Science.gov

Sample records for 2-3x st protocol

  1. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry: a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Kumar, Ramesh; Soertidewi, Lyna; Abu Bakar, Azizi; Laik, Carine; Gan, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction NeuroAiD (MLC601, MLC901), a combination of natural products, has been shown to be safe and to aid neurological recovery after brain injuries. The NeuroAiD Safe Treatment (NeST) Registry aims to assess its use and safety in the real-world setting. Methods and analysis The NeST Registry is designed as a product registry that would provide information on the use and safety of NeuroAiD in clinical practice. An online NeST Registry was set up to allow easy entry and retrieval of essential information including demographics, medical conditions, clinical assessments of neurological, functional and cognitive state, compliance, concomitant medications, and side effects, if any, among patients on NeuroAiD. Patients who are taking or have been prescribed NeuroAiD may be included. Participation is voluntary. Data collected are similar to information obtained during standard care and are prospectively entered by the participating physicians at baseline (before initialisation of NeuroAiD) and during subsequent visits. The primary outcome assessed is safety (ie, non-serious and serious adverse event), while compliance and neurological status over time are secondary outcomes. The in-person follow-up assessments are timed with clinical appointments. Anonymised data will be extracted and collectively analysed. Initial target sample size for the registry is 2000. Analysis will be performed after every 500 participants entered with completed follow-up information. Ethics and dissemination Doctors who prescribe NeuroAiD will be introduced to the registry by local partners. The central coordinator of the registry will discuss the protocol and requirements for implementation with doctors who show interest. Currently, the registry has been approved by the Ethics Committees of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia) and National Brain Center (Indonesia). In addition, for other countries, Ethics Committee approval will be obtained in accordance with local requirements. Trial

  2. Bioassessment Tools for Stony Corals: Field Testing of Monitoring Protocols in the US Virgin Islands (St. Croix)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Survey protocols for assessing coral reef condition were field tested at 61 reef stations in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands (USVI) during 2006. Three observations for stony corals were recorded: species, size, and percent live tissue. Stony corals were selected because they are pri...

  3. Anthropometric protocols for the construction of new international fetal and newborn growth standards: the INTERGROWTH-21st Project

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, L Cheikh; Knight, HE; Bhutta, Z; Chumlea, WC

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project is to construct new, prescriptive standards describing optimal fetal and preterm postnatal growth. The anthropometric measurements include the head circumference, recumbent length and weight of the infants, and the stature and weight of the parents. In such a large, international, multicentre project, it is critical that all study sites follow standardised protocols to ensure maximal validity of the growth and nutrition indicators used. This paper describes, in detail, the selection of anthropometric personnel, equipment, and measurement and calibration protocols used to construct the new standards. Implementing these protocols at each study site ensures that the anthropometric data are of the highest quality to construct the international standards. PMID:23841804

  4. #FoundThem-21st Century pre-search and post-detection seti protocols for social and digital media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgan, Duncan; Scholz, Alexander

    2016-09-01

    The transmission of news stories in global culture has changed fundamentally in the last three decades. The general public are alerted to breaking stories on increasingly rapid timescales, and the discussion/distortion of facts by writers, bloggers, commenters and Internet users can also be extremely fast. The narrative of a news item no longer belongs to a small cadre of conventional media outlets, but is instead synthesised to some level by the public as they select where and how they consume news. The IAA Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) post-detection protocols, initially drafted in 1989 and updated in 2010, were written to guide SETI scientists in the event of detecting evidence of extraterrestrial intelligence, but do not give guidance as to how scientists should prepare to navigate this media maelstrom. The protocols assume communication channels between scientists and the public still resemble those of 1989, which were specifically one-way with a narrative controlled by a select few media outlets. Modern SETI researchers must consider this modern paradigm for consumption of news by the public, using social media and other non-traditional outlets, when planning and executing searches for extraterrestrial intelligence. We propose additions to the post detection protocols as they pertain to the use of the Internet and social media, as well as pre-search protocols. It is our belief that such protocols are necessary if there is to be a well-informed, sane global conversation amongst the world's citizens following the discovery of intelligent life beyond the Earth.

  5. Heterogeneously integrated III-V-on-silicon 2.3x μm distributed feedback lasers based on a type-II active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruijun; Sprengel, Stephan; Malik, Aditya; Vasiliev, Anton; Boehm, Gerhard; Baets, Roel; Amann, Markus-Christian; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-11-01

    We report on 2.3x μm wavelength InP-based type-II distributed feedback (DFB) lasers heterogeneously integrated on a silicon photonics integrated circuit. In the devices, a III-V epitaxial layer stack with a "W"-shaped InGaAs/GaAsSb multi-quantum-well active region is adhesively bonded to the first-order silicon DFB gratings. Single mode laser emission coupled to a single mode silicon waveguide with a side mode suppression ratio of 40 dB is obtained. In continuous-wave regime, the 2.32 μm laser operates close to room temperature (above 15 °C) and emits more than 1 mW output power with a threshold current density of 1.8 kA/cm2 at 5 °C. A tunable diode laser absorption measurement of CO is demonstrated using this source.

  6. Ab initio ground state and L{sub 2,3} x-ray magnetic circular dichroism of Mn-based Heusler alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Galanakis, I.; Ostanin, S.; Alouani, M.; Dreysse, H.; Wills, J. M.

    2000-02-01

    Relativistic full-potential calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for a series of Mn-based Heusler alloys are presented. Calculated equilibrium lattice parameters deviate less than 1.2% from the experimental values. The main features of a half metallic system are present in the density of states for the PtMnSb and NiMnSb. We predict that PdMnSb shows half metallic character under hydrostatic pressure. The substitution of Sb in PtMnSb by Sn or Te destroys the minority spin band gap. Spin and orbital magnetic moments for all the systems are in good agreement with previous calculations and experimental data. L{sub 2,3} x-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) spectra are calculated for all the five compounds. Pt spectra present big deviations from system to system in the PtMnY (Y=Sn,Sb,Te) compounds while Mn spectra show only small deviations. For all these spectra GGA underestimates the L{sub 3}/L{sub 2} integrated branching ratio and produces a much smaller L{sub 2} peak intensity for the Ni site in NiMnSb. The XMCD sum rules are used to compute the spin and orbital magnetic moments and the results are compared to the direct calculations. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  7. Magnetic properties of the mixed spinel NiAl 2 xCr xFe 2-3 xO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhaya, Urvi V.; Trivedi, Bimal S.; Kulkarni, R. G.

    1999-01-01

    The crystal and magnetic properties of the Al and Cr co-substituted disordered spinel series NiAl 2 xCr xFe 2-3 xO 4 ( x=0.1-0.6) are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, magnetization, Mössbauer effect and AC susceptibility measurements. The lattice constants are determined and the applicability of Vegards law has been tested. The variation of the saturation magnetic moment per formula unit measured at 77 K with the Al-Cr content is satisfactorily explained on the basis of Néel's collinear spin ordering model for x=0.1-0.2. The Mössbauer spectra at 300 K have been fitted with two sextets in the ferrimagnetic state corresponding to Fe 3+ at tetrahedral (A) and octahedral (B) sites for x⩽0.4. Mössbauer results confirm a collinear ferrimagnetic structure for x=0.1-0.2. The nB values obtained from magnetization and Mössbauer data for x=0.3-0.6 display a discrepancy between them, thus exhibiting a significant canting on the B-site which is explained satisfactorily on the basis of the non-collinear spin ordering model of random canting.The Curie temperature obtained from AC susceptibility decreases nearly linear with x from x=0.1-0.4 and it shows a sudden change near x⩾0.4 indicating a change in magnetic structure.

  8. Solving a methodological challenge in work stress evaluation with the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit (StART): a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stress evaluation is a field of strong interest and challenging due to several methodological aspects in the evaluation process. The aim of this study is to propose a study protocol to test a new method (i.e., the Stress Assessment and Research Toolkit) to assess psychosocial risk factors at work. Design This method addresses several methodological issues (e.g., subjective vs. objective, qualitative vs quantitative data) by assessing work-related stressors using different kinds of data: i) organisational archival data (organisational indicators sheet); ii) qualitative data (focus group); iii) worker perception (questionnaire); and iv) observational data (observational checklist) using mixed methods research. In addition, it allows positive and negative aspects of work to be considered conjointly, using an approach that considers at the same time job demands and job resources. Discussion The integration of these sources of data can reduce the theoretical and methodological bias related to stress research in the work setting, allows researchers and professionals to obtain a reliable description of workers’ stress, providing a more articulate vision of psychosocial risks, and allows a large amount of data to be collected. Finally, the implementation of the method ensures in the long term a primary prevention for psychosocial risk management in that it aims to reduce or modify the intensity, frequency or duration of organisational demands. PMID:23799950

  9. Communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Xiaoming (Inventor); Baras, John S. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved communications protocol which increases the efficiency of transmission in return channels on a multi-channel slotted Alohas system by incorporating advanced error correction algorithms, selective retransmission protocols and the use of reserved channels to satisfy the retransmission requests.

  10. The novel arsenate Na4Co(7-x)Al(2/3x)(AsO4)6 (x = 1.37): crystal structure, charge-distribution and bond-valence-sum investigations.

    PubMed

    Marzouki, Riadh; Guesmi, Abderrahmen; Driss, Ahmed

    2010-10-01

    The title compound, tetrasodium cobalt aluminium hexaarsenate, Na(4)Co(7-x)Al(2/3x)(AsO(4))(6) (x = 1.37), is isostructural with K(4)Ni(7)(AsO(4))(6); however, in its crystal structure, some of the Co(2+) ions are substituted by Al(3+) in a fully occupied octahedral site (site symmetry 2/m) and a partially occupied tetrahedral site (site symmetry 2). A third octahedral site is fully occupied by Co(2+) ions only. One of the two independent tetrahedral As atoms and two of its attached O atoms reside on a mirror plane, as do two of the three independent Na(+) cations, all of which are present at half-occupancy. The proposed structural model based on a careful investigation of the crystal data is supported by charge-distribution (CHARDI) analysis and bond-valence-sum (BVS) calculations. The correlation between the X-ray refinement and the validation results is discussed.

  11. Study of the formation of the apatite-type phases La9.33+x(SiO4)6O2+3x/2 synthesized from a lanthanum oxycarbonate La2O2CO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pons, A.; Jouin, J.; Béchade, E.; Julien, I.; Masson, O.; Geffroy, P. M.; Mayet, R.; Thomas, P.; Fukuda, K.; Kagomiya, I.

    2014-12-01

    Lanthanum silicated apatites with nominal composition La9.33+x(SiO4)6O2+3x/2 (-0.2 < x < 0.27) have been successfully synthesized by solid state reaction using a new reagent La2O2CO3 and amorphous SiO2 precursors. The formation mechanism of La2O2CO3 reagent, which cannot be purchased, has been followed by in-situ temperature depend XRD of La2O3 under CO2 atmosphere. The stability of this reagent during the synthesis step allowed to limit the formation of secondary phase La2Si2O7 and made the weighting of the reagent easier. High purity powders could be synthesized at the temperature of 1400 °C. Dense pellets (more than 98.5%) were obtained by isostatic pressing of powders calcined at 1200 °C and then sintered at 1550 °C. Traces of La2SiO5 secondary phase present in synthesized powder disappeared after densification and pure oxyapatite materials were obtained for all the compositions. Electrical measurements confirmed that conductivity behaviors of the sintered pellets were dependent to the oxygen over-stoichiometry. Indeed, a relatively high conductivity of 1 × 10-2 S cm-1 was exhibited at 800 °C for the nominal composition La9.60(SiO4)6O2.405 with low activation energy around 0.79 eV. The ionic conductivity properties were comparable with that of the earlier obtained materials.

  12. St. Lucia.

    PubMed

    1987-06-01

    The population of St Lucia was 123,000 in 1986, with an annual growth rate of 2%. The infant mortality rate stands at 22.2/1000 live births, and life expectancy is 70.3 years for males and 74.9 years for females. The literacy rate is 78%. St Lucia's labor force is allocated as follows: agriculture, 36.6%; industry and commerce, 20.1%; and services, 18.1%. The gross national product (GNP) was US$146 million in 1985, with an annual growth rate of 3% and a per capita GNP of $1071. St Lucia is a parliamentary democracy modeled on the British Westminster system. The island is divided into 16 parishes and 1 urban area (the capital, Castries). St Lucia is currently a politically stable country, although the high level of youth unemployment is a cause for concern. Ongoing stability may depend on the government's ability to provide services such as jobs and housing. The economy has evolved from a monocrop sugar plantation type to a diversified economy based on agriculture, industry, and tourism. Agriculture, dominated by the banana industry, is characterized by the participation of a large number of small and medium-sized enterprises. Industry is being encouraged through the provision of incentives such as tax rebates. The government is attempting to maintain a sound investment climate through a tripartite dialogue with the private sector and trade unions. Overall economic policy is predicated on the attraction of sound investments, by both local and foreign entities, to accelerate the rate of economic growth, solve the unemployment problem, and generate a solid balance-of-payments position.

  13. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    SciTech Connect

    Saari, Alexandra; Hinzey, Shawn Adrian; Frigo, Janette Rose; Proicou, Michael Chris; Borges, Louis

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  14. St. John's Wort (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The herb St. John's Wort is believed to be helpful in relieving mild to moderate depression, but should only be taken under a physician's supervision. St. John's Wort may clash with other medications or foods a ...

  15. Roegneria alashanica Keng: a species with the StStSt(Y)St(Y) genome constitution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Richard R-C; Jensen, Kevin B

    2017-03-17

    The genome constitution of tetraploid Roegneria alashanica Keng has been in question for a long time. Most scientific studies have suggested that R. alashanica had two versions of the St genome, St1St2, similar to that of Pseudoroegneria elytrigioides (C. Yen & J.L. Yang) B.R. Lu. A study, however, concluded that R. alashanica had the StY genome formula typical for tetraploid species of Roegneria. For the present study, R. alashanica, Elymus longearistatus (Bioss.) Tzvelev (StY genomes), Pseudoroegneria strigosa (M. Bieb.) Á. Löve (St), Pseudoroegneria libanoctica (Hackel) D.R. Dewey (St), and Pseudoroegneria spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve (St) were screened for the Y-genome specific marker B14(F+R)269. All E. longearistatus plants expressed intense bands specific to the Y genome. Only 6 of 10 R. alashanica plants exhibited relatively faint bands for the STS marker. Previously, the genome in species of Pseudoroegneria exhibiting such faint Y-genome specific marker was designated as St(Y). Based on these results, R. alashanica lacks the Y genome in E. longearistatus but likely possess two remotely related St genomes, St and St(Y). According to its genome constitution, R. alashanica should be classified in the genus Pseudoroenera and given the new name Pseudoroegneria alashanica (Keng) R.R.-C. Wang and K.B. Jensen.

  16. Development of a hockey-specific, skate-treadmill VO2 max protocol.

    PubMed

    Dreger, R W; Quinney, H A

    1999-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate a protocol for the determination of VO2 max utilizing a motor-driven skate treadmill (ST). On separate days, 6 male hockey players completed a ST and a cycle ergometer (BK) VO2 max protocol. The results showed no significant difference between the ST and BK protocols for relative (60.4 +/- 5.09 vs. 59.0 +/- 8.31 ml.kg-1.min-1) and absolute VO2 max values (4.51 +/- 0.50 vs. 4.39 +/- 0.59 L.min-1), respectively. Significantly higher HR max was recorded during the ST protocol (202.3 +/- 4.27 vs. 200.7 +/- 4.55 b.min-1) (p < 0.05). Peak VE and VT were nonsignificant between the two conditions. However, peak f was higher for the ST protocol (63.0 +/- 7.56 vs. 60.2 +/- 7.76 breath.min-1) (p < 0.05). Although the physiological response to both protocols was similar, the ST protocol replicates a hockey stride, which may provide more applicable information for the development of training programs.

  17. Alternative parallel ring protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukkamala, R.; Foudriat, E. C.; Maly, Kurt J.; Kale, V.

    1990-01-01

    Communication protocols are know to influence the utilization and performance of communication network. The effect of two token ring protocols on a gigabit network with multiple ring structure is investigated. In the first protocol, a mode sends at most one message on receiving a token. In the second protocol, a mode sends all the waiting messages when a token is received. The behavior of these protocols is shown to be highly dependent on the number of rings as well as the load in the network.

  18. 21st Century Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Terrence

    2009-01-01

    Bethpage Union Free School District in New York is a high-performing district by almost any current accountability measure. Yet administrators and teachers worried that they were not doing enough to prepare their students as critical thinkers for the 21st century. Inspired by the curriculum framework of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the…

  19. Internet Protocol Implementation Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Communications Netwv ’rks Reference: (a) USDR&E Memo, lHost-to-Host Protocols for Data Communications Networks," 23 Dec 78 (b) DoD Standard Transmission Control...memorandum is to clarify DOD policy concerning standardization of host-to-host protocols for data communications networks. 2. Tho policy cited in reference...function is intendel Lu paoe inrdased emphasis and Initiative on the Important and currently volatile technology of data communications protocol

  20. 6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW FROM CHESTNUT ST. (upper), WALNUT ST. (lower) THIRD ST. (right) AND FOURTH ST. (left), SHOWING CARPENTERS HALL, FIRST BANK OF U.S. AND SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. National Sample Assessment Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    These protocols represent a working guide for planning and implementing national sample assessments in connection with the national Key Performance Measures (KPMs). The protocols are intended for agencies involved in planning or conducting national sample assessments and personnel responsible for administering associated tenders or contracts,…

  2. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  3. Reliable broadcast protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joseph, T. A.; Birman, Kenneth P.

    1989-01-01

    A number of broadcast protocols that are reliable subject to a variety of ordering and delivery guarantees are considered. Developing applications that are distributed over a number of sites and/or must tolerate the failures of some of them becomes a considerably simpler task when such protocols are available for communication. Without such protocols the kinds of distributed applications that can reasonably be built will have a very limited scope. As the trend towards distribution and decentralization continues, it will not be surprising if reliable broadcast protocols have the same role in distributed operating systems of the future that message passing mechanisms have in the operating systems of today. On the other hand, the problems of engineering such a system remain large. For example, deciding which protocol is the most appropriate to use in a certain situation or how to balance the latency-communication-storage costs is not an easy question.

  4. St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis is tucked in a bend of the Mississippi River, just south of the point at which the Illinois River joins the larger Mississippi, and where the Missouri River flows in from the west. Drainage patterns to the east, on the Illinois side, are highlighted with green vegetation. Meandering rivers in the verdant Ozark Plateau appear to the south and west.

    This true-color view from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was taken with the instrument's downward looking (nadir) camera on October 15, 2005. The urban areas of greater St. Louis show up as grey-white, including nearby Kirkwood, Webster Groves, Clayton, University City, Ferguson, St. Ann, St. Charles, and East St. Louis. The region is home to nearly three million people.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  5. Reliable multicast protocol specifications protocol operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    This appendix contains the complete state tables for Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) Normal Operation, Multi-RPC Extensions, Membership Change Extensions, and Reformation Extensions. First the event types are presented. Afterwards, each RMP operation state, normal and extended, is presented individually and its events shown. Events in the RMP specification are one of several things: (1) arriving packets, (2) expired alarms, (3) user events, (4) exceptional conditions.

  6. Protocols — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    EDRN investigators protocols. The following is a list of the EDRN protocols that have been captured and curated. Additional information will be added as it is available. Contact information is provided as part of the detail for each protocol.

  7. Quantum deniable authentication protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2014-07-01

    The proposed quantum identity authentication schemes only involved authentication between two communicators, but communications with deniability capability are often desired in electronic applications such as online negotiation and electronic voting. In this paper, we proposed a quantum deniable authentication protocol. According to the property of unitary transformation and quantum one-way function, this protocol can provide that only the specified receiver can identify the true source of a given message and the specified receiver cannot prove the source of the message to a third party by a transcript simulation algorithm. Moreover, the quantum key distribution and quantum encryption algorithm guarantee the unconditional security of this scheme. Security analysis results show that this protocol satisfies the basic security requirements of deniable authentication protocol such as completeness and deniability and can withstand the forgery attack, impersonation attack, inter-resend attack.

  8. View of looking southeast of 2313 31st St. hipped ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of looking southeast of 2313 31st St. - hipped roof house with engaged porch located in Shawmut Mill village section of Valley - 2313 Thirty-first Street (House), 2313 Thirty-first Street, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  9. Mt. St. Helens Memories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Len

    1992-01-01

    Provides a personal account of one science teacher's participation in a teacher workshop in which teachers learned about volcanic development, types of eruption, geomorphology, plate tectonics, volcano monitoring, and hazards created by volcanoes by examining Mt. St. Helens. Provides a graphic identifying volcanoes active since 1975. (MDH)

  10. Candide in St. Louis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Roger

    1974-01-01

    A young, St. Louis, Missouri, architectural firm, seeking a personal style of practice, has succeeded in creating structures that reveal client input, and which are sensitive, articulate, and at ease with complexity. Describes an elementary school, a condominium, a shopping mall, a high school, and a "community mall." Illustrated with photographs…

  11. The St. Louis Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock…

  12. Protocols for quantum binary voting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban

    Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.

  13. The St. Louis Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-10-01

    The St. Louis Motor, invented in 1909, is unique among physics apparatus for being named for a geographical place rather than a physicist. The sturdy little device (Fig. 1) has never been out of production. Any older school or physics department that has not done a catastrophic housecleaning in the last 20 years will certainly have a small flock of them in the back room.

  14. St. Kitts and Nevis.

    PubMed

    1989-11-01

    St. Kitts and Nevis have areas of 68 and 36 square miles respectively and the terrain is mountainous. The population is 45,800 total and the annual growth rate is .2%. The ethnic make up is almost all black African with some British, Portuguese, and Lebanese. The religions are primarily Anglican, with evangelical Protestant and Catholic minorities. Infant mortality stands at 41/1000. The government is a constitutional monarchy with a Westminster type parliament. There is a governor, a prime minister, a cabinet, an 11 -member appointed upper house and a 11- member elected house of representatives. The gross national product is $83 million and the annual growth rate is 4.6%. There are no natural resources, and agricultural products include sugarcane, cotton, peanuts, and vegetables. Industry is made up of manufacturing 12.9%, transport and communications 13%, construction 9.1% and hotels and restaurants 4.5%. The Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis became independent in 1983. The government diversified the agriculture by planting other crops than sugar, producing gelled ethanol, and developing a cane spirits liquor. Tourism has grown the most and in 1987 passed sugar as the main source of income. International aid will assist in finishing a road that will open the southeast area of St. Kitts for construction of hotels, where some of the best beaches are located.

  15. WOODSTOVE DURABILITY TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the development of an accelerated laboratory test to simulate in-home woodstove aging and degradation. nown as a stress test, the protocol determines the long-term durability of woodstove models in a 1- to 2-week time frame. wo avenues of research have been t...

  16. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  17. Advanced Quantum Communication Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-17

    theoretically optimal configuration, and compared hyperentangled and multi-pair encoding. Table of Contents: Summary 2 Relativistic Quantum Cryptography ( RQC ...error rates, for 4- and 6-state RQC 4. Intensity pulses to generate uniform time-interval probability distributions 5. Schematic of photon-arrival...Protocols: Scientific Progress and Accomplishments “Relativistic” Quantum Cryptography We have implemented relativistic quantum cryptography ( RQC ) using

  18. What's a Research Protocol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Philip J; Mooney, Jeanette A

    2004-01-01

    A clinical trial needs a carefully structured, written plan in order not only to ensure its smooth running and successful conclusion but also to gain the compulsory agreement of an ethical committee. Such a plan is called a protocol. It consists of several stages. These are: (1) An introduction; (2) A statement of aims, objectives, hypotheses and…

  19. The Master Protocol Concept.

    PubMed

    Redman, Mary W; Allegra, Carmen J

    2015-10-01

    During the past decade, biomedical technologies have undergone an explosive evolution-from the publication of the first complete human genome in 2003, after more than a decade of effort and at a cost of hundreds of millions of dollars-to the present time, where a complete genomic sequence can be available in less than a day and at a small fraction of the cost of the original sequence. The widespread availability of next-generation genomic sequencing has opened the door to the development of precision oncology. The need to test multiple new targeted agents both alone and in combination with other targeted therapies, as well as classic cytotoxic agents, demands the development of novel therapeutic platforms (particularly Master Protocols) capable of efficiently and effectively testing multiple targeted agents or targeted therapeutic strategies in relatively small patient subpopulations. Here, we describe the Master Protocol concept, with a focus on the expected gains and complexities of the use of this design. An overview of Master Protocols currently active or in development is provided along with a more extensive discussion of the Lung Master Protocol (Lung-MAP study).

  20. Mount St. Helens Rebirth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The catastrophic eruption of Mt. St. Helens 20 years ago today (on May 18, 1980), ranks among the most important natural events of the twentieth century in the United States. Because Mt. St. Helens is in a remote area of the Cascades Mountains, only a few people were killed by the eruption, but property damage and destruction totaled in the billions of dollars. Mount St. Helens is an example of a composite or stratovolcano. These are explosive volcanoes that are generally steep-sided, symmetrical cones built up by the accumulation of debris from previous eruptions and consist of alternating layers of lava flows, volcanic ash and cinder. Some of the most photographed mountains in the world are stratovolcanoes, including Mount Fuji in Japan, Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mount Hood in Oregon, and Mount Rainier in Washington. The recently erupting Mount Usu on the island of Hokkaido in Japan is also a stratovolcano. Stratovolcanoes are characterized by having plumbing systems that move magma from a chamber deep within the Earth's crust to vents at the surface. The height of Mt. St. Helens was reduced from about 2950 m (9677 ft) to about 2550 m (8364 ft) as a result of the explosive eruption on the morning of May 18. The eruption sent a column of dust and ash upwards more than 25 km into the atmosphere, and shock waves from the blast knocked down almost every tree within 10 km of the central crater. Massive avalanches and mudflows, generated by the near-instantaneous melting of deep snowpacks on the flanks of the mountain, devastated an area more than 20 km to the north and east of the former summit, and rivers choked with all sorts of debris were flooded more than 100 km away. The area of almost total destruction was about 600 sq. km. Ash from the eruption cloud was rapidly blown to the northeast and east producing lightning which started many small forest fires. An erie darkness caused by the cloud enveloped the landscape more than 200 km from the blast area, and ash

  1. Rebuilding Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schilling, Steve P.; Ramsey, David W.; Messerich, James A.; Thompson, Ren A.

    2006-01-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens, Washington exploded in a spectacular and devastating eruption that shocked the world. The eruption, one of the most powerful in the history of the United States, removed 2.7 cubic kilometers of rock from the volcano's edifice, the bulk of which had been constructed by nearly 4,000 years of lava-dome-building eruptions. In seconds, the mountain's summit elevation was lowered from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters, leaving a north-facing, horseshoe-shaped crater over 2 kilometers wide. Following the 1980 eruption, Mount St. Helens remained active. A large lava dome began episodically extruding in the center of the volcano's empty crater. This dome-building eruption lasted until 1986 and added about 80 million cubic meters of rock to the volcano. During the two decades following the May 18, 1980 eruption, Crater Glacier formed tongues of ice around the east and west sides of the lava dome in the deeply shaded niche between the lava dome and the south crater wall. Long the most active volcano in the Cascade Range with a complex 300,000-year history, Mount St. Helens erupted again in the fall of 2004 as a new period of dome building began within the 1980 crater. Between October 2004 and February 2006, about 80 million cubic meters of dacite lava erupted immediately south of the 1980-86 lava dome. The erupting lava separated the glacier into two parts, first squeezing the east arm of the glacier against the east crater wall and then causing equally spectacular crevassing and broad uplift of the glacier's west arm. Vertical aerial photographs document dome growth and glacier deformation. These photographs enabled photogrammetric construction of a series of high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) showing changes from October 4, 2004 to February 9, 2006. From the DEMs, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) applications were used to estimate extruded volumes and growth rates of the new lava dome. The DEMs were also used to quantify dome

  2. Generalized teleportation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Goren; Rigolin, Gustavo

    2006-04-15

    A generalized teleportation protocol (GTP) for N qubits is presented, where the teleportation channels are nonmaximally entangled and all the free parameters of the protocol are considered: Alice's measurement basis, her sets of acceptable results, and Bob's unitary operations. The full range of fidelity (F) of the teleported state and the probability of success (P{sub suc}) to obtain a given fidelity are achieved by changing these free parameters. A channel efficiency bound is found, where one can determine how to divide it between F and P{sub suc}. A one-qubit formulation is presented and then expanded to N qubits. A proposed experimental setup that implements the GTP is given using linear optics.

  3. Protocols for distributive scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephen F.; Fox, Barry

    1993-01-01

    The increasing complexity of space operations and the inclusion of interorganizational and international groups in the planning and control of space missions lead to requirements for greater communication, coordination, and cooperation among mission schedulers. These schedulers must jointly allocate scarce shared resources among the various operational and mission oriented activities while adhering to all constraints. This scheduling environment is complicated by such factors as the presence of varying perspectives and conflicting objectives among the schedulers, the need for different schedulers to work in parallel, and limited communication among schedulers. Smooth interaction among schedulers requires the use of protocols that govern such issues as resource sharing, authority to update the schedule, and communication of updates. This paper addresses the development and characteristics of such protocols and their use in a distributed scheduling environment that incorporates computer-aided scheduling tools. An example problem is drawn from the domain of space shuttle mission planning.

  4. Mount St. Helens Flyover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington State was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a 'natural' color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief. Landsat7 aquired an image of Mt. St. Helens on August 22, 1999. Image and animation courtesy NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  5. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    PubMed Central

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  6. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  7. Robust Optimization of Biological Protocols

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Patrick; Davis, Ronald W.

    2015-01-01

    When conducting high-throughput biological experiments, it is often necessary to develop a protocol that is both inexpensive and robust. Standard approaches are either not cost-effective or arrive at an optimized protocol that is sensitive to experimental variations. We show here a novel approach that directly minimizes the cost of the protocol while ensuring the protocol is robust to experimental variation. Our approach uses a risk-averse conditional value-at-risk criterion in a robust parameter design framework. We demonstrate this approach on a polymerase chain reaction protocol and show that our improved protocol is less expensive than the standard protocol and more robust than a protocol optimized without consideration of experimental variation. PMID:26417115

  8. Protocols for multisatellite military networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolavennu, V. R.; Aronson, M. H.; Sites, M. J.

    The performance of a number of network control protocols applicable to multisatellite networks using single and multiple antenna beams is evaluated. The protocols analyzed include: token passing, polled TDMA, adaptive TDMA, and a reservation assignment with TDMA orderwire. The effects of varying the number of network terminals in the system, message arrival rates and length, propagation delay, and interleaver span-times on the performance of the protocols are investigated. The capabilities of a reservation assignment protocol with slotted-Aloha orderwire and an in-band network control protocol with congestion control and multiple user priorities are examined. It is observed that the token passing protocol is most applicable to an EHF tactical network; the reservation assignment protocol is suited to networks with many terminals requiring short, bursty data communication capability; and the in-band network control protocol is useful for tactical networks that require interoperability.

  9. Communication complexity protocols for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Tamir, Boaz

    2007-03-15

    Consider a function where its entries are distributed among many parties. Suppose each party is allowed to send only a limited amount of information to a referee. The referee can use a classical protocol to compute the value of the global function. Is there a quantum protocol improving the results of all classical protocols? In a recent work Brukner et al. showed the deep connection between such problems and the theory of Bell inequalities. Here we generalize the theory to trits. There, the best classical protocol fails whereas the quantum protocol yields the correct answer.

  10. Mt. St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Movie

    This 3-D anaglyph image of Mt. St. Helens volcano combines the nadir-looking and back-looking band 3 images of ASTER. To view the image in stereo, you will need blue-red glasses. Make sure to look through the red lens with your left eye. Figure 1: This ASTER image of Mt. St. Helens volcano in Washington was acquired on August 8, 2000 and covers an area of 37 by 51 km. Mount Saint Helens, a volcano in the Cascade Range of southwestern Washington that had been dormant since 1857, began to show signs of renewed activity in early 1980. On 18 May 1980, it erupted with such violence that the top of the mountain was blown off, spewing a cloud of ash and gases that rose to an altitude of 19 kilometers. The blast killed about 60 people and destroyed all life in an area of some 180 square kilometers (some 70 square miles), while a much larger area was covered with ash and debris. It continues to spit forth ash and steam intermittently. As a result of the eruption, the mountain's elevation decreased from 2,950 meters to 2,549 meters. The image is centered at 46.2 degrees north latitude, 122.2 degrees west longitude.

    Movie: The simulated fly-over was produced by draping ASTER visible and near infrared image data over a digital topography model, created from ASTER's 3-D stereo bands. The color was computer enhanced to create a natural color image, where the vegetation appears green. The topography has been exaggerated 2 times to enhance the appearance of the relief.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  11. 21st Century Skills Map

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Partnership for 21st Century Skills (P21) has forged alliances with key national organizations representing the core academic subjects, including Social Studies, English, Math, Science, Geography, World Languages and the Arts. These collaborations have resulted in the development of 21st Century Skills Maps that illustrate the essential…

  12. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  13. Protocol Architecture Model Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhas, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) defines and develops advanced technology for high priority national needs in communications technologies for application to aeronautics and space. GRC tasked Computer Networks and Software Inc. (CNS) to examine protocols and architectures for an In-Space Internet Node. CNS has developed a methodology for network reference models to support NASA's four mission areas: Earth Science, Space Science, Human Exploration and Development of Space (REDS), Aerospace Technology. This report applies the methodology to three space Internet-based communications scenarios for future missions. CNS has conceptualized, designed, and developed space Internet-based communications protocols and architectures for each of the independent scenarios. The scenarios are: Scenario 1: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) spacecraft inspace Internet node and a ground terminal Internet node via a Tracking and Data Rela Satellite (TDRS) transfer; Scenario 2: Unicast communications between a Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) International Space Station and a ground terminal Internet node via a TDRS transfer; Scenario 3: Multicast Communications (or "Multicasting"), 1 Spacecraft to N Ground Receivers, N Ground Transmitters to 1 Ground Receiver via a Spacecraft.

  14. Licklider Transmission Protocol Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Krupiarz, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This software is an implementation of the Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), a communications protocol intended to support the Bundle Protocol in Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) operations. LTP is designed to provide retransmission-based reliability over links characterized by extremely long message round-trip times and/or frequent interruptions in connectivity. Communication in interplanetary space is the most prominent example of this sort of environment, and LTP is principally aimed at supporting long-haul reliable transmission over deep-space RF links. Like any reliable transport service employing ARQ (Automatic Repeat re-Quests), LTP is stateful. In order to assure the reception of a block of data it has sent, LTP must retain for possible retransmission all portions of that block which might not have been received yet. In order to do so, it must keep track of which portions of the block are known to have been received so far, and which are not, together with any additional information needed for purposes of retransmitting part, or all, of the block. Long round-trip times mean substantial delay between the transmission of a block of data and the reception of an acknowledgement from the block s destination, signaling arrival of the block. If LTP postponed transmission of additional blocks of data until it received acknowledgement of the arrival of all prior blocks, valuable opportunities to use what little deep space transmission bandwidth is available would be forever lost. For this reason, LTP is based in part on a notion of massive state retention. Any number of requested transmission conversations (sessions) may be concurrently in flight at various displacements along the link between two LTP engines, and the LTP engines must necessarily retain transmission status and retransmission resources for all of them. Moreover, if any of the data of a given block are lost en route, it will be necessary to retain the state of that transmission during an additional

  15. ST - SCHEDULE TRACKER COMPUTER PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST, and Schedule Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are 'past due' and/or 'near term'. ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term). Schedule Report Generator provides a simple method for generating periodic schedule reports. ST and SRG use the same data base file as input. The common data base file has a maximum number of 400 entries. The time span of all three programs is nineteen months. Both of these maximum numbers can be modified by the user. ST requires the VMS Operating System on DEC VAX and was written in PL/1 and DEC Command Language (DCL). The program requires a memory of 233KB. ST can be purchased separately or in a package (COSMIC Program COS-10021) containing SO, ST, and SRG. ST was developed in 1985.

  16. ST segment/heart rate slope as a predictor of coronary artery disease: comparison with quantitative thallium imaging and conventional ST segment criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelhor, R.S.; Newhouse, K.E.; Vrobel, T.R.; Miron, S.D.; Bahler, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    The ST segment shift relative to exercise-induced increments in heart rate, the ST/heart rate slope (ST/HR slope), has been proposed as a more accurate ECG criterion for diagnosing significant coronary artery disease (CAD). Its clinical utility, with the use of a standard treadmill protocol, was compared with quantitative stress thallium (TI) and standard treadmill criteria in 64 unselected patients who underwent coronary angiography. The overall diagnostic accuracy of the ST/HR slope was an improvement over TI and conventional ST criteria (81%, 67%, and 69%). For patients failing to reach 85% of their age-predicted maximal heart rate, its diagnostic accuracy was comparable with TI (77% and 74%). Its sensitivity in patients without prior myocardial infarctions was equivalent to that of thallium (91% and 95%). The ST/HR slope was directly related to the angiographic severity (Gensini score) of CAD in patients without a prior infarction (r = 0.61, p less than 0.001). The ST/HR slope was an improved ECG criterion for diagnosing CAD and compared favorably with TI imaging.

  17. Mount St. Helens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image of Mount St. Helens was captured one week after the March 8, 2005, ash and steam eruption, the latest activity since the volcano's reawakening in September 2004. The new lava dome in the southeast part of the crater is clearly visible, highlighted by red areas where ASTER's infrared channels detected hot spots from incandescent lava. The new lava dome is 155 meters (500 feet) higher than the old lava dome, and still growing.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 21.9 by 24.4 kilometers (13.6 by 15.1 miles) Location: 46.2 degrees North latitude, 122.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data: ASTER bands 8, 3, and 1 Original Data Resolution

  18. Comparison between accelerated and conventional dobutamine stress protocols for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Issa, Aurora; De Lorenzo, Andrea; Oliveira, Bernardo; Pellini, Marcos; Lima, Ronaldo

    2012-10-01

    The conventional dobutamine (Dob) stress protocol for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) is long, with frequent adverse effects, and generally requires atropine injection to reach target heart rate. Atropine is usually administered at the end of the protocol, when adverse effects are more frequent. Earlier atropine injection may be useful to shorten the stress protocol and reduce adverse effects. We sought to compare a Dob stress protocol with early atropine injection to a conventional Dob stress protocol in the same patients undergoing MPS. 30 patients underwent Dob-MPS with a conventional protocol (steps of 10, 20, 30 and 40 mcg/kg/min at 3 min intervals, adding atropine to the maximal Dob dose if necessary to achieve 85% of the age-corrected maximal predicted heart rate) and with an accelerated protocol with early atropine injection (at the end of the first stage). We compared stress duration, maximal heart rate (HR), percentage of maximal predicted HR, rate-pressure product, ST changes, MPS scores and the incidence of adverse effects between the 2 protocols. The accelerated protocol was shorter than the conventional protocol (7.1 ± 3.4 min vs. 11.8 ± 1.3 min; P < 0.0001), had the same efficacy to achieve hemodynamic parameters, without increasing adverse effects. The summed stress scores obtained by automatic analysis were similar in both protocols (6.3 ± 6.3 vs. 6.8 ± 6.3; P = NS) as well as the summed difference scores (2.5 ± 3.6 vs. 2.7 ± 3.4; P = NS). Early atropine injection during dobutamine stress protocol shortens stress duration. Our results suggest that patient safety and accuracy of MPS are unaltered, when compared to the conventional protocol, but further, larger studies are still necessary.

  19. Space Wire Upper Layer Protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Gilley, Daniel; Parkes, Steve

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation addresses efforts to provide a streamlined approach for developing SpaceWire Upper layer protocols which allows industry to drive standardized communication solutions for real projects. The presentation proposes a simple packet header that will allow flexibility in implementing a diverse range of protocols.

  20. Comparison of a CHOP-LAsp-based protocol with and without maintenance for canine multicentric lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Lautscham, E M; Kessler, M; Ernst, T; Willimzig, L; Neiger, R

    2017-03-25

    The recommendation to treat canine lymphoma with a discontinuous protocol is based on small case numbers and mostly historic controls. This study compares duration of first remission (DFR) and overall survival time (ST) with a discontinuous protocol to the same protocol with maintenance phase. 408 dogs were treated with a CHOP-LAsp (C=cyclophosphamide; H=hydroxydaunorubicin; O=Oncovin; P=prednisolone; LAsp=l-asparaginase)-based 28-week induction protocol. In 75 dogs (cohort 1), this was followed by a maintenance phase consisting of vincristine, chlorambucil and actinomycin-D with a total treatment duration of two years. In the subsequent 333 dogs, therapy was discontinued after induction (cohort 2). Median DFR and ST in cohort 1 were 216 and 375 days and 184 and 304 days in cohort 2. 6-Month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates in cohort 1 were 73 per cent, 50 per cent, 24 per cent and 67 per cent, 39 per cent, 21 per cent in cohort 2. There was no significant difference between the two protocols (P=0.291 for ST, P=0.071 for DFR). On multivariate analysis, corticosteroid pretreatment (P=0.005), thrombocytopenia at diagnosis (P=0.019), stage (P=0.009), substage b at relapse (P<0.001), age (P=0.002) and incomplete or unstable remission necessitating intensification of therapy (P=0.004) were negatively correlated with ST in both groups. This study supports the use of a discontinuous protocol for canine multicentric lymphoma.

  1. Distributed simulation of network protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paterra, Frank; Overstreet, C. Michael; Maly, Kurt J.

    1990-01-01

    Simulations of high speed network protocols are very CPU intensive operations requiring very long run times. Very high speed network protocols (Gigabit/sec rates) require longer simulation runs in order to reach a steady state, while at the same time requiring additional CPU processing for each unit of time because of the data rates for the traffic being simulated. As protocol development proceeds and simulations provide insights into any problems associated with the protocol, the simulation model often must be changed to generate additional or finer statistical performance information. Iterating on this process is very time consuming due to the required run times for the simulation models. The results of the efforts to distribute a high speed ring network protocol, Carrier Sensed Multiple Access/Ring Network (CSMA/RN), are presented.

  2. Deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of SAES St 198 Zr-Fe Alloy. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nobile, A.; Mosley, W.C.; Holder, J.S.; Brooks, K.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document reports deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of SAES St 198 Zr-Fe Alloy (76.5% Zr). Scanning electron microscope images of polished surfaces, electron probe microanalysis, and x-ray powder diffractometry indicated the presence of a primary Zr{sub 2}Fe phase with secondary phases of ZrFe{sub 2}, Zr{sub 5}FeSn, {alpha}-Zr, and Zr{sub 6}Fe{sub 3}O. A statistically designed experiment to determine the effects of temperature, time, and vacuum quality on activation of St 198 revealed that, when activated at low temperature (350C), deuterium absorption rate was slower when the vacuum quality was poor (2.5 Pa vs. 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} Pa). However, at higher activation temperature (500C), deuterium absorption rate was fast and was independent of vacuum quality. Deuterium pressure-composition-temperature (P-C-T) data are reported for St 198 in the temperature range 200 to 500C. The P-C-T data over the full range of deuterium loading and at temperatures of 350C and below is described an expression. At higher temperatures, one or more secondary reactions in the solid phase occur that slowly consume D{sub 2} from the gas phase. X-ray diffraction and other data suggest these reactions to be: 2 Zr{sub 2}FeD{sub x} {yields} xZrD{sub 2} + x/3 ZrFe{sub 2} + (2 {minus} 2/3x) Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 2}FeD{sub x} + (2 {minus} 1/2x) D{sub 2} {yields} 2 ZrD{sub 2} + Fe, where 0 < x < 3. Reaction between gas-phase deuterium and Zr{sub 2}Fe formed in the first reaction accounts for the observed consumption of deuterium from the gas phase by this reaction.

  3. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion.

    PubMed

    Teytelman, Leonid; Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L

    2016-08-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results.

  4. [History of St. Johns wort].

    PubMed

    Pöldinger, W

    2000-12-14

    St.-John's wort owes its name to the fact that it flowers at the time of the summer solstice on or around St. John's day on 24 June. Having been administered as a remedy by the Roman military doctor Proscurides as early as the 1st century AD, it was mainly used for magic potions during the Middle Ages. It was not only used to protect humans and animals against witches, demons and evil diseases, but it was also added to the fire when moulding "Freikugel" [1]. Paracelsus was one of the first doctors to concern themselves with St.-John's wort. However, where it had formerly been used for a plethora of indications, in more recent times it has found its place in the treatment of depression and anxiety disorders. In numerous clinical double-blind trials against placebo and other antidepressants the whole extract of St.-John's wort, e.g. as in Jarsin coated tablets, has proved to be just as effective as the other antidepressants for mild and moderate depression, but not for severe depression.

  5. Extraction and anonymity protocol of medical file.

    PubMed Central

    Bouzelat, H.; Quantin, C.; Dusserre, L.

    1996-01-01

    To carry out the epidemiological study of patients suffering from a given cancer, the Department of Medical Informatics (DIM) has to link information coming from different hospitals and medical laboratories in the Burgundy region. Demands from the French department for computerized information security (Commission Nationale de l'Informatique et des Libertés: CNIL), in regard to abiding by the law of January 6, 1978, completed by the law of July 1st, 1994 on nominal data processing in the framework of medical research have to be taken into account. Notably, the CNIL advised to render anonymous patient identities before the extraction of each establishment file. This paper describes a recently implemented protocol, registered with the French department for computerized information security (Service Central de la Sécurité des Systèmes d'information : SCSSI) whose purpose is to render anonymous medical files in view of their extraction. Once rendered anonymous, these files will be exportable so as to be merged with other files and used in a framework of epidemiological studies. Therefore, this protocol uses the Standard Hash Algorithm (SHA) which allows the replacement of identities by their imprints while ensuring a minimal collision rate in order to allow a correct linkage of the different information concerning the same patient. A first evaluation of the extraction and anonymity software with regard to the purpose of an epidemiological survey is described here. In this paper, we also show how it would be possible to implement this system by means of the Internet communication network. PMID:8947681

  6. St. Louis FUSRAP Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Eberlin, J.; Williams, D.; Mueller, D.

    2003-02-26

    The purpose of this paper is to present lessons learned from fours years' experience conducting Remedial Investigation and Remedial Action activities at the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS) under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Many FUSRAP sites are experiencing challenges conducting Remedial Actions within forecasted volume and budget estimates. The St. Louis FUSRAP lessons learned provide insight to options for cost effective remediation at FUSRAP sites. The lessons learned are focused on project planning (budget and schedule), investigation, design, and construction.

  7. [Premature ovarian failure: which protocols?].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Boulard, V; Cabry, R; Claeys, C; Oliéric, M-F; Sanguinet, P; Brasseur, F; Henri, I; Copin, H

    2008-09-01

    This review shows the results of the various studies concerning the protocols applied to the women presenting a premature ovarian failure. Will be thus analyzed the natural cycles (or semi-natural), the increase in the dose of gonadotrophins, the clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatases, the protocols with GnRH agonists long, short, stop or microdoses, the protocols with GnRH antagonists and the adjuvant treatments: aspirin, nitric oxyde, recombinant LH recombining, growth hormone and androgens. The interest of several protocols is to collect a sufficient number of oocytes (and thus of embryos to be transferred), making it possible to obtain reasonable rates of pregnancy. However, it arises that the rates of pregnancy observed among these women depend not only on their ovarian reserve and their age, but are also function of the type of infertility, of the cycle number and the uterus.

  8. EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate compressed gas calibration standards are needed to calibrate continuous emission monitors (CEMs) and ambient air quality monitors that are being used for regulatory purposes. US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established its traceability protocol to ensure that co...

  9. [Management of acute coronary syndrome without ST-segment elevation].

    PubMed

    Liebetrau, C; Hamm, C W

    2017-02-23

    Acute coronary syndrome without persistent ST-segment elevation (non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and instable angina pectoris NSTEMI-ACS) is common and is associated with a high mortality. In addition to 12-channel echocardiograph (ECG) assessment, measurement of cardiac troponins I and T are important for risk stratification and diagnosis. The introduction of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and their implementation into clinical practice has influenced risk stratification and treatment of these patients. Additional diagnostic validation must supplement routine clinical chemistry testing following the initial measurement to distinguish between different possible causes of troponin elevation above the 99th percentile. The time point for the additional troponin measurement depends on the different protocols and troponin assays and is stipulated in the current guidelines. The use of both 1‑hour and 3‑hour protocols together with the clinical presentation and work-up of possible differential diagnoses provide optimal care of patients. Patients who test positive for troponin dynamics should undergo invasive diagnostics and treatment within 24 h of presentation and within 2 h is recommended for unstable patients. Clopidogrel is indicated only in patients requiring oral anticoagulation.

  10. ABM clinical protocol #20: Engorgement.

    PubMed

    Berens, Pam

    2009-06-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.

  11. Treatment Protocols as Hierarchical Structures

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Bassat, Moshe; Carlson, Richard W.; Puri, Vinod K.; Weil, Max Harry

    1978-01-01

    We view a treatment protocol as a hierarchical structure of therapeutic modules. The lowest level of this structure consists of individual therapeutic actions. Combinations of individual actions define higher level modules, which we call routines. Routines are designed to manage limited clinical problems, such as the routine for fluid loading to correct hypovolemia. Combinations of routines and additional actions, together with comments, questions, or precautions organized in a branching logic, in turn, define the treatment protocol for a given disorder. Adoption of this modular approach may facilitate the formulation of treatment protocols, since the physician is not required to prepare complex flowcharts. This hierarchical approach also allows protocols to be updated and modified in a flexible manner. By use of such a standard format, individual components may be fitted together to create protocols for multiple disorders. The technique is suited for computer implementation. We believe that this hierarchical approach may facilitate standarization of patient care as well as aid in clinical teaching. A protocol for acute pancreatitis is used to illustrate this technique.

  12. The Greening of St Patrick's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barron, Jennie

    1993-01-01

    The grade 6-7 class at St. Patrick's School in Hamilton (Ontario) engages in outdoor environmental projects to enhance classroom learning. Some student activities have been (1) worm composting; (2) tree planting; (3) restoring tern nesting areas; and (4) planning and cultivating a sophisticated garden on school grounds. (KS)

  13. Fort St. Vrain experience report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This report describes the core region constraint devices (RCDs) which will be installed in Fort St. Vrain to remedy core temperature fluctuations at high power-to-flow thresholds, summarizes the engineering analyses supporting the design, and evaluates effects on fuel handling operations. (DLC)

  14. The 21st Century Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Beverly

    The profound changes of the 21st century are transforming America into what must become a learning society. Never before have museums, libraries and the whole of the non-formal sector of educational institutions faced such challenges and opportunities. The demand is great for fresh and innovative thinking to construct a bold, new learning network…

  15. The Secrets of St. Agnes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Janell

    2006-01-01

    This article reveals the disturbing truths uncovered by a retired biology professor about the past practices of a North Carolina hospital. In the 1990s, Irene Clark was a biology professor at St. Augustine's College, a historically Black college in Raleigh, North Carolina. One day, a janitor asked the native Virginian what she knew about the…

  16. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.

    1982-08-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mount St. Helens. Analysis of samples shows that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  17. Mount St. Helens aerosol evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Oberbeck, V.R.; Farlow, N.H.; Fong, W.; Snetsinger, K.G.; Ferry, G.V.; Hayes, D.M.

    1982-09-01

    Stratospheric aerosol samples were collected using a wire impactor during the year following the eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Analysis of samples show that aerosol volume increased for 6 months due to gas-to-particle conversion and then decreased to background levels in the following 6 months.

  18. Toward 21st Century Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umphrey, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Linda Darling-Hammond, Charles Ducommun Professor of Education at Stanford University, director of the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy and Education, and codirector of the school redesign network at Stanford. In this interview, Darling-Hammond describes the term "21st century skills" and shares her…

  19. 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boesiger, Edward A. (Editor)

    2012-01-01

    The proceedings of the 41st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. JPL hosted the conference, which was held in Pasadena Hilton, Pasadena, California on May 16-18, 2012. Lockheed Martin Space Systems cosponsored the symposium. Technology areas covered include gimbals and positioning mechanisms, components such as hinges and motors, CubeSats, tribology, and Mars Science Laboratory mechanisms.

  20. Protocols.io: Virtual Communities for Protocol Development and Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Stoliartchouk, Alexei; Kindler, Lori; Hurwitz, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed know-how to implement research protocols frequently remains restricted to the research group that developed the method or technology. This knowledge often exists at a level that is too detailed for inclusion in the methods section of scientific articles. Consequently, methods are not easily reproduced, leading to a loss of time and effort by other researchers. The challenge is to develop a method-centered collaborative platform to connect with fellow researchers and discover state-of-the-art knowledge. Protocols.io is an open-access platform for detailing, sharing, and discussing molecular and computational protocols that can be useful before, during, and after publication of research results. PMID:27547938

  1. Protocol Handbook - A Guide for the Base Protocol Officer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    rotighou I lIme 1.1 ni eml Slates Cioi mm dale of den iii lilt ough press , dent a ml its Ic rri tories and possess ions: U mit- ind io, television, r oil...At an official f unction, thc protocol of fjce:- or aide stands nearest the door and a little to the sine or rhe uln-, and anounces the names of the...Pennsylvania: The Stackpole Company, 1959. 8. Wood, John R. and Serres, Jean. Diplomatic Ceremonial and Protocol. New York: Columbia University Press

  2. Lightweight Distance Bounding Protocol against Relay Attacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Seok; Cho, Kookrae; Yum, Dae Hyun; Hong, Sung Je; Lee, Pil Joong

    Traditional authentication protocols are based on cryptographic techniques to achieve identity verification. Distance bounding protocols are an enhanced type of authentication protocol built upon both signal traversal time measurement and cryptographic techniques to accomplish distance verification as well as identity verification. A distance bounding protocol is usually designed to defend against the relay attack and the distance fraud attack. As there are applications to which the distance fraud attack is not a serious threat, we propose a streamlined distance bounding protocol that focuses on the relay attack. The proposed protocol is more efficient than previous protocols and has a low false acceptance rate under the relay attack.

  3. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    This document describes a simple XML-based protocol that can be used for producers of events to communicate with consumers of events. The protocol described here is not meant to be the most efficient protocol, the most logical protocol, or the best protocol in any way. This protocol was defined quickly and it's intent is to give us a reasonable protocol that we can implement relatively easily and then use to gain experience in distributed event services. This experience will help us evaluate proposals for event representations, XML-based encoding of information, and communication protocols. The next section of this document describes how we represent events in this protocol and then defines the two events that we choose to use for our initial experiments. These definitions are made by example so that they are informal and easy to understand. The following section then proceeds to define the producer-consumer protocol we have agreed upon for our initial experiments.

  4. Probability Distributions over Cryptographic Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-06-01

    2005-2969: SSL/TLS server implementation flaw in OpenSSL 0.9.7 and 0.9.8,” 2005. The MITRE Corporation. [8] J. A . Clark and J. L . Jacob, “Protocols are...733–736, IEEE Computer Society, 2007. [12] J. A . Clark and J. L . Jacob, “ A Survey of Authentication Protocol Literature, Version 1.0.” Unpublished...Notes in Computer Science, pp. 523–537. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer Berlin, 2007. [14] J. A . Clark and J. L . Jacob, “Searching for a solution

  5. Protocol Writing in Clinical Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jundi, Azzam

    2016-01-01

    Writing a research proposal is probably one of the most challenging and difficult task as research is a new area for the majority of postgraduates and new researchers. The purpose of this article is to summarize the most important steps and necessary guidelines for producing a standard research protocol. Academic and administrative success of any project is usually determined by acquiring a grant for the related field of research. Hence, the quality of a protocol is primarily required to achieve success in this scientific competition. PMID:28050522

  6. Developing protocols for obstetric emergencies.

    PubMed

    Roth, Cheryl K; Parfitt, Sheryl E; Hering, Sandra L; Dent, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    There is potential for important steps to be missed in emergency situations, even in the presence of many health care team members. Developing a clear plan of response for common emergencies can ensure that no tasks are redundant or omitted, and can create a more controlled environment that promotes positive health outcomes. A multidisciplinary team was assembled in a large community hospital to create protocols that would help ensure optimum care and continuity of practice in cases of postpartum hemorrhage, shoulder dystocia, emergency cesarean surgical birth, eclamptic seizure and maternal code. Assignment of team roles and responsibilities led to the evolution of standardized protocols for each emergency situation.

  7. A highly reliable LAN protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, A. C.

    1986-10-01

    As a research project for NASA's Langley Research Center, a variation on the military standard for avionics buses was developed to increase fault tolerance. The resulting protocol, called implicit token passing (ITP), replaces an explicit token with brief 'soundoff' messages from all nodes participating on the LAN. ITP features high throughput and bounded message delay, and achieves high reliability through tolerance of failed nodes and automatic resynchronization when failed nodes are revived. The protocol is ideally suited for a bus topology and fiber optic media.

  8. Influence of Whitening Gel Application Protocol on Dental Color Change

    PubMed Central

    Caneppele, Taciana Marco Ferraz; Torres, Carlos Rocha Gomes; Huhtala, Maria Filomena Rocha Lima; Bresciani, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate the influence of different whitening protocols on the efficacy of 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) tooth whitening and gel pH and concentration. Material and Methods. Eighty-four enamel/dentin discs from bovine incisors were used. The baseline color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Two sessions of in-office whitening with 35% HP were performed under different protocols: G1: 3 applications of HP (10 min each) per session; G2: 1 application of 30 min per session; G3: 1 application of 40 min per session, with no gel replenishment within session for groups 2 and 3. HP titration and pH evaluation at baseline, after 10, 30, and 40 min were also performed. The final color was measured 24 h after the 1st and 2nd whitening sessions. Data were submitted to Repeated Measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. Results. For color evaluation, no differences were observed among groups after two sessions. HP titration showed no drop on concentration after 10, 30, or 40 min. The pH was 5.54 at baseline and 5.41 after 40 min. Conclusion. Replenishment or extended application time of in-office whitening gel does not affect gel pH and concentration, a fact that supports the similar effectiveness of whitening observed among the tested protocols. PMID:25866839

  9. FTP Extensions for Variable Protocol Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Ostermann, Shawn

    2000-01-01

    The specification for the File Transfer Protocol (FTP) assumes that the underlying network protocols use a 32-bit network address and a 16-bit transport address (specifically IP version 4 and TCP). With the deployment of version 6 of the Internet Protocol, network addresses will no longer be 32-bits. This paper species extensions to FTP that will allow the protocol to work over a variety of network and transport protocols.

  10. The 21st century propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haloulakos, V. E.; Boehmer, C.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future space travel in the next millennium starts by examining the past and extrapolating into the far future. Goals for the 21st century include expanded space travel and establishment of permanent manned outposts, and representation of Lunar and Mars outposts as the most immediate future in space. Nuclear stage design/program considerations; launch considerations for manned Mars missions; and far future propulsion schemes are outlined.

  11. The Wake of St. Vincent.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Ronald B.; Gleason, Arthur C.; Gluhosky, Paul A.; Grubii, Vanda

    1997-03-01

    The island of St. Vincent and the other Windward Islands in the southeastern Caribbean were chosen as a field site for the study of weak mountain wakes. By the authors' definition, a `weak wake' forms when the potential vorticity generated by a mountain is not strong enough to advect itself into eddies; rather, it is simply advected downstream by the ambient flow. GOES-8 and Landsat sunglint images unambiguously revealed that the mountainous Windward Islands have remarkably long straight wakes. The length of St. Vincent's wake exceeds 300 km although its width is only 20 km. Near the islands, the wake structures reflect the details of the island topography. These wakes do not exhibit any obvious diurnal effect.Boat surveys in the lee of St. Vincent confirmed the existence of features seen in the images: the sharp wake boundary, the small valley-induced jet embedded in the near wake, and the absence of any reverse flow. Aircraft surveys gave evidence of descent over the island and showed that the wake air is relatively warm and dry. The length of the wake (L) agrees with the formula L = H/2CD (where H is the wake depth and CD is the surface drag coefficient), implying that the reacceleration of the wake air is caused by the ambient streamwise pressure gradient rather than by lateral entrainment of momentum or geostrophic adjustment.Two numerical models were used to simulate St. Vincent's wake, a single-layer hydrostatic model and a 3D nonhydrostatic model. Both models indicated that air descent, acceleration, wave breaking, and weak potential vorticity generation occur over the island, causing a long straight wake.

  12. FIELD SAMPLING PROTOCOLS AND ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    I have been asked to speak again to the environmental science class regarding actual research scenarios related to my work at Kerr Lab. I plan to discuss sampling protocols along with various field analyses performed during sampling activities. Many of the students have never see...

  13. U.S. prebreathe protocol.

    PubMed

    McBarron JW 2nd

    1994-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes the prebreathe protocol currently used by the U.S. Space Shuttle Program to provide astronauts the capability to safely perform extravehicular activity. A comparison of planned vs actual prebreathe experience through the STS-37 Mission is also provided.

  14. Metabolomics protocols for filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Gummer, Joel P A; Krill, Christian; Du Fall, Lauren; Waters, Ormonde D C; Trengove, Robert D; Oliver, Richard P; Solomon, Peter S

    2012-01-01

    Proteomics and transcriptomics are established functional genomics tools commonly used to study filamentous fungi. Metabolomics has recently emerged as another option to complement existing techniques and provide detailed information on metabolic regulation and secondary metabolism. Here, we describe broad generic protocols that can be used to undertake metabolomics studies in filamentous fungi.

  15. A Student Teamwork Induction Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamau, Caroline; Spong, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Faulty group processes have harmful effects on performance but there is little research about intervention protocols to pre-empt them in higher education. This naturalistic experiment compared a control cohort with an inducted cohort. The inducted cohort attended a workshop, consultations, elected a leader and used tools (a group log and group…

  16. Bundle Security Protocol for ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burleigh, Scott C.; Birrane, Edward J.; Krupiarz, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This software implements bundle authentication, conforming to the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Internet Draft on Bundle Security Protocol (BSP), for the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) implementation of DTN. This is the only implementation of BSP that is integrated with ION.

  17. Implementation and evaluation of a protocol management system for automated review of CT protocols.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Joshua; Leng, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Vrieze, Thomas; McCollough, Cynthia

    2016-09-08

    Protocol review is important to decrease the risk of patient injury and increase the consistency of CT image quality. A large volume of CT protocols makes manual review labor-intensive, error-prone, and costly. To address these challenges, we have developed a software system for automatically managing and monitoring CT proto-cols on a frequent basis. This article describes our experiences in the implementation and evaluation of this protocol monitoring system. In particular, we discuss various strategies for addressing each of the steps in our protocol-monitoring workflow, which are: maintaining an accurate set of master protocols, retrieving protocols from the scanners, comparing scanner protocols to master protocols, reviewing flagged differences between the scanner and master protocols, and updating the scanner and/or master protocols. In our initial evaluation focusing only on abdo-men and pelvis protocols, we detected 309 modified protocols in a 24-week trial period. About one-quarter of these modified protocols were determined to contain inappropriate (i.e., erroneous) protocol parameter modifications that needed to be corrected on the scanner. The most frequently affected parameter was the series description, which was inappropriately modified 47 times. Two inappropriate modifications were made to the tube current, which is particularly important to flag as this parameter impacts both radiation dose and image quality. The CT protocol changes detected in this work provide strong motivation for the use of an automated CT protocol quality control system to ensure protocol accuracy and consistency.

  18. Chapter 14: Chiller Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Tiessen, A.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol defines a chiller measure as a project that directly impacts equipment within the boundary of a chiller plant. A chiller plant encompasses a chiller--or multiple chillers--and associated auxiliary equipment. This protocol primarily covers electric-driven chillers and chiller plants. It does not include thermal energy storage and absorption chillers fired by natural gas or steam, although a similar methodology may be applicable to these chilled water system components. Chillers provide mechanical cooling for commercial, institutional, multiunit residential, and industrial facilities. Cooling may be required for facility heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems or for process cooling loads (e.g., data centers, manufacturing process cooling). The vapor compression cycle, or refrigeration cycle, cools water in the chilled water loop by absorbing heat and rejecting it to either a condensing water loop (water cooled chillers) or to the ambient air (air-cooled chillers).

  19. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, Robert; Engebrecht, Cheryn

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  20. Multiple protocol fluorometer and method

    DOEpatents

    Kolber, Zbigniew S.; Falkowski, Paul G.

    2000-09-19

    A multiple protocol fluorometer measures photosynthetic parameters of phytoplankton and higher plants using actively stimulated fluorescence protocols. The measured parameters include spectrally-resolved functional and optical absorption cross sections of PSII, extent of energy transfer between reaction centers of PSII, F.sub.0 (minimal), F.sub.m (maximal) and F.sub.v (variable) components of PSII fluorescence, photochemical and non-photochemical quenching, size of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool, and the kinetics of electron transport between Q.sub.a and PQ pool and between PQ pool and PSI. The multiple protocol fluorometer, in one embodiment, is equipped with an excitation source having a controlled spectral output range between 420 nm and 555 nm and capable of generating flashlets having a duration of 0.125-32 .mu.s, an interval between 0.5 .mu.s and 2 seconds, and peak optical power of up to 2 W/cm.sup.2. The excitation source is also capable of generating, simultaneous with the flashlets, a controlled continuous, background illumination.

  1. Integrating protocol schedules with patients' personal calendars.

    PubMed

    Civan, Andrea; Gennari, John H; Pratt, Wanda

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new approach for integrating protocol care schedules into patients' personal calendars. This approach could provide patients with greater control over their current and future scheduling demands as they seek and receive protocol-based care.

  2. The reliable multicast protocol application programming interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery , Todd; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Application Programming Interface for the Berkeley/WVU implementation of the Reliable Multicast Protocol is described. This transport layer protocol is implemented as a user library that applications and software buses link against.

  3. Post-quantum key exchange protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Leung, Lin; Kwan, Andis Chi-Tung; Zhang, Xiaowen; Kahanda, Dammika; Anshel, Michael

    2006-05-01

    If an eavesdropper Eve is equipped with quantum computers, she can easily break the public key exchange protocols used today. In this paper we will discuss the post-quantum Diffie-Hellman key exchange and private key exchange protocols.

  4. ST Segment Elevation with Normal Coronaries

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Pooja; Sharma, Ashwini; Paul, Timir

    2016-01-01

    Noncardiac causes should be kept in the differential while evaluating ST elevation on EKG. Rarely abdominal pathologies like acute pancreatitis can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Once acute coronary syndrome is ruled out by emergent cardiac catheterization alternative diagnosis should be sorted. Abdominal pathologies, like acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis, can present with ST elevation in the inferior leads. Treating the underlying condition would result in resolution of these EKG changes. PMID:27403165

  5. St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Robert A.; Steckel, Phyllis; Schweig, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    St. Louis has experienced minor earthquake damage at least 12 times in the past 200 years. Because of this history and its proximity to known active earthquake zones, the St. Louis Area Earthquake Hazards Mapping Project will produce digital maps that show variability of earthquake hazards in the St. Louis area. The maps will be available free via the internet. They can be customized by the user to show specific areas of interest, such as neighborhoods or transportation routes.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of StRATUS (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    AFRL-RQ-WP-TP-2014-0142 EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) Michael A. Falugi Structures Technology Branch Aerospace...Conference Paper Preprint 01 May 2012 – 28 February 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF StRATUS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Steel Reinforced Advanced Thin Unitized Structure ( StRATUS ) is a new hybrid laminate concept composed of carbon fiber composite sandwiched between thin

  7. St. John's wort - an overview.

    PubMed

    Linde, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    This article aims to summarize the current state of knowledge on St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) which is one of the oldest and best investigated medicinal herbs. Dried alcoholic extracts are the most important preparations on the market although a variety of other preparations are available. Depressive disorders according to modern diagnostic standards are the best known and most widely investigated indication although the more traditional, broader indication of 'psycho-vegetative disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety and/or nervous agitation', including diagnoses such as somatoform disorders, might more adequately describe what Hypericum extracts are actually used for by many practitioners. The exact mechanisms of action are still unclear, but the available research clearly shows that various bioactive constituents contribute to the clinical effects reported, often in a synergistic manner. Hypericum extracts have consistently shown activity in pharmacological models related to antidepressant effects. Randomized clinical trials show that Hypericum extracts are more effective than placebo and similarly effective as standard antidepressants while having better tolerability in the acute treatment of major depressive episodes. The most important risk associated with Hypericum extracts are interactions with other drugs. Therefore, physicians need to be informed whether their patients take St. John's wort products. If the risk of interactions is adequately taken into account, high quality Hypericum extracts are an effective and safe tool in the hand of qualified health profession-als in primary care.

  8. Protocols using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    Protocols using Anonymous Connections: Mobile Applications Michael G. Reed, Paul F. Syverson, and David M. Goldschlag ? Naval Research Laboratory...Abstract. This paper describes security protocols that use anonymous channels as primitive, much in the way that key distribution protocols take...encryption as primitive. This abstraction allows us to focus on high level anonymity goals of these protocols much as abstracting away from encryption clari

  9. ACTH Action on StAR Biology.

    PubMed

    Clark, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) produced by the anterior pituitary stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The first step in glucocorticoid synthesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the mitochondrial matrix where the first enzymatic reaction in the steroid hormone biosynthetic pathway occurs. A key response of adrenal cells to ACTH is activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA activation results in an acute increase in expression and function of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR). StAR plays an essential role in steroidogenesis- it controls the hormone-dependent movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes. Currently StAR's mechanism of action remains a major unanswered question in the field. However, some insight may be gained from understanding the mechanism(s) controlling the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of StAR at S194/195 (mouse/human StAR), a modification that is required for function. This mini-review provides a background on StAR's biology with a focus on StAR phosphorylation. The model for StAR translation and phosphorylation at the outer mitochondrial membrane, the location for StAR function, is presented to highlight a unifying theme emerging from diverse studies.

  10. ACTH Action on StAR Biology

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) produced by the anterior pituitary stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis by the adrenal cortex. The first step in glucocorticoid synthesis is the delivery of cholesterol to the mitochondrial matrix where the first enzymatic reaction in the steroid hormone biosynthetic pathway occurs. A key response of adrenal cells to ACTH is activation of the cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway. PKA activation results in an acute increase in expression and function of the Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory protein (StAR). StAR plays an essential role in steroidogenesis- it controls the hormone-dependent movement of cholesterol across the mitochondrial membranes. Currently StAR's mechanism of action remains a major unanswered question in the field. However, some insight may be gained from understanding the mechanism(s) controlling the PKA-dependent phosphorylation of StAR at S194/195 (mouse/human StAR), a modification that is required for function. This mini-review provides a background on StAR's biology with a focus on StAR phosphorylation. The model for StAR translation and phosphorylation at the outer mitochondrial membrane, the location for StAR function, is presented to highlight a unifying theme emerging from diverse studies. PMID:27999527

  11. Implementation of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M; Vinayak, S; Ochieng, R; Choksey, V; Musee, N; Stones, W; Knight, He; Cheikh Ismail, L

    2013-09-01

    The African site in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project was Parklands, a wealthy suburb of Nairobi, Kenya, with a largely middle-to-high socio-economic status population. There are three hospitals with obstetric units in Parklands, with approximately 4300 births per year. The Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS) sample was drawn from all three hospitals, covering 100% of births in this target population. The Fetal Growth Longitudinal Study (FGLS) sample was recruited from antenatal clinics serving these hospitals, using the eligibility criteria in the INTERGROWTH-21(st) protocol. Special activities to raise awareness of the study included securing media coverage and distributing leaflets in antenatal clinic waiting rooms. FGLS required women to be recruited in the first trimester; therefore, a major challenge at this study site was the high background frequency of first antenatal consultations in the second trimester. The problem was overcome by the study awareness campaign, as a result of which more women started attending antenatal care earlier in pregnancy.

  12. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  13. An unusual cause of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)

    PubMed Central

    Monem, Mohammed; Rampat, Rajiv

    2014-01-01

    A 67-year-old Caucasian woman presented to clinic with a 2-month history of worsening shortness of breath on exertion and a single episode of chest pain 1 week before. Her ECG in clinic showed ST elevation inferiorly and she was admitted from clinic for further investigations as inpatient. She was initiated on the acute coronary syndrome protocol and underwent emergency left heart catheterisation on the day of admission. The coronary angiogram revealed large aneurysmal dilations in the right coronary artery and left main stem. A ventriculogram showed poor left ventricular (LV) systolic function in line with subsequent transthoracic echocardiogram, which revealed her to have an left ventricular ejection-fraction (LVEF) of approximately 20%. It was agreed with the cardiothoracic surgeons to treat the aneurysms non-operatively and start low-molecular weight heparin. Furthermore the underlying biventricular impairment was treated with ACE-inhibitors, β-blockers and diuretic therapy (loop and potassium-sparing). The strategy was to prevent further thrombus formation with the aneurysmal vessels and to achieve this the patient was initiated on lifelong warfarin. Other medical risk factors were optimised and patient started on statin medication. The aneurysm was monitored with serial CTs with a view to reconsider surgical intervention if any evidence of dilation. This case highlights an unusual cause of ST elevation myocardial infarction. PMID:25246457

  14. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P.A.; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Croyle, Robert T.; Goddard, Katrina A.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A.; Hoover, Robert N.; Hunter, David J.; Kramer, Barnet S.; Lauer, Michael S.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M.; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving towards more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits. PMID:23462917

  15. Transforming epidemiology for 21st century medicine and public health.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John P A; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R; Buring, Julie E; Chanock, Stephen J; Croyle, Robert T; Goddard, Katrina A; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S; Herceg, Zdenko; Hiatt, Robert A; Hoover, Robert N; Hunter, David J; Kramer, Barnet S; Lauer, Michael S; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Palmer, Julie R; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Ransohoff, David F; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Tourassi, Georgia; Winn, Deborah M; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-04-01

    In 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating "big data" science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  16. VIEW SOUTH ON CLARK ST.BUILDING 101 CLARK ST. ROPE SHOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SOUTH ON CLARK ST.-BUILDING 101 CLARK ST. ROPE SHOP (1917) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  17. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... describing the new research and omitting information in the supplemental protocol which has been stated in... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A...

  18. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1) A descriptive title and statement of the purpose of the study. (2) Identification of the...

  19. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1) A descriptive title and statement of the purpose of the study. (2) Identification of the...

  20. 40 CFR 792.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dated signature of the study director. (15) A statement of the proposed statistical method. (b) All...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved written protocol that clearly indicates the objectives and all methods...

  1. 21 CFR 58.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sponsor and the dated signature of the study director. (12) A statement of the proposed statistical... FOR NONCLINICAL LABORATORY STUDIES Protocol for and Conduct of a Nonclinical Laboratory Study § 58.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved written protocol that clearly indicates the objectives...

  2. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1) A descriptive title and statement of the purpose of the study. (2) Identification of the...

  3. 40 CFR 160.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of a Study § 160.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an... study. The protocol shall contain but shall not necessarily be limited to the following information: (1) A descriptive title and statement of the purpose of the study. (2) Identification of the...

  4. 40 CFR 792.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dated signature of the study director. (15) A statement of the proposed statistical method. (b) All...) GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Protocol for and Conduct of A Study § 792.120 Protocol. (a) Each study shall have an approved written protocol that clearly indicates the objectives and all methods...

  5. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food...-debilitating Illnesses § 312.83 Treatment protocols. If the preliminary analysis of phase 2 test results appears promising, FDA may ask the sponsor to submit a treatment protocol to be reviewed under...

  6. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol to conduct research with controlled substances listed in Schedule I shall be in the following...

  7. Cryptanalysis on Cheng et al. protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Tejeshwari

    2016-06-01

    Deployment of new node in any wireless sensor network is a sensitive task. This is the reason why, an Access Control Protocol is required in WSN. In this paper, we demonstrate that Access Control Protocol proposed by Cheng et al.[1] for Wireless Sensor Network is insecure. The reason is that this protocol fails to resist the active attack.

  8. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a.... Accordingly, questions concerning protocols should be directed, preferably in writing, to the Product Manager... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70...

  9. 40 CFR 161.70 - Acceptable protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ingredient, mixture, or product. Accordingly, failure to follow a suggested protocol will not invalidate a.... Accordingly, questions concerning protocols should be directed, preferably in writing, to the Product Manager... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acceptable protocols. 161.70...

  10. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol to conduct research with controlled substances listed in Schedule I shall be in the following...

  11. 21 CFR 1301.18 - Research protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Research protocols. 1301.18 Section 1301.18 Food..., DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Registration § 1301.18 Research protocols. (a) A protocol to conduct research with controlled substances listed in Schedule I shall be in the following...

  12. Development of the HyStEP Device

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Terry A.; Ainscough, Christopher; Terlip, Danny; Meadows, Graham; Quinlan, Liam; Wong, Brad

    2016-04-05

    With the introduction of more fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) on U.S. roadways, especially in California, the need for available hydrogen refueling stations is growing. While funding from the California Energy Commission is helping to solve this problem, solutions need to be developed and implemented to help reduce the time to commission a hydrogen station. The current practice of hydrogen station acceptance can take months because each vehicle manufacturer conducts their own testing and evaluation. This process is not practical or sufficient to support the timely development of a hydrogen fueling station network. To address this issue, as part of the Hydrogen Fueling Infrastructure Research and Station Technology (H2FIRST) Project Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory along with a team of stakeholders and contractor Powertech Labs has developed the Hydrogen Station Equipment Performance (HyStEP) Device. The HyStEP Device is intended to be a surrogate for FCEVs that can be used to collect data on hydrogen station fueling performance. The device includes three Type IV 70 MPa tanks capable of storing a total of 9 kg H2 that are instrumented with pressure and temperature sensors. The tanks can be used individually or in parallel to simulate small, medium, and large fuel systems. The tanks are connected to a 70 MPa receptacle equipped with pressure and temperature sensor as well as infrared communications integrated with a data acquisition, analysis, and control system. The HyStEP Device is capable of performing tests defined in the test method standard CSA HGV 4.3 and providing the data needed to ensure that hydrogen stations meet the fueling protocol standard SAE J2601-2014. These include IrDA communication tests, fault detection tests, and communication and non-communication fueling.

  13. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  14. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  15. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  16. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  17. 33 CFR 100.915 - St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Clair River Classic Offshore Race, St. Clair, MI. 100.915 Section 100.915 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.915 St. Clair...

  18. Amylases StAmy23, StBAM1 and StBAM9 regulate cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers in distinct ways.

    PubMed

    Hou, Juan; Zhang, Huiling; Liu, Jun; Reid, Stephen; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Shijing; Tian, Zhendong; Sonnewald, Uwe; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2017-03-28

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) in potato is detrimental to the quality of processed products. Conversion of starch to reducing sugars (RS) by amylases is considered one of the main pathways in CIS but is not well studied. The amylase genes StAmy23, StBAM1, and StBAM9 were studied for their functions in potato CIS. StAmy23 is localized in the cytoplasm, whereas StBAM1 and StBAM9 are targeted to the plastid stroma and starch granules, respectively. Genetic transformation of these amylases in potatoes by RNA interference showed that β-amylase activity could be decreased in cold-stored tubers by silencing of StBAM1 and collective silencing of StBAM1 and StBAM9. However, StBAM9 silencing did not decrease β-amylase activity. Silencing StBAM1 and StBAM9 caused starch accumulation and lower RS, which was more evident in simultaneously silenced lines, suggesting functional redundancy. Soluble starch content increased in RNAi-StBAM1 lines but decreased in RNAi-StBAM9 lines, suggesting that StBAM1 may regulate CIS by hydrolysing soluble starch and StBAM9 by directly acting on starch granules. Moreover, StBAM9 interacted with StBAM1 on the starch granules. StAmy23 silencing resulted in higher phytoglycogen and lower RS accumulation in cold-stored tubers, implying that StAmy23 regulates CIS by degrading cytosolic phytoglycogen. Our findings suggest that StAmy23, StBAM1, and StBAM9 function in potato CIS with varying levels of impact.

  19. Nonblocking and orphan free message logging protocols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvisi, Lorenzo; Hoppe, Bruce; Marzullo, Keith

    1992-01-01

    Currently existing message logging protocols demonstrate a classic pessimistic vs. optimistic tradeoff. We show that the optimistic-pessimistic tradeoff is not inherent to the problem of message logging. We construct a message-logging protocol that has the positive features of both optimistic and pessimistic protocol: our protocol prevents orphans and allows simple failure recovery; however, it requires no blocking in failure-free runs. Furthermore, this protocol does not introduce any additional message overhead as compared to one implemented for a system in which messages may be lost but processes do not crash.

  20. Biochemical and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats submitted to different protocols of anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Dornelles, Guilherme Lopes; Bueno, Andressa; de Oliveira, Juliana Sorraila; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; França, Raqueli Teresinha; da Silva, Cássia Bagolin; Machado, Márcia Silveira Netto; Petry, Letícia do Santos; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Lhamas, Cibele Lima; de Andrade, Cinthia Melazzo

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different protocols (P1, P2, and P3) of boldenone undecylenate (BU) and stanozolol (ST) on markers of liver and kidney function and variables of oxidative stress in these organs. For this, 54 male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups of six animals each. Each animal received intramuscularly 5.0 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 4 weeks (P1); 2.5 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 8 weeks (P2); and 1.25 mg kg(-1) of BU or ST once a week for 12 weeks (P3). For each protocol, a control group was used, and they received 0.1 ml of olive oil intramuscularly. Blood and fragments of liver and kidney were collected for alanine aminotransferase activity (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, albumin, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, triglycerides, urea, reactive oxygen species, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total thiols, and glutathione evaluation. The results show that the BU in doses of 5 (day 30) and 2.5 mg kg(-1) (day 60) changes the ALT seric activity, possibly showing a hepatotoxic effect. High doses of BU may lead to increased levels of cholesterol (protocol P1) possibly due to inhibition of the normal steroid biosynthesis process. All protocols used caused changes in the redox balance of the organs studied (except in the liver, protocol P2), which indicates that these drugs might be harmful even at low doses.

  1. Mount St. Helens: the aftermath

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, D.C.

    1983-01-01

    During the May 18, 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, ash fell over a 100,000 sq mile area to the east. The Idaho studies showed that, although the ashfall altered the food chains of some forest streams, within a year they fully recovered. The effects of ashfall on lake benthic organisms are still being assessed by sediment sampling. The Montana studies reported on snow avalanche models adapted to mudflows, trophic impact of ash deposits on Montana lakes, and the volcanic ash as nutrient subsidy to sub-alpine lakes. The Oregon studies reported herring and smelt egg and larvae damage due to suspended ash. The drainage patterns in eruption debris were studied along with the filling of Columbia River berths with ash.

  2. 18. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's School,' from the commemorative booklet published ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's School,' from the commemorative booklet published for the 125th anniversary of St. Mary's Parish, 1980. View Southwest, North Front and East Side, at St. John Street and Church Street (Original in possession of St. Mary's Parish) - St. Mary's Roman Catholic School, Northwest corner of Church Avenue & Guthrie Street, McKees Rocks, Allegheny County, PA

  3. INEEL AIR MODELING PROTOCOL ext

    SciTech Connect

    C. S. Staley; M. L. Abbott; P. D. Ritter

    2004-12-01

    Various laws stemming from the Clean Air Act of 1970 and the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 require air emissions modeling. Modeling is used to ensure that air emissions from new projects and from modifications to existing facilities do not exceed certain standards. For radionuclides, any new airborne release must be modeled to show that downwind receptors do not receive exposures exceeding the dose limits and to determine the requirements for emissions monitoring. For criteria and toxic pollutants, emissions usually must first exceed threshold values before modeling of downwind concentrations is required. This document was prepared to provide guidance for performing environmental compliance-driven air modeling of emissions from Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory facilities. This document assumes that the user has experience in air modeling and dose and risk assessment. It is not intended to be a "cookbook," nor should all recommendations herein be construed as requirements. However, there are certain procedures that are required by law, and these are pointed out. It is also important to understand that air emissions modeling is a constantly evolving process. This document should, therefore, be reviewed periodically and revised as needed. The document is divided into two parts. Part A is the protocol for radiological assessments, and Part B is for nonradiological assessments. This document is an update of and supersedes document INEEL/INT-98-00236, Rev. 0, INEEL Air Modeling Protocol. This updated document incorporates changes in some of the rules, procedures, and air modeling codes that have occurred since the protocol was first published in 1998.

  4. Planetary Protection Alternate Protocol Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Amy; Barengoltz, Jack; Tisdale, David

    The talk presents a standardized approach for new method certification or alterative testing protocol (ATP) certification against the existing U.S. Planetary Protection Standards. In consideration of new method certification there are two phases of activities that are relevant to the certification process. The first is sample acquisition which typically incorporates swab or wipes sampling on relevant hardware, associated facilities and ground support equipment. The sampling methods introduce considerations of field sampling efficiency as it relates to spore distribution on the spacecraft, spacecraft material influences on the ability of the swab or wipe to remove spores from the hardware, the types of swabs and wipes used (polyester, cotton, macrofoam), and human sampling influences. The second portion of a new protocol certification looks specifically at the lab work-up or analysis of the samples provided to the laboratory. Variables in this process include selection of appropriate biomarkers, extraction efficiencies (removal of spores or constituents of interest from the sampling device), and a method's ability to accurately determine the number of spores present in the sample with a statistically valid level of confidence as described by parameters such as precision, accuracy, robustness, specificity and sensitivity. Considerations for alternative testing protocols such as those which utilize bioburden reduction techniques include selection of appropriate biomarkers for testing, test materials and a defined statistical approach that provides sufficient scientific data to support the modification of an existing NASA specification or the generation of a new NASA specification. Synergies between the U.S. and European Space Agency approaches will also be discussed.

  5. Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

    1998-12-01

    This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

  6. Enabling protocol-based medical critiquing.

    PubMed

    Sips, Robert-Jan; Braun, Loes; Roos, Nico

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the combination of expert critiquing systems and formal medical protocols. Medical protocols might serve as a suitable basis for an expert critiquing system because of the ongoing acceptance of medical protocols and the rise of both evidence-based practice and evidence-based protocols. A prerequisite for a critiquing system based on medical protocols is the ability to match the actions a physician performs in practice to actions prescribed by a protocol. Previous research has shown that this is quite difficult, due to the fact that computerized systems are unable to handle deviations from a protocol, which are common in the medical domain. Our solution to this problem is based on extracting the intention underlying a physician's action and uses the intention as the basis for matching performed actions to prescribed actions. We propose an algorithm for the intention-based matching process and we evaluate the matching algorithm on 12 cases of hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term newborns.

  7. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  8. Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Editor); Bagby, John (Editor); Race, Margaret (Editor); Rummel, John (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Sample Quarantine Protocol (QP) Workshop was convened to deal with three specific aspects of the initial handling of a returned Mars sample: 1) biocontainment, to prevent uncontrolled release of sample material into the terrestrial environment; 2) life detection, to examine the sample for evidence of live organisms; and 3) biohazard testing, to determine if the sample poses any threat to terrestrial life forms and the Earth's biosphere. During the first part of the Workshop, several tutorials were presented on topics related to the workshop in order to give all participants a common basis in the technical areas necessary to achieve the objectives of the Workshop.

  9. A structured data transfer protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, P.; Rots, A.

    1992-01-01

    The transfer of data between different computers and programs can be a major obstacle during data analysis. We present a new data transfer protocol which is based on a simple structure containing a value, an error, and a unit. Each of these members can be arrays or another structure. The ability to nest structures allows for the concept of objects. When using an object-oriented language such as C++, reference can be made to the object name instead of each element explicitly. Prototype code has been written which implements the basic design with enhancements planned for the future.

  10. Experimental quantum multiparty communication protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smania, Massimiliano; Elhassan, Ashraf M.; Tavakoli, Armin; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Quantum information science breaks limitations of conventional information transfer, cryptography and computation by using quantum superpositions or entanglement as resources for information processing. Here we report on the experimental realisation of three-party quantum communication protocols using single three-level quantum system (qutrit) communication: secret-sharing, detectable Byzantine agreement and communication complexity reduction for a three-valued function. We have implemented these three schemes using the same optical fibre interferometric setup. Our realisation is easily scalable without compromising on detection efficiency or generating extremely complex many-particle entangled states.

  11. Preparing Students for the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uchida, Donna; And Others

    As the 21st century approaches, many educators are debating the role of education in meeting students' and the economy's needs. This booklet describes the results of a modified Delphi study that asked a panel of 55 experts from education, business, and government how to best prepare students for the 21st century. During the course of three survey…

  12. Pedagogical Implementation of 21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson-Lundeberg, Vera

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines students' perceptions of how intentionally taught 21st century skills have transformed their lives. Personal development education (PDE) encompasses interpersonal and interaction skills that are required for students to function and succeed in global-oriented 21st century colleges and careers. The Common Core State Standards…

  13. 21st Century Skills Map: The Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Colleen; Ebert, Christie M. Lynch; McGreevy-Nichols, Susan; Quinn, Betsy; Sabol, F. Robert; Schmid, Dale; Shauck, R. Barry; Shuler, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of the Arts.

  14. 21st Century Skills Map: World Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of World Languages. [Funding for this paper was provided by EF Education.

  15. Nunaput Negeqlirmi (Our Village of St. Mary's).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Yup'ik Eskimo children from the fifth and sixth grades of St. Mary's Public School, St. Mary's, Alaska, wrote this collection of 28 short stories. The 55 page book is printed in both Yup'ik and English. It features large type and illustrations drawn by the children and is intended for use in a bilingual education program. Some of the stories deal…

  16. 21st Century Skills Map: Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This 21st Century Skills Map is the result of hundreds of hours of research, development and feedback from educators and business leaders across the nation. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has issued this map for the core subject of Geography.

  17. 21st Birthday Drinking: Extremely Extreme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Patricia C.; Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite public recognition of the hazards of 21st birthday drinking, there is little empirical information concerning its prevalence, severity, and risk factors. Data from a sample of 2,518 college students suggest that 21st birthday drinking poses an extreme danger: (a) 4 of every 5 participants (83%) reported drinking to celebrate, (b) birthday…

  18. Workshop on laboratory protocol standards for the Molecular Methods Database.

    PubMed

    Klingström, Tomas; Soldatova, Larissa; Stevens, Robert; Roos, T Erik; Swertz, Morris A; Müller, Kristian M; Kalaš, Matúš; Lambrix, Patrick; Taussig, Michael J; Litton, Jan-Eric; Landegren, Ulf; Bongcam-Rudloff, Erik

    2013-01-25

    Management of data to produce scientific knowledge is a key challenge for biological research in the 21st century. Emerging high-throughput technologies allow life science researchers to produce big data at speeds and in amounts that were unthinkable just a few years ago. This places high demands on all aspects of the workflow: from data capture (including the experimental constraints of the experiment), analysis and preservation, to peer-reviewed publication of results. Failure to recognise the issues at each level can lead to serious conflicts and mistakes; research may then be compromised as a result of the publication of non-coherent protocols, or the misinterpretation of published data. In this report, we present the results from a workshop that was organised to create an ontological data-modelling framework for Laboratory Protocol Standards for the Molecular Methods Database (MolMeth). The workshop provided a set of short- and long-term goals for the MolMeth database, the most important being the decision to use the established EXACT description of biomedical ontologies as a starting point.

  19. Analyzing the effect of routing protocols on media access control protocols in radio networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We study the effect of routing protocols on the performance of media access control (MAC) protocols in wireless radio networks. Three well known MAC protocols: 802.11, CSMA, and MACA are considered. Similarly three recently proposed routing protocols: AODV, DSR and LAR scheme 1 are considered. The experimental analysis was carried out using GloMoSim: a tool for simulating wireless networks. The main focus of our experiments was to study how the routing protocols affect the performance of the MAC protocols when the underlying network and traffic parameters are varied. The performance of the protocols was measured w.r.t. five important parameters: (i) number of received packets, (ii) average latency of each packet, (iii) throughput (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC layer level. Our results show that combinations of routing and MAC protocols yield varying performance under varying network topology and traffic situations. The result has an important implication; no combination of routing protocol and MAC protocol is the best over all situations. Also, the performance analysis of protocols at a given level in the protocol stack needs to be studied not locally in isolation but as a part of the complete protocol stack. A novel aspect of our work is the use of statistical technique, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) to characterize the effect of routing protocols on MAC protocols. This technique is of independent interest and can be utilized in several other simulation and empirical studies.

  20. An internationally standardised antisaccade protocol.

    PubMed

    Antoniades, Chrystalina; Ettinger, Ulrich; Gaymard, Bertrand; Gilchrist, Iain; Kristjánsson, Arni; Kennard, Christopher; John Leigh, R; Noorani, Imran; Pouget, Pierre; Smyrnis, Nikolaos; Tarnowski, Adam; Zee, David S; Carpenter, R H S

    2013-05-24

    Detailed measurements of saccadic latency--the time taken to make an eye movement to a suddenly-presented visual target--have proved a valuable source of detailed and quantitative information in a wide range of neurological conditions, as well as shedding light on the mechanisms of decision, currently of intense interest to cognitive neuroscientists. However, there is no doubt that more complex oculomotor tasks, and in particular the antisaccade task in which a participant must make a saccade in the opposite direction to the target, are potentially more sensitive indicators of neurological dysfunction, particularly in neurodegenerative conditions. But two obstacles currently hinder their widespread adoption for this purpose. First, that much of the potential information from antisaccade experiments, notably about latency distribution and amplitude, is typically thrown away. Second, that there is no standardised protocol for carrying out antisaccade experiments, so that results from one laboratory cannot easily be compared with those from another. This paper, the outcome of a recent international meeting of oculomotor scientists and clinicians with an unusually wide experience of such measurements, sets out a proposed protocol for clinical antisaccade trials: its adoption will greatly enhance the clinical and scientific benefits of making these kinds of measurements.

  1. New rapid multicolor PRINS protocol.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ju; Gadji, Macoura; Krabchi, Kada; Drouin, Régen

    2006-01-01

    In the multiple-color primed in situ labeling (multi-PRINS) technique, using ddNTPs between two PRINS reactions can block the free 3'-end generated in the previous PRINS reaction, thus avoiding the next PRINS reaction, using it as a primer to perform spurious elongation at nondesired sites. However, by omitting the blocking step and taking advantage of the color mixing, we developed a simple and rapid multi-PRINS technique to simultaneously detect three chromosomes in the same cell. With this protocol, one can create a third color using the two most common forms of labeled dUTP (biotin- and digoxigenin-labeled dUTP) and two fluorochromes (fluorescein and rhodamine). The signals at the centromeres of three different chromosomes displayed perfect yellow, red, and green colors, respectively. The entire procedure could be completed in less than 90 min because the blocking step was omitted. This protocol is practical and efficient for multi-PRINS so that even more than three chromosome targets could be detected in the same cell.

  2. Affymetrix Whole-Transcript Human Gene 1.0 ST array is highly concordant with standard 3' expression arrays.

    PubMed

    Pradervand, Sylvain; Paillusson, Alexandra; Thomas, Jérôme; Weber, Johann; Wirapati, Pratyaksha; Hagenbüchle, Otto; Harshman, Keith

    2008-05-01

    The recently released Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST array has two major differences compared with standard 3' based arrays: (i) it interrogates the entire mRNA transcript, and (ii) it uses DNA targets. To assess the impact of these differences on array performance, we performed a series of comparative hybridizations between the Human Gene 1.0 ST and the Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 and the Illumina HumanRef-8 BeadChip arrays. Additionally, both RNA and DNA targets were hybridized on HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays. The results show that the overall reproducibility of the Gene 1.0 ST array is best. When looking only at the high intensity probes, the reproducibility of the Gene 1.0 ST array and the Illumina BeadChip array is equally good. Concordance of array results was assessed using different inter-platform mappings. Agreements are best between the two labeling protocols using HG-U133 Plus 2.0 array. The Gene 1.0 ST array is most concordant with the HG-U133 array hybridized with cDNA targets. This may reflect the impact of the target type. Overall, the high degree of correspondence provides strong evidence for the reliability of the Gene 1.0 ST array.

  3. A Unified Fault-Tolerance Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Paul; Gedser, Alfons; Pike, Lee; Maddalon, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Davies and Wakerly show that Byzantine fault tolerance can be achieved by a cascade of broadcasts and middle value select functions. We present an extension of the Davies and Wakerly protocol, the unified protocol, and its proof of correctness. We prove that it satisfies validity and agreement properties for communication of exact values. We then introduce bounded communication error into the model. Inexact communication is inherent for clock synchronization protocols. We prove that validity and agreement properties hold for inexact communication, and that exact communication is a special case. As a running example, we illustrate the unified protocol using the SPIDER family of fault-tolerant architectures. In particular we demonstrate that the SPIDER interactive consistency, distributed diagnosis, and clock synchronization protocols are instances of the unified protocol.

  4. Developing practice protocols for advanced practice nursing.

    PubMed

    Paul, S

    1999-08-01

    In most states, the role of an advanced practice nurse is dependent on practice protocols that provide an organized method for analyzing and managing a disease or major symptom. They are also used to control the process of medical care and to specify steps in the delivery of that care. Creating appropriate practice protocols is one of the most important precursors to implementing the advanced practice role, because they virtually drive the clinician's ability to treat or manage clinical situations or disease states. This article outlines the steps involved in developing practice protocols and discusses the content that should be included in a protocol, providing an example of narrative and algorithm format protocols. Pros and cons, as well as legal issues related to practice protocols, are also presented.

  5. A novel interactive electronic protocol review system.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T W; Herbert, J H; Barrett, J; Lamprecht, E G

    2001-09-01

    This report describes a new protocol review system which was designed as a Lotus Notes database. This system encompasses all elements of investigator protocol generation, review and approval by the laboratory animal veterinarian and institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC), and notification of approval to personnel responsible for animal ordering. Unique features of the system are interactive dialog between IACUC members and the investigator and confidential protocol discussion among IACUC members. The advantages of the system are multiple: 1. it allows for interactive protocol discussion online; 2. it is an essentially paperless process; 3. inclusion of the outside IACUC member is easily accomplished by using an offsite personal computer and secure remote local-area network access; 4. the time required for protocol generation, review, and approval is streamlined due to the automatic features of the database and the speed of e-mail; and 5. all documentation relating to the protocol and the approval process is archived online.

  6. [The research protocol. Part I].

    PubMed

    Miranda-Novales, María Guadalupe; Villasís-Keever, Miguel Ángel

    2015-01-01

    One of the principal aims in research is the publication of the study in scientific journals. This implies two challenges: the first one, the election of an adequate research design, and the second one, the concrete and simple wording of the results for the study to be accepted in the most appropriate journal according to the scope. Despite numerous supporting documents are available for both issues, the publication process is long, tiresome, and can discourage the most enthusiastic researcher. This is the first of a series of articles with the objective to describe the steps from the research question to the publication of the study. First of all, the importance of the research design will be addressed. The structure of the protocol is essential to achieve the objectives, and provides a way to organize the investigation in a logic, comprehensible and efficient manner.

  7. [Climate change and Kyoto protocol].

    PubMed

    Ergasti, G; Pippia, V; Murzilli, G; De Luca D'Alessandro, E

    2009-01-01

    Due to industrial revolution and the heavy use of fossil fuels, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has increased dramatically during the last hundred years, and this has lead to an increase in mean global temperature. The environmental consequences of this are: the melting of the ice caps, an increase in mean sea-levels, catastrophic events such as floodings, hurricanes and earthquakes, changes to the animal and vegetable kingdoms, a growth in vectors and bacteria in water thus increasing the risk of infectious diseases and damage to agriculture. The toxic effects of the pollution on human health are both acute and chronic. The Kyoto Protocol is an important step in the campaign against climatic changes but it is not sufficient. A possible solution might be for the States which produce the most of pollution to adopt a better political stance for the environment and to use renewable resources for the production of energy.

  8. St2-80: a new FISH marker for St genome and genome analysis in Triticeae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Long; Shi, Qinghua; Su, Handong; Wang, Yi; Sha, Lina; Fan, Xing; Kang, Houyang; Zhang, Haiqin; Zhou, Yonghong

    2017-03-17

    The St genome is one of the most fundamental genomes in Triticeae. Repetitive sequences are widely used to distinguish different genomes or species. The primary objectives of this study were to (i) screen a new sequence that could easily distinguish the chromosome of the St genome from those of other genomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and (ii) investigate the genome constitution of some species that remain uncertain and controversial. We used degenerated oligonucleotide primer PCR (Dop-PCR), Dot-blot, and FISH to screen for a new marker of the St genome and to test the efficiency of this marker in the detection of the St chromosome at different ploidy levels. Signals produced by a new FISH marker (denoted St2-80) were present on the entire arm of chromosomes of the St genome, except in the centromeric region. On the contrary, St2-80 signals were present in the terminal region of chromosomes of the E, H, P, and Y genomes. No signal was detected in the A and B genomes, and only weak signals were detected in the terminal region of chromosomes of the D genome. St2-80 signals were obvious and stable in chromosomes of different genomes, whether diploid or polyploid. Therefore, St2-80 is a potential and useful FISH marker that can be used to distinguish the St genome from those of other genomes in Triticeae.

  9. ST13 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ST13, a cytoplasmic homotetramer protein belonging to the FAM10 family, interacts with HSC70 as well as DNAJ homologs and HSP90. ST13 is an adaptor protein that mediates the association of the heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90. It has been shown to be involved in the assembly process of glucocorticoid receptor, which requires the assistance of multiple molecular chaperones. The expression of the ST13 gene is reported to be downregulated in colorectal carcinoma tissue suggesting that is a candidate tumor suppressor gene.

  10. An Argument for Soft Layering of Protocols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    protocols. A protocol is the means by which two cooperating processes1 communicate . It consists of a set of agreements governing the form of the data ...that is sent over the communications channel, and the conventions for what data is to be sent under what circumstances. Put simply, a protocol...the FIFO nature of the underlying communications requires that the entity catch up with the monitoring station before it can receive the latest data

  11. Status Report on the UNIDROIT Space Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    In my status report on the UNIDROIT Space Protocol I will describe the history and purpose of the Space Protocol; I will state the Protocol's relationship to the UNIDROIT Convention on International Interests in Mobile Equipment in particular after the 2001 Cape Town Diplomatic Conference on the Convention. I will describe the COPUOS study of possible conflicts with the existing space law treaties and explain UNIDROIT's objective of avoiding conflicts between existing space law and the Space Protocol. Finally I will describe future steps to be taken.

  12. Impact of different resistance training protocols on muscular oxidative stress parameters.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, Débora L; Silva, Luciano A; Tromm, Camila B; da Rosa, Guilherme L; Silveira, Paulo C L; de Souza, Claudio T; Latini, Alexandra; Pinho, Ricardo A

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzes oxidative stress in skeletal muscle using different resisted training protocols. We hypothesize that different types of training produce different specifics. To test our hypothesis, we defined 3 resistance training protocols and investigated the respective biochemical responses in muscle. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were distributed in 4 groups: untrained (UT), muscular resistance training (RT), hypertrophy training (HT), and strength training (ST). After 12 weeks of training on alternate days, the red portion of the brachioradialis was removed and the following parameters were assessed: lactate and glycogen content, superoxide production, antioxidant enzyme content, and activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; GPx, glutathione peroxidase). Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), carbonyl, and thiol groups were also measured. Results showed increased superoxide production (UT = 5.348 ± 0.889; RT = 5.117 ± 0,651; HT = 8.412 ± 0.431; ST = 6.354 ± 0.552), SOD (UT = 0.078 ± 0.0163; RT = 0.101 ± 0.013; HT = 0.533 ± 0.109; ST = 0.388 ± 0.058), GPx (UT = 0.290 ± 0.023; RT = 0.348 ± 0.014; HT = 0.529 ± 0.049; ST = 0.384 ± 0.038) activities, and content of GPx (HT = 3.8 times; ST = 3.0 times) compared with the UT group. CAT activity was lower (UT = 3.966 ± 0.670; RT = 3.474 ± 0.583; HT = 2.276 ± 0.302; ST = 2.028 ± 0.471) in HT and ST groups. Oxidative damage was observed in the HT group (TBARS = 0.082 ± 0.009; carbonyl = 0.73 ± 0.053; thiol = 12.78 ± 0.917) compared with the UT group. These findings indicate that HT causes an imbalance in oxidative parameters in favor of pro-oxidants, causing oxidative stress in skeletal muscle.

  13. The transition from naïve to primed nociceptive state: A novel wind-up protocol in mice.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Nadav Y; Tal, Michael; Shavit, Yehuda

    2016-01-01

    Wind-up (WU) is a progressive, frequency-dependent facilitation of spinal cord neurons in response to repetitive nociceptive stimulation of constant intensity. We identified a new WU-associated phenomenon in naïve mice (not exposed to noxious stimulation immediately prior to WU stimulation), which were subjected to a novel experimental protocol composed of three consecutive trains of WU stimulation. The 1st train produced a typical linear 'wind-up' curve as expected following a repeating series of stimuli; in addition, this 1st train sensitized ('primed') the nociceptive system so that the responses to two subsequent trains (inter-train interval of 10 min) were significantly amplified compared with the response to the 1st train. We named this augmented response potentiation-of-windup, or "PoW". The PoW phenomenon appears to be centrally mediated, as the augmented response was suppressed by administration of an NMDA receptor antagonist (MK-801) and by cutting the spinal cord. Furthermore, the PoW protocol is accompanied by enhanced pain behavior. The 'priming' effect of the 1st train could be mimicked by exposure to natural noxious stimuli prior to the PoW protocol. Presumably, the PoW phenomenon has not been previously reported due to a procedural reason: typically, WU protocols have been executed in 'primed' rather than naïve animals, i.e., animals exposed to nociceptive stimulation prior to the actual WU recording. Our findings indicate that the PoW paradigm can distinguish between 'naïve' and 'primed' states, suggesting its use as a tool for the assessment of central sensitization.

  14. Specification For ST-5 Li Ion Battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castell, Karen D.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This Specification defines the general requirements for rechargeable Space Flight batteries intended for use in the ST-5 program. The battery chemistry chosen for this mission is lithium ion (Li-Ion).

  15. St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    St. Laurent Construction Co., Inc. (the Company) is located in Nashua, New Hampshire. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Merrimack and Nashua, New Hampshire.

  16. Science diplomacy in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Fedoroff, Nina V

    2009-01-09

    Science diplomacy is the use of scientific collaborations among nations to address the common problems facing 21(st) century humanity and to build constructive international partnerships. There are many ways that scientists can contribute to this process.

  17. Water resources of St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Jason M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of St. Tammany Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  18. GENERIC VERIFICATION PROTOCOL: DISTRIBUTED GENERATION AND COMBINED HEAT AND POWER FIELD TESTING PROTOCOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is a generic verification protocol by which EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program tests newly developed equipment for distributed generation of electric power, usually micro-turbine generators and internal combustion engine generators. The protocol will ...

  19. Fossil fuels in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Stephen F

    2005-12-01

    An overview of the importance of fossil fuels in supplying the energy requirements of the 21st century, their future supply, and the impact of their use on global climate is presented. Current and potential alternative energy sources are considered. It is concluded that even with substantial increases in energy derived from other sources, fossil fuels will remain a major energy source for much of the 21st century and the sequestration of CO2 will be an increasingly important requirement.

  20. A nosocomial outbreak of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Chinese hospital: dissemination of ST11 and emergence of ST37, ST392 and ST395.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ye, L; Guo, L; Zhao, Q; Chen, R; Luo, Y; Chen, Y; Tian, S; Zhao, J; Shen, D; Han, L

    2013-11-01

    In China, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) -producing K. pneumoniae isolates have been identified. However, little is known about the spread and outbreak of KPC-producing enterobacterial pathogens. In this study, 48 non-duplicated KPC-producing isolates were analysed for genetic relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antimicrobial susceptibility by E-test, and sequence type (ST) by multilocus sequence typing. S1-PFGE and Southern blot were used for plasmid profiling, and PCR and subsequent sequencing were performed to determine the effects of genetic background on the blaKPC gene. From December 2011 to June 2012, an outbreak of the KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae was observed. The 48 isolates of K. pneumoniae are categorized into eight PFGE types (A1, A2, A3, A4, B, C, D and E). The predominant pathogens of the outbreak were strains with PFGE types A1, A2 and A3, which all belong to ST11. Furthermore, ST37, ST392 and ST395 KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates have also been sporadically identified. The blaKPC-2 -carrying plasmids vary in size from 30 to 220 kb. The genetic environments of the blaKPC-2 gene for most strains were consistent with the genetic structure of blaKPC-2 on the plasmid pKP048. In conclusion, the dissemination and outbreak of KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates in this study appeared to be clonal, and ST11 K. pneumoniae was the predominant clone attributed to the outbreak. This is the first study to report the emergence and spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae ST392 and ST395 worldwide. Our findings suggest that horizontal transfer of Tn3-based transposons might mediate the spread of blaKPC-2 gene between different K. pneumoniae clones in China.

  1. The diagnosis of sepsis revisited - a challenge for young medical scientists in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Lawrence A

    2014-01-02

    In 1991, a well-meaning consensus group of thought leaders derived a simple definition for sepsis which required the breach of only a few static thresholds. More than 20 years later, this simple definition has calcified to become the gold standard for sepsis protocols and research. Yet sepsis clearly comprises a complex, dynamic, and relational distortion of human life. Given the profound scope of the loss of life worldwide, there is a need to disengage from the simple concepts of the past. There is an acute need to develop 21st century approaches which engage sepsis in its true form, as a complex, dynamic, and relational pattern of death.

  2. The diagnosis of sepsis revisited - a challenge for young medical scientists in the 21st century

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In 1991, a well-meaning consensus group of thought leaders derived a simple definition for sepsis which required the breach of only a few static thresholds. More than 20 years later, this simple definition has calcified to become the gold standard for sepsis protocols and research. Yet sepsis clearly comprises a complex, dynamic, and relational distortion of human life. Given the profound scope of the loss of life worldwide, there is a need to disengage from the simple concepts of the past. There is an acute need to develop 21st century approaches which engage sepsis in its true form, as a complex, dynamic, and relational pattern of death. PMID:24383420

  3. Comment on "flexible protocol for quantum private query based on B92 protocol"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan; Zhang, Shi-Bin; Zhu, Jing-Min

    2017-03-01

    In a recent paper (Quantum Inf Process 13:805-813, 2014), a flexible quantum private query (QPQ) protocol based on B92 protocol is presented. Here we point out that the B92-based QPQ protocol is insecure in database security when the channel has loss, that is, the user (Alice) will know more records in Bob's database compared with she has bought.

  4. MTP: An atomic multicast transport protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freier, Alan O.; Marzullo, Keith

    1990-01-01

    Multicast transport protocol (MTP); a reliable transport protocol that utilizes the multicast strategy of applicable lower layer network architectures is described. In addition to transporting data reliably and efficiently, MTP provides the client synchronization necessary for agreement on the receipt of data and the joining of the group of communicants.

  5. Delay Tolerant Networking - Bundle Protocol Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SeGui, John; Jenning, Esther

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the addition of MACHETE models needed to support DTN, namely: the Bundle Protocol (BP) model. To illustrate the useof MACHETE with the additional DTN model, we provide an example simulation to benchmark its performance. We demonstrate the use of the DTN protocol and discuss statistics gathered concerning the total time needed to simulate numerous bundle transmissions.

  6. STANDARD MEASUREMENT PROTOCOLS - FLORIDA RADON RESEARCH PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual, in support of the Florida Radon Research Program, contains standard protocols for key measurements where data quality is vital to the program. t contains two sections. he first section, soil measurements, contains field sampling protocols for soil gas permeability and...

  7. Communication protocol standards for space data systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooke, Adrian J.; Desjardins, Richard

    1990-01-01

    The main elements and requirements of advanced space data networks are identified. The communication protocol standards for use on space missions during the coming decades are described. In particular, the blending of high-performance space-unique data transmission techniques with off-the-shelf open systems interconnection (OSI) protocols is described.

  8. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1210.4 Section 1210.4... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a lighter is resistant to successful operation by children uses...

  9. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test protocol. 1212.4 Section 1212.4... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test panel. (1) The test to determine if a multi-purpose lighter is resistant to successful...

  10. Massive transfusion and massive transfusion protocol

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijaya; Shetmahajan, Madhavi

    2014-01-01

    Haemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Rapid transfusion of large volumes of blood products is required in patients with haemorrhagic shock which may lead to a unique set of complications. Recently, protocol based management of these patients using massive transfusion protocol have shown improved outcomes. This section discusses in detail both management and complications of massive blood transfusion. PMID:25535421

  11. St. James marine terminal facility description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) currently owns and operates a marine terminal on the west bank of the Mississippi River at St. James, Louisiana. The St. James facility was constructed by the Department to provide marine services associated with the fill and drawdown of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) crude oil storage facilities located at Bayou Choctaw and Weeks Island, Louisiana. Although strategic to the mission of the SPR in the event of a national emergency, the St. James terminal is situated such that it has a high potential to also serve the commercial industry`s needs for crude oil terminalling and storage. The St. James terminal is located approximately 45 miles west of New Orleans and 30 miles southeast of Baton Rouge, and approximately 160 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi River. Construction of the St. James terminal was initiated in 1978 and was completed in 1980. Since then, the terminal has received and transferred over 125 million barrels of crude oil to the SPR sites for storage. For crude oil distribution, the St. James terminal was connected to the neighboring LOCAP terminal by a 0.1 mile 36-inch pipeline in 1981 and to the Capline terminal by a 0.5 mile 30-inch pipeline in 1988. The terminal also has a 30-inch pipeline connection to the Koch oil terminal which was used for initial fill purposes; however, this pipeline has been disconnected and is currently inactive. A complete description of the St. James terminal facilities, operational capabilities, operational certifications, and future Government requirements are presented in Sections 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively.

  12. A Simple XML Producer-Consumer Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Warren; Gunter, Dan; Quesnel, Darcy; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    There are many different projects from government, academia, and industry that provide services for delivering events in distributed environments. The problem with these event services is that they are not general enough to support all uses and they speak different protocols so that they cannot interoperate. We require such interoperability when we, for example, wish to analyze the performance of an application in a distributed environment. Such an analysis might require performance information from the application, computer systems, networks, and scientific instruments. In this work we propose and evaluate a standard XML-based protocol for the transmission of events in distributed systems. One recent trend in government and academic research is the development and deployment of computational grids. Computational grids are large-scale distributed systems that typically consist of high-performance compute, storage, and networking resources. Examples of such computational grids are the DOE Science Grid, the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG), and the NSF Partnerships for Advanced Computing Infrastructure (PACIs). The major effort to deploy these grids is in the area of developing the software services to allow users to execute applications on these large and diverse sets of resources. These services include security, execution of remote applications, managing remote data, access to information about resources and services, and so on. There are several toolkits for providing these services such as Globus, Legion, and Condor. As part of these efforts to develop computational grids, the Global Grid Forum is working to standardize the protocols and APIs used by various grid services. This standardization will allow interoperability between the client and server software of the toolkits that are providing the grid services. The goal of the Performance Working Group of the Grid Forum is to standardize protocols and representations related to the storage and distribution of

  13. STANDARD OPERATING PROTOCOLS FOR DECOMMISSIONING

    SciTech Connect

    Foss, D. L.; Stevens, J. L.; Gerdeman, F. W.

    2002-02-25

    Decommissioning projects at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites are conducted under project-specific decision documents, which involve extensive preparation time, public comment periods, and regulatory approvals. Often, the decision documents must be initiated at least one year before commencing the decommissioning project, and they are expensive and time consuming to prepare. The Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is a former nuclear weapons production plant at which hazardous substances and wastes were released or disposed during operations. As a result of the releases, RFETS was placed on the National Priorities List in 1989, and is conducting cleanup activities under a federal facilities compliance agreement. Working closely with interested stakeholders and state and federal regulatory agencies, RFETS has developed and implemented an improved process for obtaining the approvals. The key to streamlining the approval process has been the development of sitewide decision documents called Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement Standard Operating Protocols or ''RSOPs.'' RSOPs have broad applicability, and could be used instead of project-specific documents. Although no two decommissioning projects are exactly the same and they may vary widely in contamination and other hazards, the basic steps taken for cleanup are usually similar. Because of this, using RSOPs is more efficient than preparing a separate project-specific decision documents for each cleanup action. Over the Rocky Flats cleanup life cycle, using RSOPs has the potential to: (1) Save over 5 million dollars and 6 months on the site closure schedule; (2) Eliminate preparing one hundred and twenty project-specific decision documents; and (3) Eliminate writing seventy-five closure description documents for hazardous waste unit closure and corrective actions.

  14. 76 FR 44531 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St..., call or e-mail Marine Science Technician First Class Jo A. Hoover, Sector St. Petersburg Prevention.... 2064; Department of Homeland Security Delegation No. 0170.1. The purpose of the proposed rule is...

  15. Snakebite management in Iran: Devising a protocol

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi, Seyed Mostafa; Dadpour, Bita; Afshari, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snakebite in Iran has been a health concern. However, management of snakebite is not standardized and varies from center to center. This study is aimed at devising an evidence-based comprehensive protocol for snakebite management in Iran, to reduce unnecessary variations in practice. Materials and Methods: A narrative search in electronic databases was performed. Fifty peer-reviewed articles, guidelines, and textbooks were reviewed and practical details were extracted. Our currently used protocol in the Mashhad Toxicology Center was supplemented with this information. Consequently an improved wide-range protocol was developed. The protocol was then discussed and amended within a focus group comprised of medical toxicologists and internal medicine specialists. The amended version was finally discussed with expert physicians specialized in different areas of medicine, to be optimized by supplementing other specific considerations. Results: During a one-year process, the protocol was finalized. The final version of the protocol, which was designed in six steps, comprised of three components: A schematic algorithm, a severity grading scale, and instructions for supportive and adjunctive treatments. The algorithm pertains to both Viperidae and Elapidae snakebite envenomations and consists of a planned course of action and dosing of antivenom, based on the severity of the envenomation. Conclusion: Snakebite envenomation is a clinical toxicologic emergency, which needs to be treated in a timely and organized manner. Hence, a multi-aspect protocol was designed to improve the clinical outcomes, reduce unnecessary administration of antivenom, and help physicians make more proper clinical judgments. PMID:24778670

  16. Different thresholds of myocardial ischemia in ramp and standard bruce protocol exercise tests in patients with positive exercise stress tests and angiographically demonstrated coronary arterial narrowing.

    PubMed

    Noël, Martin; Jobin, Jean; Poirier, Paul; Dagenais, Gilles R; Bogaty, Peter

    2007-04-01

    Gradual instead of abrupt increases in workload favor a more physiologic response in terms of hemodynamic and gas exchange parameters. Therefore, we investigated whether myocardial ischemia is attenuated with a ramp compared with a standard Bruce exercise protocol in patients with coronary artery disease. We compared electrocardiographic ischemic parameters on the standard Bruce protocol treadmill and the individualized ergocycle ramp protocol in 18 men with coronary artery disease and a reproducible ischemic electrocardiographic exercise test. Oxygen consumption (VO2), ischemic threshold (rate-pressure product [RPP]=systolic blood pressure x heart rate at 1-mm ST-segment depression), and maximum ST-segment depression corresponding to the highest RPP common to the 2 tests were determined. Ischemic threshold was higher with the ramp than with the Bruce protocol (23,420+/-5,732 vs 20,018+/-3,542 beats.min/mm Hg, p=0.007). Peak RPP was higher during the ramp than during the Bruce protocol (28,492+/-6,450 vs 25,519+/-6,067 beats.min/mm Hg, respectively, p=0.02) despite similar peak VO2 (25.59+/-5.05 vs 26.39+/-4.65 mlO2.kg-1.min-1, respectively, p=0.6). Maximum ST-segment depression corresponding to the highest RPP common to the 2 tests was less with the ramp than with the Bruce protocol (-1.2+/-0.9 vs -1.9+/-0.7 mm, p=0.003). In conclusion, exercise-induced myocardial ischemia is markedly attenuated on the more gradually increasing workload of the individualized ramp ergocycle compared with the standard Bruce treadmill protocol. This effect is unexplained by energy expenditure (VO2) or myocardial work (RPP) and is consistent with a "warm-up" ischemic mechanism.

  17. Stückelberg formulation of holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Wintergerst, Nico

    2016-10-01

    We suggest that holography can be formulated in terms of the information capacity of the Stückelberg degrees of freedom that maintain gauge invariance of the theory in the presence of an information boundary. These Stückelbergs act as qubits that account for a certain fraction of quantum information. Their information capacity is measured by the ratio of the inverse Stückelberg energy gap to the size of the system. Systems with the smallest gap are maximally holographic. For massless gauge systems this information measure is universally equal to the inverse coupling evaluated at the systems' length scale. In this language it becomes very transparent why the Stückelberg information capacity of black holes saturates the Bekenstein bound and accounts for the entire information of the system. The physical reason is that the strength of quantum interaction is bounded from below by the gravitational coupling, which scales as area. Observing the striking similarity between the scalings of the energy gap of the boundary Stückelberg modes and the Bogoliubov modes of critical many-body systems, we establish a connection between holography and quantum criticality through the correspondence between these modes.

  18. Space Radar Image of St. Louis, Missouri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a spaceborne radar image of the area surrounding St. Louis, Missouri, where the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers come together. The city of St. Louis is the bright gold area within a bend in the Mississippi River at the lower center of the image. The rivers show up as dark blue sinuous lines. Urbanized areas appear bright gold and forested areas are shown as a brownish color. Several bridges can be seen spanning the river near downtown St. Louis. The Missouri River flows east, from left to right, across the center of the image, and meets the Mississippi River, which flows from top to bottom of the image. A small stretch of the Illinois River is shown at the top of the image where it merges with the Mississippi. The Mississippi forms the state boundary between Illinois (to the right) and Missouri (to the left). Flat farmland areas within the river floodplains appear blue on the image. The major roadways that pass through the area can be seen radiating out from, and encircling, the city of St. Louis. These highways, the rivers and the bridges help maintain St. Louis' reputation as the 'Gateway to the West.

  19. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Berket, Karlo; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Melliar-Smith, P. Michael; Moser, Louise E.

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  20. Improving survival of children with cancer worldwide: the St. Jude International Outreach Program approach.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Raul C

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the St. Jude International Outreach Program (IOP) is to improve the survival rate of children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases worldwide, through the sharing of knowledge, technology, and organizational skills. There are an estimated 160,000 newly diagnosed cases of childhood cancer worldwide each year, and cancer is emerging as a major cause of childhood death in the developing regions of Asia, South and Central America, northwest Africa, and the Middle East. Over the past 30 years improved therapy has dramatically increased survival rates for children with cancer, but still more than 70% of the world's children with cancer lack access to modern treatment. Although sick children from around the world have traveled to our hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, since its inception, treating children in their own countries is more efficient and less disruptive for them and their families. In the context of St. Jude's culture of sharing knowledge about the management of children with cancer, we now use modern technology to reach far more children than would ever be able to come to St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. St. Jude strives to address the needs of those children in countries that lack sufficient resources and to help them manage their own burden of cases effectively. By sharing knowledge and technology with the local governments, health care providers, and the private sector in these countries, St. Jude is improving diagnoses and treatments to increase the survival rates of children all across the globe. In addition to training medical teams locally, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital hosts many visiting fellows at our campus in Memphis. St. Jude helps partner medical institutions develop tailored evidence-based protocols for treating children with cancer and other catastrophic diseases. St. Jude physicians serve as mentors to physicians at our partner sites and consult on difficult cases. Nurses are trained on best practices in

  1. StCDPK3 Phosphorylates In Vitro Two Transcription Factors Involved in GA and ABA Signaling in Potato: StRSG1 and StABF1

    PubMed Central

    Grandellis, Carolina; Fantino, Elisa; Muñiz García, María Noelia; Bialer, Magalí Graciela; Santin, Franco; Capiati, Daniela Andrea; Ulloa, Rita María

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases, CDPKs, decode calcium (Ca2+) transients and initiate downstream responses in plants. In order to understand how CDPKs affect plant physiology, their specific target proteins must be identified. In tobacco, the bZIP transcription factor Repression of Shoot Growth (NtRSG) that modulates gibberellin (GA) content is a specific target of NtCDPK1. StCDPK3 from potato is homologous (88% identical) to NtCDPK1 even in its N-terminal variable domain. In this work, we observe that NtRSG is also phosphorylated by StCDPK3. The potato RSG family of transcription factors is composed of three members that share similar features. The closest homologue to NtRSG, which was named StRSG1, was amplified and sequenced. qRT-PCR data indicate that StRSG1 is mainly expressed in petioles, stems, lateral buds, and roots. In addition, GA treatment affected StRSG1 expression. StCDPK3 transcripts were detected in leaves, petioles, stolons, roots, and dormant tubers, and transcript levels were modified in response to GA. The recombinant StRSG1-GST protein was produced and tested as a substrate for StCDPK3 and StCDPK1. 6xHisStCDPK3 was able to phosphorylate the potato StRSG1 in a Ca2+-dependent way, while 6xHisStCDPK1 could not. StCDPK3 also interacts and phosphorylates the transcription factor StABF1 (ABRE binding factor 1) involved in ABA signaling, as shown by EMSA and phosphorylation assays. StABF1 transcripts were mainly detected in roots, stems, and stolons. Our data suggest that StCDPK3 could be involved in the cross-talk between ABA and GA signaling at the onset of tuber development. PMID:27907086

  2. Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius ST169 and novel ST354 SCCmec II-III isolates related to the worldwide ST71 clone.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Koizumi, A; Saito, M; Muramatsu, Y; Tamura, Y

    2016-01-01

    The recent appearance of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a concern for both veterinary and human healthcare. MRSP clonal lineages with sequence type (ST) 71-spa t02-staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) II-III and ST68-spa t06-SCCmec V have spread throughout Europe and North America, respectively. The current study compared the molecular characteristics of 43 MRSP isolates from dogs in Japan with those of MRSP from previous reports using multilocus sequence typing based on seven housekeeping genes, SCCmec typing, and detection of antimicrobial resistance genes. Three related clonal lineages, ST71, ST169, and the newly registered ST354, were observed in SCCmec II-III isolates from Japan, despite MRSP SCCmec II-III isolates being thought to belong to a single clonal lineage. The majority of SCCmec II-III isolates belonging to ST169 (9/11) and ST354 (3/3), but not ST71 (0/11), harboured tetM. Four STs were observed for the SCCmec V isolates; however, neither ST68 nor related STs were found in the Japanese MRSP isolates. In conclusion, MRSP SCCmec II-III isolates from Japan belonged to ST71 and related STs (ST169 and ST354). A variety of MRSP SCCmec V clones, including some novel clones, were identified.

  3. St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

  4. Nursing theory: the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Randell, B P

    1992-01-01

    On September 21, 1990, at the University of California, Los Angeles, Neuropsychiatric Institute and Hospital, six nurse theorists participated in a panel discussion on theory development for the 21st century. The theorists included Dorothy Johnson, Betty Neuman, Dorothea E. Orem, Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Martha E. Rogers and Callista Roy. The panel provided the participants the opportunity to speculate on the course for future development of nursing knowledge. Three questions were posed to the panel relating to the development of their models, the direction nursing theory will take in the 21st century, and current research emerging from the extant theories. The panel also addressed questions from the audience.

  5. Swithin St. Cleeve: Variable Star Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzenhoffer, K.

    1986-12-01

    THomas Hardy's romance "Two on a Tower" is the first novel to use an astronomical background as its unifying theme and the first to cast an astronomer in the role of protagonist. One subplot of the novel concerns Swithin St. Cleeve's quest for fame through his observations of variable stars. Despite a number of observational and instrumental setbacks, he makes an amazing discovery about variable stars, one he is certain will excite the astronomical world. But before he can get the news into print, another astronomer announces that very discover and takes from St. Cleeve the fame he thought would be his.

  6. Mount St. Helens Volcano, WA, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mount St. Helens Volcano (46.0N, 122.0W) and its blast zone can be seen in this northeast looking infrared view. Mt. Rainier and Mt. Adams can also be seen in the near area. The Columbia River can be seen at the bottom of the view. When Mt. St. Helens erupted on 18 May 80, the top 1300 ft. disappeared within minutes. The blast area covered an area of more than 150 sq. miles and sent thousands of tons of ash into the upper atmosphere.

  7. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-97-020) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  8. Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This photo of the Tampa Bay, St. Petersburg, Florida (28.0N, 82.5W) is one of a pair (see STS049-92-017) to compare the differences between color film and color infrared film. In the color image above, the scene appears as it would to the human eye. The city of St. Petersburg can be seen even though there is atmospheric haze obscuring the image. Color infrared film filters out the haze and portrays vegetation as shades of red or pink.

  9. Protocol Gas Verification Program Audit Reports

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the full reports from 2010 and 2013 of the PGVP audits, which tested the EPA Protocol gases that are used to calibrate continuous emission monitoring systems (CEMS), and the instruments used in EPA reference methods.

  10. A practical quantum bit commitment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arash Sheikholeslam, S.; Aaron Gulliver, T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment protocol which is secure against entanglement attacks. A general cheating strategy is examined and shown to be practically ineffective against the proposed approach.

  11. Entanglement distillation protocols and number theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.

    2005-09-01

    We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension D benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set ZDn associated with Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of ZDn into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analytically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension D . When D is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  12. Authentication Protocol using Quantum Superposition States

    SciTech Connect

    Kanamori, Yoshito; Yoo, Seong-Moo; Gregory, Don A.; Sheldon, Frederick T

    2009-01-01

    When it became known that quantum computers could break the RSA (named for its creators - Rivest, Shamir, and Adleman) encryption algorithm within a polynomial-time, quantum cryptography began to be actively studied. Other classical cryptographic algorithms are only secure when malicious users do not have sufficient computational power to break security within a practical amount of time. Recently, many quantum authentication protocols sharing quantum entangled particles between communicators have been proposed, providing unconditional security. An issue caused by sharing quantum entangled particles is that it may not be simple to apply these protocols to authenticate a specific user in a group of many users. An authentication protocol using quantum superposition states instead of quantum entangled particles is proposed. The random number shared between a sender and a receiver can be used for classical encryption after the authentication has succeeded. The proposed protocol can be implemented with the current technologies we introduce in this paper.

  13. Evolution of Natural Attenuation Evaluation Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditionally the evaluation of the efficacy of natural attenuation was based on changes in contaminant concentrations and mass reduction. Statistical tools and models such as Bioscreen provided evaluation protocols which now are being approached via other vehicles including m...

  14. Putting the Human Back in the Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, Bruce

    Hello, everyone, and welcome to the 14th International Security Protocols Workshop. I’m going to start with a quotation from someone who, at least in principle, is in charge of a very different security community than ours:

  15. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test... operating components that could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable...

  16. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child... could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for...

  17. 16 CFR 1212.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR MULTI-PURPOSE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child-Resistance § 1212.4 Test protocol. (a) Child... could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable operating tolerances for...

  18. 16 CFR 1210.4 - Test protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARD FOR CIGARETTE LIGHTERS Requirements for Child Resistance § 1210.4 Test protocol. (a) Child test... operating components that could affect child resistance to verify that they are within reasonable...

  19. A Look Back at the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer. This video takes a look back at how scientists, industry leaders, and policy makers came together to regulate C...

  20. A Demand Access Protocol for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Jay L.; Leang, Dee

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a demand access protocol for space communications, which is a messaging procedure that facilitates the exchange of resource requests and grants between users and service providers. A minimal set of operational and environmental needs and constraints are assumed since the intent is to keep the protocol flexible and efficient for a wide-range of envisioned NASA robotic and human exploration missions. The protocol described in this document defines the message format and procedures used to ensure proper and correct functioning of a demand access communications system, which must operate under customized resource management policies applied by the users and service providers. This protocol also assumes a minimal set of capabilities from the underlying communications system so that no unique requirements are imposed on the communications sub-systems.

  1. Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Luis Javier García; Orozco, Ana Lucila Sandoval; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño; Abbas, Cláudia Jacy Barenco

    2009-01-01

    The applications of wireless sensor networks comprise a wide variety of scenarios. In most of them, the network is composed of a significant number of nodes deployed in an extensive area in which not all nodes are directly connected. Then, the data exchange is supported by multihop communications. Routing protocols are in charge of discovering and maintaining the routes in the network. However, the appropriateness of a particular routing protocol mainly depends on the capabilities of the nodes and on the application requirements. This paper presents a review of the main routing protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks. Additionally, the paper includes the efforts carried out by Spanish universities on developing optimization techniques in the area of routing protocols for wireless sensor networks. PMID:22291515

  2. NREL Test-to-Failure Protocol (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hacke, P.

    2012-03-01

    The presentation describes the test-to-failure protocol that was developed and piloted at NREL, stressing PV modules with multiple applications of damp heat (with bias) and thermal cycling until they fail.

  3. Hybrid protocol of remote implementations of quantum operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ning Bo; Wang, An Min

    2007-12-01

    We propose a protocol of remote implementations of quantum operations by hybridizing bidirectional quantum-state teleportation (BQST) [Huelga , Phys. Rev. A 63, 042303 (2001)] and the Wang protocol [Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)]. The protocol is available for remote implementations of quantum operations in the restricted sets specified in the paper. We also give a proof of the protocol and point out its optimization. As an extension, this hybrid protocol can be reduced to the BQST and Wang protocols.

  4. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, C. E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  5. Protocol for communications in potentially noisy environments

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, Gerlad M.; Farrow, Jeffrey

    2016-02-09

    A communications protocol that is designed for transmission of data in networks that are subjected to harsh conditions is described herein. A network includes a plurality of devices, where the devices comprise respective nodes. The nodes are in communication with one another by way of a central network hub. The protocol causes the nodes to transmit data over a network bus at different data rates depending upon whether the nodes are operating normally or an arbitration procedure has been invoked.

  6. ABM Clinical Protocol #20: Engorgement, Revised 2016.

    PubMed

    Berens, Pamela; Brodribb, Wendy

    2016-05-01

    A central goal of The Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may impact breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.

  7. ABM clinical protocol #13: contraception during breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    A central goal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine is the development of clinical protocols for managing common medical problems that may influence breastfeeding success. These protocols serve only as guidelines for the care of breastfeeding mothers and infants and do not delineate an exclusive course of treatment or serve as standards of medical care. Variations in treatment may be appropriate according to the needs of an individual patient.

  8. Protocol Development | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. Letter of Intent (LOI) Process The chemoprevention Phase I and II consortia must submit Letters of Intent for review and approval prior to the submission and review of the protocol. DCP will solicit Letters of Intent from investigators who want to conduct clinical trials with specific agents. |

  9. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  10. CT protocol management: simplifying the process by using a master protocol concept.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Bour, Robert K; Rubert, Nicholas; Wendt, Gary; Pozniak, Myron; Ranallo, Frank N

    2015-07-08

    This article explains a method for creating CT protocols for a wide range of patient body sizes and clinical indications, using detailed tube current information from a small set of commonly used protocols. Analytical expressions were created relating CT technical acquisition parameters which can be used to create new CT protocols on a given scanner or customize protocols from one scanner to another. Plots of mA as a function of patient size for specific anatomical regions were generated and used to identify the tube output needs for patients as a function of size for a single master protocol. Tube output data were obtained from the DICOM header of clinical images from our PACS and patient size was measured from CT localizer radiographs under IRB approval. This master protocol was then used to create 11 additional master protocols. The 12 master protocols were further combined to create 39 single and multiphase clinical protocols. Radiologist acceptance rate of exams scanned using the clinical protocols was monitored for 12,857 patients to analyze the effectiveness of the presented protocol management methods using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. A single routine adult abdominal protocol was used as the master protocol to create 11 additional master abdominal protocols of varying dose and beam energy. Situations in which the maximum tube current would have been exceeded are presented, and the trade-offs between increasing the effective tube output via 1) decreasing pitch, 2) increasing the scan time, or 3) increasing the kV are discussed. Out of 12 master protocols customized across three different scanners, only one had a statistically significant acceptance rate that differed from the scanner it was customized from. The difference, however, was only 1% and was judged to be negligible. All other master protocols differed in acceptance rate insignificantly between scanners. The methodology described in this paper allows a small set of master protocols to be

  11. CT protocol management: simplifying the process by using a master protocol concept.

    PubMed

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Bour, Robert K; Rubert, Nicholas; Wendt, Gary; Pozniak, Myron; Ranallo, Frank N

    2015-07-01

    This article explains a method for creating CT protocols for a wide range of patient body sizes and clinical indications, using detailed tube current information from a small set of commonly used protocols. Analytical expressions were created relating CT technical acquisition parameters which can be used to create new CT protocols on a given scanner or customize protocols from one scanner to another. Plots of mA as a function of patient size for specific anatomical regions were generated and used to identify the tube output needs for patients as a function of size for a single master protocol. Tube output data were obtained from the DICOM header of clinical images from our PACS and patient size was measured from CT localizer radiographs under IRB approval. This master protocol was then used to create 11 additional master protocols. The 12 master protocols were further combined to create 39 single and multiphase clinical protocols. Radiologist acceptance rate of exams scanned using the clinical protocols was monitored for 12,857 patients to analyze the effectiveness of the presented protocol management methods using a two-tailed Fisher's exact test. A single routine adult abdominal protocol was used as the master protocol to create 11 additional master abdominal protocols of varying dose and beam energy. Situations in which the maximum tube current would have been exceeded are presented, and the trade-offs between increasing the effective tube output via 1) decreasing pitch, 2) increasing the scan time, or 3) increasing the kV are discussed. Out of 12 master protocols customized across three different scanners, only one had a statistically significant acceptance rate that differed from the scanner it was customized from. The difference, however, was only 1% and was judged to be negligible. All other master protocols differed in acceptance rate insignificantly between scanners. The methodology described in this paper allows a small set of master protocols to be

  12. Magnetic field induced 1st order transitions: Recent studies, and some new concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaddah, P.

    2015-05-01

    Phase transitions are caused by varying temperature, or pressure, or magnetic field. The observation of 1st order magneto-structural transitions has created application possibilities based on magnetoresistance, magnetocaloric effect, magnetic shape memory effect, and magneto-dielectric effect. Magnetic field induced transitions, and phase coexistence of competing magnetic phases down to the lowest temperature, gained prominence over a decade ago with theoretical models suggesting that the ground state is not homogeneous. Researchers at Indore pushed an alternative view that this phase coexistence could be due to glasslike "kinetic arrest" of a disorder-broadened first-order magnetic transition between two states with long-range magnetic order, resulting in phase coexistence down to the lowest temperatures. The CHUF (cooling and heating in unequal field) protocol created at Indore allows the observation of `devitrification', followed by `melting'. I show examples of measurements establishing kinetic arrest in various materials, emphasizing that glasslike arrest of 1st order magnetic transitions may be as ubiquitous as glass formation following the arrest of 1st order structural transitions.

  13. The 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, C. L. (Compiler); Boesiger, E. A. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    The proceedings of the 31st Aerospace Mechanisms Symposium are reported. Topics covered include: robotics, deployment mechanisms, bearings, actuators, scanners, boom and antenna release, and test equipment. A major focus is the reporting of problems and solutions associated with the development and flight certification of new mechanisms.

  14. Loftin Collection (Spirit of St. Louis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1928-01-01

    Ryan NYP 'Spirit of St. Louis' equipped with 220 HP Wright Whirlwind engine. Charles A. Lindbergh flew this aircraft non-stop from New York to Paris in the period May 20-21 1927. Photographed in San Diego, California. This photo was used in a report, NACA TN, written by Donald Hall who designed the aircraft.

  15. 21st Century Learning Environment Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Educational Technology Directors Association, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report provides short descriptions of systemic approaches for American Recovery and Reinvestment Act funding including: (1) 21st Century Classroom; (2) Comprehensive Professional Development; (3) Statewide Longitudinal Data Systems; (4) Formative Assessment; (5) Digital Content; (6) Virtual Learning; and (7) Learning Management Systems.

  16. Transportation fuels for the 21st century

    EPA Science Inventory

    As we enter the 21st century, policymakers face complex decisions regarding options for meeting the demand for transportation fuels. There is now a broad scientific consensus that the burning of fossil fuels has been contributing to climate change, and the transportation sector i...

  17. Computerized Farm of the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrann, James M.

    Advancement in computer technology comes at a time when agriculture is in transition from a production-oriented to a business-oriented activity and will require new skills and knowledge if farmers are to be prepared for the future. Electronic technology applications on 21st century commercial farms and ranches will include farm decision support…

  18. St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... a half-life of 26.5 hours (half-life is the amount of time it takes your body to eliminate half of the dose of the medication). It is likely that levels of St. John’s Wort would be low after one week, but there are no studies looking ...

  19. Creativity in 21st-Century Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Lynn D.; Newton, Douglas P.

    2014-01-01

    The 2006 UNESCO conference "Building Creative Competencies for the 21st Century" had international participants and a global reach. The Director-General's proclamation that "Creativity is our hope" captured the essence of the proceedings and participants saw the focus on creativity as offering solutions to global problems.…

  20. American Education in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishnietsky, Dan H.

    This book examines American education at the turn of the new millennium. It reviews its history and suggests, in broad terms, where it may be headed in the 21st century. Topics considered include a brief survey of the education "scene" today, the notion of a global village and ramifications for a global curriculum, technology related to…

  1. Sivuqam Ungipaghaatangi (St. Lawrence Island Legends).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slwooko, Grace

    Transmitted orally for generations until the Eskimo language became a written one, the eleven St. Lawrence Island legends compiled in this volume for high school students tell of feats that were accomplished through supernatural power. Meant for both entertainment and instruction, the tales convey wise council indirectly through the conversations…

  2. Life Parallels Art at St. Bonaventure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Lionel S.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author chronicles the summary firing of Joseph Greer, a veteran sociology professor, over allegations of racism that evoke comparison to a Philip Roth novel about political correctness run amuck. Unlike the fictional story, the faculty at St. Bonaventure University did not seem to have much of an appetite for censuring…

  3. The 21st-Century Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Step into a classroom in the 21st century, and the odds are it won't look all that different from one in the 20th century. One decade into the 2000s, many schools and universities have been frustrated in their efforts to upgrade their facilities and resources because of shrinking budgets. But even with the ailing economy, some education…

  4. 101st Congress: The Children's Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Barbara

    1991-01-01

    Reports on legislation on child care and regulations for children's television enacted during the 101st congress. Legislation involving block grants, Title IV-A funding, and earned income tax credits was intended to bring about quality improvement and affordability. Reauthorizations included Head Start, Follow Through, Community Services Block…

  5. Action Research at St Mark's Academy 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwick, Alex, Ed.; Riggall, Anna, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    St Mark's Church of England Academy is an 11-18 academy situated in Mitcham, South London. It offers a commitment to high achievement within a community of care, underpinned by the Christian values of hope, love and trust. The academy encourages the development of the moral and spiritual well-being of students, alongside their academic success.…

  6. Creating 21st Century Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Phan P.; Locke, John; Nair, Prakash; Bunting, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    What is involved in creating learning environments for the 21st century? How can school facilities serve as tools for teaching and meet the needs of students in the future? What components are required to design effective schools, and how does architecture relate to the purposes of schooling? These are some of the questions addressed at the…

  7. Mount St. Helens Classroom Activities: Secondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Educational Service District 112, Vancouver.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide secondary teachers with an assortment of classroom activities dealing with the Mt. St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, in the areas of science, social studies, math, language arts and school newspaper activities. Copy masters and teacher versions of all activities are contained within this guide,…

  8. Mount St. Helens Classroom Activities: Elementary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Educational Service District 112, Vancouver.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide elementary teachers with an assortment of classroom activities dealing with the Mt. St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980, in the areas of science, social studies, math, language arts, and school newspaper activities. Copy masters and teacher versions of all activities are contained with this guide,…

  9. 78 FR 44927 - 101st Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ARCTIC RESEARCH COMMISSION 101st Commission Meeting Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Arctic Research Commission will hold its... presentations concerning Arctic research activities The focus of the meeting will be Arctic research...

  10. Pleistocene glaciation on st. George, pribilof islands.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, D M; Einarsson, T

    1966-04-15

    A small ice cap (covering about 12 square kilometers) and at least two-probably four-cirque glaciers (each covering less than 1 square kilometer) occurred on St. George Island, Pribilof Islands, probably during the Illinoian; Glaciation. Snowbanks persisted during a later cold cycle, probably during the Wisconsin Glaciation, with no glaciers existing. We found no evidence of glaciation on other Pribilof islands.

  11. ST14 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    ST14 protein is an epithelial-derived, integral membrane serine protease and is found to be activated by sphingosine 1-phosphate. The expression of this protease has been associated with breast, colon, prostate, and ovarian tumors, which implicates its role in cancer invasion, and metastasis.

  12. "Hard Science" for Gifted 1st Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGennaro, April

    2006-01-01

    "Hard Science" is designed to teach 1st grade gifted students accurate and high level science concepts. It is based upon their experience of the world and attempts to build a foundation for continued love and enjoyment of science. "Hard Science" provides field experiences and opportunities for hands-on discovery working beside experts in the field…

  13. Developing Leaders for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, John L.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Leadership Development for the 21st Century: Linking Research, Academics and Extension program that began in June 2005. This 12-month program, designed to explore different models of leadership, develop peer networks, and enhance skills and knowledge in leadership competencies, is specifically for land grand educators…

  14. Faculty Development for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Veronica; Garrett, P. B.; Kinley, Edward R.; Moore, John F.; Schwartz, Celeste M.; Kohrman, Pat

    2009-01-01

    In the 21st century, colleges and universities need to consider faculty development programs in the same way that they view academic programs for their Net Gen and Millennial students. In other words, successful faculty development programs should include mentoring, delivery in a variety of on-campus and off-campus formats (face-to-face, blended,…

  15. St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

  16. St. Louis Educational Museum: A Centennial Commemoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The St. Louis, Missouri Educational Museum has its roots in the 1904 Centennial Exposition, held at Forest Park on the edge of the city. The theme of the exposition was education and technology. Seventy thousand local school children visited the exposition, and at its conclusion an initiative was launched to purchase some of the exhibitions as…

  17. Learning Analytics for 21st Century Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckingham Shum, Simon; Crick, Ruth Deakin

    2016-01-01

    Many educational institutions are shifting their teaching and learning towards equipping students with knowledge, skills, and dispositions that prepare them for lifelong learning, in a complex and uncertain world. These have been termed "21st century competencies." Learning analytics (LA) approaches in general offer different kinds of…

  18. A Vision of the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Gene

    2006-01-01

    The new vision for the 21st century is reflected in ACTE's recent position paper on strengthening the American high school through career and technical education. Teachers and administrators are encouraged to continue raising students' academic achievements and their high school completion rates. However, the way the American high school is…

  19. Soaring into the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, John

    1993-01-01

    Describes the implementation of ideas from the National Congress on Catholic Schools for the 21st Century at Saint Thomas Aquinas School in the South Bronx. Discusses Catholic identity, school spirit, social change, and school development with respect to the school's long-range planning for success in an economically depressed neighborhood. (MAB)

  20. Material Connections: Steuart Building, St. Albans School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Suzanne

    1980-01-01

    The addition to the St. Albans campus in Washington, D.C., relates both to the style and the siting of the older "collegiate gothic" school nearby. The mixed-use building contains five classrooms, art and music spaces, and a student lounge. (Author/MLF)

  1. Protocol for Communication Networking for Formation Flying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Esther; Okino, Clayton; Gao, Jay; Clare, Loren

    2009-01-01

    An application-layer protocol and a network architecture have been proposed for data communications among multiple autonomous spacecraft that are required to fly in a precise formation in order to perform scientific observations. The protocol could also be applied to other autonomous vehicles operating in formation, including robotic aircraft, robotic land vehicles, and robotic underwater vehicles. A group of spacecraft or other vehicles to which the protocol applies could be characterized as a precision-formation- flying (PFF) network, and each vehicle could be characterized as a node in the PFF network. In order to support precise formation flying, it would be necessary to establish a corresponding communication network, through which the vehicles could exchange position and orientation data and formation-control commands. The communication network must enable communication during early phases of a mission, when little positional knowledge is available. Particularly during early mission phases, the distances among vehicles may be so large that communication could be achieved only by relaying across multiple links. The large distances and need for omnidirectional coverage would limit communication links to operation at low bandwidth during these mission phases. Once the vehicles were in formation and distances were shorter, the communication network would be required to provide high-bandwidth, low-jitter service to support tight formation-control loops. The proposed protocol and architecture, intended to satisfy the aforementioned and other requirements, are based on a standard layered-reference-model concept. The proposed application protocol would be used in conjunction with conventional network, data-link, and physical-layer protocols. The proposed protocol includes the ubiquitous Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 medium access control (MAC) protocol to be used in the datalink layer. In addition to its widespread and proven use in

  2. Bacteria and emerging chemical contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  3. Regional Sediment Management Strategies for the Vicinity of St. Augustine Inlet, St. Johns County, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 6- 12 Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program Regional Sediment Management Strategies for the Vicinity of St. Augustine...default. Regional Sediment Management (RSM) Program ERDC/CHL TR-16-12 July 2016 Regional Sediment Management Strategies for the Vicinity of St...Augustine Inlet RSM” ERDC/CHL TR-16-12 ii Abstract This report provides a description of Regional Sediment Management (RSM) investigations performed

  4. 4. EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW OF 400 BLOCK OF SEVENTH ST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR, CORNER VIEW OF 400 BLOCK OF SEVENTH ST. SHOWING 415 SEVENTH ST. (SOUTHWEST VIEW) Jeff Wolf, Photographer, February 1981 - Cullinan Building, 415 Seventh Street, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. Role of Strouhal number (St) in free swimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadat, Mehdi; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2012-11-01

    St of 0.2-0.4 has become synonymous with efficient self propulsion. Is it the cause, or an effect? As has been argued by a number of authors, St alone is insufficient to decide optimal motion because many inefficient combinations of amplitude and frequency lead to the same St. In this talk we show a simple ramification of free swimming where the swim speed and St are outputs. The iso-lines for speed, St, and thrust coincide so long as there is no massive leading-edge separation. It appears that St is simply related to how the drag coefficient and geometry of the body relates to the thrust coefficient and geometry of the propulsor. For a given combination of propulsor and body, St of motion is essentially independent of amplitude, frequency, and speed, and is only a function of shape. Some motions are efficient, and some are not. But they all have the same St. Supported by ONR MURI.

  6. 12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHWEST, CHESTNUT ST. (lower horizontal line) TO WALNUT ST. (upper horizontal line), SHOWING SECOND BANK OF U.S. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 3. VIEW NORTHWARD FROM 51 N. THIRD ST. TO 63 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW NORTHWARD FROM 51 N. THIRD ST. TO 63 N. THIRD ST. (FROM RIGHT TO LEFT). WEST (FRONT) FACADES, LOOKING NORTHEAST - North Third Street Area Study, 17-63 North Third Street (Commercial Buildings), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. Paul Dispatch photograph, ca. 1934 Sculptor Carl Milles working on Indian God of Peace - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  9. DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISTANT VIEW OF ST. FRANCIS DE SALES CATHEDRAL, LOOKING NORTH ALONG MARTIN LUTHER KING JR. WAY FROM 14TH STREET - St. Francis de Sales Church, 2100 Martin Luther King, Jr. Way, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  10. 19. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph (courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society) St. Paul Dispatch photograph, 1931 Cornerstone ceremony - St. Paul City Hall & Ramsey County Courthouse, 15 West Kellogg Boulevard, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  11. Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B regulate intestinal homeostasis in Drosophila adult midgut.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yueqin; Li, Zhouhua; Lin, Xinhua

    2014-11-01

    Intrinsic and extrinsic signals as well as the extracellular matrix (ECM) tightly regulate stem cells for tissue homeostasis and regenerative capacity. Little is known about the regulation of tissue homeostasis by the ECM. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), important components of the ECM, are involved in a variety of biological events. Two heparin sulfate 3-O sulfotransferase (Hs3st) genes, Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B, encode the modification enzymes in heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis. Here we demonstrate that Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are required for adult midgut homeostasis. Depletion of Hs3st-A in enterocytes (ECs) results in increased intestinal stem cell (ISC) proliferation and tissue homeostasis loss. Moreover, increased ISC proliferation is also observed in Hs3st-B null mutant alone, or in combination with Hs3st-A RNAi. Hs3st-A depletion-induced ISC proliferation is effectively suppressed by simultaneous inhibition of the EGFR signaling pathway, suggesting that tissue homeostasis loss in Hs3st-A-deficient intestines is due to increased EGFR signaling. Furthermore, we find that Hs3st-A-depleted ECs are unhealthy and prone to death, while ectopic expression of the antiapoptotic p35 is able to greatly suppress tissue homeostasis loss in these intestines. Together, our data suggest that Drosophila Hs3st-A and Hs3st-B are involved in the regulation of ISC proliferation and midgut homeostasis maintenance.

  12. WDM network and multicasting protocol strategies.

    PubMed

    Kirci, Pinar; Zaim, Abdul Halim

    2014-01-01

    Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS) and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET) and Just In Time (JIT) reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  13. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-01-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  14. The Space Communications Protocol Standards Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Alan; Hooke, Adrian J.

    1994-11-01

    In the fall of 1992 NASA and the Department of Defense chartered a technical team to explore the possibility of developing a common set of space data communications standards for potential dual-use across the U.S. national space mission support infrastructure. The team focused on the data communications needs of those activities associated with on-lined control of civil and military aircraft. A two-pronged approach was adopted: a top-down survey of representative civil and military space data communications requirements was conducted; and a bottom-up analysis of available standard data communications protocols was performed. A striking intersection of civil and military space mission requirements emerged, and an equally striking consensus on the approach towards joint civil and military space protocol development was reached. The team concluded that wide segments of the U.S. civil and military space communities have common needs for: (1) an efficient file transfer protocol; (2) various flavors of underlying data transport service; (3) an optional data protection mechanism to assure end-to-end security of message exchange; and (4) an efficient internetworking protocol. These recommendations led to initiating a program to develop a suite of protocols based on these findings. This paper describes the current status of this program.

  15. Processing Protocol for Soil Samples Potentially ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Method Operating Procedures This protocol describes the processing steps for 45 g and 9 g soil samples potentially contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores. The protocol is designed to separate and concentrate the spores from bulk soil down to a pellet that can be used for further analysis. Soil extraction solution and mechanical shaking are used to disrupt soil particle aggregates and to aid in the separation of spores from soil particles. Soil samples are washed twice with soil extraction solution to maximize recovery. Differential centrifugation is used to separate spores from the majority of the soil material. The 45 g protocol has been demonstrated by two laboratories using both loamy and sandy soil types. There were no significant differences overall between the two laboratories for either soil type, suggesting that the processing protocol would be robust enough to use at multiple laboratories while achieving comparable recoveries. The 45 g protocol has demonstrated a matrix limit of detection at 14 spores/gram of soil for loamy and sandy soils.

  16. Standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conway, Courtney J.

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the population status of many marsh-dependent birds in North America but recent efforts have focused on collecting more reliable information and estimates of population trends. As part of that effort, a standardized survey protocol was developed in 1999 that provided guidance for conducting marsh bird surveys throughout North America such that data would be consistent among locations. The original survey protocol has been revised to provide greater clarification on many issues as the number of individuals using the protocol has grown. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol instructs surveyors to conduct an initial 5-minute passive point-count survey followed by a series of 1-minute segments during which marsh bird calls are broadcast into the marsh following a standardized approach. Surveyors are instructed to record each individual bird from the suite of 26 focal species that are present in their local area on separate lines of a datasheet and estimate the distance to each bird. Also, surveyors are required to record whether each individual bird was detected within each 1-minute subsegment of the survey. These data allow analysts to use several different approaches for estimating detection probability. The Standardized North American Marsh Bird Monitoring Protocol provides detailed instructions that explain the field methods used to monitor marsh birds in North America.

  17. ST7-DRS on LISA Pathfinder: Initial Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutler, Curt; Ziemer, John; Barela, Phil; Demmons, Nathaniel; Dunn, Charles; Hruby, Vlad; Hsu, Oscar; Liepack, Otfrid; Maghami, Peiman; O'Donnell, James; Slutsky, Jacob; Thorpe, James; Romero-Wolfe, Andrew

    2016-03-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), a European Space Agency Mission to demonstrate technologies for future space-based gravitational wave observatories, was launched from French Guiana on Dec 3, 2015. A payload on LPF is the NASA-provided ST7 Disturbance Reduction System (ST7-DRS). We will describe the current state of ST7-DRS, including results from the initial on-orbit commissioning and the experimental plan for the ST7-DRS operations in the summer of 2016.

  18. Instructor Handbook for the Protocol Modules on Classroom Management. Utah Protocol Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer, Philip; Borg, Walter R.

    This handbook is designed to acquaint the teacher educator with the training materials in classroom management prepared by the Utah State University Protocol Training Project. It deals with the protocol materials generally and with each module specifically, and includes the following sections: (a) an introduction to and rationale for protocol…

  19. 33 CFR 117.643 - Pine River (St. Clair).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pine River (St. Clair). 117.643 Section 117.643 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.643 Pine River (St. Clair). The draw of the S29 bridge, mile 0.1 at St....

  20. Who Will the 21st-Century Learners Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dweck, Carol

    2009-01-01

    In the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," the American Association of School Librarians (AASL) describes the skills, dispositions, responsibilities, and self-assessment strategies that are necessary for a 21st-century learner. However, as wonderful as AASL's 21st-century goals sound, they will fall on deaf ears because students who have a…

  1. 2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirtyeighth and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of Plate #12, 'St. James Church, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200 Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirtyeighth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of Plate #13, 'Interior of St. James, Thirty-eighth and Chestnut Sts.', in Architectural Album of Edwin F. Durang and Son, 1200. Chestnut St., Philadelphia (a privately bound volume). Exact date not noted. - St. James Roman Catholic Church, 3728 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 33 CFR 110.72b - St. Simons Island, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Simons Island, Georgia. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72b St. Simons Island, Georgia. The area beginning at a point southwest of Frederica River Bridge, St. Simons Island Causeway at latitude 31°09′58″...

  4. Public School in St. Louis: Place, Performance, and Promise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Charter School Authorizers (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report compares the demand for public education in St. Louis during the 2007-08 school year with both the supply and location of public schools operated by St. Louis Public Schools and charter schools. The geographic areas of analysis are the city of St. Louis and its zip codes. The first four sections of this report contain background…

  5. 75 FR 8390 - St. Croix River Aids to Navigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-24

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard St. Croix River Aids to Navigation AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of public... the aids to navigation in the St. Croix River. DATES: A public meeting will be held on Tuesday, March... review the current Aids to Navigation system on the St. Croix River and discuss concerns and...

  6. 17. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's New School,' from the commemorative booklet ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy, 'St. Mary's New School,' from the commemorative booklet published for the dedication of the school, September 1923. View Southeast, North Front and West Side perspective at Church and Guthrie Street, including Rectory and Church (Original in possession of St. Mary's Parish) - St. Mary's Roman Catholic School, Northwest corner of Church Avenue & Guthrie Street, McKees Rocks, Allegheny County, PA

  7. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-01-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit (‘Ethics Tool Kit’) has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval. PMID:26811365

  8. Incorporating ethical principles into clinical research protocols: a tool for protocol writers and ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Li, Rebecca H; Wacholtz, Mary C; Barnes, Mark; Boggs, Liam; Callery-D'Amico, Susan; Davis, Amy; Digilova, Alla; Forster, David; Heffernan, Kate; Luthin, Maeve; Lynch, Holly Fernandez; McNair, Lindsay; Miller, Jennifer E; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Van Campen, Luann; Wilenzick, Mark; Wolf, Delia; Woolston, Cris; Aldinger, Carmen; Bierer, Barbara E

    2016-04-01

    A novel Protocol Ethics Tool Kit ('Ethics Tool Kit') has been developed by a multi-stakeholder group of the Multi-Regional Clinical Trials Center of Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard. The purpose of the Ethics Tool Kit is to facilitate effective recognition, consideration and deliberation of critical ethical issues in clinical trial protocols. The Ethics Tool Kit may be used by investigators and sponsors to develop a dedicated Ethics Section within a protocol to improve the consistency and transparency between clinical trial protocols and research ethics committee reviews. It may also streamline ethics review and may facilitate and expedite the review process by anticipating the concerns of ethics committee reviewers. Specific attention was given to issues arising in multinational settings. With the use of this Tool Kit, researchers have the opportunity to address critical research ethics issues proactively, potentially speeding the time and easing the process to final protocol approval.

  9. Chapter 15: Commercial New Construction Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, S.

    2014-09-01

    This protocol is intended to describe the recommended method when evaluating the whole-building performance of new construction projects in the commercial sector. The protocol focuses on energy conservation measures (ECMs) measures (or packages of measures) where evaluators can best analyze impacts using building simulation. These ECMs typically require the use of calibrated building simulations under Option D of the International Performance Measurement and Verification Protocol. Examples of such measures include Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design building certification, novel and/or efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system designs, and extensive building controls systems. In general, it is best to evaluate any ECM (or set of measures) expected to significantly interact with other systems within the building and with savings sensitive to seasonal variations in weather.

  10. Network protocols for real-time applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1987-01-01

    The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) and the SAE AE-9B High Speed Ring Bus (HSRB) are emerging standards for high-performance token ring local area networks. FDDI was designed to be a general-purpose high-performance network. HSRB was designed specifically for military real-time applications. A workshop was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in January, 1987 to compare and contrast these protocols with respect to their ability to support real-time applications. This report summarizes workshop presentations and includes an independent comparison of the two protocols. A conclusion reached at the workshop was that current protocols for the upper layers of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network model are inadequate for real-time applications.

  11. Protocol for emergency EPR dosimetry in fingernails.

    PubMed

    Trompier, F; Kornak, L; Calas, C; Romanyukha, A; Leblanc, B; Mitchell, C A; Swartz, H M; Clairand, I

    2007-08-01

    There is an increased need for after-the-fact dosimetry because of the high risk of radiation exposures due to terrorism or accidents. In case of such an event, a method is needed to make measurements of dose in a large number of individuals rapidly and with sufficient accuracy to facilitate effective medical triage. Dosimetry based on EPR measurements of fingernails potentially could be an effective tool for this purpose. This paper presents the first operational protocols for EPR fingernail dosimetry, including guidelines for collection and storage of samples, parameters for EPR measurements, and the method of dose assessment. In a blinded test of this protocol application was carried out on nails freshly sampled and irradiated to 4 and 20 Gy; this protocol gave dose estimates with an error of less than 30%.

  12. Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Benton, N.

    2014-11-01

    Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

  13. Objective and automated protocols for the evaluation of biomedical search engines using No Title Evaluation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Fabien

    2008-01-01

    Background The evaluation of information retrieval techniques has traditionally relied on human judges to determine which documents are relevant to a query and which are not. This protocol is used in the Text Retrieval Evaluation Conference (TREC), organized annually for the past 15 years, to support the unbiased evaluation of novel information retrieval approaches. The TREC Genomics Track has recently been introduced to measure the performance of information retrieval for biomedical applications. Results We describe two protocols for evaluating biomedical information retrieval techniques without human relevance judgments. We call these protocols No Title Evaluation (NT Evaluation). The first protocol measures performance for focused searches, where only one relevant document exists for each query. The second protocol measures performance for queries expected to have potentially many relevant documents per query (high-recall searches). Both protocols take advantage of the clear separation of titles and abstracts found in Medline. We compare the performance obtained with these evaluation protocols to results obtained by reusing the relevance judgments produced in the 2004 and 2005 TREC Genomics Track and observe significant correlations between performance rankings generated by our approach and TREC. Spearman's correlation coefficients in the range of 0.79–0.92 are observed comparing bpref measured with NT Evaluation or with TREC evaluations. For comparison, coefficients in the range 0.86–0.94 can be observed when evaluating the same set of methods with data from two independent TREC Genomics Track evaluations. We discuss the advantages of NT Evaluation over the TRels and the data fusion evaluation protocols introduced recently. Conclusion Our results suggest that the NT Evaluation protocols described here could be used to optimize some search engine parameters before human evaluation. Further research is needed to determine if NT Evaluation or variants of these

  14. Comparison of a kayaking ergometer protocol with an arm crank protocol for evaluating peak oxygen consumption.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Scott C; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare a kayak ergometer protocol with an arm crank protocol for determining peak oxygen consumption (V(.-)O2). On separate days in random order, 10 men and 5 women (16-24 years old) with kayaking experience completed the kayak ergometer protocol and a standardized arm crank protocol. The kayak protocol began at 70 strokes per minute and increased by 10 strokes per minute every 2 minutes until volitional fatigue. The arm crank protocol consisted of a crank rate of 70 revolutions per minute, initial loading of 35 W and subsequent increases of 35 W every 2 minutes until volitional fatigue. The results showed a significant difference (p < 0.01) between the kayak ergometer and the arm crank protocols for relative peak V(.-)O2 (47.5 +/- 3.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) vs. 44.2 +/- 6.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and absolute peak V(.-)O2 (3.38 L x min(-1) +/- 0.53 vs. 3.14 +/- 0.64 L x min(-1)). The correlation between kayak and arm crank protocol was 0.79 and 0.90, for relative and absolute V(.-)O2 peak, respectively (both p < 0.01). The higher peak V(.-)O2 on the kayak ergometer may be due to the greater muscle mass involved compared to the arm crank ergometer. The kayak ergometer protocol may therefore be more specific to the sport of kayaking than an arm crank protocol.

  15. Tackling Drug Resistant Infection Outbreaks of Global Pandemic Escherichia coli ST131 Using Evolutionary and Epidemiological Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Downing, Tim

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput molecular screening is required to investigate the origin and diffusion of antimicrobial resistance in pathogen outbreaks. The most frequent cause of human infection is Escherichia coli, which is dominated by sequence type 131 (ST131)—a set of rapidly radiating pandemic clones. The highly infectious clades of ST131 originated firstly by a mutation enhancing conjugation and adhesion. Secondly, single-nucleotide polymorphisms occurred enabling fluoroquinolone-resistance, which is near-fixed in all ST131. Thirdly, broader resistance through beta-lactamases has been gained and lost frequently, symptomatic of conflicting environmental selective effects. This flexible approach to gene exchange is worrying and supports the proposition that ST131 will develop an even wider range of plasmid and chromosomal elements promoting antimicrobial resistance. To stop ST131, deep genome sequencing is required to understand the origin, evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance genes. Phylogenetic methods that decipher past events can predict future patterns of virulence and transmission based on genetic signatures of adaptation and gene exchange. Both the effect of partial antimicrobial exposure and cell dormancy caused by variation in gene expression may accelerate the development of resistance. High-throughput sequencing can decode measurable evolution of cell populations within patients associated with systems-wide changes in gene expression during treatments. A multi-faceted approach can enhance assessment of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli ST131 by examining transmission dynamics between hosts to achieve a goal of pre-empting resistance before it emerges by optimising antimicrobial treatment protocols. PMID:27682088

  16. A Protocol for Evaluating Contextual Design Principles

    PubMed Central

    Stamps, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains how scientific data can be incorporated into urban design decisions, such as evaluating contextual design principles. The recommended protocols are based on the Cochrane Reviews that have been widely used in medical research. The major concepts of a Cochrane Review are explained, as well as the underlying mathematics. The underlying math is meta-analysis. Data are reported for three applications and seven contextual design policies. It is suggested that use of the Cochrane protocols will be of great assistance to planners by providing scientific data that can be used to evaluate the efficacies of contextual design policies prior to implementing those policies. PMID:25431448

  17. Building multiservice Internet protocol virtual private networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, William

    1999-11-01

    Multiservice Internet Protocol-based Virtual Private Networks (MIP- VPNs) with Quality of Service (QoS) are becoming a reality due to the availability of new standards from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This paper describes how components including security models, IP tunneling protocols, and service differentiation schemes fit together in order to construct such a VPN. First, the concept and rationale of VPN is presented, followed by a discussion of its supporting components. A comparison is made among the various VPN technologies.

  18. Optimal protocols for slowly driven quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkowski, Patrick R.; DeWeese, Michael R.

    2015-09-01

    The design of efficient quantum information processing will rely on optimal nonequilibrium transitions of driven quantum systems. Building on a recently developed geometric framework for computing optimal protocols for classical systems driven in finite time, we construct a general framework for optimizing the average information entropy for driven quantum systems. Geodesics on the parameter manifold endowed with a positive semidefinite metric correspond to protocols that minimize the average information entropy production in finite time. We use this framework to explicitly compute the optimal entropy production for a simple two-state quantum system coupled to a heat bath of bosonic oscillators, which has applications to quantum annealing.

  19. A molecular protocol for diagnosing myotonic dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Guida, M; Marger, R S; Papp, A C; Snyder, P J; Sedra, M S; Kissel, J T; Mendell, J R; Prior, T W

    1995-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease caused by an unstable CTG repeat sequence in the 3' untranslated region of the myotonin protein kinase gene. The CTG repeat is present 5-30 times in the normal population, whereas DM patients have CTG expansions of 50 to several thousand repeats. The age of onset of the disorder and the severity of the phenotype is roughly correlated with the size of the CTG expansion. We developed a molecular protocol for the diagnosis of DM based on an initial polymerase chain reaction screen to detect normal-sized alleles and small expansions, followed by an improved Southern protocol to detect larger expansions.

  20. Cryptanalysis of the Quantum Group Signature Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ke-Jia; Sun, Ying; Song, Ting-Ting; Zuo, Hui-Juan

    2013-11-01

    Recently, the researches of quantum group signature (QGS) have attracted a lot of attentions and some typical protocols have been designed for e-payment system, e-government, e-business, etc. In this paper, we analyze the security of the quantum group signature with the example of two novel protocols. It can be seen that both of them cannot be implemented securely since the arbitrator cannot solve the disputes fairly. In order to show that, some possible attack strategies, which can be used by the malicious participants, are proposed. Moreover, the further discussions of QGS are presented finally, including some insecurity factors and improved ideas.

  1. On Alarm Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichoń, Jacek; Kapelko, Rafał; Lemiesz, Jakub; Zawada, Marcin

    We consider the problem of efficient alarm protocol for ad-hoc radio networks consisting of devices that try to gain access for transmission through a shared radio communication channel. The problem arise in tasks that sensors have to quickly inform the target user about an alert situation such as presence of fire, dangerous radiation, seismic vibrations, and more. In this paper, we present a protocol which uses O(logn) time slots and show that Ω(logn/loglogn) is a lower bound for used time slots.

  2. The covert channel over HTTP protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniszewski, Waldemar; Krupski, Jacek; Szczypiorski, Krzysztof

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a new steganographic method - the covert channel is created over HTTP protocol header, i.e. trailer field. HTTP protocol is one of the most frequently used in the Internet. The popularity of the Web servers and network traffic from, and to them, is one of the requirements for undetectable message exchange. To study this kind of the information hiding technique an application in Javascript language based on the Node.js framework was written. The results of the experiment that was performed to send a message in the covert channel are also presented.

  3. The Kyoto Protocol: A business perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Malin, C.B.

    1998-01-19

    Governments have made a tentative start in responding to climate change. In marathon negotiating sessions that extended into an extra day Dec. 1--11 in Kyoto, Japan, representatives from more than 160 governments hammered out the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The protocol calls for developed countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on averaged by 5.2% below 1990 levels by the years 2008--2012. Developing countries have no new obligations. The paper discusses the agreement, ratification, future questions, business role, and the challenge.

  4. Point-to-Point Multicast Communications Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byrd, Gregory T.; Nakano, Russell; Delagi, Bruce A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a protocol to support point-to-point interprocessor communications with multicast. Dynamic, cut-through routing with local flow control is used to provide a high-throughput, low-latency communications path between processors. In addition multicast transmissions are available, in which copies of a packet are sent to multiple destinations using common resources as much as possible. Special packet terminators and selective buffering are introduced to avoid a deadlock during multicasts. A simulated implementation of the protocol is also described.

  5. Quantum Private Comparison Protocol with Linear Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qing-bin; Yang, Guo-wu; She, Kun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we propose an innovative quantum private comparison(QPC) protocol based on partial Bell-state measurement from the view of linear optics, which enabling two parties to compare the equality of their private information with the help of a semi-honest third party. Partial Bell-state measurement has been realized by using only linear optical elements in experimental measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution(MDI-QKD) schemes, which makes us believe that our protocol can be realized in the near future. The security analysis shows that the participants will not leak their private information.

  6. From Service Markets to Service Economies - An infrastructure for protocol-generic SLA negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudert, Sebastian

    Visions of 21st century's information systems show highly specialized digital services and resources, interacting continuously and with a global reach. For a broad adoption of this vision in a commercial context it is crucial to have a mechanism in place to guarantee quality of service and to decentrally coordinate the involved resources. Current service infrastructures try to tackle these problems by applying socioeconomic mechanisms such as electronic negotiations and service level agreements. Such technologies allow for the implementation of electronic service markets in analogy to real-world markets for everyday goods. However, economic theory claims that different market situations and negotiated products (i.e. SLAs) demand different negotiation protocols in order to reach the highest-possible overall efficiency of the system. Thus we argue that next generation service infrastructures will be based on a global service economy where several different service markets and thus protocols are present at any given point in time. In this paper we present a novel approach for such an infrastructure, based on structured protocol descriptions and software-agent technology.

  7. Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank

    2005-06-15

    We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

  8. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  9. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Barrat, J. )

    1989-01-01

    Mount St. Helens' eruption has taught geologists invaluable lessons about how volcanoes work. Such information will be crucial in saving lives and property when other dormant volcanoes in the northwestern United States--and around the world--reawaken, as geologists predict they someday will. Since 1912, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory have pioneered the study of volcanoes through work on Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. In Vancouver, Wash., scientists at the Survey's Cascades Volcano Observatory are studying the after-effects of Mount St. Helens' catalysmic eruption as well as monitoring a number of other now-dormant volcanoes in the western United States. This paper briefly reviews the similarities and differences between the Hawaiian and Washington volcanoes and what these volcanoes are teaching the volcanologists.

  10. Baseline risk assessment for exposure to contaminants at the St. Louis Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The St. Louis Site comprises three noncontiguous areas in and near St. Louis, Missouri: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Storage Site (SLAPS), and the Latty Avenue Properties. The main site of the Latty Avenue Properties includes the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS) and the Futura Coatings property, which are located at 9200 Latty Avenue. Contamination at the St. Louis Site is the result of uranium processing and disposal activities that took place from the 1940s through the 1970s. Uranium processing took place at the SLDS from 1942 through 1957. From the 1940s through the 1960s, SLAPS was used as a storage area for residues from the manufacturing operations at SLDS. The materials stored at SLAPS were bought by Continental Mining and Milling Company of Chicago, Illinois, in 1966, and moved to the HISS/Futura Coatings property at 9200 Latty Avenue. Vicinity properties became contaminated as a result of transport and movement of the contaminated material among SLDS, SLAPS, and the 9200 Latty Avenue property. This contamination led to the SLAPS, HISS, and Futura Coatings properties being placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleanup activities at the St. Louis Site under its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The primary goal of FUSRAP is the elimination of potential hazards to human health and the environment at former Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission (MED/AEC) sites so that, to the extent possible, these properties can be released for use without restrictions. To determine and establish cleanup goals for the St. Louis Site, DOE is currently preparing a remedial investigation/feasibility study-environmental impact statement (RI/FS-EIS). This baseline risk assessment (BRA) is a component of the process; it addresses potential risk to human health and the environment associated wi

  11. Mount St. Helens and Kilauea volcanoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrat, J.

    1989-01-01

    From the south, snow-covered Mount St. Helens looms proudly under a fleecy halo of clouds, rivaling the majestic beauty of neighboring Mount Rainer, Mount Hood, and Mount Adams. Salmon fishermen dot the shores of lakes and streams in the mountain's shadow, trucks loaded with fresh-cut timber barrel down backroads, and deer peer out from stands of tall fir trees. 

  12. Naval S&T Strategic Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Research (Budget Activity (BA) 6.1) and early Applied Research (BA 6.2). This is the seed corn that explores “undiscovered technologies” for future...This part of the S&T continuum (time horizon 5 to 20 years) consists of Basic and early Applied Research, which form the “Petri dish” to germinate the...exchange visits, conferences and workshops and provides seed funding for innovative technologies that address the needs of the Navy and Marine Corps

  13. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2005-12-01

    NASA`s New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2005 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be

  14. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Space Technology 9 (ST-9) mission is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. ST-9 is an integrated system validation project and part of New Millennium Program effort to identify the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that require validation in deep space to help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. NASA prepared a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) that solicited proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. The technology providers were selected to provide needed technology advances in these areas in FY 2005. One these five technologies capability areas will be selected in a timeframe

  15. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. DT-9 is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas will be subsequently selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment.

  16. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Nelson, R. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2003-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the ST-9 mission, a systems validation project of NMP. This is the latest of a series of deep space activities which began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five candidate technologies which NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technologies under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1)Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2)Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA in 2003 and that one these five technologies capability areas will be selected for the New Millennium ST-9 technology validation experiment. This work performed at JPL under contract with NASA

  17. High Speed Transport Protocols: An Attempt to Find the Best Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    19 4. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) ............................. 19 5. Internet Group Management Protocol ( IGMP ...specific tasks, as IGMP and ARP (TABLE 1). Later, in this section, each of these protocols will be explained in more detail. In addition to the basic... IGMP Internet Group Management Protocol ARP Address Resolution Protocol 1. Internet Protocol (IP) Internet Protocol is one of the two major protocols

  18. ST/HR hysteresis: exercise and recovery phase ST depression/heart rate analysis of the exercise ECG.

    PubMed

    Lehtinen, R

    1999-01-01

    ST segment depression/heart rate (ST/HR) hysteresis is a recently introduced novel computer method for integrating the exercise and recovery phase ST/HR analysis for improved detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). It is a continuous diagnostic variable that extracts the prevailing direction and average magnitude of the hysteresis in ST depression against HR during the first 3 consecutive minutes of postexercise recovery. This article reviews the development and evaluation of this new method in a clinical population of 347 patients referred for a routine bicycle exercise electrocardiographic (ECG) test at Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Of these patients, 127 had angiographically proven CAD, whereas 13 had no CAD according to angiography, 18 had no perfusion defect according to Tc-99m-sestamibi myocardial imaging and single photon emission computed tomography, and 189 were clinically normal with respect to cardiac diseases. For each patient, the values for ST/HR hysteresis, ST/HR index, end-exercise ST depression, and recovery ST depression were determined for each lead of the Mason-Likar modification of the standard 12-lead exercise ECG and maximum value from the lead system (aVL, aVR, and V1 excluded). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (ie, the discriminative capacity) of the ST/HR hysteresis was 89%, which was significantly larger than that of the end-exercise ST depression (76%, P < .0001), recovery ST depression (84%, P = .0063) or ST/HR index (83%, P = .0023), indicating the best diagnostic performance of the ST/HR hysteresis in detection of CAD regardless of the partition value selection. Furthermore, the superior diagnostic performance of the method was relatively insensitive to the ST segment measurement point or to the ECG lead selection. These results suggest that the ST/HR hysteresis improves the clinical utility of the exercise ECG test in detection of CAD.

  19. Engineering evaluation/cost analysis for decontamination at the St. Louis Downtown Site, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Picel, M.H.; Hartmann, H.M.; Nimmagadda, M.R. ); Williams, M.J. )

    1991-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is implementing a cleanup program for three groups of properties in the St. Louis, Missouri, area: the St. Louis Downtown Site (SLDS), the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) and vicinity properties, and the Latty Avenue Properties, including the Hazelwood Interim Storage Site (HISS). The general location of these properties is shown in Figure 1; the properties are referred to collectively as the St. Louis Site. None of the properties are owned by DOE, but each property contains radioactive residues from federal uranium processing activities conducted at the SLDS during and after World War 2. The activities addressed in this environmental evaluation/cost analysis (EE/CA) report are being proposed as interim components of a comprehensive cleanup strategy for the St. Louis Site. As part of the Department's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), DOE is proposing to conduct limited decontamination in support of proprietor-initiated activities at the SLDS, commonly referred to as the Mallinckrodt Chemical Works. The primary goal of FUSRAP activity at the SLDS is to eliminate potential environmental hazards associated with residual contamination resulting from the site's use for government-funded uranium processing activities. 17 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Reengineering Archival Access through the OAI Protocols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prom, Christopher J.

    2003-01-01

    The Open Archives Initiative (OAI) Protocol for Metadata Harvesting program presents a method by which metadata regarding archives and manuscripts can be shared and made more interoperable with metadata from other sources. Outlines a method for exposing hierarchical metadata from encoded archival description (EAD) files and assesses some…

  1. Reliable multicasting in the Xpress Transport Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, J.W.; Catrina, O.; Fenton, J.; Strayer, W.T.

    1996-12-01

    The Xpress Transport Protocol (XTP) is designed to meet the needs of distributed, real-time, and multimedia systems. This paper describes the genesis of recent improvements to XTP that provide mechanisms for reliable management of multicast groups, and gives details of the mechanisms used.

  2. The Vocational Assessment Protocol: Development and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Dale F.; Menz, Fredrick E.

    This report describes a 48-month project which developed, field tested, and evaluated the utility of the Vocational Assessment Protocol (VAP) for use with persons with traumatic brain injury resulting in a severe and persistent disability. The VAP is intended to assist in the community-based vocational rehabilitation of these individuals. The VAP…

  3. An acid-catalyzed macrolactonization protocol.

    PubMed

    Trost, Barry M; Chisholm, John D

    2002-10-17

    [reaction: see text] An efficient macrolactonization protocol devoid of any base was developed derived from the use of vinyl esters in transesterification. Subjecting a hydroxy acid and ethoxyacetylene to 2 mol % [RuCl(2)(p-cymene)](2) in toluene followed by addition of camphorsulfonic acid or inverse addition provided macrolactones in good yields.

  4. 21 CFR 58.120 - Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE... for acceptable levels of contaminants that are reasonably expected to be present in the dietary... methods to be used. (b) All changes in or revisions of an approved protocol and the reasons...

  5. British Columbia/Alberta Transfer System Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this agreement is to provide assurance to students that they will receive transfer credit for courses or programs they have successfully completed where the content/outcomes are demonstrably equivalent to those offered at the institution to which they transfer. This protocol is undertaken by the British Columbia Council on…

  6. 21 CFR 312.30 - Protocol amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protocol amendments. 312.30 Section 312.30 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Investigational New Drug Application (IND) §...

  7. A comprehensive protocol to test instrumented treadmills.

    PubMed

    Sloot, L H; Houdijk, H; Harlaar, J

    2015-06-01

    Instrumented treadmills are becoming more common in gait analysis. Due to their large and compliant structure, errors in force measurements are expected to be higher compared with conventional force plates. There is, however, no consistency in the literature on testing the performance of these treadmills. Therefore, we propose a standard protocol to assess and report error sources in instrumented treadmills. The first part of this protocol consists of assessment of the accuracy of forces and center of pressure (COP), including non-linearity, hysteresis and crosstalk. The second part consists of (novel) instrumented resonance testing and belt speed variability tests. The third part focuses on measurement variability over time, including drift, warming of the system and noise. The performance of two in-house instrumented treadmills with different dynamics was measured. Differences were found between the treadmills in COP accuracy (4.0 mm versus 6.5 mm), lowest eigen frequency (35 Hz versus 23 Hz) and noise level at 5 km/h (10 N versus 29 N). The loaded treadmills both showed a 3.3% belt speed variability at 5 km/h. Thus, the protocol was able to characterize strong and weak characteristics of the treadmills and allowed for a proper judgement on the validity of the instruments and their application in the domain of gait analysis. We propose to use this protocol when testing and reporting the performance of instrumented treadmills.

  8. Preparing Protocols for Institutional Review Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Charles M.

    1983-01-01

    Introduces the process by which Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) review proposals for research involving human subjects. Describes the composition of IRBs. Presents the Nuremberg code, the elements of informed consent, the judging criteria for proposals, and a sample protocol format. References newly published regulations governing research with…

  9. 2017 EPA Protocol Gas Verification Program Participants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A list of participants for 2016 EPA's Protocol Gas Verification Program (PGVP) for stationary source monitoring. The list also has vendor IDs, which are production site-specific, and are the same ones used in the PGVP for ambient air monitoring.

  10. Formal Requirements for Key Distribution Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    the agent of the action, where a round number local to a principal identi es all actions pertaining to a single session as far as that principal is...be used for more than the length of a single session these protocols provide reauthentication with fewer messages than the number required for initial

  11. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    PubMed Central

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  12. Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field ...

  13. Leaf tissue sampling and DNA extraction protocols.

    PubMed

    Semagn, Kassa

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomists must be familiar with a number of issues in collecting and transporting samples using freezing methods (liquid nitrogen and dry ice), desiccants (silica gel and blotter paper), and preservatives (CTAB, ethanol, and isopropanol), with each method having its own merits and limitations. For most molecular studies, a reasonably good quality and quantity of DNA is required, which can only be obtained using standard DNA extraction protocols. There are many DNA extraction protocols that vary from simple and quick ones that yield low-quality DNA but good enough for routine analyses to the laborious and time-consuming standard methods that usually produce high quality and quantities of DNA. The protocol to be chosen will depend on the quality and quantity of DNA needed, the nature of samples, and the presence of natural substances that may interfere with the extraction and subsequent analysis. The protocol described in this chapter has been tested for extracting DNA from eight species and provided very good quality and quantity of DNA for different applications, including those genotyping methods that use restriction enzymes.

  14. 21 CFR 312.83 - Treatment protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Treatment protocols. 312.83 Section 312.83 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE INVESTIGATIONAL NEW DRUG APPLICATION Drugs Intended to Treat Life-threatening and...

  15. Domain Name Server Security (DNSSEC) Protocol Deployment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE ( DD -MM-YYYY) OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT 3. DATES COVERED...Transfer Protocol SOHO Small-Office/Home Office SPF Sender Policy Framework SSL Secure Sockets Layer APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION

  16. Verbal Protocol Patterns of College Dormitory Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozarth, J.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This study examines the degree of relationship of certain verbal protocol patterns of college resident counselors to the variables of Accurate Empathy and Warmth (Truax and Carkhuff). Findings suggest that more reflective, nonjudgmental counselors were rated as providing a better counseling relationship when the measures of the relationship were…

  17. Unlinkable Serial Transactions: Protocols and Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    Verification Additional Key Words and Phrases: Anonymity , blinding, cryptographic protocols, unlinkable serial transactions A preliminary version of...typically one for each vendor [Chaum 1981]. Customers maintain anonymity by conducting transactions using anonymous elec- tronic cash (e-cash). But...vendors are able to protect their interests by maintaining a profile on each anonymous customer. In this paper we present, effectively, the opposite

  18. Clean Quantum and Classical Communication Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buhrman, Harry; Christandl, Matthias; Perry, Christopher; Zuiddam, Jeroen

    2016-12-01

    By how much must the communication complexity of a function increase if we demand that the parties not only correctly compute the function but also return all registers (other than the one containing the answer) to their initial states at the end of the communication protocol? Protocols that achieve this are referred to as clean and the associated cost as the clean communication complexity. Here we present clean protocols for calculating the inner product of two n -bit strings, showing that (in the absence of preshared entanglement) at most n +3 qubits or n +O (√{n }) bits of communication are required. The quantum protocol provides inspiration for obtaining the optimal method to implement distributed cnot gates in parallel while minimizing the amount of quantum communication. For more general functions, we show that nearly all Boolean functions require close to 2 n bits of classical communication to compute and close to n qubits if the parties have access to preshared entanglement. Both of these values are maximal for their respective paradigms.

  19. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs.

    PubMed

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-09-23

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation).

  20. Teledermatology protocol for screening of Skin Cancer*

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Maria Fernanda; Amorim, Bruna Dücker Bastos; Wagner, Harley Miguel; Nunes, Daniel Holthausen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Telemedicine refers to the use of technology as improvement of healthcare delivery to places where distance becomes an obstacle. Its use represents a great potential for dermatology, a specialty whose visual analysis phase is essential in diagnosis. OBJECTIVES To analyze the compatibility index of skin cancer diagnoses between primary care and teledermatology, and to validate a protocol for standardization of digital imaging to obtain the reports in teledermatology. METHODS An observational cross-sectional study developed through the census of 333 examination requests, received between January/2012 and July/2012, in the Center for Telemedicine and Telehealth of SES-SC. We used a protocol for photographic lesion standardization, consisting of three steps (panoramic photo, close-up with ruler and dermoscopy). After collection, the data were sent to a virtual site on the Internet, and recorded with the use of an electronic health record containing the images, the skin phototype and demographic characteristics. RESULTS The level of compatibility between the diagnosis of skin cancer in Santa Catarina's primary care and the diagnosis proposed by teledermatology was 19.02%. Proportionally, it was 21.21% for BCC, 44.44% for SCC and 6.98% for MM. The protocol was statistically significant (p <0.05), with an OR of 38.77. CONCLUSION The rate of diagnostic compatibility of skin cancer was low and the use of the protocol optimized the chance of validating requests for examination. PMID:25830990

  1. 50 CFR 600.757 - Operational protocols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operational protocols. 600.757 Section 600.757 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Fishery Negotiation Panels §...

  2. Student Performances in Various Learning Protocols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregorius, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    A comparison was made between students' overall performance, as measured by overall grade, in different teaching and learning protocols: (1) traditional textbook and lecture along with standard examinations; (2) lectures with online augmentation and PowerPoint lecture notes along with standard examinations; (3) similar to "(2)" but with…

  3. 30 Cool Facts about Mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driedger, Carolyn; Liz, Westby; Faust, Lisa; Frenzen, Peter; Bennett, Jeanne; Clynne, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Commemorating the 30th anniversary of the 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens 1-During the past 4,000 years, Mount St. Helens has erupted more frequently than any other volcano in the Cascade Range. 2-Most of Mount St. Helens is younger than 3,000 years old (younger than the pyramids of Egypt). 3-Some Native American names that refer to smoke at the volcano include- Lawala Clough, Low-We- Lat-Klah, Low-We-Not- Thlat, Loowit, Loo-wit, Loo-wit Lat-kla, and Louwala-Clough. 4-3,600 years ago-Native Americans abandoned hunting grounds devastated by an enormous eruption four times larger than the May 18, 1980 eruption. 5-1792-Captain George Vancouver named the volcano for Britain's ambassador to Spain, Alleyne Fitzherbert, also known as Baron St. Helens. 6-1975-U.S. Geological Survey geologists forecasted that Mount St. Helens would erupt again, 'possibly before the end of the century.' 7-March 20, 1980-A magnitude 4.2 earthquake signaled the reawakening of the volcano after 123 years. 8-Spring 1980-Rising magma pushed the volcano's north flank outward 5 feet per day. 9-Morning of May 18, 1980- The largest terrestrial landslide in recorded history reduced the summit by 1,300 feet and triggered a lateral blast. 10-Within 3 minutes, the lateral blast, traveling at more than 300 miles per hour, blew down and scorched 230 square miles of forest. 11-Within 15 minutes, a vertical plume of volcanic ash rose over 80,000 feet. 12-Afternoon of May 18, 1980-The dense ash cloud turned daylight into darkness in eastern Washington, causing streetlights to turn on in Yakima and Ritzville. 13-The volcanic ash cloud drifted east across the United States in 3 days and encircled Earth in 15 days. 14-Lahars (volcanic mudflows) filled rivers with rocks, sand, and mud, damaging 27 bridges and 200 homes and forcing 31 ships to remain in ports upstream. 15-The May 18, 1980 eruption was the most economically destructive volcanic event in U.S. history. 16-Small plants and trees beneath winter snow

  4. Protocol for determining bull trout presence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James; Dunham, Jason B.; Howell, Philip; Thurow, Russell; Bonar, Scott

    2002-01-01

    The Western Division of the American Fisheries Society was requested to develop protocols for determining presence/absence and potential habitat suitability for bull trout. The general approach adopted is similar to the process for the marbled murrelet, whereby interim guidelines are initially used, and the protocols are subsequently refined as data are collected. Current data were considered inadequate to precisely identify suitable habitat but could be useful in stratifying sampling units for presence/absence surveys. The presence/absence protocol builds on previous approaches (Hillman and Platts 1993; Bonar et al. 1997), except it uses the variation in observed bull trout densities instead of a minimum threshold density and adjusts for measured differences in sampling efficiency due to gear types and habitat characteristics. The protocol consists of: 1. recommended sample sizes with 80% and 95% detection probabilities for juvenile and resident adult bull trout for day and night snorkeling and electrofishing adjusted for varying habitat characteristics for 50m and 100m sampling units, 2. sampling design considerations, including possible habitat characteristics for stratification, 3. habitat variables to be measured in the sampling units, and 3. guidelines for training sampling crews. Criteria for habitat strata consist of coarse, watershed-scale characteristics (e.g., mean annual air temperature) and fine-scale, reach and habitat-specific features (e.g., water temperature, channel width). The protocols will be revised in the future using data from ongoing presence/absence surveys, additional research on sampling efficiencies, and development of models of habitat/species occurrence.

  5. Bayesian adaptive survey protocols for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Transparency in resource management decisions requires a proper accounting of uncertainty at multiple stages of the decision-making process. As information becomes available, periodic review and updating of resource management protocols reduces uncertainty and improves management decisions. One of the most basic steps to mitigating anthropogenic effects on populations is determining if a population of a species occurs in an area that will be affected by human activity. Species are rarely detected with certainty, however, and falsely declaring a species absent can cause improper conservation decisions or even extirpation of populations. We propose a method to design survey protocols for imperfectly detected species that accounts for multiple sources of uncertainty in the detection process, is capable of quantitatively incorporating expert opinion into the decision-making process, allows periodic updates to the protocol, and permits resource managers to weigh the severity of consequences if the species is falsely declared absent. We developed our method using the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas), a threatened species precinctive to the Central Valley of California, as a case study. Survey date was negatively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake, and water temperature was positively related to the probability of detecting the giant gartersnake at a sampled location. Reporting sampling effort, timing and duration of surveys, and water temperatures would allow resource managers to evaluate the probability that the giant gartersnake occurs at sampled sites where it is not detected. This information would also allow periodic updates and quantitative evaluation of changes to the giant gartersnake survey protocol. Because it naturally allows multiple sources of information and is predicated upon the idea of updating information, Bayesian analysis is well-suited to solving the problem of developing efficient sampling protocols for species of

  6. Temporal knowledge representation for scheduling tasks in clinical trial protocols.

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua; Kahn, Michael; Gennari, John

    2002-01-01

    Clinical trial protocols include detailed temporal constraints on treatment and associated tasks. Unlike health-care guidelines, protocols are highly prescriptive. Therefore, informatics applications that enforce such temporal constraints are more directly useful with protocols than with guidelines. Although there are some temporal knowledge representation efforts for health-care guidelines, we find these to be insufficiently expressive for clinical trial protocols. In this paper, we focus on temporal knowledge representation for clinical trial protocols and the task of patient-specific scheduling in protocols. We define a temporal ontology, use it to encode clinical trial protocols, and describe a prototype tool to carry out patient-specific scheduling for the tasks in protocols. We predict that an expressive temporal knowledge representation can support a number of scheduling and management tasks for protocol-based care. PMID:12463951

  7. A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix.

  8. A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2017-01-12

    Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix.

  9. A kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiu-Bo; Dou, Zhao; Xu, Gang; He, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Universality is an important feature, but less researched in quantum communication protocols. In this paper, a kind of universal quantum secret sharing protocol is investigated. Firstly, we design a quantum secret sharing protocol based on the Borras-Plastino-Batle (BPB) state. Departing from previous research, our protocol has a salient feature in that participants in our protocol only need projective measurement instead of any unitary operations. It makes our protocol more flexible. Secondly, universality of quantum communication protocols is studied for the first time. More specifically, module division of quantum communication protocols and coupling between different modules are discussed. Our aforementioned protocol is analyzed as an example. On one hand, plenty of quantum states (the BPB-class states and the BPB-like-class states, which are proposed in this paper) could be used as carrier to perform our protocol. On the other hand, our protocol also could be regarded as a quantum private comparison protocol with a little revision. These features are rare for quantum communication protocols, and make our protocol more robust. Thirdly, entanglements of the BPB-class states are calculated in the Appendix. PMID:28079109

  10. The St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair, Michigan: an ecological profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Raphael, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    The St. Clair River and Lake St. Clair form a part of the connecting channel system between Lake Huron and Lake Erie. This report synthesizes existing information on the ecological structure and function of this ecosystem. Chapters include descriptions of climatology, hydrology, and geology of the region; biological characteristics; ecological relationships; and commercial and recreational uses, as well as discussions of management considerations and issues. The St. Clair system provides valuable habitat for migratory waterfowl and fish spawning and nurseries, and contains some of the most extensive emergent wetlands in the region. The system is used for navigation, municipal and industrial waste disposal, recreational boating, fishing and waterfowl hunting. Allowing for multiple human uses while maintaining important waterfowl and fish populations is the greatest challenge facing managers of this system.

  11. High energy astrophysics 21st century workshop 'Space Capabilities in the 21st Century'. [NASA programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhome, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of 20th-century NASA accomplishments and of the infrastructure and technology that NASA plans to have in place in the 21st century is presented. Attention is given to the Great Observatories Program, AXAF, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Cosmic Background Explorer, the Small Explorers Program, the Large Area Modular Array of Reflectors, and the X-Ray Background Survey Spectrometer. Also discussed are earth-to-orbit communication links, transportation in the 1990s, the evolution of the space infrastructure, and the Space Station Freedom. Consideration is given to the possibilities of the 21st-century infrastructure, with emphasis on exploration on Mars and the moon. Topics addressed include telecommunications, navigation, information management, and 21st-century space science.

  12. The role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation in the regulation of StAR activity and steroidogenesis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Ana F; Orlando, Ulises; Helfenberger, Katia E; Poderoso, Cecilia; Podesta, Ernesto J

    2015-06-15

    The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein regulates the rate-limiting step in steroidogenesis, i.e. the delivery of cholesterol from the outer (OMM) to the inner (IMM) mitochondrial membrane. StAR is a 37-kDa protein with an N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence that is cleaved off during mitochondrial import to yield 30-kDa intramitochondrial StAR. StAR acts exclusively on the OMM and its activity is proportional to how long it remains on the OMM. However, the precise fashion and the molecular mechanism in which StAR remains on the OMM have not been elucidated yet. In this work we will discuss the role of mitochondrial fusion and StAR phosphorylation by the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) as part of the mechanism that regulates StAR retention on the OMM and activity.

  13. An Evaluation of Protocol Enhancing Proxies and File Transport Protocols for Satellite Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finch, Patrick Eugene; Sullivan, Donald; Ivancic, William D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA is utilizing Global Hawk aircraft in high-altitude, long-duration Earth science missions. Communications with the onboard research equipment and sensors (the science payload) is via Ku-Band radio utilizing satellites in geostationary orbits. All payload communications use standard Internet Protocols and routing, and much of the data to be transferred is comprised of very large files. The science community is interested in fully utilizing these communication links to retrieve data as quickly and reliably as possible. A test bed was developed at NASA Ames to evaluate modern transport protocols as well as Protocol Enhancing Proxies (PEPs) to determine what tools best fit the needs of the science community. This paper describes the test bed used, the protocols, the PEPs that were evaluated, the particular tests performed and the results and conclusions.

  14. Hybrid protocol of remote implementations of quantum operations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Ningbo; Wang Anmin

    2007-12-15

    We propose a protocol of remote implementations of quantum operations by hybridizing bidirectional quantum-state teleportation (BQST) [Huelga et al., Phys. Rev. A 63, 042303 (2001)] and the Wang protocol [Wang, Phys. Rev. A 74, 032317 (2006)]. The protocol is available for remote implementations of quantum operations in the restricted sets specified in the paper. We also give a proof of the protocol and point out its optimization. As an extension, this hybrid protocol can be reduced to the BQST and Wang protocols.

  15. DoD Message Protocol Report. Volume II. Message Transfer Protocol Requirements Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-15

    transmission instructions. This assurance can, in principle, be provided by either the message service (where a message is prepared) or by the message...transfer protocol. This document does not assume it is always practical for a message service to assure message correctness and so prescribes... assure service and speed to urgent messages. The protocol must also ensure aginst unauthorized access to high precedence service . When a message

  16. Protocol Interoperability Between DDN and ISO (Defense Data Network and International Organization for Standardization) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    Service 44 Network Layer: DIS 8208 X.25 Packet Level Protocol for Data Terminal Equipment DIS 8348 Network Service Definition IS 8473 Protocol for...established One TC established for collision (one way) given pair of socket Addressing Any possible structure Static length Expedited data Yes, negotiable by...Explicit or implicit Explicit jReloas Phase: Orderly release No Yes Abrupt release Yes Yes 68 15.3.1 TC Establish Phase Connection Collision . In TCP, if the

  17. SO/ST/SRG - SCHEDULING PROGRAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collazo, F. F.

    1994-01-01

    The Schedule Organizer, SO (COSMIC Program MSC-21525), Schedule Tracker, ST (COSMIC Program MSC-21526), and Report Generator, SRG (COSMIC Program MSC-21527), are programs that manipulate data base files in ways that are advantageous to scheduling applications. Originally designed for the Space Shuttle flight schedule, the program can be easily modified for other scheduling situations. Schedule Organizer provides a simple method for generating distribution lists. These distribution lists contain readers' names for each task schedule defined by the input files. Schedule Organizer contains a primary menu that is displayed at the beginning of the program. The menu provides options as follows: to write input files to an output distribution file, to change a schedule title field and/or distribution list field, to browse through the schedule and input names file for requested schedule numbers, to create an input names file and a schedule titles file, and to delete input schedule titles and associated names. SO provides a choice of two input files. One file holds 25 groups of up to 25 names for each group. The other file holds 25 records. Each 60-character-long record holds a task schedule title or it is a blank entry. SO creates three output files. One holds the formatted list of schedule titles for printout. Another file holds the formatted distribution list for printout. There is one for each input names file schedule group. The third output file holds the schedule title of the last schedule title file deleted by the user. Schedule Tracker provides an effective method for tracking tasks that are "past due" and/or "near term". ST generates reports for each responsible staff member with one or more assigned tasks that fall within the two listed categories. This enables an engineering manager to monitor tasks assigned to staff by running ST on a weekly basis. ST only lists tasks on reports that have become past due or are scheduled for recent completion (near term

  18. Genomic Evolution of Two Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains from ST-2 Clones Isolated in 2000 and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2000 and ST-2_clon_2010).

    PubMed

    López, M; Rueda, A; Florido, J P; Blasco, L; Gato, E; Fernández-García, L; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fernández-Cuenca, F; Pachón, J; Cisneros, J M; Garnacho-Montero, J; Vila, J; Rodríguez-Baño, J; Pascual, A; Bou, G; Tomás, M

    2016-10-20

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a successful nosocomial pathogen due to its ability to persist in hospital environments by acquiring mobile elements such as transposons, plasmids, and phages. In this study, we compared two genomes of A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in 2000 (ST-2_clon_2000) and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2010) from GenBank project PRJNA308422.

  19. Genomic Evolution of Two Acinetobacter baumannii Clinical Strains from ST-2 Clones Isolated in 2000 and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2000 and ST-2_clon_2010)

    PubMed Central

    López, M.; Rueda, A.; Florido, J. P.; Blasco, L.; Gato, E.; Fernández-García, L.; Martínez-Martínez, L.; Fernández-Cuenca, F.; Pachón, J.; Cisneros, J. M.; Garnacho-Montero, J.; Vila, J.; Rodríguez-Baño, J.; Pascual, A.; Bou, G.

    2016-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a successful nosocomial pathogen due to its ability to persist in hospital environments by acquiring mobile elements such as transposons, plasmids, and phages. In this study, we compared two genomes of A. baumannii clinical strains isolated in 2000 (ST-2_clon_2000) and 2010 (ST-2_clon_2010) from GenBank project PRJNA308422. PMID:27795287

  20. Maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation.

    PubMed Central

    Gurina, Natalia A.; Vangen, Siri; Forsén, Lisa; Sundby, Johanne

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the levels and causes of maternal mortality in St. Petersburg, Russian Federation. METHODS: We collected data about all pregnancy-related deaths in St. Petersburg over the period 1992-2003 using several sources of information. An independent research group reviewed and classified all cases according to ICD-10 and the Confidential Enquiries into Maternal Deaths in the United Kingdom. We tested trends of overall and cause specific ratios (deaths per 100,000 births) for four 3-year intervals using the chi2 test. FINDINGS: The maternal mortality ratio for the study period was 43 per 100,000 live births. A sharp decline of direct obstetric deaths was observed from the first to fourth 3-year interval (49.8 for 1992-94 versus 18.5 for 2001-03). Sepsis and haemorrhage were the main causes of direct obstetric deaths. Among the total deaths from sepsis, 63.8% were due to abortion. Death ratios from sepsis declined significantly from the first to second study interval. In the last study interval (2001-03), 50% of deaths due to haemorrhage were secondary to ectopic pregnancies. The death ratio from thromboembolism remained low (2.9%) and stable throughout the study period. Among indirect obstetric deaths a non-significant decrease was observed for deaths from cardiac disease. Death ratios from infectious causes and suicides increased over the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality levels in St. Petersburg still exceed European levels by a factor of five. Improved management of abortion, emergency care for sepsis and haemorrhage, and better identification and control of infectious diseases in pregnancy, are needed. PMID:16628301

  1. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.

    2005-05-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), will soon announce the final concept for the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five

  2. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.; Stevens, C. M.

    2004-12-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3)Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4)Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5)Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. NASA issued the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2004 and it is expected that at least one of the five technology capability areas will

  3. NASA's New Millennium ST-9 Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, C. M.; Stocky, J. F.; Nelson, R. M.

    2004-11-01

    NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP), has inaugurated the Space Technology 9 (ST9) mission, an integrated system validation project. This is the latest of a series of in-space technology validation activities that began in 1996 with Deep Space 1. The New Millennium Program identifies the technological capabilities needed for future space science missions and the technology advances that will help provide those capabilities. The ST-9 mission will validate one of five technology capabilities that NASA Associate Administrator has selected as candidates for flight validation. The five technology capabilities under consideration are of great relevance to the full breadth of the NASA's Space Science endeavor and are based on input from the space science community for guidance and concurrence. After careful review NASA is preparing a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) soliciting proposals for technology advances to provide needed capability for the following technology capability areas: 1) Solar sail capability-design metrics, scaling, deployment, propulsion and attitude control. 2) Large Space Telescope-structure and control dynamics, materials, structures, actuators, controls for fabrication, packaging and deployment, optical correction and active figure control, thermal control at cryogenic temperatures. 3) Formation Flying- autonomous operations, intersatellite communications, spacecraft formation control, and relative position estimation. 4) Aerocapture- system and performance modeling, aerodynamics and aerothermodynamics, thermal protection systems and structures, and guidance, navigation, and control. 5) Pinpoint Landing and Hazard Avoidance-sensors/algorithms for guidance and navigation, aerodynamic/propulsive maneuvering system options, terrain sensing and hazard recognition systems, and terrain sensors. It is expected that NASA will issue the NRA for technology providers for each capability area in 2003 and that at least one these five technologies capability areas

  4. Spherical tokamak (ST) transmutation of nuclear wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Yueng Kay Martin; Cheng, E.T.; Galambos, John D; Cerbone, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept for an ST fusion core that drives a He-cooled, actinide-bearing, molten-salt blanket of moderate power density to generate electricity is examined for the first time. The results show that the fusion core is suited for this purpose and require a level of plasma, power density, engineering, and material performances moderate in comparison with what has been considered desirable for fusion-only power plants. The low aspect ratio of ST introduces a relatively thick, diverted scrape-off layer which leads to reduced heat fluxes at the limiter and divertor tiles. The use of a demountable, water-cooled, single-turn copper center leg for the toroidal field coils enables simplifications of the fusion core configuration and improves overall practicality for future power applications. These result in much reduced size and cost of the fusion core for the transmutation power plant relative to an optimized fusion-only fusion core. Surrounded by a separate tritium-breeding zone, the molten-salt blanket concept is in principle less complex and costly than the thermal breeding blankets for fusion. These combine to effect major reductions in the cost and weight of the power core equipment for the transmutation power plant. The minimum cost of electricity for such a power plant is thus reduced from the best fusion-only counterpart by more than 30%, based on consistent but approximate modeling. The key issues, development steps, and the potential value inherent in the ST fusion core in addressing the world needs for nuclear waste reduction and energy production are discussed.

  5. Water resources of St. Helena Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2016-07-27

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Helena Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  6. [Methylphenidate induced ST elevation acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Martin Huth; Ruwald, Anne-Christine Huth; Tønder, Niels

    2012-03-05

    Adult attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) is increasingly diagnosed and treated with methylphenidate. We present the case of an 20 year-old man, who was diagnosed with ADHD and suffered a ST elevation acute myocardial infarction due to coronary vasospasm related to an overdose, and subsequent episodes of myocardial injury due to the use and misuse of methylphenidate over a period of two years. We recommend an increased attention to the subscription of methylphenidate to patients, who are at risk of misuse and patients, who have a cardiovascular history.

  7. Volunteers build Bay St. Louis playground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    More than 650 volunteers - many of them employees at NASA's Stennis Space Center - weathered rain and cold to transform Bay St. Louis' old City Park into a playground Dec. 17. Volunteers assembled and erected a slide, swing set, jungle gym, sand box and planter benches in an eight-hour time frame. The playground was the first new structure built in the town devastated by Hurricane Katrina and the first on the Gulf Coast after the storm. The project was financed and led by nonprofit organization KaBOOM!, whose vision is to create a great place to play within walking distance of every child in America.

  8. International S&T Engagement Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    where possible, according to S&T oppottuniti es. o Strengthen and broaden domestic science and engineering activ ities and foster an environment of...Army’ s International Techno logy Centers ( ITCs ), Navy’ s Office ofNava l Research-G loba l (ONR-G), and Air Force Office of Scientific Research...ually with partner nation(s) to the development of the technology); or o Follow and learn ( i.e., develop or deploy capabili ty); or o Watch (i.e

  9. Water resources of St. James Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. James Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  10. Water resources of St. Mary Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Lawrence B.; White, Vincent E.; Lovelace, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Mary Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for management of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  11. Water resources of St. Charles Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Vincent E.; Prakken, Lawrence B.

    2015-01-01

    Information concerning the availability, use, and quality of water in St. Charles Parish, Louisiana, is critical for proper water-supply management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present information that can be used by water managers, parish residents, and others for stewardship of this vital resource. Information on the availability, past and current use, use trends, and water quality from groundwater and surface-water sources in the parish is presented. Previously published reports and data stored in the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Water Information System (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis) are the primary sources of the information presented here.

  12. UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Newman, Paul A; McKenzie, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "world expected" UV environment are compared with the "world avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes that could also be important.

  13. New protocol for lentiviral vector mass production.

    PubMed

    Segura, María Mercedes; Garnier, Alain; Durocher, Yves; Ansorge, Sven; Kamen, Amine

    2010-01-01

    Multiplasmid transient transfection is the most widely used technique for the generation of lentiviral vectors. However, traditional transient transfection protocols using 293 T adherent cells and calcium phosphate/DNA co-precipitation followed by ultracentrifugation are tedious, time-consuming, and difficult to scale up. This chapter describes a streamlined protocol for the fast mass production of lentiviral vectors and their purification by affinity chromatography. Lentiviral particles are generated by transient transfection of suspension growing HEK 293 cells in serum-free medium using polyethylenimine (PEI) as transfection reagent. Lentiviral vector production is carried out in Erlenmeyer flasks agitated on orbital shakers requiring minimum supplementary laboratory equipment. Alternatively, the method can be easily scaled up to generate larger volumes of vector stocks in bioreactors. Heparin affinity chromatography allows for selective concentration and purification of lentiviral particles in a singlestep directly from vector supernatants. The method is suitable for the production and purification of different vector pseudotypes.

  14. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  15. Protocol independent adaptive route update for VANET.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Asim; Ajmal, Sana; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route.

  16. Protocol Independent Adaptive Route Update for VANET

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Asim; Qayyum, Amir

    2014-01-01

    High relative node velocity and high active node density have presented challenges to existing routing approaches within highly scaled ad hoc wireless networks, such as Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET). Efficient routing requires finding optimum route with minimum delay, updating it on availability of a better one, and repairing it on link breakages. Current routing protocols are generally focused on finding and maintaining an efficient route, with very less emphasis on route update. Adaptive route update usually becomes impractical for dense networks due to large routing overheads. This paper presents an adaptive route update approach which can provide solution for any baseline routing protocol. The proposed adaptation eliminates the classification of reactive and proactive by categorizing them as logical conditions to find and update the route. PMID:24723807

  17. An Evaluation of UDP Transport Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, S

    2004-12-21

    Although the speed of LAN and WAN networking is growing at an exponential rate, the applications that use those networks have not followed suit. With fiber optic interconnects, gigahertz processor speeds, and 10 gigabit per second network interface cards, hardware does not seem to be the limiting factor. It is becoming increasingly obvious that the protocols that are the basis of networking today are ill-suited to a new generation of networking technology. For this reason, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is particularly interested in improving bulk transfers over high-bandwidth, high-latency networks because of its involvement in storage and in the transfer of data for cutting-edge scientific applications. This report summarizes our evaluation of a new group of protocols specifically designed to get more useful bandwidth from today's high speed, wide area networks.

  18. Approximation techniques of a selective ARQ protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, B. G.

    Approximations to the performance of selective automatic repeat request (ARQ) protocol with lengthy acknowledgement delays are presented. The discussion is limited to packet-switched communication systems in a single-hop environment such as found with satellite systems. It is noted that retransmission of errors after ARQ is a common situation. ARQ techniques, e.g., stop-and-wait and continuous, are outlined. A simplified queueing analysis of the selective ARQ protocol shows that exact solutions with long delays are not feasible. Two approximation models are formulated, based on known exact behavior of a system with short delays. The buffer size requirements at both ends of a communication channel are cited as significant factor for accurate analysis, and further examinations of buffer overflow and buffer lock-out probability and avoidance are recommended.

  19. D-RATS 2011: RAFT Protocol Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview presentation on the protocol used during the D-RATS2011 field test for file transfer from the field-test robots at Black Point Lava Flow AZ to Johnson Space Center, Houston TX over a simulated time-delay. The file transfer actually uses a commercial implementation of an open communications standard. The focus of the work lies on how to make the state of the distributed system observable.

  20. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    SciTech Connect

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  1. CREATION OF THE MODEL ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, F.; Rosenthal, M.; Wulf, N.

    2010-05-25

    In 1991, the international nuclear nonproliferation community was dismayed to discover that the implementation of safeguards by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) under its NPT INFCIRC/153 safeguards agreement with Iraq had failed to detect Iraq's nuclear weapon program. It was now clear that ensuring that states were fulfilling their obligations under the NPT would require not just detecting diversion but also the ability to detect undeclared materials and activities. To achieve this, the IAEA initiated what would turn out to be a five-year effort to reappraise the NPT safeguards system. The effort engaged the IAEA and its Member States and led to agreement in 1997 on a new safeguards agreement, the Model Protocol Additional to the Agreement(s) between States and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards. The Model Protocol makes explicit that one IAEA goal is to provide assurance of the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities. The Model Protocol requires an expanded declaration that identifies a State's nuclear potential, empowers the IAEA to raise questions about the correctness and completeness of the State's declaration, and, if needed, allows IAEA access to locations. The information required and the locations available for access are much broader than those provided for under INFCIRC/153. The negotiation was completed in quite a short time because it started with a relatively complete draft of an agreement prepared by the IAEA Secretariat. This paper describes how the Model Protocol was constructed and reviews key decisions that were made both during the five-year period and in the actual negotiation.

  2. [Cooperation protocols, which concept for nursing care?].

    PubMed

    Le Boeuf, Dominique

    2010-12-01

    The implementation of cooperation protocols as provided for by the "Hospital, patients, health and regions" Law may greatly alter the organisation of healthcare practices. But an excessively limited vision, focused on the medical act to be delegated, might remove the clinical aspect of the nurse's role and reduce it to merely executing prescriptions. The French National Order of Nurses, through the opinions it will give to national health Authorities, wishes to prevent this danger.

  3. Instability Free Routing: Beyond One Protocol Instance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    assigned a Rout- ing Information Base (RIB) [13]. This database is used to store the routing information related to the routing process (e.g., routes...presents routing anomalies that can derive from route selection by itself, i.e., without any route redis - tribution configured between the routing... redis - tributed into the RIP protocol, all RIP messages received from the neighbors are in fact discarded independently of the AD values. This

  4. Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Race, Margaret S. (Editor); Acevedo, Sara (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This document is the report resulting from the first workshop of the series on development of the criteria for a Mars sample handling protocol. Workshop 1 was held in Bethesda, Maryland on March 20-22, 2000. This report serves to document the proceedings of Workshop 1; it summarizes relevant background information, provides an overview of the deliberations to date, and helps frame issues that will need further attention or resolution in upcoming workshops. Specific recommendations are not part of this report.

  5. Intraurban Spatiotemporal Variability of Ambient Air Pollutants across Metropolitan St. Louis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Li

    Ambient air monitoring networks have been established in the United States since the 1970s to comply with the Clean Air Act. The monitoring networks are primarily used to determine compliance but also provide substantive support to air quality management and air quality research including studies on health effects of air pollutants. The Roxana Air Quality Study (RAQS) was conducted at the fenceline of a petroleum refinery in Roxana, Illinois. In addition to providing insights into air pollutant impacts from the refinery, these measurements increased the St. Louis area monitoring network density for gaseous air toxics and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) speciation and thus provided an opportunity to examine intraurban spatiotemporal variability for these air quality parameters. This dissertation focused on exploring and assessing aspects of ambient air pollutant spatiotemporal variability in the St. Louis area from three progressively expanded spatial scales using a suite of methods and metrics. RAQS data were used to characterize air quality conditions in the immediate vicinity of the petroleum refinery. For example, PM2.5 lanthanoids were used to track impacts from refinery fluidized bed catalytic cracker emissions. RAQS air toxics data were interpreted by comparing to network data from the Blair Street station in the City of St. Louis which is a National Air Toxics Trends Station. Species were classified as being spatially homogeneous (similar between sites) or heterogeneous (different between sites) and in the latter case these differences were interpreted using surface winds data. For PM 2.5 species, there were five concurrently operating sites in the St. Louis area - including the site in Roxana - which are either formally part of the national Chemical Speciation Network (CSN) or rigorously follow the CSN sampling and analytical protocols. This unusually large number of speciation sites for a region the size of St. Louis motivated a detailed examination of

  6. 76 FR 68098 - Safety Zone; Fourth Annual Chillounge Night St. Petersburg Fireworks Display, Tampa Bay, St...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ..., Florida. The fireworks, which will be launched from Spa Beach Park, will explode over the waters of Tampa... vicinity of Spa Beach in St. Petersburg, Florida. The temporary safety zone will be enforced from 9:30 p.m... (including potential economic, environmental, public health and safety effects, distributive impacts,...

  7. World spherical torus (ST) research as coordinated by the IEA ST Implementing Agreement (IA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Y.-K. M.; Takase, Y.; Lloyd, B.

    2012-10-01

    Since the establishment of the IEA ST IA in 2007, the world ST research community has grown to 24 ST experiments in seven countries. For the second 5 years of the IA, major upgrades of the NSTX (USA) and MAST (UK) are or will soon be underway aiming to start enhanced experimental research in 2015. Major tests of solenoid-free start-up are addressed by experiments in Japan including QUEST (Kyushu U.), TST-2 (U. Tokyo), and LATE (Kyoto U.), Pegasus (U. Wisconsin), and SUNIST (Tsinghua U., PRC). These aim to develop database to minimize/remove the central solenoid and enable truly compact fusion energy devices. Lithium-only PFCs are tested in LTX (PPPL). The community is considering low to modest-Q applications to fusion energy R&D. These range from small size (R˜0.5m) volume neutron sources delivering several MW fusion neutrons, to medium size (R˜1.0m, 50-MW) fusion science and technology experimental facilities to enable critical R&D needed to develop database for a fusion DEMO and other energy applications. Progress and remaining ST R&D will be summarized.

  8. Outbreak of KPC-3-producing ST15 and ST348 Klebsiella pneumoniae in a Portuguese hospital.

    PubMed

    Vubil, D; Figueiredo, R; Reis, T; Canha, C; Boaventura, L; DA Silva, G J

    2017-02-01

    To date, only a few sporadic cases of infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producers have been reported in Portugal. Here, we report for the first time an outbreak of K. pneumoniae KPC-3 producers in a tertiary-care hospital during 2013. Twenty-seven ertapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae were identified in patients at a tertiary-care hospital during 2013 isolated predominantly from urine (48·1%) and blood (25·9%) cultures. All isolates were highly resistant to β-lactam antibiotics and most showed intermediate resistance to imipenem. The more frequent β-lactamases were TEM- (77·7%), CTX-M- (70·3%) and KPC-type (66·6%). KPC-3 was identified by sequencing. The bla KPC-3 gene was associated with an IncF plasmid, and efficiently transferred to E. coli J53. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis typing revealed three clusters of isolates which were further characterized by multi-locus sequence typing as ST11, ST15 and ST348. Ertapenem-resistant ST15 was already in circulation in the hospital, related to expression of OmpK36 modified porin, but the other two sequence types had not been previously found in the hospital. We conclude that the IncF plasmid mediated transfer of KPC-3 in the outbreak and that implementation of carbapenemase gene screening in isolates from patients on admission to hospital is advisable in order to control dissemination of these antimicrobial resistance elements.

  9. The Groningen Protocol - the Jewish perspective.

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Steinberg, Avraham; Blazer, Shraga; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Despite significant advances in neonatology, there will always be newborns with serious life-threatening conditions creating most difficult bioethical dilemmas. Active euthanasia for adult patients is one of the most controversial bioethical questions; for severely ill neonates, the issue is even more complex, due to their inability to take part in any decision concerning their future. The Groningen Protocol introduced in 2005 by P.J. Sauer proposes criteria allowing active euthanasia for severely ill, not necessarily terminal, newborns with incurable conditions and poor quality of life in order to spare them unbearable suffering. We discuss the ethical dilemma and ideological foundations of the protocol, the opinions of its defenders and critics, and the dangers involved. The Jewish perspective relating to the subject is presented based on classical Jewish sources, which we trust may enrich modern bioethical debates. In Jewish law, the fetus acquires full legal status only after birth. However, while the lives of terminally ill neonates must in no way be actively destroyed or shortened, there is no obligation to make extraordinary efforts to prolong their lives. Accurate preimplantation or prenatal diagnosis might significantly reduce the incidence of nonviable births, but active killing of infants violates the basic foundations of Jewish law, and opens the 'slippery slope' for uncontrolled abuse. Therefore, we call upon the international medical and bioethical community to reject the Groningen Protocol that permits euthanization and to develop ethical guidelines for the optimal care of severely compromised neonates.

  10. Analysis of Security Protocols for Mobile Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Wazid, Mohammad; Zeadally, Sherali; Das, Ashok Kumar; Odelu, Vanga

    2016-11-01

    Mobile Healthcare (mHealth) continues to improve because of significant improvements and the decreasing costs of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs). mHealth is a medical and public health practice, which is supported by mobile devices (for example, smartphones) and, patient monitoring devices (for example, various types of wearable sensors, etc.). An mHealth system enables healthcare experts and professionals to have ubiquitous access to a patient's health data along with providing any ongoing medical treatment at any time, any place, and from any device. It also helps the patient requiring continuous medical monitoring to stay in touch with the appropriate medical staff and healthcare experts remotely. Thus, mHealth has become a major driving force in improving the health of citizens today. First, we discuss the security requirements, issues and threats to the mHealth system. We then present a taxonomy of recently proposed security protocols for mHealth system based on features supported and possible attacks, computation cost and communication cost. Our detailed taxonomy demonstrates the strength and weaknesses of recently proposed security protocols for the mHealth system. Finally, we identify some of the challenges in the area of security protocols for mHealth systems that still need to be addressed in the future to enable cost-effective, secure and robust mHealth systems.

  11. Anaerobic protocol for assessing industrial waste treatability

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.C.; Khandaker, N.R.

    1996-11-01

    Recent promulgation of strict standards for industrial waste pretreatment has greatly increased the number of wastewaters that are candidates for anaerobic treatment. The challenge with industrial wastes is to determine the potential for anaerobic biodegradation prior to investing large amounts of time and expense in design and field investigation. Various methods have been used to assess the treatability of industrial wastewaters, but the methodology has varied significantly. In response to the need for a consistent procedure for determining the treatability of different industrial wastewaters by anaerobic processes, Young developed an anaerobic treatability screening protocol. The purpose of this paper is to describe the protocol and to report a number of case studies in which the test protocol was used to determine the feasibility of using anaerobic processes for treating specific industrial wastes. Specific examples include food processing wastes, chemical production wastes, petroleum wastes, and landfill leachate. Treatability was based on assessment of the rate and extent of biodegradation, identification of the presence of toxic substances, and dilution effects.

  12. Large family of quantum weak coin-flipping protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Mochon, Carlos

    2005-08-15

    Each classical public-coin protocol for coin flipping is naturally associated with a quantum protocol for weak coin flipping. The quantum protocol is obtained by replacing classical randomness with quantum entanglement and by adding a cheat detection test in the last round that verifies the integrity of this entanglement. The set of such protocols defines a family which contains the protocol with bias 0.192 previously found by the author, as well as protocols with bias as low as 1/6 described herein. The family is analyzed by identifying a set of optimal protocols for every number of messages. In the end, tight lower bounds for the bias are obtained which prove that 1/6 is optimal for all protocols within the family.

  13. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  14. SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krle A-Jerić, Karmela; Hrobjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Dore, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2015-12-01

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol. The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  15. TOXICITY REDUCTION EVALUATION PROTOCOL FOR MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document presents a generalized protocol for conducting a Toxicity Reduction evaluation (TRE) at a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This protocol is designed to provide guidance to municipalities in preparing TRE plans, evaluating the information generated durin...

  16. Novel protocols for P300-based brain-computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Salvaris, Mathew; Cinel, Caterina; Citi, Luca; Poli, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    The oddball protocol is often used in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) to induce P300 ERPs, although, recently, some issues have been shown to detrimentally effect its performance. In this paper, we study a new periodic protocol and explore whether it can compete with the standard oddball protocol within the context of a BCI mouse. We found that the new protocol consistently and significantly outperforms the standard oddball protocol in relation to information transfer rates (33 bits/min for the former and 22 bits/min for the latter, measured at 90% accuracy) as well as P300 amplitudes. Furthermore, we performed a comparison of two periodic protocols with two less conventional oddball-like protocols that reveals the importance of the interactions between task and sequence in determining the success of a protocol.

  17. METHODS AND ANALYSES FOR IMPLEMENTING NATURAL ATTENUATION PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Technical protocols for evaluating natural attenuation at petroleum hydrocarbon and chlorinated solvent contaminated sites specify the analysis of electron acceptors and metabolic by-products for identifying and quantifying natural attenuation processes. However, these protocols ...

  18. SPIRIT 2013 statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Chan, An-Wen; Tetzlaff, Jennifer M; Altman, Douglas G; Laupacis, Andreas; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Krleža-Jerić, Karmela; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn; Mann, Howard; Dickersin, Kay; Berlin, Jesse A; Doré, Caroline J; Parulekar, Wendy R; Summerskill, William S M; Groves, Trish; Schulz, Kenneth F; Sox, Harold C; Rockhold, Frank W; Rennie, Drummond; Moher, David

    2013-02-05

    The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content and quality. This article describes the systematic development and scope of SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) 2013, a guideline for the minimum content of a clinical trial protocol.The 33-item SPIRIT checklist applies to protocols for all clinical trials and focuses on content rather than format. The checklist recommends a full description of what is planned; it does not prescribe how to design or conduct a trial. By providing guidance for key content, the SPIRIT recommendations aim to facilitate the drafting of high-quality protocols. Adherence to SPIRIT would also enhance the transparency and completeness of trial protocols for the benefit of investigators, trial participants, patients, sponsors, funders, research ethics committees or institutional review boards, peer reviewers, journals, trial registries, policymakers, regulators, and other key stakeholders.

  19. Behavioral effects of acclimatization to restraint protocol used for awake animal imaging.

    PubMed

    Reed, Michael D; Pira, Ashley S; Febo, Marcelo

    2013-07-15

    Functional MRI in awake rats involves acclimatization to restraint to minimize motion. We designed a study to examine the effects of an acclimatization protocol (5 days of restraint, 60 min per day) on the emission of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and performance in a forced swim test (FST). Our results showed that USV calls are reduced significantly by days 3, 4 and 5 of acclimatization. Although the rats showed less climbing activity (and more immobility) in FST on day 5 compared to the 1st day of restraint acclimatization, the difference was not detected once the animals were given a 2-week hiatus. Overall, we showed that animals adapt to the restraint over a five-day period; however, restraint may introduce confounding behavioral outcomes that may hinder the interpretation of results derived from awake rat imaging. The present data warrants further testing of the effects of MRI restraint on behavior.

  20. Diagnostics of ST Plasmas in NSTX: Challenges and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Johnson; P. Efthimion; J. Foley; B. Jones; E. Mazzucato; H. Park; G. Taylor; F. Levinton; N. Luhmann

    2001-09-26

    This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities present in the diagnosis of spherical torus (ST) plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and discuss the corresponding diagnostic development that is presently underway. After a brief description of diagnostic systems currently installed, examples of ST-specific diagnostic challenges will be highlighted, as will another case, where the ST configuration offers opportunities for new measurements.

  1. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, China, S&T Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    integrates and pro- motes S&T and the economy. Further perfect the three - An excellent supporting environment is a guarantee for level deployment of S&T...organizational structure of enterprises, actively sup- 91FE0559G Beijing KEYAN GUANLI [SCIENCE port enterprise groups that integrate scientific research, RESEARCH...even ignored S&T security work in their technology the integration of S&T and the export-oriented economy. export activities . Several enterprises have

  2. Carriage of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W135 ST-2881

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, Pierre; Djibo, Saacou; Hamidou, Amina Amadou; Tenebray, Bernard; Borrow, Raymond; Chanteau, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    Serogroup W135 ST-2881 meningococci caused a cluster of meningitis cases in Niger in 2003. Of 80 healthy persons in the patients' villages, 28 (35%) carried meningococci; 20 of 21 W135 carrier strains were ST-2881. Ten months later, 5 former carriers were still carriers of W135 ST-2881 strains. The serum bactericidal antibody activity changed according to carrier status. PMID:17073093

  3. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT

  4. Chicago-St. Louis high speed rail plan

    SciTech Connect

    Stead, M.E.

    1994-12-31

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT), in cooperation with Amtrak, undertook the Chicago-St. Louis High Speed Rail Financial and Implementation Plan study in order to develop a realistic and achievable blueprint for implementation of high speed rail in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor. This report presents a summary of the Price Waterhouse Project Team`s analysis and the Financial and Implementation Plan for implementing high speed rail service in the Chicago-St. Louis corridor.

  5. Deposition in St. Mark's Basilica of Venice.

    PubMed

    Morabito, E; Zendri, E; Piazza, R; Ganzerla, R; Montalbani, S; Marcoleoni, E; Bonetto, F; Scandella, A; Barbante, C; Gambaro, A

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric pollutants may cause damage to monuments and historical buildings. Besides air contaminants, soluble salts are also responsible for stone deterioration and decay in outdoor and indoor monuments. The problem of how to conserve works of arts thus requires a deep knowledge of contaminants' concentration and distribution inside buildings. In this work, water-soluble ions inside St. Mark's Basilica in Venice were studied, with the aim of understanding their principal source and distribution inside the building. With the aid of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis, the interaction between ions and surface's material was also investigated. Ion chromatographic analysis of depositions highlighted a large amount of "deteriorating agents" such as sulphates and chlorides. A possible source in the innermost area of the basilica has been found for formates and nitrates. On the contrary, a decrease of chloride, from the entrance to the innermost area, has been found, which indicates that the source is outside the building. It is emphasized that different contaminants behave differently on different material, and the effect of pollution inside churches and monuments is not easy to predict. Wood and brick seem to react differently than stone and mortar to the damaging action of salts and pollutants. The present work should be considered a useful tool for the future preservation of St. Mark's Basilica in Venice.

  6. Limnological aspects of the St. Clair River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Thornley, Stewart; Edsall, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    To better characterize neoplasm epizootics in the Great Lakes basin and their association with families of contaminants, we sampled five locations: the Fox and Menominee rivers, Lake Michigan; Munuscong Lake, St. Mary's River; and the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, Lake Erie. Frequencies of external and liver tumors were determined for brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from all locations except the Black River and for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Lake Michigan and St. Mary's River sites. Sediment samples were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated aromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Liver neoplasms occurred in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River and Munuscong Lake; brown bullhead captured from Munuscong Lake were older than those collected from the other locations. Brown bullhead from these same two rivers had elevated hepatosomatic indexes. No liver neoplasms were found in brown bullhead from the Fox and Menominee rivers, although polychlorinated aromatics were highest in both Fox River sediment and Fox and Menominee brown bullhead, and arsenic was highest in Menominee River sediment and fish. Liver neoplasms in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River fit the prevailing hypothesis that elevated PAH in sediment can induce cancer in wild fish. The cause of the liver neoplasms in Munuscong Lake brown bullhead is undetermined.

  7. Water resources of St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prakken, Larry B.

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, about 261 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) of water were withdrawn in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, almost entirely from surface-water sources. Industrial use accounted for about 97 percent (253 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Other categories of use included public supply, rural domestic, and livestock. Water-use data collected at 5-year intervals from 1960 to 2010 indicated that total water withdrawals in the parish ranged from about 138 to 720 Mgal/d, with industrial use of surface water making up the bulk of water withdrawals. The large decline in surface-water withdrawals from 1980 to 1985 was largely attributable to a decrease in industrial use from 654 Mgal/d in 1980 to 127 Mgal/d in 1985. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of St. Bernard Parish. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the Selected References section.

  8. Federal laboratories for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Gover, J.; Huray, P.G.

    1998-04-01

    Federal laboratories have successfully filled many roles for the public; however, as the 21st Century nears it is time to rethink and reevaluate how Federal laboratories can better support the public and identify new roles for this class of publicly-owned institutions. The productivity of the Federal laboratory system can be increased by making use of public outcome metrics, by benchmarking laboratories, by deploying innovative new governance models, by partnerships of Federal laboratories with universities and companies, and by accelerating the transition of federal laboratories and the agencies that own them into learning organizations. The authors must learn how government-owned laboratories in other countries serve their public. Taiwan`s government laboratory, Industrial Technology Research Institute, has been particularly successful in promoting economic growth. It is time to stop operating Federal laboratories as monopoly institutions; therefore, competition between Federal laboratories must be promoted. Additionally, Federal laboratories capable of addressing emerging 21st century public problems must be identified and given the challenge of serving the public in innovative new ways. Increased investment in case studies of particular programs at Federal laboratories and research on the public utility of a system of Federal laboratories could lead to increased productivity of laboratories. Elimination of risk-averse Federal laboratory and agency bureaucracies would also have dramatic impact on the productivity of the Federal laboratory system. Appropriately used, the US Federal laboratory system offers the US an innovative advantage over other nations.

  9. Nursing heroism in the 21st Century'

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Vivian Bullwinkel Oration honours the life and work of an extraordinary nurse. Given her story and that of her World War II colleagues, the topic of nursing heroism in the 21st century could not be more germane. Discussion Is heroism a legitimate part of nursing, or are nurses simply 'just doing their job' even when facing extreme personal danger? In this paper I explore the place and relevance of heroism in contemporary nursing. I propose that nursing heroism deserves a broader appreciation and that within the term lie many hidden, 'unsung' or 'unrecorded' heroisms. I also challenge the critiques of heroism that would condemn it as part of a 'militarisation' of nursing. Finally, I argue that nursing needs to be more open in celebrating our heroes and the transformative power of nursing achievements. Summary The language of heroism may sound quaint by 21st Century standards but nursing heroism is alive and well in the best of our contemporary nursing ethos and practice. PMID:21324152

  10. A Model Based Security Testing Method for Protocol Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    The security of protocol implementation is important and hard to be verified. Since the penetration testing is usually based on the experience of the security tester and the specific protocol specifications, a formal and automatic verification method is always required. In this paper, we propose an extended model of IOLTS to describe the legal roles and intruders of security protocol implementations, and then combine them together to generate the suitable test cases to verify the security of protocol implementation. PMID:25105163

  11. Two Quantum Direct Communication Protocols Based on Quantum Search Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shu-Jiang; Chen, Xiu-Bo; Wang, Lian-Hai; Niu, Xin-Xin; Yang, Yi-Xian

    2015-07-01

    Based on the properties of two-qubit Grover's quantum search algorithm, we propose two quantum direct communication protocols, including a deterministic secure quantum communication and a quantum secure direct communication protocol. Secret messages can be directly sent from the sender to the receiver by using two-qubit unitary operations and the single photon measurement with one of the proposed protocols. Theoretical analysis shows that the security of the proposed protocols can be highly ensured.

  12. Single-Photon Secure Quantum Dialogue Protocol Without Information Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Nan-Run; Hua, Tian-Xiang; Wu, Gui-Tong; He, Chao-Sheng; Zhang, Ye

    2014-11-01

    Combining the idea of ping-pong protocol with Controlled-NOT operation, we propose a secure quantum dialogue protocol based on single-photonss. Bob obtains the information of the encrypted quantum state by performing Controlled-NOT operation on the auxiliary particle and the encrypted single-photonss. Unlike the previous quantum dialogue protocols based on single-photonss, the proposed protocol not only overcomes information leakage but also possesses an acceptable efficiency.

  13. Identity-Based Authenticated Key Agreement Protocols without Bilinear Pairings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xuefei; Kou, Weidong; Yu, Yong; Sun, Rong

    This letter proposes an identity-based authenticated key agreement protocol. Different from available comparable ones, the new protocol realizes implicit authentication without bilinear pairings which makes it more efficient. The security of proposed protocol can be reduced to the standard Computational Diffie-Hellman problem. Two variants of the protocol are also given, with one achieving the security-efficiency trade-off and the other providing authenticated key agreement between users of different domains.

  14. Outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST76 and ST37 isolates in neonates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Sun, L; Ding, B; Yang, Y; Xu, X; Liu, W; Zhu, D; Yang, F; Zhang, H; Hu, F

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Shanghai Children's Hospital in China. Twenty-two non-duplicate CRKP strains were collected from pediatric patients between March and June in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The transferability of bla NDM-1 was investigated by conjugation experiment. The plasmids bearing antibiotic resistance genes were characterized by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The clinical data of patients were retrospectively reviewed. The 22 CRKP strains were resistant to most of the antimicrobial agents tested, except tigecycline and colistin. Overall, 59, 77, and 100 % of these strains were resistant to imipenem, meropenem, and ertapenem, respectively. The bla NDM-1 was positive in 77.3 % (17/22) of the CRKP strains, of which the 16 isolates from inpatients were designated as ST37 (n = 9) and ST76 (n =7) and one isolate from an outpatient belonged to ST846. The 17 bla NDM-1-positive isolates belonged to PFGE type A (n = 9), type C (n = 7), or type B (n = 1). The plasmids bearing bla NDM-1 could be transferred into recipient Escherichia coli J53 through conjugation in 88.2 % (15/17) of the strains. The hybridization results showed that the plasmids carrying the bla NDM-1 gene were approximately 50-240 kb in size. This is the first report of an outbreak caused by NDM-1-producing K. pneumoniae ST76 and ST37 among neonates.

  15. Isolated Right Ventricular Infarction Mimicking Anterior ST-Segment Elevation

    PubMed Central

    Oktay, Veysel; Coskun, Ugur; Yildiz, Ahmet; Gurmen, Tevfik

    2016-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes in patients with presence of ST-segment elevation in the anterior precordial leads indicates left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. However, anterior ST-segment elevation has also been described in right ventricular myocardial infarction and is thought to be due to right coronary artery (RCA) occlusion. We present a rare case of isolated RVMI presenting with anterior ST-segment elevation due to proximal occlusion of a right coronary artery that was treated by primary coronary angioplasty. Primary coronary angioplasty and stenting of this artery was performed resulting in resolution of the chest pain and ST- segment elevation. PMID:27190867

  16. Going Online with Protocols: New Tools for Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Joseph P.; Zydney, Janet Mannheimer; Dichter, Alan; McDonald, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    Many users of the popular professional development book, "The Power of Protocols," discovered that protocols are also very useful for online teaching. This new book, by three of the same authors, focuses on using protocols to enhance learning with their students in multiple environments including online--a growing sector of the educational world.…

  17. Implementation of Siemens USS protocol into LabVIEW.

    PubMed

    Hosek, P; Diblik, M

    2011-10-01

    This article gives basic overview of the USS protocol as a communication interface to drive Siemens frequency inverters. It presents our implementation of this protocol into LabVIEW, as there was permanent demand from the community of the users to have native LabVIEW implementation of the USS protocol. It also states encountered problems and their solutions.

  18. Choosing and applying cryopreservation protocols to new species or tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some have proposed that it is necessary to develop new cryopreservation protocols for each new plant or tissue. We have found that standard protocols can be applied to many plants with few if any changes. Screening of groups of plants in a genus show that many protocols are easily applied to large ...

  19. The Interlibrary Loan Protocol: An OSI Solution to ILL Messaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Fay

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the interlibrary loan (ILL) protocol, a standard based on the principles of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Reference Model. Benefits derived from protocol use are described, the status of the protocol as an international standard is reviewed, and steps taken by the National Library of Canada to facilitate migration to an ILL…

  20. On the Security of RFID Group Scanning Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Duc Nguyen; Kim, Kwangjo

    A RFID group scanning protocol enables a RFID reader to produce a proof of co-existence of multiple RFID tags. This type of protocol is also referred to as yoking-proof, grouping-proof and co-existence proof. In this letter, we show that all of the previous group scanning protocols are vulnerable to relay attack.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MODELING PROTOCOLS FOR USE IN DETERMINING SEDIMENT TMDLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling protocols for use in determining sediment TMDLs are being developed to provide the Office of Water, Regions and the States with assistance in determining TMDLs for sediment impaired water bodies. These protocols will supplement the protocols developed by the Office of W...

  2. Coping with threats of terrorism: a protocol for group intervention.

    PubMed

    Ottenstein, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a group protocol designed to assist people in coping with direct and ongoing threats of terrorism. The protocol is intended to enable participants to address the psychological issues necessary to cope during periods of extreme threat. A step-by-step description of the protocol is provided.

  3. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  4. 21 CFR 814.19 - Product development protocol (PDP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product development protocol (PDP). 814.19 Section...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES General § 814.19 Product development protocol (PDP). A class III device for which a product development protocol has been declared completed by FDA...

  5. Clonal expansion of sequence type (ST-)5 and emergence of ST-7 in serogroup A meningococci, Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolas, P.; Décousset, L.; Riglet, V.; Castelli, P.; Stor, R.; Blanchet, G.

    2001-01-01

    One hundred four serogroup A meningococci in our collection, isolated in Africa from 1988 to 1999, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Our results and data from the Internet indicate that sequence type 5 (ST-5) strains were responsible for most of African outbreaks and sporadic cases during this period. In 1995, a new clone, characterized by ST-7 sequence, emerged and was responsible for severe outbreaks in Chad (1998) and Sudan (1999). MLST and epidemiologic data indicate that ST-5 and ST-7 represent two virulent clones. These two STs, which belong to subgroup III, differ only in the pgm locus: allele pgm3 is characteristic for ST-5 and allele pgm19 for ST-7. Subgroup III strains were responsible for two pandemics in the 1960s and 1980s. Our data show that the third subgroup III pandemic has now reached Africa. PMID:11747698

  6. Spacelab system analysis: The modified free access protocol: An access protocol for communication systems with periodic and Poisson traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingels, Frank; Owens, John; Daniel, Steven

    1989-01-01

    The protocol definition and terminal hardware for the modified free access protocol, a communications protocol similar to Ethernet, are developed. A MFA protocol simulator and a CSMA/CD math model are also developed. The protocol is tailored to communication systems where the total traffic may be divided into scheduled traffic and Poisson traffic. The scheduled traffic should occur on a periodic basis but may occur after a given event such as a request for data from a large number of stations. The Poisson traffic will include alarms and other random traffic. The purpose of the protocol is to guarantee that scheduled packets will be delivered without collision. This is required in many control and data collection systems. The protocol uses standard Ethernet hardware and software requiring minimum modifications to an existing system. The modification to the protocol only affects the Ethernet transmission privileges and does not effect the Ethernet receiver.

  7. High-yield soluble expression, purification and characterization of human steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) fused to a cleavable Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP).

    PubMed

    Sluchanko, Nikolai N; Tugaeva, Kristina V; Faletrov, Yaroslav V; Levitsky, Dmitrii I

    2016-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is responsible for the rapid delivery of cholesterol to mitochondria where the lipid serves as a source for steroid hormones biosynthesis in adrenals and gonads. Despite many successful investigations, current understanding of the mechanism of StAR action is far from being completely clear. StAR was mostly obtained using denaturation/renaturation or in minor quantities in a soluble form at decreased temperatures that, presumably, limited the possibilities for its consequent detailed exploration. In our hands, existing StAR expression constructs could be bacterially expressed almost exclusively as insoluble forms, even upon decreased expression temperatures and in specific strains of Escherichia coli, and isolated protein tended to aggregate and was difficult to handle. To maximize the yield of soluble protein, optimized StAR sequence encompassing functional domain STARD1 (residues 66-285) was fused to the C-terminus of His-tagged Maltose-Binding Protein (MBP) with the possibility to cleave off the whole tag by 3C protease. The developed protocol of expression and purification comprising of a combination of subtractive immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and size-exclusion chromatography allowed us to obtain up to 25 mg/1 L culture of completely soluble StAR protein, which was (i) homogenous according to SDS-PAGE, (ii) gave a single symmetrical peak on a gel-filtration, (iii) showed the characteristic CD spectrum and (iv) pH-dependent ability to bind a fluorescently-labeled cholesterol analogue. We conclude that our strategy provides fully soluble and native StAR protein which in future could be efficiently used for biotechnology and drug discovery aimed at modulation of steroids production.

  8. Comparison between two physiotherapy protocols for patients with chronic kidney disease on dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Neto, José Roberto Sostena; Figueiredo e Castro, Letícia Magalhães; Santos de Oliveira, Fernanda; Silva, Andréia Maria; Maria dos Reis, Luciana; Quirino, Ana Paula Assunção; Dragosavac, Desanka; Kosour, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To compare the effects of two physiotherapy protocols for chronic kidney disease patients on dialysis. [Subjects and Methods] This is a prospective, randomized study, in chronic kidney disease patients 18 years of age or older on dialysis. Sessions for each group (were conducted three times per week for a total of 10 sessions), during hemodialysis. Respiratory muscle strength (maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure), peak expiratory flow, and peripheral muscle strength were evaluated. The study group received motor and respiratory physiotherapy, and the control group received motor physiotherapy alone. [Results] We observed a significant increase in the maximal inspiratory pressure in the study group in the 5th and 10th sessions and in the maximal expiratory pressure in the 1st session, peak flow in the 1st and 10th sessions, and dynamometry in the 10th session. In the control group, there was a significant decrease in maximal inspiratory pressure in the 5th and 10th sessions, and in maximal expiratory pressure in the 10th session, peak flow in the 5th and 10th sessions, and dynamometry in the 5th session. [Conclusion] Implementation of motor physiotherapy combined with respiratory physiotherapy may have contributed to the improvement of the variables analyzed in the study group. PMID:27313390

  9. Cancer mortality and the method of chlorination of public drinking water: St. Louis City and St. Louis County, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Marienfeld, C.J.; Collins, M.; Wright, H.; Reddy, R.; Shoop, G.; Rust, P.

    1986-09-01

    St. Louis City and St. Louis County, Missouri share the same public drinking water source, namely the Missouri River. The all cancer and most organ specific cancer mortality rates have been consistently and considerably higher for St. Louis City than for St. Louis County for the period 1960 through 1972. A change in the St. Louis County water treatment process, which included increasing the chlorine dosage and delaying the addition of ammonia to form chloramines until just prior to distribution, was instituted in 1955. St. Louis City has, by contrast, continued the lower chlorine level and early ammoniation. Trend analysis using the period 1960-67 and 1972-76 showed higher percentage as well as net cancer mortality rate per million increases for large bowel, liver and bladder cancers for St. Louis County. An apparent association between a probable increase in trihalomethane production in the St. Louis County water since 1955 and an increase in these specific cancer rates which exceed the increases in the St. Louis City rates appears to have been shown. This does not imply causality but is in general agreement with other studies which have examined water chlorination and cancer mortality.

  10. First Characterization of CTX-M-15-Producing Escherichia coli Strains Belonging to Sequence Type (ST) 410, ST224, and ST1284 from Commercial Swine in South America

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Ketrin C.; Moreno, Marina; Cabrera, Carlos; Spira, Beny; Cerdeira, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report for the first time the isolation of CTX-M-15-producing Escherichia coli strains belonging to sequence type (ST) 410, ST224, and ST1284 in commercial swine in Brazil. The blaCTX-M-15 gene was located on F-::A9::B1 and C1::A9::B1 IncF-type plasmids, surrounded by a new genetic context comprising the IS26 insertion sequence truncated with the ISEcp1 element upstream of blaCTX-M-15. These results reveal that commercial swine have become a new reservoir of CTX-M-15-producing bacteria in South America. PMID:26824955

  11. Protocol design for mobile radio group communications over satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Victor C. M.

    1992-10-01

    The protocol design for a mobile radio service supporting half-duplex push-to-talk voice communications over mobile satellite systems is presented. Two types of protocols are considered, namely, a demand assignment multiple access protocol to assign channels only to those user groups in active sessions of conversations and a signaling protocol to arbitrate contentions among members of the same user group within an assigned channel. It is concluded that the proposed access control protocol makes it possible to improve the throughput capacity of the assigned channel by 65 or 18 percent compared to manual carrier-sensed access without or with collisoin detection, respectively.

  12. An Efficient Password Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol with Bilinear Parings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Xiaofei; Wei, Fushan; Ma, Chuangui; Chen, Shumin

    In recent years, many password authenticated key exchange (PAKE) protocols have been proposed. However, many of them have been broken or have no security proof. In this paper, we propose an efficient password authenticated key exchange protocol using bilinear pairings. Compared with previous PAKE protocol using bilinear pairings, our protocol is quite efficient both in communication cost and computational cost. Moreover, this paper proves that the novel protocol is forward secrecy under the Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) assumption in the random oracle model.

  13. Engineering in the 21st century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Reasonable evolutionary trends in federal outlays for aerospace research and development predict a continuing decline in real resources (1970 dollars) until the mid eighties, and a growth thereafter to the 1970 level by 2000, still well below the 1966 peak. Employment levels will parallel this trend with no shortage of available personnel foreseen. These trends characterize a maturing industry. Shifts in outlook toward the economic use of resources, rather than minimum risk at any cost, and toward missions aligned with societal needs and broad national goals will accompany these trends. These shifts in outlook will arise in part in academia, and will, in turn, influence engineering education. By 2000, space technology will have achieved major advances in the management of information, in space transportation, in space structures, and in energy. The economics of space systems must be the primary consideration if the space program foreseen for the 21st century is to become an actuality.

  14. Antiparasitic DNA vaccines in 21st century.

    PubMed

    Wedrychowicz, Halina

    2015-06-01

    Demands for effective vaccines to control parasitic diseases of humans and livestock have been recently exacerbated by the development of resistance of most pathogenic parasites to anti-parasitic drugs. Novel genomic and proteomic technologies have provided opportunities for the discovery and improvement of DNA vaccines which are relatively easy as well as cheap to fabricate and stable at room temperatures. However, their main limitation is rather poor immunogenicity, which makes it necessary to couple the antigens with adjuvant molecules. This paper review recent advances in the development of DNA vaccines to some pathogenic protozoa and helminths. Numerous studies were conducted over the past 14 years of 21st century, employing various administration techniques, adjuvants and new immunogenic antigens to increase efficacy of DNA vaccines. Unfortunately, the results have not been rewarding. Further research is necessary using more extensive combinations of antigens; alternate delivery systems and more efficient adjuvants based on knowledge of the immunomodulatory capacities of parasitic protozoa and helminths.

  15. The St. Petersburg paradox: An experimental solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva, Sergio; Matsushita, Raul

    2016-03-01

    The St. Petersburg paradox refers to a gamble of infinite expected value, where people are likely to spend only a small entrance fee for it. There is a huge volume of literature that mostly concentrates on the psychophysics of the game; experiments are scant. Here, rather than focusing on the psychophysics, we offer an experimental, "physical" solution as if robots played the game. After examining the time series formed by one billion plays, we: confirm that there is no characteristic scale for this game; explicitly formulate the implied power law; and identify the type of α-stable distribution associated with the game. We find an α = 1 and, thus, the underlying distribution of the game is a Cauchy flight, as hinted by Paul Samuelson.

  16. [Building bridges toward the 21st century].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M

    2000-10-01

    Just as Rome was not built in a day, there are few great inventions and discoveries that can be made overnight. There are always historical circumstances behind them. Laboratory Automation is not an exception. With the end of World War II in 1945 as a turning point, a large volume of American medicine was introduced all over Japan, and clinical laboratory testing which was imported at the same time has taken root and matured. As a result, we can now carry out prompt and fully automated laboratory testing second to none at many hospital laboratories. In this paper, I recall the development and summarize the expansion by focusing on clinical laboratory automation as it has developed in the latter half of the 20th century in Japan. I would feel amply rewarded for my efforts if this paper proved helpful to the young generation. The clinical laboratory of the 21st century rests on their shoulders.

  17. Effective Leadership in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Leaders know how to achieve goals and inspire people along the way. While the terms and definitions may change with the times, it is important to understand the skills and abilities needed to lead in the 21st century. Most effective leaders have one element in common, and that is they are able to keep their teams engaged. If team members are not engaged, they may very well leave the organization. With four generations in the workplace, leaders must adapt and modify their leadership style in order to maintain employee engagement. The ability to lead effectively is based on a number of skills, including communication, motivation, vision, modeling, demonstrating empathy, confidence, persistence, and integrity.

  18. Mount St. Helens' volcanic ash: hemolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Vallyathan, V; Mentnech, M S; Stettler, L E; Dollberg, D D; Green, F H

    1983-04-01

    Volcanic ash samples from four Mount St. Helens' volcanic eruptions were subjected to mineralogical, analytical, and hemolytic studies in order to evaluate their potential for cytotoxicity and fibrogenicity. Plagioclase minerals constituted the major component of the ash with free crystalline silica concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 7.2%. The in vitro hemolytic activity of the volcanic ash was compared to similar concentrations of cytotoxic and inert minerals. The ash was markedly hemolytic, exhibiting an activity similar to chrysotile asbestos, a known fibrogenic agent. The hemolysis of the different ash samples varied with particle size but not with crystalline silica concentration. The results of these studies taken in conjunction with the results of our animal studies indicate a fibrogenic potential of volcanic ash in heavily exposed humans.

  19. A visit to Mount St. Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Meadows, D.G.

    1994-04-01

    The May 18, 1980, eruption displaced roughly 2.6 km[sup 3] of rock and devastated more than 500 km[sup 2] of forest, mostly to the north of the mountain. Trees within 10--15 km of the mountain peak were burned and uprooted. Beyond that, high winds and flying debris created a blowdown zone. Up to 150 m of rock and ice covered some areas. Accumulations of ash were measured as much as 330 km from the volcano. Mud flows choked nearby rivers and streams. Two years later, the US Congress established the 44,000-hectare Mount St. Helens National Volcanic Monument. The Act essentially directed the USDA Forest Service to allow the area to recover naturally. The paper reviews what changes the ecosystem has been going through since the eruption and the lessons learned that suggest some new resource management techniques.

  20. In the wake of Mount St Helens.

    PubMed

    Nania, J; Bruya, T E

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  1. In the wake of Mount St Helens

    SciTech Connect

    Nania, J.; Bruya, T.E.

    1982-04-01

    On May 18, 1980, Mount St Helens, Washington State's most active volcano, erupted violently. Volcanic eruptions in recent geologic history have demonstrated tremendous environmental impact and caused significant loss of human life. Volcanic ash expelled during the eruption was deposited on much of eastern Washington and had a profound effect on local air quality. Although ash is relatively inert, analysis revealed a small but significant amount of free crystalline silica, the causative agent of silicosis. The fine particles of ash were of respirable size, and there was a remarkable increase in the volume of respiratory cases seen in emergency departments during the period of high airborne particulate levels. Numerous cases of injury indirectly related to the fall of ash were also seen. The long-term effect of exposure to this volcanic ash is unknown. A prompt, coordinated community medical response is necessary to protect the general population from the potential hazard of exposure to volcanic ash.

  2. Storage, retrieval, and analysis of ST data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, R.

    1984-01-01

    Space Telescope can generate multidimensional image data, very similar in nature to data produced with microdensitometers. An overview is presented of the ST science ground system between carrying out the observations and the interactive analysis of preprocessed data. The ground system elements used in data archival and retrieval are described and operational procedures are discussed. Emphasis is given to aspects of the ground system that are relevant to the science user and to general principles of system software development in a production environment. While the system being developed uses relatively conservative concepts for the launch baseline, concepts were developed to enhance the ground system. This includes networking, remote access, and the utilization of alternate data storage technologies.

  3. Bell Inequalities, Experimental Protocols and Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we give additional arguments in favor of the point of view that the violation of Bell, CHSH and CH inequalities is not due to a mysterious non locality of nature. We concentrate on an intimate relation between a protocol of a random experiment and a probabilistic model which is used to describe it. We discuss in a simple way differences between attributive joint probability distributions and generalized joint probability distributions of outcomes from distant experiments which depend on how the pairing of these outcomes is defined. We analyze in detail experimental protocols implied by local realistic and stochastic hidden variable models and show that they are incompatible with the protocols used in spin polarization correlation experiments. We discuss also the meaning of "free will", differences between quantum and classical filters, contextuality of Kolmogorov models, contextuality of quantum theory (QT) and show how this contextuality has to be taken into account in probabilistic models trying to explain in an intuitive way the predictions of QT. The long range imperfect correlations between the clicks of distant detectors can be explained by partially preserved correlations between the signals created by a source. These correlations can only be preserved if the clicks are produced in a local and deterministic way depending on intrinsic parameters describing signals and measuring devices in the moment of the measurement. If an act of a measurement was irreducibly random they would be destroyed. It seems to indicate that QT may be in fact emerging from some underlying more detailed theory of physical phenomena. If this was a case then there is a chance to find in time series of experimental data some fine structures not predicted by QT. This would be a major discovery because it would not only prove that QT does not provide a complete description of individual physical systems but it would prove that it is not predictably complete.

  4. Towards a formalism for conversation protocols using joint intention theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Huber, Marcus J.; Cohen, Philip R.; McGee, David R. )

    2001-12-01

    Conversation protocols are meant to achieve certain tasks or to bring about certain state of affairs in the world. Therefore, one may identify the landmarks or the state of affairs that must be brought about during the execution of a protocol in order to achieve its goal. Accordingly, the most important aspect of protocols is these landmarks rather than the communicative actions needed to achieve the landmarks. We show that families of conversation protocols can be expressed formally as partially ordered landmarks where each landmark is characterized by propositions that are true in the state represented by that landmark. Dialogue in natural languages is regarded as joint activity. Conversation protocols in multi-agent systems are treated as dialogue templates and are composed using speech acts from natural language dialogues. As such, we treat conversation protocols as joint action expressions and gainfully apply existing formal theories of dialogue, specifically the Joint Intention Theory, to protocols and their compositions. Conversation protocols may require agents to communicate with groups as well as individuals. However, most contemporary agent communication languages, notably FIPA and KQML, have either no provision or no well-defined semantics for group communication. Furthermore, the research on protocols so far does not correctly incorporate groups into the protocols. We give a formal semantics to group communicative acts and use it to handle group communication in a formal treatment of protocols.

  5. Technology Maturation and Flight Validation Experience for NASA's ST8 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minning, Charles P.; Some, Raphael R.; Fujita, Toshio

    2007-01-01

    Background: a) Introduction to ST8 Project; b) ST8 Project timeline; c) ST8 technology payloads. Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs) as interpreted by NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). Role of Technology Review Boards (TRBs) in the evaluation of technology maturity for the NMP ST8 Project. Lessons learned from the ST8 TRB experience.

  6. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F; Abdussalam, M

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  7. Food safety in the 21st century.

    PubMed Central

    Käferstein, F.; Abdussalam, M.

    1999-01-01

    The global importance of food safety is not fully appreciated by many public health authorities despite a constant increase in the prevalence of foodborne illness. Numerous devastating outbreaks of salmonellosis, cholera, enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli infections, hepatitis A and other diseases have occurred in both industrialized and developing countries. In addition, many of the re-emerging or newly recognized pathogens are foodborne or have the potential of being transmitted by food and/or drinking water. More foodborne pathogens can be expected because of changing production methods, processes, practices and habits. During the early 21st century, foodborne diseases can be expected to increase, especially in developing countries, in part because of environmental and demographic changes. These vary from climatic changes, changes in microbial and other ecological systems, to decreasing freshwater supplies. However, an even greater challenge to food safety will come from changes resulting directly in degradation of sanitation and the immediate human environment. These include the increased age of human populations, unplanned urbanization and migration and mass production of food due to population growth and changed food habits. Mass tourism and the huge international trade in food and feed is causing food and feedborne pathogens to spread transnationally. As new toxic agents are identified and new toxic effects recognized, the health and trade consequences of toxic chemicals in food will also have global implications. Meeting the huge challenge of food safety in the 21st century will require the application of new methods to identify, monitor and assess foodborne hazards. Both traditional and new technologies for assuring food safety should be improved and fully exploited. This needs to be done through legislative measures where suitable, but with much greater reliance on voluntary compliance and education of consumers and professional food handlers. This will

  8. Efficient model checking of network authentication protocol based on SPIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhi-hua; Zhang, Da-fang; Miao, Li; Zhao, Dan

    2013-03-01

    Model checking is a very useful technique for verifying the network authentication protocols. In order to improve the efficiency of modeling and verification on the protocols with the model checking technology, this paper first proposes a universal formalization description method of the protocol. Combined with the model checker SPIN, the method can expediently verify the properties of the protocol. By some modeling simplified strategies, this paper can model several protocols efficiently, and reduce the states space of the model. Compared with the previous literature, this paper achieves higher degree of automation, and better efficiency of verification. Finally based on the method described in the paper, we model and verify the Privacy and Key Management (PKM) authentication protocol. The experimental results show that the method of model checking is effective, which is useful for the other authentication protocols.

  9. Formal Analysis of Two Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, David M.; Treharne, Helen; Ho, Anthony T. S.; Waller, Adrian

    In this paper we demonstrate how the formal model constructed in our previous work [1], can be modified in order to analyse additional Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocols, identifying which specific sections of the CSP scripts remain identical and which require modification. First, we model the protocol proposed by Memon and Wong [2], an examplar of the Offline Watermarking Authority (OFWA) Model, defined in the framework by Poh and Martin [3]. Second, we model the Shao protocol [4] as an example of a protocol fitting the Online Watermarking Authority (ONWA) Model. Our analysis of the protocols reaffirms the unbinding attack described by Lei et al.[5] on the Memon and Wong protocol and we identify a new unbinding attack on the protocol proposed by Shao.

  10. A secure key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Luan, Da-Peng

    2013-11-01

    To guarantee the security of communication in the public channel, many key agreement protocols have been proposed. Recently, Gong et al. proposed a key agreement protocol based on chaotic maps with password sharing. In this paper, Gong et al.'s protocol is analyzed, and we find that this protocol exhibits key management issues and potential security problems. Furthermore, the paper presents a new key agreement protocol based on enhanced Chebyshev polynomials to overcome these problems. Through our analysis, our key agreement protocol not only provides mutual authentication and the ability to resist a variety of common attacks, but also solve the problems of key management and security issues existing in Gong et al.'s protocol.

  11. SPP: A data base processor data communications protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishwick, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    The design and implementation of a data communications protocol for the Intel Data Base Processor (DBP) is defined. The protocol is termed SPP (Service Port Protocol) since it enables data transfer between the host computer and the DBP service port. The protocol implementation is extensible in that it is explicitly layered and the protocol functionality is hierarchically organized. Extensive trace and performance capabilities have been supplied with the protocol software to permit optional efficient monitoring of the data transfer between the host and the Intel data base processor. Machine independence was considered to be an important attribute during the design and implementation of SPP. The protocol source is fully commented and is included in Appendix A of this report.

  12. An Gen2 Based Security Authentication Protocol for RFID System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Xiaoluo; Wang, Liangmin; Mao, Dongmei; Zhan, Yongzhao

    EPC Class-1 Generation-2 specification(Gen2 in brief) has been accepted as the standard for RFID tags under grant number ISO18000-6C. However, Gen2 does not pay due attention to security. For this reason, a Gen2 based security authentication protocol is developed in this paper. In details, we study the security requirements presented in the current Gen2 based RFID authentication protocols[7-13]. Then we point out the security flaws of Chien's mutual authentication protocol[7], and improve the protocol based on a 11 security requirements. Our improved protocol merely uses CRC and PRNG operations supported by Gen2 and meets the 11 security requirements. In contrast to the similar work [14,15] on Chien's protocol or other Gen2 based schemes, our protocol is more secure and our security analysis is much more comprehensive and qualitative.

  13. Protocol for aquatic hazard assessment of selenium

    SciTech Connect

    Lemly, A.D.

    1995-05-24

    A procedure is described for conducting an aquatic hazard assessment of selenium. Hazard is characterized in terms of the potential for food-chain bioaccumulation and reproductive impairment in fish and aquatic birds, which are the most sensitive biological responses for estimating ecosystem-level impacts of selenium contamination. Five degrees of hazard are possible depemding on the expected environmental concentrations of selenium, exposure of fish and aquatic birds to toxic concentrations, and resultant potential for reproductive impairment. An example is given to illustrate how the protocol is applied to selenium data from a typical contaminant monitoring program.

  14. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Engebrecht, C. Metzger; Horowitz, S.; Hendron, R.

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  15. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, E.; Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Horowitz, S.; Hendron, R.

    2014-03-01

    As BA has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  16. Pediatric hospitals' and physician strategies for the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J W; Chesney, R W; Stocks, R M; Shmerling, J; Herron, P

    1999-05-01

    Changes in market-driven health care economics are rapid and of great magnitude. This report describes a study of some of these changes in regard to children's health issues. We used a survey tool to assess long-range plans (next 10 years) and marketing strategies for major free-standing children's hospitals in different regions of the United States. We then used these assessments to draw conclusions about the impact of the plans and strategies on the practice of pediatric physicians and their workforce requirements. This may allow pediatric specialists and their programs to develop strategic plans and to take actions to contend with these market-driven economic changes. The tool was a questionnaire mailed to chief executive officers of 30 randomly chosen but geographically well-distributed children's hospitals. Seventeen children's hospitals responded (57%), providing information concerning each hospital and its current medical economic environment. The data were analyzed and trends were then identified from their responses. All institutions in this study expected to have fewer physicians on staff in the future. These institutions plan: (1) to improve quality and (2) to reduce costs. Quality will be improved by utilizing Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) and/or Benchmarking to Best Practices, both of which encourage physicians to follow standardized treatment protocols. Costs will be reduced by decreasing hospital staff size. Some children's hospitals have merged or will merge with larger, full-service adult hospitals, but most plan to remain autonomous. Many expect a continued decrease in revenues, and almost all expect to downsize both bed number and staff. Restructuring will reduce the number of specialists, particularly in the fields of hematology-oncology, psychiatry, endocrinology, nephrology, and cardiology, and will also reduce the number of surgical specialists. The administrators predicted that more nurse practitioners will be employed at these

  17. Finite element thermal analysis for PMMA/st.st.304 laser direct joining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Furat I.; Salloomi, Kareem N.; Akman, E.; Hajim, K. I.; Demir, A.

    2017-01-01

    This work is concerned with building a three-dimensional (3D) ab-initio models that is capable of predicting the thermal distribution of laser direct joining processes between Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and stainless steel 304(st.st.304). ANSYS® simulation based on finite element analysis (FEA) was implemented for materials joining in two modes; laser transmission joining (LTJ) and conduction joining (CJ). ANSYS® simulator was used to explore the thermal environment of the joints during joining (heating time) and after joining (cooling time). For both modes, the investigation is carried out when the laser spot is at the middle of the joint width, at 15 mm from the commencement point (joint edge) at traveling time of 3.75 s. Process parameters involving peak power (Pp=3 kW), pulse duration (τ=5 ms), pulse repetition rate (PRR=20 Hz) and scanning speed (v=4 mm/s) are applied for both modes.

  18. Standards for the 21st-Century Learner in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of School Librarians (NJ3), 2009

    2009-01-01

    How are AASL's (American Association of School Librarians) new learning standards, the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner," incorporated into the school library media program? This publication from AASL takes an in-depth look at the strands of the "Standards for the 21st-Century Learner" and the indicators within those strands. It also…

  19. Escherichia coli ST131, an Intriguing Clonal Group

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Xavier; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In 2008, a previously unknown Escherichia coli clonal group, sequence type 131 (ST131), was identified on three continents. Today, ST131 is the predominant E. coli lineage among extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) isolates worldwide. Retrospective studies have suggested that it may originally have risen to prominence as early as 2003. Unlike other classical group B2 ExPEC isolates, ST131 isolates are commonly reported to produce extended-spectrum β-lactamases, such as CTX-M-15, and almost all are resistant to fluoroquinolones. Moreover, ST131 E. coli isolates are considered to be truly pathogenic, due to the spectrum of infections they cause in both community and hospital settings and the large number of virulence-associated genes they contain. ST131 isolates therefore seem to contradict the widely held view that high levels of antimicrobial resistance are necessarily associated with a fitness cost leading to a decrease in pathogenesis. Six years after the first description of E. coli ST131, this review outlines the principal traits of ST131 clonal group isolates, based on the growing body of published data, and highlights what is currently known and what we need to find out to provide public health authorities with better information to help combat ST131. PMID:24982321

  20. IMANIN: AN ANTIBIOTIC FROM ST. JOHN’S WORT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report contains a number of articles on imanin -- a new antibiotic preparation from St . John’s wort . Data are presented on imanin, its effect on...practice and on the chemical nature of biologically active substances from St . John’s wort . (Author)

  1. Assessing Transition Skills in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Dawn A.; Mazzotti, Valerie L.; Hirano, Kara; Alverson, Charlotte Y.

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the demanding 21st-century workforce, local education agencies are beginning to refocus and retool to ensure students with disabilities have the knowledge and skills to be productive adults and attain positive postschool outcomes. The skills 21st-century transition assessments address are relevant to teachers and students given the…

  2. Decolonizing Aboriginal Education in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Elizabeth Ann; Lunney-Borden, Lisa; Murray-Orr, Anne; Toney, Denise; Meader, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Concerned by the need to decolonize education for Aboriginal students, the authors explore philosophies of Indigenous ways of knowing and those of the 21st century learning movement. In their efforts to propose a way forward with Aboriginal education, the authors inquire into harmonies between Aboriginal knowledges and tenets of 21st century…

  3. A Hierarchy of 21st Birthday Drinking Norms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Megan E.; Neighbors, Clayton; Lee, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper offers preliminary evidence for a hierarchical organization of normative social influences on 21st birthday drinking. In recent years, 21st birthday celebratory drinking has received increasing attention, due largely to the propagation of dangerous and sometimes fatal drinking traditions, such as attempting to drink one shot for…

  4. 36 CFR 7.9 - St. Croix National Scenic Rivers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Croix National Scenic Rivers. 7.9 Section 7.9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.9 St. Croix National Scenic Rivers....

  5. Teaching 21st Century Skills: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beers, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Any school interested in preparing students for learning and working in 21st century academic and job settings needs this resource to explain to teachers the new skills students need and provide teachers with tools to teach and reinforce these skills. Based on the work of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, this action tool defines what…

  6. 46 CFR 7.90 - St. Johns River, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false St. Johns River, FL. 7.90 Section 7.90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.90 St. Johns River, FL. A line drawn from the southeasternmost extremity of Little Talbot...

  7. Policy on Counting Superseded Checklists in StATS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As we proceed with implementing the State Authorization Tracking System (StATS), and develop management reports based on data in StATS, we continue to identify issues dealing with what events should or should not be counted in the system.

  8. 33 CFR 117.137 - St. Francis River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Francis River. 117.137 Section 117.137 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.137 St. Francis River. The draws of...

  9. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  10. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  11. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  12. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  13. 33 CFR 110.183 - St. Johns River, Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Johns River, Florida. 110.183 Section 110.183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.183 St. Johns River, Florida. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A. (Upper Anchorage)...

  14. Chemistry of St. John's Wort: Hypericin and Hyperforin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vollmer, John J.; Rosenson, Jon

    2004-01-01

    The appeal as natural antidepressant is the major selling point of St. John's Wort, which is referred to as "Prozac from the plant kingdom". Hypericin and hyperforin, two major constituents with significant biological activity of St. John's Wort and which are complex molecules with unusual features, are examined.

  15. 21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment 4 waveforms it radiates , techniques, or timing, within hours as what works and what does not work is...21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment JULY 2015 This page intentionally blank REPORT OF...THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD STUDY ON 21st Century Military Operations in a Complex Electromagnetic Environment July 2015 Office of the

  16. Fostering Higher Order Critical Thinking in 21st Century Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Mary Miller

    2012-01-01

    Teachers working with increasingly diverse student populations are expected, for the first time in American history, to bring all students to high levels of proficiency. American graduates must compete with graduates from other nations, given the realities of the 21st century global economy. American teachers must possess 21st century skills in…

  17. Classification of ischaemic episodes with ST/HR diagrams.

    PubMed

    Faganeli Pucer, Jana; Demšar, Janez; Kukar, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the developed world's premier cause of mortality and the most probable cause of myocardial ischaemia. More advanced diagnostic tests aside, in electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis it manifests itself as a ST segment deviation, targeted by both exercise ECG and ambulatory ECG. In ambulatory ECG, besides ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes there are also non-ischaemic heart rate related episodes which aggravate real ischaemia detection. We present methods to transform the features developed for the heart rate adjustment of ST segment depression in exercise ECG for use in ambulatory ECG. We use annotations provided by the Long-Term ST Database to plot the ST/HR diagrams and then estimate the overall and maximal slopes of the diagrams in the exercise and recovery phase for each ST segment deviation episode. We also estimate the angle at the extrema of the ST/HR diagrams. Statistical analysis shows that ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes have significantly steeper overall and maximal slopes than heart rate related episodes, which indicates the explored features' utility for distinguishing between the two types of episodes. This makes the proposed features very useful in automated ECG analysis.

  18. Rebuilding the LMS for the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demski, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Finally--12 years into the 21st century--higher ed classrooms are turning into incubators for the kind of learning environment that curriculum and instructional technology experts have advocated for years. Yet a key question remains: Can legacy learning management systems (LMSs) be dragged into the 21st century as part of this new educational…

  19. Old Money: Economic History of St. Augustine. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Tom W.

    To better understand the economic aspects of early Florida and to gain an understanding of the continuity of history and economics, students analyze the economic origins and evolution of St. Augustine, Florida, the oldest city in the United States. This lesson plan involves taking the students on a field trip to St. Augustine where they form teams…

  20. G'ST and D do not replace FST.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Michael C

    2011-03-01

    The genetic differentiation among populations is affected by mutation as well as by migration, drift and selection. For loci with high mutation rates, such as microsatellites, the amount of mutation can influence the values of indices of differentiation such as G(ST) and F(ST). For many purposes, this effect is undesirable, and as a result, new indices such as G'(ST) and D have been proposed to measure population differentiation. This paper shows that these new indices are not effective measures of the causes or consequences of population structure. Both G'(ST) and D depend heavily on mutation rate, but both are insensitive to any population genetic process when the mutation rate is high relative to the migration rate. Furthermore, D is specific to the locus being measured, and so little can be inferred about the population demography from D. However, at equilibrium, D may provide an index of whether a particular marker is more strongly affected by mutation than by migration. I argue that F(ST) is a more important summary of the effects of population structure than D and that R(ST) or other measures that explicitly account for the mutation process are much better than G(ST), G'(ST), or D for highly mutable markers. Markers with lower mutation rates will often be easier to interpret.

  1. Preparing Students for the Future--21st Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velez, Alejandra

    2012-01-01

    The 21st century economy is driven by information and communication technologies (ICT). This change has made innovation, manufacturing and production of products and services, rather than manufacturing of material goods, the driving force of economies of leading countries (Wagner, 2008). Due to this shift, today's 21st century society and…

  2. Literature and Tolerance at the University of St. Thomas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikolajczak, Michael Allen

    2001-01-01

    Describes the controversy and eventual success of the use of "Heaven's Coast" by Mark Doty (an account of the author's mourning of the loss of his partner Wally to AIDS) as a common text for students at the University of St. Thomas in St. Paul, Minnesota. (EV)

  3. 33 CFR 117.653 - St. Mary's Falls Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Mary's Falls Canal. 117.653 Section 117.653 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Michigan § 117.653 St. Mary's Falls Canal. The draw...

  4. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  5. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  6. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  7. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  8. 38 CFR 3.851 - St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. 3.851 Section 3.851 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Institutional Awards § 3.851 St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, DC. Benefits due or becoming due any...

  9. Hopes Riding on Leader for Troubled St. Louis District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    Kelvin Adams, who takes over next week as the St. Louis schools' seventh superintendent since 2003, will arrive already familiar with the dynamics of a district under state supervision. Still, the leadership and management challenges he faces are daunting. The St. Louis schools have been run since June 2007 by an appointed, three-person Special…

  10. Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills. The Classroom Strategies Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marzano, Robert J.; Heflebower, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    As the 21st century unfolds, the pace of change in the world is accelerating. Teachers and administrators must lead the cultural shift required to ensure their students can survive and thrive in the changing world. In Teaching & Assessing 21st Century Skills the authors present a model of instruction and assessment based on a combination of…

  11. Influence of the extent of coronary atherosclerotic disease on ST-segment changes induced by ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Francisco J; Vives-Borrás, Miquel; Solé-González, Eduard; García-Picart, Joan; Arzamendi, Dabit; Cinca, Juan

    2014-03-01

    The accuracy of the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) in predicting the site of acute coronary artery occlusion in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and multivessel disease is not well known. This study aimed to assess whether the presence of multivessel coronary artery disease (CAD) modifies the artery-related ST-segment changes in patients with acute coronary artery occlusion. We reviewed the admission ECG, clinical records, and coronary angiography of 289 patients with STEMI caused by acute occlusion of left anterior descending (LAD; n = 140), right (n = 118), or left circumflex (LCx; n = 31) coronary arteries. All patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary reperfusion during the first 12 hours. The magnitude and distribution of artery-related ST-segment patterns were comparable in patients with single (n = 149) and multivessel (n = 140) CAD. Occlusion of proximal (n = 55) or mid-distal (n = 85) LAD artery induced ST-segment elevation in leads V1 to V5, but only the proximal occlusion induced reciprocal ST-segment depression in leads II, III, and aVF (p <0.001). Proximal and mid-distal occlusion of right (n = 45 and 73, respectively) or LCx (n = 15 and 16) coronary artery always induced ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF and reciprocal ST-segment depression in leads V2 and V3. ST-segment elevation in lead V6 >0.1 mV predicted LCx artery occlusion. In conclusion, patients with STEMI with single or multivessel CAD have concordant artery-related ST-segment patterns on the admission ECG; in both groups, reciprocal ST-segment depression in LAD artery occlusion predicts a large infarct. Subendocardial ischemia at a distance is not a requisite for the genesis of reciprocal ST-segment changes.

  12. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL, Part I: Total concentration of heavy metals in soils.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produce organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. A protocol for soil analysis was developed to produce sufficient information on the extent of heavy metal contamination in East St. Louis soils. Soil cores representing every borough of East St. Louis were analyzed for heavy metals--As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn. The topsoil contained heavy metal concentrations as high as 12.5 ppm Cd, 14,400 ppm Cu, ppm quantities of Hg, 1860 ppm Pb, 40 ppm Sb, 1130 ppm Sn, and 10,360 ppm Zn. Concentrations of Sb, Cu, and Cd were well correlated with Zn concentrations, suggesting a similar primary industrial source. In a sandy loam soil from a vacated rail depot near the bank of the Mississippi River, the metals were evenly distributed down to a 38-cm depth. The clay soils within a half-mile downwind of the Zn smelter and Cu products company contained elevated Cd (81 ppm), Cu (340 ppm), Pb (700 ppm), and Zn (6000 ppm) and displayed a systematic drop in concentration of these metals with depth. This study demonstrates the often high concentration of heavy metals heterogeneously distributed in the soil and provides baseline data for continuing studies of heavy metal soil leachability.

  13. Effect of moxibustion at acupoints Ren-12 (Zhongwan), St-25 (Tianshu), and St-36 (Zuzanli) in the prevention of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Freire, Anaflávia O; Sugai, Gisele C M; Blanco, Miriam M; Tabosa, Angela; Yamamura, Ysao; Mello, Luiz Eugênio A M

    2005-02-01

    This study was aimed at assessing the physical characteristics underlying the action of moxibustion at acupoints Ren-12 (Zhongwan), St-25 (Tianshu), and St-36 (Zuzanli) in preventing acute injuries of the gastric mucous membrane induced by indomethacin in Wistar rats. Induction of gastric lesions, by means of intragastric administration of indomethacin (100 mg/kg), in adult male Wistar rats was followed by treatment with moxibustion using Artemisia vulgaris dried leaves at 60 or 45 degrees C, heating with Artemisia vulgaris charcoal at 50 degrees C, heating with a regular tobacco cigar at 50 degrees C, and heating with a regular water pad at 50 degrees C, The effects of the different heating protocols over the gastric lesions were then compared. In addition, another group of animals was pretreated with capsaicin (100 mg/kg, s.c.), in order to lesion C fibers and, 15 days later, subjected to indomethacin administration and moxibustion treatment. Moxibustion was significantly more efficient at 60 degrees C than at 45 degrees C in preventing gastric lesions triggered by indomethacin. Moxibustion applied in acupoints provided a significant reduction of the lesion area, which was two times less than that of animals stimulated in a nonacupoint (sham group). Comparing the therapeutic effects provided by different forms of heating over the gastric lesions, the burning of dry leaves of Artemisia vulgaris was significantly more efficient in preventing gastric lesions than moxibustion made with Artemisia charcoal or tobacco (cigar) or by heating the animal with a water pad. Desensitization of the afferent sensory C fibers by capsaicin significantly diminished the ability of moxibustion to block the lesions in the gastric mucous membrane. Moxibustion can efficiently prevent indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats and this effect is dependent on the temperature, the material used for moxibustion, the use of acupuncture points, and the integrity of C fibers.

  14. The New Millennium Program Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Evan H.; Carlisle, Candace C.; Slavin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The Space Technology 5 (ST-5) Project is part of NASA's New Millennium Program. ST-5 will consist of a constellation of three 25kg microsatellites. The mission goals are to demonstrate the research-quality science capability of the ST-5 spacecraft; to operate the three spacecraft as a constellation; and to design, develop and flight-validate three capable microsatellites with new technologies. ST-5 will be launched by a Pegasus XL into an elliptical polar (sun-synchronous) orbit. The three-month flight demonstration phase, beginning in March 2006, will validate the ability to perform science measurements, as well as the technologies and constellation operations. ST-5's technologies and concepts will enable future microsatellite science missions.

  15. St. Louis Airport site environmental report for calendar year 1989, St. Louis, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1990-05-01

    The environmental monitoring program, which began in 1984, continued during 1989 at the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) in St. Louis County, Missouri. SLAPS and its vicinity properties, including ditches north and south of the site, were designated for cleanup as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP), a United States Department of Energy (DOE) program to identify and decontaminate or otherwise control sites where residual radioactive material remains from the early years of the nation's atomic energy program. The monitoring program at SLAPS measures radon concentrations in air; external gamma dose rates; and uranium, thorium, and radium concentrations in surface water, groundwater, and sediment. Additionally, several nonradiological parameters are measured in groundwater. To assess the potential effect of SLAPS on public health, the potential radiation dose was estimated for a hypothetical maximally exposed individual. This report presents the findings of the environmental monitoring program conducted at the St. Louis Airport Site (SLAPS) during calendar year 1989. 19 refs., 13 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. A Contextuality Based Quantum Key Distribution Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupe, James

    In 2005 Spekkens presented a generalization of noncontextuality that applies to imperfect measurements (POVMs) by allowing the underlying hidden variable model to be indeterministic. In addition, unlike traditional Bell-Kochen-Specker noncontextuality, HV models of a single qubit were shown to be contextual under this definition. Thus, not all single qubit POVM measurement outcomes can be modeled classically. Recently M. Pusey showed that, under certain conditions, exhibiting an anomalous weak value (i.e. values outside the eigenspectrum of the observable) implies contextuality. We will present a new single qubit prepare and measure QKD protocol that uses observation of anomalous weak values of particular observables to estimate the quantum channel error rate and certify the security of the channel. We also argue that it is the ``degree'' of contextuality of the noisy qubits exiting the channel that fundamentally determine the secure key rate. A benefit of this approach is that the security does not depend on the fair sampling assumption, and so is not compromised by Eve controlling Bob's measurement devices. Thus, it retains much of the benefit of ``Measurement Device Independent'' QKD protocols while only using single photon preparations and measurements. Supported by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-15-1-2225.

  17. Research Protocol: Collections Related to Synthetic Turf ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The “Federal Research Action Plan on Recycled Tire Crumb Used on Playing Fields and Playgrounds” (referred to subsequently as the Federal Research Action Plan or FRAP) was finalized in February 2016. The U.S. EPA and CDC/ATSDR, in collaboration with CPSC, have prepared this research protocol to implement portions of the research activities outlined under the FRAP. Specifically, this research protocol is designed to implement three of the research elements described in the Federal Research Action Plan: Conduct a literature review and data gaps analysis; Perform tire crumb rubber characterization research; Perform human exposure characterization research. Concerns have been raised by the public about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used in synthetic turf fields and playgrounds in the United States. Several studies have been identified that examine exposure to tire crumb rubber infill in these settings. While, in general, these studies have not provided evidence for these health concerns, the existing studies do not comprehensively evaluate all aspects of exposure associated with these use scenarios. Additional research is needed to help fill important data gaps that will lead to improved exposure assessment and risk evaluation for children and adults using synthetic turf fields and playgrounds with tire crumb rubber. In response, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Agency for Toxic Su

  18. Internet Protocol Enhanced over Satellite Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.

    1999-01-01

    Extensive research conducted by the Satellite Networks and Architectures Branch of the NASA Lewis Research Center led to an experimental change to the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) that will increase performance over satellite channels. The change raises the size of the initial burst of data TCP can send from 1 packet to 4 packets or roughly 4 kilobytes (kB), whichever is less. TCP is used daily by everyone on the Internet for e-mail and World Wide Web access, as well as other services. TCP is one of the feature protocols used in computer communications for reliable data delivery and file transfer. Increasing TCP's initial data burst from the previously specified single segment to approximately 4 kB may improve data transfer rates by up to 27 percent for very small files. This is significant because most file transfers in wide-area networks today are small files, 4 kilobytes or less. In addition, because data transfers over geostationary satellites can take 5 to 20 times longer than over typical terrestrial connections, increasing the initial burst of data that can be sent is extremely important. This research along with research from other institutions has led to the release of two new Request for Comments from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF, the international body that sets Internet standards). In addition, two studies of the implications of this mechanism were also funded by NASA Lewis.

  19. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  20. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.