images acquired on CT-on-rail/CBCT from ten HN patients. These image sets were typically a week apart. Among these patients, six patients received a mid-course ART. Contours of the tumors and organ-at-risks (OARs) were manually delineated by a physician on each verification CT. After placing the treatment iso-center on the verification CTs according to the recorded clinical shifts, daily dose was re-calculated with the same beam configuration as the original plan. For the purpose of this study, electron densities for both verification CTs and planning CTs were set to 1.0 g/cm3. Results: Two patients had D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose for more than three fractions due to remarkable tumor volume shrinkages. D-max of the spinal cord exceeded a tolerance of 45 Gy for four fractions in additional two patients. D-mean of the parotid increased within 25% of the planned value. D-max of the brainstem and D-mean of the oral cavity did not show significant variation. If the re-planning criteria included D99 of the CTV < 97% of the planned dose and D-max of the spinal cord > 45 Gy, two out ten patients required ART at week 2 and two patients required ART at week 3, respectively. Conclusion: Weekly dose monitoring with re-calculation on verification images can provide quantitative dose guidance for timely adaptive re-planning. Future work will include accumulative dose analysis for the decision of adaptive re-planning. The study is supported in part by Siemens Medical Solutions.

  14. Real-time forecasting at weekly timescales of the SST and SLA of the Ligurian Sea with a satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ÁLvarez, A.; Orfila, A.; Tintoré, J.

    2004-03-01

    Satellites are the only systems able to provide continuous information on the spatiotemporal variability of vast areas of the ocean. Relatively long-term time series of satellite data are nowadays available. These spatiotemporal time series of satellite observations can be employed to build empirical models, called satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) systems, to forecast certain aspects of future ocean states. SOFT systems can predict satellite-observed fields at different timescales. The forecast skill of SOFT systems forecasting the sea surface temperature (SST) at monthly timescales has been extensively explored in previous works. In this work we study the performance of two SOFT systems forecasting, respectively, the SST and sea level anomaly (SLA) at weekly timescales, that is, providing forecasts of the weekly averaged SST and SLA fields with 1 week in advance. The SOFT systems were implemented in the Ligurian Sea (Western Mediterranean Sea). Predictions from the SOFT systems are compared with observations and with the predictions obtained from persistence models. Results indicate that the SOFT system forecasting the SST field is always superior in terms of predictability to persistence. Minimum prediction errors in the SST are obtained during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, the biggest differences between the performance of SOFT and persistence models are found during summer and autumn. These changes in the predictability are explained on the basis of the particular variability of the SST field in the Ligurian Sea. Concerning the SLA field, no improvements with respect to persistence have been found for the SOFT system forecasting the SLA field.

  15. Earth Science Week evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earth Science Week, October 7-13, is an annual grassroots effort sponsored by the American Geological Institute (AGI) and its member societies, of which AGU is the largest. This year, for the first time, Earth Science Week has a general theme, evolution in Earth history. The Earth Science Week information kit for 2001, available from AGI, includes a variety of posters, bookmarks, and other materials that illustrate this concept. The kit contains a new 32-page “Ideas and Activities” booklet that emphasizes evolution in Earth history through an array of activities about rocks, fossils, and geologic time. It also has information on the upcoming Public Broadcasting Service series, “Evolution,” which is to be aired in late September.

  16. The generalized STAR(1,1) modeling with time correlated errors to red-chili weekly prices of some traditional markets in Bandung, West Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisa Fadlilah F., I.; Mukhaiyar, Utriweni; Fahmi, Fauzia

    2015-12-01

    The observations at a certain location may be linearly influenced by the previous times of observations at that location and neighbor locations, which could be analyzed by Generalized STAR(1,1). In this paper, the weekly red-chili prices secondary-data of five main traditional markets in Bandung are used as case study. The purpose of GSTAR(1,1) model is to forecast the next time red-chili prices at those markets. The model is identified by sample space-time ACF and space-time PACF, and model parameters are estimated by least square estimation method. Theoretically, the errors' independency assumption could simplify the parameter estimation's problem. However, practically that assumption is hard to satisfy since the errors may be correlated each other's. In red-chili prices modeling, it is considered that the process has time-correlated errors, i.e. martingale difference process, instead of follow normal distribution. Here, we do some simulations to investigate the behavior of errors' assumptions. Although some of results show that the behavior of the errors' model are not always followed the martingale difference process, it does not corrupt the goodness of GSTAR(1,1) model to forecast the red-chili prices at those five markets.

  17. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brian J.; MacInnis, Martin J.; Skelly, Lauren E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Gibala, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. Methods Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6). SIT involved 3x20-second ‘all-out’ cycle sprints (~500W) interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W). Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W. Results Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both). Insulin sensitivity index (CSI), determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002) and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10−4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013) (p<0.05). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001). The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99), CSI (p = 0.63) and CS (p = 0.97). Conclusions Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PMID:27115137

  18. Cross-sectional associations between the screen-time of parents and young children: differences by parent and child gender and day of the week

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Greater time spent screen-viewing (SV) has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine whether parental SV time is associated with child SV time on week and weekend days. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 1078 children aged 5–6 and at least 1 parent. Child and parent SV was reported for weekday and weekend days. Logistic regression examined whether parental SV time was associated with child SV time, with separate analyses for mothers and fathers and interaction terms for child gender. Results 12% of boys, 8% of girls and 30% of mothers and fathers watched ≥2 hours of TV each weekday. On a weekend day, 45% of boys, 43% of girls, 53% of mothers and 57% of fathers spent ≥2 hours watching TV. Where parents exceeded 2 hours TV-watching per weekday, children were 3.4 times more likely to spend ≥ 2 hours TV-watching if their father exceeded the threshold with odds of 3.7 for mothers. At weekends, daughters of fathers who exceeded 2 hours watching TV were over twice as likely as sons to exceed this level. Evidence that parent time spent using computers was associated with child computer use was also strongest between fathers and daughters (vs. sons) (OR 3.5 vs. 1.0, p interaction = 0.027). Conclusions Strong associations were observed between parent and child SV and patterns were different for weekdays versus weekend days. Results show that time spent SV for both parents is strongly associated with child SV, highlighting the need for interventions targeting both parents and children. PMID:24758143

  19. Project Week at Yeovil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadd, K. F.

    1979-01-01

    This article describes an approach to science teaching in which secondary school students and faculty members lived and worked together for a week at Yeovil College, concentrating on science project work. The projects investigated during this time are briefly described. (GA)

  20. Variation in the human lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange frequency as a function of time: results of daily and twice-weekly sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, J.D.; Christensen, M.L.; Strout, C.L.; McGee, K.A.; Carrano, A.V.

    1987-01-01

    The variation in lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency was investigated in healthy nonsmokers who were not taking any medication. Two separate studies were undertaken. In the first, blood was drawn from four women twice a week for 8 weeks. These donors recorded the onset and termination of menstruation and times of illness. In the second study, blood was obtained from two women and two men for 5 consecutive days on two separate occasions initiated 14 days apart. Analysis of the mean SCE frequencies in each study indicated that significant temporal variation occurred in each donor, and that more variation occurred in the longer study. Some of the variation was found to be associated with the menstrual cycle. In the daily study, most of the variation appeared to be random, but occasional day-to-day changes occurred that were greater than those expected by chance. To determine how well a single SCE sample estimated the pooled mean for each donor in each study, the authors calculated the number of samples that encompassed that donor's pooled mean within 1 or more standard errors. For both studies, about 75% of the samples encompassed the pooled mean within 2 standard errors. An analysis of high-frequency cells (HFCs) was also undertaken. The results for each study indicate that the proportion of HFCs, compared with the use of Fisher's Exact test, is significantly more constant than the means, which were compared by using the t-test. These results coupled with our previous work suggest that HFC analysis may be the method of choice when analyzing data from human population studies.

  1. Biogeochemical variations at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, from weekly to inter-annual time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Susan; Lampitt, Richard

    2015-04-01

    We present high-resolution autonomous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pres- sure p(CO2) taken in situ at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain sustained observatory (PAP- SO) in the northeast Atlantic (49N, 16.5W; water depth of 4850 m) for the period 2010 to 2012. Measurements of p(CO2) made at 30 m depth on a sensor frame are compared with other autonomous biogeochemical measurements at that depth (including chlorophyll a-fluorescence and nitrate concentration data) to analyse weekly to seasonal controls on p(CO2) flux in the inter-gyre region of the North Atlantic. Comparisons are also made with in situ regional time-series data from a ship of opportunity and mixed layer depth (MLD) measurements from profiling Argo floats. There is a persistent under saturation of CO2 in surface waters throughout the year which gives rise to a perennial CO2 sink. Comparison with an earlier dataset collected at the site (2003 to 2005) confirms seasonal and inter-annual changes in surface seawater chemistry. There is year-to-year variability in the timing of deep winter mixing and the intensity of the spring bloom. The 2010-2012 period shows an overall increase in p(CO2) values when compared to the 2003-2005 period as would be expected from increases due to anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The surface temperature, wind speed and MLD measurements are similar for both periods of time. Future work should incorporate daily CO2 flux measurements made using CO2 sensors at 1 m depth and the in situ wind speed data now available from the UK Met Office Buoy.

  2. Biogeochemical variations at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (PAP-SO) in the northeast Atlantic Ocean, from weekly to inter-annual time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, S. E.; Jiang, Z.-P.; Turk, D.; Lampitt, R. S.; Frigstad, H.; Ostle, C.

    2014-08-01

    We present high-resolution autonomous measurements of carbon dioxide partial pressure p(CO2) taken in situ at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain sustained observatory (PAP-SO) in the Northeast Atlantic (49° N, 16.5° W; water depth of 4850 m) for the period 2010 to 2012. Measurements of p(CO2) made at 30 m depth on a sensor frame are compared with other autonomous biogeochemical measurements at that depth (including chlorophyll a-fluorescence and nitrate concentration data) to analyse weekly to seasonal controls on p(CO2) flux in the inter-gyre region of the North Atlantic. Comparisons are also made with in situ regional time-series data from a ship of opportunity and mixed layer depth (MLD) measurements from profiling Argo floats. There is a persistent under saturation of CO2 in surface waters throughout the year which gives rise to a perennial CO2 sink. Comparison with an earlier dataset collected at the site (2003 to 2005) confirms seasonal and inter-annual changes in surface seawater chemistry. There is year-to-year variability in the timing of stratification and deep winter mixing. The 2010 to 2012 period shows an overall increase in p(CO2) values when compared to the 2003-2005 period. This is despite similar surface temperature, wind speed and MLD measurements between the two periods of time. Future work should incorporate daily CO2 flux measurements made using CO2 sensors at 1 m depth and the in situ wind speed data now available from the UK Met Office Buoy.

  3. Six-week time series of eddy covariance CO2 flux at Mammoth Mountain, California: performance evaluation and role of meteorological forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Lewicki, Jennifer; Lewicki, J.L.; Fischer, M.L.; Hilley, G.E.

    2007-10-15

    CO{sub 2} and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09/08/2006 to 10/24/2006) by the eddy covariance (EC) technique at the Horseshoe Lake tree kill (HLTK), Mammoth Mountain, CA, a site with complex terrain and high, spatially heterogeneous CO{sub 2} emission rates. EC CO{sub 2} fluxes ranged from 218 to 3500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} (mean = 1346 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}). Using footprint modeling, EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were compared to CO{sub 2} fluxes measured by the chamber method on a grid repeatedly over a 10-day period. Half-hour EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were moderately correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.42) with chamber fluxes, whereas average-daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were well correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.70) with chamber measurements. Average daily EC CO{sub 2} fluxes were correlated with both average daily wind speed and atmospheric pressure; relationships were similar to those observed between chamber CO{sub 2} fluxes and the atmospheric parameters over a comparable time period. Energy balance closure was assessed by statistical regression of EC energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat) against available energy (net radiation, less soil heat flux). While incomplete (R{sup 2} = 0.77 for 1:1 line), the degree of energy balance closure fell within the range observed in many investigations conducted in contrasting ecosystems and climates. Results indicate that despite complexities presented by the HLTK, EC can be reliably used to monitor background variations in volcanic CO{sub 2} fluxes associated with meteorological forcing, and presumably changes related to deeply derived processes such as volcanic activity.

  4. Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction Analysis of Sewage Samples to Determine Oral Polio Vaccine Circulation Duration and Mutation After Mexican National Immunization Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Stephanie B.; Ferreyra-Reyes, Leticia; Canizales-Quintero, Sergio; Huang, ChunHong; Lee, Yu-Jin; Báez-Saldaña, Renata; Ferreira-Guerrero, Elizabeth; García-García, Lourdes; Maldonado, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oral polio vaccine (OPV) can mutate and cause outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis with prolonged replication. After poliovirus eradication, global use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) may be needed until all OPV stops circulating. Mexico, where children receive routine IPV but where OPV is given only during biannual national immunization weeks (NIWs), provides a natural setting to study duration of OPV circulation in a community primarily vaccinated with IPV. Methods. One-liter sewage samples from four separate arroyos (creeks) near Orizaba, Mexico, were collected monthly for 12 months. Concentrated sewage underwent RNA extraction, reverse transcription, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect OPV serotypes 1, 2, and 3 and their variants containing the serotype-specific point mutation in the 5′ untranslated region associated with neurovirulence. Results. OPV was detected 3, 4, 5, and 7 months after the May 2010 NIW, but was not detected at 6 or 8 months. A second and third NIW occurred in February 2011 and May 2011, and OPV was detected in the sewage monthly after both of these NIW through July 2011 when collection stopped. The OPV detected was primarily serotype 2 and predominantly contained the point mutations in the 5′ untranslated region associated with increased neurovirulence. Conclusions. OPV was detected in sewage as late as 7 months after an NIW in a Mexican community primarily vaccinated with IPV, but was not detected at 8 months, suggesting that OPV circulation may have ceased. These data suggest that in communities with high vaccination rates, 1 or 2 years of IPV administration after OPV cessation could be sufficient to prevent outbreaks of paralytic poliomyelitis from vaccine-derived strains. PMID:23667738

  5. Optimal Timing for Assessment of Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Patients With Rectal Cancer: Do All Patients Benefit From Waiting Longer Than 6 Weeks?

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Rodrigo O.; Habr-Gama, Angelita; Sao Juliao, Guilherme P.; Gama-Rodrigues, Joaquim; Sousa, Afonso H.S.; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; Imperiale, Antonio R.; Lynn, Patricio B.; Proscurshim, Igor; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Ono, Carla Rachel; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: To estimate the metabolic activity of rectal cancers at 6 and 12 weeks after completion of chemoradiation therapy (CRT) by 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-labeled positron emission tomography/computed tomography ([{sup 18}FDG]PET/CT) imaging and correlate with response to CRT. Methods and Materials: Patients with cT2-4N0-2M0 distal rectal adenocarcinoma treated with long-course neoadjuvant CRT (54 Gy, 5-fluouracil-based) were prospectively studied ( (ClinicalTrials.org) identifier (NCT00254683)). All patients underwent 3 PET/CT studies (at baseline and 6 and 12 weeks from CRT completion). Clinical assessment was at 12 weeks. Maximal standard uptake value (SUVmax) of the primary tumor was measured and recorded at each PET/CT study after 1 h (early) and 3 h (late) from {sup 18}FDG injection. Patients with an increase in early SUVmax between 6 and 12 weeks were considered 'bad' responders and the others as 'good' responders. Results: Ninety-one patients were included; 46 patients (51%) were 'bad' responders, whereas 45 (49%) patients were 'good' responders. 'Bad' responders were less likely to develop complete clinical response (6.5% vs. 37.8%, respectively; P=.001), less likely to develop significant histological tumor regression (complete or near-complete pathological response; 16% vs. 45%, respectively; P=.008) and exhibited greater final tumor dimension (4.3 cm vs. 3.3 cm; P=.03). Decrease between early (1 h) and late (3 h) SUVmax at 6-week PET/CT was a significant predictor of 'good' response (accuracy of 67%). Conclusions: Patients who developed an increase in SUVmax after 6 weeks were less likely to develop significant tumor downstaging. Early-late SUVmax variation at 6-week PET/CT may help identify these patients and allow tailored selection of CRT-surgery intervals for individual patients.

  6. Concentration-and time-dependent genomic changes in the mouse urinary bladder following exposure to arsenate in drinking water for up to twelve weeks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inorganic arsenic (AsD is a known human bladder carcinogen. The objective of this study was to examine the concentration dependence of the genomic response to ASi in the urinary bladders of mice. C57BL/6J mice were exposed for 1 or 12 weeks to arsenate in drinking water at concen...

  7. a week in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    collette, christian

    2016-04-01

    COLLETTE Christian Institut Saint Laurent Liège Belgium. I am a science teacher at a technical high school. Generally, my students don't come from a privileged social background and are not particularly motivated for studies. For 10 years, I organize, for one of my sections, a spatial (and special) school year that ends in a spatial week. Throughout this year, with the help of my colleagues, I will introduce into all themes a lot of concepts relating to space. French, history, geography, English, mathematics, technical courses, sciences, and even gymnastics will be training actors in space culture. In spring, I will accompany my class in the Euro Space Center (Redu- Belgium) where we will live one week 24 hours on "like astronauts" One third of the time is dedicated to astronaut training (moonwalk, remote manipulator system, mission simulation, weightless wall, building rockets, satellites, etc.), One third to more intellectual activities on space (lectures, research, discovery of the outside run) the last one third of time in outside visits (museums, site of ESA-Redu) or in movies about space (October sky, Apollo 13, etc.) During this year, the profits, so educational as human, are considerable!

  8. Correlation between endogenous VWF:Ag and PK parameters and bleeding frequency in severe haemophilia A subjects during three-times-weekly prophylaxis with rFVIII-FS

    PubMed Central

    Lalezari, S; Martinowitz, U; Windyga, J; Enriquez, M M; Delesen, H; Schwartz, L; Scharrer, I

    2014-01-01

    Patients with severe haemophilia A experience frequent and spontaneous bleeding, causing debilitating damage to joints and decreasing quality of life. Prophylaxis with factor VIII (FVIII) reduces joint damage if initiated early. Circulating FVIII levels may be influenced by endogenous von Willebrand factor (VWF), a chaperone protein that binds and stabilizes FVIII. The aim of this study was to determine whether endogenous VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels are correlated with FVIII pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters and clinical outcomes in patients with severe haemophilia A. Previously treated, non-inhibitor patients in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, Ph II study received prophylaxis with once-weekly BAY 79-4980 (35 IU kg−1) or thrice-weekly recombinant sucrose-formulated FVIII (rFVIII-FS; 25 IU kg−1). PK parameters were evaluated at weeks 1 and 26. The number of bleeds per patient during the study was captured as part of the core efficacy endpoint. Spearman rank correlations assessed relationships of VWF:Ag levels with patient age, PK and annualized bleeding rate. Of 131 study patients (aged 13−64 years; BAY 79-4980, n = 63; rFVIII-FS, n = 68), 27 (21%; n = 15 and 12 respectively) were evaluable for PK assessment. Baseline VWF:Ag levels correlated with patient age (P < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in PK results between treatments; thus, PK parameters and VWF levels of all patients were analysed together. AUCnorm and T1/2 significantly increased with increased VWF:Ag (P < 0.001); clearance significantly decreased with increased VWF:Ag (P = 0.002). Annualized bleeding rate in patients treated with 3× per week rFVIII-FS significantly correlated with VWF:Ag and age (P = 0.038 and 0.021 respectively). PK parameters as well as the clinical outcome significantly correlated with endogenous VWF:Ag. The improved clinical outcome in subjects with high VWF:Ag levels may be explained by VWF:Ag influence on FVIII PK. PMID:24252058

  9. 1,2,3-Trichloropropane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,3 - Trichloropropane ; CASRN 96 - 18 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several program offices , regional offices , and the Office of Research and Development

  10. Isoform distinct time-, dose-, and castration-dependent alterations in flavin-containing monooxygenase expression in mouse liver after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Novick, Rachel M.; Vezina, Chad M.; Elfarra, Adnan A.

    2010-01-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) expression in male mouse liver is altered after 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure or castration. Because TCDD is slowly eliminated from the body, we examined hepatic Fmo mRNA alterations for up to 32 days following 10 or 64 µg/kg TCDD exposure by oral gavage in male C57BL/6J mice. Fmo2 mRNA was significantly induced at 1, 4, and 8 days whereas Fmo3 mRNA was also induced at 32 days relative to controls. Fmo3 mRNA levels exhibited a dose-dependent increase at 4, 8, and 32 days after exposure; Fmo1, Fmo4, and Fmo5 mRNA did not exhibit clear trends. Because castration alone also increased Fmo2, Fmo3, and Fmo4 mRNA we examined the combined effects of castration and TCDD treatment on FMO expression. A greater than additive effect was observed with Fmo2 and Fmo3 mRNA expression. Fmo2 mRNA exhibited a 3–5 fold increase after castration or 10 µg/kg TCDD exposure by oral gavage, whereas an approximately 20-fold increase was observed between the sham-castrated control and castrated TCDD-treated mice. Similarly, treatment with 10 µg/kg TCDD alone increased Fmo3 mRNA 130- and 180-fold in the sham-castrated and castrated mice compared to their controls respectively, whereas, Fmo3 mRNA increased approximately 1900-fold between the sham control and castrated TCDD-treated mice. An increase in hepatic Fmo3 protein in TCDD treated mice was observed by immunoblotting and assaying methionine S-oxidase activity. Collectively, these results provide evidence for isoform distinct time-, dose-, and castration-dependent effects of TCDD on FMO expression and suggest cross-talk between TCDD and testosterone signal transduction pathways. PMID:20036217

  11. 100 Weekly Sky Maps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    100 Aum Weekly Sky Maps for mission weeks 4 to 44, and the 100 Aum Annual Average Map. Shows sky coverage each week of the DIRBE mission over the period during which the COBE cryogen supply lasted. As the Earth, with COBE in orbit, revolved around the Sun, DIRBE viewed the sky from an ever-changing vantage point in the solar system, enabling light reflected and emitted by the interplanetary dust cloud to be modeled.

  12. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2013-04-19

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  13. MotorWeek

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  14. Dad's Last Week.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    I had intended to spend our spring break week in Montana with my kids and my dad, going to parks and museums together. Instead, I spent the week in the hospital, helping my dad make end-of-life choices and learning more about the importance of communication in health care settings and the preciousness of close relationships in life. I am a better person and a better physician because my dad trusted me to be there while he was dying. During his last week, I was grateful to have spent years studying medicine and years getting to know my dad. This combination of professional and personal knowledge enabled me to help him choose his own end-of-life path. As someone who does not like hospitals, I have always wondered why I became a doctor; now I know. PMID:27185000

  15. Body composition changes in men and women after 2-3 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Kodama, A. M.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Price, D. C.; Newsom, B. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several parameters of body composition were measured in eight men before and after 14 days of continuous recumbency, and in eight women before and after 17 days of recumbency. The parameters measured included body weight, body water, body potassium, plasma volume, and plasma protein concentrations. From these, values were derived for body fat content, lean body mass, body mass, and circulating plasma proteins. In general, the men and women responded similarly to continuous recumbency. Characteristically, there was significant reduction of plasma volume and body potassium in both groups. The women showed a significant reduction in circulating plasma protein, entirely in the albumin fraction; a similar change was observed in the men. The women, but not the men, showed a significant increase in circulating fibrinogen. Both men and women lost body cell mass, while body fat content remained the same or tended to increase slightly. It is expected that similar changes would occur in weightlessness. It is further concluded that women should tolerate the weightlessness of space flight physiologically as well as men.

  16. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  17. A Week for Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, Diane

    2008-01-01

    Space Week focuses on concepts that enable students to make concrete observations in the early grades (K-2) and move to concepts that help students develop their internet research and writing skills in middle and upper grades (Grades 3-5), and culminates with the development of science investigation design skills (Grade 6). To help launch your…

  18. Swahili 12 Weeks Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-weeks course in basic Swahili comprises 55 lesson units in five volumes. The general course format consists of (1) perception drills for comprehension, oral production, and association using "situational picture" illustrations; (2) dialogs in English and Swahili, with cartoon guides; (3) sequenced pattern and recombination drills, and (4)…

  19. A Week of Observations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colasacco, Jenne

    2011-01-01

    Even the most effective teachers have room to grow, but it's not always easy for principals to give adequate guidance through short observations. High school principal Jenne Colasacco decided to bring more depth to her observations by observing each of her teachers during one class for an entire week. The new observation structure, which included…

  20. 78 FR 24321 - National Volunteer Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-09867 Filed 4-23-13... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8960 of April 19, 2013 National Volunteer Week, 2013 By the President of the... accept certain obligations to one another. National Volunteer Week is a time to renew that...

  1. 76 FR 29139 - World Trade Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011 World Trade Week, 2011 By the President of the United... interdependent. World Trade Week is a time to highlight the vital connection between the global economy and...

  2. 76 FR 43107 - Captive Nations Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-18367 Filed 7-18-11; 11:15 am] Billing code... July 19, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8692--Captive Nations Week, 2011 #0; #0; #0... Nations Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation There are times in...

  3. Family planning week in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Antarsh, L

    1997-01-01

    More than 600 events, including disco dances, seminars, and training courses for health professionals, took place during National Family Planning Week, held throughout Ukraine this year from May 26 to June 1. The events were announced on the radio, television, and in newspapers in every region of the country. The following are among the events which took place during the week: physicians gave presents and contraceptives to mothers of newborn infants in maternity hospitals in Dnipropetrovsk; loudspeakers blared messages about family planning in the most crowded streets of Sevastopol, Crimea; family planning rooms and centers opened in 8 districts of Rivninska; and every region of the country held an official opening ceremony. Many of the events had a special focus upon youth, with more than 200 events for adolescents. For more than 6 months, a special multi-ministry coordinating committee worked closely with AVSC to make this first-time event a reality. Public awareness of family planning increased as a result of the Week. Ukraine's Ministry of Health is looking forward to holding the event again next year with or without the support of outside agencies. PMID:12349011

  4. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  5. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  6. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  7. 43 CFR 2916.2-3 - Renewal of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES Alaska Fur Farm § 2916.2-3 Renewal of... preference right to a renewal. The timely filing of an application will, however authorize the exclusive...

  8. 11 CFR 2.3 - General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this part. (b) Except as provided in 11 CFR 2.4, every portion of every Commission meeting shall be... 11 Federal Elections 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General rules. 2.3 Section 2.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION SUNSHINE REGULATIONS; MEETINGS § 2.3 General rules. (a)...

  9. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  10. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  11. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  12. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  13. 36 CFR 2.3 - Fishing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fishing. 2.3 Section 2.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.3 Fishing. (a) Except in designated areas or as provided in this section, fishing shall be in accordance with...

  14. 43 CFR 5511.2-3 - Permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Permits. 5511.2-3 Section 5511.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-3 Permits. (a) Application for permit. Before timber...

  15. 45 CFR 1206.2-3 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Definitions. 1206.2-3 Section 1206.2-3 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-3...

  16. Real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection with attomolar sensitivity without amplification using (pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3)0.65-(PbTiO3)0.35 piezoelectric plate sensors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Kirimli, Ceyhun E; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y

    2013-05-15

    In this paper we have investigated real-time, in situ DNA hybridization detection using piezoelectric plate sensors (PEPSs) consisting of a highly piezoelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) layer 8μm in thickness thinly coated with Cr/Au electrodes and electrically insulated with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) encapsulation. With probe complementary DNA (cDNA) immobilized on the PEPS surface and by monitoring the first longitudinal extension mode (LEM) resonance frequency shift of the PEPS we detected hybridization of the target DNA (tDNA) to the probe cDNA on the PEPS surface in real time at concentration 1.6×10(-18)M with a signal to noise ratio of 8 without isolation and amplification at room temperature in 30min in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution. The detection was validated in situ by two different methods: (1) the detection of fluorescently labeled microspheres coated with reporter cDNA complementary to the tDNA but different from the probe cDNA; (2) fluorescent visualization. PMID:23356996

  17. Dielectric properties of polyfunctional alcohols: 2,3-butanediol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    Using a variety theoretical approaches within the Debye, Davidson-Cole, and Forsman models, and an approach based on the Dissado-Hill theory, dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediol in the temperature range of 298 to 423 K are analyzed. It is shown that the dielectric spectra of 2,3-butanediole are described by the Davidson-Cole equation, and the βDC parameter depends strongly on temperature. The spectrum of dielectric relaxation of 2,3-butanediol within the Debye theory is presented as the sum of two areas of dispersion, and conclusions are drawn regarding possible mechanisms of dispersion responsible for the obtained fields. The relaxation times of 2,3-butanediol, calculated using different equations describing the nonlinear behavior of relaxation times, are compared. The dipole moments of clusters are obtained for the first time using the Dissado-Hill cluster model, and a preliminary analysis of them is performed.

  18. SIRT1, 2, 3 protect mouse oocytes from postovulatory aging

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Teng; Zhou, Yang; Li, Li; Wang, Hong-Hui; Ma, Xue-Shan; Qian, Wei-Ping; Shen, Wei; Schatten, Heide; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The quality of metaphase II oocytes will undergo a time-dependent deterioration following ovulation as the result of the oocyte aging process. In this study, we determined that the expression of sirtuin family members (SIRT1, 2, 3) was dramatically reduced in mouse oocytes aged in vivo or in vitro. Increased intracellular ROS was observed when SIRT1, 2, 3 activity was inhibited. Increased frequency of spindle defects and disturbed distribution of mitochondria were also observed in MII oocytes aged in vitro after treatment with Nicotinamide (NAM), indicating that inhibition of SIRT1, 2, 3 may accelerate postovulatory oocyte aging. Interestingly, when MII oocytes were exposed to caffeine, the decline of SIRT1, 2, 3 mRNA levels was delayed and the aging-associated defective phenotypes could be improved. The results suggest that the SIRT1, 2, 3 pathway may play a potential protective role against postovulatory oocyte aging by controlling ROS generation. PMID:26974211

  19. Fluorination of 1,2,3,4- and 1,2,3,5-tetrahalobenzenes with potassium fluoride in dimethyl sulfone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finger, G.C.; Dickerson, D.R.; Shiley, R.H.

    1972-01-01

    1,2,3,4-Tetrachlorobenzene, 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,4,6-trichlorofluorobenzene, and 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene were fluorinated with potassium fluoride and potassium fluoride-cesium fluoride mixtures in dimethyl sulfone. By varying the concentration, temperature and reaction time, the degree of fluorination could be controlled to some extent. The optimum conditions for producing mono-, di- and tri-fluoro-substituted chlorobenzenes and trace amounts of tetrafluorobenzene from the corresponding tetrachlorobenzenes are given. 1,2,3,5-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in 44.8% yield from 2,6-dichloro-1,4-difluorobenzene. 1,2,3,4-Tetrafluorobenzene was obtained in only trace amounts from 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene. A total of 24 new chlorofluorobenzenes and intermediates are described. Fluorination with potassium fluoride and certain other metal fluorides was also investigated. ?? 1972.

  20. Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Delivery, and Postpartum Care Elective Delivery Before 39 Weeks • What is a “medically indicated” delivery? • What is ... the baby grow and develop during the last weeks of pregnancy? • What are the risks for babies ...

  1. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  2. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  3. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  4. 43 CFR 3105.2-3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 3105.2-3 Section 3105.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Cooperative Conservation...

  5. The Iceman's last weeks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Konrad

    1994-06-01

    The author presents the archaeological, botanical and anatomical of medical evidence relating to the events of the last few days of the Iceman's life. The unfinished arrows and the half-completed bow indicate that he had lost his weapons and was in the process of re-arming himself. The quiver and the two primed arrows show clear signs of damage that has been proved to originate from before entombment in the ice of Hauslabjoch. An intravital series of fractured ribs and atrophic changes to the humerus on the same side of the body are also indicative of a violent conflict. The presence of threshing and winnowing fragments proves that, shortly before his death, the Iceman spent some time in a human settlement in which the grain crop was threshed. The theory is therefore proposed that shortly before his death the Iceman suffered some personal catastrophe involving damage to his possessions and physical injury. He fled in the direction of the inner Ötz Valley, a region of high alpine pastures he may have been familiar with from summer transhumance. Just beyond the ridge of the main Alpine chain he was caught by a sudden fall in temperature and snowfall, which he did not survive.

  6. Effect of glatiramer acetate three-times weekly on the evolution of new, active multiple sclerosis lesions into T1-hypointense "black holes": a post hoc magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Zivadinov, Robert; Dwyer, Michael; Barkay, Hadas; Steinerman, Joshua R; Knappertz, Volker; Khan, Omar

    2015-03-01

    Conversion of active lesions to black holes has been associated with disability progression in subjects with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and represents a complementary approach to evaluating clinical efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess the conversion of new active magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions, identified 6 months after initiating treatment with glatiramer acetate 40 mg/mL three-times weekly (GA40) or placebo, to T1-hypointense black holes in subjects with RRMS. Subjects received GA40 (n = 943) or placebo (n = 461) for 12 months. MRI was obtained at baseline and Months 6 and 12. New lesions were defined as either gadolinium-enhancing T1 or new T2 lesions at Month 6 that were not present at baseline. The adjusted mean numbers of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a negative binomial model; adjusted proportions of new active lesions at Month 6 converting to black holes at Month 12 were analyzed using a logistic regression model. Of 1,292 subjects with complete MRI data, 433 (50.3 %) GA-treated and 247 (57.2 %) placebo-treated subjects developed new lesions at Month 6. Compared with placebo, GA40 significantly reduced the mean number (0.31 versus 0.45; P = .0258) and proportion (15.8 versus 19.6 %; P = .006) of new lesions converting to black holes. GA significantly reduced conversion of new active lesions to black holes, highlighting the ability of GA40 to prevent tissue damage in RRMS. PMID:25542295

  7. Solar Week: Learning from Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, D.; Hauck, K.

    2003-12-01

    Solar Week is a week-long set of games and activities allowing students to interact directly with solar science and solar scientists. Solar Week was developed as a spin-off of the highly successful Yohkoh Public Outreach Project (YPOP). While YPOP provided access to solar images, movies and activities, the main goal of Solar Week was to enhance the participation of women, who are under-represented in the physical sciences. Solar Week achieves this by providing young women, primarily in grades 6-8, with access to role models in the sciences. The scientists participating in Solar Week are women from a variety of backgrounds and with a variety of scientific expertise. In this paper, our aim is to provide some insight into developing activity-based space science for the web and to discuss the lessons-learned from tailoring to a specific group of participants.

  8. HPF Implementation of NPB2.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frumkin, Michael; Jin, Hao-Qiang; Yan, Jerry; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    We present the HPF implementation of BT, SP, LU, FT, and MG of NPB2.3-serial benchmark set, The implementation is based on HPF performance model of the benchmark specific operations with distributed arrays. We present profiling and performance data on SGI origin 2000 and compare the results with NPB2.3. We discuss advantages and limitations of HPF and pghpf compiler.

  9. Weekly petroleum status report. Data for week ended, October 21, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    The Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) provides timely information on the petroleum supply situation in the context of historical information, selected prices, and forecasts. The WPSR is intended to provide up-to-date information to the industry, the press, planners, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments. It is published each Thursday by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and excerpts of the data are available electronically after 9:00 a.m. Wednesday. The data contained in this report are based on company submissions for the week ending 7:00 a.m. the preceding Friday. For some weeks which include holidays, publication of the WPSR is delayed by 1 day. The WPSR is not published during 1 of the last 2 weeks of the year depending upon which day of the week Christmas occurs.

  10. Weekly Log Record Sort (WLSORT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Thomas

    Computer routines to sort the weekly log records submitted by teachers participating in the Southwest Regional Laboratory's communications skills monitoring program are described. Written in Univac FORTRAN V, Weekly Log Record Sort (WLSORT) sorts log records on magnetic tape to enable subsequent computer programs to interpret the input data by…

  11. Effects of in ovo exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD on F1 generation adult chickens (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Alonso, K R; Peden-Adams, M M; Liu, J Y; Charbonneau, C; Henshel, D; Dickerson, R L

    1998-01-01

    White Leghorn chickens (Gallus gallus) were used as surrogate species for the resident wild turkeys found on the Times Beach, Missouri, Superfund site. Parental chickens were injected with concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD which modeled soil concentrations before (200 ppb) and after remediation (1ppb)[1]. Offspring were followed through development to assess alterations in reproductive maturity through the use of a four-way breeding study. F1 adult females exposed to a maternal dose of 8.6 ng/day began egg production approximately two weeks later than did F1 control adult females. By week eight, however, egg production between groups was equivalent. No differences were observed in eggshell gland estrogen or progesterone receptor levels. PMID:9828316

  12. Pregnancy Calendar: A Week-by-Week Guide

    MedlinePlus

    ... 42 weeks from the first day of their mom's LMP and only a small percentage of women actually deliver on their due date. Will you find out the sex of your baby before birth? Another common term ...

  13. 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,4,6 - Tetrachlorophenol ; CASRN 58 - 90 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  14. 2,3-Dihydrobiflavone from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Krauze-Baranowska, M; Sowiński, P

    1999-06-01

    From the yellow leaves of Ginkgo biloba 2,3-dihydrosciadopitysin (5,5'',7''-trihydroxy-7,4',4'''-trimethoxy-3',8''-flavanone/flavone) was isolated as a mixture of two diastereomers. Its structure was elucidated employing 2D NMR techniques. PMID:17260276

  15. 1,2,3-triazolium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Luebke, David; Nulwala, Hunaid; Tang, Chau

    2014-12-09

    The present invention relates to compositions of matter that are ionic liquids, the compositions comprising substituted 1,2,3-triazolium cations combined with any anion. Compositions of the invention should be useful in the separation of gases and, perhaps, as catalysts for many reactions.

  16. Plant Operation: Work Week, Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation's Schools and Colleges, 1975

    1975-01-01

    A four-day work week for maintenance workers in the Jefferson County Public Schools in Lakewood, Colorado, reduces absenteeism and increases productivity; a basic manual for physical plant directors is reviewed. (Author/MLF)

  17. My working week: John Innes.

    PubMed

    Innes, John

    2016-07-23

    In the first of a new series of features for Vet Record Careers, John Innes describes a recent working week as referrals director for CVS and a RCVS specialist in small animal orthopaedics. PMID:27450857

  18. New 2-aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives as diuretics.

    PubMed

    Monge, A; Martinez-Merino, V; Simon, M A; Sanmartin, C

    1993-12-01

    2-Aryl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one derivatives having various substituents at the 4'-position, H or methyl at 1,3-positions and nitro or amino at 6-position were prepared and tested for their diuretic, natriuretic and kaliuretic activities on male Wistar rats at a dosage of 25 mg/kg or less. 2-(3-Pyridyl) derivatives were inactive. 1,3-Dimethyl-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (1) were active depending on the electronic character of the 4'-substituent but at the same time were sodium-sparing. However, 1(H),3(H)-6-nitro-2-phenyl derivatives (2) were generally inactive as diuretics but active as potassium-sparing drugs. 6-Amino-1(H),3(H)-2-phenyl derivatives (4) were active as diuretics depending on dipolar moment of the substituent at the 4'-position, and induced moderate potassium release. The 6-amino-2-(4-trifluoromethylphenyl)-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-one (4f) remained active up to a dosage of 3 mg/kg. The structure-activity relationships were carried out in light of the adaptative least squares (ALS) method and discriminant functions for diuretic compounds were established. PMID:8141821

  19. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2015-01-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is an immunoregulatory enzyme. Remarkably, we discovered IDO-specific T cells that can influence adaptive immune reactions in patients with cancer. Further, a recent phase I clinical trial demonstrated long-lasting disease stabilization without toxicity in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who were vaccinated with an IDO-derived HLA-A2-restricted epitope. PMID:25949864

  20. Myth Exposed: Academically Deficient Students Gain 2.3 Grade Equivalents in Only One Semester at a 96% Black Inner-City Community College in South Central Los Angeles Or Inner-City Academic Acceleration: How to Structure a Developmental Skills Program so that Black, Inner-City Students Accelerate Their Academic Growth Rate to a Rate 5.9 Times as Great as They Have Achieved in the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ruby; And Others

    The success of the Developmental Skills Program offered at Los Angeles Southwest College, a 96% black institution, is indicated by an average student grade equivalent gain of 2.3 years in one semester; a 5 year average accelerated academic growth rate that is 5.9 times the rate of academic growth black inner-city students have experienced in the…

  1. [Weekly control measurement at the linear accelerator].

    PubMed

    Christ, G

    1983-05-01

    Weekly control measurements taken at the linear accelerator of the Medizinisches Strahleninstitut der Universität Tübingen are described which largely exceed those prescribed by the "Richtlinien Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (instructions about radioprotection in medicine). Since the determination of the field homogeneity and the energy of electron and X-ray radiation is very time-consuming, a largely automatized procedure has been elaborated which is presented in this study. PMID:6857748

  2. SO(2, 3) noncommutative gravity model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, M.; Radovanović, V.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper the noncommutative gravity is treated as a gauge theory of the non-commutative SO(2, 3)★ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical. The Seiberg-Witten (SW) map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the cosmological term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are zeroth, first, ... and fourth power of the curvature tensor. Finally, we discuss physical consequences of those correction terms in the limit of big cosmological constant.

  3. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  4. Adult Learners' Week in Switzerland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jermann, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The slogan of International Adult Learners Week in Switzerland is "one hour a day for learning." Four goals of the lifelong learning agenda are government policies to promote access, public awareness campaigns, creation of public learning places, and development of networks for real and virtual learning. (SK)

  5. Thai 18-Week Course: Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This glossary is part of the Defense Language Institute's 18-week "Short Course in Thai." Other course materials include six 10-lesson volumes and accompanying tape recordings together with an "Introduction to Thai Script." The course is designed to train native-English speakers to level 1, elementary proficiency in speaking, understanding, and…

  6. Identification of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile in laser printer emissions.

    PubMed

    Barrero-Moreno, Josefa M; Tirendi, Salvatore; Reniero, Fabiano; Giordano, Giuseppe; Kotzias, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile was identified as the main volatile organic compound (>90%) emitted from laser printers during the printing process. Experiments were carried out in a large environmental chamber of 30 m3, where the printers were placed and working simulating 'real office setting' conditions. Air samples were taken on Tenax TA adsorbent cartridges in the vicinity of the printers and further analyzed by thermal desorption gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TDGC/MS). The structure of the compound has been determined and is presented in this study. Additional data obtained by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) support the proposed structure, with no reported CAS number, as 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile. It is a byproduct of the thermal decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethyl valeronitrile), a commercially available free radical polymerization initiator used in polymerization processes during the manufacture of the toners. By means of head-space GC/MS, 15 toners used in black & white and colour printers have been investigated. Six of them contained 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diisobutyl succinonitrile, which has also been detected in the respective processed paper. PMID:18205250

  7. Astronomy Week in Madeira, Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augusto, P.; Sobrinho, J. L.

    2012-05-01

    The outreach programme Semanas da Astronomia (Astronomy Weeks) is held in late spring or summer on the island of Madeira, Portugal. This programme has been attracting enough interest to be mentioned in the regional press/TV/radio every year and is now, without doubt, the astronomical highlight of the year on Madeira. We believe that this programme is a good case study for showing how to attract the general public to astronomy in a small (population 250 000, area 900 km2) and fairly isolated place such as Madeira. Our Astronomy Weeks have been different each year and have so far included exhibitions, courses, talks, a forum, documentaries, observing sessions (some with blackouts), music and an astro party. These efforts may contribute towards putting Madeira on the map with respect to observational astronomy, and have also contributed to the planned installation of two observatories in the island.

  8. Six Week Slavery Novel Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Darolyn Lyn

    Developed in conjunction with a graduate course and used in classrooms with all types of learners, this paper presents a 6-week unit of study on slavery based on two adolescent novels--"NIGHTJOHN" by Gary Paulson and "My Name Is not Angelica" by Scott O'Dell. After a brief introduction to the unit, the paper presents the 14 activities of the unit:…

  9. "Mid-Week Pictorial": Pioneer American Photojournalism Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Keith

    In 1914 (22 years before the inception of "Life" magazine), the "New York Times" began publishing "Mid-Week Pictorial" to absorb a flood of war pictures pouring in from Europe. Several sociological and technological forces shaped "Mid-Week Pictorial" as a pioneer of American photojournalism magazines, including the development of the halftone…

  10. 75 FR 29391 - National Safe Boating Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8524 of May 20, 2010 National Safe Boating Week, 2010 By the President of the... spend time on the water, let us recommit during National Safe Boating Week to practicing safe...

  11. 23 CFR 635.118 - Payroll and weekly statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contract provisions for the project, are to be retained by the STD for the time period pursuant to 49 CFR... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Payroll and weekly statements. 635.118 Section 635.118... CONSTRUCTION AND MAINTENANCE Contract Procedures § 635.118 Payroll and weekly statements. For all...

  12. Time?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amoroso, Richard L.

    2013-09-01

    The concept of time in the `clockwork' Newtonian world was irrelevant; and has generally been ignored until recently by several generations of physicists since the implementation of quantum mechanics. We will set aside the utility of time as a property relating to physical calculations of events relating to a metrics line element or as an aspect of the transformation of a particles motion/interaction in a coordinate system or in relation to thermodynamics etc., i.e. we will discard all the usual uses of time as a concept used to circularly define physical parameters in terms of other physical parameters; concentrating instead on time as an aspect of the fundamental cosmic topology of our virtual reality especially as it inseparably relates to the nature and role of the observer in natural science.

  13. TSAR2.3. Temporal Scattering And Response

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, R.R.; Ray, S.L.; Laguna, G.; Allison, M.; Cabral, B.

    1991-12-01

    TSAR2.3 (Temporal Scattering and Response) is a finite-difference time-domain electromagnetics code suite. TSAR2.3 is a software package for simulating the interactions of electromagnetic waves with linear materials through the use of the finite-difference time-domain method. The code suite contains grid generation, grid verification, input-file creation and post-processing utilities. The physics package, written in Fortran 77, can be pre-processed to run on many different architectures including Cray, Vax and many Unix workstations. Tools are provided to easily port the code to new computers. The physics package is an efficient, flexible electromagnetic simulator. A body under study can be represented as a three-dimensional grid of materials with arbitrary linear properties. This grid can be simulated in a number of ways including incident plane waves, dipoles, and arbitrary incident fields. The grid can be terminated with numerous boundary conditions including free-space radiation, electric conductor, or magnetic conductor. Projection to the far-field in both the time and frequency domains is possible. This distribution includes make files for installing and maintaining the entire code suite.

  14. Monitoring 6 weeks of progressive endurance training with plasma glutamine.

    PubMed

    Kargotich, S; Keast, D; Goodman, C; Bhagat, C I; Joske, D J L; Dawson, B; Morton, A R

    2007-03-01

    The distinction between positive and negative training adaptation is an important prerequisite in the identification of any marker for monitoring training in athletes. To investigate the glutamine responses to progressive endurance training, twenty healthy males were randomly assigned to a training group or a non-exercising control group. The training group performed a progressive (3 to 6 x 90 minute sessions per week at 70 % V.O (2max)) six-week endurance training programme on a cycle ergometer, while the control group did not participate in any exercise during this period. Performance assessments (V.O (2max) and time to exhaustion) and resting blood samples (for haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, cortisol, ferritin, creatine kinase, glutamine, uric acid and urea analysis) were obtained prior to the commencement of training (Pre) and at the end of week 2, week 4 and week 6. The training group showed significant improvements in time to exhaustion (p < 0.01), and V.O (2max) (p < 0.05) at all time points (except week 2 for V.O (2max)), while the control group performance measures did not change. In the training group, haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than pretraining values at week 2 and 4, as percentage changes in plasma volume indicated a significant (p < 0.01) haemodilution (+ 6 - 9 %) was present at week 2, 4 and 6. No changes were seen in the control group. In the training group, plasma glutamine (week 2, 4 and 6), creatine kinase (week 2 and 4), uric acid (week 2 and 4) and urea (week 2 and 4) all increased significantly from pretraining levels. No changes in cortisol or ferritin were found in the training group and no changes in any blood variables were present in the control group. Plasma glutamine was the only blood variable to remain significantly above pretraining (966 +/- 32 micromol . 1 (-1)) levels at week 6 (1176 +/- 24 micromol . 1 (-1); p < 0.05) The elevation seen here in glutamine levels, after 6

  15. A time-dependent density functional theory investigation on the nature of the electronic transitions involved in the nonlinear optical response of [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine).

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Filippo; Fantacci, Simona; Sgamelotti, Antonio; Cariati, Franco; Roberto, Dominique; Tessore, Francesca; Ugo, Renato

    2006-02-14

    We report a theoretical study based on density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) calculations on the nature and role of the absorption bands involved in the nonlinear optical response of the complexes [Ru(CF3CO2)3T] (T = T1, T2; T1 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NBu2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, T2 = 4'-(C6H4-p-NMe2)-2,2':6',2''-terpyridine). Geometry optimizations, performed without any symmetry constraints, confirm a twisting of the -C6H4-p-NBu2 moiety with respect to the plane of the chelated terpyridine. Despite this lack of strong pi interaction, TDDFT excited states calculations of the electronic spectrum in solution provide evidence of a relevant role of the NBu2 donor group in the low-energy LMCT band at 911 nm. Calculations also show that the two bands at higher energy (508 and 455 nm) are not attributable only to LMCT and ILCT transitions but to a mixing of ILCT/MLCT and ILCT/pi-pi* transitions, respectively. The 911 nm LMCT band, appearing at lower wavelength of the second harmonic (670 nm) of the EFISH experiment, controls the negative value of the second-order NLO response. This is confirmed by our calculations of the static component beta0(zzz) of the quadratic hyperpolarizability tensor, showing a large positive value. In addition we have found that the increase of the dipole moment upon excitation occurs, in all the characterized transitions, along the dipole moment axis, thus explaining why the EFISH and solvatochromic experimental values of the quadratic hyperpolarizability agree as sign and value. PMID:16437181

  16. The Four Day School Week. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Can four-day school weeks help districts save money? How do districts overcome the barriers of moving to a four-day week? What is the effect of a four-day week on students, staff and the community? This paper enumerates the benefits for students and teachers of four-day school weeks. Recommendations for implementation of a four-day week are also…

  17. 1,2,3-Triazoles as inhibitors of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2).

    PubMed

    Röhrig, Ute F; Majjigapu, Somi Reddy; Caldelari, Daniela; Dilek, Nahzli; Reichenbach, Patrick; Ascencao, Kelly; Irving, Melita; Coukos, George; Vogel, Pierre; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 2 (IDO2) is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases that involve immune escape such as cancer. In contrast to IDO1, only a very limited number of inhibitors have been described for IDO2 due to inherent difficulties in expressing and purifying a functionally active, soluble form of the enzyme. Starting from our previously discovered highly efficient 4-aryl-1,2,3-triazole IDO1 inhibitor scaffold, we used computational structure-based methods to design inhibitors of IDO2 which we then tested in cellular assays. Our approach yielded low molecular weight inhibitors of IDO2, the most active displaying an IC50 value of 51μM for mIDO2, and twofold selectivity over hIDO1. These compounds could be useful as molecular probes to investigate the biological role of IDO2, and could inspire the design of new IDO2 inhibitors. PMID:27469130

  18. Prediction of relapse within eight weeks after an acute asthma exacerbation in adults.

    PubMed

    McCarren, M; McDermott, M F; Zalenski, R J; Jovanovic, B; Marder, D; Murphy, D G; Kampe, L M; Misiewicz, V M; Rydman, R J

    1998-02-01

    Associations between historical, presenting, and treatment-related characteristics and relapse within 8 weeks after a moderate to severe asthma exacerbation were studied in a cohort of 284 adult asthmatics. Data were collected prospectively, and a multivariate model was developed and internally validated. Within 10 days, only 8% had relapsed, increasing to 45% by 8 weeks. Three variables that could be identified at the time of discharge were independently associated with relapse. These included: having made three or more visits to an emergency department in the prior 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4); difficulty performing work or activities as a result of physical health in the 4 weeks prior (HR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.6-4.3); discontinuing hospital-based treatment for the exacerbation within 24 hours without having achieved a peak expiratory flow rate of at least 50% of predicted (HR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.1). These risk factors may help to identify patients with poorly controlled asthma in need of more intensive and comprehensive management. PMID:9474071

  19. Subsidence at the Weeks Island SPR Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Weeks Island SPR site over the last 16+ years has been studied and analyzed. The subsidence rate is not constant with time and while the subsidence rate may have increased slightly during the past several years, recently the rate has increased more dramatically. The most recent increase comes at a time when the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) storage mine had been emptied of oil and was in the process of being refilled with brine. Damage to surface structures that has been observed during the past 12-18 months is attributed to the continued subsidence and dtierential subsidence across structures. The recent greater subsidence rates were unanticipated according to analysis results and will be used to aid further subsidence model development.

  20. Neuromuscular Adaptations After 2 and 4 Weeks of 80% Versus 30% 1 Repetition Maximum Resistance Training to Failure.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Buckner, Samuel L; Bergstrom, Haley C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Hill, Ethan C; Smith, Cory M; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-08-01

    Jenkins, NDM, Housh, TJ, Buckner, SL, Bergstrom, HC, Cochrane, KC, Hill, EC, Smith, CM, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO, and Cramer, JT. Neuromuscular adaptations after 2 and 4 weeks of 80% versus 30% 1 repetition maximum resistance training to failure. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2174-2185, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypertrophic, strength, and neuromuscular adaptations to 2 and 4 weeks of resistance training at 80 vs. 30% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men (mean ± SD; age = 21.7 ± 2.4 years; weight = 84.7 ± 23.5 kg) were randomly assigned to either a high-load (n = 7) or low-load (n = 8) resistance training group and completed forearm flexion resistance training to failure 3 times per week for 4 weeks. Forearm flexor muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity, maximal voluntary isometric (MVIC) and 1RM strength, and the electromyographic, mechanomyographic (MMG), and percent voluntary activation (%VA) responses at 10-100% of MVIC were determined at baseline, 2, and 4 weeks of training. The MT increased from baseline (2.9 ± 0.1 cm) to week 2 (3.0 ± 0.1 cm) and to week 4 (3.1 ± 0.1 cm) for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. MVIC increased from week 2 (121.5 ± 19.1 Nm) to week 4 (138.6 ± 22.1 Nm) and 1RM increased from baseline (16.7 ± 1.6 kg) to weeks 2 and 4 (19.2 ± 1.9 and 20.5 ± 1.8 kg) in the 80% 1RM group only. The MMG amplitude at 80 and 90% MVIC decreased from baseline to week 4, and %VA increased at 20 and 30% MVIC for both groups. Resistance training to failure at 80 vs. 30% 1RM elicited similar muscle hypertrophy, but only 80% 1RM increased muscle strength. However, these disparate strength adaptations were difficult to explain with neuromuscular adaptations because they were subtle and similar for the 80 and 30% 1RM groups. PMID:26848545

  1. Spread spectrum communications. Volume 1, 2 & 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, M. K.; Levitt, B. K.; Omura, J. K.; Scholtz, R. A.

    The design and operation of spread-spectrum (SS) communication systems are examined in an introductory text intended for graduate engineering students and practicing engineers. Chapters are devoted to an overview of SS systems, the historical origins of SS, basic concepts and system models, antijam communication systems, pseudonoise generators, coherent direct-sequence systems, noncoherent frequency-hopped systems, coherent and differentially coherent modulation techniques, pseudonoise acquisition and tracking in direct-sequence receivers, time and frequency synchronization of frequency-hopped receivers, low-probability-of-intercept communication, and multiple-access communication. Graphs, diagrams, and photographs are provided.

  2. Crystalline 1H-1,2,3-triazol-5-ylidenes

    DOEpatents

    Bertrand, Guy; Gulsado-Barrios, Gregorio; Bouffard, Jean; Donnadieu, Bruno

    2016-08-02

    The present invention provides novel and stable crystalline 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of making 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes. The present invention also provides methods of using 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes and metal complexes of 1H-1,2,3 triazolium carbenes in catalytic reactions.

  3. MORBIDITY AND MORTALITY WEEKLY REPORT (MMWR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) is used to disseminate weekly provisional data on nationally notifiable infectious diseases. These provisional data are used for program planning and evaluation, monitoring trends in incidence, and detecting disease outbreaks.

  4. 'Heat Dome' Not Budging Until Week's End

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160083.html 'Heat Dome' Not Budging Until Week's End Eastern part of country still in its ... not be budging before the end of the week, weather forecasters said Tuesday. "With no strong pushes ...

  5. Fragmentation pathways of 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane cations in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Kirk, Benjamin B; Ellis-Steinborner, Simon; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2009-09-01

    2,3-Dimethyl-2,3-dinitrobutane (DMNB) is an explosive taggant added to plastic explosives during manufacture making them more susceptible to vapour-phase detection systems. In this study, the formation and detection of gas-phase [M+H](+), [M+Li](+), [M+NH(4)](+) and [M+Na](+) adducts of DMNB was achieved using electrospray ionisation on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The [M+H](+) ion abundance was found to have a strong dependence on ion source temperature, decreasing markedly at source temperatures above 50 degrees C. In contrast, the [M+Na](+) ion demonstrated increasing ion abundance at source temperatures up to 105 degrees C. The relative susceptibility of DMNB adduct ions toward dissociation was investigated by collision-induced dissociation. Probable structures of product ions and mechanisms for unimolecular dissociation have been inferred based on fragmentation patterns from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectra of source-formed ions of normal and isotopically labelled DMNB, and quantum chemical calculations. Both thermal and collisional activation studies suggest that the [M+Na](+) adduct ions are significantly more stable toward dissociation than their protonated analogues and, as a consequence, the former provide attractive targets for detection by contemporary rapid screening methods such as desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. PMID:19670345

  6. Pseudomonas sp. CL7 from Sludge Removed 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol in Vivo and in Vitro Condition.

    PubMed

    Karn, Santosh Kumar; Reddy, M Sudhakara; Chakrabarti, Swapan Kumar

    2016-04-01

    The present research focused on 2,3,4,6-Tetrachlorophenol (2,3,4,6-TeCP) mineralizing bacterium from the sludge of pulp and paper industry and identified as Pseudomonas sp. CL7 by 16s rRNA gene sequences analysis. This isolate degraded 2,3,4,6-TeCP as indicated by stoichiometric release of chloride and biomass formation. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that Pseudomonas sp. (CL7) was able to mineralize a higher concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP (600 mg/l or 2.5 mM) than any previously reported 2,3,4,6-TeCP degrading bacteria. As the concentration of 2,3,4,6-TeCP increased from 50 (0.21 mM) to 600 mg/l (2.5 mM), the reduction in the cell growth was observed and the 2,3,4,6-TeCP degradation was more than 85% in all the concentrations in the present study. CL7 was able to remove 100% of 2,3,4,6-TeCP from the sludge (in Vitro condition) when supplemented with 100 mg/l (0.42 mM) of 2,3,4,6-TeCP and grown for two weeks. This study showed that CL7 can be used for bioremediation of 2,3,4,6-TeCP. PMID:27131053

  7. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  8. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  9. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3 Section 3107.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL AND GAS LEASING Continuation, Extension or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable...

  10. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  11. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  12. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  13. 43 CFR 2920.2-3 - Other land use proposals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Other land use proposals. 2920.2-3 Section 2920.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND..., Permits and Easements: General Provisions § 2920.2-3 Other land use proposals. (a) A proposal for a...

  14. 22 CFR 2.3 - Notification of foreign officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of foreign officials. 2.3 Section 2.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL PROTECTION OF FOREIGN DIGNITARIES AND OTHER OFFICIAL PERSONNEL § 2.3 Notification of foreign officials. (a) Any notification of a foreign official...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  20. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  1. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  2. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  3. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  4. 17 CFR 2.3 - Prohibitions against misuse of seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... seal. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.3 Prohibitions against misuse of seal. (a) Fraudulently or wrongfully affixing or impressing the Seal to or upon any certificate, instrument, document or paper or with knowledge of its...

  5. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  6. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  7. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  8. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  9. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  10. 4 CFR 2.3 - GAO Personnel Appeals Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false GAO Personnel Appeals Board. 2.3 Section 2.3 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM PURPOSE AND GENERAL PROVISION § 2.3 GAO Personnel Appeals Board. The Government Accountability Office Personnel Appeals Board is established by 31 U.S.C....

  11. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3 Section 2.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  13. 43 CFR 8365.2-3 - Occupancy and use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Occupancy and use. 8365.2-3 Section 8365.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-3 Occupancy and...

  14. Four-Day Week Schedule. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    What does research say about the four-day week as an alternative school schedule? More than 100 districts in at least 12 states currently use a four-day week alternative schedule. Most are located in rural areas, serve less than 1000 students, and made the move to a shorter school week with longer instructional days for financial reasons. Although…

  15. Understanding Infidelity: An Interview with Gerald Weeks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Travis

    2011-01-01

    In this interview, Gerald Weeks shares his expertise on the topic of infidelity and couples counseling. Dr. Weeks defines infidelity, presents assessment strategies for treating the issue of infidelity, and discusses an intersystemic model for infidelity treatment when counseling couples. Dr. Weeks also provides insight into common mistakes made…

  16. Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA): Week 24 Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Emslie, Graham J.; Mayes, Taryn; Porta, Giovanna; Vitiello, Benedetto; Clarke, Greg; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Spirito, Anthony; Birmaher, Boris; Ryan, Neal; Kennard, Betsy; DeBar, Lynn; McCracken, James; Strober, Michael; Onorato, Matthew; Zelazny, Jamie; Keller, Marty; Iyengar, Satish; Brent, David

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome of participants in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents (TORDIA) trial after 24 weeks of treatment, including remission and relapse rates and predictors of treatment outcome. Method Adolescents (ages 12–18 years) with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-resistant depression were randomly assigned to either a medication switch alone (alternate SSRI or venlafaxine) or a medication switch plus cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). At week 12, responders could continue in their assigned treatment arm and nonresponders received open treatment (medication and/or CBT) for 12 more weeks (24 weeks total). The primary outcomes were remission and relapse, defined by the Adolescent Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation as rated by an independent evaluator. Results Of 334 adolescents enrolled in the study, 38.9% achieved remission by 24 weeks, and initial treatment assignment did not affect rates of remission. Likelihood of remission was much higher (61.6% versus 18.3% ) and time to remission was much faster among those who had already demonstrated clinical response by week 12. Remission was also higher among those with lower baseline depression, hopelessness, and self-reported anxiety. At week 12, lower depression, hopelessness, anxiety, suicidal ideation, family conflict, and absence of comorbid dysthymia, anxiety, and drug/alcohol use and impairment also predicted remission. Of those who responded by week 12, 19.6% had a relapse of depression by week 24. Conclusions Continued treatment for depression among treatment-resistant adolescents results in remission in approximately one-third of patients, similar to adults. Eventual remission is evident within the first 6 weeks in many, suggesting that earlier intervention among non-responders could be important. PMID:20478877

  17. The 4 Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dam, Ai

    2006-01-01

    Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1080 hours per year of instructional time for secondary schools and 990 instructional hours for elementary schools. The 1080 hours equate to six hours per day for 180 days. The 990 hours equate to five and one-half hours per day. Up to 24 hours may be counted for parent-teacher conferences, staff…

  18. Catalytic cycloalumination in steroid chemistry II: selective functionalization of 2'-methylidene-2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane.

    PubMed

    D'yakonov, Vladimir A; Tuktarova, Regina A; Islamov, Ilgiz I; Khalilov, Leonard M; Dzhemilev, Usein M

    2013-12-11

    The catalytic cycloalumination of 2'-methylidene-2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane with Et3Al catalyzed by Cp2ZrCl2 was performed for the first time to give spiro[2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane-2',3″-aluminacyclopentane] in a ~75% yield and with high stereoselectivity (>98%). The obtained cyclic organoaluminum compound was transformed in situ into heterocyclic spiran derivatives of 2',3'-ethano-(5α)-cholestane. PMID:24075970

  19. Fire Pumps: Time to Change NFPA 25 Weekly Churn Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidi, John F.; Davis, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    APPA, through its Code Advocacy Task Force (CATF), is active with code organizations such as the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). This article reviews some of the recent work on NFPA 25, Standard for the Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance of Water-Based Fire Protection Systems, by the CATF and some members of the NFPA 25 Technical…

  20. Twice weekly prophylactic therapy in haemophilia A.

    PubMed Central

    Aronstam, A; Kirk, P J; McHardy, J; Culver-James, J W; McLellan, D S; Turk, P; Rainsford, S G; Slattery, M

    1977-01-01

    Factor VIII-containing materials were administered to four severely affected haemophiliacs twice weekly in doses calculated to raise the factor VIII level to either 15% or 30% of average normal. The pooled results from those patients with statistically similar baseline bleeding frequencies showed a significant reduction in bleeding frequency on both doses in the first 48 hours. The 30% dose produced a more significant reduction than the 15% dose in the first 24 hours, but there was no significant difference between the two doses in the second 24 hours. It appears that to reduce the bleeding frequency of severely affected haemophiliacs by 60% would require a two-and-a-half-fold increase in therapeutic materials. A 90% reduction would need nine times the amount of material currently in use. PMID:320230

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  2. Synthesis, transformations and biological properties of furo[2,3-b]pyridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirakanyan, S. N.; Hovakimyan, A. A.; Noravyan, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Data on furo[2,3-b]pyridines published in the last 15 years are integrated and analyzed for the first time. Information on the methods of synthesis, chemical transformations and biological action of these systems is described systematically. Particular attention is paid to the preparation and study of properties of polycondensed derivatives as the most promising and rapidly developing line of research of furo[2,3-b]pyridine chemistry. The biological properties of this class of compounds are discussed, and examples of furo[2,3-b]pyridines that exhibit high biological activities are given. The bibliography includes 88 references.

  3. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Dennis J.; Perry, Scott M.; Fanson, Paul T.; Jackson, James E.

    1998-01-01

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200.degree. to 360.degree. C. for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water.

  4. Condensed phase preparation of 2,3-pentanedione

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.J.; Perry, S.M.; Fanson, P.T.; Jackson, J.E.

    1998-11-03

    A condensed phase process for the preparation of purified 2,3-pentanedione from lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate is described. The process uses elevated temperatures between about 200 to 360 C for heating a reaction mixture of lactic acid and an alkali metal lactate to produce the 2,3-pentanedione in a reaction vessel. The 2,3-pentanedione produced is vaporized from the reaction vessel and condensed with water. 5 figs.

  5. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Health... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under...

  6. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... criminal penalty (a fine—see 42 U.S.C. 290ee-3(f), 42 U.S.C. 290dd-3(f) and 42 CFR 2.4) for violating the... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Purpose and effect. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public...

  7. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor availability increases after long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaal, Esther M; de Weijer, Barbara A; van de Giessen, Elsmarieke M; Janssen, Ignace; Berends, Frits J; van de Laar, Arnold; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Booij, Jan; Serlie, Mireille J

    2016-07-01

    In several studies reduced striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability was reported in obese subjects compared to lean controls. Whether this is a reversible phenomenon remained uncertain. We previously determined the short-term effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) on striatal D2/3R availability (using [(123)I]IBZM SPECT) in 20 morbidly obese women. Striatal D2/3R availability was lower compared to controls at baseline, and remained unaltered after 6 weeks, despite significant weight loss. To determine whether long-term bariatric surgery-induced weight loss normalizes striatal D2/3R binding, we repeated striatal D2/3R binding measurements at least 2 years after RYGB in 14 subjects of the original cohort. In addition, we assessed long-term changes in body composition, eating behavior and fasting plasma levels of leptin, ghrelin, insulin and glucose. Mean body mass index declined from 46±7kg/m(2) to 32±6kg/m(2), which was accompanied by a significant increase in striatal D2/3R availability (p=0.031). Striatal D2/3R availability remained significantly reduced compared to the age-matched controls (BMI 22±2kg/m(2); p=0.01). Changes in striatal D2/3R availability did not correlate with changes in body weight/fat, insulin sensitivity, ghrelin or leptin levels. Scores on eating behavior questionnaires improved and changes in the General Food Craving Questionnaire-State showed a borderline significant correlation with changes in striatal D2/3R availability. These findings show that striatal D2/3R availability increases after long-term bariatric-surgery induced weight loss, suggesting that reduced D2/3R availability in obesity is a reversible phenomenon. PMID:27184782

  8. 75 FR 20778 - Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week, Willamette River, Portland, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week... Hawthorne and Steel Bridges in Portland, Oregon during the Portland Rose Festival Fleet Week from June 2... Rose Festival Fleet Week, and there is insufficient time to publish a notice of proposed...

  9. Request for a Copy of the Decision in "Weeks v. The United States"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Megan

    2011-01-01

    On December 21, 1911, Fremont Weeks, an employee of the Adams Express Company, was arrested while on the job at Union Station in Kansas City, Missouri. Police suspected that Weeks was selling and "transmitting chances" in a lottery, which at the time was considered gambling, an illegal action in Missouri. While Weeks was being held at the police…

  10. 3 CFR 8677 - Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011. World Trade Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8677 of May 13, 2011. World Trade Week.... 8677 World Trade Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation American... world continues to grow more interdependent. World Trade Week is a time to highlight the...

  11. Misoprostol preferable to ethacridine lactate for abortions at 13-20 weeks of pregnancy: Cuban experience.

    PubMed

    Boza, Alejandro Velazco; de León, Rodolfo Gómez Ponce; Castillo, Luis Salas; Mariño, Dania Rebeca Yi; Mitchell, Ellen M H

    2008-05-01

    Outdated second trimester abortion methods are still being used in some countries, and very few studies have compared them to currently recommended methods. To this end, we studied the efficacy and safety of vaginal misoprostol used alone for abortions in 189 women at 13-20 weeks gestation, in 2004-2006. We also retrospectively collated similar data from an historical cohort of 189 women drawn consecutively and chronologically from hospital records from 2003-2006, also at 13-20 weeks gestation, who had had abortions with a combination of extra-amniotic 0.1% ethacridine lactate solution, oxytocin and sharp curettage. At 24 hours, misoprostol was 92.6% effective in inducing abortion versus 76.2% with the ethacridine lactate regimen (OR 4.2, 95% CI 2.3-8.0). The misoprostol cohort experienced fewer complications than the ethacridine cohort (4 vs. 38 cases, OR 0.086, 95% CI 0.03-0.23). We conclude that in the absence of mifepristone, misoprostol alone is preferable to the ethacridine regimen for the termination of pregnancy in the second trimester, because it works faster, has a higher success rate in a shorter period of time, and fewer complications. PMID:18772100

  12. Weekly cycles in precipitation in a polluted region of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stjern, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    Weekly cycles in aerosol concentration and corresponding cycles in precipitation have been reported over Europe, but results are conflicting. To obtain a large potential effect of aerosols on precipitation we here focus on a highly polluted region on the borders between Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic. Meteorological parameters from 30 surface stations in a mix of urban, rural and remote locations were analyzed for the time period 1983-2008, using three different tests: the Kruskal-Wallis test, a spectral analysis and a comparison of the regular 7-day week to constructed 6- and 8-day weeks. We expect a clear and statistically significant weekly cycle to pass all three tests. Precipitation amount and meteorological variables associated with convective conditions, such as the frequency of heavy precipitation events and observations of rain showers, showed two-peak weekly cycles with maxima on Tuesdays and during weekends. The amplitude of the precipitation cycle increased with longitude towards the more polluted eastern part of the region, but the statistical significance of the cycles did not change correspondingly. The amplitudes of the weekly cycles were in many cases larger for the heavily polluted 1983-1987 period than for the cleaner 2004-2008 as well as the total period, but were equally often largest in the clean period. Moreover, of all the variables, periods and seasons investigated, the weekly cycles were statistically significant only for summertime values of light precipitation frequency and cloud amount, and only by one of the three tests applied. Conclusively, clear weekly cycles in meteorological variables were not found in this polluted region of Europe.

  13. An eight-week golf-specific exercise program improves physical characteristics, swing mechanics, and golf performance in recreational golfers.

    PubMed

    Lephart, Scott M; Smoliga, James M; Myers, Joseph B; Sell, Timothy C; Tsai, Yung-Shen

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an 8-week golf-specific exercise program on physical characteristics, swing mechanics, and golf performance. Fifteen trained male golfers (47.2 +/- 11.4 years, 178.8 +/- 5.8 cm, 86.7 +/- 9.0 kg, and 12.1 +/- 6.4 U.S. Golf Association handicap) were recruited. Trained golfers was defined operationally as golfers who play a round of golf at least 2-3 times per week and practice at the driving range at least 2-3 times per week during the regular golf season. Subjects performed a golf-specific conditioning program 3-4 times per week for 8 weeks during the off-season in order to enhance physical characteristics. Pre- and posttraining testing of participants included assessments of strength (torso, shoulder, and hip), flexibility, balance, swing mechanics, and golf performance. Following training, torso rotational strength and hip abduction strength were improved significantly (p < 0.05). Torso, shoulder, and hip flexibility improved significantly in all flexibility measurements taken (p < 0.05). Balance was improved significantly in 3 of 12 measurements, with the remainder of the variables demonstrating a nonsignificant trend for improvement. The magnitude of upper-torso axial rotation was decreased at the acceleration (p = 0.015) and impact points (p =0.043), and the magnitude of pelvis axial rotation was decreased at the top (p = 0.031) and acceleration points (p = 0.036). Upper-torso axial rotational velocity was increased significantly at the acceleration point of the golf swing (p = 0.009). Subjects increased average club velocity (p = 0.001), ball velocity (p = 0.001), carry distance (p = 0.001), and total distance (p = 0.001). These results indicate that a golf-specific exercise program improves strength, flexibility, and balance in golfers. These improvements result in increased upper-torso axial rotational velocity, which results in increased club head velocity, ball velocity, and driving distance. PMID

  14. 43 CFR 3712.2-3 - Contents of published notice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contents of published notice. 3712.2-3 Section 3712.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) PUBLIC LAW 167; ACT OF JULY 23,...

  15. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  16. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  17. 43 CFR 3107.2-3 - Leases capable of production.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... or Renewal § 3107.2-3 Leases capable of production. No lease for lands on which there is a well... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Leases capable of production. 3107.2-3... same, unless the lessee fails to place the lease in production within a period of not less than 60...

  18. 16 CFR 2.3 - Policy as to private controversies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other action when the alleged violation of law is merely a matter of private controversy and does not... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy as to private controversies. 2.3... NONADJUDICATIVE PROCEDURES Inquiries; Investigations; Compulsory Processes § 2.3 Policy as to...

  19. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3 Section 3453.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF...

  20. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  1. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  2. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  3. 43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section 4110.2-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... improvements authorized on public lands under § 4120.3 and maintained in conjunction with the...

  4. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  5. 32 CFR 2.3 - Regulatory relief for participating programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....3 Section 2.3 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PILOT PROGRAM POLICY § 2.3 Regulatory relief for participating programs. (a) A program participating in... the Component, or the DoD Component Acquisition Executive. 1 Copies of this Department of...

  6. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Step 2+3 grants. 35.909 Section 35.909 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority. The Regional...

  7. 43 CFR 3410.2-3 - Surface management agency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Surface management agency. 3410.2-3... § 3410.2-3 Surface management agency. The authorized officer may issue an exploration license covering lands the surface of which is under the jurisdiction of any Federal agency other than the Bureau of...

  8. Banned Books Week: Just the Beginning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Founded in 1982, Banned Books Week is celebrated annually during the last week in September and will be observed from September 26-October 3 in 2009. The event acknowledges Americans' right to read the books of their choice regardless of whether the ideas, language, or images are controversial. This annual observance of banned books is a good…

  9. 30 CFR 75.364 - Weekly examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weekly examination. 75.364 Section 75.364 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.364 Weekly examination. Link to an amendment published at 77 FR 20715, April...

  10. 30 CFR 75.364 - Weekly examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weekly examination. 75.364 Section 75.364... MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.364 Weekly examination. (a) Worked-out... bleeder system. (b) Hazardous conditions. At least every 7 days, an examination for hazardous...

  11. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-26720... October 13, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8732--Fire Prevention Week, 2011 Proclamation 8733...; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8732 of October 7, 2011 Fire Prevention Week, 2011...

  12. 75 FR 62307 - Fire Prevention Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8577 of October 1, 2010 Fire Prevention Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation During Fire Prevention Week, we reaffirm the importance of...

  13. 77 FR 69733 - National Family Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-28457 Filed 11-20... Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The bonds that tie us to our... strength of character in their children. This week, we celebrate the unity and compassion that keep...

  14. 77 FR 31151 - World Trade Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-12880 Filed 5-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8827 of May 21, 2012 World Trade Week, 2012 By the President of the United... demand for goods and services designed and produced by Americans. During World Trade Week, we...

  15. 77 FR 24575 - National Park Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8801 of April 20, 2012 National Park Week... National Park Week, all 397 National Parks will offer free admission from April 21 through April 29,...

  16. 76 FR 22001 - National Park Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9730 Filed 4-19-11; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8656 of April 15, 2011 National Park Week, 2011 By the President of the.... ``Healthy Parks, Healthy People,'' the focus for this year's National Park Week, highlights the role...

  17. 78 FR 44867 - Captive Nations Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... July 24, 2013 Part VI The President Proclamation 8998--Captive Nations Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... Nations Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation As citizens of...

  18. 75 FR 20891 - National Volunteer Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-9415 Filed... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8500 of April 16, 2010 National Volunteer Week, 2010 By the President of the... country. This week, we recognize their enduring contributions and encourage more Americans, especially...

  19. 76 FR 72601 - National Family Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-30454 Filed 11-22-11; 11:15 am... November 23, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8756--National Family Week, 2011 Proclamation 8757--National Farm-City Week, 2011 Proclamation 8758--National Child's Day, 2011 Executive Order...

  20. 75 FR 70999 - National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Proclamation 8600--National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010 Proclamation 8601--America Recycles Day, 2010 #0; #0... 15, 2010 National Entrepreneurship Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America...

  1. 77 FR 22177 - National Volunteer Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-9017 Filed 4-11-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ... April 12, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8797--National Volunteer Week, 2012 Proclamation 8798--Pan American Day and Pan American Week, 2012 Proclamation 8799--National Former Prisoner of...

  2. 76 FR 20215 - National Volunteer Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8837 Filed 4-11-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195... Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation America's story has been... they see a need. During National Volunteer Week, we celebrate the profound impact of volunteers...

  3. 75 FR 71005 - American Education Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29516 Filed 11-19-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Education Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Education is essential to our success as both a people and a Nation. During American Education Week, we rededicate...

  4. 75 FR 42279 - Captive Nations Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-17984 Filed 7-20-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8541 of July 16, 2010 Captive Nations Week... and requested the President to issue a proclamation designating the third week of July of each year...

  5. 78 FR 71431 - National Family Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ....) [FR Doc. 2013-28734 Filed 11-26-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... November 27, 2013 Part V The President Proclamation 9061--National Family Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... National Family Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Whether...

  6. 77 FR 68045 - American Education Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-27922 Filed 11-14-12; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8904 of November 9, 2012 American Education Week, 2012 By the President of... Nation's economic prosperity and civic life. This week, we reaffirm our national mission of educating...

  7. 75 FR 29393 - Small Business Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-12755 Filed 5-25-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8525 of May 20, 2010 Small Business Week, 2010 By the President of the United... new private sector jobs. During Small Business Week, we reaffirm our support for America's...

  8. 76 FR 71445 - American Education Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-29938 Filed... November 17, 2011 Part II The President Proclamation 8753--American Education Week, 2011 #0; #0; #0... American Education Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Ensuring...

  9. 78 FR 24323 - National Park Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8961 of April 19, 2013 National Park Week, 2013 By the President of the... be passed on. During National Park Week, we celebrate the wonders entrusted to us by our...

  10. 75 FR 28183 - World Trade Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8521 of May 12, 2010 World Trade Week, 2010 By the President of the United.... World Trade Week is an opportunity for us to reaffirm the importance of trade to our Nation's...

  11. 78 FR 30729 - World Trade Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Independence of the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8983 of May 17, 2013 World Trade Week, 2013 By the President of the United... Week, we recognize workers, growers, and entrepreneurs nationwide who share that ambition, and...

  12. 75 FR 71519 - National Family Week, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-29729 Filed 11-23-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Like generations before them... Family Week, we celebrate the resilient spirit of America's families and their role in building...

  13. 76 FR 28623 - Small Business Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-12307 Filed... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8673 of May 12, 2011 Small Business Week... to work hard enough, you can succeed in our country. This week, we honor and celebrate...

  14. 78 FR 69749 - American Education Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-28018 Filed 11-19-13; 11:15 am... November 20, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 9058--American Education Week, 2013 #0; #0; #0... American Education Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Education...

  15. 77 FR 42941 - Captive Nations Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-17948 Filed 7-19... July 20, 2012 Part VI The President Proclamation 8841--Captive Nations Week, 2012 Memorandum of July 11... President ] Proclamation 8841 of July 16, 2012 Captive Nations Week, 2012 By the President of the...

  16. National Poison Prevention Week Promotional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poison Prevention Week Council, Washington, DC.

    This collection of materials for parents, early childhood workers, the elderly, and anyone in situations requiring safeguards against poisoning, spans the years 1993 and 1994 and is intended to promote National Poison Prevention Week. The materials included are: (1) the 31-page, illustrated report on National Poison Prevention Week for 1993,…

  17. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from glycerol by forced pH fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Kaloyan; Petrova, Penka

    2010-07-01

    The glycerol fermentation by Klebsiella pneumoniae occurs by receiving more than five liquid products-organic acids, diols, and ethanol. Aiming to direct the glycerol conversion towards predominant production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), the main influencing parameters (the aeration and the pH) were investigated during fed-batch processes. The regime of intensive aeration (2.2 vvm air supply) was evaluated as most favorable for 2,3-BD synthesis and ensured the decrease of all other metabolites. Thus, without pH control, 52.5 g/l 2,3-BD were produced, as the carbon conversion of glycerol into 2,3-BD reached 60.6%. Additional enhancement in 2,3-BD production (by significant increase of glycerol utilization) was achieved by the development of a new method of "forced pH fluctuations". It was realized by consecutive raisings of pH using definite DeltapH value, at exact time intervals, allowing multiple variations. Thus, the optimal conditions for maximal glycerol consumption were defined, and 70 g/l 2,3-BD were produced, which is the highest amount obtained from glycerol as a sole carbon source until now. The forced pH fluctuations emphasized pH as a governing factor in microbial conversion processes. PMID:20361325

  18. The Effects of a Four-Week Summer Bridge Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ami, Carlon G.

    This study reports the results of the pre and post mathematics test administered to student participants of the 2001 Summer Bridge Program, sponsored by the Minority Engineering, Mathematics and Science Department (MEMS) at the University of New Mexico (UNM). There was a four-week time span between the administration of the standardized test,…

  19. Pick a Pair. Investing Wisely: National Coin Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Pat

    2005-01-01

    Most children have heard that money does not grow on trees. But it does on paper--in books! This column features paired book titles and related activities that can be used in the classroom or the library media center to celebrate National Coin Week in April. Time devoted to students while sharing books on money and its uses will be well spent.

  20. Special Relativity in Week One: 3) Introducing the Lorentz Contraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, Elisha

    2011-01-01

    This is the third of four articles on teaching special relativity in the first week of an introductory physics course. With Einstein's second postulate that the speed of light is the same to all observers, we could use the light pulse clock to introduce time dilation. But we had difficulty introducing the Lorentz contraction until we saw the movie…

  1. Synthesis and bioactivity of 2',3'-benzoabscisic acid analogs.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaoqiang; Wan, Chuan; Li, Xiuyun; Li, Hong; Yang, Dongyan; Du, Shijie; Xiao, Yumei; Qin, Zhaohai

    2015-06-01

    2',3'-Benzoabscisic acid 4a is significantly more active than (±)-ABA and can be potentially used as a plant growth regulator for agriculture. In this study, six 4a analogs were designed and synthesized. Bioassay showed that 4a displayed greater activity than (±)-ABA and the six analogs produced less inhibition than 4a itself. Specially, some analogs displayed markedly different activities to different physiological and biochemical process, which were largely different from ABA and 4a. Compared to (±)-ABA, 4b and 4c were more effective germination inhibitors for lettuce, but less effective inhibitors for rice elongation. Five-membered analog 5 was higher or slightly weaker in inhibiting Arabidopsis seed germination and rice elongation, respectively, but at least 10 times less effective than (±)-ABA in lettuce seed germination. Dual acid 6 and alkyne acid 20 nearly produced no inhibitory activity for Arabidopsis seed germination, but displayed excellent activity in inhibiting rice seedling growth. The preference of the analogs to different physiology process indicated that they might provide a strategy to develop novel ABA agonists or antagonist and be used as probe to investigate the function of different ABA receptors. PMID:25913114

  2. [Incremental approach to hemodialysis: twice a week, or once weekly hemodialysis combined with low-protein low-phosphorus diet?].

    PubMed

    Bolasco, Piergiorgio; Caria, Stefania; Egidi, Maria Francesca; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2015-01-01

    The start of dialysis treatment is a critical step in the care management of chronic renal failure patients. When hemodialysis is performed three times a week, rapid loss of kidney function and of urine volume output generally occur and this represents an unfavorable prognostic factor. Instead, reducing frequency of hemodialysis sessions, as well as peritoneal dialysis, can contribute to a lesser decrease of residual renal function. Unfortunately, the existing protocols for an incremental hemodialysis approach are not particularly common and they are generally limited to a twice a week hemodialysis schedule. In addition to clinical and economic reasons, an incremental approach to ESRD also contributes to better social and psychological adaptation by the patients to the dramatic change in living conditions linked to the maintenance dialysis treatment. In patients who have attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, a once weekly dialysis schedule combined with low-protein, low-phosphorus, normal to high energy diet in the remaining six days of the week can be implemented in selected patients. In our experience, this kind of program produced important clinical results and reduction in costs and hospitalization. When compared with a three times a week dialysis schedule, a greater protection of residual renal function and of urine volume output, lower increase in 2 microglobulin, better control of phosphorus and less consumption of phosphate binders and erythropoietin were observed. Careful clinical monitoring and nutrition is essential for the safety and optimization of infrequent hemodialysis. Long-term follow-up analysis shows favorable effects on the overall survival. Furthermore, twice a week hemodialysis is not the only option for an incremental approach of dialysis commencing. In patients who have a good attitude for low-protein nutritional therapy, its arrangement with a program of once weekly dialysis represents a real and effective alternative. PMID

  3. Nicotinic acid metabolism. 2,3-Dimethylmalate lyase.

    PubMed

    Pirzer, P; Lill, U; Eggerer, H

    1979-12-01

    1) A new enzyme, 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase, was purified from Clostridium barkeri to about 80% homogeneity. Some of the properties of the enzyme are described. 2) It is shown that the 2,3-dimethylmalic acid (m.p. 143 degrees C) described in the literature represents only one racemic pair. This pair is not attacked by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 3) The isolation of both racemic pairs of 2,3-dimethylmalic acid is described. Half of one pair, m.p. 104-106 degrees C, was converted to propionate and pyruvate by 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase. 4) In combination with earlier work performed by E.R. Stadtman and coworkers the results given under points 1--3 establish 2,3-dimethylmalate as an intermediate in the degradation of nicotinic acid by C. barkeri. 5) Experimental evidence indicates the 2,3-dimethylmalate lyase is no acyl-S-enzyme and that it is different in this respect as well as in quaternary structure from the apparently related enzymes citrate lyase and citramalate lyase. PMID:527937

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behavior and total wellness changes among sedentary adults: a 4-week randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The construct of total wellness includes a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life. While the health benefits of reducing sedentary behavior and increasing physical activity are well documented, little is known about the influence on total wellness of an internet-based physical activity monitor designed to help people to achieve higher physical activity levels. Purpose The purpose of this four-week, personal activity monitor-based intervention program was to reduce sedentary behavior and increase physical activity levels in daily living for sedentary adults and to determine if these changes would also be associated with improvement in total wellness. Methods Twenty-two men and 11 women (27 years ± 4.0) were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n = 18) or control group (n = 15). The intervention group interacted with an online personal activity monitor (Gruve Solution™) designed to reduce sedentary time and increase physical activity during activities of daily living. The control group did not interact with the monitor, as they were asked to follow their normal daily physical activities and sedentary behavior routines. The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle (WEL) inventory was used to assess total wellness. Sedentary time, light, walking, moderate and vigorous intensity physical activities were assessed for both intervention and control groups at baseline and at week-4 by the 7-day Sedentary and Light Intensity Physical Activity Log (7-day SLIPA Log) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results Significant increases in pre-post total wellness scores (from 64% ± 5.7 to 75% ± 8.5) (t (17) = -6.5, p < 0.001) were observed in the intervention group by the end of week four. Intervention participants decreased their sedentary time (21%, 2.3 hours/day) and increased their light (36.7%, 2.5 hours/day), walking (65%, 1057 MET-min/week), moderate (67%, 455 MET-min/week) and

  5. Practice It: Create a Weekly Activity Plan | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    At the beginning of the week, create an activity plan to help you reach your goals. Start by identifying your goals for the week. Based on your goals, write down when you are going to exercise and what you are going to do. If something comes up that keeps you from exercising on one of your selected days, try to find another day (or time) as a make-up. Having a routine is important but so is the ability to adapt your schedule as needed.

  6. Winter fuels report, week ending December 7, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-13

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Winter fuels report, week ending November 30, 1990. [Contains Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-06

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cites; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. 27 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. This Week @ NASA - 11/5/10

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Postponement of Mission STS-133 tops the billboard on This Week @ NASA. Also, EPOXI meets a Comet, NASA and LEGO build a future together, Administrator Bolden heralds ten years of ISS, KSC Twee...

  9. [Once-weekly DPP-4 inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Harada, Norio; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2015-12-01

    Trelagliptin is the first once-weekly dipeptidyl peptidase-4(DPP-4) inhibitor in the world. Trelagliptin inhibits DPP-4 activity with lower drug concentration compared with other once- (or twice-) daily DPP-4 inhibitors in in vitro study. More than 70 % of DPP-4 activity is inhibited even 1 week after administration of trelagliptin administration in human study. 24-week trelagliptin monotherapy improved HbA1c(-0.33%) and fasting plasma glucose levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. Trelagliptin did not affect body weight and frequency of hypoglycemic events in this study. 52-week monotherapy and add-on therapy of trelagliptin also improved HbA1c levels without body weight gain and severe hypoglycemia. Therefore, trelagliptin has high efficacy and safety on glucose control in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:26666159

  10. Ferromagnetism in Cu 3-thiosemicarbazone- 2,3-dioxoindole complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zentková, M.; Kováč, J.; Zentko, A.; Košturiak, A.

    1991-12-01

    We report evidence for ferromagnetic ordering in Cu-chelates of 3-thiosemicarbazone-2,3-dioxoindole (isatine). It has been found that the Curie temperature is 16.8 K and is independent of the Cu content.

  11. 34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. DETAILS OF CAISSON FOR PIERS 2, 3, 4 AND 5 TO BE BUILT ON SOIL OVERBURDEN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  12. Asymmetric Organocatalytic Wittig [2,3]-Rearrangement of Oxindoles.

    PubMed

    Ošeka, Maksim; Kimm, Mariliis; Kaabel, Sandra; Järving, Ivar; Rissanen, Kari; Kanger, Tõnis

    2016-03-18

    A highly enantioselective organocatalytic [2,3]-rearrangement of oxindole derivatives is presented. The reaction was catalyzed by squaramide, and this provides access to 3-hydroxy 3-substituted oxindoles in high enantiomeric purities. PMID:26937554

  13. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan; Müller, Volker

    2015-07-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD(+)-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  14. 2,3-Butanediol Metabolism in the Acetogen Acetobacterium woodii

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Verena; Oyrik, Olga; Trifunović, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii is able to reduce CO2 to acetate via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. Only recently we demonstrated that degradation of 1,2-propanediol by A. woodii was not dependent on acetogenesis, but that it is disproportionated to propanol and propionate. Here, we analyzed the metabolism of A. woodii on another diol, 2,3-butanediol. Experiments with growing and resting cells, metabolite analysis and enzymatic measurements revealed that 2,3-butanediol is oxidized in an NAD+-dependent manner to acetate via the intermediates acetoin, acetaldehyde, and acetyl coenzyme A. Ethanol was not detected as an end product, either in growing cultures or in cell suspensions. Apparently, all reducing equivalents originating from the oxidation of 2,3-butanediol were funneled into the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway to reduce CO2 to another acetate. Thus, the metabolism of 2,3-butanediol requires the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. PMID:25934628

  15. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, EAST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  16. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM NORTH SHORE OF RIVER (CALHOUN COUNTY SIDE), FACING SOUTH - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  17. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 1, 2, 3, 4, AND 5, EAST SIDE, FROM SOUTH SHORE OF RIVER (LIBERTY COUNTY SIDE), FACING WEST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  18. ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ANCHOR SETTING PLAN FOR PIERS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 AND 6, APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE, SHEET 5505 TO 8-M1 - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  19. VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF APALACHICOLA RIVER BRIDGE SPANS 2, 3, AND 4, WEST SIDE, FROM CENTER OF RIVER, FACING EAST - Apalachicola River Bridge, State Route 20 spanning the Apalachicola River, Blountstown, Calhoun County, FL

  20. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a special... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10...

  1. 10 CFR 2.3 - Resolution of conflict.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... not apply to hearings in 10 CFR parts 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, and subparts H and I of 10 CFR... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Resolution of conflict. 2.3 Section 2.3 Energy NUCLEAR... Resolution of conflict. (a) In any conflict between a general rule in subpart C of this part and a...

  2. 2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, A.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Subsection '2.3.1 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations' of the Section '2.3 Biological Effects' of the Chapter '2 Radiation and Biological Effects' with the comtents:

  3. Pathogenesis of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus isolate (US/Iowa/18984/2013) in 3-week-old weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Madson, D M; Magstadt, D R; Arruda, P H E; Hoang, H; Sun, D; Bower, L P; Bhandari, M; Burrough, E R; Gauger, P C; Pillatzki, A E; Stevenson, G W; Wilberts, B L; Brodie, J; Harmon, K M; Wang, C; Main, R G; Zhang, J; Yoon, K J

    2014-11-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is associated with clinical diarrhea in naïve swine of all ages. This report describes timing of antibody generation and disease progression following infection with a US PEDV isolate by assessing fecal viral shedding, morphometric analysis of intestinal lesions, and magnitude of immunohistochemical staining. Sixty-three, 3-week-old pigs were randomly allocated into control (n=27) and challenged (n=36) groups. Challenged pigs were administered 1 mL of 1 × 10(3) PFU/mL of US/Iowa/18984/2013 PEDV isolate by oro-gastric gavage. Three control and four challenged pigs were necropsied on days post-inoculation (dpi) 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and weekly thereafter, until study termination on dpi 35. Clinical disease, fecal shedding, body weight, and temperature were monitored during the study period. Diarrhea was observed in challenged pigs beginning for some on dpi 2, affecting a majority of pigs by dpi 6 and subsiding by dpi 10. Average daily gain was significantly lower (P<0.001) for one week post-infection in challenged pigs. PEDV was detected in feces by PCR on dpi 1 and continued in a subset of pigs until dpi 24. PEDV-specific antigen was detected in villous enterocytes of challenged pigs by immunohistochemistry (IHC) on dpi 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14. Microscopic lesions included severe diffuse atrophic enteritis with significantly reduced (P<0.001) villous length observed on dpi 3, 4, and 7. Under the conditions of this study, fecal shedding of PEDV and IHC staining can precede and continue beyond the observation of clinical signs, thus increasing the risk of viral transmission. PMID:25278366

  4. Respiratory and olfactory cytotoxicity of inhaled 2,3-pentanedione in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hubbs, Ann F; Cumpston, Amy M; Goldsmith, W Travis; Battelli, Lori A; Kashon, Michael L; Jackson, Mark C; Frazer, David G; Fedan, Jeffrey S; Goravanahally, Madhusudan P; Castranova, Vincent; Kreiss, Kathleen; Willard, Patsy A; Friend, Sherri; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Fluharty, Kara L; Sriram, Krishnan

    2012-09-01

    Flavorings-related lung disease is a potentially disabling disease of food industry workers associated with exposure to the α-diketone butter flavoring, diacetyl (2,3-butanedione). To investigate the hypothesis that another α-diketone flavoring, 2,3-pentanedione, would cause airway damage, rats that inhaled air, 2,3-pentanedione (112, 241, 318, or 354 ppm), or diacetyl (240 ppm) for 6 hours were sacrificed the following day. Rats inhaling 2,3-pentanedione developed necrotizing rhinitis, tracheitis, and bronchitis comparable to diacetyl-induced injury. To investigate delayed toxicity, additional rats inhaled 318 (range, 317.9-318.9) ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours and were sacrificed 0 to 2, 12 to 14, or 18 to 20 hours after exposure. Respiratory epithelial injury in the upper nose involved both apoptosis and necrosis, which progressed through 12 to 14 hours after exposure. Olfactory neuroepithelial injury included loss of olfactory neurons that showed reduced expression of the 2,3-pentanedione-metabolizing enzyme, dicarbonyl/L-xylulose reductase, relative to sustentacular cells. Caspase 3 activation occasionally involved olfactory nerve bundles that synapse in the olfactory bulb (OB). An additional group of rats inhaling 270 ppm 2,3-pentanedione for 6 hours 41 minutes showed increased expression of IL-6 and nitric oxide synthase-2 and decreased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A in the OB, striatum, hippocampus, and cerebellum using real-time PCR. Claudin-1 expression increased in the OB and striatum. We conclude that 2,3-pentanedione is a respiratory hazard that can also alter gene expression in the brain. PMID:22894831

  5. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, George; Hammond, Peter R.

    1994-01-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  6. Method for preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline from 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline

    DOEpatents

    Field, G.; Hammond, P.R.

    1994-02-01

    Methods for the efficient preparation of 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline include a first method in which the acylation of m-aminophenol obtains a lactam which is reduced to give the desired quinoline and a second method in which tetrahydroquinoline is nitrated and hydrogenated and then hydrolyzed to obtain the desire quinoline. 7-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline is used in the efficient synthesis of four lasing dyes of the rhodamine class.

  7. Enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol from sugarcane molasses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jian-Ying; Zhao, Pan; Cheng, Xiao-Long; Xiu, Zhi-Long

    2015-03-01

    2,3-Butanediol has been known as a platform green chemical, and the production cost is the key problem for its large-scale production in which the carbon source occupies a major part. Sugarcane molasses is a by-product of sugar industry and considered as a cheap carbon source for biorefinery. In this paper, the fermentation of 2,3-butanediol with sugarcane molasses was studied by reducing the medium ingredients and operation steps. The fermentation medium was optimized by response surface methodology, and 2,3-butanediol production was explored under the deficiency of sterilization, molasses acidification, and organic nitrogen source. Based on these experiments, the fermentation medium with sugarcane molasses as carbon source was simplified to five ingredients, and the steps of molasses acidification and medium sterilization were reduced; thus, the cost was reduced and the production of 2,3-butanediol was enhanced. Under fed-batch fermentation, 99.5 g/L of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin was obtained at 60 h with a yield of 0.39 g/g sugar. PMID:25586489

  8. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of l4C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evalu- ated by using batch shake testing. Sorption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (f,) wer...

  9. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN FROM WATER BY SURFACE SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The sorption of 14C-labelcd 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) from water by two uncontaminated surface soils from the Times Beach, MO, area was evaluated by using batch shake testing. orption isotherm plots for the soil with the lower fraction organic carbon (foc) were l...

  10. Determinants of depressive symptoms in the early weeks after miscarriage.

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, R; Kline, J; O'Connor, P; Shrout, P; Johnson, J; Skodol, A; Wicks, J; Susser, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We tested whether and under what conditions miscarriage increases depressive symptoms in the early weeks following loss. METHODS. We interviewed 232 women within 4 weeks of miscarriage and 283 pregnant women and 318 community women who had not recently been pregnant. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. RESULTS. Among women who had miscarried, the proportion who were highly symptomatic on the CES-D was 3.4 times that of pregnant women and 4.3 times that of community women. Among childless women, the proportion of women who had miscarried who were highly symptomatic was 5.7 times that of pregnant women and 11.0 times that of community women. Women who had miscarried were equally depressed regardless of length of gestation; among pregnant women, depressive symptoms declined with length of gestation. Among women who had miscarried, symptom levels did not vary with attitude toward the pregnancy; among pregnant women, depressive symptoms were elevated in those with unwanted pregnancies. Prior reproductive loss and advanced maternal age (35+ years) were not associated with symptom levels in any cohort. CONCLUSIONS. Depressive symptoms are markedly increased in the early weeks following miscarriage. This effect is substantially modified by number of living children, length of gestation at loss, and attitude toward pregnancy. PMID:1415855

  11. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Moore, Sheila A; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2013-02-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2012. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  12. Vehicle Technologies Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Williams, Susan E; Moore, Sheila A; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-03-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  13. The Greatest Educational Change America Has Ever Seen, 2003: Lesson Plans for Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    The United States Mint 50 State Quarters Program launched a 10-year initiative in 1999, commemorating each of the nation's states in the order they were admitted into the Union. Approximately every 10 weeks (5 times a year) through 2008, a new limited-edition quarter that displays an individual state's design is released into general circulation.…

  14. Carcinogenesis Bioassay of 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (CAS No. 1746-01-6) in Swiss-Webster Mice (Dermal Study).

    PubMed

    1982-02-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin occurs as a highly toxic impurity found in herbicides containing 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) and 2,4,5-T- derivatives, as well as in other chemicals synthesized using 2,4,5-trichlorophenol. The herbicide 2,4,5-T has been marketed in the United States since 1948. Production increased sharply between 1960 and 1970 when a 1:1 mixture of 2,4,5-T and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was used as a defoliant in Vietnam under the names of "herbicide agent orange, herbicide orange, agent orange, and orange". During this 10-year period, about 106 million pounds of 2,4,5-T were sprayed. A carcinogenesis bioassay was conducted by applying an acetone suspension of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to the clipped backs of 30 male and female Swiss-Webster mice 3 days per week for 99 or 104 weeks. Similar groups were pretreated with 1 application of 50 &mgr;g dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in 0.1 ml acetone 1 week before TCDD administration began. Female mice received 0.005 &mgr;g TCDD per application, and the male mice received 0.001 &mgr;g TCDD. As vehicle controls, 45 mice of each sex received 0.1 ml acetone three times per week. Thirty animals of each sex were used as untreated controls. Throughout the bioassay, mean body weights of the male and female mice administered TCDD, or TCDD following DMBA, were essentially the same as those of the corresponding vehicle control group. Mean body weights of dosed and vehicle control groups of males were less thanthose of the untreated control group throughout the study; for the females, mean body weights were less than the untreated controls during the first 80 weeks. In female mice, the incidences of fibrosarcoma in the integumentary system in dosed groups with TCDD were significantly (P=0.007) higher than that in the corresponding controls (2/41, 5%; 8/27, 30%). An increase in the same tumor type, although not statistically significant (P=0.084), was also observed in

  15. Inosine Triphosphatase Genetic Variants are Protective Against Anemia During Antiviral Therapy for HCV2/3 But Do Not Decrease Dose Reductions of RBV Or Increase SVR

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Alexander J.; Santoro, Rosanna; Piazzolla, Valeria; Clark, Paul J.; Naggie, Susanna; Tillmann, Hans L.; Patel, Keyur; Muir, Andrew J.; Shianna, Kevin V.; Mottola, Leonardo; Petruzzellis, Daniela; Romano, Mario; Sogari, Fernando; Facciorusso, Domenico; Goldstein, David B.; McHutchison, John G.; Mangia, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Two functional variants in the inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) gene causing inosine triphos-phatase (ITPase) deficiency protect against ribavirin (RBV)-induced hemolytic anemia and the need for RBV dose reduction in patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV). No data are available for genotype 2/3 HCV. We evaluated the association between the casual ITPA variants and on-treatment anemia in a well-characterized cohort of genotype 2/3 patients treated with variable-duration pegylated interferon alfa-2b (PEG-IFN-α2b) and RBV. Two hundred thirty-eight Caucasian patients were included in this retrospective study [185 (78%) with genotype 2 and 53 (22%) with genotype 3]. Patients were treated with PEG-IFN-α2b plus weight-based RBV (1000/1200 mg) for 12 (n = 109) or 24 weeks (n = 129). The ITPA polymorphisms rs1127354 and rs7270101 were genotyped, and an ITPase deficiency variable was defined that combined both ITPA variants according to their effect on ITPase activity. The primary endpoint was hemoglobin (Hb) reduction in week 4. We also considered Hb reduction over the course of therapy, the need for RBV dose modification, and the rate of sustained virological response (SVR). The ITPA variants were strongly and independently associated with protection from week 4 anemia (P = 10−6 for rs1127354 and P = 10−7 for rs7270101). Combining the variants into the ITPase deficiency variable increased the strength of association (P = 10−11). ITPase deficiency protected against anemia throughout treatment. ITPase deficiency was associated with a delayed time to an Hb level < 10 g/dL (hazard ratio = 0.25, 95% confidence interval = 0.08–0.84, P = 0.025) but not with the rate of RBV dose modification (required per protocol at Hb < 9.5 g/dL). There was no association between the ITPA variants and SVR. Conclusion Two ITPA variants were strongly associated with protection against treatment-related anemia in patients with genotype 2/3 HCV, but they did not decrease the need

  16. DURATION-1: Exenatide Once Weekly Produces Sustained Glycemic Control and Weight Loss Over 52 Weeks

    PubMed Central

    Buse, John B.; Drucker, Daniel J.; Taylor, Kristin L.; Kim, Terri; Walsh, Brandon; Hu, Hao; Wilhelm, Ken; Trautmann, Michael; Shen, Larry Z.; Porter, Lisa E.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE In the Diabetes Therapy Utilization: Researching Changes in A1C, Weight and Other Factors Through Intervention with Exenatide Once Weekly (DURATION-1) study, the safety and efficacy of 30 weeks of treatment with the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist exenatide once weekly (exenatide QW; 2 mg) was compared with exenatide BID in 295 patients with type 2 diabetes. We now report the safety and efficacy of exenatide QW in 1) patients who continued treatment for an additional 22 weeks (52 weeks total) and 2) patients who switched from exenatide BID to exenatide QW after 30 weeks. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized, multicenter, comparator-controlled, open-label trial, 258 patients entered the 22-week open-ended assessment phase (n = 128 QW-only; n = 130 BID→QW). A1C, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body weight, blood pressure, fasting lipids, safety, and tolerability were assessed. RESULTS Patients continuing exenatide QW maintained A1C improvements through 52 weeks (least squares mean −2.0% [95% CI −2.1 to −1.8%]). Patients switching from exenatide BID to exenatide QW achieved further A1C improvements; both groups exhibited the same A1C reduction and mean A1C (6.6%) at week 52. At week 52, 71 and 54% of all patients achieved A1C <7.0% and ≤6.5%, respectively. In both treatment arms, FPG was reduced by >40 mg/dl, and body weight was reduced by >4 kg after 52 weeks. Nausea occurred less frequently in this assessment period and was predominantly mild. No major hypoglycemia was observed. CONCLUSION Exenatide QW elicited sustained improvements in glycemic control and body weight through 52 weeks of treatment. Patients switching to exenatide QW experienced further improvements in A1C and FPG, with sustained weight loss. PMID:20215461

  17. Star Week- A Successful Campaign in Japan -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, J.

    2006-08-01

    In 1995, we started a campaign of the star week as between August 1 and 7 when it is usually expected that most part of Japan should be good weather after the rainy season during the summer holiday. Several hundreds of astronomical facilities for general public in Japan, including planetariums, museums, and public observatories participated in our campaign, together with make good collaborations for education purpose. More than 200 astronomical events such as star parties were coordinated for general public every year. Japan is one of the worst countries for light pollution. Especially most of children have no experience of seeing Milky Way. Let them see the real stars. Let them feel the universe by inviting them to the related astronomical facilities located all over Japan. For realizing this purpose, it is better to set the special week, similar to the "Bird Week" by arranging various astronomical events in these facilities in order to invite all the general public. This is the motivation of the beginning of the star week. Such outreach program should give opportunity for general public to understand the excitement of the astronomy. In this paper, we will introduce present situation of our campaign, along with some statistics.

  18. [Seventh National Population Week in Rwanda, 1993].

    PubMed

    Munyanziza, B

    1993-08-01

    The 1993 National Population Week opened in the commune of Rutare on August 2 and ended in Gikongoro in the commune of Rwamiko on August 6. Its goal was to sensitize all levels of the population to Rwanda's demographic problems through an IEC (information, education, communication) program while respecting the individual liberty, and the moral and religious beliefs of couples. On the first day of the population education campaign, the mayors of each commune along with its elite presided over a meeting to discuss implementation of the campaign, the sociodemographic situation at the commune level (especially at the household level), and the importance of family planning in family health. During August 2-5 at the commune level, the communal elite and the abakangurambagas presided over sensitization meetings, conference-debates, educational discussions, home visits, theatrical sessions, songs and dances, orientation to health centers, and recruitment of family planning acceptors. On the last day, development technicians working in the commune, teachers, students, religious leaders, abakangurambagas, political party leaders, and mass media journalists, all of whom took part in the week's activities, met at the communal office to evaluate the week's activities and to amass resolutions and recommendations. The mayor closed the 1993 edition of the National Population Week after the evaluation. PMID:12287364

  19. Telling the Public--It's Science Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This article describes an opportunity to engage the public in demonstrating and explaining some aspects of science. About 10 years ago, the author met Peter Evennett in the ASE Conference exhibition. Peter was a member of the Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society and currently its president. As a contribution to "Science Week" (which dates back…

  20. First Few Weeks on Campus. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Every fall, college and university campuses and communities brace for the onslaught of new and returning students. For first-year students, anecdotal evidence suggests that the first six weeks of enrollment are critical to success. Because many students initiate heavy drinking during these early days of college, the potential exists for excessive…

  1. The Four-Day School Week. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This paper provides an overview of the 4-day school week being utilized by 36 school districts in Colorado. These districts, which tend to be rural and sparsely populated, schedule 7.5 hours per day for 144 days of school instead of the normal 6 hours for 180 days. Colorado law requires school districts to schedule 1,080 hours per year of…

  2. Futures Week. Middle School Program. Instructor's Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Armenia

    This instructor's guide outlines a model program designed to provide middle school students with an opportunity to participate in exploratory activities regarding the world of work and to understand the relationships between education and work. Described in the first part of the manual are the following futures week activities: a job interviewing…

  3. 78 FR 62305 - Fire Prevention Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-16

    ...- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24498 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9034 of October 4, 2013 Fire Prevention Week, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Fires take more...

  4. 77 FR 62133 - Fire Prevention Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-12

    ... America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-25228 Filed 10-11-12; 8:45... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8881 of October 5, 2012 Fire Prevention Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every year, fires in...

  5. A Nine Week Middle School Keyboarding Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Wade Tracy

    This document is intended for middle school teachers delivering an introductory keyboarding course that is designed to enable students to type at a speed of 25-30 words per minute at the end of the 9-week course. The document begins with a brief discussion of the need for keyboarding skills in view of the increasing importance of computers.…

  6. Science week: May 11”17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    National Science Week, an event launched last year by the National Science Foundation (NSF), will be observed thi s year from May 11 to May 17, 1986. In support of this effort, NSF is urging individuals or organizations to sponsor science and math competitions or fairs, arrange "open house" events at research facilities, organize educational programs and scientific demonstrations, and arrange or participate in other activities. National Science Week is intended to increase public awareness and understanding of science and technology and to encourage young people in the United States to become more involved with and consider careers in science and mathematics. Educational packets will be made available to schools, public libraries, and science museums. The corporate sponsors of National Science Week are the Amoco Foundation, the Atlantic Richfield Foundation, the Dow Chemical Company Foundation, the DuPont Company, the Eastman Kodak Company, the General Electric Foundation, and IBM. For more information, write to National Science Week '86, c/o National Science Foundation, 1800 G Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20550 (telephone: 1-800-227-SEEK).

  7. A 4-Day Work Week That Works.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Kenneth; Timmerman, Linda

    1980-01-01

    Describes Navarro College's (Corsicana, TX) program to reduce kilowatt hour consumption through alternative energy sources and energy costs through transition to a four-day/40-hour work week. Presents results of studies of employee performance levels, community response, and the cost effectiveness of the program. Lists benefits for the student,…

  8. Encouraging students during Science and Tech Week

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    On 30 April, Robert Ballard, head of the Jason Project science education program, delivered a pep talk to students and teachers about environmental stewardship, ocean exploration, and science education, as part of Global Science and Technology Week.Addressing students in a Congressional hearing room, Ballard urged them to investigate the vast, undiscovered regions of the Earth.

  9. Prescribing hemodialysis using a weekly urea mass balance model.

    PubMed

    Leypoldt, J K; Kablitz, C; Gregory, M C; Senekjian, H O; Cheung, A K

    1991-01-01

    Prescribing hemodialysis by monitoring only predialysis BUN concentrations is not sufficient to guarantee adequate therapy. Results from the National Cooperative Dialysis Study have suggested that hemodialysis therapy is adequate if the protein catabolic rate is maintained greater than 1 g/day/kg body weight and simultaneously if sufficient hemodialysis is prescribed to maintain either a time-averaged BUN concentration (TACurea) less than 50 mg/dl or a value of Kt/V greater than unity. In the present study mathematical relationships were derived from a weekly urea mass balance model that permit an evaluation of TACurea and of protein catabolism via the urea generation rate (G) without the need for conventional urea kinetic modeling. The parameters TACurea and G were simply calculated from a midweek predialysis BUN concentration (BUNMW) by: TACurea = 0.7 BUNMW G = 0.7 BUNMW(Kr + Kd tau/T) where Kr, Kd, tau and T denote residual renal urea clearance, dialyzer urea clearance, number of minutes of hemodialysis per week, and number of minutes total in a week, respectively. Clinical results from 139 modeling sessions on 91 patients demonstrated that TACurea and G derived from urea kinetic modeling correlated highly with those calculated from the above equations (r = 0.96 and 0.94, respectively). It is concluded that individualized hemodialysis prescription and adequacy of therapy can be assessed by monitoring TACurea and G by calculation from a weekly urea mass balance model. PMID:1819316

  10. LOTUS 1-2-3 Macros for Library Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howden, Norman

    1987-01-01

    Describes LOTUS 1-2-3, an advanced spreadsheet with database and text manipulation functions that can be used with microcomputers by librarians to provide customized calculation and data acquisition tools. Macro commands and the menu system are discussed, and an example is given of an invoice procedure. (Author/LRW)

  11. Accident sequence precursor analysis level 2/3 model development

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, C.H.; Galyean, W.J.; Brownson, D.A.

    1997-02-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program currently uses simple Level 1 models to assess the conditional core damage probability for operational events occurring in commercial nuclear power plants (NPP). Since not all accident sequences leading to core damage will result in the same radiological consequences, it is necessary to develop simple Level 2/3 models that can be used to analyze the response of the NPP containment structure in the context of a core damage accident, estimate the magnitude of the resulting radioactive releases to the environment, and calculate the consequences associated with these releases. The simple Level 2/3 model development work was initiated in 1995, and several prototype models have been completed. Once developed, these simple Level 2/3 models are linked to the simple Level 1 models to provide risk perspectives for operational events. This paper describes the methods implemented for the development of these simple Level 2/3 ASP models, and the linkage process to the existing Level 1 models.

  12. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  13. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  14. 43 CFR 3453.2-3 - Filing location and fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... leased lands proposed for transfer (see 43 CFR subpart 1821). Each instrument of transfer shall be accompanied by a nonrefundable filing fee (see 43 CFR 3473.2). ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Filing location and fee. 3453.2-3...

  15. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin ( TCDD ) ; CASRN 1746 - 01 - 6 This document has been provided for review to EPA scientists , interagency reviewers from other federal agencies and White House offices , and the public , and peer reviewed by independent scientists external to EPA . Sections

  16. Graphing Online Searches with Lotus 1-2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persson, Olle

    1986-01-01

    This article illustrates how Lotus 1-2-3 software can be used to create graphs using downloaded online searches as raw material, notes most commands applied, and outlines three required steps: downloading, importing the downloading file into the worksheet, and making graphs. An example in bibliometrics and sample graphs are included. (EJS)

  17. Welcome to Lotus 1-2-3. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains 11 self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a 36-hour course of study for Lotus 1-2-3 at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion and performance standards, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications of the…

  18. Substrate Oxidation by Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Elizabeth S.; Basran, Jaswir; Lee, Michael; Handa, Sandeep; Raven, Emma L.

    2015-01-01

    The kynurenine pathway is the major route of l-tryptophan (l-Trp) catabolism in biology, leading ultimately to the formation of NAD+. The initial and rate-limiting step of the kynurenine pathway involves oxidation of l-Trp to N-formylkynurenine. This is an O2-dependent process and catalyzed by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase. More than 60 years after these dioxygenase enzymes were first isolated (Kotake, Y., and Masayama, I. (1936) Z. Physiol. Chem. 243, 237–244), the mechanism of the reaction is not established. We examined the mechanism of substrate oxidation for a series of substituted tryptophan analogues by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. We observed formation of a transient intermediate, assigned as a Compound II (ferryl) species, during oxidation of l-Trp, 1-methyl-l-Trp, and a number of other substrate analogues. The data are consistent with a common reaction mechanism for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase-catalyzed oxidation of tryptophan and other tryptophan analogues. PMID:26511316

  19. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  20. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  1. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  2. 40 CFR 35.909 - Step 2+3 grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.909 Step 2+3 grants. (a) Authority... design (step 2) and construction (step 3) of a waste water treatment works. (b) Limitations. The Regional... Water and Waste Management finds to have unusually high costs of construction, the...

  3. Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Indeno [ 1,2,3 - cd ] pyrene ; CASRN 193 - 39 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonc

  4. Midbrain dopamine D2/3 receptor binding in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Tuppurainen, Heli; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Laakso, Mikko P; Viinamäki, Heimo; Husso, Minna; Tiihonen, Jari

    2006-09-01

    Several studies suggest that dysregulation of dopaminergic transmission in the midbrain and thalamus may contribute to the symptomatology of schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the putative alteration of dopamine D(2/3 )receptor densities in the thalamus and midbrain of drug-naïve schizophrenic patients. We used the high-affinity single-photon emission tomography ligand [(123)I]epidepride for imaging D(2/3 )receptor binding sites in six neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenic patients, and seven healthy controls. Schizophrenic symptoms were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Significantly lower D(2/3 )values were observed in the midbrain of patients with schizophrenia compared to controls (P = 0.02). No statistically significant difference was observed in the thalamus between two groups. Negative correlations were found between thalamic D(2/3 )receptor binding and general psychopathological schizophrenic symptoms (r from -0.78 to -0.92). These observations implicate altered dopaminergic activity in the midbrain of schizophrenic patients. PMID:16783502

  5. Anxiety Self Report (ASR (1,2,3,4,). X

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jane S.

    The Anxiety Self Report (ASR 1,2,3,4) is provided, followed by information about the report. The ASR is discussed as to its development, description, response bias, scoring procedures, reliability, stability, validity, and correlation between the ASR and the Manifest Anxiety Scale. (For related documents, see TM 002 928, 929.) (DB)

  6. Structural basis of the impact sensitivities of 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, and 4-nitro-2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.B.; Ryan, R.R.; Ritchie, J.P.; Hall, J.H.; Bachrach, S.M. )

    1989-01-26

    The isomeric pairs 1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 2-picryl-1,2,3-triazole and 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole, 4-nitro-1-picryl-1,2,3-triazole differ dramatically in their impact sensitivity. Since these pairs of compounds have identical oxygen balance this strongly suggests that there is a difference in the decomposition mechanism. The authors report here the x-ray crystal structure, molecular orbital calculations, and {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR spectra of the four compounds. The picryl substituents are essentially identical in all four cases. The most significant structural difference in the X-ray structures and in the molecular orbital calculations is a decrease in the N2-N3 bond length, accompanied by a lengthening of the adjacent bonds, in the two 1-picryl isomers relative to the corresponding bond lengths in the 2-picryl isomers. Molecular orbital calculations show that this leads to a low activation energy for the elimination of N{sub 2} from the 1-picryl isomers. They suggest that this initial step then leads to a reactive intermediate and is responsible for the large difference in sensitivity.

  7. 15 CFR Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part... - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nos. Supplement Nos. 2-3 to Part 716 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS INITIAL AND...

  8. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  9. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  10. 42 CFR 2.3 - Purpose and effect.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... individual who has an alcohol or drug problem and who does not seek treatment. (3) Because there is a... ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.3 Purpose and effect. (a) Purpose. Under the... use of alcohol and drug abuse patient records which are maintained in connection with the...

  11. LS DAM 2.2.3 released —

    Cancer.gov

    Version 2.2.3 of the Life Sciences Domain Analysis Model (LS DAM) has been released. The LS DAM is a shared view of the semantics for life sciences which includes hypothesis driven basic and pre-clinical research as well as discovery sciences.

  12. 13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. PRATT STREET BULKHEAD: SECTIONS 2, 3, 4, 5, AND 6, DRAWER 10, PLAN NO. 1, 1 IN. = 15 FT. AND 1/2 IN. = 1 FT., APRIL 25, 1906, DRAWING SHOWS DESIGN FOR PRATT STREET BULKHEAD BETWEEN PIERS - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 5, South of Pratt Street between Market Place & Concord Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  13. Metabolites of 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene in monkey urine

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Viau, A.; Benoit, F.M.

    1985-01-01

    (/sup 14/C(U))-Labeled 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene was administered orally to squirrel monkeys. Urine was collected from these animals, pooled and analyzed for metabolites by thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. N-Acetyl-s(2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenyl) cysteine was shown to be the major metabolite and accounted for 85% of the radioactivity found in urine. A minor metabolite was identified at 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol. This study demonstrates for the first time that an N-acetyl cysteine conjugate has been isolated and identified as metabolite of a chlorinated benzene. This pattern of chlorobenzene metabolism is significantly different from the one obtained with the rat and rabbit, where tetrachlorophenols constitute the major metabolites.

  14. Cyclic interconversion of vitamin K1 and vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide in man.

    PubMed Central

    Bechtold, H; Trenk, D; Meinertz, T; Rowland, M; Jähnchen, E

    1983-01-01

    The disposition of a single intravenous bolus dose of 10 mg vitamin K1 and vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide were studied in two healthy subjects without and with 12 h pretreatment dose of phenprocoumon (0.4 mg/kg). For each compound administered alone the plasma concentration-time profile was adequately fitted by a biexponential equation, with an average terminal half-life of 2.0 and 1.15 h for the administered vitamin K and its 2,3-epoxide respectively. While vitamin K1 was measurable in plasma following administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, the epoxide was not detectable following administration of vitamin K1. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after intravenous administration of vitamin K1, both the average half-life and area under the plasma concentration-time profile of vitamin K1 were marginally reduced to 1.5 h and 1.76 mg l-1 h respectively, while the plasma concentration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide was readily measurable and its half-life markedly prolonged to 14.7 h. Following pretreatment with phenprocoumon and after oral administration of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide, no vitamin K1 was detectable in plasma and the half-life of the epoxide was 13.8 h. Based on area considerations the data suggest that either phenprocoumon does more than just inhibit the reduction of vitamin K1-2,3-epoxide to vitamin K1, or that the simple model describing the interconversion between vitamin K1 and its epoxide is inadequate. The same conclusion is drawn from the analysis of comparable data in dogs, obtained by Carlisle & Blaschke (1981). PMID:6661354

  15. Early predictors of a clinical response at 8 weeks in patients with first-episode psychosis treated with paliperidone ER.

    PubMed

    Chung, Young-Chul; Cui, Yin; Kim, Min-Gul; Kim, Yun-Jeong; Lee, Keon-Hak; Chae, Soo-Wan

    2016-08-01

    Identification of early clinical markers that predict later treatment outcomes in first-episode psychosis is highly valuable. The present study was conducted to determine the best time at which to predict the late treatment response in first-episode psychosis patients treated with paliperidone extended release (ER), the factors predicting early treatment responses (at Week 2 and Week 3) and the relationships between the paliperidone ER plasma concentrations at Week 2 and Week 3, and the treatment responses at Week 2, Week 3 and Week 8. Various criteria for assessing treatment response were employed. We determined the plasma paliperidone concentrations at Week 2 and Week 3, using validated high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The treatment response at Week 3 optimally predicted the later (Week 8) response, in terms of negative predictive value (NPV). Independent predictors for good treatment responses at Week 2 and Week 3 were: Female gender, a higher educational level, a higher Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) excited score, and/or a shorter duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). The plasma paliperidone concentration at Week 3, but not Week 2, was a significant predictor of the late treatment response at Week 8. These results may help appropriate clinical decision-making for early non-responders after having their first episode of psychosis. PMID:27334812

  16. PERSISTENT EFFECTS OF REPEATED INHALATION OF TOLUENE: 4 WEEKS VS. 13 WEEKS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding and predicting the extent of neurotoxic damage from repeated exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is a problem for many EPA programs. Eighty adult, male Long-Evans rats inhaled toluene (0, 10, 100, or 1000 ppm) 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks in a systema...

  17. Does Shortening the School Week Impact Student Performance? Evidence from the Four-Day School Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, D. Mark; Walker, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    School districts use a variety of policies to close budget gaps and stave off teacher layoffs and furloughs. More schools are implementing four-day school weeks to reduce overhead and transportation costs. The four-day week requires substantial schedule changes as schools must increase the length of their school day to meet minimum instructional…

  18. Weekly to Interannual Variations of Sea-Ice Draft at the North Pole Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritz, R. E.

    2004-12-01

    A 2-year time series of sea-ice draft D(t) was estimated from measurements made by Upward Looking Sonars (ULS) from 10 April, 2001 to 21 April, 2003. The moorings were located at the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO: 89.56 N, 66.65 E in year 1; 89.45 N, 53.63 E in year 2). Sample statistics and probability density distributions (PDFs) of D(t) have been estimated by grouping the data in nonoverlapping, two-week intervals with probability weighting proportional to the ice speed recorded simultaneously by an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). In the first year the sample mean draft varied from 3.7 meters in early April to 2.3 meters in late August, with an overall annual mean of 3.0 meters. The sample mean draft estimated for 15 September, 2001 is 2.3 meters, a value near the middle of the seasonally adjusted estimates derived from submarine sonar profiles near the North Pole in the 1990's (Rothrock, et al., 1999). The evolution of modal draft in year 1 lags behind the sample mean, with extrema of 2.3 meters in late June, 2001 and 1.6 meters in early January, 2002. The open water fraction (OWF), estimated by counting ice drafts smaller than .05 meters, exceeded 1 percent from mid-June to early October, and for a brief period in late December. The maximum OWF of 13 percent occurred in July, 2001. The mean ice draft was larger throughout most of the second year, especially in summer. The sample mean ice draft for 15 September, 2002 is 3.2 meters, i.e. 90 cm greater than in the preceding year, and just outside the envelope of the Rothrock values for the 1990's. Analysis of the ice draft time series, monthly mean maps of multiyear ice concentration estimated from SSM/I data, and monthly mean anomaly maps of sea level pressure suggests that ice advection played a major role in these interannual differences.

  19. Inferences of weekly cycles in summertime rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, John D.; Carbone, Richard E.

    2011-10-01

    In several continental regions a weekly cycle of air pollution aerosols has been observed. It is usually characterized by concentration minima on weekends (Saturday and Sunday) and maxima on weekdays (Tuesday-Friday). Several studies have associated varying aerosol concentrations with precipitation production and attempted to determine whether or not there is a corresponding weekly cycle of precipitation. Results to date have been mixed. Here we examine a 12 year national composited radar data set for evidence of weekly precipitation cycles during the warm season (June-August). Various statistical quantities are calculated and subjected to "bootstrap" testing in order to assess significance. In many parts of the United States, warm season precipitation is relatively infrequent, with a few extreme events contributing to a large percentage of the total 12 year rainfall. For this reason, the statistics are often difficult to interpret. The general area east of the Mississippi River and north of 37°N contains regions where 25%-50% daily rainfall increases are inferred for weekdays (Tuesday-Friday) relative to weekends. The statistics suggest that western Pennsylvania is the largest and most likely contiguous region to have a weekly cycle. Parts of northern Florida and southeastern coastal areas infer a reverse-phase cycle, with less rainfall during the week than on weekends. Spot checks of surface rain gauge data confirm the phase of these radar-observed anomalies in both Pennsylvania and Florida. While there are indications of a weekly cycle in other locations of the United States, the degree of confidence is considerably lower. There is a strong statistical inference of weekday rainfall maxima over a net 8% of the area examined, which is approximately twice the area of cities. Future examination of lofted aerosol content, related condensation/ice nuclei spectra, and knowledge of the convective dynamical regime are needed in order to assess how anthropogenic aerosols

  20. Vehicle Technologies’ Fact of the Week 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W.; Moore, Sheila A.; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2014-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy’s Vehicle Technology Office (VTO) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/ . These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current week’s Fact is available on the VTO homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2013. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  1. Vehicle Technologies' Fact of the Week 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Stacy Cagle; Diegel, Susan W; Boundy, Robert Gary

    2012-04-01

    Each week the U.S. Department of Energy s Vehicle Technology Program (VTP) posts a Fact of the Week on their website: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/. These Facts provide statistical information, usually in the form of charts and tables, on vehicle sales, fuel economy, gasoline prices, and other transportation-related trends. Each Fact is a stand-alone page that includes a graph, text explaining the significance of the data, the supporting information on which the graph was based, and the source of the data. A link to the current Fact is available Monday through Friday on the VTP homepage, but older Facts are archived and still available at: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/vehiclesandfuels/facts/. This report is a compilation of the Facts that were posted during calendar year 2011. The Facts were written and prepared by staff in Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Transportation Analysis.

  2. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions.

    PubMed

    Turovska, Baiba; Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by (3)O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  3. Photoinduced 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine ring conversions

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Henning; Lūsis, Viesturs; Lielpētere, Anna; Liepiņš, Edvards; Beljakovs, Sergejs; Goba, Inguna; Stradiņš, Jānis

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stable heterocyclic hydroperoxide can be easily prepared as a product of fast oxidation of a 1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyridine by 3O2 if the solution is exposed to sunlight. The driving force for the photoinduced electron transfer is calculated from electrochemical and spectroscopic data. The outcome of the reaction depends on the light intensity and the concentration of O2. In the solid state the heterocyclic hydroperoxide is stable; in solution it is involved in further reactions. PMID:26664638

  4. Aryne 1,2,3-Trifunctionalization with Aryl Allyl Sulfoxides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuanyuan; Qiu, Dachuan; Gu, Rongrong; Wang, Junli; Shi, Jiarong; Li, Yang

    2016-08-31

    An aryne 1,2,3-trisubstitution with aryl allyl sulfoxides is accomplished, featuring an incorporation of C-S, C-O, and C-C bonds on the consecutive positions of a benzene ring. The reaction condition is mild with broad substrate scope. Preliminary mechanistic study suggests a cascade formal [2 + 2] reaction of aryne with S═O bond, an allyl S → O migration, and a Claisen rearrangement. PMID:27527334

  5. Twelve- and 52-week safety of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler in patients with persistent asthma

    PubMed Central

    Raphael, Gordon; Taveras, Herminia; Iverson, Harald; O’Brien, Christopher; Miller, David

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Evaluate the safety of albuterol multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI), a novel, inhalation-driven device that does not require coordination of actuation with inhalation, in patients with persistent asthma. Methods: We report pooled safety data from two 12-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, repeat-dose, parallel-group studies and the 12-week double-blind phase of a 52-week multicenter safety study as well as safety data from the 40-week open-label phase of the 52-week safety study. In each study, eligible patients aged ≥12 years with persistent asthma received placebo MDPI or albuterol MDPI 180 µg (2 inhalations × 90 µg/inhalation) 4 times/day for 12 weeks. In the 40-week open-label phase of the 52-week safety study, patients received albuterol MDPI 180 μg (2 inhalations × 90 μg/inhalation) as needed (PRN). Results: During both 12-week studies and the 12-week double-blind phase of the 52-week study, adverse events were more common with placebo MDPI (50%; n = 333) than albuterol MDPI (40%; n = 321); most frequent were upper respiratory tract infection (placebo MDPI 11%, albuterol MDPI 10%), nasopharyngitis (6%, 5%), and headache (6%, 4%). Incidences of β2-agonist-related events (excluding headache) during the pooled 12-week dosing periods were low (≤1%) in both groups. The safety profile with albuterol MDPI PRN during the 40-week open-label phase [most frequent adverse events: nasopharyngitis (12%), sinusitis (11%), upper respiratory tract infection (9%)] was similar to that observed during the 12-week pooled analysis. Conclusions: The safety profile of albuterol MDPI 180 μg in these studies was comparable with placebo MDPI and consistent with the well-characterized profile of albuterol in patients with asthma. PMID:26369589

  6. The thermodynamic properties of 2,3-benzothiophene

    SciTech Connect

    Chirico, R.D.; Knipmeyer, S.E.; Nguyen, A.; Steele, W.V.

    1991-01-01

    Upgrading of heavy fossil fuels is normally done by hydrotreating in the presence of catalysts at 5 to 15 MPa pressure of hydrogen and 575 to 700 K. The efficient use of expensive hydrogen in this process is essential to the economic viability of alternative fuel sources (heavy petroleum, tar sands, shale oil, and the products of the liquefaction of coal). 2,3-Benzothiophene is widely used as a model compound in catalyst-comparison and kinetic studies of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) mechanism. To perform a thermodynamic analysis of the 2,3-benzothiophene/hydrogen reaction network at the process temperatures, Gibbs energies of reaction at those high temperatures are required for the molecules involved. Measurements leading to the calculation of the ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for 2,3-benzothiophene are reported. Experimental methods included adiabatic heat-capacity calorimetry, comparative ebulliometry, inclined-piston gauge manometry, and differential-scanning calorimetry (d.s.c.). The critical temperature and critical density were determined with the d.s.c., and the critical pressure was derived. Entropies, enthalpies, and Gibbs energies of formation were derived for the ideal gas for selected temperatures between 260 K and 750 K. These values were derived by combining the reported measurements with values published previously for the enthalpy of combustion, the enthalpy of fusion, and the absolute entropy and enthalpy of the liquid at the triple-point temperature. Measured and derived quantities were compared with available literature values. 55 refs., 6 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. Flavonolignan 2,3-dehydroderivatives: Preparation, antiradical and cytoprotective activity.

    PubMed

    Pyszková, Michaela; Biler, Michal; Biedermann, David; Valentová, Kateřina; Kuzma, Marek; Vrba, Jiří; Ulrichová, Jitka; Sokolová, Romana; Mojović, Miloš; Popović-Bijelić, Ana; Kubala, Martin; Trouillas, Patrick; Křen, Vladimír; Vacek, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The protective constituents of silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum fruits, have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. Here, we explore the electron-donor properties of the major silymarin flavonolignans. Silybin (SB), silychristin (SCH), silydianin (SD) and their respective 2,3-dehydroderivatives (DHSB, DHSCH and DHSD) were oxidized electrochemically and their antiradical/antioxidant properties were investigated. Namely, Folin-Ciocalteau reduction, DPPH and ABTS(+) radical scavenging, inhibition of microsomal lipid peroxidation and cytoprotective effects against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced damage to a human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cell line were evaluated. Due to the presence of the highly reactive C3-OH group and the C-2,3 double bond (ring C) allowing electron delocalization across the whole structure in the 2,3-dehydroderivatives, these compounds are much more easily oxidized than the corresponding flavonolignans SB, SCH and SD. This finding was unequivocally confirmed not only by experimental approaches, but also by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The hierarchy in terms of ability to undergo electrochemical oxidation (DHSCH~DHSD>DHSB>SCH/SD>SB) was consistent with their antiradical activities, mainly DPPH scavenging, as well as in vitro cytoprotection of HepG2 cells. The results are discussed in the context of the antioxidant vs. prooxidant activities of flavonolignans and molecular interactions in complex biological systems. PMID:26582372

  8. Four Weeks of IV Iron Supplementation Reduces Perceived Fatigue and Mood Disturbance in Distance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Amy; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A.; Saunders, Philo U.; Lovell, Greg; Hughes, David; Fazakerley, Ruth; Anderson, Bev; Gore, Christopher J.; Thompson, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effect of intravenous iron supplementation on performance, fatigue and overall mood in runners without clinical iron deficiency. Methods Fourteen distance runners with serum ferritin 30–100 µg·L−1 were randomly assigned to receive three blinded injections of intravenous ferric-carboxymaltose (2 ml, 100 mg, IRON) or normal saline (PLACEBO) over four weeks (weeks 0, 2, 4). Athletes performed a 3,000 m time trial and 10×400 m monitored training session on consecutive days at week 0 and again following each injection. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was assessed via carbon monoxide rebreathing at weeks 0 and 6. Fatigue and mood were determined bi-weekly until week 6 via Total Fatigue Score (TFS) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) using the Brief Fatigue Inventory and Brunel Mood Scale. Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences, based on the unequal variances t-statistic and Cohen's Effect sizes (ES). Results Serum ferritin increased in IRON only (Week 0: 62.8±21.9, Week 4: 128.1±46.6 µg·L−1; p = 0.002) and remained elevated two weeks after the final injection (127.0±66.3 µg·L−1, p = 0.01), without significant changes in Hbmass. Supplementation had a moderate effect on TMD of IRON (ES -0.77) with scores at week 6 lower than PLACEBO (ES -1.58, p = 0.02). Similarly, at week 6, TFS was significantly improved in IRON vs. PLACEBO (ES –1.54, p = 0.05). There were no significant improvements in 3,000 m time in either group (Week 0 vs. Week 4; Iron: 625.6±55.5 s vs. 625.4±52.7 s; PLACEBO: 624.8±47.2 s vs. 639.1±59.7 s); but IRON reduced their average time for the 10×400 m training session at week 2 (Week 0: 78.0±6.6 s, Week 2: 77.2±6.3; ES–0.20, p = 0.004). Conclusion During 6 weeks of training, intravenous iron supplementation improved perceived fatigue and mood of trained athletes with no clinical iron deficiency, without concurrent improvements in oxygen transport capacity or performance. PMID

  9. Knee Extension Range of Motion at 4 Weeks Is Related to Knee Extension Loss at 12 Weeks After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Noll, Sarah; Garrison, J. Craig; Bothwell, James; Conway, John E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is commonly torn, and surgical reconstruction is often required to allow a patient to return to their prior level of activity. Avoiding range of motion (ROM) loss is a common goal, but little research has been done to identify when ROM loss becomes detrimental to a patient’s future function. Purpose: To determine whether there is a relationship between early knee side-to-side extension difference after ACL reconstruction and knee side-to-side extension difference at 12 weeks. The hypothesis was that early (within the first 8 weeks) knee side-to-side extension difference will be predictive of knee side-to-side extension difference seen at 12 weeks. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Knee side-to-side extension difference measures were taken on 74 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction rehabilitation at the initial visit and 4, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Visual analog scores (VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were also recorded at these time frames. Results: There was a strong relationship between knee extension ROM at 4 and 12 weeks (r = 0.639, P < .001) and 8 and 12 weeks (r = 0.742, P < .001). When the variables of knee extension ROM at initial visit and 4 and 8 weeks were entered into a regression analysis, the predictor variable explained 61% (R2 = 0.611) of variance for knee extension ROM at 12 weeks, with 4 weeks (R2 = 0.259) explaining the majority of this variance. Conclusion: This study found that a patient’s knee extension at 4 weeks was strongly correlated with knee extension at 12 weeks. Clinical Relevance: This information may be useful for clinicians treating athletic patients who are anxious for return to sport by providing them an initial goal to work toward in hopes of ensuring successful rehabilitation of their knee. PMID:26675061

  10. Systemic injection of CK2.3, a novel peptide acting downstream of Bone Morphogenetic Protein receptor BMPRIa, leads to increased trabecular bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Akkiraju, Hemanth; Bonor, Jeremy; Olli, Kristine; Bowen, Chris; Bragdon, Beth; Coombs, Harold; Donahue, Leah Rae; Duncan, Randall; Nohe, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 (BMP2) regulates bone integrity by driving both osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. However, BMP2 as a therapeutic has significant drawbacks. We have designed a novel peptide CK2.3 that blocks the interaction of Casein Kinase 2 (CK2) with Bone Morphogenetic Protein Receptor type Ia (BMPRIa), thereby activating BMP signaling pathways in the absence of ligand. Here, we show that CK2.3 induced mineralization in primary osteoblast cultures isolated from calvaria and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) of 8 week old mice. Further, systemic tail vein injections of CK2.3 in 8 week old mice resulted in increased bone mineral density (BMD) and mineral apposition rate (MAR). In situ immunohistochemistry of the femur found that CK2.3 injection induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK), but not Smad in osteocytes and osteoblasts, suggesting that CK2.3 signaling occurred through Smad independent pathway. Finally mice injected with CK2.3 exhibited decreased osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast activity. These data indicate that the novel mimetic peptide CK2.3 activated BMPRIa downstream signaling to enhance bone formation without the increase in osteoclast activity that accompanies BMP 2 stimulation. PMID:25331517

  11. Eight-Week Traditional Mat Pilates Training-Program Effects on Adult Fitness Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Kate; Gibson, Ann L.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated responses of adult, novice practitioners (n = 9) to an 8-week traditional mat Pilates program (P) that met 1 hr/day three times/week. Classes consisted primarily of beginner and intermediate level exercises. Compared to an active control group (C; n = 13) that showed no improvements, those in P significantly (p less than 0.05)…

  12. Can One Hour Per Week of Therapy Lead to Lasting Changes in Young Children with Autism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vismara, Laurie A.; Colombi, Costanza; Rogers, Sally J.

    2009-01-01

    Deficits in attention, communication, imitation, and play skills reduce opportunities for children with autism to learn from natural interactive experiences that occur throughout the day. These developmental delays are already present by the time these children reach the toddler period. The current study provided a brief 12 week, 1 hour per week,…

  13. Participation in a Twelve-Week Moderate Exercise Program--Selected Physiological Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyness, G. B. Jerry

    1990-01-01

    Adults (N=142) who engaged in a 12-week moderate exercise program requiring the maintenance of training state exercise heart rates for a minimum of 20 minutes, 3 times a week, experienced an improvement in cardiovascular functioning regardless of age and/or sex. (Author/IAH)

  14. 3 CFR 8737 - Proclamation 8737 of October 14, 2011. National Character Counts Week, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proclamation 8737 of October 14, 2011. National Character Counts Week, 2011 8737 Proclamation 8737 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8737 of October 14, 2011 Proc. 8737 National Character Counts Week, 2011By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation In times...

  15. 35C NQR studies in 2,4,6-,2,3,6-, and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukmani, K.; Ramakrishna, J.

    1985-02-01

    The chlorine-35 NQR frequencies and their temperature variation in 2,4,6-, 2,3,6- and 2,3,4-trichloro anisoles have been studied and compared with the corresponding chlorophenols with a view to studying the effect of hydrogen bonding. The observed frequencies have been assigned to the various chlorines with the help of the additive model of the substituent effect. The temperature dependence has been analysed in terms of the Bayer—Kushida—Brown models. The torsional frequencies and their temperature dependence have been calculated numerically under a two mode approximation. A comparison of the trichloro anisoles with the corresponding trichloro phenols has shown that the resonance frequency decreases due to hydrogen bonding while the torsional frequencies are not affected.

  16. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, AND 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCB'S IN MARINE SEDIMENTS AND BIOTA: LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from t...

  17. Ruptured rudimentary horn at 22 weeks.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Hansa

    2012-07-01

    Rudimentary horn is a developmental anomaly of the uterus. Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures. A case of undiagnosed rudimentary horn pregnancy at 22 weeks presented to Nizwa regional referral hospital in shock with features of acute abdomen. Chances of rupture in first or second trimester are increased with catastrophic haemorrhage leading to increased maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Management of such cases is a challenge till today due to diagnostic dilemma. Expertise in ultrasonography and early resort to surgical management is life saving in such cases. PMID:23293421

  18. Ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy at sixteen weeks.

    PubMed

    Zeqiri, Fehmi; Paçarada, Myrvete; Kongjeli, Niltene; Zeqiri, Vlora; Kongjeli, Gyltene; Krasniqi, Burim

    2010-01-01

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating rudimentary horn is very difficult to diagnose before it ruptures, leading to life -threatening intraperitoneal hemorrhage. A 22-year-old second gravida patient presented at the Emergency Center of the University Clinical Center of Kosova with a 16-week history of amenorrhea and acute onset of severe abdominal pain. She was resuscitated and taken for an emergency laparotomy under general anesthesia. Intraoperatively, there was a massive hemoperitoneum with a ruptured right rudimentary horn Given their rarity, ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancies are of interest. PMID:24591927

  19. Triazolines XIII: delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines, a new class of anticonvulsants.

    PubMed

    Kadaba, P K

    1984-06-01

    A series of 1,5-diaryl-delta 2-1,2,3-triazolines has been synthesized and evaluated for the first time as potential anticonvulsant agents using the standard subcutaneous pentylenetetrazol seizure threshold and maximal electroshock seizure tests. Out of the 31 triazolines that were screened, 11 exhibited moderate anticonvulsant activity; 9 of the compounds afforded protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures, while two antagonized electrically induced convulsions. PMID:6737279

  20. [Analgesic activity of derivatives of 7-amino-2,3-polymethylenindoles and their congeners].

    PubMed

    Cerri, R; Boatto, G; Pau, A; Sparatore, F; Manca, P

    1988-02-01

    Some N-trifluoromethylsulphonyl and N-trifluoroacetylderivatives of 7-amino-2,3-polymethyleneindoles and of 7-amino-3-propylindole [(I) - (XIII)] were prepared and tested, together with corresponding aniline derivates [(XIV) - (XIX)] and with N-trifluoromethylsulphonylcyclopentylamine (XX), against formic acid induced writhings in mice. With very few exceptions, at the oral dose of 0.167 mmole/kg, they proved from 2 to 3.4 times more active than acetanilide. PMID:3391261

  1. Vibrational spectrum and internal rotation in 2,3-dimethylpyrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, J. F.; Lòpez-Navarrete, J. T.; Marcos, J. I.; Otero, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    The infrared and Raman spectra of 2,3-dimethylpyrazine have been recorded and assigned on the basis of a C2v molecular geometry previously determined by MINDO/3. The potential energy function corresponding to the internal rotation of both methyl groups has been used to solve the Schrödinger equation and to obtain the energy levels of that motion on the basis of a molecular geometry G36. The rotation of the substituents is not independent and they behave as two geared rotors.

  2. Continuous variable (2, 3) threshold quantum secret sharing schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lance, Andrew M.; Symul, Thomas; Bowen, Warwick P.; Tyc, Tomás; Sanders, Barry C.; Lam, Ping Koy

    2003-01-01

    We present two schemes to perform continuous variable (2, 3) threshold quantum secret sharing (QSS) on the quadrature amplitudes of bright light beams. Both schemes require a pair of entangled light beams. The first scheme utilizes two phase sensitive optical amplifiers, whilst the second uses an electro-optic feedforward loop for the reconstruction of the secret. We examine the efficacy of QSS in terms of fidelity, as well as the signal transfer coefficients and the conditional variances of the reconstructed output state. We show that both schemes in the ideal case yield perfect secret reconstruction.

  3. Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in Low-Income Minority Populations

    MedlinePlus

    ... W X Y Z Weekly and Twice-Weekly Yoga Classes Offer Similar Low-Back Pain Relief in ... an NCCAM-funded study found that once-weekly yoga classes relieved pain, improved function, and reduced the ...

  4. Representations of the POINCARÉ Group from Positive Energy Representations of SO(2,3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, P.

    2004-10-01

    We describe representations of the simply connected covering group of the Poincaré group, {˜ {B}}, which are associated with certain positive energy representations of SO0(2, 3), the simply connected cover of SO0(2, 3). The translation generators of these representations of {˜ {B}} can be viewed as solutions of certain algebraic equations with coefficients from a commutative algebraic extension of the skew field of {˜ {B}}. These representations of {˜ {B}} depend upon a parameter λ that is essentially the reciprocal of the radius of anti-deSitter space, and they go over into the Segal-Inönü-Wigner contractions of the corresponding representations of SO0(2, 3) as λ → 0. Explicit results are given for the Di and Rac representations and the representations of SO0(2, 3) which extend to massless, unitary irreducible representations of SU(2, 2), the four-fold cover of the conformal group of Minkowski space-time.

  5. The effect of Tembusu virus infection in different week-old Cherry Valley breeding ducks.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yunjian; Dou, Yanguo; Ti, Jinfeng; Wang, Aihua; Cheng, Binghua; Zhang, Xin; Diao, Youxiang

    2016-08-30

    To study the effect of Tembusu virus (TMUV) infection on Cherry Valley Breeding ducks of different ages, 350 five-week-old ducks were divided into 14 groups. Ducks in seven experimental group were respectively infected with 1.265×10(5) mean embryo lethal dose (ELD50) of TMUV-AHQY strain (in 4.2mL) by intravenous route. Ducks in control groups were inoculated with Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) in the same way. Clinical symptoms, gross and microscopic lesions, viral loads and serum antibodies were detected and recorded for 20days after infection. Some ducks infected at 7 and 21 week s of age showed severe clinical symptoms including depression and inappetence, and no obvious clinical symptoms were seen in other week-old infected ducks. Severe gross lesions including hepatomegaly, meningeal congestion, myocardial hemorrhage, intestinal, myocardial and pulmonary edema were observed in ducks infected at 7, 18 and 21 weeks of age. No or mild gross lesions were observed in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. The main microscopic lesions including hyperaemia, degeneration and necrosis of different cells and inflammatory cellular infiltration mainly consisting of mononuclear cells or lymphocytes were observed in ducks infected at 7 and 21 week of age. But relatively intact structures and rare lymphocytic infiltration were presented in ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age. Viral antigen was more frequently observed in organ slices collected from 7 week-old infected ducks and few positive staining was found in 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Less viral loads in different tissues and swabs were detected by a quantitative real-time PCR assay. The level of viral loads in the tissues of ducks infected at 14 and 16 weeks of age was very lower than that of ducks infected at 7 and 21 weeks of age. Meanwhile, less viral copy numbers were detected in swab samples collected from 14 and 16 week-old infected ducks. Ducks infected at 14-week-old developed significantly

  6. Winter fuels report, week ending December 28, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-04

    This report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD), I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 34 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Winter fuels report, week ending December 21, 1990. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-28

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD), I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 34 figs., 12 tabs.

  8. Winter fuels report: Week ending October 19, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-25

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on the US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 pm on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB).

  9. Internet Reporting of Weekly Physical Activity Behaviors: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Tyson; Frierson, Georita M.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Morrow, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet. Methods The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 800 women weekly for an average of 3 years. Results With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples. Conclusions This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods. PMID:20683095

  10. Joint Eglin Acoustic Week III Data Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, Michael E.; Conner, David A.; Smith, Charles D.

    2010-01-01

    A series of three flight tests have been conducted at an Eglin Air Force Base remote test range located in the Florida panhandle. The first was the "Acoustics Week" flight test conducted in September 2003. The second was the NASA Heavy Lift Rotorcraft Acoustic Flight Test conducted in October-November 2005. The most recent was the Eglin Acoustic Week III test conducted in August-September 2007. This series of tests acquired acoustic data for a number of rotary and fixed wing aircraft and are used to generate noise semi-spheres used in predicting the acoustic footprint for prescribed flight operations. This extensive database can be used to determine the impact of flight operations on communities around a terminal area as well as for prediction code validations. Another valuable use of the semi-spheres is determining the long-range propagation of noise for civilian and military purposes. This paper describes the third test in this series. Data described in this report were acquired during testing of the MD-902 and Mi-8M aircraft. In addition, data acquired during a set of atmospheric propagation tests is also described.

  11. Fragrance material review on 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(3-methylphenyl) ethanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(3-Methylphenyl) ethanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a primary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all other branched chain saturated alcohols in fragrances. PMID:22036978

  12. Further decrease in glycated hemoglobin following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet for 10 weeks compared to 5 weeks in people with untreated type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously determined that a weight-maintenance, non-ketogenic diet containing 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 30% protein, 40% fat, (30:30:40) (LoBAG30) decreased glycated hemoglobin (%tGHb) from 10.8 to 9.1% over a 5 week period in subjects with untreated type 2 diabetes. Both the fasting glucose and postprandial glucose area were decreased. Our objective in the present 10-week study was to determine: 1) whether the above results could be maintained, or even improved (suggesting a metabolic adaptation) and 2) whether the subjects would accept the diet for this longer time period. In addition, protein balance, and a number of other blood and urine constituents were quantified at 5 and at 10 weeks on the LoBAG30 diet to address metabolic adaptation. Methods Eight men with untreated type 2 diabetes were studied over a 10-week period. Blood was drawn and urine was collected over a 24 hour period at the beginning of the study with subjects ingesting a standard diet of 55% CHO, 15% protein, 30% fat, and at the end of 5 and 10 weeks following ingestion of a LoBAG30 diet. Results Body weight was stable. Fasting glucose decreased by 19% at week 5 and 28% at week 10; 24-h total glucose area decreased by 27% at week 5 and 35% at week 10 compared to baseline. Insulin did not change. Mean %tGHb decreased by 13% at week 5, 25% at week 10, and was still decreasing linearly, indicating that a metabolic adaptation occurred. Serum NEFA, AAN, uric acid, urea, albumin, prealbumin, TSH, Total T3, free T4, B12, folate, homocysteine, creatinine, growth hormone and renin did not differ between weeks 5 and 10. IGF-1 increased modestly. Urinary glucose decreased; urinary pH and calcium were similar. Conclusions A LoBAG30 diet resulted in continued improvement in glycemic control. This improvement occurred without significant weight loss, with unchanged insulin and glucagon profiles, and without deterioration in serum lipids, blood pressure or kidney function. Extending the duration

  13. 3 CFR 8440 - Proclamation 8440 of October 19, 2009. National Character Counts Week, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... selflessly serving others, inspiring and encouraging younger generations to develop the compassion... forward time and again to adapt and lead in an ever-changing world. National Character Counts week is...

  14. Structural stability of the Weeks Island oil repository

    SciTech Connect

    Preece, D.S.; Ehgartner, B.L.

    1994-06-01

    A 3-D finite element analysis was performed to evaluate the stability of the SPR upper and lower oil storage levels at Weeks Island. The mechanical analysis predicted stresses and strains from which pillar stability was inferred using a fracture criterion developed from previous testing of Weeks Island salt. This analysis simulated the sequential mining of the two levels and subsequent oil fill of the mine. The predicted subsidence rates compare well to those measured over the past few years. Predicted failure mechanisms agree with observations made at the time the mine was being modified for oil storage. The modeling technique employed here treats an infinite array of pillars and is a reasonable representation of the behavior at the center of the mine. This analysis predicts that the lower level pillars, at the center of the mine, have fractured and their stability at this time is questionable. Localized pillar fracturing is predicted and implies that the mine is entering a phase of continual time dependent deterioration. Continued and expanded monitoring of the facility and development of methods to assess and predict its behavior are more important now than ever.

  15. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. PMID:27195456

  16. ARTICLES: Theoretical Study on Destruction Mechanism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 and NO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-hua; Wen, Zheng-cheng; Xu, Jiang-rong; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2010-06-01

    In order to improve the destruction efficiency of dioxins and also for developing new dioxin control technology, the destruction mechanisms of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodihenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by O3 and NO3, were investigated employing quantum chemical calculations. For involved reactions, the microcosmic reaction processes were analyzed and depicted in detail based on geometry optimizations made by the B3LYP/6-31G(d) method. At the same time, the reaction activation energies were also calculated at the MP2/6-311G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) level. Configuration analysis indicated that 2,3,7,8-TCDD could be destroyed by O3 and NO3 in two different ways. The destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 proceeded via the addition of O3 and the cleavage of C = C while the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 proceeded via the substitution of chlorine by NO3. Calculated results show that, the activation energy of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 (267.48 kJ/mol) is much larger than that of the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 (51.20 kJ/mol). This indicated that the destruction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by O3 is much more efficient than that of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3. The reason why the activation energy for the destruction reaction of 2,3,7,8-TCDD by NO3 is so large, is also discussed.

  17. Species differences in 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxicity and biotransformation in fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kleeman, J.M.; Olson, J.R.; Peterson, R.E.

    1988-02-01

    Rainbow trout, yellow perch, carp, bluegill, largemouth bass, and bullhead were treated with graded doses of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; 1, 5, 25, or 125 micrograms/kg) or vehicle, ip. The lethal potency of TCDD tended to be greater in yellow perch, carp, and bullhead than in the other three species (LD50 80 days post-treatment, 3-5 versus 10-16 micrograms/kg, respectively). All species treated with the highest dose of TCDD (125 micrograms/kg) displayed a latency period of 1-4 weeks prior to death; longer latency periods were produced by lower lethal doses. Effects of TCDD treatment on body weight were both species-dependent and dose-dependent. Fin necrosis was observed in all fish species; however, cutaneous hemorrhage was observed only in TCDD-treated perch, carp, and bluegill, and cutaneous hyperpigmentation only in TCDD-treated carp and largemouth bass. Gallbladder bile was analyzed for TCDD and its metabolites 7 days after fish were injected with (/sup 14/C)TCDD (60 micrograms/kg, ip). At least three TCDD metabolites in addition to the parent compound were found in the gallbladder bile of all six species. In addition, the retention time of the major biliary TCDD metabolite (determined by HPLC) was similar in all species except yellow perch. Beta-Glucuronidase treatment of the bile from largemouth bass and bluegill suggested that at least two of the TCDD metabolites were glucuronide conjugates. Thus, species differences exist in the lethal potency, signs of overt toxicity, and biotransformation of TCDD among freshwater fish.

  18. A new synthesis of 2,3-di- or 2,3,3-trisubstituted 2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones by reaction of 3-ethoxycyclobutanones and N-p-toluenesulfonyl imines using titanium(IV) chloride: synthesis of (+/-)-bremazocine.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Jun-ichi; Okado, Ryohei; Ishibashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-07-16

    N-p-Toluenesulfonyl (Ts) aldimines reacted with 3-ethoxycyclobutanones by catalysis of titanium(IV) chloride to afford 2,3-di- or 2,3,3-trisubstituted N-Ts-2,3-dihydro-4-pyridones. Synthesis of (+/-)-bremazocine was efficiently accomplished by using this method. PMID:20568828

  19. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  20. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  1. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  2. Gas chromatographic determination of the interconversion energy barrier for dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers.

    PubMed

    Mydlová, J; Krupcík, J; Májek, P; Skacáni, I; Jakubík, T; Sandra, P; Armstrong, D W

    2007-05-25

    The enantiomers of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate undergo interconversion during gas chromatographic separation on chiral stationary phases. In this paper the on-column apparent interconversion kinetic and thermodynamic activation data were determined for dimethyl, diethyl, propylbutyl and dibutyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers by gas chromatographic separation of the racemic mixtures on a capillary column containing a polydimethylsiloxane stationary phase coupled to 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-tertbutyldimethylsilyl-beta-cyclodextrin. A deconvolution method was used to determine the individual enantiomer peak areas and retention times that are needed to calculate the interconversion rate constants and the energy barriers. The apparent rate constants and interconversion energy barriers decrease slightly with an increase in the alkyl chain length of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate esters. The optimum conformation of the dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate molecules, their separation selectivity factors and apparent interconversion enthalpy and entropy data changes with the alkyl chain length. The dependence of the apparent interconversion energy barrier (deltaG(app)(a-->b), deltaG(app)(b-->a)) on temperature was used to determine the apparent activation enthalpy (deltaH(app)(a-->b), deltaH(app)(b-->a)) and apparent entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) (where a denotes the first and b second eluted enantiomer). The comparison of the activation enthalpy and entropy (deltaS(app)(a-->b), deltaS(app)(a-->b)) indicated that the interconversion of dialkyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series is an entropy driven process at 160 degrees C. Data obtained for dimethyl 2,3-pentadienedioate enantiomers on the HP-5+Chiraldex B-DM column series at 120 degrees C (deltaG(app)(a-->b) = 123.3 and deltaG(app)(b-->a) = 124.4 kJ mol(-1)) corresponds (at the 95% confidence interval) with the value of deltaG(#) = 128+/-1 kJ mol(-1) found at this

  3. Clinical pharmacology study of cariprazine (MP-214) in patients with schizophrenia (12-week treatment)

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Tadakatsu; Kubota, Tomoko; Iwakaji, Atsushi; Imada, Masayoshi; Kapás, Margit; Morio, Yasunori

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cariprazine is a potent dopamine D3-preferring D3/D2 receptor partial agonist in development for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar mania, and depression. Pharmacokinetics of cariprazine and the two clinically relevant metabolites (desmethyl- and didesmethyl-cariprazine) was evaluated in a clinical pharmacology study. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, fixed-dose (3, 6, or 9 mg/day) study of 28-week duration (≤4-week observation, 12-week open-label treatment, and 12-week follow-up). Once-daily cariprazine was administered to 38 adult patients with schizophrenia. The pharmacokinetics of cariprazine, metabolites, and total active moieties (sum of cariprazine and two metabolites) was evaluated; efficacy and safety were also assessed. Results Steady state was reached within 1–2 weeks for cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine, 4 weeks for didesmethyl-cariprazine, and 3 weeks for total active moieties. Cariprazine and desmethyl-cariprazine levels decreased >90% within 1 week after the last dose, didesmethyl-cariprazine decreased ~50% at 1 week, and total active moieties decreased ~90% within 4 weeks. Terminal half-lives of cariprazine, desmethyl-cariprazine, and didesmethyl-cariprazine ranged from 31.6 to 68.4, 29.7 to 37.5, and 314 to 446 hours, respectively. Effective half-life (calculated from time to steady state) of total active moieties was ~1 week. Incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events was 97.4%; 15.8% of patients discontinued due to adverse events. No abnormal laboratory values or major differences from baseline in extrapyramidal symptoms were observed. Conclusion Cariprazine and its active metabolites reached steady state within 4 weeks, and exposure was dose proportional over the range of 3–9 mg/day. Once-daily cariprazine was generally well tolerated in adult patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26834462

  4. The effect of a four-week proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching program on isokinetic torque production.

    PubMed

    Higgs, Fiona; Winter, Samantha L

    2009-08-01

    Flexibility is widely accepted as an important component of fitness, yet flexibility training can be detrimental to muscle performance particularly where a high number of stretch cycles are performed. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretch training could successfully improve the knee flexion range of motion without having a detrimental effect on the peak isokinetic torque of the quadriceps. The minimum knee angle in flexion and the peak isokinetic quadriceps torque were measured at 120 and 270 degrees xs. Subjects then participated in a 4-week quadriceps flexibility training program consisting of 3 cycles of PNF stretching performed 3 times a week. The range of motion was recorded before and after the first stretching session of each week. At the end of the 4-week period, the peak isokinetic quadriceps torque and flexibility were again measured. The mean (SE) improvement in the knee flexion range of motion over the whole program was 9.2 degrees (1.45 degrees ), and typical gains after a single stretching session were around 3 degrees . Post hoc analysis showed that the pretraining session range of motion was significantly improved in week 4 compared with the pretraining session range of motion in weeks 1 and 2 (p < 0.05). There was no change (p = 0.9635) in the peak isokinetic torque produced at 120 degrees xs (week 1: 121.9 (4.6) N x m; week 2: 121.9 (5.2) N x m) or at 270 degrees xs (week 1: 88.1 (3.4) N x m; week 2: 88.6 (4.9) N x m). These findings suggest that it is possible to improve flexibility using 3 PNF stretch cycles performed 3 times a week without altering muscle isokinetic strength characteristics. PMID:19620921

  5. After Opportunity's First Drive in Six Weeks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its front hazard-identification camera to obtain this image at the end of a drive on the rover's 1,271st sol, or Martian day (Aug. 21, 2007).

    Due to sun-obscuring dust storms limiting the rover's supply of solar energy, Opportunity had not driven since sol 1,232 (July 12, 2007). On sol 1,271, after the sky above Opportunity had been gradually clearing for more than two weeks, the rover rolled 13.38 meters (44 feet). Wheel tracks are visible in front of the rover because the drive ended with a short test of driving backwards.

    Opportunity's turret of four tools at the end of the robotic arm fills the center of the image. Victoria Crater, site of the rover's next science targets, lies ahead.

  6. Breastfeeding at 6 weeks and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Chye, J K; Zain, Z; Lim, W L; Lim, C T

    1997-10-01

    Despite the numerous changes made in accordance with the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, the low rates of breastfeeding have persisted. This study aims to examine the current trend in infant feeding, and the influences of some perinatal and sociodemographic factors on breastfeeding. Five-hundred mothers with singleton pregnancies and healthy infants were interviewed at 6 weeks post-partum. Only 124 (25 per cent) mothers were practising exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), and 132 (26 per cent) mothers were using exclusive infant formula feeding (EIF). On logistic regression analyses, mothers who followed EBF were more likely to have had antenatal plans to breastfeed (Odds ratio 2.44, 95 per cent confidence interval 1.75-3.45), not in paid employment post-natally (OR 1.76, 95 per cent CI 1.31-2.36), of older age group (> 27 years) (OR 1.48, 95 per cent CI 1.13-1.93), had female infants (OR 1.38, 95 per cent CI 1.05-1.80) and of Indian ethnicity (compared to Chinese) (OR 3.87, 95 per cent CI 2.16-6.89). Breastfeeding difficulties were associated with decreased odds of EBF (OR 0.21, 95 per cent CI 0.13-0.34). Parental education, fathers' ages and incomes, primigravida status, Caesarean section, present of episiotomy, late first breastfeed, phototherapy, and length of hospital stay were not significant predictors of failure of EBF. In comparison, predictive factors for increased use of EIF were mothers who have had breastfeeding difficulties, < or = 9 years of schooling, and of Chinese descent. In conclusions, the overall rate of EBF by 6 weeks of age in infants born in this urban hospital had remained poor. The adverse factors for EBF identified in this study warrant further in-depth studies to determine effective ways of improving EBF rates. PMID:9364127

  7. Cyanobacterial conversion of carbon dioxide to 2,3-butanediol

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, John W. K.; Machado, Iara M. P.; Yoneda, Hisanari; Atsumi, Shota

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of CO2 for the synthesis of chemicals by photosynthetic organisms is an attractive target for establishing independence from fossil reserves. However, synthetic pathway construction in cyanobacteria is still in its infancy compared with model fermentative organisms. Here we systematically developed the 2,3-butanediol (23BD) biosynthetic pathway in Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942 as a model system to establish design methods for efficient exogenous chemical production in cyanobacteria. We identified 23BD as a target chemical with low host toxicity, and designed an oxygen-insensitive, cofactor-matched biosynthetic pathway coupled with irreversible enzymatic steps to create a driving force toward the target. Production of 23BD from CO2 reached 2.38 g/L, which is a significant increase for chemical production from exogenous pathways in cyanobacteria. This work demonstrates that developing strong design methods can continue to increase chemical production in cyanobacteria. PMID:23297225

  8. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ~2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ~16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported. PMID:24269239

  9. Noncommutative SO(2,3) gauge theory and noncommutative gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrijević, Marija; Radovanović, Voja

    2014-06-01

    In this paper noncommutative gravity is constructed as a gauge theory of the noncommutative SO(2,3)⋆ group, while the noncommutativity is canonical (constant). The Seiberg-Witten map is used to express noncommutative fields in terms of the corresponding commutative fields. The commutative limit of the model is the Einstein-Hilbert action with the cosmological constant term and the topological Gauss-Bonnet term. We calculate the second order correction to this model and obtain terms that are of zeroth to fourth power in the curvature tensor and torsion. Trying to relate our results with f(R) and f(T) models, we analyze different limits of our model. In the limit of big cosmological constant and vanishing torsion we obtain an x-dependent correction to the cosmological constant; i.e. noncommutativity leads to an x-dependent cosmological constant. We also discuss the limit of small cosmological constant and vanishing torsion and the teleparallel limit.

  10. NADH Oxidase Activity of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase*

    PubMed Central

    Rosell, Federico I.; Kuo, Hsin H.; Mauk, A. Grant

    2011-01-01

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) was found to oxidize NADH under aerobic conditions in the absence of other enzymes or reactants. This reaction led to the formation of the dioxygen adduct of IDO and supported the oxidation of Trp to N-formylkynurenine. Formation of the dioxygen adduct and oxidation of Trp were accelerated by the addition of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide, and both processes were inhibited in the presence of either superoxide dismutase or catalase. Anaerobic reaction of IDO with NADH proceeded only in the presence of a mediator (e.g. methylene blue) and resulted in formation of the ferrous form of the enzyme. We propose that trace amounts of peroxide previously proposed to occur in NADH solutions as well as solid NADH activate IDO and lead to aerobic formation of superoxide and the reactive dioxygen adduct of the enzyme. PMID:21690092

  11. Winter fuels report. Week ending, January 26, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-23

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: (1) distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a U.S. level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a U.S. level; (2) propane net production, imports and stocks on a U.S. level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; (3) natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the U.S. and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; (4) residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; (5) crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the U.S. and selected cities; and (6) a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and U.S. total heating degree-days by city. The distillate fuel oil and propane supply data are collected and published weekly. The data are based on company submissions for the week ending 7:00 a.m. for the preceding Friday. Weekly data for distillate fuel oil are also published in the Weekly Petroleum Status Report. Monthly data for distillate fuel oil and propane are published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly. The residential pricing information is collected by the EIA and the State Energy Offices on a semimonthly basis for the EIA/State Heating Oil and Propane Program. The wholesale price comparison data are collected daily and are published weekly. Residential heating fuel prices are derived from price quotes for home delivery of No. 2 fuel oil and propane. As such, they reflect prices in effect on the dates shown. Wholesale heating oil and propane prices are estimates using a sample of terminal quotes to represent average State prices on the dates given.

  12. Efficacy of periodic centrifugation of primates during 4-week head-down tilt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, V. I.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Kotovskaya, A. R.; Krotov, V. P.; Vil-Viliams, I. F.; Lobachik, V. I.

    2001-08-01

    Creation of artificial force of gravity (AFG) to counteract the negative consequences of microgravity in manned space missions of extended duration is one of the high-priority problems of space biology and medicine. However, there are a number of especial effects of AFG (namely, structural changes in muscles and bones, and some other system) which need implantation of electrodes and sensors and are possible only with animals. That is why it is of particular interest to make studies with monkeys whose reactions to changed gravity bear much resemblance with human (1). The purpose of the investigation was development of a protocol of periodic gravity loads as a countermeasure against the hypokinetic syndrome in Macaca mulatta. Two series of experiments were performed. In the series, animals were split into two groups of 6 species each who were motor restrained with the head end tilted downward at 5° (HDT) for 28 days. Monkeys of group-2 were periodically subjected to centrifugation (HDT+G). During the first series of experiments rotation was conducted in the +Gz direction at g-loads from 1.2 to 1.6 units for 30-40 minutes 4-5 times a week. In the second series, g-load was equal to 1.2 units and the animals were rotated 30 min. 2-3 time a week. The criterion of g-training protocol efficacy was a test +Gz run at 3 units for 30 s. during which functioning of the cardiovascular systems and its controls was evaluated. The test run was performed prior to and after HDT. Following HDT the animals of group HDT+G were more resistant to the test than their counterparts who had not been trained on the centrifuge. Data of the investigation imply that following HDT and HDT+G alike reduced the amount of total bodily fluids (by approximately 5%), the intracellular component (approximately 4%), and plasma volume (by 6-7%). Yet, there are radical differences between the groups in the levels of reduction in extracellular fluids (by 11% and 6.5%, respectively, P<0,05) and the

  13. Induction of Heat Shock Proteins and Antioxidant Enzymes in 2,3,7,8-TCDD-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Sook; Park, So-Young; Yoo, Ki-Yeol

    2012-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) is an environmental toxicant with a polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon structure and is one of the most toxic man-made chemicals. Exposure to 2,3,7,8-TCDD induces reproductive toxicity, immunotoxicity, and hepatotoxicity. In this study, we evaluated how 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatotoxicity affect the expression of heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes using the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in rat. 2,3,7,8-TCDD increased heat shock protein (Hsp27, α-B-crystallin, Mortalin, Hsp105, and Hsp90s) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-3, GST and catalase) expression after a 1 day exposure in livers of rats, whereas heat shock protein (α-B-crystallin, Hsp90, and GRP78) and antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1, SOD-3, catalase, GST, and GPXs) expression decreased on day 2 and then slowly recovered back to control levels on day 8. These results suggest that heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzymes were induced as protective mechanisms against 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity, and that prolonged exposure depressed their levels, which recovered to control levels due to reduced 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:23269910

  14. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, I-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, Ying-Hua; Wang, Wei-Ran; Chen, Chuan-Mu; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  15. Expression Pattern and Clinicopathological Relevance of the Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase 1/Tryptophan 2,3-Dioxygenase Protein in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Ran

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Cancer cells use the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) pathway to suppress the host's immune response in order to facilitate survival, growth, invasion, and metastasis of malignant cells. Higher IDO1 expression was shown to be involved in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and to be correlated with impaired clinical outcome. However, the potential correlation between the expression of IDO1 in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of the APC gene remains unknown. Material and Methods. Tissues and blood samples were collected from 192 CRC patients. The expressions of IDO1, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO2), and beta-catenin proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Microsatellite instability (MSI) was determined by PCR amplification of microsatellite loci. Results. The results showed that high IDO1 or TDO2 protein expression was associated with characteristics of more aggressive phenotypes of CRC. For the first time, they also revealed a positive correlation between the abnormal expression of beta-catenin and IDO1 or TDO2 proteins in a CRC population with a low mutation rate of APC. Conclusion. We concluded that an IDO1-regulated molecular pathway led to abnormal expression of beta-catenin in the nucleus/cytoplasm of CRC patients with low mutation rate of APC, making IDO1 an interesting target for immunotherapy in CRC. PMID:27578919

  16. ONE WEEK VERSUS FOUR WEEK HEPARIN PROPHYLAXIS AFTER LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR COLORECTAL CANCER.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-28

    The Primary Study Objective is to Assess the Efficacy and; Safety of Extended 4-week Heparin Prophylaxis Compared to; Prophylaxis Given for 8±2 Days After Planned Laparoscopic; Surgery for Colorectal Cancer.; The Clinical Benefit Will be Evaluated as the Difference in; the Incidence of VTE or VTE-related Death Occurring Within 30 Days; From Surgery in the Two Study Groups.

  17. Microbial Dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-Tetrachlorobiphenyl under Anaerobic Conditions in the Absence of Soil or Sediment

    PubMed Central

    Cutter, Leah; Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial enrichment cultures developed with Baltimore Harbor (BH) sediments were found to reductively dechlorinate 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorobiphenyl (2,3,5,6-CB) when incubated in a minimal estuarine medium containing short-chain fatty acids under anaerobic conditions with and without the addition of sediment. Primary enrichment cultures formed both meta and ortho dechlorination products from 2,3,5,6-CB. The lag time preceding dechlorination decreased from 30 to less than 20 days as the cultures were sequentially transferred into estuarine medium containing dried, sterile BH sediment. In addition, only ortho dechlorination was observed following transfer of the cultures. Sequential transfer into medium without added sediment also resulted in the development of a strict ortho-dechlorinating culture following a lag of more than 100 days. Upon further transfer into the minimal medium without sediment, the lag time decreased to less than 50 days. At this stage all cultures, regardless of the presence of sediment, would produce 2,3,5-CB and 3,5-CB from 2,3,5,6-CB. The strict ortho-dechlorinating activity in the sediment-free cultures has remained stable for more than 1 year through several transfers. These results reveal that the classical microbial enrichment technique using a minimal medium with a single polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener selected for ortho dechlorination of 2,3,5,6-CB. Furthermore, this is the first report of sustained anaerobic PCB dechlorination in the complete absence of soil or sediment. PMID:9687458

  18. Molecular evolution of bacterial indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Hajime J; Ushigoe, Akiko; Ball, Helen J

    2011-10-01

    Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) are tryptophan-degrading enzymes that catalyze the first step in L-Trp catabolism via the kynurenine pathway. In mammals, TDO is mainly expressed in the liver and primarily supplies nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)). TDO is widely distributed from mammals to bacteria. Active IDO enzymes have been reported only in vertebrates and fungi. In mammals, IDO activity plays a significant role in the immune system while in fungal species, IDO is constitutively expressed and supplies NAD(+), like mammalian TDO. A search of genomic databases reveals that some bacterial species also have a putative IDO gene. A phylogenetic analysis clustered bacterial IDOs into two groups, group I or group II bacterial IDOs. The catalytic efficiencies of group I bacterial IDOs were very low and they are suspected not to contribute significantly to L-Trp metabolism. The bacterial species bearing the group I bacterial IDO are scattered across a few phyla and no phylogenetically close relationship is observed between them. This suggests that the group I bacterial IDOs might be acquired by horizontal gene transmission that occurred in each lineage independently. In contrast, group II bacterial IDOs showed rather high catalytic efficiency. Particularly, the enzymatic characteristics (K(m), V(max) and inhibitor selectivity) of the Gemmatimonas aurantiaca IDO are comparable to those of mammalian IDO1, although comparison of the IDO sequences does not suggest a close evolutionary relationship. In several bacteria, TDO and the kynureninase gene (kynU) are clustered on their chromosome suggesting that these genes could be transcribed in an operon. Interestingly, G. aurantiaca has no TDO, and the IDO is clustered with kynU on its chromosome. Although the G. aurantiaca also has NadA and NadB to synthesize a quinolinic acid (a precursor of NAD(+)) via the aspartate pathway, the high activity of the G. aurantiaca IDO flanking

  19. Dissociable Rate-Dependent Effects of Oral Methylphenidate on Impulsivity and D2/3 Receptor Availability in the Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Caprioli, Daniele; Jupp, Bianca; Hong, Young T.; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Valentina; Wharton, Laura; Williamson, David J.; McNabb, Carolyn; Berry, David; Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Fryer, Tim D.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that impulsivity in rats is linked to decreased dopamine D2/3 receptor availability in the ventral striatum. In the present study, we investigated, using longitudinal positron emission tomography (PET), the effects of orally administered methylphenidate (MPH), a first-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, on D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal and ventral striatum and related these changes to impulsivity. Rats were screened for impulsive behavior on a five-choice serial reaction time task. After a baseline PET scan with the D2/3 ligand [18F]fallypride, rats received 6 mg/kg MPH, orally, twice each day for 28 d. Rats were then reassessed for impulsivity and underwent a second [18F]fallypride PET scan. Before MPH treatment, we found that D2/3 receptor availability was significantly decreased in the left but not the right ventral striatum of high-impulse (HI) rats compared with low-impulse (LI) rats. MPH treatment increased impulsivity in LI rats, and modulated impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in the dorsal and ventral striatum of HI rats through inverse relationships with baseline levels of impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability, respectively. However, we found no relationship between the effects of MPH on impulsivity and D2/3 receptor availability in any of the striatal subregions investigated. These findings indicate that trait-like impulsivity is associated with decreased D2/3 receptor availability in the left ventral striatum, and that stimulant drugs modulate impulsivity and striatal D2/3 receptor availability through independent mechanisms. PMID:25740505

  20. Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project: Off Base 10, Working with Years, Months, Weeks, Days.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Fern S.; Kingston, Neldon

    Developed by the Initial Learning in Mainstreaming Project, the manual presents an instructional program to teach mainstreamed handicapped elementary school students how to tell and compute time in terms of years, months, weeks, and days. In addition to the basic time facts, the lessons cover carrying or borrowing with off-base-10 time facts, and…

  1. Professional Development and National Science Week.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Alison

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes the events that took place at the Primary Science Seminar held by the Science Teachers' Association of Western Australia (STAWA). Features instructions for seven time-related activities taught at the seminar including Sundials, Water Clock, Sand Timer, Pendulum, Tornado Timer, Marble Timer, and A Matter of Timing. (WRM)

  2. Weekly oral alendronate in mevalonate kinase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is caused by mutations in the MVK gene, encoding the second enzyme of mevalonate pathway, which results in subsequent shortage of downstream compounds, and starts in childhood with febrile attacks, skin, joint, and gastrointestinal symptoms, sometimes induced by vaccinations. Methods For a history of early-onset corticosteroid-induced reduction of bone mineral density in a 14-year-old boy with MKD, who also had presented three bone fractures, we administered weekly oral alendronate, a drug widely used in the management of osteoporosis and other high bone turnover diseases, which blocks mevalonate and halts the prenylation process. Results All of the patient’s MKD clinical and laboratory abnormalities were resolved after starting alendronate treatment. Conclusions This observation appears enigmatic, since alendronate should reinforce the metabolic block characterizing MKD, but is crucial because of the ultimate improvement shown by this patient. The anti-inflammatory properties of bisphosphonates are a new question for debate among physicians across various specialties, and requires further biochemical and clinical investigation. PMID:24360083

  3. IDC RP2 & 3 US Industry Standard Cost Estimate Summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, James M.; Huelskamp, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has prepared a ROM cost estimate for budgetary planning for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 & 3 effort, using a commercial software cost estimation tool calibrated to US industry performance parameters. This is not a cost estimate for Sandia to perform the project. This report provides the ROM cost estimate and describes the methodology, assumptions, and cost model details used to create the ROM cost estimate. ROM Cost Estimate Disclaimer Contained herein is a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate that has been provided to enable initial planning for this proposed project. This ROM cost estimate is submitted to facilitate informal discussions in relation to this project and is NOT intended to commit Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) or its resources. Furthermore, as a Federally Funded Research and Development Center (FFRDC), Sandia must be compliant with the Anti-Deficiency Act and operate on a full-cost recovery basis. Therefore, while Sandia, in conjunction with the Sponsor, will use best judgment to execute work and to address the highest risks and most important issues in order to effectively manage within cost constraints, this ROM estimate and any subsequent approved cost estimates are on a 'full-cost recovery' basis. Thus, work can neither commence nor continue unless adequate funding has been accepted and certified by DOE.

  4. The 2.3-Angstrom Structure of Porcine Circovirus 2

    SciTech Connect

    Khayat, Reza; Brunn, Nicholas; Speir, Jeffrey A.; Hardham, John M.; Ankenbauer, Robert G.; Schneemann, Anette; Johnson, John E.

    2012-10-25

    Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) is a T = 1 nonenveloped icosahedral virus that has had severe impact on the swine industry. Here we report the crystal structure of an N-terminally truncated PCV2 virus-like particle at 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) image reconstruction of a full-length PCV2 virus-like particle at 9.6-{angstrom} resolution. This is the first atomic structure of a circovirus. The crystal structure revealed that the capsid protein fold is a canonical viral jelly roll. The loops connecting the strands of the jelly roll define the limited features of the surface. Sulfate ions interacting with the surface and electrostatic potential calculations strongly suggest a heparan sulfate binding site that allows PCV2 to gain entry into the cell. The crystal structure also allowed previously determined epitopes of the capsid to be visualized. The cryo-EM image reconstruction showed that the location of the N terminus, absent in the crystal structure, is inside the capsid. As the N terminus was previously shown to be antigenic, it may externalize through viral 'breathing'.

  5. Dynamic Spectra Predicted for 2-3 Khz Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jeremy J.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    Radio emissions observed at 2-3 kHz by the Voyager spacecraft occur when global merged interaction regions (GMIRs) reach the heliopause. The radiation is thought to occur when a GMIR enters a region close to the heliopause where the electron speed distribution is primed with a superthermal tail produced by lower hybrid drive. Previously this priming mechanism was combined with a theory for type II solar radio bursts to predict the flux of radio emission in the outer heliosphere. Here this theory is extended in two ways. First theoretical arguments regarding the availability of Langmuir and ion sound waves are used to determine whether emission occurs via three wave processes or processes involving wave scattering off thermal ions (STI). New expressions for conversion efficiencies into radio emission associated with STI are then implemented where appropriate. Second dynamic spectra are calculated for the radio emission generated by shock from the inner solar wind to beyond the heliopause. The results are then compared with existing Voyager observations.

  6. Recent progress in printed 2/3D electronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Andreas; Patter, Paul; Popovic, Karl; Blümel, Alexander; Sax, Stefan; Lenz, Martin; Glushko, Oleksandr; Cordill, Megan J.; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2015-09-01

    New, energy-saving, efficient and cost-effective processing technologies such as 2D and 3D inkjet printing (IJP) for the production and integration of intelligent components will be opening up very interesting possibilities for industrial applications of molecular materials in the near future. Beyond the use of home and office based printers, "inkjet printing technology" allows for the additive structured deposition of photonic and electronic materials on a wide variety of substrates such as textiles, plastics, wood, stone, tiles or cardboard. Great interest also exists in applying IJP in industrial manufacturing such as the manufacturing of PCBs, of solar cells, printed organic electronics and medical products. In all these cases inkjet printing is a flexible (digital), additive, selective and cost-efficient material deposition method. Due to these advantages, there is the prospect that currently used standard patterning processes can be replaced through this innovative material deposition technique. A main issue in this research area is the formulation of novel functional inks or the adaptation of commercially available inks for specific industrial applications and/or processes. In this contribution we report on the design, realization and characterization of novel active and passive inkjet printed electronic devices including circuitry and sensors based on metal nanoparticle ink formulations and the heterogeneous integration into 2/3D printed demonstrators. The main emphasis of this paper will be on how to convert scientific inkjet knowledge into industrially relevant processes and applications.

  7. Antitumour agents as inhibitors of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Pantouris, Georgios; Mowat, Christopher G.

    2014-01-03

    Highlights: •∼2800 National Cancer Institute USA compounds have been screened as potential inhibitors of TDO and/or IDO. •Seven compounds with anti-tumour properties have been identified as potent inhibitors. •NSC 36398 (taxifolin, dihydroquercetin) is selective for TDO with a K{sub i} of 16 M. •This may help further our understanding of the role of TDO in cancer. -- Abstract: The involvement of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) in cancer biology has recently been described, with the enzyme playing an immunomodulatory role, suppressing antitumour immune responses and promoting tumour cell survival and proliferation. This finding reinforces the need for specific inhibitors of TDO that may potentially be developed for therapeutic use. In this work we have screened ∼2800 compounds from the library of the National Cancer Institute USA and identified seven potent inhibitors of TDO with inhibition constants in the nanomolar or low micromolar range. All seven have antitumour properties, killing various cancer cell lines. For comparison, the inhibition potencies of these compounds were tested against IDO and their inhibition constants are reported. Interestingly, this work reveals that NSC 36398 (dihydroquercetin, taxifolin), with an in vitro inhibition constant of ∼16 μM, is the first TDO-selective inhibitor reported.

  8. Weekly cycles in precipitation and other meteorological variables in a polluted region of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stjern, C. W.

    2011-05-01

    Weekly cycles in aerosol concentration and corresponding cycles in precipitation have been reported over Europe, but results are conflicting. To obtain a large potential effect of aerosols on precipitation the focus will here be on a highly polluted region on the borders between Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic. Meteorological parameters from 30 surface stations in a mix of urban, rural and remote locations were analyzed for the time period 1983-2008, using three different tests: the Kruskal-Wallis test, a spectral analysis and a comparison of the regular 7-day week to constructed 6- and 8-day weeks. A clear and statistically significant weekly cycle will be expected to pass all three tests. Precipitation amount as well as meteorological variables associated with convective conditions, such as the frequency of heavy precipitation events and observations of rain showers, showed two-peak weekly cycles with maxima on Tuesdays and during weekends. The amplitudes of the weekly cycles were in many cases larger for the heavily polluted 1983-1987 period than for the cleaner 2004-2008 period, but were equally often largest in the cleaner period. Moreover, of all the variables, periods and seasons investigated, the weekly cycles were statistically significant only for summertime values of light precipitation frequency and cloud amount, and only by one of the three tests applied (the Kruskal-Wallis test). Conclusively, clear weekly cycles in meteorological variables were not found in this polluted region of Europe.

  9. Experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for fuel cycle applications

    SciTech Connect

    San-Felice, L.; Eschbach, R.; Bourdot, P.; Tsilanizara, A.; Huynh, T. D.; Ourly, H.; Thro, J. F.

    2012-07-01

    The DARWIN package, developed by the CEA and its French partners (AREVA and EDF) provides the required parameters for fuel cycle applications: fuel inventory, decay heat, activity, neutron, {gamma}, {alpha}, {beta} sources and spectrum, radiotoxicity. This paper presents the DARWIN2.3 experimental validation for fuel inventory and decay heat calculations on Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In order to validate this code system for spent fuel inventory a large program has been undertaken, based on spent fuel chemical assays. This paper deals with the experimental validation of DARWIN2.3 for the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel inventory calculation, focused on the isotopes involved in Burn-Up Credit (BUC) applications and decay heat computations. The calculation - experiment (C/E-1) discrepancies are calculated with the latest European evaluation file JEFF-3.1.1 associated with the SHEM energy mesh. An overview of the tendencies is obtained on a complete range of burn-up from 10 to 85 GWd/t (10 to 60 GWcVt for MOX fuel). The experimental validation of the DARWIN2.3 package for decay heat calculation is performed using calorimetric measurements carried out at the Swedish Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility for Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) assemblies, covering a large burn-up (20 to 50 GWd/t) and cooling time range (10 to 30 years). (authors)

  10. Comparing the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Steven L; Kim, Eonho; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    This study compared the effects of 3 weeks of upper-body vibration training, vibration and stretching, and stretching alone on shoulder flexibility in college-aged men. Twenty-one men were randomly assigned to vibration-stretching (VS; n = 8), vibration only (VO; n = 6), or stretching only (SO; n = 7) groups that trained 3 times per week for 3 weeks. All 3 groups performed 9 total sets of 30-second stretches. The VS group performed four 30-second upper-body vibration exercises and five 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. The VO group performed nine 30-second upper-body vibration exercises. The SO group performed nine 30-second upper-body stretching exercises. Shoulder flexion (SF), shoulder extension (SE), and shoulder transverse extension (STE) were assessed by a Leighton Flexometer and back scratch tests bilaterally (BSR, BSL) were measured via tape measure. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated groups at baseline and a 2-way repeated-measures ANOVA evaluated the interventions over time. At baseline, there were no group differences in age, height, or weight. There was a significant (p < 0.01) time main effect for each flexibility outcome variable (SF: +6.1%, +3.9%, +3.4%; SE: +8.9%, +13.5%, +26.9%; STE: +12.8%, +8.7%, +24.3%; BSR: +4.4 cm, +3.4 cm, +3.1 cm; BSL: +3.6 cm, +2.3 cm, +6.1 cm) for SO, VO, and VS, respectively. Shoulder extension was the only variable that showed a significant (p < 0.05) interaction effect for group by time. In conclusion, vibration training, alone or combined with stretching, is a viable alternative to a standard stretching routine when attempting to increase shoulder flexibility. Adding vibration training to a flexibility regimen may improve the likelihood of regularly performing flexibility sessions because of increased variety. PMID:23478479

  11. A 4-week Repeated dose Oral Toxicity Study of Mecasin in Sprague-Dawley Rats to Determine the Appropriate Doses for a 13-week, Repeated Toxicity Test

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Eunhye; Lee, Jongchul; Lee, Seongjin; Park, Manyong; Song, Inja; Son, Ilhong; Song, Bong-Keun; Kim, Dongwoung; Lee, Jongdeok

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In this study, we investigated the 4-week repeated-dose oral toxicity of gami-jakyak gamcho buja decoction (Mecasin) to develop safe treatments. Methods: In order to investigate the 4-week oral toxicity of Mecasin, we administered Mecasin orally to rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups of five male and five female animals per group: group 1 being the control group and groups 2, 3, and 4 being the experimental groups. Doses of Mecasin of 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg of body weight were administered to the experimental groups, and a dose of normal saline solution of 10 mL/kg was administered to the control group. We examined the survival rate, weight, clinical signs, and gross findings for four weeks. This study was conducted under the approval of the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee. Results: No deaths occurred in any of the four groups. No significant changes in weights or food consumption between the control group and the experimental groups were observed. Serum biochemistry revealed that some groups showed significant decrease in inorganic phosphorus (IP) (P < 0.05). During necropsy on the rats, one abnormal macroscopic feature, a slight loss of fur, was observed in the mid dosage (1,000 mg/ kg) male group. No abnormalities were observed in any other rats. In histopathological findings, the tubular basophilia and cast of the kidney and extramedullary hematopoiesis of the spleen were found. However, those changes were minimal and had occurred naturally or sporadically. No other organ abnormalities were observed. Conclusion: During this 4-week, repeated, oral toxicity test of Mecasin in SD rats, no toxicity changes due to Mecasin were observed in any of the male or the female rats in the high dosage group. Thus, we suggest that the doses in a 13-week, repeated test should be 0, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 mg/kg respectively. PMID:26998389

  12. Earth Science Week 2010 - Infrared Energy

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video explores what infrared energy is and how NASA detects it to study our Earth's systems more completely. Satellite measurements over time allow scientists to study seasonal changes in loca...

  13. Anoxic Androgen Degradation by the Denitrifying Bacterium Sterolibacterium denitrificans via the 2,3-seco Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Po-Hsiang; Yu, Chang-Ping; Lee, Tzong-Huei; Lin, Ching-Wen; Ismail, Wael; Wey, Shiaw-Pyng; Kuo, An-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The biodegradation of steroids is a crucial biochemical process mediated exclusively by bacteria. So far, information concerning the anoxic catabolic pathways of androgens is largely unknown, which has prevented many environmental investigations. In this work, we show that Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 can anaerobically mineralize testosterone and some C19 androgens. By using a 13C-metabolomics approach and monitoring the sequential appearance of the intermediates, we demonstrated that S. denitrificans uses the 2,3-seco pathway to degrade testosterone under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, based on the identification of a C17 intermediate, we propose that the A-ring cleavage may be followed by the removal of a C2 side chain at C-5 of 17-hydroxy-1-oxo-2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid (the A-ring cleavage product) via retro-aldol reaction. The androgenic activities of the bacterial culture and the identified intermediates were assessed using the lacZ-based yeast androgen assay. The androgenic activity in the testosterone-grown S. denitrificans culture decreased significantly over time, indicating its ability to eliminate androgens. The A-ring cleavage intermediate (≤500 μM) did not exhibit androgenic activity, whereas the sterane-containing intermediates did. So far, only two androgen-degrading anaerobes (Sterolibacterium denitrificans DSMZ 13999 [a betaproteobacterium] and Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ 18526 [a gammaproteobacterium]) have been isolated and characterized, and both of them use the 2,3-seco pathway to anaerobically degrade androgens. The key intermediate 2,3-seco-androstan-3-oic acid can be used as a signature intermediate for culture-independent environmental investigations of anaerobic degradation of C19 androgens. PMID:24657867

  14. Regeneration of Xenopus laevis spinal cord requires Sox2/3 expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Rosana; Edwards-Faret, Gabriela; Moreno, Mauricio; Zuñiga, Nikole; Cline, Hollis; Larraín, Juan

    2015-12-15

    Spinal cord regeneration is very inefficient in humans, causing paraplegia and quadriplegia. Studying model organisms that can regenerate the spinal cord in response to injury could be useful for understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that explain why this process fails in humans. Here, we use Xenopus laevis as a model organism to study spinal cord repair. Histological and functional analyses showed that larvae at pre-metamorphic stages restore anatomical continuity of the spinal cord and recover swimming after complete spinal cord transection. These regenerative capabilities decrease with onset of metamorphosis. The ability to study regenerative and non-regenerative stages in Xenopus laevis makes it a unique model system to study regeneration. We studied the response of Sox2(/)3 expressing cells to spinal cord injury and their function in the regenerative process. We found that cells expressing Sox2 and/or Sox3 are present in the ventricular zone of regenerative animals and decrease in non-regenerative froglets. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) experiments and in vivo time-lapse imaging studies using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression driven by the Sox3 promoter showed a rapid, transient and massive proliferation of Sox2(/)3(+) cells in response to injury in the regenerative stages. The in vivo imaging also demonstrated that Sox2(/)3(+) neural progenitor cells generate neurons in response to injury. In contrast, these cells showed a delayed and very limited response in non-regenerative froglets. Sox2 knockdown and overexpression of a dominant negative form of Sox2 disrupts locomotor and anatomical-histological recovery. We also found that neurogenesis markers increase in response to injury in regenerative but not in non-regenerative animals. We conclude that Sox2 is necessary for spinal cord regeneration and suggest a model whereby spinal cord injury activates proliferation of Sox2/3 expressing cells and their differentiation into neurons, a mechanism

  15. The Four-Day Operational Week Experience at Florida Junior College (FJC): Report of Evaluation Process Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckman, Jeffrey A.

    An evaluation was conducted at Florida Junior College (FJC) of the four-day operational week implemented during May through August, 1981. Surveys were administered in May and July to day students, full-time teaching faculty, and full-time noninstructional staff to determine their level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with the four-day week.…

  16. Strongylus edentatus: development and lesions from ten weeks postinfection to patency.

    PubMed Central

    McCraw, B M; Slocombe, J O

    1978-01-01

    Pony foals inoculated with infective Strongylus edentatus larvae were examined at necropsy from ten to 72 weeks postinfection. At ten weeks postinfection larvae were visible retroperitoneally in the liver and flanks and were recovered from the ligaments of the liver. The fourth molt was detected at 16 weeks postinfection and larvae were also recovered from the wall of the cecum at this time. By 40 weeks adult S. edentatus containing eggs were found in the contents of the cecum and colon. While many larvae migrate to remote parts of the body, it is likely that only those that attain the base of the cecum are successful in establishing in the cecum and colon as adult forms. By 36 weeks postinfection no larvae were found in the liver and up to this time none were found in the peritoneal cavity. Larvae were not recovered from the parenchyma of the lungs. Adhesions and disruption of omental architecture were frequent changes observed throughout infection. Casts of necrotic eosinophils enclosing tracks and larvae were observed beneath the intima of major veins of the cecum and colon. The liver was rough and the capsule thickened at 16 and 20 weeks postinfection and the flanks remained edematous until 36 weeks postinfection. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. Fig. 10. Fig. 11. Fig. 12. Fig. 13. Fig. 14. Fig. 15. Fig. 16. PMID:688075

  17. Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Fleisig, Glenn S; Yamashiro, Kyle; Mikla, Tony; Dunning, Russell; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-12-01

    Effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on throwing velocity. This study examined the effects of a 4-week youth baseball conditioning program on maximum throwing velocity. Thirty-four youth baseball players (11-15 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (each 75 minutes) weekly for 4 weeks, which comprised a sport specific warm-up, resistance training with elastic tubing, a throwing program, and stretching. Throwing velocity was assessed initially and at the end of the 4-week conditioning program for both control and training groups. The level of significance used was p < 0.05. After the 4-week conditioning program, throwing velocity increased significantly (from 25.1 ± 2.8 to 26.1 ± 2.8 m·s) in the training group but did not significantly increase in the control group (from 24.2 ± 3.6 to 24.0 ± 3.9 m·s). These results demonstrate that the short-term 4-week baseball conditioning program was effective in increasing throwing velocity in youth baseball players. Increased throwing velocity may be helpful for pitchers (less time for hitters to swing) and position players (decreased time for a runner to advance to the next base). PMID:21068687

  18. Carbon Solubility of Molten Sulfides at 2-3 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Hirschmann, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Sulfide is molten through much of Earth's upper mantle and so could have an important influence on geochemical and geophysical properties. For example, liquid sulfide could dissolve appreciable carbon, and thereby be a significant sink for reduced carbon in the mantle and perhaps be associated with carbon transport, including diamond precipitation. Here we present experimental data on the phase relations and carbon solubility of sulfides at 2-3 GPa in graphite capsules. Carbon was analyzed by EMPA using an LDE2 crystal and a 10 kV, 80 nA beam, and secondary steel and carbide standards. Repeated analyses of 99.995 wt% Fe indicate a C blank of 0.47 ± 0.12 wt.% (n=38), which was subtracted from the analyses. The limit of detection is therefore likely near 0.1-0.15 wt.%, but we take a more conservative value of 0.27 wt.%, which is the concentration in NIST C1248 steel, the lowest standard for which we unambiguously measure C. FeS monosulfide melts coexist with crystalline sulfide at 2GPa and 1100°C, and at 3GPa and 1200°C, respectively. Lower temperatures are subsolidus and higher temperatures produce only liquids (+graphite). For Fe-S liquids at 2GPa,1500-1600°C and 3GPa, 1600°C, at low bulk S content (5-10 wt.%), a carbide melt coexists with the sulfide. More sulfur-rich bulk compositions produce two immiscible liquids which are approximately (Fe~93%S2~3%C2~4%) and (Fe~70%S~30%)., but Ni addition diminishes the miscibility gap. Carbon solubility in (Fe0.5,Ni0.5)-S liquids diminishes with decreasing metal/sulfide ratio; up to 10 wt.% S, solubility is 2 wt.% C, but diminishes to <1 wt.% at 15 wt% S and is below detection at >20 wt.% S. At 2GPa and 1600°C, other graphite-saturated monosulfide compositions, (Fe1-x,Nix)S (x=0.33,0.50,0.67), FeCuS2 NiS, CuS, and CoS, dissolve less C than detection limit. We detect <0.5 wt.% C in Ni metal and Cu metal in graphite-saturated compositions. In the shallow mantle, where sulfide liquid approximates monosulfide stoichiometry

  19. Laser-spectroscopy measurement of the fine-structure splitting 2 3P1-2 3P2 of 4He

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, G.-P.; Zheng, X.; Sun, Y. R.; Hu, S.-M.

    2015-03-01

    Laser spectroscopy has been performed on a beam of neutral 4He atoms. By using transverse laser cooling and focusing, we are able to prepare a bright beam of atoms in the metastable state 2 3S1 deflected from the original effusive atomic beam. The initial state preparation is completed with optical pumping on the 2 3P1←2 3S1 transition at the wavelength of 1083 nm, followed by laser spectroscopy on the 2 3P1 ,2←2 3S1 transitions. The 2 3P1-2 3P2 fine-structure splitting is determined to be 2 291 177.69 ±0.36 kHz . The quantum interference effect is included in data extraction. This is the most precise laser spectroscopy measurement of the interval. Our result is in agreement with both the latest QED-based calculation and the most precise measurement conducted with microwave spectroscopy.

  20. 13-week oral toxicity study of vinyl laurate in rats.

    PubMed

    Lina, Ben A R; Messinger, Horst; Bär, Albert

    2015-02-01

    Vinyl laurate (VL) is used as a monomer in the production of polyvinyl acetate vinyl laurate copolymer, a component of chewing gum base. The safety of VL was examined in a 13-week oral toxicity study in Wistar rats. VL was administered in corn coil by daily gavage (5 ml/kg bw/d) to four main groups (10 rats/sex) at doses of 0 (vehicle only), 50, 250 and 1000 mg/kg bw/d, respectively. The control and high-dose group comprised an additional 5 rats/sex which were kept untreated for a further 4 weeks until sacrifice (recovery groups). In addition to standard parameters, male and female fertility parameters were determined as well. There were no mortalities and treatment-related clinical signs. Neurobehavioral observations and motor activity assessment, ophthalmoscopic examinations, body weights, feed and water intakes, blood cell counts, coagulation time, standard clinical chemical parameters and urinalyses, absolute and relative organ weights at the end of the treatment as well as macroscopic examination at necropsy and microscopic examination of standard organs and tissues did not show any treatment-related changes. Female and male fertility parameters (estrus cyclicity, testicular and epididymal sperm counts, sperm motility and morphology) were not affected by the treatment. Accordingly, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for VL was determined to be 1000 mg/kg bw/d, i.e. the highest dose level tested. PMID:25445296

  1. Weekly and Decadal Changes in NOx Emissions and Tropospheric Ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, L. C.; Harley, R. A.

    2004-12-01

    Variations in air pollutant emissions and ambient concentrations on both weekly and decadal time scales can be used to test our understanding of atmospheric responses to changes in anthropogenic forcing. Combining records of fuel sales and on-road measurements of vehicle activity and emissions, we have estimated motor vehicle emissions by hour and day of week, separately for gasoline and diesel-powered vehicles. Between 1990 and 2000, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from motor vehicles in California decreased by more than 30%. However, NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks actually increased by over 40%, offsetting some of the reductions in light-duty vehicle emissions. During the past two decades, the occurrence of higher ozone levels on weekends, a phenomenon known as the weekend effect, has become more widespread in California. The effect impacted 11% of surface observation sites in 1980-84 and 38% in 1995-1999. Results of chemical transport modeling show that the primary cause of the weekend ozone effect is the large decrease in NOx emissions due to a ~75% reduction in diesel truck traffic on weekends. Areas where ozone formation is VOC-sensitive therefore can experience higher ozone concentrations on weekends. Long-term (decadal) changes in anthropogenic emissions have produced a shift towards greater VOC-sensitivity, and the weekend ozone effect has grown more prevalent because diesel trucks now account for over 50% of total motor vehicle NOx emissions.

  2. Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Pregnancy Flu Shot Protects Newborn for 8 Weeks: Study Effectiveness drops dramatically after that To use ... protection is likely limited to the first eight weeks of life, said Marta Nunes, of the University ...

  3. Delivering Twins At 37 Weeks May Help Prevent Stillbirths

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160834.html Delivering Twins at 37 Weeks May Help Prevent Stillbirths If babies share placenta, delivery should probably occur a week earlier, research suggests To use the sharing features ...

  4. Accurate molecular structures and infrared spectra of trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane, methyloxirane, and trans-2,3-dimethyloxirane

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Vincenzo; Biczysko, Malgorzata Bloino, Julien; Puzzarini, Cristina

    2014-07-21

    Oxirane derivatives are the most used benchmarks for chiroptical spectroscopies in view of their small size and relative rigidity. The molecular structure, vibrational harmonic and anharmonic frequencies, and infrared intensities of the ground electronic states are analyzed in this paper. Equilibrium structure and harmonic force fields have been evaluated by means of high-level quantum-chemical calculations at the coupled-cluster level including single and double excitations together with a perturbative treatment of triples (CCSD(T)). Extrapolation to the complete basis-set limit as well as core-correlation effects have also been taken into account. Anharmonic contributions have been computed at the CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ level for trans-2,3-dideuterooxirane. These data can serve as references to evaluate the accuracy of less expensive computational approaches rooted in the density functional theory (DFT). The latter have been used within hybrid CC/DFT approaches, which have been applied to simulate fully anharmonic infrared (IR) spectra. Finally, the best theoretical estimates of the equilibrium structures and vibrational wavenumbers are compared to the most accurate experimental data and show in all cases very good agreement, i.e., within 0.001 Å, 0.1 deg, 10 cm{sup −1}, and 0.5 km mol{sup −1}, for bond lengths, angles, wavenumbers, and IR intensities, respectively.

  5. Preliminary assessment of RFI impacts on TDRSS in the 2- to 2.3 GHz band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyttle, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted of the radio frequency bands and radio frequency interference (RFI) impacts on the TDR satellite. Quick look evaluations were performed on RFI conditions in the 136 to 138 MHz and 400.5 to 401.5 MHz bands. An approximate chronological account of the investigations and the intermediate findings are presented. The preliminary results of RFI evaluations in the nominally 2 to 2.3 GHz band. An analysis of the time interaction of user satellites with microwave radio-relay type communications beams as a source of RFI is included.

  6. 39-week toxicity and toxicokinetic study of ponezumab (PF-04360365) in cynomolgus monkeys with 12-week recovery period.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Gary B; Lin, John C; Pons, Jaume; Raha, Nancy M

    2012-01-01

    Ponezumab (PF-04360365) is a novel humanized IgG2Δa monoclonal antibody that binds to amyloid-β (Aβ). It is designed to have reduced immune effector function compared to other passive immunotherapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Toxicity was evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys treated intravenously with vehicle or 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg of ponezumab every 10th day for up to 39 weeks, and after a 12-week recovery phase. The Aβ peptide sequence of monkeys is identical to that of humans. No substantial difference in test article exposure between sexes was observed, and mean plasma Cmax and AUC0-n were approximately dose-proportional. Ponezumab was detectable approximately 9 weeks after cessation of dosing. All animals, except two males given 10 mg/kg, maintained exposure to test article. One of these males tested positive for anti-ponezumab antibodies. Ponezumab was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of animals given active treatment. The estimated CSF/plasma ponezumab concentration ratio was <0.008 after multiple doses. At the end of the dosing and recovery phases, plasma Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-x were increased in treated animals versus controls. No test article-related effects were seen after ophthalmogical, cardiovascular, physical examinations, and clinical and anatomic pathology evaluations. Plasma concentrations of ponezumab on day 261 at the no observed adverse effect level of 100 mg/kg were 22.4 and 5.3 times greater on a Cmax and AUC basis, respectively, than human exposures at the highest dose (10 mg/kg) in a single-dose Phase I trial. These data suggest an acceptable safety profile for ponezumab as an immunotherapy for AD. PMID:22045481

  7. Smad2/3 Upregulates the Expression of Vimentin and Affects Its Distribution in DBP-Exposed Sertoli Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Wang, Xiaogang; Liu, Taixiu; Mo, Min; Ao, Lin; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Cui, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Sertoli cells (SCs) in the testes provide physical and nutritional support to germ cells. The vimentin cytoskeleton in SCs is disrupted by dibutyl phthalate (DBP), which leads to SCs dysfunction. In a previous study, we found that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) influenced the distribution of vimentin by affecting its phosphorylation in DBP-exposed SCs. In the present study, we investigated the role of Smad2/3 in regulating the expression of vimentin in DBP-exposed SCs. We hypothesized that Smad2/3 affects the distribution of vimentin by regulating its expression and that there is cross talk between Smad2/3 and PPARα. The real-time PCR and ChIP-qPCR results showed that SB431542 (an inhibitor of Smad2/3) could significantly attenuate the expression of vimentin induced by DBP in SCs. Phosphorylated and soluble vimentin were both downregulated by SB431542 pretreatment. WY14643 (an agonist of PPARα) pretreatment stimulated, while GW6471 (an antagonist of PPARα) inhibited, the activity of Smad2/3; SB431542 pretreatment also inhibited the activity of PPARα, but it did not rescue the DBP-induced collapse in vimentin. Our results suggest that, in addition to promoting the phosphorylation of vimentin, DBP also stimulates the expression of vimentin by activating Smad2/3 in SCs and thereby induces irregular vimentin distribution. PMID:26819576

  8. An Occultation by Saturn's Rings on 1991 October 2-3 October 2-3 Observed with the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliot, J. L.; Bosh, A. S.; Cooke, M. L.; Bless, R. C.; Nelson, M. J.; Percival, J. W.; Taylor, M. J.; Dolan, J. F.; Robinson, E. L.; Van Citters, G. W.

    1993-01-01

    An occultation of the star GSC 6323-01396 (V = 11.9) by Saturn's rings was observed with the High-Speed Photometer on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) on 1991 October 2-3. This occultation occurred when Saturn was near a stationary point, so the apparent motion of Saturn relative to the star was dominated by the HST orbital motion (8 km/s). Data were recorded simultaneously at effective wavelengths of 3200 and 7500 A, with an integration time of 0.15 s. Fifteen segments of occultation data, totaling 6.8 h, were recorded in 13 successive orbits during the 20.0 h interval from UTC 1991 October 2, 19:35 until UTC 1991 October 3, 15:35. Occultations by 43 different features throughout the classical rings were unambiguously identified in the light curve, with a second occultation by 24 of them occurring due to spacecraft orbital parallax during this extremely slow event. Occultation times for features currently presumed circular were measured and employed in a geometrical model for the rings. This model, relating the observed occultation times to feature radii and longitudes, is presented here and is used in a least-squares fit for the pole direction and radius scale of Saturn's ring system.

  9. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 31

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  10. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  11. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 60, Number 15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  12. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 60, Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  13. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  14. 76 FR 57615 - National Health Information Technology Week, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... September 15, 2011 Part IV The President Proclamation 8711--National Health Information Technology Week... September 12, 2011 National Health Information Technology Week, 2011 By the President of the United States... systems. During National Health Information Technology Week, we highlight the critical importance...

  15. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Volume 61, Number 33

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moolenaar, Ronald L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The "Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report" ("MMWR") Series is prepared by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Data presented by the Notifiable Disease Data Team and 122 Cities Mortality Data Team in the weekly "MMWR" are provisional, based on weekly reports to CDC by state health departments. This issue of "Morbidity and…

  16. The 4-Day School Week. The Informed Educator Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donis-Keller, Christine

    2010-01-01

    This "Informed Educator" examines the use of a 4-day school week as a way to reduce expenses while using limited resources most effectively. Discussion focuses on various models of 4-day week schedules, what to do during the fifth day, and how 4-day school weeks affect extracurricular activities. Detailed discussion of financial savings, student…

  17. 78 FR 30723 - National Safe Boating Week, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ...- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-12399 Filed 5-21-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... May 22, 2013 Part IV The President Proclamation 8981--National Safe Boating Week, 2013 Proclamation 8982--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2013 Proclamation 8983--World Trade Week, 2013 Proclamation...

  18. 77 FR 31143 - Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-12876 Filed 5-23-12; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295... May 24, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8824--Emergency Medical Services Week, 2012 Proclamation 8825--National Safe Boating Week, 2012 Proclamation 8826--National Small Business Week,...

  19. Characterization of the Determinants of NS2-3-Independent Virion Morphogenesis of Pestiviruses

    PubMed Central

    Klemens, O.; Dubrau, D.

    2015-01-01

    diarrhea virus, nonstructural protein NS2-3 is of critical importance to switch between these processes. While free NS3 is essential for RNA replication, uncleaved NS2-3, which accumulates over time in the infected cell, is required for virion morphogenesis. In contrast, the virion morphogenesis of the related hepatitis C virus is independent from uncleaved NS2-NS3. Here, we demonstrate that pestiviruses can adapt to virion morphogenesis in the absence of uncleaved NS2-3 by just two amino acid exchanges. While the mechanism behind this gain of function remains elusive, the fact that it can be achieved by such minor changes is in line with the assumption that an ancestral virus already used this mechanism but lost it in the course of adapting to a new host/infection strategy. PMID:26355097

  20. Pharmacokinetics of (-)-2'-3'-dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine in woodchucks.

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopalan, P; Boudinot, F D; Chu, C K; Tennant, B C; Baldwin, B H; Schinazi, R F

    1996-01-01

    The woodchuck (Marmota monax) has proven to be a suitable animal model for studying hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection owing to similarities in the course of infection between woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) in woodchucks and HBV in humans. (-)-beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-3'-thiacytidine (3TC; lamivudine) is a nucleoside analog which has demonstrated antiviral activity against HBV as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize the pharmacokinetics of 3TC following intravenous and oral administration of 20 mg of 3TC per kg of body weight to woodchucks. Following intravenous administration, the concentrations of 3TC in plasma declined, with a terminal half-life of 2.84 +/- 0.85 h (mean +/- standard deviation). The systemic clearance and steady-state volume of distribution of 3TC were 0.22 +/- 0.078 liters/h/kg and 0.75 +/- 0.13 liters/kg, respectively. The renal clearance of the nucleoside analog was 0.063 +/- 0.016 liters/h/kg. The oral bioavailability of 3TC ranged from 18 to 54%. Allometric relationships between pharmacokinetic parameters and body weight developed by Hussey et al. (E.K. Hussey, K.H. Donn, M.J. Daniel, S.T. Hall, A.J. Harker, and G.L. Evans, J. Clin. Pharmacol. 34:975-977, 1994) were augmented by including data from woodchucks, monkeys (S.M. Blaney, M.J. Daniel, A.J. Harker, K. Godwin, and F.M. Balis, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:2779-2782, 1995), and additional data from rats (P. Rajagopalan, L. Moore, C.K. Chu, R.F. Schinazi, and F.D. Boudinot, submitted for publication). Interspecies scaling of the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3TC demonstrated a good correlation between clearance (0.74 . W0.76 [where W is body weight]; r = 0.93; P < 0.025), apparent volume of distribution (1.62 . W0.81; r = 0.98; P < 0.005), and steady-state volume of distribution (1.09 . W0.94; r = 0.99; P < 0.05) and species body weight. The allometric relationships for clearance and volume of distribution at steady

  1. Optimization and scale-up of 2,3-butanediol production by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127.

    PubMed

    Yang, Taowei; Zhang, Xian; Rao, Zhiming; Gu, Shenghui; Xia, Haifeng; Xu, Zhenghong

    2012-04-01

    The effects of culture conditions on 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) production and its possible scale-up have been studied. A newly isolated Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B10-127, belonged to GRAS microorganisms and showed a remarkable 2,3-BD producing potency, was used for this experiment. Corn steep liquor, soybean meal and ammonium citrate were found to be the key factors in the fermentation according to the results obtained from the Plackett-Burman experimental design. The optimal concentration range of the three factors was examined by the steepest ascent path, and their optimal concentration were further optimized via response surface methodological approach and determined to be 31.9, 22.0 and 5.58 g/l, respectively. The concentration of the obtained 2,3-BD increased significantly with optimized medium (62.7 g/l) when compared with unoptimized medium (45.7 g/l) and the 2,3-BD productivity was about 2.4-fold (The fermentation time was shorten from 72 to 42 h). To observe scale-up effects, batch fermentation was carried out at various working volumes. At a working volume of 20.0 l, the final 2,3-BD concentration and yield were 61.4 and 0.38 g/g at 36 h with a 2,3-BD productivity of 1.71 g/l h. This result shows similar amount of 2,3-BD obtained in lab-scale fermentation, and it is possible to scale up to larger fermentors without major problems. PMID:22805938

  2. Ovarian Features after 2 Weeks, 3 Weeks and 4 Weeks Transdermal Testosterone Gel Treatment and Their Associated Effect on IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of of transdermal testosterone gel (TTG) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and IVF outcomes and ovarian morphology according to pretreatment duration in poor responders. A total of 120 women were recruited for this pilot study. They were randomized into control, 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks TTG treatment groups. For three TTG treatment groups, 12.5 mg TTG was applied daily for 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks in preceding period of study stimulation cycle. After 3 weeks of TTG pretreatment, significant increase of antral follicle count (AFC) and significant decreases of mean follicular diameter (MFD) and resistance index (RI) value of ovarian stromal artery were observed (p=0.026, p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). The total dose of rhFSH administered for COS significantly decreased after 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment both compared with control group (p<0.001, p<0.001). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes were significanty higher in 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment groups than control group (p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of oocytes retrieved; p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of mature oocytes). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were increased only in 4 weeks TTG treatment group compared with control group (p=0.030 and p=0.042, respectively). These data demonstrated that TTG pretreatment for 3 to 4 weeks increases AFC and ovarian stromal blood flow, thereby potentially improving the ovarian response to COS and IVF outcome in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:25949183

  3. Ovarian Features after 2 Weeks, 3 Weeks and 4 Weeks Transdermal Testosterone Gel Treatment and Their Associated Effect on IVF Outcomes in Poor Responders.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chung-Hoon; Ahn, Jun-Woo; Moon, Jei-Won; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Chae, Hee-Dong; Kang, Byung-Moon

    2014-09-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of of transdermal testosterone gel (TTG) on controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and IVF outcomes and ovarian morphology according to pretreatment duration in poor responders. A total of 120 women were recruited for this pilot study. They were randomized into control, 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks TTG treatment groups. For three TTG treatment groups, 12.5 mg TTG was applied daily for 2 weeks, 3 weeks or 4 weeks in preceding period of study stimulation cycle. After 3 weeks of TTG pretreatment, significant increase of antral follicle count (AFC) and significant decreases of mean follicular diameter (MFD) and resistance index (RI) value of ovarian stromal artery were observed (p=0.026, p<0.001, p<0.01, respectively). The total dose of rhFSH administered for COS significantly decreased after 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment both compared with control group (p<0.001, p<0.001). The numbers of oocytes retrieved and mature oocytes were significanty higher in 3 and 4 weeks TTG treatment groups than control group (p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of oocytes retrieved; p<0.001, p<0.001 in the number of mature oocytes). The clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate were increased only in 4 weeks TTG treatment group compared with control group (p=0.030 and p=0.042, respectively). These data demonstrated that TTG pretreatment for 3 to 4 weeks increases AFC and ovarian stromal blood flow, thereby potentially improving the ovarian response to COS and IVF outcome in poor responders undergoing IVF/ICSI. PMID:25949183

  4. Winter fuels report, week ending September 27, 1991. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-03

    This report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for PADD's 1, 2, 3; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 37 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Modeling and forecasting of KLCI weekly return using WT-ANN integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Wei-Thong; Liong, Choong-Yeun; Hussain, Saiful Izzuan; Isa, Zaidi

    2013-04-01

    The forecasting of weekly return is one of the most challenging tasks in investment since the time series are volatile and non-stationary. In this study, an integrated model of wavelet transform and artificial neural network, WT-ANN is studied for modeling and forecasting of KLCI weekly return. First, the WT is applied to decompose the weekly return time series in order to eliminate noise. Then, a mathematical model of the time series is constructed using the ANN. The performance of the suggested model will be evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The result shows that the WT-ANN model can be considered as a feasible and powerful model for time series modeling and prediction.

  6. Cortical Reorganisation during a 30-Week Tinnitus Treatment Program.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Catherine M; Ibrahim, Ronny K; Mathur, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is characterised by the conscious perception of a phantom sound. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic tinnitus have disrupted sound-evoked cortical tonotopic maps, time-shifted evoked auditory responses, and altered oscillatory cortical activity. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) compare sound-evoked brain responses and cortical tonotopic maps in individuals with bilateral tinnitus and those without tinnitus; and (ii) investigate whether changes in these sound-evoked responses occur with amelioration of the tinnitus percept during a 30-week tinnitus treatment program. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 12 bilateral tinnitus participants and 10 control normal-hearing subjects reporting no tinnitus were recorded at baseline, using 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz tones presented monaurally at 70 dBSPL through insert tube phones. For the tinnitus participants, MEG recordings were obtained at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30- week time points during tinnitus treatment. Results for the 500 Hz and 1000 Hz sources (where hearing thresholds were within normal limits for all participants) showed that the tinnitus participants had a significantly larger and more anteriorly located source strengths when compared to the non-tinnitus participants. During the 30-week tinnitus treatment, the participants' 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source strengths remained higher than the non-tinnitus participants; however, the source locations shifted towards the direction recorded from the non-tinnitus control group. Further, in the left hemisphere, there was a time-shifted association between the trajectory of change of the individual's objective (source strength and anterior-posterior source location) and subjective measures (using tinnitus reaction questionnaire, TRQ). The differences in source strength between the two groups suggest that individuals with tinnitus have enhanced central gain which is not significantly influenced by the tinnitus

  7. Cortical Reorganisation during a 30-Week Tinnitus Treatment Program

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Catherine M.; Ibrahim, Ronny K.; Mathur, Ankit

    2016-01-01

    Subjective tinnitus is characterised by the conscious perception of a phantom sound. Previous studies have shown that individuals with chronic tinnitus have disrupted sound-evoked cortical tonotopic maps, time-shifted evoked auditory responses, and altered oscillatory cortical activity. The main objectives of this study were to: (i) compare sound-evoked brain responses and cortical tonotopic maps in individuals with bilateral tinnitus and those without tinnitus; and (ii) investigate whether changes in these sound-evoked responses occur with amelioration of the tinnitus percept during a 30-week tinnitus treatment program. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of 12 bilateral tinnitus participants and 10 control normal-hearing subjects reporting no tinnitus were recorded at baseline, using 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz, and 4000 Hz tones presented monaurally at 70 dBSPL through insert tube phones. For the tinnitus participants, MEG recordings were obtained at 5-, 10-, 20- and 30- week time points during tinnitus treatment. Results for the 500 Hz and 1000 Hz sources (where hearing thresholds were within normal limits for all participants) showed that the tinnitus participants had a significantly larger and more anteriorly located source strengths when compared to the non-tinnitus participants. During the 30-week tinnitus treatment, the participants’ 500 Hz and 1000 Hz source strengths remained higher than the non-tinnitus participants; however, the source locations shifted towards the direction recorded from the non-tinnitus control group. Further, in the left hemisphere, there was a time-shifted association between the trajectory of change of the individual’s objective (source strength and anterior-posterior source location) and subjective measures (using tinnitus reaction questionnaire, TRQ). The differences in source strength between the two groups suggest that individuals with tinnitus have enhanced central gain which is not significantly influenced by the

  8. r-1,t-2,3,c-4-Tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene in human urine: a potential biomarker for assessing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolic activation.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Stephen S; Chen, Menglan; Yagi, Haruhiko; Jerina, Donald M; Carmella, Steven G

    2003-12-01

    Individual differences in the metabolic activation and detoxification of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may influence cancer risk. This has been investigated in many studies using genotyping approaches, but the results to date have been inconsistent. We propose that carcinogen metabolite phenotyping would be a more reliable way to determine the role of host metabolism in PAH-related cancer. Many PAHs are metabolically activated by formation of bay-region diol epoxides. Phenanthrene, generally considered to be noncarcinogenic, is the simplest PAH with a bay region and is metabolized to diol epoxides by the same enzymes and with the same stereochemistry as the prototypic carcinogenic PAH, benzo[a]pyrene. The major end product of this metabolic activation pathway is r-1,t-2,3,c-4-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, anti-PheT). We have developed a method for the analysis of trans, anti-PheT in human urine. r-1,t-2,4,c-3-tetrahydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrophenanthrene (trans, syn-PheT) was used as internal standard. After hydrolysis by beta-glucuronidase and sulfatase, solid phase extraction, and high-performance liquid chromatography collection, the sample was silylated and analyzed by gas chromatography-negative ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring at m/z 372. The resulting chromatograms were remarkably clean and trans, anti-PheT was readily detected in all human urine samples. Levels of trans, anti-PheT were 791 +/- 363 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 20) in psoriasis patients treated with a PAH-containing ointment, 25.7 +/- 16.8 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 32) in coke oven workers exposed to PAH, 4.58 +/- 2.95 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 31) in smokers, and 1.51 +/- 1.15 pmol/mg creatinine (n = 30) in nonsmokers. Levels of trans, anti-PheT correlated with levels of 1-hydroxypyrene in the urine of coke oven workers, smokers, and nonsmokers. Thus, trans, anti-PheT appears to be an excellent biomarker of PAH uptake. Levels

  9. THE 6-MINUTE WALK TEST AND OTHER ENDPOINTS IN DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY: LONGITUDINAL NATURAL HISTORY OBSERVATIONS OVER 48 WEEKS FROM A MULTICENTER STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Mcdonald, Craig M; Henricson, Erik K; Abresch, R Ted; Florence, Julaine M; Eagle, Michelle; Gappmaier, Eduard; Glanzman, Allan M; Spiegel, Robert; Barth, Jay; Elfring, Gary; Reha, Allen; Peltz, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) subjects ≥5 years with nonsense mutations were followed for 48 weeks in a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ataluren. Placebo arm data (N = 57) provided insight into the natural history of the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and other endpoints. Methods: Evaluations performed every 6 weeks included the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), timed function tests (TFTs), and quantitative strength using hand-held myometry. Results: Baseline age (≥7 years), 6MWD, and selected TFT performance are strong predictors of decline in ambulation (Δ6MWD) and time to 10% worsening in 6MWD. A baseline 6MWD of <350 meters was associated with greater functional decline, and loss of ambulation was only seen in those with baseline 6MWD <325 meters. Only 1 of 42 (2.3%) subjects able to stand from supine lost ambulation. Conclusion: Findings confirm the clinical meaningfulness of the 6MWD as the most accepted primary clinical endpoint in ambulatory DMD trials. PMID:23681930

  10. 29 CFR 3.4 - Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection of weekly payroll records. 3.4 Section 3.4 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor CONTRACTORS AND... STATES § 3.4 Submission of weekly statements and the preservation and inspection of weekly payroll... subcontractor, within seven days after the regular payment date of the payroll period, to a representative of...

  11. Five-Week Outcomes From a Dosing Trial of Therapeutic Massage for Chronic Neck Pain

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Karen J.; Cook, Andrea J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Hawkes, Rene J.; Kahn, Janet R.; Deyo, Richard A.; Cherkin, Daniel C.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This trial was designed to evaluate the optimal dose of massage for individuals with chronic neck pain. METHODS We recruited 228 individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain from an integrated health care system and the general population, and randomized them to 5 groups receiving various doses of massage (a 4-week course consisting of 30-minute visits 2 or 3 times weekly or 60-minute visits 1, 2, or 3 times weekly) or to a single control group (a 4-week period on a wait list). We assessed neck-related dysfunction with the Neck Disability Index (range, 0–50 points) and pain intensity with a numerical rating scale (range, 0–10 points) at baseline and 5 weeks. We used log-linear regression to assess the likelihood of clinically meaningful improvement in neck-related dysfunction (≥5 points on Neck Disability Index) or pain intensity (≥30% improvement) by treatment group. RESULTS After adjustment for baseline age, outcome measures, and imbalanced covariates, 30-minute treatments were not significantly better than the wait list control condition in terms of achieving a clinically meaningful improvement in neck dysfunction or pain, regardless of the frequency of treatments. In contrast, 60-minute treatments 2 and 3 times weekly significantly increased the likelihood of such improvement compared with the control condition in terms of both neck dysfunction (relative risk = 3.41 and 4.98, P = .04 and .005, respectively) and pain intensity (relative risk = 2.30 and 2.73; P = .007 and .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS After 4 weeks of treatment, we found multiple 60-minute massages per week more effective than fewer or shorter sessions for individuals with chronic neck pain. Clinicians recommending massage and researchers studying this therapy should ensure that patients receive a likely effective dose of treatment. PMID:24615306

  12. Enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofurans using a Brønsted base/thiourea bifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Barrios Antúnez, Diego-Javier; Greenhalgh, Mark D; Fallan, Charlene; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Smith, Andrew D

    2016-07-26

    The diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted trans-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (15 examples, up to 96 : 4 dr, 95 : 5 er) via intramolecular Michael addition has been developed using keto-enone substrates and a bifunctional tertiary amine-thiourea catalyst. This methodology was extended to include non-activated ketone pro-nucleophiles for the synthesis of 2,3-disubstituted indane and 3,4-disubstituted tetrahydrofuran derivatives. PMID:27387095

  13. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons

    PubMed Central

    Alghadir, Ahmad H.; Gabr, Sami A.; Aly, Farag A.

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15–25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  14. Effects of Improvac and Bopriva on the testicular function of boars ten weeks after immunization.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Nicholas; Crouch, Spencer; Pearl, Christopher A

    2013-11-30

    This study investigated the effects of Improvac and Bopriva, two anti-GnRF immunization products, on testicular function in boars. We predicted that both products would diminish testicular function; however, we specifically tested the hypothesis that the duration of efficacy for Bopriva would be longer than that of Improvac. Animals were immunized with either Improvac or Bopriva and then observed ten weeks after the second injection. Serum GnRF antibody titers rose after the second injection and peaked approximately two weeks later. At the same time testosterone concentrations decreased to undetectable levels and remained below assay detection for at least six weeks. At approximately eight weeks, testosterone began to increase in animals treated with Improvac though levels remained decreased in Bopriva treated animals throughout the ten weeks. Daily sperm production at 10 weeks was significantly reduced in both treatment groups; however, the reduction was greater in Bopriva treated boars. Examination of testes of both treatments revealed incomplete spermatogenesis with impaired spermatid production and reduced seminiferous tubule diameter. These findings were universal in Bopriva treated animals, but Improvac treated animals exhibited morphologies intermediate between Bopriva treated animals and control boars. Overall testicular function in Bopriva boars remained suppressed ten weeks post-immunization while Improvac boars appeared to be recovering. PMID:24139761

  15. The effects of four weeks aerobic training on saliva cortisol and testosterone in young healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Alghadir, Ahmad H; Gabr, Sami A; Aly, Farag A

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 4 weeks moderate aerobic exercise on outcome measures of saliva stress hormones and lactate levels in healthy adult volunteers. [Subjects and Methods] Sixteen healthy students with an age range of 15-25 years participated in this study. The participants performed an exercise test of moderate intensity for 4 weeks, three times per week. The exercise was treadmill walking. Saliva concentrations of cortisol, testosterone and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured before and after the 4 weeks of moderate aerobic training using immunoassay techniques. [Results] After 4 weeks of exercise, there were significant increases in cortisol, free testosterone levels, and LDH activity along with a significant decrease in the ratios between testosterone and cortisol levels. No significant correlations were found among the studied parameters in the resting stage, a result which supports the positive effect of exercise on stress hormones following 4 weeks of training. [Conclusion] The results suggest that four weeks exercise of moderate intensity significantly affects the salivary stress hormones of young healthy volunteers. The data support the importance of salivary stress hormones as potential biological markers especially for older ages. However, more research is required to validate these biological markers which determine the host response to physical activity. PMID:26311920

  16. Temperature during the last week of incubation. II. Effects on first week broiler development and performance.

    PubMed

    Maatjens, C M; van Roovert-Reijrink, I A M; van den Anker, I; Engel, B; van der Pol, C W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about applying various eggshell temperatures (EST) during the last week of incubation. In particular, the effect of an EST below 37.8°C during the last week of incubation is poorly investigated. Therefore, we investigated effects of EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C applied from d of incubation (E) 15, E17, or E19 on first week broiler development and performance. A total of 2,850 first grade eggs of a 43 wk old Ross 308 broiler breeder flock were incubated at an EST of 37.8°C until E15. From E15, E17, or E19 onward, eggs were incubated at an EST of 35.6, 36.7, 37.8, or 38.9°C. Chick quality was determined at placement in the broiler house and organ development was measured at d 7. BW was determined at placement, d4, and d7. Feed intake (FI) was measured at d4 and d7 and G:F was calculated between placement and d4, and between d4 and d7. Chick quality at placement was higher at an EST of 35.6°C compared to all other EST treatments, expressed by a longer chick length and highest prevalence of closed navels. BW d 7 was higher at an EST of 36.7°C compared to all other EST treatments, which was not caused by a higher FI during the first week. A higher G:F between d 0 and d 7 was found at an EST of 36.7°C compared to 35.6 and 38.9°C. At d 7, a higher relative heart weight was found at an EST of 35.6 compared to 38.9°C. This study indicates that an EST of 38.9°C applied from E15 onward negatively affected chick quality, organ development, and G:F until d 7 compared to 37.8°C. Moreover, an EST of 36.7°C had a clear positive effect on chick quality, organ development, G:F, and growth performance until d 7. An EST of 35.6°C resulted in equal or higher chick quality and organ weights compared to 36.7°C, but this was not reflected in performance parameters. PMID:27118862

  17. Hypertension, Cardiac Hypertrophy, and Impaired Vascular Relaxation Induced by 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin are Associated with Increased Superoxide

    PubMed Central

    Kopf, Phillip G.; Huwe, Janice K.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms by which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases the incidence of human cardiovascular disease are not known. We investigated the degree to which cardiovascular disease develops in mice following subchronic TCDD exposure. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were dosed with vehicle or 300 ng TCDD/kg by oral gavage three times per week for 60 days. Blood pressure was recorded by radiotelemetry and aortic endothelial function was assessed by acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation. Mean arterial pressure of TCDD-exposed mice was increased significantly by day 4 and between days 7–10, 25–35, and 45–60 with two periods of normalization on days 11–24 and days 36–39. Consistent with a prolonged period of systemic hypertension, heart weight was increased and was associated with concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Significant increases in superoxide production also were observed in the kidney, heart, and aorta of TCDD-exposed mice. Furthermore, increased aortic superoxide resulted in endothelial dysfunction as demonstrated by significant impairment of acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation in TCDD-exposed mice, which was restored by tempol, a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic. Our model is the first to definitely demonstrate that sustained AhR activation by TCDD increases blood pressure and induces cardiac hypertrophy, which may be mediated, in part, by increased superoxide. PMID:18850075

  18. SORPTION OF 2, 3, 7, 8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14 C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCCD) to Soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. ncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (foc) from 0.0066 to...

  19. SORPTION OF 2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN TO SOILS FROM WATER/METHANOL MIXTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sorption of 14C-labeled 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to soils from water/methanol mixtures has been evaluated by batch shake testing. Uncontaminated soils from Times Beach, MO, were used in these experiments and ranged in fraction organic carbon (U...

  20. 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and PCBs in marine sediments and biota: Laboratory and field studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Rubinstein, N.I.; Taplin, B.K.; LiVolsi, J.A.; Norwood, C.B.

    1990-09-01

    The report describes the bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by three species of marine benthos exposed to contaminated sediment collected from the Passaic River (PR), New Jersey. Organisms were exposed to PR sediments for up to 180 days in the laboratory. In addition, sediments and associated infauna from the New York Bight were collected and analyzed for the same suite of chemical compounds.

  1. Evaluation of Experimental Four-Day Week Class Schedule, January Through April 1974 at Lake City Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardman, Clark

    Due to the energy disturbance during the fall and winter of 1973-74, Lake City Community College experimented with a 4-days-per-week schedule of classes. a student evaluation of the 4-day week was completed by 58 percent of the full-time students. Fifty-one percent of the total student sample preferred the 4-day week, and 30 percent preferred the…

  2. Real-Time Study of Prostate Intrafraction Motion During External Beam Radiotherapy With Daily Endorectal Balloon

    SciTech Connect

    Both, Stefan; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Plastaras, John P.; Deville, Curtiland; Bar Ad, Voika; Tochner, Zelig; Vapiwala, Neha

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To prospectively investigate intrafraction prostate motion during radiofrequency-guided prostate radiotherapy with implanted electromagnetic transponders when daily endorectal balloon (ERB) is used. Methods and Materials: Intrafraction prostate motion from 24 patients in 787 treatment sessions was evaluated based on three-dimensional (3D), lateral, cranial-caudal (CC), and anterior-posterior (AP) displacements. The mean percentage of time with 3D, lateral, CC, and AP prostate displacements >2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 mm in 1 minute intervals was calculated for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Correlation between the mean percentage time with 3D prostate displacement >3 mm vs. treatment week was investigated. Results: The percentage of time with 3D prostate movement >2, 3, and 4 mm increased with elapsed treatment time (p < 0.05). Prostate movement >5 mm was independent of elapsed treatment time (p = 0.11). The overall mean time with prostate excursions >3 mm was 5%. Directional analysis showed negligible lateral prostate motion; AP and CC motion were comparable. The fraction of time with 3D prostate movement >3 mm did not depend on treatment week of (p > 0.05) over a 4-minute mean treatment time. Conclusions: Daily endorectal balloon consistently stabilizes the prostate, preventing clinically significant displacement (>5 mm). A 3-mm internal margin may sufficiently account for 95% of intrafraction prostate movement for up to 6 minutes of treatment time. Directional analysis suggests that the lateral internal margin could be further reduced to 2 mm.

  3. (+/-)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine treatment in adult rats impairs path integration learning: a comparison of single vs once per week treatment for 5 weeks.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Matthew R; Able, Jessica A; Grace, Curtis E; Herring, Nicole R; Schaefer, Tori L; Gudelsky, Gary A; Vorhees, Charles V; Williams, Michael T

    2008-12-01

    3,4-Methlylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) administration (4 x 15 mg/kg) on a single day has been shown to cause path integration deficits in rats. While most animal experiments focus on single binge-type models of MDMA use, many MDMA users take the drug on a recurring basis. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of repeated single-day treatments with MDMA (4 x 15 mg/kg) once weekly for 5 weeks to animals that only received MDMA on week 5 and saline on weeks 1-4. In animals treated with MDMA for 5 weeks, there was an increase in time spent in the open area of the elevated zero maze suggesting a decrease in anxiety or increase in impulsivity compared to the animals given MDMA for 1 week and saline treated controls. Regardless of dosing regimen, MDMA treatment produced path integration deficits as evidenced by an increase in latency to find the goal in the Cincinnati water maze. Animals treated with MDMA also showed a transient hypoactivity that was not present when the animals were re-tested at the end of cognitive testing. In addition, both MDMA-treated groups showed comparable hyperactive responses to a later methamphetamine challenge. No differences were observed in spatial learning in the Morris water maze during acquisition or reversal but MDMA-related deficits were seen on reduced platform-size trials. Taken together, the data show that a single-day regimen of MDMA induces deficits similar to that of multiple weekly treatments. PMID:18674550

  4. Arteriovenous Fistula Development in the First 6 Weeks after Creation.

    PubMed

    Robbin, Michelle L; Greene, Tom; Cheung, Alfred K; Allon, Michael; Berceli, Scott A; Kaufman, James S; Allen, Matthew; Imrey, Peter B; Radeva, Milena K; Shiu, Yan-Ting; Umphrey, Heidi R; Young, Carlton J; Group, For The Hemodialysis Fistula Maturation Study

    2016-05-01

    Purpose To assess the anatomic development of native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) during the first 6 weeks after creation by using ultrasonographic (US) measurements in a multicenter hemodialysis fistula maturation study. Materials and Methods Each institutional review board approved the prospective study protocol, and written informed consent was obtained. Six hundred and two participants (180 women and 422 men, 459 with upper-arm AVF and 143 with forearm AVF) from seven clinical centers underwent preoperative artery and vein US mapping. AVF draining vein diameter and blood flow rate were assessed postoperatively after 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks. Relationships among US measurements were summarized after using multiple imputation for missing measurements. Results In 55% of forearm AVFs (68 of 124) and 83% of upper-arm AVFs (341 of 411) in surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to 6 weeks, at least 50% of their 6-week blood flow rate measurement was achieved at 1 day. Among surviving patients without thrombosis or AVF intervention prior to week 2, 70% with upper-arm AVFs (302 of 433) and 77% with forearm AVFs (99 of 128) maintained at least 85% of their week 2 flow rate at week 6. Mean AVF diameters of at least 0.40 cm were seen in 85% (389 of 459), 91% (419 of 459), and 87% (401 of 459) of upper-arm AVFs and in 40% (58 of 143), 73% (104 of 143), and 77% (110 of 143) of forearm AVFs at 1 day, 2 weeks, and 6 weeks, respectively. One-day and 2-week AVF flow rates and diameters were used to predict 6-week levels, with 2-week prediction of 6-week measures more accurate than those of 1 day (flow rates, R(2) = 0.47 and 0.61, respectively; diameters, R(2) = 0.49 and 0.82, respectively). Conclusion AVF blood flow rate at 1 day is usually more than 50% of the 6-week blood flow rate. Two-week measurements are more predictive of 6-week diameter and blood flow than those of 1 day. US measurements at 2 weeks may be of value in the early identification of

  5. Induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: a mechanism of the antitumor activity of interferon. gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Ozaki, Y.; Edelstein, M.P.; Duch, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    The antiproliferative effects of interferon ..cap alpha.. (IFN-..cap alpha..) and interferon ..gamma.. (IFN-..gamma..) were found to be cell-dependent. Among the human cell lines examined, IFN-..gamma.. had a greater antiproliferative effect against cell lines that exhibited induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, such as the KB oral carcinoma or WiDr colon adenocarcinoma, than against those that lacked the enzyme activity, such as the SW480 colon adenocarcinoma of NCI-H128 small-cell lung carcinoma. Induction of this dioxygenase showed a clear temporal relationship with increased metabolism of L-tryptophan and the depletion of this amino acid in the culture medium. While 70-80% of L-tryptophan remained in the medium of IFN-..cap alpha..- or vehicle-treated cells, virtually all of this amino acid was depleted in the medium of the IFN-..gamma..-treated group following 2-3 days of culture. Supplementing the growth medium with additional L-tryptophan reversed the antiproliferative effect of IFN-..gamma.. against KB cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The antiproliferative effects of IFN-..cap alpha.. and IFN-..gamma.. on SW480 and NCI-H128 cells, which are independent of the dioxygenase activity, and the inability of added L-tryptophan to reverse the effects of IFN-..gamma.. in WiDr cells suggest multiple mechanisms of action of the IFNs. The data show that the antiproliferative effect of IFN-..gamma.. through induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, with a consequent L-tryptophan deprivation, is an effective means of regulating cell growth.

  6. Properties of 2,3-Butanediol Dehydrogenases from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis in Relation to Citrate Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1990-01-01

    Two 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases (enzymes 1 and 2; molecular weight of each, 170,000) have been partially purified from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (Streptococcus diacetylactis) D10 and shown to have reductase activity with either diacetyl or acetoin as the substrate. However, the reductase activity with 10 mM diacetyl was far greater for both enzymes (7.0- and 4.7-fold for enzymes 1 and 2, respectively) than with 10 mM acetoin as the substrate. In contrast, when acetoin and diacetyl were present together, acetoin was the preferred substrate for both enzymes, with enzyme 1 showing the more marked preference for acetoin. meso-2,3-Butanediol was the only isomeric product, with enzyme 1 independent of the substrate combinations. For enzyme 2, both the meso and optical isomers of 2,3-butanediol were formed with acetoin as the substrate, but only the optical isomers were produced with diacetyl as the substrate. With batch cultures of strain D10 at or near the point of citrate exhaustion, the main isomers of 2,3-butanediol present were the optical forms. If the pH was sufficiently high (>pH 5), acetoin reduction occurred over time and was followed by diacetyl reduction, and meso-2,3-butanediol became the predominant isomer. Interconversion of the optical isomers into the meso isomer did occur. The properties of 2,3-butanediol dehydrogenases are consistent with diacetyl and acetoin removal and the appearance of the isomers of 2,3-butanediol. PMID:16348209

  7. How Students Spend Their Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horne, William R.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study on time management that involved 57 third-year university students who first estimated, then recorded how they allocated weekly time between work, maintenance (sleep, meals, etc.) and leisure. Finds that students spent a mean of 40 hours per week on schoolwork. Offers suggestions on allocating student time. (Contains 19…

  8. Final report on Weeks Island Monitoring Phase : 1999 through 2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Munson, Darrell Eugene

    2005-05-01

    This Final Report on the Monitoring Phase of the former Weeks Island Strategic Petroleum Reserve crude oil storage facility details the results of five years of monitoring of various surface accessible quantities at the decommissioned facility. The Weeks Island mine was authorized by the State of Louisiana as a Strategic Petroleum Reserve oil storage facility from 1979 until decommissioning of the facility in 1999. Discovery of a sinkhole over the facility in 1992 with freshwater inflow to the facility threatened the integrity of the oil storage and led to the decision to remove the oil, fill the chambers with brine, and decommission the facility. Thereafter, a monitoring phase, by agreement between the Department of Energy and the State, addressed facility stability and environmental concerns. Monitoring of the surface ground water and the brine of the underground chambers from the East Fill Hole produced no evidence of hydrocarbon contamination, which suggests that any unrecovered oil remaining in the underground chambers has been contained. Ever diminishing progression of the initial major sinkhole, and a subsequent minor sinkhole, with time was verification of the response of sinkholes to filling of the facility with brine. Brine filling of the facility ostensively eliminates any further growth or new formation from freshwater inflow. Continued monitoring of sinkhole response, together with continued surface surveillance for environmental problems, confirmed the intended results of brine pressurization. Surface subsidence measurements over the mine continued throughout the monitoring phase. And finally, the outward flow of brine was monitored as a measure of the creep closure of the mine chambers. Results of each of these monitoring activities are presented, with their correlation toward assuring the stability and environmental security of the decommissioned facility. The results suggest that the decommissioning was successful and no contamination of the

  9. BIOAVAILABILITY OF 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF AND PCBS TO MARINE BENTHOS FROM PASSAIC RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioaccumulation and depuration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran and polychlorinated biphenyls by marine benthos exposed to environmentally contaminated sediment were measured in a laboratory study. andworms (Nereis virens), clams (Macom...

  10. Synthesis and properties of new derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine-5-carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Sladowska, H; Bartoszko-Malik, A; Zawisza, T

    1990-01-01

    Condensation of diethyl 2-amino-6-methylpyridine-3,4-dicarboxylate with phenyl or cyclohexyl isocyanates gave the corresponding derivatives of ethyl 7-methyl-2,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrido [2,3-d]pyrimidine- 5-carboxylate[(V), (VI)]. Alkylation of (V) and (VI) afforded the corresponding N-1 substituted derivatives (XI-XIX). PMID:2337441

  11. Weekly Cycle of Lightning: Evidence of Storm Invigoration by Pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Thomas L.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Kim, Kyu-Myong

    2009-01-01

    We have examined summertime 1998 2009 U.S. lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN) to look for weekly cycles in lightning activity. As was found by Bell et al. (2008) for rain over the southeast U.S., there is a significant weekly cycle in afternoon lightning activity that peaks in the middle of the week there. The weekly cycle appears to be reduced over population centers. Lightning activity peaks on weekends over waters near the SE U.S. The statistical significance of weekly cycles over the western half of the country is generally small. We found no evidence of a weekly cycle of synoptic-scale forcing that might explain these patterns. The lightning behavior is entirely consistent with the explanation suggested by Bell et al. (2008) for the cycles in rainfall and other atmospheric data from the SE U.S., that aerosols can cause storms to intensify in humid, convectively unstable environments.

  12. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells.

    PubMed

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-08-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05-0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000-40 000 Ω cm(2)) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1-3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  13. From Neuron Biophysics to Orientation Selectivity in Electrically Coupled Networks of Neocortical L2/3 Large Basket Cells

    PubMed Central

    Amsalem, Oren; Van Geit, Werner; Muller, Eilif; Markram, Henry; Segev, Idan

    2016-01-01

    In the neocortex, inhibitory interneurons of the same subtype are electrically coupled with each other via dendritic gap junctions (GJs). The impact of multiple GJs on the biophysical properties of interneurons and thus on their input processing is unclear. The present experimentally based theoretical study examined GJs in L2/3 large basket cells (L2/3 LBCs) with 3 goals in mind: (1) To evaluate the errors due to GJs in estimating the cable properties of individual L2/3 LBCs and suggest ways to correct these errors when modeling these cells and the networks they form; (2) to bracket the GJ conductance value (0.05–0.25 nS) and membrane resistivity (10 000–40 000 Ω cm2) of L2/3 LBCs; these estimates are tightly constrained by in vitro input resistance (131 ± 18.5 MΩ) and the coupling coefficient (1–3.5%) of these cells; and (3) to explore the functional implications of GJs, and show that GJs: (i) dynamically modulate the effective time window for synaptic integration; (ii) improve the axon's capability to encode rapid changes in synaptic inputs; and (iii) reduce the orientation selectivity, linearity index, and phase difference of L2/3 LBCs. Our study provides new insights into the role of GJs and calls for caution when using in vitro measurements for modeling electrically coupled neuronal networks. PMID:27288316

  14. Error Analysis of Weekly Station Coordinates in the DORIS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Simon D. P.; Willis, Pascal

    2006-11-01

    Twelve years of DORIS data from 31 selected sites of the IGN/JPL (Institut Géographique National/Jet Propulsion Laboratory) solution IGNWD05 have been analysed using maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) in an attempt to understand the nature of the noise in the weekly station coordinate time-series. Six alternative noise models in a total of 12 different combinations were used as possible descriptions of the noise. The six noise models can be divided into two natural groups, temporally uncorrelated (white) noise and temporally correlated (coloured) noise. The noise can be described as a combination of variable white noise and one of flicker, first-order Gauss Markov or power-law noise. The data set as a whole is best described as a combination of variable white noise plus flicker noise. The variable white noise, which is white noise with variable amplitude that is a function of the weekly formal errors multiplied by an estimated scale factor, shows a dependence on site latitude and the number of DORIS-equipped satellites used in the solution. The latitude dependence is largest in the east component due to the near polar orbit of the SPOT satellites. The amplitude of the flicker noise is similar in all three components and equal to about 20 mm/year1/4. There appears to be no latitude dependence of the flicker noise amplitude. The uncertainty in rates (site velocities) after 12 years is just under 1 mm/year. These uncertainties are around 3 4 times larger than if only variable white noise had been assumed, i.e., no temporally correlated noise. A rate uncertainty of 1 mm/year after 12 years in the vertical is similar to that achieved using Global Positioning System (GPS) data but it takes DORIS twice as long to reach 1 mm/year than GPS in the horizontal. The analysis has also helped to identify sites with either anomalous noise characteristics or large noise amplitudes, and tested the validity of previously proposed discontinuities. In addition, several new offsets

  15. Contributions of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase to the conversion of D-tryptophan to nicotinamide analyzed by using tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Maeta, Akihiro; Sano, Mitsue; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu; Funakoshi, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Toshikazu; Shibata, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the contribution percentage of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) to the conversion of D-tryptophan to nicotinamide in TDO-knockout mice. The calculated percentage conversions indicated that TDO and IDO oxidized 70 and 30%, respectively, of the dietary L-tryptophan. These results indicate that both TDO and IDO biosynthesize nicotinamide from D-tryptophan and L-tryptophan in mice. PMID:25035993

  16. Temperature sensor based on composite film of vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Kh. S.; Mahroof-Tahir, M.; Saleem, M.; Tariq Saeed Chani, M.; Niaz, A. Khan

    2015-07-01

    A vanadium complex (VO2(3-fl)) and CNT composite film based temperature sensor is reported in this study. Surface-type silver electrodes were deposited on the glass substrates. A thin film of VO2(3-fl) and CNT composite was coated as a temperature-sensing material on the top of the pre-patterned Ag electrodes. The temperature-sensing principle of the sensor was based on the conductivity change of the coated sensing element upon heating or cooling processes. DC and AC (100 Hz) resistances of the temperature sensor decreased quasilinearly with increasing the temperature in the range of 25-80 °C. The overall resistance of the sensor decreases by 1.8-2.1 and 1.9-2.0 times at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The resistance temperature coefficients of the sensor were in the range of -(0.9-1.3)% and -(1.1-1.3)% at DC and AC voltage, respectively. The properties of the sensor studied in this work, make it beneficial to be used in the instruments for environmental monitoring of temperature.

  17. Development of a mutant strain of Bacillus polymyxa showing enhanced production of 2,3-butanediol

    SciTech Connect

    Mallonee, D.H.; Speckman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    2,3-Butanediol is a feedstock chemical of potential industrial importance. It can serve as a monomer for many polymers of consumer interest that are currently supplied by the fossil fuel industry. Bacillus polymyxa can grow on inexpensive waste products of the food-processing industry and produce this glycol. This paper describes a mutant strain of B. polymyxa which displays constitutive production of catabolic ..cap alpha..-acetolactate synthase, an enzyme in the 2,3-butanediol pathway which is normally produced only in the late log or stationary phase of growth. The mutant was obtained by treating the wild type with nitrosoguanidine and subjecting it to a penicillin counterselection procedure. One of the selected mutant strains produced four times as much of the glycol as the wild type and utilized approximately 25% of the energy source, compared with essentially complete utilization of the energy source by the wild type. Studies are under way to optimize the production of the glycol by the mutant.

  18. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial property of novel starch derivatives with 1,2,3-triazole.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wenqiang; Li, Qing; Wang, Huali; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Jingjing; Dong, Fang; Guo, Zhanyong

    2016-05-20

    Four novel starch-linked-1,2,3-triazole derivatives were synthesized including 6-hydroxymethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (HMTST), 6-bromomethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (BMTST), 6-chloromethyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CMTST), and 6-carboxyltriazole-6-deoxy starch (CBTST). Their antibacterial properties against Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) were evaluated in vitro, respectively. The inhibitory property of the obtained amphiprotic starch derivatives exhibited a remarkable improvement over starch. And the antibacterial indices of most of the products were higher than 60% and 40% at 1.0 mg/mL when the culture time was 8 h and 16 h, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory index of CBTST attained 97% above at 1.0 mg/mL. Generally, the inhibitory activity decreased in the order: CBTST>CMTST>BMTST>HMTST>starch. Furthermore, the order of their antibacterial activity was consistent with the electron-withdrawing property of different substituted groups of the 1,2,3-triazole groups. The substituted groups with stronger electron withdrawing ability relatively possessed greater antibacterial activity. PMID:26917366

  19. Forgetting is regulated via Musashi-mediated translational control of the Arp2/3 complex.

    PubMed

    Hadziselimovic, Nils; Vukojevic, Vanja; Peter, Fabian; Milnik, Annette; Fastenrath, Matthias; Fenyves, Bank Gabor; Hieber, Petra; Demougin, Philippe; Vogler, Christian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2014-03-13

    A plastic nervous system requires the ability not only to acquire and store but also to forget. Here, we report that musashi (msi-1) is necessary for time-dependent memory loss in C. elegans. Tissue-specific rescue demonstrates that MSI-1 function is necessary in the AVA interneuron. Using RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (IP), we found that MSI-1 binds to mRNAs of three subunits of the Arp2/3 actin branching regulator complex in vivo and downregulates ARX-1, ARX-2, and ARX-3 translation upon associative learning. The role of msi-1 in forgetting is also reflected by the persistence of learning-induced GLR-1 synaptic size increase in msi-1 mutants. We demonstrate that memory length is regulated cooperatively through the activation of adducin (add-1) and by the inhibitory effect of msi-1. Thus, a GLR-1/MSI-1/Arp2/3 pathway induces forgetting and represents a novel mechanism of memory decay by linking translational control to the structure of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons. PMID:24630719

  20. The role of placental indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase in human pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Munn et al. made a scientific observation of major biological importance. For the first time they showed that in the mammal the fetus does survive an immune attack mounted by the mother, and that the mechanism responsible for the survival depends on the fetus and placenta 'actively' defending itself from attack by maternal T cells by means of an enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.42) dependent localised depletion of L-tryptophan. These findings raise critical questions for disease and its prevention during human pregnancy. Specifically, the role of this mechanism (discovered in mouse) in the human, and the extent to which defective activation of this process is responsible for major clinical diseases are unknown. Therefore some key facts about this enzyme expressed in the human placenta have been studied in order to test whether Munn et al.'s findings in mouse are met for human pregnancy. This short review attempts to describe our experimental work on human placental indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. PMID:24328005

  1. 3 CFR 8821 - Proclamation 8821 of May 14, 2012. Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012 8821 Proclamation 8821 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8821 of May 14, 2012 Proc. 8821 Peace Officers Memorial Day and Police Week, 2012By the President of.... For the first time, this new system will give our Nation’s police officers and first responders...

  2. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation is transiently impaired for one week after large-vessel acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Nils H.; Ortega-Gutierrez, Santiago; Reccius, Andres; Masurkar, Arjun; Huang, Amy; Marshall, Randolph S

    2016-01-01

    Background Dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) is the continuous counterregulation of cerebral blood flow to fluctuations in blood pressure. DCA can become impaired after acute stroke, but it remains unclear to what extent and over what interval this occurs. Methods We included 28 patients (NIHSS=12±6.5, age=68.4±17.1, 16F) with acute large-vessel ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory and 29 healthy controls (mean age 54.9±9, 16F). DCA was assessed by simultaneous measurement of blood pressure together with blood flow velocities using finger plethysmography/arterial catheter and transcranial Doppler over three 10-minute recordings on days 0–2, 3–6 and >=7 days after stroke. Transfer function analysis was applied to calculate average phase shift (PS) in the low frequency range (0.06–0.12 Hz). Less PS indicated poorer autoregulation. The affected side was compared with the unaffected side and controls. Univariate comparisons of data were performed using t-tests at single time points, and generalized estimating equations with an exchangeable correlation matrix to examine the change in PS over time. Results At mean 1.3±0.5 days after stroke the average PS in the affected hemisphere was 29.6±10.5 degrees versus 42.5±13 degrees in the unaffected hemisphere (p=0.004). At 4.1±1 days, the PS in affected and unaffected hemisphere was 23.2±19.1 vs. 41.7±18.5 degrees, respectively (p=0.003). At mean 9.75±2.2 days stroke there was no difference between affected and unaffected hemisphere (53.2±28.2 versus 50.7±29.2 degrees, p=0.69). Control subjects had an average PS=47.9±16.8, significantly different from patients’ affected hemisphere at the first two measurements (p=0.001), but not the third (p=0.37). The PS in controls remained unchanged on repeat testing after an average 19.1 days (48.4±17.1, p=0.61). Using the last recording as the reference, the average PS in the affected hemisphere was −23.54 (−44.1, −3) degrees lower on

  3. Comparison of pollutant concentrations from weekly discrete versus composite samples for residential dry-weather runoff.

    PubMed

    Pitton, B J L; Dodge, L L; Gan, J; Greco, S E; Haver, D L; Lee, E; Majcherek, T J; Oki, L R

    2016-09-15

    As urbanization has increased, so has degradation of urban streams. Urban water quality monitoring has focused on storm runoff sampling, but in arid climates, dry-weather runoff is a significant contributor of pollutants to aquatic systems. The majority of dry-weather runoff studies sample a small window of the entire dry-season. For this study constituent concentrations were compared using two sampling protocols. The first protocol repeatedly collected samples on the same day of the week at the same time of day. The second protocol collected samples during two week-long intensive sampling events consisting of sample collection every hour for 24 h for seven consecutive days. The two protocols were compared to determine if sampling at the same time of the week was representative of the entire week. For nitrate, total phosphorous, fipronil, permethrin, total organic carbon, and total suspended solids, sampling at the same time was not representative of the weekly mean; however, variability was observed between sites and constituents. For those constituent concentrations with significant differences seen between the two protocols, load adjustment factors (LAF) were determined, using a ratio of treatment means, and employed to adjust dry-season load estimates. Future work should include determining if LAF values can be used at similar sites excluded from the study or for similar constituents from the current sampling sites. PMID:27192386

  4. The effects of water-level fluctuations on weekly tree growth in a southeastern USA swamp

    SciTech Connect

    Keeland, B.D.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1997-01-01

    Annual growth of wetland trees has been shown to be related to variations in hydrologic regimes, however the relationship between water level fluctuations and tree growth season has not been documented. In a study of weekly growth patterns of three wetland tree species in a southeastern forested wetland, transfer function modeling was used to examine relationships between tree growth and the weekly changes in water levels and weekly changes in the atmospheric water balance (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration). An autoregressive-moving average model was fit to each time series of water-level changes (input series), and the selected model was then used to filter the tree-growth (output) time series. Cross-correlations between each input and output time series were examined and significant relationships between weekly changes in water levels and tree diameter were found for Nyssa sylvatica and Taxodium distichum trees growing at sites with periodic shallow flooding. There were no significant relationships between changing water levels and tree growth in areas with permanent flooding or soil saturation. Further, changes in growth of N. sylvatica, N. aquatica, and T. distichum were significantly cross-correlated with weekly changes in the atmospheric water balance at sites with either periodic or permanent flooding. 59 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium versus EE-drospirenone + folic acid: folate status during 24 weeks of treatment and over 20 weeks following treatment cessation

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Konstanze; Trummer, Dietmar; Ebert, Frank; Lissy, Michael; Koch, Manuela; Rohde, Beate; Blode, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate folate supplementation in the periconceptional phase is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects. Oral contraceptives may provide a reasonable delivery vehicle for folate supplementation before conception in women of childbearing potential. This study aimed to demonstrate that a fixed-dose combination of an oral contraceptive and levomefolate calcium leads to sustainable improvements in folate status compared with an oral contraceptive + folic acid. Methods This was a double-blind, randomized, parallel-group study in which 172 healthy women aged 18–40 years received ethinylestradiol (EE)-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium or EE-drospirenone + folic acid for 24 weeks (invasion phase), and EE-drospirenone for an additional 20 weeks (folate elimination phase). The main objective of the invasion phase was to examine the area under the folate concentration time-curve for plasma and red blood cell (RBC) folate, while the main objective of the elimination phase was to determine the duration of time for which RBC folate concentration remained ≥ 906 nmol/L after cessation of EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium. Results Mean concentration-time curves for plasma folate, RBC folate, and homocysteine were comparable between treatment groups during both study phases. During the invasion phase, plasma and RBC folate concentrations increased and approached steady-state after about 8 weeks (plasma) or 24 weeks (RBC). After cessation of treatment with levomefolate calcium, folate concentrations decreased slowly. The median time to RBC folate concentrations falling below 906 nmol/L was 10 weeks (95% confidence interval 8–12 weeks) after cessation of EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium treatment. Plasma and RBC folate levels remained above baseline values in 41.3% and 89.3% of women, respectively, at the end of the 20-week elimination phase. Conclusion Improvements in folate status were comparable between EE-drospirenone-levomefolate calcium and

  6. Comparison of Clinical Outcome Between Twice-Weekly and Thrice-Weekly Hemodialysis in Patients With Residual Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Hong, Yoo Ah; Yoon, Hye Eun; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Kim, Suk Young; Kim, Young Ok; Jin, Dong Chan; Kim, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kim, Yon-Su; Kang, Shin-Wook; Kim, Nam-Ho; Yang, Chul Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Residual kidney function (RKF) contributes to improved survival in hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, it is not clear whether RKF allows a comparable survival rate in patients undergoing twice-weekly HD compared with thrice-weekly HD. We enrolled 685 patients from a prospective multicenter observational cohort. RKF and HD adequacy was monitored regularly over 3-year follow-up. Patients with RKF were divided into groups undergoing twice-weekly HD (n = 113) or thrice-weekly HD (n = 137). Patients without RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD (n = 435) were included as controls. Fluid balance and dialysis-associated characteristics were followed and clinical outcomes evaluated using all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events (CVE). In patients with RKF, baseline and follow-up RKF were significantly higher in patients undergoing twice-weekly HD than in those undergoing thrice-weekly HD. Total Kt/V urea (dialysis plus residual renal) in patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD was greater than or equal to those in patients with or without RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD. Compared with patients with RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD, patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD had no fluid excess, but their normalized protein catabolic rate became lower since 24-month follow up. In multivariable analyses, patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD had a noninferior risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.34–2.01, P = 0.68) and of CVE (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.28–1.29, P = 0.19) compared with patients without RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD. However, this group showed an independent association with a greater risk of mortality compared with patients with RKF undergoing thrice-weekly HD (HR, 4.20; 95% CI, 1.02–17.32, P = 0.04). In conclusion, patients with RKF undergoing twice-weekly HD had an increased risk of mortality compared with those undergoing thrice-weekly HD. Decisions about twice-weekly

  7. The interactions of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) and 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) in TCDD-induced porphyria

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Cheng Catsby.

    1989-01-01

    Halogenated aryl hydrocarbon(HAH)-induced porphyria is caused by alteration of porphyrin metabolism and results in the accumulation of hepatic and urinary porphyrins. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (75 {mu}/kg) caused significant increases of hepatic porphyrin levels in C57BL/6 male, female and ovariectomized female, and C57BL/10 male mice 3 weeks after treatment. In contrast, 6-methyl-1,3,8-trichlorodibenzofuran (MCDF) was inactive at a dose of 750 {mu}mol/kg. Cotreatment with MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) and 2,3,7,8-TCDD (75 {mu}g/kg) resulted in partial antagonism of 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyrin accumulation in female but not in male mice. In female C57BL/6 mice, 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced porphyria was accompanied by the induction of hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activities and the inhibition of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) activity. MCDF (750 {mu}mol/kg) did not significantly affect these enzyme activities. In coadministration studies, MCDF partially antagonized 2,3,7,8-TCDD-induced hepatic porphyrin accumulation but did not affect the activities of hepatic AHH, EROD or UROD. These results demonstrate that the induction of the monooxygenase enzyme activities and the inhibition of UROD activity by 2,3,7,8-TCDD and the development of porphyria are not coordinately regulated in C57BL/6 female mice. In cultured chick embryo hepatocytes, 2,3,7,8-TCDD caused a significant increase in porphyrin levels and induced AHH and EROD activities. MCDF and Aroclor 1254 partially antagonized the 2,3,7,8-TCDD induced AHH and EROD activities but not the porphyrin accumulation.

  8. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  9. 9 CFR 2.3 - Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demonstration of compliance with standards and regulations. 2.3 Section 2.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.3 Demonstration of...

  10. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  11. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  12. 45 CFR 2.3 - Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. 2.3 Section 2.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... PARTY § 2.3 Policy on Presentation of testimony and production of documents. No employee or...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  14. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  15. 49 CFR 177.841 - Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. 177.841... PUBLIC HIGHWAY Loading and Unloading § 177.841 Division 6.1 and Division 2.3 materials. (See also § 177... by other appropriate method, and the marking removed. (b) (c) Division 2.3 (poisonous gas)...

  16. Genome Sequence of meso-2,3-Butanediol-Producing Strain Serratia marcescens ATCC 14041

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lixiang; Wang, Yu; Li, Kun; Su, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing

    2014-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strain ATCC 14041 was found to be an efficient meso-2,3-butanediol (meso-2,3-BD) producer from glucose and sucrose. Here we present a 5.0-Mb assembly of its genome. We have annotated 4 coding sequences (CDSs) for meso-2,3-BD fermentation and 2 complete operons including 6 CDSs for sucrose utilization. PMID:24948764

  17. CARDIOPATHIC EFFECT OF 1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE AFTER SUBACUTE AND SUBCHRONIC EXPOSURE IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    1,2,3-Trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP) is an industrial water contaminant with potential for human exposure by the oral route. The systemic toxicology of 1,2,3-TCP was evaluated after subacute or subchronic exposure in male and female Sprague Dawley rate. Animals were treated with 0....

  18. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  19. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3-2-3 - Recommendation of sites for characterization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Recommendation of sites for characterization. 960.3-2-3 Section 960.3-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-3 Recommendation of...

  1. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  2. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  3. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  4. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  5. 1 CFR 2.3 - Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. 2.3 Section 2.3 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.3 Office of the Federal Register; location; office hours. (a) The Office of...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6000 - Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate... Substances § 721.6000 Tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new use subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (CAS Number...

  9. ODYSSEY MONO: effect of alirocumab 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks as monotherapy versus ezetimibe over 24 weeks.

    PubMed

    Roth, Eli M; McKenney, James M

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT  Alirocumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody to PCSK9. The ODYSSEY MONO study was the first alirocumab Phase III study to test a previously unused dose of 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks in a population on no lipid-lowering therapy. A total of 103 patients were randomly assigned to alirocumab starting at 75 mg subcutaneously every 2 weeks or ezetimibe 10 mg per os every day with alirocumab dose uptitration at 12 weeks based on achieved LDL-cholesterol level at week 8 and followed to week 24. At the week-24 primary end point, the alirocumab intent-to-treat group showed a 47.2% (least square [LS] mean) reduction in LDL-cholesterol compared with a 15.6% (LS mean) reduction with ezetimibe (LS mean difference of 31.6%; p < 0.0001). Safety parameters and adverse events were similar between the two groups. PMID:25606700

  10. A Thorough QTc Study Confirms Early Pharmacokinetics/QTc Modeling: A Supratherapeutic Dose of Omarigliptin, a Once-Weekly DPP-4 Inhibitor, Does Not Prolong the QTc Interval.

    PubMed

    Tatosian, Daniel A; Cardillo Marricco, Nadia; Glasgow, Xiaoli Shirley; DeGroot, Bruce; Dunnington, Katherine; George, Laura; Gendrano, Isaias Noel; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Swearingen, Dennis; Kauh, Eunkyung

    2016-09-01

    Omarigliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor being developed as a once-weekly treatment for type 2 diabetes. This double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, 3-period balanced crossover study definitively evaluated the effects of a supratherapeutic omarigliptin dose on QTc interval. Population-specific correction of QT interval (QTcP) was used for the primary analysis. Healthy subjects (n = 60) were enrolled and received treatments separated by a ≥4-week washout: (1) single-dose 25 mg omarigliptin (day 1), single-dose 175 mg omarigliptin (day 2); (2) placebo (day 1) followed by single-dose 400 mg moxifloxacin (day 2); (3) placebo (days 1 and 2). Day 2 QTcP intervals were analyzed. The primary hypothesis was supported if the 90%CIs for the least-squares mean differences between omarigliptin 175 mg and placebo in QTcP interval change from baseline were all < 10 milliseconds at every postdose point on day 2. The upper bounds of the 90%CIs for the differences (omarigliptin-placebo) in QTcP change from baseline for omarigliptin 175 mg were < 10 milliseconds at all postdose times on day 2. In conclusion, a supratherapeutic dose of omarigliptin does not prolong the QTcP interval to a clinically meaningful degree relative to placebo, confirming the results of the earlier concentration-QTc analysis. PMID:27627194

  11. CROSSFLOW FILTRATION: EM-31, WP-2.3.6

    SciTech Connect

    Duignan, M.; Nash, C.; Poirier, M.

    2011-02-01

    tests to evaluate methods to improve filter performance. With the proper use of filter flow conditions and filter enhancers, filter flow rates can be increased over rates currently realized today. Experiments that use non-radioactive simulants for actual waste always carry the inherent risk of not eliciting prototypic results; however, they will assist in focusing the scope needed to minimize radioactive testing and thus maximize safety. To that end this investigation has determined: (1) Waste simulant SB6 was found to be more challenging to filtration than a SRS Tank 8F simulant; (2) Higher solids concentration presents a greater challenge to filtration; (3) Filter cake is something that should be properly developed in initial filter operation; (4) Backpulsing is not necessary to maintain a good filter flux with salt wastes; (5) Scouring a filter without cleaning will lead to improved filter performance; (6) The presence of a filter cake can improve the solids separation by an order of magnitude as determined by turbidity; (7) A well developed cake with periodic scouring may allow a good filter flux to be maintained for long periods of time; and (8) Filtrate flux decline is reversible when the concentration of the filtering slurry drops and the filter is scoured.

  12. Non-N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2,3-dioxo-benzo(f)quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide (NBQX) decreases functional disorders in cytotoxic brain oedema.

    PubMed

    Häntzschel, A; Andreas, K

    2000-01-01

    N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and non-NMDA receptors were found to be involved in development of functional disorders caused by hexachlorophene. In order to specify the role of glutamate receptors we studied the protective effects of the selective antagonist of the kainate/(+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor/channel 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2, 3-dioxo-benzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulphonamide disodium (NBQX) and of the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist ifenprodil tartrate on coordinative motor behaviour of adult male Wistar rats as assessed in a simple 'ladder-test'. Neurotoxic injury of the cerebrum after hexachlorophene administration and putative amelioration after treatment with test substances was demonstrated histologically. Hexachlorophene-induced motor disturbance remitted spontaneously when stopping the noxis, but remittance occurred significantly earlier when NBQX [0.45 and 0.6 mg/kg intraperitoneal (i.p.)] was applied as well. Ifenprodil (0.15 to 1.2 mg/kg) did not improve the motor function. Vacuolation of white matter of the whole cerebrum was observed after 3 weeks of treatment with hexachlorophene. These morphological alterations caused by hexachlorophene treatment [central nervous system (CNS) vacuolation] spontaneously revert only after 5-6 weeks. The 5-day duration with test substances was too short for remission of vacuolation which thus may not apply to the situation after treatment with glutamate antagonists, despite improvement of motor function. The results suggest that kainate/AMPA receptor channels are at least partially involved in the mechanism of brain damage induced by hexachlorophene, however, the polyamine binding site of the NMDA receptor evidently is not involved. PMID:10663390

  13. Health markers in obese adolescents improved by a 12-week recreational soccer program: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, Fabrício; Seabra, Andre; Cunha, Felipe; Montenegro, Rafael; Penha, Jociene; Bouskela, Eliete; Nogueira Neto, José Firmino; Collett-Solberg, Paulo; Farinatti, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    The effects of a recreational soccer program (RSP) upon body composition, heart rate variability (HRV), biochemical markers, cardio-respiratory fitness, and endothelial function in obese adolescents were investigated. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted with 30 adolescents aged 12-17 years and body mass index (BMI) >2 standard deviations of WHO reference values, which were assigned to RSP (n = 10, 2 girls) and obese control (n = 10, 4 girls) groups. The 12-week RSP included 60-min sessions performed 3 times/week. BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, blood glucose, lipid profile, insulin, C-reactive protein, HRV, and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) were evaluated following standardised procedures. Body composition was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and endothelial function by venous occlusion plethysmography. After intervention, RSP exhibited significant reductions in BMI (-0.7 ± 0.2 kg · m(-2)), waist circumference (-8.2 ± 1.4 cm), %body fat (-2.2 ± 0.4%), systolic blood pressure (-5.0 ± 2.3 mmHg), total cholesterol (-16.2 ± 5.8 mg · dL(-1)), triglycerides (-20.5 ± 12.9 mg · dL(-1)), C-reactive protein (-0.06 ± 0.01 mg · dL(-1)), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, -1.4 ± 0.6), and sympathetic activity (LF, -13.9 ± 6.6 un) vs. controls (P < 0.05). Significant increase was observed in parasympathetic activity (HF, 13.9 ± 6.6 un), VO2peak (7.9 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (11.0 ± 6.3 mg · dL(-1)) (P < 0.05). Vascular conductance (19.5 ± 8.1 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.005) increased and vascular resistance (-5.9 ± 2.4 ml · min(-1) · 100 ml, P = 0.041) decreased in RSP, but not in controls. A 12-week recreational soccer intervention was effective to improve biochemical, cardiovascular, and fitness health markers in obese adolescents. PMID:26208409

  14. Metabolism of 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,3,5-, and 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene in the squirrel monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, H.; Chu, I.; Villeneuve, D.C.; Benoit, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    The metabolism of three tetrachlorobenzene isomers (TeCB) was investigated in the squirrel monkey. The animals were administered orally 6 single doses of /sup 14/C-labeled 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5-, or 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene over a 3-wk period at levels ranging from 50 to 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w) and kept in individual metabolism cages to collect urine and feces for radioassay. Approximately 38% (1,2,3,4-TeCB), 36% (1,2,3,5-TeCB), and 18% (1,2,4,5-TeCB) of the doses were excreted respectively in the feces 48 h post administration. In monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,4-TeCB, unchanged compound accounted for 50% of the fecal radioactivity. Unchanged compound accounted for more than 50% of the fecal radioactivity found in the monkeys dosed with 1,2,3,5-TeCB. The fecal metabolites were identified in both groups. No metabolites were detected in the feces of monkeys dosed with 1,2,4,5-TeCB. While the fecal route represented the major route of excretion for 1,2,3,4-TeCB, the other two isomers were eliminated exclusively in the feces. The above data in the squirrel monkey are different from those obtained with the rat and the rabbit, and demonstrate the different metabolic pathways for the isomers.

  15. Once-weekly treatment of anemia in patients with cancer: a comparative review of epoetins.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Topham, Clare

    2005-01-01

    Anemia is common in cancer patients, but its impact is often poorly appreciated. As well as the negative effect of anemia on the quality of life, there is strong evidence that it is associated with poor treatment outcome and reduced survival. The introduction of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) has provided an effective treatment of anemia, without the risk associated with blood transfusion. A recent randomized study of patients with hematological malignancies showed that once-weekly epoetin beta has comparable efficacy at the same overall weekly dose as three-times-weekly treatment. This once-weekly regimen of epoetin beta (NeoRecormon) has been approved by European Regulatory Authorities for patients with lymphoproliferative malignancies and relative erythropoietin deficiency, who are receiving anti-tumor therapy. Darbepoetin alpha (Aranesp) has also recently been approved for once-weekly treatment of anemia in patients with nonmyeloid malignancies receiving chemotherapy. The improved convenience and reduced administration costs associated with a once-weekly treatment may result in more patients receiving the benefits of epoetin therapy. PMID:16015034

  16. Prevention of disuse osteoporosis: Effect of sodium fluoride during five weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Victor S.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt was made to modify factors which promote disuse osteoporosis and thereby prevent it from occurring. Since fluoride is currently used to enhance bone formation in the treatment of low turnover osteoporosis, it was hypothesized that if the fluoride ion was available over a long period of time that it would slow the demonstrated loss of calcium by inhibiting bone resorption and enhancing bone formation. This study was used to determine whether oral medication with sodium F will modify or prevent 5 weeks of bed rest induced disuse osteoporosis, to determine the longitudinal effects of 5 weeks of bed rest on PTH, CT and calcitriol, to measure muscle volume changes and metabolic activity by magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy during prolonged bed rest, to measure changes in peak muscle strength and fatigability, and to measure bone turnover in bone biopsies. Subjects were studied during 1 week of equilibration, 4 weeks of control ambulation, 5 weeks of bed rest, and 1 week of reambulation.

  17. Analgesic and thermic responses to intravenously administered morphine in 8- and 24-week-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, H N; Villar, V M

    1991-01-01

    The analgesic and thermic responses to morphine (5 and 10 mg/kg) injected intravenously to 8- and 24-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were determined. Greater analgesic and lower hyperthermic responses to morphine in 24-week-old rats in comparison to 8-week-old rats were observed. The pharmacokinetic parameters of morphine administered intravenously were also determined. Cmax for 5 and 10 mg/kg doses of morphine were smaller in 24-week-old rats in comparison to 8-week-old rats; however, AUC0----infinity was smaller only for 5 mg/kg dose. For 10 mg/kg dose, mean residence time (MRT) and the apparent steady state volume of distribution (Vss) for the older rats were higher than for the younger ones, but for 5 mg/kg dose the values did not differ. The enhanced responses to morphine in older age group of rats for 5 mg/kg dose cannot be explained solely on the basis of pharmacokinetics. However, for 10 mg/kg dose of morphine, the greater responses in 24-week-old rats could probably be related to increases in MRT and Vss. Factors other than serum kinetics, like kinetics of morphine in the brain as well as the brain opiate receptors, may also be involved in the differential effects of morphine in rats of different ages. PMID:1784625

  18. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2011-10-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  19. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; Coles, William; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Wang, Jingbo; Levin, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.

  20. A millisecond pulsar timing array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, George; Manchester, Dick; Verbiest, Joris P. W.; Sarkissian, John; Bailes, Matthew; Bhat, Ramesh; Jenet, Rick; Keith, Michael; Burke-Spolaor, Sarah; van Straten, Willem; Yardley, Daniel Roger Billing; Ravi, Vikram; Oslowski, Stefan; Hotan, Aidan; Champion, David; Khoo, Jonathan; Shannon, Ryan; Chaudhary, Ankur

    2012-04-01

    The Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) project has three primary goals: (a) detection of gravitational waves from astronomical sources, (b) establishment of a pulsar timescale, and (c) improvement of our understanding of Solar-system dynamics. There are many secondary goals, some astrophysical and some instrumental/technique oriented. Achievement of these ambitious primary goals requires frequent observations of at least 20 MSPs at two or preferably three widely spaced frequencies over several years. We wish to continue observing the PPTA sample at intervals of 2-3 weeks using both the 10/50cm and Multibeam receivers. The digital filterbanks (PDFB3, PDFB4) and the baseband systems (CPSR2; APSR) are used for data recording. With the new instruments and development of an efficient pipeline processing system, we have achieved the world's best pulsar timing precision. We are collaborating with the European and North American pulsar timing array groups (EPTA and NANOGrav, respectively) to obtain more frequent observations and a larger pulsar sample. Because of the high sensitivity and wide bandwidths required, RFI mitigation is an important part of the project. We request continuing status for this project.