Science.gov

Sample records for 2-4 times larger

  1. Time Sequence of Jupiter's Equatorial Region (Time Sets 2 & 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Time sequence of Jupiter's equatorial region at 756 nanometers (nm). The mosaics cover an area of 34,000 kilometers by 22,000 kilometers and were taken ten hours (approximately one Jovian rotation) apart. The dark region near the center of the mosaic is an equatorial 'hotspot' similar to the Galileo Probe entry site. The near-infrared continuum filter shows the features of Jupiter's main visible cloud deck.

    Jupiter's atmospheric circulation is dominated by alternating jets of east/west (zonal) winds. The bands have different widths and wind speeds but have remained constant as long as telescopes and spacecraft have measured them. The top half of these mosaics lies within Jupiter's North Equatorial Belt, a westward (left) current. The bottom half shows part of the Equatorial Zone, a fast moving eastward current. The clouds near the hotspot are the fastest moving features in these mosaics, moving at about 100 meters per second, or 224 miles per hour.

    North is at the top. The mosaics cover latitudes 1 to 19 degrees and are centered at longitude 336 degrees West. The grid lines, fixed in longitude, mark 350 degrees west (on the left edge) with decreasing longitude lines marking every 5 degrees moving east (to the right). The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers by the Solid State Imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ˜42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  3. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules.

    PubMed

    Li, Derek D; Greenfield, Michael L

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new "next generation" model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  4. Viscosity, relaxation time, and dynamics within a model asphalt of larger molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Derek D.; Greenfield, Michael L.

    2014-01-21

    The dynamics properties of a new “next generation” model asphalt system that represents SHRP AAA-1 asphalt using larger molecules than past models is studied using molecular simulation. The system contains 72 molecules distributed over 12 molecule types that range from nonpolar branched alkanes to polar resins and asphaltenes. Molecular weights range from 290 to 890 g/mol. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations conducted at six temperatures from 298.15 to 533.15 K provide a wealth of correlation data. The modified Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts equation was regressed to reorientation time correlation functions and extrapolated to calculate average rotational relaxation times for individual molecules. The rotational relaxation rate of molecules decreased significantly with increasing size and decreasing temperature. Translational self-diffusion coefficients followed an Arrhenius dependence. Similar activation energies of ∼42 kJ/mol were found for all 12 molecules in the model system, while diffusion prefactors spanned an order of magnitude. Viscosities calculated directly at 533.15 K and estimated at lower temperatures using the Debye-Stokes-Einstein relationship were consistent with experimental data for asphalts. The product of diffusion coefficient and rotational relaxation time showed only small changes with temperature above 358.15 K, indicating rotation and translation that couple self-consistently with viscosity. At lower temperatures, rotation slowed more than diffusion.

  5. Comparing Dislodgeable 2,4-D Residues across Athletic Field Turfgrass Species and Time

    PubMed Central

    Brosnan, James T.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    2,4-dimethylamine salt (2,4-D) is an herbicide commonly applied on athletic fields for broadleaf weed control that can dislodge from treated turfgrass. Dislodge potential is affected by numerous factors, including turfgrass canopy conditions. Building on previous research confirming herbicide-turfgrass dynamics can vary widely between species, field research was initiated in 2014 and 2015 in Raleigh, NC, USA to quantify dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from dormant hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) and hybrid bermudagrass overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), which are common athletic field playing surfaces in subtropical climates. Additionally, dislodgeable 2,4-D was compared at AM (7:00 eastern standard time) and PM (14:00) sample timings within a day. Samples collected from perennial ryegrass consistently resulted in greater 2,4-D dislodgment immediately after application (9.4 to 9.9% of applied) compared to dormant hybrid bermudagrass (2.3 to 2.9%), as well as at all AM compared to PM timings from 1 to 3 d after treatment (DAT; 0.4 to 6.3% compared to 0.1 to 0.8%). Dislodgeable 2,4-D did not differ across turfgrass species at PM sample collections, with ≤ 0.1% of the 2,4-D applied dislodged from 1 to 6 DAT, and 2,4-D detection did not occur at 12 and 24 DAT. In conclusion, dislodgeable 2,4-D from treated turfgrass can vary between species and over short time-scales within a day. This information should be taken into account in human exposure risk assessments, as well as by turfgrass managers and athletic field event coordinators to minimize 2,4-D exposure. PMID:27936174

  6. Time accurate application of the MacCormack 2-4 scheme on massively parallel computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Dale A.; Long, Lyle N.

    1995-01-01

    Many recent computational efforts in turbulence and acoustics research have used higher order numerical algorithms. One popular method has been the explicit MacCormack 2-4 scheme. The MacCormack 2-4 scheme is second order accurate in time and fourth order accurate in space, and is stable for CFL's below 2/3. Current research has shown that the method can give accurate results but does exhibit significant Gibbs phenomena at sharp discontinuities. The impact of adding Jameson type second, third, and fourth order artificial viscosity was examined here. Category 2 problems, the nonlinear traveling wave and the Riemann problem, were computed using a CFL number of 0.25. This research has found that dispersion errors can be significantly reduced or nearly eliminated by using a combination of second and third order terms in the damping. Use of second and fourth order terms reduced the magnitude of dispersion errors but not as effectively as the second and third order combination. The program was coded using Thinking Machine's CM Fortran, a variant of Fortran 90/High Performance Fortran, and was executed on a 2K CM-200. Simple extrapolation boundary conditions were used for both problems.

  7. An Ultrathin Endoscope with a 2.4-mm Working Channel Shortens the Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Time by Shortening the Suction Time

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Satoshi; Miura, Yoshimasa; Ino, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kenjiro; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Poor suction ability through a narrow working channel prolongs esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to evaluate suction with a new ultrathin endoscope (EG-580NW2; Fujifilm Corp.) having a 2.4-mm working channel in clinical practice. Methods: To evaluate in vitro suction, 200 mL water was suctioned and the suction time was measured. The clinical data of 117 patients who underwent EGD were retrospectively reviewed on the basis of recorded video, and the suction time was measured by using a stopwatch. Results: In vitro, the suction time with the EG-580NW2 endoscope was significantly shorter than that with the use of an ultrathin endoscope with a 2.0-mm working channel (EG-580NW; mean ± standard deviation, 22.7±1.1 seconds vs. 34.7±2.2 seconds; p<0.001). We analyzed the total time and the suction time for routine EGD in 117 patients (50 in the EG-580NW2 group and 67 in the EG-580NW group). In the EG-580NW2 group, the total time for EGD was significantly shorter than that in the EG-580NW group (275.3±42.0 seconds vs. 300.6±46.5 seconds, p=0.003). In the EG-580NW2 group, the suction time was significantly shorter than that in the EG-580NW group (19.2±7.6 seconds vs. 38.0±15.9 seconds, p<0.001). Conclusions: An ultrathin endoscope with a 2.4-mm working channel considerably shortens the routine EGD time by shortening the suction time, in comparison with an endoscope with a 2.0-mm working channel. PMID:26668798

  8. Quantification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens strains in the plant rhizosphere by real-time PCR.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG)-producing (phlD+) strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed and PCR conditions were optimized to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four di...

  9. A quasi-time-dependent radiative transfer model of OH 104.9+2.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, D.; Balega, Y.; Driebe, T.; Hofmann, K.-H.; Men'shchikov, A. B.; Shenavrin, V. I.; Weigelt, G.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the pulsation-phase dependent properties of the circumstellar dust shell (CDS) of the OH/IR star OH 104.9+2.4 based on radiative transfer modeling (RTM) using the code DUSTY. Our previous study concerning simultaneous modeling of the spectral energy distribution (SED) and near-infrared (NIR) visibilities (Riechers et al. 2004) has now been extended by means of a more detailed analysis of the pulsation-phase dependence of the model parameters of OH 104.9+2.4. In order to investigate the temporal variation in the spatial structure of the CDS, additional NIR speckle interferometric observations in the K' band were carried out with the 6 m telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory (SAO). At a wavelength of λ = 2.12 μm the diffraction-limited resolution of 74 mas was attained. Several key parameters of our previous best-fitting model had to be adjusted in order to be consistent with the newly extended amount of observational data. It was found that a simple rescaling of the bolometric flux F_bol is not sufficient to take the variability of the source into account, as the change in optical depth τ over a full pulsation cycle is rather high. On the other hand, the impact of a change in effective temperature T_eff on SED and visibility is rather small. However, observations, as well as models for other AGB stars, show the necessity of including a variation of T_eff with pulsation phase in the radiative transfer models. Therefore, our new best-fitting model accounts for these changes.

  10. Quantification of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producing Pseudomonas fluorescens in the plant rhizosphere by real-time PCR.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time PCR SYBR green assay was developed to quantify populations of 2, 4-DAPG-producing (phlD+) Pseudomonas fluorescens in soil and the rhizosphere. Primers were designed to specifically amplify the phlD gene from four different genotypes (A, B, D, and I) of phlD+ P. fluorescens and PCR condit...

  11. Larger Icy Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Steven; Buratti, B. J.; Hansen, C.; Hurford, T.; McKinnon, W. B.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Turtle, E. P.

    2009-09-01

    Outer planets exploration in the past three decades has revealed a diverse host of large icy bodies undergoing a myriad of geological and chemical processes remarkably similar yet alien to those occurring on Earth. The most active of these, including the Galilean satellites and Saturn's moons Enceladus and Titan, are obvious targets for future robotic exploration. The broader host of satellites larger than 100 km should also figure into NASA's goals, owing to their abundance and insights they offer into past and present geological processes, Solar System formation and planetary evolution. Included in this class are the enigmatic objects Dione, with its smooth planes and fractured regions; Mimas with its giant crater Herschel; Iapetus, which has an odd shape and a mysterious equatorial ridge; Miranda, which has been subjected to drastic geologic reconfiguration; and Triton, with its geyser-like plumes. Many bodies in this class are of sufficient size and density to have hosted internal liquid water oceans in their early history, or even in the present epoch, making them targets of astrobiological interest. We discuss the importance of larger icy satellites to NASA's objectives, their importance for understanding, geology, chemistry and dynamics in the Solar System, and observational and experimental challenges that need to be addressed in the next decade.

  12. Review of Miocene larger foraminifera

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    Miocene larger foraminifera were generally restricted to shallow (<100m), warm, clear, normal marine environments and were primarily dependent on brief drifting of juveniles and rafting on vegetation for dispersal. These factors are reflected in both regional and local occurrences. Regional occurrences of Miocene larger foraminifera vary with bio-province and time. Three main foraminiferal provinces (Central American, Mediterranean, and Indo-West Pacific) developed through a combination of tectonics, eustasy, climate, and faunal evolution and migration. Important effects of Miocene tectonics included widening of the Atlantic, early Miocene occlusion of the western neo-Tethys, and northern movement of the Australian plate into the tropics. Changes in climate primarily expanded or constricted latitudinal provincial boundaries. Eustatic sea level variations caused by the destruction of the late Miocene Mediterranean fauna. Globally, Miocene faunas underwent a progressive loss of taxa. This is particularly noticeable in post-early Miocene faunas of the Mediterranean and Central American provinces. Although post-early Miocene taxa evolved in all three areas, faunal migration was prevented by environmental barriers. For a given time and province, the occurrence of larger foraminifera in well-preserved Miocene reef facies is related to paleoenvironmental factors of water depth, turbidity, water energy, and substrate and to post-mortem processes of transport and selective test destruction. Environmentally related changes in test morphology, together with the relative abundances of planktonic species and small benthic taxa, allow an estimation of the magnitude of the various environmental factors, even without detailed foraminiferal taxonomy.

  13. Effect of gender, dose, and time on 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT)-induced hepatotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, N N; Crincoli, C M; Kennedy, E L; Frederick, D M; Tchao, R; Harvison, P J

    2008-04-01

    1. The thiazolidinedione ring present in drugs available for type II diabetes can contribute to hepatic injury. Another thiazolidinedione ring-containing compound, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazoli-dinedione (DCPT), produces liver damage in rats. Accordingly, the effects of gender, dose, and time on DCPT hepatotoxicity were therefore evaluated. 2. Male rats were more sensitive to DCPT (0.4-1.0 mmol kg(-1) by intraperitoneal administration) as shown by increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels and altered hepatic morphology 24 h post-dosing. Effects in both genders were dose dependent. In males, DCPT (0.6 mmol kg(-1)) produced elevations in alanine aminotransferases and changes in liver sections 3 h after dosing that progressively worsened up to 12 h. DCPT-induced renal effects were mild. 3. It is concluded that male rats are more susceptible to DCPT hepatotoxicity and that damage occurs rapidly. DCPT primarily affects the liver and can be a useful compound to investigate the role of the thiazolidinedione ring in hepatic injury. However, the gender dependency and rapid onset of DCPT hepatotoxicity require further investigation.

  14. Effect of gender, dose and time on 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT)-induced hepatotoxicity in Fischer 344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Niti N.; Crincoli, Christine M.; Kennedy, Erica L.; Frederick, Douglas M.; Tchao, Ruy; Harvison, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The thiazolidinedione (TZD) ring present in drugs available for type II diabetes may contribute to hepatic injury. Another TZD ring-containing compound, 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-2,4-thiazolidinedione (DCPT), produces liver damage in rats. Accordingly, the effects of gender, dose and time on DCPT hepatotoxicity were therefore evaluated.Male rats were more sensitive to DCPT (0.4–1.0 mmol/kg by i.p. administration) as shown by increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and altered hepatic morphology 24 h post-dosing. Effects in both genders were dose-dependent. In males, DCPT (0.6 mmol/kg) produced elevations in ALTs and changes in liver sections 3 h after dosing that progressively worsened up to 12 h. DCPT-induced renal effects were mild.We conclude that male rats are more susceptible to DCPT hepatotoxicity and that damage occurs rapidly. DCPT primarily affects the liver and may be a useful compound to investigate the role of the TZD ring in hepatic injury. However, the gender dependency and rapid onset of DCPT hepatotoxicity require further investigation. PMID:18340566

  15. The influence of time of maternal exposure to 2,4,5,2 prime ,4 prime ,5 prime -hexachlorobiphenyl on its accumulation in their nursing offspring

    SciTech Connect

    Gallenberg, L.A.; Ring, B.J.; Vodicnik, M.J. )

    1990-06-01

    2,4,5,2',4',5'-Hexachlorobiphenyl (6-CB) is mobilized from rodent tissues during the lipid depletion associated with food restriction or lactation, the latter condition resulting in the substantial elimination of the maternal body burden of the chemical to nursing offspring. The present study was undertaken to determine whether the rate and/or magnitude of accumulation of 6-CB in nursing offspring differed with time following PCB administration to the maternal animal. Female ICR mice were administered two doses of 6-CB. Group I animals received (14C)-6-CB as weanlings (15-20 g) followed by unlabeled 6-CB 5 weeks later, after mating, on Day 1 of gestation. Group II received unlabeled 6-CB as weanlings and (14C)-6-CB on Day 1 of gestation. Thus, 14C identified the mobilization and elimination of either the first or the second dose of 6-CB in the treatment groups (I = (14C)-6-CB, 6-CB; II = 6-CB, (14C)-6-CB). Both groups of animals retained approximately 80% of the administered radiolabeled dose. The tissue distribution of (14C)-6-CB in group II as a percentage of the body burden was not different from that in group I as determined from maternal tissue concentrations on Day 14 of gestation. The percentage of the maternal body burden of (14C)-6-CB accumulated in suckling offspring of group II mothers was significantly greater than that in group I offspring on Day 1 (I, 2.2 +/- 0.5%; II, 3.5 +/- 0.4%), Day 3 (I, 14.8 +/- 1.9%; II, 24.6 +/- 2.7%), Day 5 (I, 16.8 +/- 1.4%; II, 24.8 +/- 0.8%), and Day 12 (I, 32.3 +/- 0.5%; II, 45.5 +/- 1.7%) postpartum. This differential elimination was reflected in the t1/2 of elimination of the radiolabeled dose from parametrial fat during lactation, which was significantly longer in group I (14 days) than group II maternal animals (9 days).

  16. Casting larger polycrystalline silicon ingots

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgemuth, J.; Tomlinson, T.; Cliber, J.; Shea, S.; Narayanan, M.

    1995-08-01

    Solarex has developed and patented a directional solidification casting process specifically designed for photovoltaics. In this process, silicon feedstock is melted in a ceramic crucible and solidified into a large grained semicrystalline silicon ingot. In-house manufacture of low cost, high purity ceramics is a key to the low cost fabrication of Solarex polycrystalline wafers. The casting process is performed in Solarex designed casting stations. The casting operation is computer controlled. There are no moving parts (except for the loading and unloading) so the growth process proceeds with virtually no operator intervention Today Solarex casting stations are used to produce ingots from which 4 bricks, each 11.4 cm by 11.4 cm in cross section, are cut. The stations themselves are physically capable of holding larger ingots, that would yield either: 4 bricks, 15 cm by 15 an; or 9 bricks, 11.4 cm by 11.4 an in cross-section. One of the tasks in the Solarex Cast Polycrystalline Silicon PVMaT Program is to design and modify one of the castings stations to cast these larger ingots. If successful, this effort will increase the production capacity of Solarex`s casting stations by 73% and reduce the labor content for casting by an equivalent percentage.

  17. 2,4-Diaminotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Diaminotoluene ; CASRN 95 - 80 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  18. 2,4-Dinitrophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrophenol ; CASRN 51 - 28 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  19. 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenol ; CASRN 120 - 83 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  20. 2,4-Dinitrotoluene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dinitrotoluene ; CASRN 121 - 14 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  1. 2,4-Dimethylphenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dimethylphenol ; CASRN 105 - 67 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  2. Ground states of larger nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    1995-08-01

    The methods used for the few-body nuclei require operations on the complete spin-isospin vector; the size of this vector makes such methods impractical for nuclei with A > 8. During the last few years we developed cluster expansion methods that do not require operations on the complete vector. We use the same Hamiltonians as for the few-body nuclei and variational wave functions of form similar to the few-body wave functions. The cluster expansions are made for the noncentral parts of the wave functions and for the operators whose expectation values are being evaluated. The central pair correlations in the wave functions are treated exactly and this requires the evaluation of 3A-dimensional integrals which are done with Monte Carlo techniques. Most of our effort was on {sup 16}O, other p-shell nuclei, and {sup 40}Ca. In 1993 the Mathematics and Computer Science Division acquired a 128-processor IBM SP which has a theoretical peak speed of 16 Gigaflops (GFLOPS). We converted our program to run on this machine. Because of the large memory on each node of the SP, it was easy to convert the program to parallel form with very low communication overhead. Considerably more effort was needed to restructure the program from one oriented towards long vectors for the Cray computers at NERSC to one that makes efficient use of the cache of the RS6000 architecture. The SP made possible complete five-body cluster calculations of {sup 16}O for the first time; previously we could only do four-body cluster calculations. These calculations show that the expectation value of the two-body potential is converging less rapidly than we had thought, while that of the three-body potential is more rapidly convergent; the net result is no significant change to our predicted binding energy for {sup 16}O using the new Argonne v{sub 18} potential and the Urbana IX three-nucleon potential. This result is in good agreement with experiment.

  3. Appropriateness of reference genes for normalizing messenger RNA in mouse 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis using quantitative real time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Eissa, Nour; Kermarrec, Laëtitia; Hussein, Hayam; Bernstein, Charles N.; Ghia, Jean-Eric

    2017-01-01

    2,4-Dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-induced colitis is an experimental model that mimics Crohn’s disease. Appropriateness of reference genes is crucial for RT-qPCR. This is the first study to determine the stability of reference gene expression (RGE) in mice treated with DNBS. DNBS experimental Colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice. RNA was extracted from colon tissue and comprehensive analysis of 13 RGE was performed according to predefined criteria. Relative colonic TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels were calculated. Colitis significantly altered the stability of mucosal RGE. Commonly used glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), β-actin (Actb), or β2-microglobulin (β2m) showed the highest fluctuation within the inflamed and control groups. Conversely, ribosomal protein large P0 (Rplp0), non-POU domain containing (Nono), TATA-box-binding protein (Tbp) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (Eef2) were not affected by inflammation and were the most stable genes. TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels was dependent on the reference gene used and varied from significant when the most stable genes were used to non-significant when the least stable genes were used. The appropriate choice of RGE is critical to guarantee satisfactory normalization of RT-qPCR data when using DNBS-Model. We recommend using Rplp0, Nono, Tbp, Hprt and Eef2 instead of common reference genes. PMID:28186172

  4. Long term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wöger, Julia; Eder, Wolfgang; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Antonino, Briguglio; Carles, Ferrandes-Cañadell; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    Benthic Foraminifera are used in a variety of applications employing numerous different methods, i.e. ecological monitoring, studying the effects of ocean acidification, reconstructing palaeo-bathymetry or investigating palaeo-salinity and palaeo-temperature to name only a few. To refine our understanding of ecological influences on larger benthic foraminiferal biology and to review inferences from field observations, culture experiments have become an indispensable tool. While culture experiments on smaller benthic foraminifera have become increasingly frequent in the past century, reports of the cultivation of symbiont bearing larger Foraminifera are rare. Generally, cultivation experiments can be divided into two groups: Culturing of populations and cultivation of single specimens allowing individual investigation. The latter differ form the former by several restrictions resulting from the need to limit individual motility without abridging microenvironmental conditions in the Foraminiferans artificial habitat, necessary to enable the individual to development as unfettered as possible. In this study we present first experiences and preliminary results of the long-term cultivation of larger benthic Foraminifera conducted at the 'Tropical Biosphere Research Station Sesoko Island, University of the Ryukyus', Japan, trying to reproduce natural conditions as closely as possible. Individuals of three species of larger benthic Foraminifera (Heterostegina depressa, Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina complanata) have been cultured since April 2014. At the time of the general assembly the cultivation experiments will have been going on for more than one year, with the aim to investigate growth rates, longevities and reproduction strategies for comparison with results statistically inferred from application of the of the 'natural laboratory' method. The most important factor influencing foraminiferal health and development was found to be light intensity and light

  5. Stark-assisted population control of coherent CS(2) 4f and 5p Rydberg wave packets studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Knappenberger, Kenneth L; Lerch, Eliza-Beth W; Wen, Patrick; Leone, Stephen R

    2007-09-28

    A two-color (3+1(')) pump-probe scheme is employed to investigate Rydberg wave packet dynamics in carbon disulfide (CS(2) (*)). The state superpositions are created within the 4f and 5p Rydberg manifolds by three photons of the 400 nm pump pulse, and their temporal evolution is monitored with femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using an 800 nm ionizing probe pulse. The coherent behavior of the non-stationary superpositions are observed through wavepacket revivals upon ionization to either the upper (12) or lower (32) spin-orbit components of CS(2) (+). The results show clearly that the composition of the wavepacket can be efficiently controlled by the power density of the excitation pulse over a range from 500 GWcm(2) to 10 TWcm(2). The results are consistent with the anticipated ac-Stark shift for 400 nm light and demonstrate an effective method for population control in molecular systems. Moreover, it is shown that Rydberg wavepackets can be formed in CS(2) with excitation power densities up to 10 TWcm(2) without significant fragmentation. The exponential 1e population decay (T(1)) of specific excited Rydberg states are recovered by analysis of the coherent part of the signal. The dissociation lifetimes of these states are typically 1.5 ps. However, a region exhibiting a more rapid decay ( approximately 800 fs) is observed for states residing in the energy range of 74 450-74 550 cm(-1), suggestive of an enhanced surface crossing in this region.

  6. Italian super-eruption larger than thought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    Recent research suggested that the super-eruption of the Campi Flegrei caldera volcano in southern Italy about 40,000 years ago may have played a part in wiping out, or forcing the migration of, the Neanderthal and modern human populations in the eastern Mediterranean regions that were covered in ash. Now a new modeling study by Costa et al. suggests that this eruption may have been even larger than previously thought. This Campi Flegrei eruption produced a widespread ash layer known as Campanian Ignimbrite (CI). Using ash thickness measurements collected at 115 sites and a three-dimensional ash dispersal model, the researchers found that the CI super-eruption would have spread 250-300 cubic kilometers of ash across a 3.7-million-square kilometer region—2 to 3 times previous ash volume estimates.

  7. Opportunity in Hard Times: Building Out-of-School Time Learning Systems that Last. Report on The Wallace Foundation Conference on Out-of-School Time Learning Washington, D.C.--February 2-4, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    A number of U.S. cities, including five supported by Wallace, have been building new systems of high-quality out-of-school time programming citywide. But what should supporters do to ensure that these young systems endure, during the immediate economic crisis and for the long term? This report on a recent Wallace-sponsored conference that gathered…

  8. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4 - D ) ; CASRN 94 - 75 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Asses

  9. ULO_2.4W

    SciTech Connect

    Pitarka, A.

    2012-03-02

    ULO_2.4W is a computer program that can be used to model elastic wave propagation in heterogeneous media from earthquake (souble couple) point sources. The program is a modified version of the orginal program ULO_2.4 developed by Arben Pitarka. The modifications allow for treatment of solid liquid boundary conditions.

  10. Why is g Larger at the Poles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iona, Mario

    1978-01-01

    Explains that the larger value of g at the poles is not due only to differences in the radii of the earth, but that other factors are also responsible such as the rotation of the earth and the increase in the earth's density toward its center. (GA)

  11. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 95 - 95 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  12. 1,2,4-Tribromobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Tribromobenzene ; CASRN 615 - 54 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  13. 2,2,4-Trimethylpentane

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 003 www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2,4 - TRIMETHYLPENTANE ( CAS No . 540 - 84 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) July 2007 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC DISCLAIMER This document has bee

  14. 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,6 - Trichlorophenol ; CASRN 88 - 06 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  15. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4 - Trichlorobenzene ; CASRN 120 - 82 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  16. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  17. ) Composites Containing Nanoparticles and Larger Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanaraja, S.; Nath, S. K.; Ray, S.

    2014-07-01

    The composites reinforced with nanoparticles result in improved strength and ductility while those containing coarser particles of micron size have limited ductility. The present study investigates the outcome of mechanical properties in a composite reinforced simultaneously with coarse and fine particles. High energy milling of manganese dioxide particles with excess of aluminum powder ensures that nanoparticles generated, either of MnO2 or alumina, are mostly separate and surrounded by aluminum particles. The milled powder when added to aluminum alloy melt, the excess aluminum particles will melt leaving behind separate oxide nanoparticles without significant agglomeration. Different amounts of milled powder mix have been stirred into molten aluminum alloy where nanoparticles of MnO2 react with melt to form alumina. The resulting slurry is cast into composites, which also contains coarser (nearly micron size) alumina particles formed by internal oxidation of the melt during processing. The microstructure of the composites shows good distribution of both the size categories of particles without significant clustering. The oxide particles are primarily γ-alumina in a matrix of aluminum-magnesium-manganese alloy containing some iron picked up from the stirrer. These composites fail during tensile test by ductile fracture due to debonding of coarser particles. The presence of nanoparticles along with coarser particles in a composite improves both strength and ductility considerably, presumably due to delay in debonding of coarser particles to higher stress because of reduced mismatch in extension caused by increased strain hardening in presence of nanoparticles in the matrix. The composites containing only coarser oxide particles show limited strength and ductility attributed to early debonding of particles at a relatively lower stress due to larger mismatch in extension between matrix and larger particles. Higher addition of powder mix beyond a limit, however

  18. Growing Larger Crystals for Neutron Diffraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2003-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality has been a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. With the advent of advanced X-ray sources and methods the question of size has rapidly dwindled, almost to the point where if one can see the crystal then it was big enough. Quality is another issue, and major national and commercial efforts were established to take advantage of the microgravity environment in an effort to obtain higher quality crystals. Studies of the macromolecule crystallization process were carried out in many labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. While technological improvements are resulting in a diminishing of the minimum crystal size required, neutron diffraction structural studies still require considerably larger crystals, by several orders of magnitude, than X-ray studies. From a crystal growth physics perspective there is no reason why these 'large' crystals cannot be obtained: the question is generally more one of supply than limitations mechanism. This talk will discuss our laboratory s current model for macromolecule crystal growth, with highlights pertaining to the growth of crystals suitable for neutron diffraction studies.

  19. Why do larger mothers produce larger offspring? A test of classic theory.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Hayley; Monro, Keyne; Malerba, Martino; Munch, Stephan; Marshall, Dustin

    2016-12-01

    Across a wide range of taxa, larger mothers produce larger offspring. Theory assumes that larger, more fecund mothers create higher local densities of siblings, and so larger mothers produce larger offspring to offset sibling competition. This assumption has been debated for over 30 yr, but direct empirical tests are surprisingly rare. Here, we test two key assumptions of classic theories that predict sibling competition drives maternal-size-offspring-size (MSOS) correlations: (1) independent effects of offspring size and sibling density on offspring performance or (2) as a product of an interaction between these two factors. To simultaneously test these alternative assumptions, we manipulate offspring size and sibling density in the marine invertebrate, Bugula neritina, and monitor offspring performance in the field. We found that, depending on the fitness metric being considered, offspring size and sibling density can either independently or interactively affect offspring performance. Yet sibling density did not affect offspring performance in the ways that classic theories assume. Given our results, it is unlikely that sibling competition drives the positive MSOS correlation observed in this species. Empirical support for these classic theories remains lacking, suggesting alternative explanations are necessary.

  20. Are Teacher Effects Larger in Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Sun, Min

    2014-01-01

    Teachers spend most of their time in school in classrooms, and their instruction and teaching practices may be affected by classroom context such as class size. We examine whether teacher effects interact with classroom context such as class size. Specifically, we seek to determine whether teacher effects are more pronounced in small classes than…

  1. The effect of antioxidant concentration of N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline and mixing time of physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and microstructure on natural rubber compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budiarto

    2017-03-01

    Study the influence of high concentrations of antioxidants N-isopropyl-N-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine (IPPD) and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,2-dihydroquinoline (TMQ) and the mixing time of the vulcanization physical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties and structure micro on natural rubber compound has been done. The purpose of this study is to compare the effect of anti-oxidants types IPPD and TMQ and mixing time of vulcanization of the physical properties, mechanical properties, microstructure and elemental composition of the synthesis of natural rubber compound. Processes of vulcanization with variations in the concentration of antioxidant IPPD and TMQ: 2, 3, and 4 grams and mixing time: 20, 30, and 40 minutes. Analysis characterization of physical properties and mechanical properties of natural rubber compound showed that the maturity value 0,499Nm (TMQ) and 0.489 Nm (IPPD), Mooney viscosity value of 26.7 (TMQ) and 20.8 (IPPD), the value of the elongation at break 583.75 % (IPPD), and 552.63% (TMQ) as well as the value of tensile strength of 28.108 M.Pa (TMQ), and 27.986 M.Pa (IPPD). Analysis of thermal properties of natural rubber compound antioxidant IPPD with DTA shows there are three endothermic peak on the curve that is temperature 405°C, 550°C and 660°C and tested by TGA showed that the curve of the total reduction in the sample are 81.745% and compound rubber antioxidant TMQ with the analysis of DTA also contained 3 endothermic peak at a temperature 397,21°C, 514,02°C, and 610,27°C and TGA analysis shows the curve of the total sample of 82.356% reduction. Gsi fun group analysis rubber-antioxidant compound IPPD / TMQ with FTIR spectrophotometer shows some typical infrared absorption peak at the wave number (1 / λ) 833-895 cm-1 for cluster / CH bonds, 1,313 cm-1 for group / single bond Si-O, 1368 cm-1 to g ugus / single bond CC, 1507 cm-1, for cluster / bond C = C, 1665 cm-1For cluster / bond-C = O, 2128 cm-1 is the group / bond CN single, 3371

  2. The LASS (Larger Aperture Superconducting Solenoid) spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Aston, D.; Awaji, N.; Barnett, B.; Bienz, T.; Bierce, R.; Bird, F.; Bird, L.; Blockus, D.; Carnegie, R.K.; Chien, C.Y.

    1986-04-01

    LASS is the acronym for the Large Aperture Superconducting Solenoid spectrometer which is located in an rf-separated hadron beam at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This spectrometer was constructed in order to perform high statistics studies of multiparticle final states produced in hadron reactions. Such reactions are frequently characterized by events having complicated topologies and/or relatively high particle multiplicity. Their detailed study requires a spectrometer which can provide good resolution in momentum and position over almost the entire solid angle subtended by the production point. In addition, good final state particle identification must be available so that separation of the many kinematically-overlapping final states can be achieved. Precise analyses of the individual reaction channels require high statistics, so that the spectrometer must be capable of high data-taking rates in order that such samples can be acquired in a reasonable running time. Finally, the spectrometer must be complemented by a sophisticated off-line analysis package which efficiently finds tracks, recognizes and fits event topologies and correctly associates the available particle identification information. This, together with complicated programs which perform specific analysis tasks such as partial wave analysis, requires a great deal of software effort allied to a very large computing capacity. This paper describes the construction and performance of the LASS spectrometer, which is an attempt to realize the features just discussed. The configuration of the spectrometer corresponds to the data-taking on K and K interactions in hydrogen at 11 GeV/c which took place in 1981 and 1982. This constitutes a major upgrade of the configuration used to acquire lower statistics data on 11 GeV/c K p interactions during 1977 and 1978, which is also described briefly.

  3. 60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Interior view, passage, north elevation. Though made larger over time, this circulation space was present since the house's earliest manifestation. The attic stair and closet date from phase II construction (After the mid-1740's). Similarly to the study chamber, the closet on the right was fitted into a former exterior window opening. - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Larger female fish contribute disproportionately more to self-replenishment.

    PubMed

    Beldade, R; Holbrook, S J; Schmitt, R J; Planes, S; Malone, D; Bernardi, G

    2012-06-07

    While chance events, oceanography and selective pressures inject stochasticity into the replenishment of marine populations with dispersing life stages, some determinism may arise as a result of characteristics of breeding individuals. It is well known that larger females have higher fecundity, and recent laboratory studies have shown that maternal traits such as age and size can be positively associated with offspring growth, size and survival. Whether such fecundity and maternal effects translate into higher recruitment in marine populations remains largely unanswered. We studied a population of Amphiprion chrysopterus (orange-fin anemonefish) in Moorea, French Polynesia, to test whether maternal size influenced the degree of self-recruitment on the island through body size-fecundity and/or additional size-related maternal effects of offspring. We non-lethally sampled 378 adult and young juveniles at Moorea, and, through parentage analysis, identified the mothers of 27 self-recruits (SRs) out of 101 recruits sampled. We also identified the sites occupied by each mother of an SR and, taking into account variation in maternal size among sites, we found that females that produced SRs were significantly larger than those that did not (approx. 7% greater total length, approx. 20% greater biomass). Our analyses further reveal that the contribution of larger females to self-recruitment was significantly greater than expected on the basis of the relationship between body size and fecundity, indicating that there were important maternal effects of female size on traits of their offspring. These results show, for the first time in a natural population, that larger female fish contribute more to local replenishment (self-recruitment) and, more importantly, that size-specific fecundity alone could not explain the disparity.

  5. 43 CFR 3712.2-4 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Publication. 3712.2-4 Section 3712.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... the Act § 3712.2-4 Publication. If the request for publication and the accompanying papers conform...

  6. 43 CFR 3712.2-4 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Publication. 3712.2-4 Section 3712.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... the Act § 3712.2-4 Publication. If the request for publication and the accompanying papers conform...

  7. 43 CFR 3712.2-4 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Publication. 3712.2-4 Section 3712.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... the Act § 3712.2-4 Publication. If the request for publication and the accompanying papers conform...

  8. 43 CFR 3712.2-4 - Publication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Publication. 3712.2-4 Section 3712.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... the Act § 3712.2-4 Publication. If the request for publication and the accompanying papers conform...

  9. 45 CFR 1206.2-4 - Procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures. 1206.2-4 Section 1206.2-4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND CONTRACTS-SUSPENSION AND TERMINATION AND DENIAL OF APPLICATION FOR REFUNDING Denial of Application for Refunding § 1206.2-4 Procedures....

  10. 43 CFR 8365.2-4 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.2-4 Section 8365.2-4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-4 Vehicles. Unless otherwise authorized, no motor vehicle shall be driven within developed recreation sites or areas except...

  11. 43 CFR 8365.2-4 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.2-4 Section 8365.2-4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-4 Vehicles. Unless otherwise authorized, no motor vehicle shall be driven within developed recreation sites or areas except...

  12. 43 CFR 8365.2-4 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.2-4 Section 8365.2-4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-4 Vehicles. Unless otherwise authorized, no motor vehicle shall be driven within developed recreation sites or areas except...

  13. 43 CFR 8365.2-4 - Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Vehicles. 8365.2-4 Section 8365.2-4 Public... OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS VISITOR SERVICES Rules of Conduct § 8365.2-4 Vehicles. Unless otherwise authorized, no motor vehicle shall be driven within developed recreation sites or areas except...

  14. Bacterial metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate

    PubMed Central

    Evans, W. C.; Smith, B. S. W.; Fernley, H. N.; Davies, J. I.

    1971-01-01

    1. Two Pseudomonas strains isolated from soil metabolized 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) as sole carbon source in mineral salts liquid medium. 2. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate cultures of Pseudomonas I (Smith, 1954) contained 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2-chlorophenol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol and α-chloromuconate, the last as a major metabolite. 3. Dechlorination at the 4(p)-position of the aromatic ring must therefore take place at some stages before ring fission. 4. Pseudomonas N.C.I.B. 9340 (Gaunt, 1962) cultures metabolizing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate contained 2,4-dichloro-6-hydroxyphenoxyacetate, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 3,5-dichlorocatechol and an unstable compound, probably αγ-dichloromuconate. 5. Cell-free extracts of the latter organism grown in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate cultures contained an oxygenase that converted 3,5-dichlorocatechol into αγ-dichloromuconate, a chlorolactonase that in the presence of Mn2+ ions converted the dichloromuconate into γ-carboxymethylene-α-chloro-Δαβ-butenolide, and a delactonizing enzyme that gave α-chloromaleylacetate from this lactone. 6. Pathways of metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate are discussed. PMID:5123888

  15. 14 CFR 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section Sec. 2... Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this... settlement with debtors or creditors. (c) Expenditures incurred during the current accounting year...

  16. Mineralization of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) and Mixtures of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, J. S.; Reddy, C. A.

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is presented for mineralization of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in nutrient-rich media (high-nitrogen and malt extract media) by wild-type Phanerochaete chrysosporium and by a peroxidase-negative mutant of this organism. Mass balance analysis of [U-ring-14C]2,4-D mineralization in malt extract cultures showed 82.7% recovery of radioactivity. Of this, 38.6% was released as 14CO2 and 27.0, 11.2, and 5.9% were present in the aqueous, methylene chloride, and mycelial fractions, respectively. 2,4-D and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) were simultaneously mineralized when presented as a mixture, and mutual inhibition of degradation was not observed. In contrast, a relatively higher rate of mineralization of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T was observed when these compounds were tested as mixtures than when they were tested alone. PMID:16349039

  17. Effect of 2,4-Thiazolidinedione on Limousin Cattle Growth and on Muscle and Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Turrubiarte, M.; González-Dávalos, L.; Yabuta, A.; Garza, J. D.; Dávalos, J. L.; Mora, O.; Shimada, A.

    2012-01-01

    The main adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ possesses high affinity to 2,4-TZD, a member of the Thiazolidinedione family of insulin-sensitizing compounds used as adipogenic agents. We evaluated 2,4-TZD's effect on bovine growth and PPAR tissue expression. Seventeen Limousin bulls (18 month-old; 350 kg body weight (BW)) were assigned into 2 treatments: control and 2,4-TZD (8 mg/70 kg BW) and were fed until bulls reached 500 kg BW. They were weighed and their blood was sampled. DNA, RNA, and protein were determined in liver; skeletal muscle; subcutaneous (SC), omental, perirenal adipose tissues (AT) to determine protein synthesis rate and cellular size. Expression of PPAR mRNA was measured in liver and muscle (PPARα, -δ, and -γ) and SC adipose tissue (γ) by real-time PCR. No significant differences were found (P > 0.1) in weight gain, days on feed, and carcass quality. Muscle synthesis was greater in controls (P < 0.05); cell size was larger with 2,4-TZD (P < 0.05). PPARα, -δ, and -γ expressions with 2,4-TZD in liver were lower (P < 0.01) than in muscle. No differences were found for PPARγ mRNA expression in SCAT. The results suggest the potential use of 2,4-TZD in beef cattle diets, because it improves AT differentiation, liver, and muscle fatty acid oxidation that, therefore, might improve energy efficiency. PMID:23304114

  18. Soil matrix and macropore biodegradation of 2,4-D

    SciTech Connect

    Pivetz, B.E.; Steenhuis, T.S.

    1995-07-01

    Preferential flow of pesticides in macropores can lead to decreased travel times through the vadose zone and increased groundwater contamination. Macropores, however, may present a favorable environment for biodegradation because of greater oxygen, nutrient, and substrate supply, and higher microbial populations in earthworm burrows, compared to the soil matrix. The biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was measured in macropores and soil matrix of packed soil columns (7.0-cm diam., 10-cm length) and undisturbed cores contained as well-defined artificial macropore and the undisturbed cores contained earthworm-burrow macropores. A 50 {mu}g/L 2,4-D solution was continuously applied to the unsaturated soil surface and breakthrough curves (BTCs) indicating pesticide loss in the effluent were obtained from the soil matrix and macropore flow paths. Biodegradation rates were calculated separately for each flow path by comparing the BTCs to BTCs representing abiotic conditions, and dividing the 2,4-D loss by the travel time through each flow path. The biodegradation rates increased with time in both flow paths, and the final biodegradation rate in the macropore region surpassed that of the matrix, presumably because of increased microbial populations in the macropore. Complete loss of the 2,4-D in both flow paths was observed after continuous application of 2,4-D for 400 h, with maximum column-averaged 2,4-D loss rates of 0.879 {mu}g/(L h) in the matrix and 1.073 {mu}g/(L h) in the macropore. Biodegradation of 2,4-D was also observed in the macropore and matrix regions of the undisturbed soil cores. 19 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Irreversibility of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid Sorption onto a Volcanic Ash Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mon, E.; Kawamoto, K.; Komatsu, T.; Moldrup, P.

    2008-12-01

    Pesticide sorption and desorption in soils are key processes governing fate and transport of pesticides in the soil environment. The irreversibility (or hysteresis) in the processes of pesticide sorption and desorption needs to be known to accurately predict behavior of pesticides in soil systems. 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a widely used pesticide in agriculture fields. However, only few studies of 2,4-D adsorption onto Andosols (volcanic ash soils) have been published, and the knowledge of 2,4-D desorption onto Andosols is very limited. In this study, a volcanic ash soil sampled from a pasture site in Nishi-Tokyo, Japan was used as a sorbent in order to investigate the irreversibility of 2,4-D sorption. For comparison, a pure clay mineral (kaolinite) obtained from Clay Science Society of Japan (CSSJ) was also used. 2,4-D solutions with three concentrations (0.011, 0.022 and 0.045 mmol/L) were prepared in artificial rain water (ARW= 0.085mM NaCl + 0.015mM CaCl2) to simulate field conditions. To prepare the sample solutions, the solid mass/liquid volume ratio of 1:10 was used for both sorbents (volcanic ash soil and kaolinite). The experiments were conducted in triplicate using a batch method under different pH conditions to examine the effect of pH. Desorption was measured during a equilibration procedure: After removal of 7 mL of supernatant in the sorption step, 7 mL of ARW excluding 2,4-D was added to the sample solution after which, it was equilibrated and centrifuged. The procedure was performed sequentially three or four times to obtain a desorption isotherm. Sorption and desorption generally followed Freundlich isotherms. The results showed markedly effects of pH on 2,4-D sorption and desorption in both the soil and kaolinite, with the percentage of sorption increasing with decreasing pH whereas the percentage of desorption decreased. There was a larger adsorption-desorption hysteresis in the volcanic ash soil as compared to kaolinite

  20. Unravelling the resistance mechanisms to 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) in corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas).

    PubMed

    Rey-Caballero, Jordi; Menéndez, Julio; Giné-Bordonaba, Jordi; Salas, Marisa; Alcántara, Ricardo; Torra, Joel

    2016-10-01

    In southern Europe, the intensive use of 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and tribenuron-methyl in cereal crop systems has resulted in the evolution of resistant (R) corn poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) biotypes. Experiments were conducted to elucidate (1) the resistance response to these two herbicides, (2) the cross-resistant pattern to other synthetic auxins and (3) the physiological basis of the auxin resistance in two R (F-R213 and D-R703) populations. R plants were resistant to both 2,4-D and tribenuron-methyl (F-R213) or just to 2,4-D (D-R703) and both R populations were also resistant to dicamba and aminopyralid. Results from absorption and translocation experiment revealed that R plants translocated less [14C]-2,4-D than S plants at all evaluation times. There was between four and eight-fold greater ethylene production in S plants treated with 2,4-D, than in R plants. Overall, these results suggest that reduced 2,4-D translocation is the resistance mechanism in synthetic auxins R corn poppy populations and this likely leads to less ethylene production and greater survival in R plants.

  1. Larger Units: Theater Army, Army Group, Field Army

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    LARGER UNITS: Theater Army, Army Group , Field Army St Fort LeawiivfoW, Kansas /A ’j>’" /\\(7 ’"VX <\\,» •«:-•$-(••’•.•->’-:-j Report...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1984 to 00-00-1984 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Larger Units: Theater Army, Army Group , Field Army 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...Bibliography No. 4 LARGER UNITS: THEATER ARMY—ARMY GROUP —FIELD ARMY by LTC Gary L. Bounds Combat Studies Institute U.S. Army Command and General Staff

  2. Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Most Americans Favor Larger Health Warnings on Cigarette Packs Even many smokers think these warnings should ... 31, 2017 FRIDAY, March 31, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Cigarette packs carry health warnings, but many Americans think ...

  3. 1,2,4,5-Tetrachlorobenzene

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    1,2,4,5 - Tetrachlorobenzene ; CASRN 95 - 94 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Nonca

  4. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,6 - Trinitrotoluene ( TNT ) ; CASRN 118 - 96 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for N

  5. 2,4-/2,6-Dinitrotoluene mixture

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Dinitrotoluene mixture ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncar

  6. Choosing the Larger versus Choosing the Smaller: Asymmetries in the Size Congruity Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Isabel; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The size congruity effect (SiCE) shows that number and physical size interact as magnitudes. That is, response times are faster when number and size are congruent (e.g., 2 4) than when they are incongruent (e.g., 2 4). A shared representational system has been the most influential account for the SiCE. Recently, this account has been challenged by…

  7. Engineering Pseudomonas fluorescens for Biodegradation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene†

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Mariela R.; Smania, Andrea M.; Fabro, Georgina; Alvarez, María E.; Argaraña, Carlos E.

    2005-01-01

    Using the genes encoding the 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation pathway enzymes, the nonpathogenic psychrotolerant rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 17400 was genetically modified for degradation of this priority pollutant. First, a recombinant strain designated MP was constructed by conjugative transfer from Burkholderia sp. strain DNT of the pJS1 megaplasmid, which contains the dnt genes for 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradation. This strain was able to grow on 2,4-dinitrotoluene as the sole source of carbon, nitrogen, and energy at levels equivalent to those of Burkholderia sp. strain DNT. Nevertheless, loss of the 2,4-dinitrotoluene degradative phenotype was observed for strains carrying pJS1. The introduction of dnt genes into the P.fluorescens ATCC 17400 chromosome, using a suicide chromosomal integration Tn5-based delivery plasmid system, generated a degrading strain that was stable for a long time, which was designated RE. This strain was able to use 2,4-dinitrotoluene as a sole nitrogen source and to completely degrade this compound as a cosubstrate. Furthermore, P. fluorescens RE, but not Burkholderia sp. strain DNT, was capable of degrading 2,4-dinitrotoluene at temperatures as low as 10°C. Finally, the presence of P. fluorescens RE in soils containing levels of 2,4-dinitrotoluene lethal to plants significantly decreased the toxic effects of this nitro compound on Arabidopsis thaliana growth. Using synthetic medium culture, P. fluorescens RE was found to be nontoxic for A.thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum, whereas under these conditions Burkholderia sp. strain DNT inhibited A.thaliana seed germination and was lethal to plants. These features reinforce the advantageous environmental robustness of P. fluorescens RE compared with Burkholderia sp. strain DNT. PMID:16332883

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON(II) AND 2,4-DINITROTOLUENE.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristopher; Doo, Hyungie; Makamba, Honest; Seo, Seong S

    The objective of this work was the development of reliable methods to determine 2,4-dinitrotoluene, a precursor to explosives. A complex between Fe(II) ion and 2,4-dinitrotoluene was formed in solution and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy using Job's plots and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface modification of glassy carbon electrodes were performed with iron nanoparticles via electrochemical reduction of iron(II). The modified electrode was employed for the determination of 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the iron nanoparticles were incorporated on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical determination of 2,4-dinitrotoluene was performed by cyclic voltammetry using the modified electrode. The iron modified electrode produced larger reduction currents than the unmodified electrode for the same concentration of 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene as low as 10 parts per billion were determined using the modified electrode.

  9. 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( 2,4 - DB ) ; CASRN 94 - 82 - 6 Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of chronic toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several Program Offices and the Office of Research and

  10. 2(2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxy) propionic acid (2,4,5-TP)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2 ( 2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxy ) propionic acid ( 2,4,5 - TP ) ; CASRN 93 - 72 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  11. 2,4,5-Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4,5 - Trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ( 2,4,5 - T ) ; CASRN 93 - 76 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, FROM SOUTHEAST. FRONT FACES EAST. Larger Building is Hotel Williams (HABS No. MI-258). Photocopied from photograph taken August 4, 1965 by Jack Crosby of the Michigan Historical Commission. See also Hotel Williams, MI-258, for a photocopy of a drawing showing Williams House. - Hotel Williams, Williams House, Murray Bay, Munising, Alger County, MI

  13. One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of the larger open spaces on the third floor. This space was used most often for drafting work and for general experimentation. Physical evidence on the ceiling indicates existence of partition walls for smaller rooms, but no photographic or documentary evidence has surfaced to verify this. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  14. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Amy C; McDowell, Nathan G; Allen, Craig D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J

    2015-09-28

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change(1-3). Droughts alter the structure and function of forests(4,5). Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests(6) and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage(7) and hydrology(8), exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees(4,5,9,10). Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress(11-14), the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns(4,15), and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees(16). We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  15. Asteroid collisional evolution - Evidence for a much larger early population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, C. R.; Davis, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    The present population of asteroids is a remnant of a vastly larger one that contained perhaps a planetary mass, dominantly distributed in planetesimals approximately 500 kilometers or less in diameter. It constituted a large reservoir of objects that plausibly were responsible for cratering the moon, Mars, and Mercury. Much asteroidal dust may have accumulated on Mars and other planets.

  16. A Larger Scale. Tenth Annual Residence Hall Construction Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argon, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Presents data from the American School & University's 10th Annual Residence Hall Construction Report that show dormitories are costing more per square foot to build while also becoming larger accommodations. Data tables are provided as are highlighted discussions that include residence hall design flexibility, environmental concerns and building…

  17. Larger trees suffer most during drought in forests worldwide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, Amy C.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Allen, Craig D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.

    2015-01-01

    The frequency of severe droughts is increasing in many regions around the world as a result of climate change. Droughts alter the structure and function of forests. Site- and region-specific studies suggest that large trees, which play keystone roles in forests and can be disproportionately important to ecosystem carbon storage and hydrology, exhibit greater sensitivity to drought than small trees. Here, we synthesize data on tree growth and mortality collected during 40 drought events in forests worldwide to see whether this size-dependent sensitivity to drought holds more widely. We find that droughts consistently had a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality rates of larger trees. Moreover, drought-related mortality increased with tree size in 65% of the droughts examined, especially when community-wide mortality was high or when bark beetles were present. The more pronounced drought sensitivity of larger trees could be underpinned by greater inherent vulnerability to hydraulic stress, the higher radiation and evaporative demand experienced by exposed crowns, and the tendency for bark beetles to preferentially attack larger trees. We suggest that future droughts will have a more detrimental impact on the growth and mortality of larger trees, potentially exacerbating feedbacks to climate change.

  18. Do Minorities Experience Larger Lasting Benefits from Small Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Barbara; Hedges, Larry V.; Konstantopoulos, Spyros

    2004-01-01

    Recent research from randomized experiments on class size points to positive effects of small classes that persist for several years, but the evidence about the social distribution of effects is less clear. Some scholars have contended that the immediate effects of small classes are larger for minorities and for disadvantaged persons (e.g., J. D.…

  19. Hydrophobic metabolites of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in cultured coconut tissue.

    PubMed

    López-Villalobos, Arturo; Hornung, Roland; Dodds, Peter F

    2004-10-01

    Cultures of inflorescence and plumular tissues of coconut palm (Cocos nucifera L.) were maintained in the presence of the auxin, [14C]2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), so that its metabolic fate could be studied. Thin layer chromatography of methanol extracts of the plumular tissue showed that four classes of metabolites, as well as the unchanged acid, were recovered in the extract. In inflorescence tissue, only the unchanged acid and the most polar class of metabolites (metabolite I) were recovered. Metabolite I was shown to consist mostly of a mixture of sugar conjugates and metabolite II (the next most polar) was an unidentified basic metabolite. Metabolites III and IV were both novel triacylglycerol analogues in which one of the natural fatty acids was replaced with a chain-elongated form of 2,4-D. Reversed-phase thin layer chromatography was used to identify the 2,4-D-derived acids and it was found that metabolite III contained the 2,4-dichlorophenoxy-moiety attached to a chain-length of between 2 and 12 carbons, whereas metabolite IV contained 12, 14 and 16 carbon chain lengths. In inflorescence tissue, and in plumular tissue at low sucrose or 2,4-D concentrations and after short periods in culture, metabolite I predominated. The other metabolites increased as a percentage when plumular culture was prolonged or when sucrose or 2,4-D concentrations were raised. These changes correlated with better development of the explant.

  20. Shock initiation of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P.A.; Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.

    1995-07-19

    The shock sensitivity of the pressed solid explosive 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) was determined using the embedded manganin pressure gauge technique. At an initial shock pressure of 2 GPa, several microseconds were required before any exothermic reaction was observed. At 4 GPa, 2,4-DNI reacted more rapidly but did not transition to detonation at the 12 mm deep gauge position. At 6 GPa, detonation occurred in less than 6 mm of shock propagation. Thus, 2,4-DNI is more shock sensitive than TATB-based explosives but is considerably less shock sensitive than HMX-based explosives. An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for 2,4-DNI based on these gauge records showed that 2,4-DNI exhibits shock initiation characteristics similar to TATB but reacts faster. The chemical structure of 2,4-DNI suggests that it may exhibit thermal decomposition reactions similar to nitroguanine and explosives with similar ring structures, such as ANTA and NTO.

  1. NAS Parallel Benchmarks. 2.4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob; Biegel, Bryan A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We describe a new problem size, called Class D, for the NAS Parallel Benchmarks (NPB), whose MPI source code implementation is being released as NPB 2.4. A brief rationale is given for how the new class is derived. We also describe the modifications made to the MPI (Message Passing Interface) implementation to allow the new class to be run on systems with 32-bit integers, and with moderate amounts of memory. Finally, we give the verification values for the new problem size.

  2. Enhanced nearfield acoustic holography for larger distances of reconstructions using fixed parameter Tikhonov regularization

    DOE PAGES

    Chelliah, Kanthasamy; Raman, Ganesh G.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.

    2016-07-07

    This paper evaluates the performance of various regularization parameter choice methods applied to different approaches of nearfield acoustic holography when a very nearfield measurement is not possible. For a fixed grid resolution, the larger the hologram distance, the larger the error in the naive nearfield acoustic holography reconstructions. These errors can be smoothed out by using an appropriate order of regularization. In conclusion, this study shows that by using a fixed/manual choice of regularization parameter, instead of automated parameter choice methods, reasonably accurate reconstructions can be obtained even when the hologram distance is 16 times larger than the grid resolution.

  3. Ductile fracture by cavity nucleation between larger voids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1982-08-01

    A MECHANISM of ductile fracture involving the interaction of relatively large voids with small-scale voids is studied by a computational model. The larger voids are described as circular cylindrical holes arranged in a doubly periodic array in the initial state. In the matrix material between these voids the nucleation and growth of much smaller voids is accounted for by using approximate constitutive equations for a ductile, porous medium. The computations show bands of highly localized straining and void growth, initiating at the surfaces of larger voids and growing into the matrix material, until the bands connect two neighbouring voids. The materials are analysed both under plane strain conditions and under conditions approximating those in a round tensile bar. The failure strains obtained under different principal stress ratios show rather good agreement when plotted against a measure of the stress-triaxiality.

  4. Review of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biomonitoring and epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Carol J.; Swaen, Gerard M. H.

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative review of the epidemiological literature on the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and health after 2001 is presented. In order to compare the exposure of the general population, bystanders and occupational groups, their urinary levels were also reviewed. In the general population, 2,4-D exposure is at or near the level of detection (LOD). Among individuals with indirect exposure, i.e. bystanders, the urinary 2,4-D levels were also very low except in individuals with opportunity for direct contact with the herbicide. Occupational exposure, where exposure was highest, was positively correlated with behaviors related to the mixing, loading and applying process and use of personal protection. Information from biomonitoring studies increases our understanding of the validity of the exposure estimates used in epidemiology studies. The 2,4-D epidemiology literature after 2001 is broad and includes studies of cancer, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, and neurotoxicity. In general, a few publications have reported statistically significant associations. However, most lack precision and the results are not replicated in other independent studies. In the context of biomonitoring, the epidemiology data give no convincing or consistent evidence for any chronic adverse effect of 2,4-D in humans. PMID:22876750

  5. Monitoring of surface burn after grinding larger bearing rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neslušan, M.; Mičietová, A.; Čilliková, M.

    2014-02-01

    This paper deals with detection of surface burn after grinding of larger bearing rings made of case - hardened steels. The paper reports about calibration of Barkhausen noise technique for non destructive monitoring of grinding operations for rings of diameter in the range of 600 up to 4000 mm. Properly suggested monitoring concept enables to detect thermal damage due to grinding wheel wear as well as insufficient coolant supply. Further, grinding burn associated with lack of coolant can be clearly distinguished from damage corresponding grinding wheel wear. The paper also discusses increasing magnetoelastic responses obtained after grinding rings of higher diameters.

  6. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Roy L.; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown. PMID:26266543

  7. Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Roy L; Ross, Richard; Rodaniche, Arcadio; Huffard, Christine L

    2015-01-01

    Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012-2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.

  8. How much larger quantum correlations are than classical ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, Adán

    2005-07-01

    Considering as distance between two two-party correlations the minimum number of half local results one party must toggle in order to turn one correlation into the other, we show that the volume of the set of physically obtainable correlations in the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bell scenario is (3π/8)2≈1.388 larger than the volume of the set of correlations obtainable in local deterministic or probabilistic hidden-variable theories, but is only 3π2/32≈0.925 of the volume allowed by arbitrary causal (i.e., no-signaling) theories.

  9. Scale and construal: how larger measurement units shrink length estimates and expand mental horizons.

    PubMed

    Maglio, Sam J; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    Scale can vary by requiring a different number of units to measure the same target. But what are the consequences of using fewer, larger units? We draw on past psychophysical research that shows how using fewer units reduces clutter in measurement, translating to shorter length estimates. Additionally, we propose that larger scale is associated with targets further from a person's immediate experience (i.e., psychologically distant) and higher order mental representation. Evidence from Study 1 indicates that framing a target as further away causes it to be estimated as shorter because people use larger units to measure it compared to when the same target is framed as nearby. Two subsequent studies suggest that direct manipulation of larger (versus smaller) measurement scale produces not only shorter length estimates, but also more distal timing judgments (Study 2) and abstract mental representation (Study 3). Implications for scale and level of mental construal are discussed.

  10. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  11. Cooler butterflies lay larger eggs: developmental plasticity versus acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Klaus; Eenhoorn, Evelien; Bot, Adriane N M; Brakefield, Paul M; Zwaan, Bas J

    2003-10-07

    We use a full factorial design to investigate the effects of maternal and paternal developmental temperature, as well as female oviposition temperature, on egg size in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Butterflies were raised at two different temperatures and mated in four possible sex-by-parental-temperature crosses. The mated females were randomly divided between high and low oviposition temperatures. On the first day after assigning the females to different temperatures, only female developmental temperature affected egg size. Females reared at the lower temperature laid larger eggs than those reared at a higher temperature. When eggs were measured again after an acclimation period of 10 days, egg size was principally determined by the prevailing temperature during oviposition, with females ovipositing at a lower temperature laying larger eggs. In contrast to widely used assumptions, the effects of developmental temperature were largely reversible. Male developmental temperature did not affect egg size in either of the measurements. Overall, developmental plasticity and acclimation in the adult stage resulted in very similar patterns of egg size plasticity. Consequently, we argue that the most important question when testing the significance of acclamatory changes is not at which stage a given plasticity is induced, but rather whether plastic responses to environmental change are adaptive or merely physiological constraints.

  12. An Evaluation of TCP with Larger Initial Windows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allman, Mark; Hayes, Christopher; Ostermann, Shawn

    1998-01-01

    Transmission Control Protocol (TCP's) slow start algorithm gradually increases the amount of data a sender injects into the network, which prevents the sender from overwhelming the network with an inappropriately large burst of traffic. However, the slow start algorithm can make poor use of the available band-width for transfers which are small compared to the bandwidth-delay product of the link, such as file transfers up to few thousand characters over satellite links or even transfers of several hundred bytes over local area networks. This paper evaluates a proposed performance enhancement that raises the initial window used by TCP from 1 MSS-sized segment to roughly 4 KB. The paper evaluates the impact of using larger initial windows on TCP transfers over both the shared Internet and dialup modem links.

  13. Larger Mammalian Body Size Leads to Lower Retroviral Activity

    PubMed Central

    Katzourakis, Aris; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Lim, Aaron G.; Gupta, Sunetra; Belshaw, Robert; Gifford, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Retroviruses have been infecting mammals for at least 100 million years, leaving descendants in host genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs). The abundance of ERVs is partly determined by their mode of replication, but it has also been suggested that host life history traits could enhance or suppress their activity. We show that larger bodied species have lower levels of ERV activity by reconstructing the rate of ERV integration across 38 mammalian species. Body size explains 37% of the variance in ERV integration rate over the last 10 million years, controlling for the effect of confounding due to other life history traits. Furthermore, 68% of the variance in the mean age of ERVs per genome can also be explained by body size. These results indicate that body size limits the number of recently replicating ERVs due to their detrimental effects on their host. To comprehend the possible mechanistic links between body size and ERV integration we built a mathematical model, which shows that ERV abundance is favored by lower body size and higher horizontal transmission rates. We argue that because retroviral integration is tumorigenic, the negative correlation between body size and ERV numbers results from the necessity to reduce the risk of cancer, under the assumption that this risk scales positively with body size. Our model also fits the empirical observation that the lifetime risk of cancer is relatively invariant among mammals regardless of their body size, known as Peto's paradox, and indicates that larger bodied mammals may have evolved mechanisms to limit ERV activity. PMID:25033295

  14. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-03-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  15. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g., 0.27 ± 0.16 Gt C a-1 for 2000-2005 5 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17 ± 0.44 Gt C a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45 ± 0.40 Gt C a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40 ± 0.42 Gt C a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (0.9-1.2 Gt C a-1 for September 2009-August 2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 Gt C a-1 in 2010, Chevallier et al., 2014). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential large scale retrieval biases and/or long-range transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Here we show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02 ± 0.30 Gt C a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. The highest gain in information is obtained during the growing season when satellite observation conditions are advantageous and a priori uncertainties are largest. The consistency among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five

  16. The cavity-nest ant Temnothorax crassispinus prefers larger nests.

    PubMed

    Mitrus, S

    Colonies of the ant Temnothorax crassispinus inhabit mostly cavities in wood and hollow acorns. Typically in the field, nest sites that can be used by the ant are a limited resource. In a field experiment, it was investigated whether the ants prefer a specific size of nest, when different ones are available. In July 2011, a total of 160 artificial nests were placed in a beech-pine forest. Four artificial nests (pieces of wood with volume cavities, ca 415, 605, 730, and 980 mm(3), respectively) were located on each square meter of the experimental plot. One year later, shortly before the emergence of new sexuals, the nests were collected. In July 2012, colonies inhabited more frequently bigger nests. Among queenright colonies, the ones which inhabited bigger nests had more workers. However, there was no relationship between volume of nest and number of workers for queenless colonies. Queenright colonies from bigger nests produced more sexual individuals, but there was no correlation between number of workers and sex allocation ratio, or between volume of nest and sex allocation ratio. In a laboratory experiment where ant colonies were kept in 470 and 860 mm(3) nests, larger colonies allocated more energy to produce sexual individuals. The results of this study show the selectivity of T. crassispinus ants regarding the size of nest cavity, and that the nest volume has an impact on life history parameters.

  17. Larger Extrastriate Population Receptive Fields in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Elaine J.; de Haas, Benjamin; White, Sarah J.; Rees, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    Previous behavioral research suggests enhanced local visual processing in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Here we used functional MRI and population receptive field (pRF) analysis to test whether the response selectivity of human visual cortex is atypical in individuals with high-functioning ASDs compared with neurotypical, demographically matched controls. For each voxel, we fitted a pRF model to fMRI signals measured while participants viewed flickering bar stimuli traversing the visual field. In most extrastriate regions, perifoveal pRFs were larger in the ASD group than in controls. We observed no differences in V1 or V3A. Differences in the hemodynamic response function, eye movements, or increased measurement noise could not account for these results; individuals with ASDs showed stronger, more reliable responses to visual stimulation. Interestingly, pRF sizes also correlated with individual differences in autistic traits but there were no correlations with behavioral measures of visual processing. Our findings thus suggest that visual cortex in ASDs is not characterized by sharper spatial selectivity. Instead, we speculate that visual cortical function in ASDs may be characterized by extrastriate cortical hyperexcitability or differential attentional deployment. PMID:24523560

  18. Gravitational and electroweak unification by replacing diffeomorphisms with larger group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandres, Dave

    2009-11-01

    The covariance group for general relativity, the diffeomorphisms, is replaced by a group of coordinate transformations which contains the diffeomorphisms as a proper subgroup. The larger group is defined by the assumption that all observers will agree whether any given quantity is conserved. Alternatively, and equivalently, it is defined by the assumption that all observers will agree that the general relativistic wave equation describes the propagation of light. Thus, the group replacement is analogous to the replacement of the Lorentz group by the diffeomorphisms that led Einstein from special relativity to general relativity, and is also consistent with the assumption of constant light velocity that led him to special relativity. The enlarged covariance group leads to a non-commutative geometry based not on a manifold, but on a nonlocal space in which paths, rather than points, are the most primitive invariant entities. This yields a theory which unifies the gravitational and electroweak interactions. The theory contains no adjustable parameters, such as those that are chosen arbitrarily in the standard model.

  19. Temperature determining larger wildland fires in NE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Terrén, D. M.; Cardil, A.

    2016-07-01

    Significant relationships were found between high-temperature days and wildland fire occurrence in the 1978-2011 period in Aragón (NE Spain). Temperature was analyzed at 850 hPa to characterize the low troposphere state, avoiding problems that affect surface reanalysis and providing regional coverage. A high-temperature day was established when air temperature was higher than 20 °C at 850 hPa. The number of these days increased significantly in the study period, increasing the frequency of adverse weather conditions that could facilitate extreme fire behavior. Specifically, these high-temperature days are more frequent in June than they used to be. The effects of those high-temperature days in wildland fire patterns were significant in terms of burned area, number of wildland fires, and average size. Fires larger than 60 ha were the subject of this study. These wildland fires have been increasing in number and size in the last years of the series.

  20. Transformation of OODT CAS to Perform Larger Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattmann, Chris; Freeborn, Dana; Crichton, Daniel; Hughes, John; Ramirez, Paul; Hardman, Sean; Woollard, David; Kelly, Sean

    2008-01-01

    A computer program denoted OODT CAS has been transformed to enable performance of larger tasks that involve greatly increased data volumes and increasingly intensive processing of data on heterogeneous, geographically dispersed computers. Prior to the transformation, OODT CAS (also alternatively denoted, simply, 'CAS') [wherein 'OODT' signifies 'Object-Oriented Data Technology' and 'CAS' signifies 'Catalog and Archive Service'] was a proven software component used to manage scientific data from spaceflight missions. In the transformation, CAS was split into two separate components representing its canonical capabilities: file management and workflow management. In addition, CAS was augmented by addition of a resource-management component. This third component enables CAS to manage heterogeneous computing by use of diverse resources, including high-performance clusters of computers, commodity computing hardware, and grid computing infrastructures. CAS is now more easily maintainable, evolvable, and reusable. These components can be used separately or, taking advantage of synergies, can be used together. Other elements of the transformation included addition of a separate Web presentation layer that supports distribution of data products via Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, and provision for full Resource Description Framework (RDF) exports of metadata.

  1. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS IMMUNOASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) immunoassay format for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is demonstrated. A fluorescent labeled 2,4-D analog competes with the analyte of interest for a finite number of binding sites provided by anti-2,4-D monoclonal antibodies. CE then pr...

  2. Photoelectron spectroscopic study of the negative ions of 4-thiouracil and 2,4-dithiouracil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Jing; Bowen, Kit H.

    2011-02-01

    We report the photoelectron spectra of the negative ions of 4-thiouracil (4-TU)- and 2,4-dithiouracil (2,4-DTU)-. Both of these spectra are indicative of valence anions, and they are each dominated by a single broad band with vertical detachment energies of 1.05 and 1.4 eV, respectively. Complementary calculations by Dolgounitcheva, Zakrzewski, and Ortiz (see companion paper) are in accord with our experimental results and conclude that the (4-TU)- and (2,4-DTU)- anions, reported herein, are valence anions of canonical 4-thiouracil and canonical dithiouracil. Comparisons among the anions and corresponding neutrals of 4-thiouracil, 2,4-dithiouracil, 5-chlorouracil, 5-fluorouracil, and uracil itself show that both sulfur and halogen modifications of uracil give rise to significant changes in the electronic structure. The electron affinities of the first four are all substantially larger than that of the canonical uracil.

  3. Oxidative degradation of 2,4-xylidine by photosensitization with 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium: homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis.

    PubMed

    Amat, Ana M; Arques, Antonio; Bossmann, Stefan H; Braun, André M; Göb, Sabine; Miranda, Miguel A; Oliveros, Esther

    2004-12-01

    The possibility of using zeolites containing the 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium cation as photocatalysts for the degradation of pollutants has been tested on aqueous xylidine (2,4-dimethylaniline) solutions as models for contaminated wastewaters. The influence of the photocatalyst and substrate concentrations on xylidine oxidation has been investigated in homogeneous solution, by performing a series of experiments chosen according to the experimental design methodology (Doehlert uniform array). The empirical models and the corresponding response surfaces obtained from data analysis have been used for simulating and predicting degradation efficiency. The results have shown that conversion increases with increasing amounts of photocatalyst and decreasing concentration of the model pollutant. The fluorescence of 2,4,6-triphenylpyrylium was quenched by xylidine with a rate constant k(q) of 3.1x10(9)M(-1)s(-1). This result suggests a direct electron transfer between the excited pyrylium salt and xylidine. Because of the limited stability of the photocatalyst in homogeneous media, a pyrylium containing Y-zeolite has been tested for the photocatalytic oxidation of xylidine under heterogeneous conditions. The results suggest that the supported catalyst has a much improved stability and that xylidine oxidation rates remain nearly constant during the whole reaction time. An additional advantage of the pyrylium containing zeolite photocatalyst is that it can be recycled and used for further experiments.

  4. Satellite-inferred European carbon sink larger than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Buchwitz, M.; Hilker, M.; Heymann, J.; Schneising, O.; Pillai, D.; Bovensmann, H.; Burrows, J. P.; Bösch, H.; Parker, R.; Butz, A.; Hasekamp, O.; O'Dell, C. W.; Yoshida, Y.; Gerbig, C.; Nehrkorn, T.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Sussmann, R.; Machida, T.; Matsueda, H.; Sawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge about the European terrestrial biospheric carbon sink, from the Atlantic to the Urals, relies upon bottom-up inventory and surface flux inverse model estimates (e.g. 0.27±0.16 GtC a-1 for 2000-2005 (Schulze et al., 2009), 0.17±0.44 GtC a-1 for 2001-2007 (Peters et al., 2010), 0.45±0.40 GtC a-1 for 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014), 0.40±0.42 GtC a-1 for 2001-2004 (Peylin et al., 2013)). Inverse models assimilate in situ CO2 atmospheric concentrations measured by surface-based air sampling networks. The intrinsic sparseness of these networks is one reason for the relatively large flux uncertainties (Peters et al., 2010; Bruhwiler et al., 2011). Satellite-based CO2 measurements have the potential to reduce these uncertainties (Miller et al., 2007; Chevallier et al., 2007). Global inversion experiments using independent models and independent GOSAT satellite data products consistently derived a considerably larger European sink (1.0-1.3 GtC a-1 for 09/2009-08/2010 (Basu et al., 2013), 1.2-1.8 GtC a-1 in 2010 (Chevallier et al., 2014)). However, these results have been considered unrealistic due to potential retrieval biases and/or transport errors (Chevallier et al., 2014) or have not been discussed at all (Basu et al., 2013; Takagi et al., 2014). Our analysis comprises a regional inversion approach using STILT (Gerbig et al., 2003; Lin et al., 2003) short-range (days) particle dispersion modelling, rendering it insensitive to large-scale retrieval biases and less sensitive to long-range transport errors. We show that the satellite-derived European terrestrial carbon sink is indeed much larger (1.02±0.30 GtC a-1 in 2010) than previously expected. This is qualitatively consistent among an ensemble of five different inversion set-ups and five independent satellite retrievals (BESD (Reuter et al., 2011) 2003-2010, ACOS (O'Dell et al., 2012) 2010, UoL-FP (Cogan et al., 2012) 2010, RemoTeC (Butz et al., 2011) 2010, and NIES (Yoshida et al., 2013) 2010

  5. Light scattering by randomly irregular dielectric particles larger than the wavelength.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2013-12-01

    We present results of simulation of light scattering by randomly irregular particles that have dimensions larger than the wavelength of incident light. We apply the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method and compare the accurate solution with that obtained using an approximate geometric-optics model. A qualitative agreement is observed for scattering angle curves of intensity at the size parameter of X=60, whereas angular dependence of polarization appears to be more sensitive to the wave effects and requires larger sizes for application of geometrical optics.

  6. Tuning optical properties of magic number cluster (SiO2)4O2H4 by substitutional bonding with gold atoms.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiulong; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Liuxue; Zhang, Wenxian; Ning, Xijing; Zhao, Li; Zhuang, Jun

    2009-04-30

    By bonding gold atoms to the magic number cluster (SiO(2))(4)O(2)H(4), two groups of Au-adsorbed shell-like clusters Au(n)(SiO(2))(4)O(2)H(4-n) (n = 1-4) and Au(n)(SiO(2))(4)O(2) (n = 5-8) were obtained, and their spectral properties were studied. The ground-state structures of these clusters were optimized by density functional theory, and the results show that in despite of the different numbers and types of the adsorbed Au atoms, the cluster core (SiO(2))(4)O(2) of T(d) point-group symmetry keeps almost unchanged. The absorption spectra were obtained by time-dependent density functional theory. From one group to the other, an extension of absorption wavelength from the UV-visible to the NIR region was observed, and in each group the absorption strengths vary linearly with the number of Au atoms. These features indicate their advantages for exploring novel materials with easily controlled tunable optical properties. Furthermore, due to the weak electronic charge transfer between the Au atoms, the clusters containing Au(2) dimers, especially Au(8)(SiO(2))(4)O(2), absorb strongly NIR light at 900 approximately 1200 nm. Such strong absorption suggests potential applications of these shell-like clusters in tumor cells thermal therapy, like the gold-coated silica nanoshells with larger sizes.

  7. Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide in the aqueous phase using modified granular activated carbon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low cost 2,4-Dichlorophenolyxacetic acid (2,4-D) widely used in controlling broad-leafed weeds is frequently detected in water resources. The main objectives of this research were focused on evaluating the feasibility of using granular activated carbon modified with acid to remove 2,4-D from aqueous phase, determining its removal efficiency and assessing the adsorption kinetics. Results The present study was conducted at bench-scale method. The influence of different pH (3–9), the effect of contact time (3–90 min), the amount of adsorbent (0.1-0.4 g), and herbicide initial concentration (0.5-3 ppm) on 2,4-D removal efficiency by the granular activated carbon were investigated. Based on the data obtained in the present study, pH of 3 and contact time of 60 min is optimal for 2,4-D removal. 2,4-D reduction rate increased rapidly by the addition of the adsorbent and decreased by herbicide initial concentration (63%). The percent of 2,4-D reduction were significantly enhanced by decreasing pH and increasing the contact time. The adsorption of 2,4-D onto the granular activated carbon conformed to Langmuir and Freundlich models, but was best fitted to type II Langmuir model (R2 = 0.999). The second order kinetics was the best for the adsorption of 2,4-D by modified granular activated carbon with R2 > 0.99. Regression analysis showed that all of the variables in the process have been statistically significant effect (p < 0.001). Conclusions In conclusion, granular activated carbon modified with acid is an appropriate method for reducing the herbicide in the polluted water resources. PMID:24410737

  8. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. 2.4 Section 2.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... delinquents may be released on parole at any time in the discretion of the Commission. (18 U.S.C. 5017(a)...

  9. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. 2.4 Section 2.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... delinquents may be released on parole at any time in the discretion of the Commission. (18 U.S.C. 5017(a)...

  10. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. 2.4 Section 2.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... delinquents may be released on parole at any time in the discretion of the Commission. (18 U.S.C. 5017(a)...

  11. 28 CFR 2.4 - Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Youth offenders and juvenile delinquents. 2.4 Section 2.4 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... delinquents may be released on parole at any time in the discretion of the Commission. (18 U.S.C. 5017(a)...

  12. Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamaki, Angeliki K.; Roberts, Roland G.

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the seismicity rate behaviour in and around Greece during 2009, seeking significant changes in rate preceding larger events. For individual larger events it is difficult to clearly distinguish precursory rate changes from other, possibly unrelated, variations in seismicity. However, when we aggregate seismicity data occurring within a radius of 10 km and in a 50-day window prior to earthquakes with, e.g. magnitude ≥3.5, the resulting aggregated time series show a clearly increasing trend starting 2-3 weeks prior to the "mainshock" time. We apply statistical tests to investigate if the observed behaviour may be simply consistent with random (poissonian) variations, or, as some earlier studies suggest, with clustering in the sense that high activity rates at some time may imply increased rates later, and thus (randomly) greater probability of larger coming events than for periods of lower seismicity. In this case, rate increases have little useful predictive power. Using data from the entire catalogue, the aggregated rate changes before larger events are clearly and strongly statistically significant and cannot be explained by such clustering. To test this we choose events at random from the catalogue as potential "mainshocks". The events preceding the randomly chosen earthquakes show less pronounced rate increases compared to the observed rate changes prior to larger events. Similar behaviour is observed in data sub-sets. However, statistical confidence decreases for geographical subsets containing few "mainshocks" as it does when data are weighted such that "mainshocks" with many preceding events are strongly downweighted relative to those with fewer. The analyses suggest that genuine changes in aggregated rate do occur prior to larger events and that this behaviour is not due to a small number of mainshocks with many preceding events dominating the analysis. It does not automatically follow that it will be possible to routinely observe precursory

  13. Carl Rogers and the larger context of therapeutic thought.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, Paul L

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' classic account (see record 2007-14639-002) of the necessary and sufficient conditions for therapeutic personality change is examined in light of developments in theory and practice since the time he wrote. Rogers' ideas, which diverged from and were very largely a challenge to, the dominant psychoanalytic ideology of the era in which he wrote, are considered in relation to new theoretical developments in what has come to be called relational psychoanalysis. They are also considered in light of the greatly increased influence of and substantial evidence supporting behavioral and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Points of convergence and divergence among these approaches are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Launch Will Create a Radio Telescope Larger than Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory are joining with an international consortium of space agencies to support the launch of a Japanese satellite next week that will create the largest astronomical "instrument" ever built -- a radio telescope more than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the Earth that will give astronomers their sharpest view yet of the universe. The launch of the Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Space Observatory Program (VSOP) satellite by Japan's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) is scheduled for Feb. 10 at 11:50 p.m. EST (1:50 p.m. Feb. 11, Japan time.) The satellite is part of an international collaboration led by ISAS and backed by Japan's National Astronomical Observatory; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, CA; the National Science Foundation's National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), Socorro, NM; the Canadian Space Agency; the Australia Telescope National Facility; the European VLBI Network and the Joint Institute for Very Long Baseline Interferometry in Europe. Very long baseline interferometry is a technique used by radio astronomers to electronically link widely separated radio telescopes together so they work as if they were a single instrument with extraordinarily sharp "vision," or resolving power. The wider the distance between telescopes, the greater the resolving power. By taking this technique into space for the first time, astronomers will approximately triple the resolving power previously available with only ground-based telescopes. The satellite system will have resolving power almost 1,000 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope at optical wavelengths. The satellite's resolving power is equivalent to being able to see a grain of rice in Tokyo from Los Angeles. "Using space VLBI, we can probe the cores of quasars and active galaxies, believed to be powered by super massive black holes," said Dr. Robert Preston, project scientist for the U.S. Space Very Long

  15. 22 CFR 2.4 - Designation of official guests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Designation of official guests. 2.4 Section 2.4... PERSONNEL § 2.4 Designation of official guests. The Chief of Protocol shall also maintain a roster of persons designated by the Secretary of State as official guests. Any inquiries by law enforcement...

  16. 22 CFR 2.4 - Designation of official guests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Designation of official guests. 2.4 Section 2.4... PERSONNEL § 2.4 Designation of official guests. The Chief of Protocol shall also maintain a roster of persons designated by the Secretary of State as official guests. Any inquiries by law enforcement...

  17. 22 CFR 2.4 - Designation of official guests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Designation of official guests. 2.4 Section 2.4... PERSONNEL § 2.4 Designation of official guests. The Chief of Protocol shall also maintain a roster of persons designated by the Secretary of State as official guests. Any inquiries by law enforcement...

  18. 22 CFR 2.4 - Designation of official guests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Designation of official guests. 2.4 Section 2.4... PERSONNEL § 2.4 Designation of official guests. The Chief of Protocol shall also maintain a roster of persons designated by the Secretary of State as official guests. Any inquiries by law enforcement...

  19. 22 CFR 2.4 - Designation of official guests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of official guests. 2.4 Section 2.4... PERSONNEL § 2.4 Designation of official guests. The Chief of Protocol shall also maintain a roster of persons designated by the Secretary of State as official guests. Any inquiries by law enforcement...

  20. 14 CFR Sec. 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section 2-4... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this...

  1. 14 CFR Sec. 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section 2-4... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this...

  2. 14 CFR Sec. 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section 2-4... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this...

  3. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  4. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  5. 1 CFR 2.4 - General authority of Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General authority of Director. 2.4 Section 2.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.4 General authority of Director. (a) The Director of the Federal Register is delegated authority...

  6. 1 CFR 2.4 - General authority of Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General authority of Director. 2.4 Section 2.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER GENERAL GENERAL INFORMATION § 2.4 General authority of Director. (a) The Director of the Federal Register is delegated authority...

  7. 43 CFR 5511.2-4 - Timber on withdrawn lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber on withdrawn lands. 5511.2-4 Section 5511.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... § 5511.2-4 Timber on withdrawn lands. Sections 5511.2-1 to 5511.2-5 are inapplicable to timber...

  8. 17 CFR 4.2-4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 4.2-4.4 Section 4.2-4.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §§ 4.2-4.4...

  9. 17 CFR 4.2-4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 4.2-4.4 Section 4.2-4.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §§ 4.2-4.4...

  10. 17 CFR 4.2-4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 4.2-4.4 Section 4.2-4.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §§ 4.2-4.4...

  11. 17 CFR 4.2-4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false 4.2-4.4 Section 4.2-4.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §§ 4.2-4.4...

  12. 17 CFR 4.2-4.4 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 4.2-4.4 Section 4.2-4.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION COMMODITY POOL OPERATORS AND COMMODITY TRADING ADVISORS General Provisions, Definitions and Exemptions §§ 4.2-4.4...

  13. 42 CFR 2.4 - Criminal penalty for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal penalty for violation. 2.4 Section 2.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.4 Criminal penalty for violation....

  14. 42 CFR 2.4 - Criminal penalty for violation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criminal penalty for violation. 2.4 Section 2.4 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.4 Criminal penalty for violation....

  15. The interdisciplinary team: the whole is larger than the parts.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Nakshatra; Rizk, Dana V

    2014-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging global health problem. Caring for CKD patients is a medical and financial challenge currently placing a significant burden on our health-care system. This creates an impetus to explore nontraditional models of care. In this article, we explore the role of interdisciplinary care clinics in managing the complex and multifaceted aspects of CKD. By having different providers work seamlessly in a synergistic and collaborative environment, there is less risk of fragmentation of care. In this patient-centered model of care, patients are empowered and engaged to achieve therapeutic targets, make lifestyle changes, and participate in decision-making. Timely referral and education delivered by advanced practitioners are 2 of the crucial elements central to the success of the interdisciplinary model. Further studies are needed to identify other key elements that would enhance the interdisciplinary approach to ensure that guideline-based therapeutic targets are reached and to define the subset of patients that would benefit the most. Innovative information technology solutions that could enhance the implementation of interdisciplinary clinics and expand their reach should be exploited. Lastly, for the paradigm shift to occur, the integrative approach should prove to be cost-effective.

  16. Do Losses Loom Larger for Children than Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Luking, Katherine R.; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The large impact of loss of reward on behavior has been well documented in adult populations. However, whether responsiveness to loss relative to gain is similarly elevated in child versus adult populations remains unclear. It is also unclear whether relations between incentive behaviors and self-reported reward/punishment sensitivity are similar within different developmental stages. To investigate these questions, 7–10-year-old children (N=70) and young adults (N=70) completed the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) Scale, along with two probabilistic incentive tasks assessing gain approach and loss avoidance behavior. BIS/BAS subscales were calculated per Pagliaccio, Luking et al. 2015, which established an age invariant model of the BIS/BAS. Bias towards responses more frequently followed by gain feedback and away from responses more frequently followed by loss feedback, approach and avoidance behavior respectively, were quantified via signal detection statistics. Gain approach behavior did not differ across age groups, however children exhibited significantly elevated loss avoidance relative to adults. Children also showed greater reductions in accuracy and slower reaction times specifically following loss feedback relative to adults. Interestingly, despite age group differences in loss avoidance behavior, relations between self-report measures and approach/avoidance behaviors were similar across age groups. Participants reporting elevated motivation (BAS Drive) showed both elevated gain approach and elevated loss avoidance, with both types of behavior predicting unique variance in BAS Drive. Results highlight the often-neglected developmental and motivational roles of responsiveness to loss of reward. PMID:26524484

  17. Solid-phase thermal decomposition of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, L.; Behrens, R. Jr.; Bulusu, S.

    1996-07-01

    The solid-phase thermal decomposition of the insensitive energetic aromatic heterocycle 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI: mp 265--274 C) is studied utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) between 200 and 247 C. The pyrolysis products have been identified using perdeuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled isotopomers. The products consist of low molecular-weight gases and a thermally stable solid residue. The major gaseous products are NO, CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}, HNCO and H{sub 2}O. Minor gaseous products are HCN, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sub 3}O and NH{sub 3}. The elemental formula of the residue is C{sub 2}HN{sub 2}O and FTIR analysis suggests that it is polyurea- and polycarbamate-like in nature. The rates of formation of the gaseous products and their respective quantities have been determined for a typical isothermal decomposition experiment at 235 C. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates indicate that the overall decomposition is characterized by a sequence of four events: (1) an early decomposition period induced by impurities and H{sub 2}O, (2) an induction period where CO{sub 2} and NO are the primary products formed at relatively constant rates, (3) an autoacceleratory period that peaks when the sample is depleted and (4) a final period in which the residue decomposes. Arrhenius parameters for the induction period are E{sub a} = 46.9 {+-} 0.7 kcal/mol and Log(A) = 16.3 {+-} 0.3. Decomposition pathways that are consistent with the data are presented.

  18. Solid-phase thermal decomposition of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    SciTech Connect

    Minier, L.; Behrens, R. Jr.; Bulusu, S.

    1996-12-31

    The solid-phase thermal decomposition of the insensitive energetic nitroaromatic heterocycle 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI: mp 265--274C) is studied utilizing simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) between 200 and 247C. The pyrolysis products have been identified using perdeuterated and {sup 15}N-labeled isotopomers. The products consist of low molecular-weight gases and a thermally stable solid residue. The major gaseous products are NO, CO{sub 2}, CO, N{sub 2}, HNCO and H{sub 2}O. Minor gaseous products are HCN, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}, NO{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}N{sub 2}, C{sub 3}H{sub 3}N{sub 3}O and NH{sub 3}. The elemental formula of the residue is C{sub 2}HN{sub 2}O and FTIR analysis suggests that it is polyurea- and polycarbamate-like in nature. Rates of formation of the gaseous products and their respective quantities have been determined for a typical isothermal decomposition experiment at 235C. The temporal behaviors of the gas formation rates indicate that the overall decomposition is characterized by a sequence of four events; (1) an early decomposition period induced by impurities and water, (2) an induction period where C0{sub 2} and NO are the primary products formed at relatively constant rates, (3) an autoacceleratory period that peaks when the sample is depleted and (4) a final period in which the residue decomposes. Arrhenius parameters for the induction period are E{sub a} = 46.9 {plus_minus} 0.7 kcal/mol and Log(A) = 16.3 {plus_minus} 0.3. Decomposition pathways that are consistent with the data are presented.

  19. SPECTROSCOPIC AND ELECTROCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IRON(II) AND 2,4-DINITROTOLUENE

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Kristopher; Doo, Hyungie; Makamba, Honest; Seo, Seong S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was the development of reliable methods to determine 2,4-dinitrotoluene, a precursor to explosives. A complex between Fe(II) ion and 2,4-dinitrotoluene was formed in solution and characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy using Job’s plots and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Surface modification of glassy carbon electrodes were performed with iron nanoparticles via electrochemical reduction of iron(II). The modified electrode was employed for the determination of 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Scanning electron micrographs showed that the iron nanoparticles were incorporated on the surface of glassy carbon electrode. The electrochemical determination of 2,4-dinitrotoluene was performed by cyclic voltammetry using the modified electrode. The iron modified electrode produced larger reduction currents than the unmodified electrode for the same concentration of 2,4-dinitrotoluene. Concentrations of 2,4-dinitrotoluene as low as 10 parts per billion were determined using the modified electrode. PMID:27239059

  20. Larger than life: billboard communication in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Barnard, B

    1983-01-01

    Billboards are widely used in Southeast Asia, and especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, for delivering persuasive political and commercial messages and for advertising the cinema. Billboards are a cost effective way of communicating with all segments of society including illiterate persons, poor people who cannot afford television sets and radios, rural populations, and diverse ethnic and linguistic groups. Billboards are a form of applied art and are used to deliver temporary messages. Each country has its own billboard traditions and styles, and within each country, commercial, cinema, and political boards also have their own styles. In Indonesia and Thailand, almost all billboards are hand painted and gigantic in size. The paintings are highly realistic and detailed. In Thailand billboards are produced in large studios employing many artists, and the boards cost about US$9.00/square meter or more. The Four Art Studio in Bankok produces commercial boards in Renaissance, Impressionistic, Pop, and Op art styles. Both Indonesia and Thailand were early centers of artistic and cultural influence in Asia, and each country has highly developed art traditions. In Indonesia, the Japanese occupation led to the development of propaganda and nationalistic art. After independence nationalistic art was developed still further. At the present time, socialist-realistism predominates as an art style, and large air brushed political billboards are prominantly displayed throughout the country. In Malaysia and Singapore billboards are small in size. Most of the boards, except those used to advertise the cinema, are printed rather than painted. Neither country has a strong tradition of art. Realism is not stressed in their fine arts nor in their art training. The lack of a realistic art tradition probably accounts for the emphasis placed on printed billboards. Cinema boards are painted but they are not produced by applied artists and are generally mediocre in

  1. Heading for New Shores: Projecting Marine Distribution Ranges of Selected Larger Foraminifera

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Anna E.; Rödder, Dennis; Lötters, Stefan; Langer, Martin R.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of modern symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera is confined to tropical and subtropical shallow water marine habitats and a narrow range of environmental variables (e.g. temperature). Most of today's taxa are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30°N and 30°S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20°C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g., the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far north as 50°N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 47°S in New Zealand. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2050 suggest a further increase by 1 to 3°C. We applied Species Distribution Models to assess potential distribution range changes of three taxa of larger foraminifera under current and future climate. The studied foraminifera include Archaias angulatus, Calcarina spp., and Amphistegina spp., and represent taxa with regional, superregional and global distribution patterns. Under present environmental conditions, Amphistegina spp. shows the largest potential distribution, apparently due to its temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabited regions. Under climate conditions expected for the year 2050, all taxa should display latitudinal range expansions between 1 to 2.5 degrees both north- and southward. The modeled range projections suggest that some larger foraminifera may colonize biogeographic regions that so far seemed unsuitable. Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. also show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for maximum temperatures has yet not been fully exploited and that they benefit from ocean warming. Our findings suggest an increased role of larger foraminifera as

  2. Off to new shores: Modeling the potential distribution and future range expansion of larger foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, A. E.; Rödder, D.; Lötters, S.; Langer, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of larger foraminifera is strongly controlled by environmental variables, especially temperature. Most of today's taxa of larger foraminifera are restricted to tropical and subtropical regions (between 30° N and 30° S) and their minimum temperature limits are governed by the 14 to 20° C isotherms. However, during times of extensive global warming (e.g. the Eocene and Miocene), larger foraminifera have been found as far North as 50° N (North America and Central Europe) as well as towards 40° S in New Zealand. It has been stated that larger foraminifera are more tolerant of rising sea surface temperatures than reef-building corals. As such they may play a more prominent role as future reef framework and carbonate producers in a steadily warming ocean. During the last century, sea surface temperatures have been rising significantly due to higher CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere. This trend is expected to continue and climate change scenarios for 2100 suggest a further increase by 1 to 6° C (IPCC Synthesis Report, 2007). We applied Species Distribution Models (SDMs) on several taxa of larger foraminifera in order to evaluate their potential distribution under current climate conditions and to predict range expansions within the next 40 years. The studied taxa include Archaias angulatus, which is regionally distributed within the Caribbean region, Calcarina spp., which occurs in the Indo-Pacific area and the true circumglobal taxon Amphistegina spp. Under present climate, Amphistegina spp. shows the widest distribution range due to its greater temperature tolerance. Both Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. display potential distributions that cover currently uninhabitet regions, suggesting that weak dispersal abilities are major reasons for their limited distributions. Under future climate, Archaias angulatus and Calcarina spp. show an increase in habitat suitability within their native occurrence ranges, suggesting that their tolerance for

  3. Dissipation and residue of 2,4-D in citrus under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weijun; Jiao, Bining; Su, Xuesu; Zhao, Qiyang; Sun, Dali

    2015-05-01

    The dissipation, residues, and risks of 2,4-dicholrophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in citrus under field condition were investigated based on a simple ultra-performance LC (UPLC)-MS/MS method. The results indicated that the residue level of 2,4-D in citrus did not degrade gradually with sampling time under field condition. At pre-harvest intervals (PHI) of 20-40 days, 2,4-D residues were 0.021-0.269 mg/kg in citrus flesh, 0.028-0.337 mg/kg in whole citrus, and 0.028-0.376 mg/kg in citrus peel, all bellow the China maximum residue limit in citrus (1 mg/kg). Risks of 2,4-D were assessed by calculation of risk quotient, and the results revealed no significant health risks after consumption of citrus.

  4. High solubilities of small hydrocarbons in trihexyl tetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangyang; Afzal, Waheed; Yu, Guangren; He, Maogang; Prausnitz, John M

    2013-09-12

    Experimental solubilities are reported for methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, and propylene in trihexyl tetradecylphosphonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate [P(14)666][TMPP] from 313 to 353 K up to 6.7 MPa. A literature review on solubilities of small hydrocarbons in ionic liquids shows that solubilities in [P(14)666][TMPP] are appreciably larger than those in other ionic liquids. Contrary to solubilities in ionic liquids studied earlier, solubilities of paraffins (ethane and propane) in [P(14)666][TMPP] are larger than those of the corresponding olefins (ethylene and propylene). Because, at fixed temperature, the vapor pressure of an olefin is larger than that of the corresponding paraffin, the relative volatility of the olefin exceeds that of the corresponding paraffin, contrary to the relative volatility observed in conventional extractive distillation with polar solvents where the volatility of the paraffin exceeds that of the corresponding olefin.

  5. Killing Weeds with 2,4-D. Extension Bulletin 389.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Oliver C.

    Discussed is the use of the herbicide 2,4-D. Though written for farmers and agricultural workers, the pamphlet considers turf weed control and use of 2,4-D near ornamental plants. Aspects of the use of this herbicide covered are: (1) the common forms of 2,4-D; (2) plant responses and tolerances to the herbicide; (3) dilution and concentration of…

  6. Larger and near-term baby retinopathy: a rare case series

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, T R; Rath, S; Jalali, S; Pradhan, L; Kesarwani, S; Nayak, M; Mishra, B; Panda, K G; Suttar, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report retinopathy in a series of four babies unusually beyond the screening standards reported so far in the literature. Methods During routine screening for retinopathy of prematurity, we detected retinopathy in four babies who were surprisingly bigger and older than the screening standards. The gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), post menstrual age at first examination and significant perinatal events were noted. The retinopathy details imaged by the RetCam were classified as per ICROP revisited standards. Result The GA ranged from 36 to 39 weeks and BW from 2.4 to 3.0 kg. Three of them had retinopathy in zone III that regressed spontaneously and one had marked plus with vascular arcades and shunts in zone II that regressed after laser photocoagulation. All of them had fetal distress and multiple systemic comorbidities in the neonatal period. Conclusion This report makes one aware of the possibility of retinopathy in newborn of older GA and larger BW especially with fetal distress and stormy neonatal course. PMID:25359288

  7. Distinguishing the cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from its structural isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB).

    PubMed

    Banack, S A; Downing, T G; Spácil, Z; Purdie, E L; Metcalf, J S; Downing, S; Esterhuizen, M; Codd, G A; Cox, P A

    2010-11-01

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been associated with certain forms of progressive neurodegenerative disease, including sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. Reports of BMAA in cyanobacterial blooms from lakes, reservoirs, and other water resources continue to be made by investigators in a variety of laboratories. Recently it was suggested that during analysis BMAA may be confused with its structural isomer 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (2,4-DAB), or that current detection methods may mistake other compounds for BMAA. We here review the evidence that BMAA can be consistently and reliably separated from 2,4-DAB during reversed-phase HPLC, and that BMAA can be confidently distinguished from 2,4-DAB during triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS analysis by i) different retention times, ii) diagnostic product ions resulting from collision-induced dissociation, and iii) consistent ratios between selected reaction monitoring (SRM) transitions. Furthermore, underivatized BMAA can be separated from 2,4-DAB with an amino acid analyzer with post-column visualization using ninhydrin. Other compounds that may be theoretically confused with BMAA during chloroformate derivatization during GC analysis are distinguished due to their different retention times.

  8. Larger sized wire arrays on 1.5 MA Z-pinch generator

    SciTech Connect

    Safronova, A. S. Kantsyrev, V. L. Weller, M. E. Shlyaptseva, V. V. Shrestha, I. K. Esaulov, A. A. Stafford, A.; Chuvatin, A. S.; Coverdale, C. A.; Jones, B.

    2014-12-15

    Experiments on the UNR Zebra generator with Load Current Multiplier (LCM) allow for implosions of larger sized wire array loads than at standard current of 1 MA. Advantages of larger sized planar wire array implosions include enhanced energy coupling to plasmas, better diagnostic access to observable plasma regions, and more complex geometries of the wire loads. The experiments with larger sized wire arrays were performed on 1.5 MA Zebra with LCM (the anode-cathode gap was 1 cm, which is half the gap used in the standard mode). In particular, larger sized multi-planar wire arrays had two outer wire planes from mid-atomic-number wires to create a global magnetic field (gmf) and plasma flow between them. A modified central plane with a few Al wires at the edges was put in the middle between outer planes to influence gmf and to create Al plasma flow in the perpendicular direction (to the outer arrays plasma flow). Such modified plane has different number of empty slots: it was increased from 6 up to 10, hence increasing the gap inside the middle plane from 4.9 to 7.7 mm, respectively. Such load configuration allows for more independent study of the flows of L-shell mid-atomic-number plasma (between the outer planes) and K-shell Al plasma (which first fills the gap between the edge wires along the middle plane) and their radiation in space and time. We demonstrate that such configuration produces higher linear radiation yield and electron temperatures as well as advantages of better diagnostics access to observable plasma regions and how the load geometry (size of the gap in the middle plane) influences K-shell Al radiation. In particular, K-shell Al radiation was delayed compared to L-shell mid-atomic-number radiation when the gap in the middle plane was large enough (when the number of empty slots was increased up to ten)

  9. Elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following single exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tjeerdema, R.S.; Jacobs, R.S.

    1987-06-01

    Understanding the fate of a single PCB isomer in a resident species may aid in assessing the risk to the marine community. Therefore, the elimination of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) by the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, following a single exposure, was investigated. The purple sea urchin was chosen because of its economic importance and ability to proliferate in certain polluted conditions. Single exposure may best mimic the effects of intermittent oceanic incineration or disposal, and 2,4,5,2',4',5'-HCBP was chosen due to its presence in common PCB mixtures and high chlorine content, thus strong lipophilicity.

  10. 43 CFR 2920.2-4 - Proposal content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Proposal content. 2920.2-4 Section 2920.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions §...

  11. 43 CFR 2920.2-4 - Proposal content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Proposal content. 2920.2-4 Section 2920.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions §...

  12. 43 CFR 2920.2-4 - Proposal content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Proposal content. 2920.2-4 Section 2920.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions §...

  13. 43 CFR 2920.2-4 - Proposal content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Proposal content. 2920.2-4 Section 2920.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) LEASES, PERMITS AND EASEMENTS Leases, Permits and Easements: General Provisions §...

  14. 18 CFR 2.4 - Suspension of rate schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension of rate schedules. 2.4 Section 2.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... and should not be changed during suspension. (f) Changes under escalator clauses may be suspended...

  15. 18 CFR 2.4 - Suspension of rate schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension of rate schedules. 2.4 Section 2.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... and should not be changed during suspension. (f) Changes under escalator clauses may be suspended...

  16. 18 CFR 2.4 - Suspension of rate schedules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of rate schedules. 2.4 Section 2.4 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... and should not be changed during suspension. (f) Changes under escalator clauses may be suspended...

  17. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  18. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  19. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  20. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  1. 36 CFR 2.4 - Weapons, traps and nets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weapons, traps and nets. 2.4... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.4 Weapons, traps and nets. (a)(1) Except as otherwise provided in... prohibited: (i) Possessing a weapon, trap or net (ii) Carrying a weapon, trap or net (iii) Using a...

  2. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-4 Lands in national forests. For mining claims in national forests, see § 3811.1....

  3. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-4 Lands in national forests. For mining claims in national forests, see § 3811.1....

  4. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4... Lands Subject to Location and Purchase § 3811.2-4 Lands in national forests. For mining claims in national forests, see § 3811.1....

  5. 43 CFR 3811.2-4 - Lands in national forests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Lands in national forests. 3811.2-4 Section 3811.2-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LANDS AND MINERALS SUBJECT TO...

  6. 14 CFR Sec. 2-4 - Accounting period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS General Accounting Provisions Sec. 2-4 Accounting period. (a) The accounting year of each air carrier subject to this Uniform... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting period. Sec. 2-4 Section...

  7. Light scattering by irregular particles much larger than the wavelength with wavelength-scale surface roughness.

    PubMed

    Grynko, Yevgen; Shkuratov, Yuriy; Förstner, Jens

    2016-08-01

    We simulate light scattering by random irregular particles that have dimensions much larger than the wavelength of incident light at the size parameter of X=200 using the discontinuous Galerkin time domain method. A comparison of the DGTD solution for smoothly faceted particles with that obtained with a geometric optics model shows good agreement for the scattering angle curves of intensity and polarization. If a wavelength-scale surface roughness is introduced, diffuse scattering at rough interface results in smooth and featureless curves for all scattering matrix elements which is consistent with the laboratory measurements of real samples.

  8. pH-dependent aquatic criteria for 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Xing, Liqun; Liu, Hongling; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-12-15

    Due to their agricultural as well as industrial uses, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are ubiquitous in the environment and recognized as priority pollutants in many countries. In this study, effects of pH on toxicity to the crustacean Daphnia magna and the alga Scenedesmus obliquus were investigated. Combined published toxicity data of the three chlorophenols along with; relationships between toxicity and pH reported here were used to establish pH-dependent water quality criteria (WQC). The WQC expressed as a function of pH, also considered intra-species variation and proportions of taxonomic groups. At pH 7.8, the recommended acute exposure water quality criteria (WQC) were 286.2 μg 2,4-DCP/l, 341.5 μg 2,4,6-TCP/l and 11.4 μg PCP/l. The recommended chronic exposure WQC were 16.3 μg 2,4-DCP/l, 54.6 μg 2,4,6-TCP/land 3.9 μg PCP/l.

  9. 2, 4-dinitrophenol poisoning caused by non-oral exposure.

    PubMed

    Jiang Jiukun; Yuan Zhihua; Huang Weidong; Wang Jiezan

    2011-05-01

    2, 4-Dinitrophenol (2, 4-DNP) is widely used in industry, but recently, poisoning through consumption for weight control has been frequently reported. We report the cases of two patients whose deaths were attributed to occupational and non-oral exposure of 2, 4-DNP. They were all poisoned through skin absorption and respiratory tract inhalation; common features were excessive sweating, hyperthermia, tachycardia, clouded consciousness and asystole. Because of the lack of specific early symptoms, effective antidotes and the means of washing the contamination from the skin, their arrival in hospital was delayed and the supportive therapy was ineffectual. Cardiac arrest occurred quickly and unexpected after admission.

  10. Pristine environments harbor a new group of oligotrophic 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid-degrading bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Kamagata, Y; Fulthorpe, R R; Tamura, K; Takami, H; Forney, L J; Tiedje, J M

    1997-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-degrading bacteria were isolated from pristine environments which had no history of 2,4-D exposure. By using 2,4-D dye indicator medium or 14C-labeled 2,4-D medium, six strains were isolated from eight enrichment cultures capable of degrading 2,4-D. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing and physiological properties revealed that one isolate from Hawaiian volcanic soil could be classified in the genus Variovorax (a member of the beta subdivision of the class Proteobacteria) and that the other five isolates from Hawaiian volcanic soils, Saskatchewan forest soil, and Chilean forest soil have 16S rDNAs with high degrees of similarity to those of the Bradyrhizobium group (a member of the alpha subdivision of the class Proteobacteria). All the isolates grow slowly on either nutrient media (0.1 x Bacto Peptone-tryptone-yeast extract-glucose [PTYG] or 0.1 x Luria broth [LB] medium) or 2,4-D medium, with mean generation times of 16 to 30 h, which are significantly slower than previously known 2,4-D degraders. Nutrient-rich media such as full-strength PTYG and LB medium did not allow their growth. PCR amplification using internal consensus sequences of tfdA (a gene encoding an enzyme for the first step of 2,4-D mineralization, found in pJP4 of Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 and some other 2,4-D-degrading bacteria) as primers and Southern hybridization with pJP4-tfdA as a probe revealed that the isolate belonging to the genus Variovorax carried the tfdA gene. This gene was transmissible to A. eutrophus JMP228 carrying a plasmid with a mutant tfdA gene. The other five isolates did not appear to carry tfdA, and 2,4-D-specific alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase activity could not be detected in cell lysates. These results indicate that 2,4-D-degrading bacteria in pristine environments are slow-growing bacteria and that most of their phylogenies and catabolic genes differ from those of 2,4-D degraders

  11. Preparation of 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Glass, David R.

    2016-03-22

    A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate involves reacting a dialkyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding an alkyl cyano acetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate. The 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoate may be acidified into 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.

  12. Immortalization and characterization of mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Li-An; Yuan, Guohua; Yang, Guobin; Ortiz-Gonzalez, Iris; Yang, Wuchen; Cui, Yong; MacDougall, Mary; Harris, Stephen; Chen, Shuo

    2009-08-14

    Generation of a floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line is a valuable tool for studying the modulatory effects of Bmp2 and Bmp4 on osteoblast differentiation as well as relevant molecular events. In this study, primary floxed Bmp2/4 mouse osteoblasts were cultured and transfected with simian virus 40 large T-antigen. Transfection was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. To examine the characteristics of the transfected cells, morphology, proliferation and mineralization were analyzed, expression of cell-specific genes including Runx2, ATF4, Dlx3, Osx, dentin matrix protein 1, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteonectin and collagen type I was detected. These results show that transfected floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblasts bypassed senescence with a higher proliferation rate, but retain the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics similar to the primary cells. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the establishment of an immortalized mouse floxed Bmp2/4 osteoblast cell line.

  13. Comprehensive investigations of kinetics of alkaline hydrolysis of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), DNT (2,4-dinitrotoluene), and DNAN (2,4-dinitroanisole).

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla; Kinney, Chad; Gorb, Leonid; Hill, Frances C; Bednar, Anthony J; Okovytyy, Sergiy; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2014-09-02

    Combined experimental and computational techniques were used to analyze multistep chemical reactions in the alkaline hydrolysis of three nitroaromatic compounds: 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The study reveals common features and differences in the kinetic behavior of these compounds. The analysis of the predicted pathways includes modeling of the reactions, along with simulation of UV-vis spectra, experimental monitoring of reactions using LC/MS techniques, development of the kinetic model by designing and solving the system of differential equations, and obtaining computationally predicted kinetics for decay and accumulation of reactants and products. Obtained results suggest that DNT and DNAN are more resistant to alkaline hydrolysis than TNT. The direct substitution of a nitro group by a hydroxide represents the most favorable pathway for all considered compounds. The formation of Meisenheimer complexes leads to the kinetic first-step intermediates in the hydrolysis of TNT. Janovsky complexes can also be formed during hydrolysis of TNT and DNT but in small quantities. Methyl group abstraction is one of the suggested pathways of DNAN transformation during alkaline hydrolysis.

  14. Taking larger timesteps with speed-limited particle-in-cell simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Gregory; Cary, John

    2015-11-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation is often impractical because it includes too much unnecessary physics. For example, to avoid instability in many simulations the timestep must be small enough to resolve the plasma frequency, even if plasma oscillations do not play a significant role. Other methods (e.g., MHD/fluid and hybrid approaches) allow faster simulation, but often don't include enough physics. A new method, speed-limited PIC (SLPIC) simulation, offers kinetic simulation with an arbitrary-strength approximation tied to the timestep. With a small (standard PIC) timestep, SLPIC is identical to PIC, while a larger timestep (e.g., large compared to the inverse plasma frequency) results in the relaxation of fast particles over slower timescales. SLPIC is therefore useful in situations where the particle distribution functions change slowly compared to the timestep required by PIC. For example, SLPIC can simulate collisionless sheaths with a timestep hundreds of times larger than the inverse plasma frequency. SLPIC involves relatively isolated changes of a standard PIC code and poses no extra difficulties for parallelism; complexities of PIC, such as field solvers, collisions, and boundary conditions, carry over naturally to SLPIC with little change. This work is supported by NASA.

  15. Larger benthic foraminiferal turnover across the Eocene-Oligocene transition at Siwa Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orabi, H.; El Beshtawy, M.; Osman, R.; Gadallah, M.

    2015-05-01

    In the Eocene part of the Siwa Oasis, the larger foraminifera are represented by the genera Nummulites, Arxina, Operculina, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella, Gaziryina and Discocyclina in order of abundance. Operculina continues up to the early Oligocene as modern representatives in tropical regions, while the other genera became extinct. Nevertheless, the most common larger foraminiferal genus Lepidocyclina (Nephrolepidina) appears only in the lowermost Oligocene. In spite of the Eocene-Oligocene (E/O) transition is thought to have been attended by major continental cooling at northern middle and high latitudes, we discover that at the Siwa Oasis, there is a clear warming trend from the late Eocene (extinction level of Nummulites, Sphaerogypsina, Asterocyclina, Grzybowskia, Silvestriella and Discocyclina) to the early Oligocene is observed due to the high abundance of Operculina and occurrence of kaolinite and gypsiferous shale deposits in both Qatrani and El Qara formations (Oligocene) at this transition. The El Qara Formation is a new rock unit proposed herein for the Oligocene (Rupelian age) in the first time. Several episodes of volcanic activity occurred in Egypt during the Cenozoic. Mid Tertiary volcanicity was widespread and a number of successive volcanic pulses are starting in the late Eocene. The release of mantle CO2 from this very active volcanic episode may have in fact directly caused the warm Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse climate effect.

  16. Phenotypic determinants of individual fitness in female fur seals: larger is better

    PubMed Central

    Beauplet, Gwénaël; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Inter-individual differences in fitness in female vertebrates have often been related to phenotypic discrepancies, suggesting that bigger individuals exhibit greater fitness. However, the use of the temporally variable indices of quality, such as body mass/condition, may not represent the most reliable index over longer time intervals. Few studies have assessed the direct influence of body size (BS) on individual fitness. We addressed this knowledge gap using data from long-term monitoring of individually marked female subantarctic fur seals. The females of higher quality (i.e. higher lifetime reproductive success) were larger in BS than their counterparts, which correlated with their ability to provision their pup with greater and more regular energy supply, possibly through the maximization of foraging performance and body fat storage. We accordingly found that our study population could be divided into three contrasted categories of maternal quality, with 33% of the females producing over 71% of the viable offspring constituting the next generation. We suggest that a larger BS represents a crucial selective advantage for a central place forager, especially when exploiting remotely available resources. PMID:17519194

  17. Toxic and genotoxic effects of the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-based herbicide on the Neotropical fish Cnesterodon decemmaculatus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz de Arcaute, C; Soloneski, S; Larramendy, M L

    2016-06-01

    Acute toxicity and genotoxicity of the 54.8% 2,4-D-based commercial herbicide DMA® were assayed on Cnesterodon decemmaculatus (Pisces, Poeciliidae). Whereas lethal effect was used as the end point for mortality, frequency of micronuclei (MNs), other nuclear abnormalities and primary DNA damage evaluated by the single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) assay were employed as end points for genotoxicity. Mortality studies demonstrated an LC50 96 h value of 1008 mg/L (range, 929-1070) of 2,4-D. Behavioral changes, e.g., gathering at the bottom of the aquarium, slowness in motion, slow reaction and abnormal swimming were observed. Exposure to 2,4-D within the 252-756 mg/L range increased the frequency of MNs in fish exposed for both 48 and 96 h. Whereas blebbed nuclei were induced in treatments lasting for 48 and 96 h, notched nuclei were only induced in fish exposed for 96 h. Regardless of both concentration and exposure time, 2,4-D did not induce lobed nuclei and binucleated erythrocytes. In addition, we found that exposure to 2,4-D within the 252-756 mg/L range increased the genetic damage index in treatments lasting for either 48 and 96 h. The results represent the first experimental evidence of the lethal and several sublethal effects, including behavioral alterations and two genotoxic properties namely the induction of MNs and primary DNA strand breaks, exerted by 2,4-D on an endemic organism as C. decemmaculatus.

  18. The effects of sublethal levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicide (2,4-D) on feeding behaviors of the crayfish O. rusticus.

    PubMed

    Browne, Amanda M; Moore, Paul A

    2014-08-01

    The widespread use of herbicides across the globe has increased the probability of synthetic chemicals entering freshwater habitats. On entering aquatic habitats, these chemicals target and disrupt both physiological and behavioral functioning in various aquatic organisms. Herbicides, such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), can have negative impacts on chemoreception because these receptor cells are in direct contact with water-soluble chemicals in the environment. Studies focusing on lethal concentration (LC50) levels may understate the impact of herbicides within aquatic habitats because damage to the chemoreceptors can result in modified behaviors or lack of appropriate responses to environmental or social cues. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether exposure to sublethal levels of 2,4-D alters the foraging behaviors of crayfish Orconectes rusticus. We hypothesized that crayfish exposed to greater concentrations of 2,4-D would be less successful in locating food or on locating food would consume smaller amounts possibly due to an inability to recognize the food odors in the contaminated waters. Crayfish were exposed to three sublethal levels of 2,4-D for 96 h and placed into a Y-maze system with a fish gelatin food source placed randomly in the right or left arm. Average walking speed, average time spent in the correct arm, and percent consumption were analyzed. Our data show that crayfish were impaired in their ability to forage effectively. These inabilities to locate and consume adequate amounts of food could result in lower body weights and decreased fitness in populations of crayfish exposed to 2,4-D in natural habitats.

  19. Origins of the 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Glenn R.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Spain, Jim C.

    2002-01-01

    The degradation of synthetic compounds requires bacteria to recruit and adapt enzymes from pathways for naturally occurring compounds. Previous work defined the steps in 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) metabolism through the ring fission reaction. The results presented here characterize subsequent steps in the pathway that yield the central metabolic intermediates pyruvate and propionyl coenzyme A (CoA). The genes encoding the degradative pathway were identified within a 27-kb region of DNA cloned from Burkholderia cepacia R34, a strain that grows using 2,4-DNT as a sole carbon, energy, and nitrogen source. Genes for the lower pathway in 2,4-DNT degradation were found downstream from dntD, the gene encoding the extradiol ring fission enzyme of the pathway. The region includes genes encoding a CoA-dependent methylmalonate semialdehyde dehydrogenase (dntE), a putative NADH-dependent dehydrogenase (ORF13), and a bifunctional isomerase/hydrolase (dntG). Results from analysis of the gene sequence, reverse transcriptase PCR, and enzyme assays indicated that dntD dntE ORF13 dntG composes an operon that encodes the lower pathway. Additional genes that were uncovered encode the 2,4-DNT dioxygenase (dntAaAbAcAd), methylnitrocatechol monooxygenase (dntB), a putative LysR-type transcriptional (ORF12) regulator, an intradiol ring cleavage enzyme (ORF3), a maleylacetate reductase (ORF10), a complete ABC transport complex (ORF5 to ORF8), a putative methyl-accepting chemoreceptor protein (ORF11), and remnants from two transposable elements. Some of the additional gene products might play as-yet-undefined roles in 2,4-DNT degradation; others appear to remain from recruitment of the neighboring genes. The presence of the transposon remnants and vestigial genes suggests that the pathway for 2,4-DNT degradation evolved relatively recently because the extraneous elements have not been eliminated from the region. PMID:12107140

  20. Sorption of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) on lignin.

    PubMed

    Saad, Rabih; Radovic-Hrapovic, Zorana; Ahvazi, Behzad; Thiboutot, Sonia; Ampleman, Guy; Hawari, Jalal

    2012-01-01

    The present study describes the use of two commercially available lignins, namely, alkali and organosolv lignin, for the removal of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), a chemical widely used by the military and the dye industry, from water. Sorption of DNAN on both lignins reached equilibrium within 10 hr and followed pseudo second-order kinetics with sorption being faster with alkali than with organosolv lignin, i.e. k2 10.3 and 0.3 g/(mg x hr), respectively. In a separate study we investigated sorption of DNAN between 10 and 40 degrees C and found that the removal of DNAN by organosolv lignin increased from 0.8 to 7.5 mg/g but reduced slightly from 8.5 to 7.6 mg/g in the case of alkali lignin. Sorption isotherms for either alkali or organosolv lignin best fitted Freundlich equation with enthalpy of formation, deltaH0 equaled to 14 or 80 kJ/mol. To help understand DNAN sorption mechanisms we characterized the two lignins by elemental analysis, BET nitrogen adsorption-desorption and 31P NMR. Variations in elemental compositions between the two lignins indicated that alkali lignin should have more sites (O- and S-containing functionalities) for H-bonding. The BET surface area and calculated total pore volume of alkali lignin were almost 10 times greater than that of organosolv lignin suggesting that alkali lignin should provide more sites for sorption. 31P NMR showed that organosolv lignin contains more phenolic -OH groups than alkali lignin, i.e., 70% and 45%, respectively. The variations in the type of OH groups between the two lignins might have affected the strength of H-bonding between DNAN and the type of lignin used.

  1. 77 FR 72913 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market; Correction... the regulation defining larger participants of certain consumer financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for consumer debt collection....

  2. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2009-05-12

    Group living offers well-known benefits to animals, such as better predator avoidance and increased foraging success. An important additional, but so far neglected, advantage is that groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations through faster innovations of new solutions by some group members. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting a new foraging task of opening a familiar feeder in an unfamiliar way to house sparrows in small and large groups (2 versus 6 birds). Group size had strong effects on problem solving: sparrows performed 4 times more and 11 times faster openings in large than in small groups, and all members of large groups profited by getting food sooner (7 times on average). Independently from group size, urban groups were more successful than rural groups. The disproportionately higher success in large groups was not a mere consequence of higher number of attempts, but was also related to a higher effectiveness of problem solving (3 times higher proportion of successful birds). The analyses of the birds' behavior suggest that the latter was not explained by either reduced investment in antipredator vigilance or reduced neophobia in large groups. Instead, larger groups may contain more diverse individuals with different skills and experiences, which may increase the chance of solving the task by some group members. Increased success in problem solving may promote group living in animals and may help them to adapt quickly to new situations in rapidly-changing environments.

  3. Larger groups are more successful in innovative problem solving in house sparrows

    PubMed Central

    Liker, András; Bókony, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Group living offers well-known benefits to animals, such as better predator avoidance and increased foraging success. An important additional, but so far neglected, advantage is that groups may cope more effectively with unfamiliar situations through faster innovations of new solutions by some group members. We tested this hypothesis experimentally by presenting a new foraging task of opening a familiar feeder in an unfamiliar way to house sparrows in small and large groups (2 versus 6 birds). Group size had strong effects on problem solving: sparrows performed 4 times more and 11 times faster openings in large than in small groups, and all members of large groups profited by getting food sooner (7 times on average). Independently from group size, urban groups were more successful than rural groups. The disproportionately higher success in large groups was not a mere consequence of higher number of attempts, but was also related to a higher effectiveness of problem solving (3 times higher proportion of successful birds). The analyses of the birds' behavior suggest that the latter was not explained by either reduced investment in antipredator vigilance or reduced neophobia in large groups. Instead, larger groups may contain more diverse individuals with different skills and experiences, which may increase the chance of solving the task by some group members. Increased success in problem solving may promote group living in animals and may help them to adapt quickly to new situations in rapidly-changing environments. PMID:19416834

  4. Uptake of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, Gary

    1966-01-01

    Factors influencing the uptake of the sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), under conditions in which no net metabolism occurred, were investigated in an effort to determine both the significance of “non-metabolic” uptake as a potential agent in reducing pesticide levels and the mechanisms involved. Uptake of 2,4-D was affected by pH, temperature, and the presence of other organic and inorganic compounds. Uptake was more pronounced at pH values less than 6, which implies that there may be some interaction between charged groups on the cell and the ionized carboxyl group of 2,4-D. Active transport, carrier-mediated diffusion, passive diffusion, and adsorption were considered as possible mechanisms. Though uptake was inhibited by glucose, sodium azide, and fluorodinitrobenzene (but not by uranyl ion), 2,4-D was not accumulated against a concentration gradient, a necessary consequence of an active transport system, nor was isotope counterflow found to occur. Thus, carrier-mediated diffusion was finally precluded, implying that uptake probably occurs by a two-step process: sorption onto the cell wall followed by passive diffusion into the cytoplasm.

  5. Uptake of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wedemeyer, G.A.

    1966-01-01

    Factors influencing the uptake of the sodium salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), under conditions in which no net metabolism occurred, were investigated in an effort to determine both the significance of “nonmetabolic” uptake as a potential agent in reducing pesticide levels and the mechanisms involved. Uptake of 2,4-D was affected by pH, temperature, and the presence of other organic and inorganic compounds. Uptake was more pronounced at pH values less than 6, which implies that there may be some interaction between charged groups on the cell and the ionized carboxyl group of 2,4-D. Active transport, carriermediated diffusion, passive diffusion, and adsorption were considered as possible mechanisms. Though uptake was inhibited by glucose, sodium azide, and fluorodinitrobenzene (but not by uranylion), 2,4-D was not accumulated against a concentration gradient, a necessary consequence of an active transport system, nor was isotope counterflow found to occur. Thus, carrier-mediated diffusion was finally precluded, implying that uptake probably occurs by a two-step process: sorption onto the cell wall followed by passive diffusion into the cytoplasm.

  6. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  7. Impact of continuous and intermittent supply of electric assistance on high-strength 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in electro-microbial system.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhanping; Zhang, Minghui; Zhang, Jingli; Zhang, Hongwei

    2016-07-01

    The high-strength 2,4-DCP, which exists in two states: dissolved and colloidal, was studied by a continuously electro-microbial system (CEMS) and an intermittently electro-microbial system (IEMS). The hydrolysis rate of colloidal 2,4-DCP in the IEMS without electric assistance was much higher than that in the CEMS. However, the degradation rate of the dissolved 2,4-DCP and the dissolved intermediates (2-chlorophenol and 4-chlorophenol) in the IEMS without electric assistance were much lower than that in the CEMS. By adjusting the intermittent operation mode, the degradation time of 2,4-DCP was shortened greatly. Microbial characteristics in the CEMS and the IEMS were different. The correlation analysis for the main factors affecting the hydrolysis was performed by SPSS, and it was found that the correlation coefficient (rp) was -0.912 for extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content, 0.823 for zeta potential and 0.632 for relative hydrophobicity, respectively.

  8. Preparation of 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Glass, David R.

    2016-03-22

    A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid involves reacting diethyl oxalate with an alkoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding ethyl cyanoacetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl 2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with an aqueous hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.

  9. Preparation of 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid

    DOEpatents

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Martinez, Rodolfo A.; Glass, David R.

    2015-06-02

    A process for synthesizing 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid involves reacting diethyl oxalate with sodium ethoxide in ethanol to form a reaction mixture, and afterward adding ethyl cyanoacetate to the reaction mixture and allowing a reaction to proceed under conditions suitable to form a first reaction product of the formula diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate, and then isolating the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxybutenedioate, and afterward reacting the diethyl-2-cyano-3-hydroxy-butenedioate with aqueous sodium hydroxide under conditions suitable to form 4-amino-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid.

  10. Antimicrobial studies of some novel quinazolinones fused with [1,2,4]-triazole, [1,2,4]-triazine and [1,2,4,5]-tetrazine rings.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sarvesh Kumar; Singh, Abhishek; Singh, Ashutosh; Nizamuddin

    2009-03-01

    Three series of novel and new fused heterocyclic systems, viz. triazolo[4,3-a]-quinazolin-7-ones (4), [1,2,4,5]-tetrazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (6) and indolo[2,3-c][1,2,4]-triazino[4,3-a]-quinazolin-8-ones (8) have been synthesized from the key intermediate 3-(substituted-phenyl)-2-hydrazino-quinazolin-4-ones (3). Thus, condensation of (3) with appropriate aromatic acids in the presence of DCC in dichloromethane afforded the fused system (4), while reaction of (3) with isatin in methanol gave the corresponding Schiff base (7) which on cyclodehydration furnished another fused heterocyclic system (8). The intermediate (3) on refluxing with substituted-phenylisothiocyanate gave the substituted-thiosemicarbazide (5), which on oxidative cyclization with bromine in CCl(4) furnished the novel fused system (6). The structures of intermediate and final compounds have been determined by means of IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, UV and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for their antibacterial activity against gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and gram-positive bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Bacillus subtilis, as well as demonstrated significant antifungal activity against fungi viz. Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger.

  11. Self-assembled structures of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol in hydrophobic polymer matrices prepared using different heat treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wei-Chi; Tseng, Shen-Jhen; Huang, Po-Hsun

    2015-11-01

    We report a method for tuning the nanoarchitectures of 1,3:2,4-di(3,4-dimethylbenzylidene) sorbitol (DMDBS) with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) polymer matrices. Hydrophobic PVDF facilitated the formation of nanofibrils during heating. The self-assembly behaviors of DMDBS were further tuned by altering the different heat treatments. When the samples were prepared with a rapid heating rate (shorter annealing time), smaller amounts of melted PVDF were excluded due to the shorter time for aggregation of DMDBS, leading to larger complex structures of DMDBS and PVDF. Therefore, longer and thicker nanofibrils (around 100 nm) were observed using scanning electron microscopy. As the samples were prepared with a slow heating rate (longer annealing time), DMDBS had more time to aggregate, and therefore, larger amounts of melted PVDF were excluded. Smaller complex structures of DMDBS and PVDF caused the formation of shorter and thinner nanofibrils (around 40 nm). In addition, small-angle X-ray scattering results indicated that the longer and thicker nanofibrils were mostly excluded outside the PVDF crystalline bundles after cooling because they were too large to be easily incorporated between the PVDF crystalline lamellae. However, a large portion of the smaller and thinner nanofibrils was trapped between the crystalline lamellae after cooling due to their smaller sizes. As expected, the PVDF spherulitic morphologies were affected, but the PVDF crystalline microstructures were not significantly altered by the addition of DMDBS, as shown by the results from polarized optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  12. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT, PLAN & ELEVATIONS. Sheet 4 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  13. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. HINGED PANEL EQUIPMENT SCHEDULE. Sheet 28 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  14. 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE TRANSFORMATION IN PLANTED, SOIL COLUMNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), has been used extensively by the United States military to manufacture explosive devices. Since the conclusion of World War 11, many of these military installations have also been involved in the disposal of surplus and outdated explosives. Both the c...

  15. 41 CFR 51-2.4 - Determination of suitability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 2-COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED § 51-2.4 Determination of suitability. (a) For a... generate employment for persons who are blind or have other severe disabilities. (2) Nonprofit...

  16. 1,2,4-Butanetriol: Analysis and Synthesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-08

    ANHYDRIDE ........................41 CLEAVAGE OF CYCLIC ETHERS. .. ....... ......... 43 REFERENCES .. ... .......... .......... ......... 45... NOMENCLATURE .. ... .......... .......... ........ 49 1. iii/jy NSWC TR 82-380 ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page I HYDROGENATION OF DIETHYLMALATE IN ETHANOL OVER NIKKI...of acetic acid, acetic anhydride , and sul Uric acid yielded 1,2,4-butanetriol triacetate. Subsequent methanolysis of the acetate produced BT. Wagaman

  17. 2,2\\',4,4\\',5-Pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 006F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' , 5 - PENTABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 99 ) ( CAS No . 60348 - 60 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington ,

  18. 2,2\\',4,4\\'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 07 / 005F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF 2,2 ' , 4,4 ' - TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER ( BDE - 47 ) ( CAS No . 5436 - 43 - 1 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) June 2008 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC D

  19. A Discovery-Learning 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazone Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittimberga, Bruno M.; Ruekberg, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Selections of liquid aldehydes and ketones are proposed for students to determine what property is the best predictor of the color (yellow to red) of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone derivative. Students may use a computer (spreadsheet or word processor) to analyze results. (Contains 1 table and 3 notes.)

  20. Di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor); Wolf, Peter (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers were first synthesized by reacting bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) hydrazide with aniline hydrochloride at 250 C in the melt and also by reacting 1,3 or 1,4-bis- (4-hydroxyphenyl)- phenylene- dihydrazide with 2 moles of aniline hydrochloride in the melt. Purification of the di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers was accomplished by recrystallization. Poly (1,2,4-triazoles) (PT) were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of di(hydroxyphenyl)- 1,2,4-triazole monomers with activated aromatic dihalides or activated aromatic dinitro compounds. The reactions were carried out in polar aprotic solvents such as sulfolane or diphenylsulfone using alkali metal bases such as potassium carbonate at elevated temperatures under nitrogen. This synthetic route has provided high molecular weight PT of new chemical structure, is economically and synthetically more favorable than other routes, and allows for facile chemical structure variation due to the availability of a large variety of activated aromatic dihalides.

  1. 2,4-/2,6-Toluene diisocyanate mixture (TDI)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    2,4 - / 2,6 - Toluene diisocyanate mixture ( TDI ) ; CASRN 26471 - 62 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Haz

  2. FLESNews, Volume 4, Numbers 2-4, 1990-91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    Issues 2-4 of this volume of the newsletter concerning foreign language instruction in elementary schools (FLES) contain articles on theory, classroom practice, instructional materials, class activities, and professional news, including conferences and information on public policy at the federal level. Articles in these issues include the…

  3. Stronger cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress is correlated with larger decrease in temporal sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhuxi; Jiang, Caihong; Zhang, Kan; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    As a fundamental dimension of cognition and behavior, time perception has been found to be sensitive to stress. However, how one’s time perception changes with responses to stress is still unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between stress-induced cortisol response and time perception. A group of 40 healthy young male adults performed a temporal bisection task before and after the Trier Social Stress Test for a stress condition. A control group of 27 male participants completed the same time perception task without stress induction. In the temporal bisection task, participants were first presented with short (400 ms) and long (1,600 ms) visual signals serving as anchor durations and then required to judge whether the intermediate probe durations were more similar to the short or the long anchor. The bisection point and Weber ratio were calculated and indicated the subjective duration and the temporal sensitivity, respectively. Data showed that participants in the stress group had significantly increased salivary cortisol levels, heart rates, and negative affects compared with those in the control group. The results did not show significant group differences for the subjective duration or the temporal sensitivity. However, the results showed a significant positive correlation between stress-induced cortisol responses and decreases in temporal sensitivity indexed by increases in the Weber ratio. This correlation was not observed for the control group. Changes in subjective duration indexed by temporal bisection points were not correlated with cortisol reactivity in both the groups. In conclusion, the present study found that although no significant change was observed in time perception after an acute stressor on the group-level comparison (i.e., stress vs. nonstress group), individuals with stronger cortisol responses to stress showed a larger decrease in temporal sensitivity. This finding may provide insight into the understanding of

  4. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value of the labor and improvements upon a mineral claim is less than $500 at the time of survey the...

  5. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value of the labor and improvements upon a mineral claim is less than $500 at the time of survey the...

  6. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value of the labor and improvements upon a mineral claim is less than $500 at the time of survey the...

  7. 43 CFR 3861.2-4 - Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) MINERAL PATENT APPLICATIONS Surveys and Plats § 3861.2-4 Supplemental proof of expenditures and improvements. If the value of the labor and improvements upon a mineral claim is less than $500 at the time of survey the...

  8. Precision of channel catfish catch estimates using hoop nets in larger Oklahoma reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, David R.; Long, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Hoop nets are rapidly becoming the preferred gear type used to sample channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, and many managers have reported that hoop nets effectively sample channel catfish in small impoundments (<200 ha). However, the utility and precision of this approach in larger impoundments have not been tested. We sought to determine how the number of tandem hoop net series affected the catch of channel catfish and the time involved in using 16 tandem hoop net series in larger impoundments (>200 ha). Hoop net series were fished once, set for 3 d; then we used Monte Carlo bootstrapping techniques that allowed us to estimate the number of net series required to achieve two levels of precision (relative standard errors [RSEs] of 15 and 25) at two levels of confidence (80% and 95%). Sixteen hoop net series were effective at obtaining an RSE of 25 with 80% and 95% confidence in all but one reservoir. Achieving an RSE of 15 was often less effective and required 18-96 hoop net series given the desired level of confidence. We estimated that an hour was needed, on average, to deploy and retrieve three hoop net series, which meant that 16 hoop net series per reservoir could be "set" and "retrieved" within a day, respectively. The estimated number of net series to achieve an RSE of 25 or 15 was positively associated with the coefficient of variation (CV) of the sample but not with reservoir surface area or relative abundance. Our results suggest that hoop nets are capable of providing reasonably precise estimates of channel catfish relative abundance and that the relationship with the CV of the sample reported herein can be used to determine the sampling effort for a desired level of precision.

  9. Distribution and excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H B; Kato, S; Morales, N M; Tuey, D B

    1977-10-01

    The intestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of the major component of Firemaster BP-6,2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, has been studied in the male rat. This polybrominated biphenyl was readily absorbed from the intestine, initially distributed throughout the body, and eventually stored primarily in the adipose tissue, was not subject to appreciable metabolism, and was excreted almost exclusively in the feces and at a very slow rate. Approximately 90% of an oral dose was absorbed from the intestine, and extrapolation of the rate of excretion to infinity indicates that less than 10% of the total dose would ever be excreted.

  10. The aphelion distribution of the Near Earth meteoroid orbits with larger eccentricities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomiyets, Svitlana; Voloshchuk, Yury

    2015-08-01

    The question of the stability of the Solar System has always sparked urgency to research. In some cases, larger values of eccentricity and/or inclination can be a sign of the instability. The time has now come to extend this question to a larger number of planetary systems. The discovery of extrasolar planets systems has raised many similar questions on their formation and dynamical evolution. The origin of the surprisingly large eccentricities and/or inclinations (relative to the stellar equator) of many extrasolar planets remains elusive: planet instabilities, planet-disk interactions, external perturbations from eccentric or inclined stars remain viable options. The understanding of our own planetary system and extrasolar planets systems can leap forward only with the combination of mutual research. The time has now come to the golden years of the space exploration on the distant Solar System bodies. At the same time every day the meteoric matter penetrates in the Earth atmosphere and carries information about the various locations of the Solar system. The meteoroid orbits with large eccentricities and large aphelion distances associated with the distant locations of the Solar system. We used the data of the ground-based radar observations in Kharkiv (Ukraine) to obtain the distribution of aphelion distances for the near Earth meteoroid orbits (100341) with large eccentricities (e>0.5). We analyzed the orbital inclinations too. We obtained the complicated structure of the sporadic meteoroid complex. It is the consequence of the plurality of parent bodies and origin mechanisms of meteoroids. In addition the perturbing action of the planets, non-gravitational forces affect on the stracture of meteoroid complex. Our experimental results in 1972-1978 demonstrated meteoroid masses 10^-3 -10^-6 g. The aphelion distance of orbits for these investigated meteoroids has the range from near 1 till 2 000 AU. Undoubtedly, the meteoric matter contains key information about

  11. Microbial consortia that degrade 2,4-DNT by interspecies metabolism: isolation and characterisation.

    PubMed

    Snellinx, Zita; Taghavi, Safieh; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniël

    2003-01-01

    Two consortia, isolated by selective enrichment from a soil sample of a nitroaromatic-contaminated site, degraded 2,4-DNT as their sole nitrogen source without accumulating one or more detectable intermediates. Though originating from the same sample, the optimised consortia had no common members, indicating that selective enrichment resulted in different end points. Consortium 1 and consortium 2 contained four and six bacterial species respectively, but both had two members that were able to collectively degrade 2,4-DNT. Variovorax paradoxus VM685 (consortium 1) and Pseudomonas sp. VM908 (consortium 2) initiate the catabolism of 2,4-DNT by an oxidation step, thereby releasing nitrite and forming 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (4M5NC). Both strains contained a gene similar to the dntAa gene encoding 2,4-DNT dioxygenase. They subsequently metabolised 4M5NC to 2-hydroxy-5-methylquinone (2H5MQ) and nitrite, indicative of DntB or 4M5NC monooxygenase activity. A second consortium member, Pseudomonas marginalis VM683 (consortium 1) and P. aeruginosa VM903, Sphingomonas sp. VM904, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia VM905 or P. viridiflava VM907 (consortium 2), was found to be indispensable for efficient growth of the consortia on 2,4-DNT and for efficient metabolisation of the intermediates 4M5NC and 2H5MQ. Knowledge about the interactions in this step of the degradation pathway is rather limited. In addition, both consortia can use 2,4-DNT as sole nitrogen and carbon source. A gene similar to the dntD gene of Burkholderia sp. strain DNT that catalyses ring fission was demonstrated by DNA hybridisation in the second member strains. To our knowledge, this is the first time that consortia are shown to be necessary for 2,4-DNT degradation.

  12. Hydroxylated Metabolites of 2,4-Dichlorophenol Imply a Fenton-Type Reaction in Gloeophyllum striatum†

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, Dietmar; Fahr, Kristina; Karl, Wolfgang; Wetzstein, Heinz-Georg

    2000-01-01

    While degrading 2,4-dichlorophenol, two strains of Gloeophyllum striatum, a basidiomycetous fungus causing brown rot decay of wood, simultaneously produced 4-chlorocatechol and 3,5-dichlorocatechol. These metabolites were identified by comparing high-performance liquid chromatography retention times and mass spectral data with those of chemically synthesized standards. Under similar conditions, 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide was generated from phthalic hydrazide, a reaction assumed to indicate hydroxyl radical formation. Accordingly, during chemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Fenton's reagent, identical metabolites were formed. Both activities, the conversion of 2,4-[U-14C]dichlorophenol into 14CO2 and the generation of 3-hydroxyphthalic hydrazide, were strongly inhibited by the hydroxyl radical scavenger mannitol and in the absence of iron. These results provide new evidence in favor of a Fenton-type degradation mechanism operative in Gloeophyllum. PMID:10831427

  13. Decision document for function 4.2.4 dispose waste

    SciTech Connect

    Mcconville, C.M.

    1996-09-23

    This report formally documents the planning assumptions for Function 4.2.4, {ital Dispose Waste} to provide a basis for lower level Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Disposal Program decisions and analyses. The TWRS Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS 1996) and a supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for closure of operable units will provide the ultimate Records of Decision for the TWRS strategy at this level. However, in the interim, this decision document provides a formal basis for the TWRS Dispose Waste planning assumptions. Function 4.2.4 addresses the disposition of immobilized high-level waste (IHLW), the disposition of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW), and closure of the tank farm operable units.

  14. Bimetallic Au-decorated Pd catalyst for the liquid phase hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Huan; Chen, Quanyuan; Huang, Zhaolu

    2016-11-01

    Monometallic and bimetallic Pd-Au catalysts supported on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with varied Au cooperation amounts were prepared using the complexing-reduction method in the presence of tetrahydrofuran (THF). The liquid phase catalytic hydrodechlorination (HDC) of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was investigated over these bimetallic catalysts. The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and H2 chemisorption. Characterization results showed that the co-reduction of Pd and Au mainly formed alloy-like structure. The bimetallic catalysts had smaller metal particles and larger numbers of exposed active site than that of monometallic catalysts. In addition, compared with Pd(1.7)/CNTs and Au(0.4)/CNTs, the binding energies of Pd 3d5/2 shifted to higher positions while that of Au 4f7/2 had negative shifts in the Pd-Au bimetallic catalysts, which can be ascribed to the electrons transferred from metal Pd to Au and the cationization of Pd particles was enhanced. Accordingly, the bimetallic Pd-Au particles with different Au contents in the catalysts exhibited varied synergistic effects for the catalytic HDC of 2,4-DCP, with Pd(1.8)Au(0.4)/CNTs having the highest catalytic activity. For the bimetallic catalysts, a disproportional increase of turnover frequency (TOF) was observed with increasing Au content due to the enhanced cationization of Pd particles. Moreover, the dechlorination of 2,4-DCP over the supported monometallic and bimetallic catalysts proceeded via both the stepwise and concerted pathway, and the concerted pathway became predominant with Au decoration amount in the catalyst.

  15. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. H.B.-2, PLANS AT LEVELS 4,5,&6. Sheet 7 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  16. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. H.B.-2, PLANS AT LEVELS 7,8,&9. Sheet 8 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  17. Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing. VAB HB-2 & 4 ET HOLDING CELLS, UPGRADE TO CHECKOUT CELLS. NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida. File Number 79K33180, Reynolds, Smith & Hill, February 1991. H.B.-2, PLANS AT LEVELS 1,2,&3. Sheet 6 - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Launch Complex 39, Vehicle Assembly Building, VAB Road, East of Kennedy Parkway North, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  18. Anaerobic transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT).

    PubMed

    Preuss, A; Fimpel, J; Diekert, G

    1993-01-01

    A sulfate-reducing bacterium using trinitrotoluene (TNT) as the sole nitrogen source was isolated with pyruvate and sulfate as the energy sources. The organism was able to reduce TNT to triaminotoluene (TAT) in growing cultures and cell suspensions and to further transform TAT to still unknown products. Pyruvate, H2, or carbon monoxide served as the electron donors for the reduction of TNT. The limiting step in TNT conversion to TAT was the reduction of 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DANT) to triaminotoluene. The reduction proceeded via 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxylaminotoluene (DAHAT) as an intermediate. The intermediary formation of DAHAT was only observed in the presence of carbon monoxide or hydroxylamine, respectively. The reduction of DAHAT to triaminotoluene was inhibited by both CO and NH2OH. The inhibitors as well as DANT and DAHAT significantly inhibited sulfide formation from sulfite. The data were taken as evidence for the involvement of dissimilatory sulfite reductase in the reduction of DANT and/or DAHAT to triaminotoluene. Hydrogenase purified from Clostridium pasteurianum and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase partially purified from Clostridium thermoaceticum also catalyzed the reduction of DANT in the presence of methyl viologen or ferredoxin, however, as the main reduction product DAHAT rather than triaminotoluene was formed. The findings could explain the function of CO as an electron donor for the DANT reduction (to DAHAT) and the concomitant inhibitory effect of CO on triaminotoluene formation (from DAHAT) by the inhibition of sulfite reductase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. 77 FR 65775 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA30 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Debt Collection Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... active in that market. The Bureau is issuing the final rule pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street...

  20. 78 FR 73383 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... financial product and service markets by adding a new section to define larger participants of a market for... payday lending markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank...

  1. 77 FR 42873 - Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77 , No. 140 / Friday... RIN 3170-AA00 Defining Larger Participants of the Consumer Reporting Market AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer... markets. In addition, the Bureau has the authority to supervise nonbank ``larger participant '' of...

  2. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  3. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  4. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  5. 29 CFR 779.232 - Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.232 Franchise or other arrangements which create a larger enterprise. (a) In other instances,...

  6. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  7. 29 CFR 779.231 - Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger... Apply; Enterprise Coverage Leased Departments, Franchise and Other Business Arrangements § 779.231 Franchise arrangements which do not create a larger enterprise. (a) While it is clear that in...

  8. 78 FR 18902 - Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1090 RIN 3170-AA35 Defining Larger Participants of the Student Loan Servicing Market... section to define larger participants of a market for student loan servicing. The Bureau proposes this... services, as the Bureau defines by rule. The proposal (Proposed Rule) would identify a market for...

  9. Biomarker correlations of urinary 2,4-D levels in foresters: genomic instability and endocrine disruption.

    PubMed Central

    Garry, V F; Tarone, R E; Kirsch, I R; Abdallah, J M; Lombardi, D P; Long, L K; Burroughs, B L; Barr, D B; Kesner, J S

    2001-01-01

    Forest pesticide applicators constitute a unique pesticide use group. Aerial, mechanical-ground, and focal weed control by application of herbicides, in particular chlorophenoxy herbicides, yield diverse exposure scenarios. In the present work, we analyzed aberrations in G-banded chromosomes, reproductive hormone levels, and polymerase chain reaction-based V(D)J rearrangement frequencies in applicators whose exposures were mostly limited to chlorophenoxy herbicides. Data from appliers where chlorophenoxy use was less frequent were also examined. The biomarker outcome data were compared to urinary levels of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) obtained at the time of maximum 2,4-D use. Further comparisons of outcome data were made to the total volume of herbicides applied during the entire pesticide-use season.Twenty-four applicators and 15 minimally exposed foresters (control) subjects were studied. Categorized by applicator method, men who used a hand-held, backpack sprayer in their applications showed the highest average level (453.6 ppb) of 2,4-D in urine. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) values were correlated with urinary 2,4-D levels, but follicle-stimulating hormone and free and total testosterone were not. At the height of the application season; 6/7 backpack sprayers, 3/4 applicators who used multinozzle mechanical (boom) sprayers, 4/8 aerial applicators, and 2/5 skidder-radiarc (closed cab) appliers had two or more V(D)J region rearrangements per microgram of DNA. Only 5 of 15 minimally exposed (control) foresters had two or more rearrangements, and 3 of these 5 subjects demonstrated detectable levels of 2,4-D in the urine. Only 8/24 DNA samples obtained from the exposed group 10 months or more after their last chlorophenoxy use had two rearrangements per microgram of DNA, suggesting that the exposure-related effects observed were reversible and temporary. Although urinary 2,4-D levels were not correlated with chromosome aberration frequency, chromosome

  10. Factors Influencing Dislodgeable 2, 4-D Plant Residues from Hybrid Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis) Athletic Fields

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Khalied A.; Breeden, Gregory K.

    2016-01-01

    Research to date has confirmed 2,4-D residues may dislodge from turfgrass; however, experiments have not been conducted on hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L. x C. transvaalensis), the most common athletic field turfgrass in subtropical climates. More specifically, previous research has not investigated the effect of post-application irrigation on dislodgeable 2,4-D residues from hybrid bermudagrass and across turfgrass species, research has been nondescript regarding sample time within a d (TWD) or conducted in the afternoon when the turfgrass canopy is dry, possibly underestimating potential for dislodgement. The effect of irrigation and TWD on 2,4-D dislodgeability was investigated. Dislodgeable 2,4-D amine was reduced > 300% following irrigation. From 2 to 7 d after treatment (DAT), ≤ 0.5% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged from irrigated turfgrass, while ≤ 2.3% of applied 2,4-D was dislodged when not irrigated. 2,4-D dislodgeability decreased as TWD increased. Dislodgeable 2,4-D residues declined to < 0.1% of the applied at 1 DAT– 13:00, and increased to 1 to 3% of the applied 2 DAT– 5:00, suggesting 2,4-D re-suspended on treated turfgrass vegetation overnight. In conclusion, irrigating treated turfgrass reduced dislodgeable 2,4-D. 2,4-D dislodgeability increased as TWD decreased, which was attributed to non-precipitation climatic conditions favoring turfgrass canopy wetness. This research will improve turfgrass management practices and research designed to minimize human 2,4-D exposure. PMID:26863005

  11. Adsorption of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene in two soil environments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, A.J.; Tiller, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    Soil contamination by 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and its byproducts is common among Army Ammunition Plants (AAPs). The purpose of this research is to quantify the behavior of TNT in the Alabama AAP soil environment. Uncontaminated soil collected from two different depths at the site was used, one with relatively high organic content and one with low organic content. Adsorption kinetic tests for both TNT and a primary biotransformation byproduct 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4A26DNT), alone and in combination, were performed and adsorption isotherms were developed. Results indicate a faster rate of adsorption for 4A26DNT than for TNT, as well as a larger extent of adsorption when the two compounds are both present. As expected, incubation time was shown to affect the extent of adsorption as well as the extractability and transformation of TNT. Large differences in kinetic patterns were obtained for each soil. Isotherm shape was similar for both soils, however extent of adsorption differed by several orders of magnitude.

  12. Thermodynamics and binding mode of novel structurally related 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives with native and modified cyclodextrins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhova, Irina V.; Chislov, Mikhail V.; Brusnikina, Maria A.; Chibunova, Ekaterina S.; Volkova, Tatyana V.; Zvereva, Irina A.; Proshin, Alexey N.

    2017-03-01

    Study of complex formation of cyclodextrins with 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives intended for Alzheimer's disease treatment was carried out using 1H NMR, ITC and phase solubility methods. Structure of cyclodextrins and thiadiazoles affects the binding mode and thermodynamics of complexation. The larger cavity of β- and γ-cyclodextrins is more appropriate for deeper insertion of 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives which is accompanied by intensive dehydration and solvent reorganization. Benzene ring of the thiadiazoles is located inside macrocyclic cavity while piperidine ring is placed outside the cavity and can form H-bonds with cyclodextrin exterior. Complexation with cyclodextrins induces the enhancement of aqueous solubility of 1,2,4-thiadiazole derivatives.

  13. Larger late sodium conductance in M cells contributes to electrical heterogeneity in canine ventricle.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, A C; Eddlestone, G T; Thomas, G P; Nesterenko, V V; Antzelevitch, C

    2001-08-01

    Action potentials and whole cell sodium current were recorded in canine epicardial, midmyocardial, and endocardial myocytes in normal sodium at 37 degrees C. Tetrodotoxin (TTX) reduced the action potential duration of midmyocardial cells to a greater degree than either epicardial or endocardial cells. Whole cell recordings in potassium-free and very-low-chloride solutions revealed a slowly decaying current that was completely inhibited by 5 microM TTX or replacement of external and internal sodium with the impermeant cation N-methyl-D-glucamine. Late sodium current density at 0 mV was 47% greater in midmyocardial cells and averaged -0.532 +/- 0.058 pA/pF in endocardial, -0.463 +/- 0.068 pA/pF in epicardial, and -0.785 +/- 0.070 pA/pF in midmyocardial cells. Neither the frequency dependence of late sodium current nor its recovery from inactivation exhibited transmural differences. After a 4.5-s pulse to -30 mV, late sodium current recovered with a single time constant of 140 ms. We conclude that a larger late sodium conductance in midmyocardial cells will favor longer action potentials in these cells. More importantly, drugs that slow inactivation of sodium channels will produce a nonuniform response across the ventricular wall that is proarrhythmic.

  14. Analysis of the community structure of abyssal kinetoplastids revealed similar communities at larger spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Salani, Faezeh Shah; Arndt, Hartmut; Hausmann, Klaus; Nitsche, Frank; Scheckenbach, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the spatial scales of diversity is necessary to evaluate the mechanisms driving biodiversity and biogeography in the vast but poorly understood deep sea. The community structure of kinetoplastids, an important group of microbial eukaryotes belonging to the Euglenozoa, from all abyssal plains of the South Atlantic and two areas of the eastern Mediterranean was studied using partial small subunit ribosomal DNA gene clone libraries. A total of 1364 clones from 10 different regions were retrieved. The analysis revealed statistically not distinguishable communities from both the South-East Atlantic (Angola and Guinea Basin) and the South-West Atlantic (Angola and Brazil Basin) at spatial scales of 1000–3000 km, whereas all other communities were significantly differentiated from one another. It seems likely that multiple processes operate at the same time to shape communities of deep-sea kinetoplastids. Nevertheless, constant and homogenous environmental conditions over large spatial scales at abyssal depths, together with high dispersal capabilities of microbial eukaryotes, maintain best the results of statistically indistinguishable communities at larger spatial scales. PMID:22071346

  15. Foraging competition in larger groups overrides harassment avoidance benefits in female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).

    PubMed

    Uccheddu, Stefania; Body, Guillaume; Weladji, Robert B; Holand, Øystein; Nieminen, Mauri

    2015-11-01

    Male harassment toward females during the breeding season may have a negative effect on their reproductive success by disturbing their foraging activity, thereby inducing somatic costs. Accordingly, it is predicted that females will choose mates based on their ability to provide protection or will aggregate into large groups to dilute per capita harassment level. Conversely, increasing group size may also lead to a decrease in foraging activity by increasing foraging competition, but this effect has rarely been considered in mating tactic studies. This study examined the importance of two non-exclusive hypotheses in explaining the variations of the female activity budget during the breeding season: the male harassment hypothesis, and the female foraging competition hypothesis. We used focal observations of female activity from known mating groups collected during the breeding season from a long-term (15 years) study on reindeer Rangifer tarandus. We found that females were more disturbed (i.e., spent less time feeding) in the presence of young dominant males, and marginally disturbed in the presence of satellite males, which supports the male harassment hypothesis. We also found that female disturbance level increased with group size, being independent of the adult sex ratio. Consequently, these results rejected the dilution effect, but strongly supported the foraging competition hypothesis. This study therefore highlights a potential conflict in female behaviour. Indeed, any gains from harassment protection were negated by an increase of 6-7 females, since adult males lead larger groups than young males.

  16. Larger hippocampus size in women with anorexia nervosa who exercise excessively than healthy women.

    PubMed

    Beadle, Janelle N; Paradiso, Sergio; Brumm, Michael; Voss, Michelle; Halmi, Katherine; McCormick, Laurie M

    2015-05-30

    Exercise has been shown to increase hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Observations from animal models of diabetes and hypertension suggest that the combination of exercise and caloric restriction may exert greater neuroprotection in the hippocampus than either behavior alone. Yet, in humans, the effects of exercise and caloric restriction on the hippocampus are not known. We measured the volume of the hippocampus prior to clinical treatment in women with anorexia nervosa (AN) who were restricting calories and engaging in excessive exercise, women with AN who did not exercise excessively, and healthy women who did not engage in either behavior. Women with AN were also examined longitudinally (once weight was restored and 6 months later). In the present report, we found that women with AN engaged in caloric restriction and excessive exercising prior to clinical treatment had larger hippocampal volumes than healthy comparison women. After weight restoration, women with AN who had engaged in food restriction and excessive exercise prior to treatment had hippocampal volumes similar to that of women with AN who only engaged in caloric restriction. These results advance the field by showing for the first time that hippocampal volume may be increased by exercise alone or exercise interacting with food restriction in AN.

  17. Study of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) removal by Cu-Fe-layered double hydroxide from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nejati, Kamellia; Davary, Soheila; Saati, Marziye

    2013-09-01

    The hydrotalcite-like compound of Cu-Fe-layered double hydroxide was studied as a potential adsorbent of herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The nanoparticles of Cu-Fe layered double hydroxide were prepared by Cu/Fe molar ratio of 2:1 using a coprecipitation method at pH 8.5 and characterized by the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), the thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and the elemental analysis. The size and morphology of nanoparticles were examined by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The adsorption experiments on LDH, on the other hand, were conducted in three different procedures, namely, time-dependent, pH-dependent and temperature-dependent. Characterization of the adsorption products by the XRD method indicates that the intercalation of 2,4-D between the LDH layers has not occurred and the surface adsorption had taken place. The adsorption kinetic was tested for pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Elovich and Intra-particle diffusion kinetic models and the rate constants were calculated. The equilibrium adsorption data were described by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. It was observed that, the Langmuir isotherm slightly better fitted to the experimental data rather than that of Freundlich. In the adsorption experiments, the Gibbs free energy values, ΔG°, the enthalpy, ΔH°, and the entropy, ΔS° were also determined.

  18. Photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol and organochlorides (2,4-DCP and 2,4-D) in aqueous alkaline medium with high chloride concentration.

    PubMed

    Luna, Airton J; Chiavone-Filho, Osvaldo; Machulek, Amilcar; de Moraes, José Ermírio F; Nascimento, Cláudio A O

    2012-11-30

    A highly concentrated aqueous saline-containing solution of phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was treated by the photo-Fenton process in a system composed of an annular reactor with a quartz immersion well and a medium-pressure mercury lamp (450 W). The study was conducted under special conditions to minimize the costs of acidification and neutralization, which are usual steps in this type of process. Photochemical reactions were carried out to investigate the influence of some process variables such as the initial concentration of Fe(2+) ([Fe(2+)](0)) from 1.0 up to 2.5 mM, the rate in mmol of H(2)O(2) fed into the system (FH(2)O(2);in) from 3.67 up to 7.33 mmol of H(2)O(2)/min during 120 min of reaction time, and the initial pH (pH(0)) from 3.0 up to 9.0 in the presence and absence of NaCl (60.0 g/L). Although the optimum pH for the photo-Fenton process is about 3.0, this particular system performed well in experimental conditions starting at alkaline and neutral pH. The results obtained here are promising for industrial applications, particularly in view of the high concentration of chloride, a known hydroxyl radical scavenger and the main oxidant present in photo-Fenton processes.

  19. Segmental 2:4 digit ratio. Unilateral, bilateral and hand-type differences in men.

    PubMed

    Khaĭrullin, Radik

    2011-12-01

    Most studies of the 2:4 digit ratio (DR) of the human hand have analyzed its possibilities for use as an indicator of the functional, psychological, and, with rare exception, morphological features of the body. Each of the functional flexor segments (each phalanx) contributes to the common variability of the total digital length. The aim of this study was to determine patterns in the relationships between each segmental digit ratio (SDR) and the overall 2:4 DR. We studied the variability of the SDRs in comparison with the general 2:4 DR of 202 young males aged 16-21 years. The length of the functional segments of the digits was measured between the flexor skin furrows on the palmar surface. The change in the SDR means that values can be ranked as follows: proximal SDR (SDR-P)>DR>distal SDR (SDR-D)>medial SDR (SDR-M). Bilateral differences are inherent in the segmental SDR-P. Most quantitative regularities inherent in the total 2:4 DR are also intrinsic to the 2:4 DR of the distal segment of the digit; in particular, this phenomenon is displayed in hands of the ulnar (male) type. Overall, the values of the distal rather than the other functional flexor segments of the second and fourth digits are similar in magnitude to the general 2:4 DR. At the same time, the greatest correlation and hence, the largest contribution to the total variability in the general DR is from the variability of the SDR-P values. Our data demonstrate the importance of various digit segment sizes in determining their overall length and the derivative ratios.

  20. Larger, Lighter Space Telescopes by Implementing In-Space Manufacturing Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, James t.; Gregory, Don; Herren, Ken; Howsman, Tom

    2007-01-01

    There is a continuous demand for larger, lighter, and higher quality telescopes from both the astronomical and global surveillance communities one looking up and the other down. Enabling technologies must be developed and implemented that will allow this goal to be financially and technically feasible. The optical systems needed far high spatial resolution surveillance and astronomical applications require large optical, apertures with mention of future systems up to 150 meter in diameter. With traditional optical manufacturing technologies, large optical aperture means high mass and long fabrication lead times with associated high costs. Completely new approaches to optical fabrication must be developed to enable the fabrication of such optical systems. The cost and lead time associated with the fabrication of lightweight, high quality optical systems limits the feasible size of the optics. A primary factor in the launch cost of space optical systems is volume and mass. To minimize the mass of the high quality optics, optical fabricators implement materials with high specific stiffness and use honeycomb, or other structural minimization patterns, to support the optical surface; however, the structure must still be designed to survive launch loads. This sigmficantly adds to the fabrication difficulty and dramatically increases launch costs. One approach to minimizing launch volume and negating the need for the design to survive launch loads is to send the manufacturing facility and raw materials into space and perform the fabrication in-situ. We, are currently performing feasibility studies of initial concepts for inspace manufacturing of optical systems. By utilizing the micro-gravity and vacuum environment of space while eliminating the constraints defined by high launch forces and limited volume of the launch vehicle, the development of large, high quality glass membrane mirrors may be feasible. Several concepts were investigated to address the manufacturing of

  1. DEGRADATION OF THE CHLORINATED PHENOXYACETATE HERBICIDES 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID AND 2,4,5- TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC BY PURE AND MIXED BACTERIAL CULTURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combined cell suspensions of the 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)-metabolizing organism Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100, and the 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)-metabolizing organism Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 were shown to effectively degrade either of these compo...

  2. Linearizing W2,4 and WB2 algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, S.; Krivonos, S.; Sorin, A.

    1995-02-01

    It has recently been shown that the W3 and W3(2) algebras can be considered as subalgebras in some linear conformal algebras. In this paper we show that the nonlinear algebras W2,4 and WB2 as well as Zamolodchikov's spin {5}/{2} superalgebra also can be embedded as subalgebras into some linear conformal algebras with a finite set of currents. These linear algebras give rise to new realizations of the nonlinear algebras which could be suitable in the construction of W-string theories.

  3. Magnetic clouds between 2-4 AU: Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Behannon, K. W.

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic clouds were observed in the solar wind between 2-4 AU. It was shown that they are stable enough to persist without major changes out to such distances. It is estimated that the clouds expand at a speed of the order of 45 km/s. The average Alfven speed at the front and rear boundaries is 104 km/s, the expansion speed is estimated to be nearly half of the Alfven speed, which is consistent with an earlier estimate of the expansion speed of clouds between the Sun and 1 AU. The magnetic field configuration is highly ordered and consistent with the passage of some kind of loop.

  4. Preparation of crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole polymer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Shalhoub, I. M.; Kwong, H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    New crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers were prepared by thermally condensing a monomer having the formula H2N(HON)C-R-Q, wherein Q is a triazine ring-forming group such as nitrile or amidine or a mixture of such group with amidoxime, or a mixture of said monomer with R C(NOH)NH2 sub 2 with R in these formulas standing for a bivalent organic radical. In the monomer charge, the overall proportions of amidoxime groups to triazine ring-forming groups varies depending on the extent of crosslinking desired in the final polymer.

  5. Preparation of perfluorinated 1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratzer, R. H.; Paciorek, K. J. L.; Ito, T. I.; Rosser, R. W. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Fluorinated alkyl or alkylether 1,2,4 oxadiazole compounds are prepared by cyclizing the corresponding alkyl or alkylether imidoyl amidoximes in vacuo or in an inert atmosphere at a temperature within the range of 40 C to 100 C. for a period of 8 to 144 hours in the presence of an acid compound which can accept ammonia to form a salt. The imidoyl amidoximes usable in this process are either polymeric or nonpolymeric. The products, when polymeric, have excellent heat, chemical and solvent resistance.

  6. Structure of 2,4-Diaminopyrimidine - Theobromine Alternate Base Pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gengeliczki, Zsolt; Callahan, Michael P.; Kabelac, Martin; Rijs, Anouk M.; deVries, Mattanjah S.

    2011-01-01

    We report the structure of clusters of 2,4-diaminopyrimidine with 3,7-dimethylxanthine (theobromine) in the gas phase determined by IR-UV double resonance spectroscopy in both the near-IR and mid-IR regions in combination with ab initio computations. These clusters represent potential alternate nucleobase pairs, geometrically equivalent to guanine-cytosine. We have found the four lowest energy structures, which include the Watson-Crick base pairing motif. This Watson-Crick structure has not been observed by resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) in the gas phase for the canonical DNA base pairs.

  7. Sonochemical Effect Using Ultrasonic Atomizer at 2.4 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinashi, Kiyoaki; Houkin, Toshinori; Harada, Hisashi

    2012-07-01

    Sonochemical reactions were demonstrated using a commercial ultrasonic atomizer at 2.4 MHz. The influences of experimental conditions, bottom shape and glass thickness of reactors, irradiation method, and liquid height on the sonochemical yield were discussed. The sonochemical effect was evaluated by potassium iodide dosimetry and degradation of methylene blue. Direct and indirect irradiations were examined. The former had the highest yield. In the latter case, sonochemical yield decreased in the solution because glass prevented the transmission of ultrasonic waves. Poly film, on the other hand, could transmit ultrasonic waves very well without damage.

  8. The 'Natural Laboratory', a tool for deciphering growth, lifetime and population dynamics in larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The shells of symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) represent the response to physiological requirements in dependence of environmental conditions. All compartments of the shell such as chambers and chamberlets accommodate the growth of the cell protoplasm and are adaptations for housing photosymbiotic algae. Investigations on the biology of LBF were predominantly based on laboratory studies. The lifetime of LBF under natural conditions is still unclear. LBF, which can build >100 chambers during their lifetime, are thought to live at least one year under natural conditions. This is supported by studies on population dynamics of eulittoral foraminifera. In species characterized by a time-restricted single reproduction period the mean size of specimens increases from small to large during lifetime simultaneously reducing individual number. This becomes more complex when two or more reproduction times are present within a one-year cycle leading to a mixture of abundant small individuals with few large specimens during the year, while keeping mean size more or less constant. This mixture is typical for most sublittoral megalospheric (gamonts or schizonts) LBF. Nothing is known on the lifetime of agamonts, the diploid asexually reproducing generation. In all hyaline LBF it is thought to be significantly longer than 1 year based on the large size and considering the mean chamber building rate of the gamont/schizonts. Observations on LBF under natural conditions have not been performed yet in the deeper sublittoral. This reflects the difficulties due to intense hydrodynamics that hinder deploying technical equipment for studies in the natural environment. Therefore, studying growth, lifetime and reproduction of sublittoral LBF under natural conditions can be performed using the so-called 'natural laboratory' in comparison with laboratory investigations. The best sampling method in the upper sublittoral from 5 to 70 m depth is by SCUBA diving. Irregular

  9. Wide Field Infra-Red Survey Telescope (WFIRST) 2.4-Meter Mission Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Content, D.; Aaron, K.; Alplanalp, L.; Anderson, K.; Capps, R.; Chang, Z.; Dooley, J.; Egerman, R.; Goullioud, R.; Klein, D.; Kruk, J.; Kuan, G.; Melton, M.; Ruffa, J.; Underhill, M.; Buren, D. Van

    2013-01-01

    The most recent study of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) mission is based on reuse of an existing 2.4m telescope. This study was commissioned by NASA to examine the potential science return and cost effectiveness of WFIRST by using this significantly larger aperture telescope. We review the science program envisioned by the WFIRST 2012-2013 Science Definition Team (SDT), an overview of the mission concept, and the telescope design and status. Comparisons against the previous 1.3m and reduced cost 1.1m WFIRST design concepts are discussed. A significant departure from past point designs is the option for serviceability and the geostationary orbit location which enables servicing and replacement instrument insertion later during mission life. Other papers at this conference provide more in depth discussion of the wide field instrument and the optional exoplanet imaging coronagraph instrument.

  10. Public attitudes toward larger cigarette pack warnings: Results from a nationally representative U.S. sample

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A large body of evidence supports the effectiveness of larger health warnings on cigarette packages. However, there is limited research examining attitudes toward such warning labels, which has potential implications for implementation of larger warning labels. The purpose of the current study was to examine attitudes toward larger warning sizes on cigarette packages and examine variables associated with more favorable attitudes. In a nationally representative survey of U.S. adults (N = 5,014), participants were randomized to different warning size conditions, assessing attitude toward “a health warning that covered (25, 50, 75) % of a cigarette pack.” SAS logistic regression survey procedures were used to account for the complex survey design and sampling weights. Across experimental groups, nearly three-quarters (72%) of adults had attitudes supportive of larger warning labels on cigarette packs. Among the full sample and smokers only (N = 1,511), most adults had favorable attitudes toward labels that covered 25% (78.2% and 75.2%, respectively), 50% (70% and 58.4%, respectively), and 75% (67.9% and 61%, respectively) of a cigarette pack. Young adults, females, racial/ethnic minorities, and non-smokers were more likely to have favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Among smokers only, females and those with higher quit intentions held more favorable attitudes toward larger warning sizes. Widespread support exists for larger warning labels on cigarette packages among U.S. adults, including among smokers. Our findings support the implementation of larger health warnings on cigarette packs in the U.S. as required by the 2009 Tobacco Control Act. PMID:28253257

  11. Kinetic Batch Soil Adsorption Studies of 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, J.; Mark, N. W.; Taylor, S.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, K.

    2014-12-01

    Currently the explosive 2, 4, 6- trinitrotoluene (TNT) is used as a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2, 4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and exposure potential. DNAN has been shown to have some human and environmental toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate of DNAN in soil, with a specific focus on sorption processes. Batch experiments were conducted using 11 soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, specific surface area, electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. Adsorption kinetic data determined at room temperature were fitted using the first order kinetic equation. Adsorption isotherms were fitted with linear and Freundlich isotherm equations. The magnitudes of the linear adsorption coefficients ranged from 0.6 to 6 cm3/g. Results indicated that the adsorption of DNAN is strongly dependent on the amount of organic carbon present in the soil.

  12. Degradation of toluene-2,4-diamine by persulphate: kinetics, intermediates and degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yong-hai; Zhang, Jin-bao; Xi, Bei-dou; An, Da; Yang, Yu; Li, Ming-xiao

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the degradation of toluene-2,4-diamine (TDA) by persulphate (PS) in an aqueous solution at near-neutral pH was examined. The result showed that the degradation rate of TDA increased with increasing PS concentrations. The optimal dosage of PS in the reaction system was determined by efficiency indicator (I) coupling in the consumption of PS and decay half-life of TDA. Calculation showed that 0.74 mM of PS was the most effective dosage for TDA degradation, at that level the maximum I of 24.51 was obtained. PS can oxidize TDA for an extended reaction time period. Under neutral condition without activation, four degradation intermediates, 2,4-diamino-3-hydroxy-5-sulfonicacidtoluene, 2,4-diaminobenzaldehyde, 2,4-bis(vinylamino)benzaldehyde and 3,5-diamino-4-hydroxy-2-pentene, were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The tentative degradation pathway of TDA was proposed as well. It was found that hydroxyl radical played an important role in degradation of TDA with the activation of Fe2+, whereas PS anion and sulphate radicals were responsible for the degradation without activation of Fe2+.

  13. Reduction and Acetylation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain.

    PubMed

    Noguera, D R; Freedman, D L

    1996-07-01

    Aerobic and anoxic biotransformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) was examined by using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a plant treating propellant manufacturing wastewater. DNT biotransformation in the presence and absence of oxygen was mostly reductive and was representative of the type of cometabolic transformations that occur when a high concentration of an easily degradable carbon source is present. P. aeruginosa reduced both nitro groups on DNT, with the formation of mainly 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene and 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and small quantities of 2,4-diaminotoluene. Acetylation of the arylamines was a significant reaction. 4-Acetamide-2-nitrotoluene and the novel compounds 2-acetamide-4-nitrotoluene, 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene, and 2,4-diacetamidetoluene were identified as DNT metabolites. The biotransformation of 2,4-diaminotoluene to 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene was 24 times faster than abiotic transformation. 2-Nitrotoluene and 4-nitrotoluene were also reduced to their corresponding toluidines and then acetylated. However, the yield of 4-acetamidetoluene was much higher than that of 2-acetamidetoluene, demonstrating that acetylation at the position para to the methyl group was favored.

  14. Reduction and Acetylation of 2,4-Dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strain

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, D. R.; Freedman, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    Aerobic and anoxic biotransformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) was examined by using a Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a plant treating propellant manufacturing wastewater. DNT biotransformation in the presence and absence of oxygen was mostly reductive and was representative of the type of cometabolic transformations that occur when a high concentration of an easily degradable carbon source is present. P. aeruginosa reduced both nitro groups on DNT, with the formation of mainly 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene and 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene and small quantities of 2,4-diaminotoluene. Acetylation of the arylamines was a significant reaction. 4-Acetamide-2-nitrotoluene and the novel compounds 2-acetamide-4-nitrotoluene, 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene, and 2,4-diacetamidetoluene were identified as DNT metabolites. The biotransformation of 2,4-diaminotoluene to 4-acetamide-2-aminotoluene was 24 times faster than abiotic transformation. 2-Nitrotoluene and 4-nitrotoluene were also reduced to their corresponding toluidines and then acetylated. However, the yield of 4-acetamidetoluene was much higher than that of 2-acetamidetoluene, demonstrating that acetylation at the position para to the methyl group was favored. PMID:16535348

  15. The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BouDagher-Fadel, M. K.

    2012-04-01

    The phylogenetic and palaeographic evolution of the miogypsinid larger benthic foraminifera MARCELLE K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL AND G. DAVID PRICE Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK One of the notable features of the Oligocene oceans was the appearance in Tethys of American lineages of larger benthic foraminifera, including the miogypsinids. They were reef-forming, and became very widespread and diverse, and so they play an important role in defining the Late Paleogene and Early Neogene biostratigraphy of the carbonates of the Mediterranean and the Indo-Pacific Tethyan sub-provinces. Until now, however, it has not been possible to develop an effective global view of the evolution of the miogypsinids, as the descriptions of specimens from Africa were rudimentary, and the stratigraphic ranges of genera of Tethyan forms appear to be highly dependent on palaeography. Our recent work, however, now enables a first systematic and biostratigraphic comparison of the miogypsinids from the Tethyan sub-provinces of the Mediterranean-West Africa and the Indo-Pacific, and can show for the first time that South Africa forms a new distinct bio-province. We infer that sea level, tectonic and climatic changes determined and constrained in turn the palaeogeographic distribution, evolution and eventual extinctions of the miogypsinid. The global sea level regressions in the Early Oligocene facilitated the trans-Atlantic migration of Neorotalia and miogypsinids from the Americas. This eastward migration followed two, distinct, unidirectional dispersals. One dispersal route was to the south towards South Africa, where a distinct phylogenetic lineage, similar to their American ancestors, was found in the Burdigalian. They became extinct together with their American ancestors, at the end of the Burdigalian; a time that coincided with a major global transgressions, circulation changes on closure of Panama and the major eruption of the

  16. Test flattening in the larger foraminifer Heterostegina depressa: predicting bathymetry from axial sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Wöger, Julia; Briguglio, Antonino

    2016-04-01

    The cosmopolite foraminifer Heterostegina depressa has been a target of studies, describing its internal and external morphology, ecology and biology. During the last decades many researcher concentrated on test morphology and described its maturoevolute shape. Furthermore, a continuously increasing trend of test flattening along water depth has been described multiple times. However, the most common measurements, such as the thickness/diameter ratio, are too dependent on individual size to pose as an accurate tool. /newline Therefore a growth invariant character has been used to describe the change of thickness through the ontogeny of H. depressa. To compute this, the thickness at the half-radius, the so-called mediolateral thickness, of five whorls has been measured in 127 axial section of H. depressa. Based on this the ontogenetic change in thickness has been computed for specimens from different depth intervals of the slope of Sesoko-Jima, NW-Okinawa. In addition, this has been compared with the actual thickness and the corresponding radii at the same measuring points. The latter describes how thickness would change according to the thickness/diameter ratio./newline Hence, our analysis clearly quantifies a continuous transition of individuals with thicker central parts to individuals with flatter central parts along the water depth gradient. This is most likely controlled by light intensity, since photosymbionts (diatoms) of H. depressa are most active at low irradiation levels. Thus, shallower specimens grow thicker tests to reduce light penetration, while deeper specimens increase their surface to reach a better light exposure. Due to its broad water depth distribution H. depressa is a perfect model species to calibrate test flattening as bathymetric signal for fossil assemblages. Since similar ecological constraints are assumed for fossil nummulitid taxa, useful palaeobathymetric information might be gathered from studying test flattening in extinct species

  17. Effects of lindane, paraquat, toxaphene, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid on mallard embryo development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Eastin, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effects were determined of externally treating mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) eggs with two insecticides (lindane and toxaphene) and two herbicides (paraquat and 2,4,5-T) with formulations and concentrations similar to field applications. Paraquat was the most embryotoxic of the four compounds regardless of the type of vehicle. The LC50 for paraquat was 1.5 lb of active ingredient/ acre in aqueous emulsion and 0.1 lb/acre in the oil vehicle. The other compounds had LC50's that were several orders of magnitude higher. Both paraquat and toxaphene caused some mortality at 1/2 of the field level of application. Paraquat impaired growth and was slightly teratogenic at 1/2 of the field level of application, but required higher concentrations (1.5 to 3 times the field level) to produce brain and visceral defects. Lindane was teratogenic, resulting in multiple defects but only at doses that were greater than five times the field level of application. Toxaphene resulted in defects of the joints at doses close to or exceeding the LC50. The herbicide 2,4,5-T resulted in few toxic effects and relatively few abnormal survivors with gross defects. The overall embryotoxicity with either vehicle was paraquat > lindane > toxaphene > 2,4,5-T on a lb per acre basis. However the potential hazard at exposures of up to five times the field level of application was paraquat > toxaphene; neither lindane nor 2,4,5-T constituted much of a hazard. Both paraquat and lindane were more toxic on a lb-peracre basis when administered in oil vehicle but only paraquat represented a potential hazard at five times the field level of application.

  18. Growing larger with domestication: a matter of physiology, morphology or allocation?

    PubMed

    Milla, R; Matesanz, S

    2017-05-01

    Domestication might affect plant size. We investigated whether herbaceous crops are larger than their wild progenitors, and the traits that influence size variation. We grew six crop plants and their wild progenitors under common garden conditions. We measured the aboveground biomass gain by individual plants during the vegetative stage. We then tested whether photosynthesis rate, biomass allocation to leaves, leaf size and specific leaf area (SLA) accounted for variations in whole-plant photosynthesis, and ultimately in aboveground biomass. Despite variations among crops, domestication generally increased the aboveground biomass (average effect +1.38, Cohen's d effect size). Domesticated plants invested less in leaves and more in stems than their wild progenitors. Photosynthesis rates remained similar after domestication. Variations in whole-plant C gains could not be explained by changes in leaf photosynthesis. Leaves were larger after domestication, which provided the main contribution to increases in leaf area per plant and plant-level C gain, and ultimately to larger aboveground biomass. In general, cultivated plants have become larger since domestication. In our six crops, this occurred despite lower investment in leaves, comparable leaf-level photosynthesis and similar biomass costs of leaf area (i.e. SLA) than their wild progenitors. Increased leaf size was the main driver of increases in aboveground size. Thus, we suggest that large seeds, which are also typical of crops, might produce individuals with larger organs (i.e. leaves) via cascading effects throughout ontogeny. Larger leaves would then scale into larger whole plants, which might partly explain the increases in size that accompanied domestication.

  19. Cork Taint of Wines: Role of the Filamentous Fungi Isolated from Cork in the Formation of 2,4,6-Trichloroanisole by O Methylation of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Rodríguez, María Luisa; López-Ocaña, Laura; López-Coronado, José Miguel; Rodríguez, Enrique; Martínez, María Jesús; Larriba, Germán; Coque, Juan-José R.

    2002-01-01

    Cork taint is a musty or moldy off-odor in wine mainly caused by 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (2,4,6-TCA). We examined the role of 14 fungal strains isolated from cork samples in the production of 2,4,6-TCA by O methylation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). The fungal strains isolated belong to the genera Penicillium (four isolates); Trichoderma (two isolates); and Acremonium, Chrysonilia, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mortierella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, and Verticillium (one isolate each). Eleven of these strains could produce 2,4,6-TCA when they were grown directly on cork in the presence of 2,4,6-TCP. The highest levels of bioconversion were carried out by the Trichoderma and Fusarium strains. One strain of Trichoderma longibrachiatum could also efficiently produce 2,4,6-TCA in liquid medium. However, no detectable levels of 2,4,6-TCA production by this strain could be detected on cork when putative precursors other than 2,4,6-TCP, including several anisoles, dichlorophenols, trichlorophenols, or other highly chlorinated compounds, were tested. Time course expression studies with liquid cultures showed that the formation of 2,4,6-TCA was not affected by a high concentration of glucose (2% or 111 mM) or by ammonium salts at concentrations up to 60 mM. In T. longibrachiatum the O methylation of 2,4,6-TCP was catalyzed by a mycelium-associated S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferase that was strongly induced by 2,4,6-TCP. The reaction was inhibited by S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, an inhibitor of SAM-dependent methylation, suggesting that SAM is the natural methyl donor. These findings increase our understanding of the mechanism underlying the origin of 2,4,6-TCA on cork, which is poorly understood despite its great economic importance for the wine industry, and they could also help us improve our knowledge about the biodegradation and detoxification processes associated with chlorinated phenols. PMID:12450804

  20. Aerobic biotransformation and mineralization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Bae, B.H.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Bonner, J.S.

    1995-12-31

    Respirometric mineralization studies of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) were conducted with microorganisms isolated from a site contaminated with munitions waste in Illinois. Nine aerobic bacterial species were isolated under a carbon- and nitrogen-limited condition and tentatively identified as: one Pseudomonas species; one Enterobacter species; and seven Alcaligenes species. Experiments were performed using each of the nine organisms individually and with a consortium of all nine bacterial species. The aerobic microorganisms were cultured in a sterile nutrient solution with glucose and 20 mg/L TNT. Mineralization was determined using uniformly ring-labeled {sup 14}C-TNT in a respirometer that trapped the evolved CO{sub 2}. Biodegradation behavior was characterized based on oxygen consumption, distribution of {sup 14}C activity, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of TNT and its transformation products.

  1. The 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers. [heat resistant polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosser, R. W.; Shalhoub, I. M.; Kwong, H. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Crosslinked 1,2,4-oxadiazole elastomers were prepared either by thermally condensing a monomer having the formula HwN(HON)C-R-Q, wherein Q is a triazine ring forming group such as nitrile or amidine, or by a mixture of said monomer with RC(NOH)NH22, with R in these formulas standing for a bivalent organic radical containing fluorine, hydrogen, or trifluoromethyl. In the monomer charge, the overall proportions of amidoxime groups to triazine ring forming groups varies depending on the extent of crosslinking desired in the final polymer. The heat and chemical resistant elastomers disclosed can serve, for instance, as adhesives, caulking compounds, channel sealants, fuel tank liners.

  2. Computation of affinity and selectivity: Binding of 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline inhibitors to dihydrofolate reductases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marelius, John; Graffner-Nordberg, Malin; Hansson, Tomas; Hallberg, Anders; Åqvist, Johan

    1998-03-01

    Binding energy calculations for complexes of mutant and wild-type human dihydrofolate reductases with 2,4-diaminopteridine and 2,4-diaminoquinazoline inhibitors are reported. Quantitative insight into binding energetics of these molecules is obtained from calculations based on force field energy evaluation and thermal sampling by molecular dynamics simulations. The calculated affinity of methotrexate for wild-type and mutant enzymes is reasonably well reproduced. Truncation of the methotrexate glutamate tail results in a loss of affinity by several orders of magnitude. No major difference in binding strength is predicted between the pteridines and the quinazolines, while the N-methyl group present in methotrexate appears to confer significantly stronger binding. The recent improvement, which is used here, of our linear interaction energy method for binding affinity prediction, as well as problems with treating charged and flexible ligands are discussed. This approach should be suitable in a drug discovery context for prediction of binding energies of new inhibitors prior to their synthesis, when some information about the binding mode is available.

  3. Effects of active sunscreen ingredient combinations on the topical penetration of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Pont, Adam R; Charron, Anna R; Wilson, Roselyn M; Brand, Rhonda M

    2003-02-01

    Sunscreen use can reduce the incidence of certain skin cancers. However, a number of commercially available formulations have been shown to enhance the transdermal penetration of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Most of the active ingredients used in these compounds can individually act as penetration enhancers. Commercial sunscreens frequently contain multiple active ingredients in order to provide broad sunscreen protection. The purpose of this study was therefore to examine the effect of these active ingredient combinations on the transdermal absorption of 2,4-D in vitro. All six of the combinations tested resulted in increased cumulative penetration (P <0.01) and faster lag times (P <0.05). The 2,4-D cumulative penetration in the presence of the OFF! Deepwoods combination was significantly greater than the absorption with either the individual ingredients or their average (P <0.05). A systematic study designed to isolate the chemicals responsible for this enhancement demonstrated that with UV absorbers DEET synergistically increased the 2,4-D penetration and that DEET's cumulative enhancement properties correlate with its concentration. By contrast, octocrylene significantly slowed the lag time when used in combinations and was the only active ingredient that showed any antagonistic effects on 2,4-D penetration. Because none of the active ingredient combinations were able to inhibit dermal uptake of 2,4-D, it seems that proper selection of inert ingredients may be the most feasible solution for reducing penetration enhancement.

  4. Three dimensional morphological studies of Larger Benthic Foraminifera at the population level using micro computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Shunichi; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles

    2015-04-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic Foraminifera (LBF) are long-living marine (at least 1 year), single-celled organisms with complex calcium carbonate shells. Their morphology has been intensively studied since the middle of the nineteenth century. This led to a broad spectrum of taxonomic results, important from biostratigraphy to ecology in shallow water tropical to warm temperate marine palaeo-environments. However, it was necessary for the traditional investigation methods to cut or destruct specimens for analysing the taxonomically important inner structures. X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) is one of the newest techniques used in morphological studies. The greatest advantage is the non-destructive acquisition of inner structures. Furthermore, the running improve of microCT scanners' hard- and software provides high resolution and short time scans well-suited for LBF. Three-dimensional imaging techniques allow to select and extract each chamber and to measure easily its volume, surface and several form parameters used for morphometric analyses. Thus, 3-dimensional visualisation of LBF-tests is a very big step forward from traditional morphology based on 2-dimensional data. The quantification of chamber form is a great opportunity to tackle LBF structures, architectures and the bauplan geometry. The micrometric digital resolution is the only way to solve many controversies in phylogeny and evolutionary trends of LBF. For the present study we used micro-computed tomography to easily investigate the chamber number of every specimen from statistically representative part of populations to estimate population dynamics. Samples of living individuals are collected at monthly intervals from fixed locations. Specific preparation allows to scan up to 35 specimens per scan within 2 hours and to obtain the complete digital dataset for each specimen of the population. MicroCT enables thus a fast and precise count of all chambers built by the foraminifer from its

  5. Could direct killing by larger dingoes have caused the extinction of the thylacine from mainland Australia?

    PubMed

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy.

  6. Could Direct Killing by Larger Dingoes Have Caused the Extinction of the Thylacine from Mainland Australia?

    PubMed Central

    Letnic, Mike; Fillios, Melanie; Crowther, Mathew S.

    2012-01-01

    Invasive predators can impose strong selection pressure on species that evolved in their absence and drive species to extinction. Interactions between coexisting predators may be particularly strong, as larger predators frequently kill smaller predators and suppress their abundances. Until 3500 years ago the marsupial thylacine was Australia's largest predator. It became extinct from the mainland soon after the arrival of a morphologically convergent placental predator, the dingo, but persisted in the absence of dingoes on the island of Tasmania until the 20th century. As Tasmanian thylacines were larger than dingoes, it has been argued that dingoes were unlikely to have caused the extinction of mainland thylacines because larger predators are rarely killed by smaller predators. By comparing Holocene specimens from the same regions of mainland Australia, we show that dingoes were similarly sized to male thylacines but considerably larger than female thylacines. Female thylacines would have been vulnerable to killing by dingoes. Such killing could have depressed the reproductive output of thylacine populations. Our results support the hypothesis that direct killing by larger dingoes drove thylacines to extinction on mainland Australia. However, attributing the extinction of the thylacine to just one cause is problematic because the arrival of dingoes coincided with another the potential extinction driver, the intensification of the human economy. PMID:22567093

  7. Basin Waves on a Seafloor Recording of the 1990 Upland, California, Earthquake: Implications for Ground Motions from a Larger Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boore, D.M.

    1999-01-01

    The velocity and displacement time series from a recording on the seafloor at 74 km from the 1990 Upland earthquake (M = 5.6) are dominated by late-arriving waves with periods of 6 to 7 sec. These waves are probably surface waves traveling across the Los Angeles basin. Response spectra for the recording are in agreement with predictions from empirical regression equations and theoretical models for periods less than about 1 sec but are significantly larger than those predictions for longer periods. The longer-period spectral amplitudes are controlled by the late-arriving waves, which are not included in the theoretical models and are underrepresented in the data used in the empirical analyses. When the motions are scaled to larger magnitude, the results are in general agreement with simulations of wave propagation in the Los Angeles basin by Graves (1998).

  8. Ecology of extant nummulitids and other larger benthic foraminifera: applications in palaeoenvironmental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beavington-Penney, Simon J.; Racey, Andrew

    2004-10-01

    Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are important contributors to modern and ancient tropical, shallow-marine sediments. Over the past 30 years, a substantial body of literature has built up on the ecology of modern LBF, especially in terms of their environmentally sensitive depth distribution, reproductive strategy and morphology, and the symbiotic relationship between many larger foraminifera and photosynthetic algae. Over the same period, the extinct genus Nummulites, which is abundant in Eocene sediments of southern Europe, North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, has increasingly been studied, principally because significant volumes of hydrocarbons have been discovered reservoired within nummulitic limestones offshore Tunisia and Libya. The modern ecological studies of LBF provide a powerful tool with which to develop palaeoecological models for fossil Nummulites (and other symbiont-bearing larger foraminifera in the rock record).

  9. Post-mortem surface features in larger foraminiferan Archaias angulatus as paleoenvironmental indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Cottey, T.L.

    1986-05-01

    Larger foraminifera are major contributors to sand-sized carbonate sediments. Archaias angulatus (Fichtel and Moll) is the dominant larger foraminiferan in the Caribbean region. A taphonomic study of this species revealed several stages of preservation from newly unaltered tests to complete destruction of outer calcite layers. Tests collected from contrasting environments in Key Largo, Florida, show different paths of degradation. Impact features and secondary growths predominate on tests collected from well-sorted sediments of the open platform, whereas dissolution features are most common on tests from the calm, muddy environment of Largo Sound. Tests from the open platform show major breakage, abundant scratches, and small, randomly spaced holes. Tests from Largo Sound show little breakage, few scratches, and loss of entire sections of the outer wall. Microborings are present on tests from both environments. This study shows that postmortem alterations of surface textures of larger foraminifera may be useful indicators of paleoenvironments of deposition.

  10. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Larger Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G. W.; Webb, R. P.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J. L.; Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J. C.; Opiela, J.; Griffin, G. T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was returned from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) by shuttle mission STS-125 in 2009. In space for 16 years, the surface accumulated hundreds of impact features on the zinc orthotitanate paint, some penetrating through into underlying metal. Larger impacts were seen in photographs taken from within the shuttle orbiter during service missions, with spallation of paint in areas reaching 1.6 cm across, exposing alloy beneath. Here we describe larger impact shapes, the analysis of impactor composition, and the micrometeoroid (MM) types responsible.

  11. Decreased transpiration in poplar trees exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.L.; Ramer, L.A.; Guffey, A.P.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    The improper handling of the toxic compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has led to the contamination of soil and groundwater, and the uptake of TNT by a variety of plants has been established. This article discusses the effects of various concentrations of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the transpiration of hybrid poplar trees growing in hydroponic media. Transpiration was measured daily by gravimetric means. The rapid removal of TNT from hydroponic solutions was a result of plant uptake and required a daily dosage of TNT to ensure a relatively constant exposure over time. Transpiration decreased with increasing TNT concentrations {ge}5 mg/L. Decreases in transpiration were accompanied by leaf chlorosis and abscission. A comparison between a laboratory study and a pilot-scale experiment showed good scale-up potential.

  12. Oscillatory growth in Larger Benthic Foraminifera: problems, interpretations and possible solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briguglio, Antonino; Eder, Wolfgang; Woeger, Julia; Kinoshita, Shunichi; Ferrandez-Canadell, Carles; Hohenegger, Johann

    2015-04-01

    The possibility to investigate cell growth and its oscillations through time in Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) by means of Micro Computed Tomography (microCT) is a recent and well known methodology. However, the search for factors of oscillations around undisturbed growth - the latter can be modelled by theoretical growth functions (e.g. Gompertz and generalized logistic growth function) - is hampered by a number of factors which have been recently discovered and not yet published. Cycles are obtained based on a mean chamber building rate gained from specimens cultured in the laboratory because punctual data available in the literature are too incomplete to gain a more realistic growth model. The mean chamber building rate can be also modeled (e.g. Power-, Michaelis-Menten- and Bertallanffy function). The periodicity of the cycles observed in LBF is mostly concentrated around a prominent 29 to 30 days cycle. Other cycles, proportions and multiples of this dominant cycle are common, but probably should be considered as calculation effects in case of their inconsistency. The 30 days cycles are present in almost all specimens investigated, which may be a hint to a correlation between cell growth and the light intensity variation of lunar cycles, which can affect the photosynthetic activity of the endosymbionts in LBF tests. However, this correlation is challenged by a number of issues, which need to be further investigated. One of these problems is represented by the recent discovery of similar cycles in LBF tests, which have been laboratory-cultured and should therefore not show any environmental effects. A focused analysis of growth cycles observed in these laboratory tests showed that even if the periods are constant and significant at 30 days, their phases show a much broader variance compared to naturally grown specimens. Epigenetic signals and their influence on the oscillatory growth of cultivated organisms can be considered to play a major role in the

  13. Undergraduate research in geochemistry at a larger university: developing a community of undergraduate and graduate researchers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. G.

    2003-12-01

    Faculty at state research universities can find the paired requirements of establishing research programs and developing a "pipeline" of graduate students to be the most challenging aspects of their jobs, especially with shrinking pools of graduate applicants. These problems may be more acute for laboratory-based geochemists, as few graduate candidates possess the requisite quantitative and chemical backgrounds. The need to "get my research going" at the University of South Florida led me to work primarily with undergraduates, as a) they were available and interested, b) they required no more laboratory training than M.S. students; and c) small-dollar funds were available to support them, both in-house and via NSF REU Supplements. Some senior colleagues argued that this approach would hinder my developing a graduate program as is necessary for tenure. This contention turned out to be untrue. My success in undergraduate research draws funding (in NSF REU Site and disciplinary research grants), has attracted outside MS and Ph.D. candidates, and has retained quality in-house students seeking MS degrees. Students working with me join a laboratory community in which undergraduate and graduate researchers are on equal footing in terms of access to instrumentation and other facilities. I work with all my students, irrespective of rank, as members of a cooperative research group. I encourage and expect that technical instruction I provide to any individual will be passed on to their colleagues, which helps develop a "lab culture" of best practices, and ingrains new knowledge and skills through the act of teaching them to others. Maintaining this research environment requires active recruitment of capable graduate AND undergraduate students, regular monitoring of laboratory practices, and ready availability for consultation and mentoring. One must be cognizant of the differing time commitment issues of undergraduates and graduates, and set research goals appropriately

  14. Birnessite-induced mechanochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A; Mingelgrin, U

    2014-07-01

    DCP (2,4-dichlorophenol) is the key-intermediate in the synthesis of some widely used pesticides and is an EPA priority pollutant. The mechanochemical breakdown of DCP loaded on birnessite (δ-MnO2), montmorillonite saturated with Na(+) or Cu(2+) and hematite was investigated. Mechanical force was applied by grinding of mixtures of DCP and the minerals, using mortar and pestle. Grinding of DCP for 5 min with the montmorillonites or with hematite resulted in negligible degradation during grinding, while grinding with birnessite induced the immediate degradation of 90% of the loaded DCP. Incubation for 24h after grinding did result in up to 30% degradation of the DCP loaded on the other minerals tested. HPLC and LC-MS analysis revealed that the transformation of DCP yielded oligomerization products as well as partial dechlorination. DCP degradation on birnessite was accompanied with a substantial increase in the extractability of manganese from the mineral into an acidic aqueous solution, indicating that Mn(IV) in the mineral transformed into Mn(II) and that birnessite served as an electron acceptor in the transformation. The oligomerization and partial dechlorination brought about by grinding, suggest a reduction in bioavailability and toxicity.

  15. Biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by a Pseudomonas sp.

    PubMed Central

    Spanggord, R J; Spain, J C; Nishino, S F; Mortelmans, K E

    1991-01-01

    Previous studies of the biodegradation of nonpolar nitroaromatic compounds have suggested that microorganisms can reduce the nitro groups but cannot cleave the aromatic ring. We report here the initial steps in a pathway for complete biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT) by a Pseudomonas sp. isolated from a four-member consortium enriched with DNT. The Pseudomonas sp. degraded DNT as the sole source of carbon and energy under aerobic conditions with stoichiometric release of nitrite. During induction of the enzymes required for growth on DNT, 4-methyl-5-nitrocatechol (MNC) accumulated transiently in the culture fluid when cells grown on acetate were transferred to medium containing DNT as the sole carbon and energy source. Conversion of DNT to MNC in the presence of 18O2 revealed the simultaneous incorporation of two atoms of molecular oxygen, which demonstrated that the reaction was catalyzed by a dioxygenase. Fully induced cells degraded MNC rapidly with stoichiometric release of nitrite. The results indicate an initial dioxygenase attack at the 4,5 position of DNT with the concomitant release of nitrite. Subsequent reactions lead to complete biodegradation and removal of the second nitro group as nitrite. PMID:1781682

  16. User's guide for LTGSTD24 program, Version 2. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, R.L.; Connell, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    On January 30, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) promulgated an interim rule entitled [open quotes]Energy Conservation Voluntary Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings; Mandatory for New Federal Buildings[close quotes] (10 CFR Part 435, Subpart A). These standards require federal agencies to design all future federal commercial and multifamily high-rise residential buildings in accordance with the standards, or demonstrate that their current requirements already meet or exceed the energy-efficiency requirements of the standards. Although these newly enacted standards do not regulate the design of non-federal buildings, the DOE recommends that all design professionals use the standards as guidelines for designing energy-conserving buildings. To encourage private sector use, the DOE published the standards in the January 30, 1989, Federal Register in the format typical of commercial standards. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed several computer programs for the DOE to make it easier for designers to comply with the standards. One of the programs, LTGSTD24 (Version 2.4), is detailed in this user's guide and is provided on the accompanying diskettes. The program will facilitate the designer's use of the standards dealing specifically with building lighting design. Using this program will greatly simplify the designer's task of performing the calculations needed to determine if a design complies with the standards.

  17. User's guide for ENVSTD24 program, Version 2. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hanlon, R.L.; Connell, L.M.

    1993-05-01

    On January 30, 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) promulgated an interim rule entitled [open quotes]Energy Conservation Voluntary Performance Standards for New Commercial and Multi-Family High Rise Residential Buildings; Mandatory for New Federal Buildings[close quotes] (10 CFR Part 435, Subpart A). These standards require federal agencies to design all future federal commercial and multifamily high-rise residential buildings in accordance with the standards, or demonstrate that their current requirements already meet or exceed the energy-efficiency requirements of the standards. Although these newly enacted standards do not regulate the design of nonfederal buildings, the DOE recommends that all design professionals use the standards as guidelines for designing energy-conserving buildings. To encourage private sector use, the DOE published the standards in the January 30, 1989, Federal Register in the format typical of commercial standards. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed several computer programs for the DOE to make it easier for designers to comply with the standards. One of the programs, ENVSTD24 (Version 2.4), is detailed in this user's guide and is provided on the accompanying diskettes. The program will facilitate the designer's use of the standards dealing specifically with building envelope design. Using this program will greatly simplify the designer's task of performing the calculations needed to determine if a design complies with the standards.

  18. The Non-linear Health Consequences of Living in Larger Cities.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Luis E C; Thorson, Anna E; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    Urbanization promotes economy, mobility, access, and availability of resources, but on the other hand, generates higher levels of pollution, violence, crime, and mental distress. The health consequences of the agglomeration of people living close together are not fully understood. Particularly, it remains unclear how variations in the population size across cities impact the health of the population. We analyze the deviations from linearity of the scaling of several health-related quantities, such as the incidence and mortality of diseases, external causes of death, wellbeing, and health care availability, in respect to the population size of cities in Brazil, Sweden, and the USA. We find that deaths by non-communicable diseases tend to be relatively less common in larger cities, whereas the per capita incidence of infectious diseases is relatively larger for increasing population size. Healthier lifestyle and availability of medical support are disproportionally higher in larger cities. The results are connected with the optimization of human and physical resources and with the non-linear effects of social networks in larger populations. An urban advantage in terms of health is not evident, and using rates as indicators to compare cities with different population sizes may be insufficient.

  19. Mesoscale Mountains and the Larger-scale Atmospheric Dynamics A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schär, C.

    INTRODUCTION REGIME DIAGRAM FOR FLOW PAST TOPOGRAPHY Balanced Solutions Wake Formation and Transition into the Dissipative Regime Flow Regimes for Major Topographic Obstacles INTERACTIONS WITH THE BALANCED LARGER-SCALE DYNAMICS Surface Potential Temperature Anomalies Potential Vorticity Anomalies NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF ALPINE WAKES OUTLOOK REFERNCES

  20. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin.

  1. The Conversion of Smaller Borane Fragments to Larger Structures. Systematics of Boron Hydride Reactions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-31

    Robert W. Parry and Goji Kodama Contract DAAG-29-8rl-K-Ol0l S. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK S Department of...Entered; THE CONVERSION OF SMALLER BORANE FRAGMENTS TO LARGER STRUCTURES - SYSTEMATICS OF BORON HYDRIDE REACTIONS FINAL REPORT ROBERT W. PARRY AND GOJI

  2. Features of Capillary Breakup of a Liquid Jet at Ohnesorge Numbers Larger Than Unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A theoretical study has been made of the forced capillary breakup of a jet of viscous liquid at a value of the Ohnesorge number larger than unity. The regions of breakup of the jet without the formation of satellites have been determined. The dependences of the dimensions of main and satellite droplets on the wave number have been obtained for different Ohnesorge numbers.

  3. Framing the Discussion: Elections as Components of Larger Political and Cultural Geographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knopp, Larry

    2016-01-01

    It is important to remember that elections are but one piece--albeit an important one--of much larger processes of politics and governance. Moreover, in the United States they are increasingly implicated in the construction of identities and places. What goes on in the course of electoral politics (creating electoral systems and voting districts,…

  4. A Larger and Wealthier Hispanic Community Draws the Attention of College Fund Raisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1997-01-01

    Statistics showing that the U.S. Hispanic population is getting larger and wealthier have altered perceptions that this is a community in need. College officials, particularly in states with large Hispanic populations, are courting Hispanic business owners and establishing networks through Hispanic alumni groups. However, some fear that…

  5. 11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Interior of larger DL&W passenger building showing main concourse on upper level, with stairway from street level at right of photo and passage to trains at left. Skyway can be seen through large window facing Buffalo River. Matching window is directly opposite. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  6. 3. View of larger DL&W passenger terminal building looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of larger DL&W passenger terminal building looking southeast from beginning of South Park Avenue. Skyway is at extreme right. Train shed is at extreme left. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Lackawanna Terminal, Main Street & Buffalo River, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. The Brain Connection: The Corpus Callosum is Larger in Left-Handers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witelson, Sandra F.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the neurobiological basis for functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres, indicating that the size of the corpus callosum is correlated with the neurophysiological measure of hand preference. In postmortem examinations of 42 subjects there were no sex differences, but mixed-handers had significantly larger total areas of the…

  8. Exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI) during production of flexible foam: determination of airborne TDI and urinary 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (TDA).

    PubMed

    Kääriä, K; Hirvonen, A; Norppa, H; Piirilä, P; Vainio, H; Rosenberg, C

    2001-07-01

    Occupational exposure to 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,4- and 2,6-TDI) was measured during the production of flexible foam. The usefulness of urinalysis of the TDI-derived amines, 2,4- and 2,6-toluenediamine (2,4- and 2,6-TDA), for exposure assessment was compared with air monitoring. Urine samples were collected from 17 employees at two plants. The workers' personal exposure was measured using 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine (2MP)-impregnated glass fibre filters for sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) and electrochemical (EC) detection for quantification. The limit of detection (LOD) of 2,4- and 2,6-TDI was 0.01 microtg ml(-1) for a 20 microl injection. The precision of sample preparation, expressed as the relative standard deviation (RSD), was 0.6% with UV detection and 0.8% with EC detection at a 2,4-TDI concentration of 0.2 microg ml(-1) (n = 6). For 2,6-TDI, the corresponding RSDs were 0.5% and 0.8%. The urinary 2,4- and 2,6-TDA metabolites were determined after acid hydrolysis as heptafluorobutyric anhydride derivatives by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The LOD in urine was 0.35 nmol l(-1) for 2,4-TDA and 0.04 nmol l(-1) for 2,6-TDA. The precision (RSD) of six analyses of human urine spiked to a concentration of 100 nmol l(-1) was 3.7% for 2,4-TDA and 3.6% for 2,6-TDA. There was a trend for linear correlation between urinary TDA concentration and the product of airborne TDI concentration and sampling time. Urinalysis of TDA is proposed as a practical method for assessing personal exposures in workers exposed intermittently to TDI.

  9. Spinor Field Realizations of Non-critical W2,4 String Based on Linear W1,2,4 Algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Li-Jie; Liu, Yu-Xiao

    2006-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the spinor field realizations of the W2,4 algebra, making use of the fact that the W2,4 algebra can be linearized through the addition of a spin-1 current. And then the nilpotent BRST charges of the spinor non-critical W2,4 string were built with these realizations.

  10. Effects of 2,4-Dichlorophenol, a Metabolite of a Genetically Engineered Bacterium, and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetate on Some Microorganism-Mediated Ecological Processes in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Short, K. A.; Doyle, J. D.; King, R. J.; Seidler, R. J.; Stotzky, G.; Olsen, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    A genetically engineered microorganism, Pseudomonas putida PPO301(pRO103), and the plasmidless parent strain, PPO301, were added at approximately 107 CFU/g of soil amended with 500 ppm of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) (500 μg/g). The degradation of 2,4-D and the accumulation of a single metabolite, identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), occurred only in soil inoculated with PPO301(pRO103), wherein 2,4-DCP accumulated to >70 ppm for 5 weeks and the concentration of 2,4-D was reduced to <100 ppm. Coincident with the accumulation of 2,4-DCP was a >400-fold decline in the numbers of fungal propagules and a marked reduction in the rate of CO2 evolution, whereas 2,4-D did not depress either fungal propagules or respiration of the soil microbiota. 2,4-DCP did not appear to depress the numbers of total heterotrophic, sporeforming, or chitin-utilizing bacteria. In vitro and in situ assays conducted with 2,4-DCP and fungal isolates from the soil demonstrated that 2,4-DCP was toxic to fungal propagules at concentrations below those detected in the soil. PMID:16348408

  11. Stokes' Second Problem for Magnetohydrodynamics Flow in a Burgers' Fluid: The Cases γ = λ2/4 and γ>λ2/4

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ilyas; Ali, Farhad; Shafie, Sharidan

    2013-01-01

    The present work is concerned with exact solutions of Stokes second problem for magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow of a Burgers' fluid. The fluid over a flat plate is assumed to be electrically conducting in the presence of a uniform magnetic field applied in outward transverse direction to the flow. The equations governing the flow are modeled and then solved using the Laplace transform technique. The expressions of velocity field and tangential stress are developed when the relaxation time satisfies the condition γ = λ2/4 or γ>λ2/4. The obtained closed form solutions are presented in the form of simple or multiple integrals in terms of Bessel functions and terms with only Bessel functions. The numerical integration is performed and the graphical results are displayed for the involved flow parameters. It is found that the velocity decreases whereas the shear stress increases when the Hartmann number is increased. The solutions corresponding to the Stokes' first problem for hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids are obtained as limiting cases of the present solutions. Similar solutions for Stokes' second problem of hydrodynamic Burgers' fluids and those for Newtonian and Oldroyd-B fluids can also be obtained as limiting cases of these solutions. PMID:23667442

  12. Development of an immunoassay for determination of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) based upon the recombinant Fab fragment of 2,4-D specific antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Van C.; Nguyen, Thi D. T.; Dau, Hung A.; Tham, Thu N.; Quyen, Dinh T.; Bachmman, Till; Schmid, Rolf D.

    2001-09-01

    To develop an immunoassay and further an immunosensor for 2,4-D based upon recombinant antibody, the Fab fragments of 2,4-D specific antibody were expressed in E. coli. Western blotting analysis of the periplasmic cell fractions shown that under the non-reducing condition only a single protein band at a molecular mass of 45-kDa, corresponding to the whole Fab fragment was detected. Antigen binding activity for 2,4-D was found only in the extract of cells bearing the 2,4-D plasmid. An immunoassay based on the competitive reaction of 2,4-D and enzyme tracer with 2,4-D Fab fragments immobilized on micro titer plates via rabbit anti-mouse IgC was developed. Using this assay, 2,4-D could be detected at concentration range of 0.5 (mu) g/1 to 10(mu) g/1. The center point of the 2,4-D test was found at a concentration of 5 (mu) g/l. The assay was applied for detection of 2,4-D in spiked orange samples, resulting in recovery rate of 90 percent. The immunoassay could be applied to monitor human exposure to 2,4-D from contamination in fruit samples.

  13. Recipe Book for Larger Benthic Foraminifera X-ray Investigation: a Process Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfgring, E.; Briguglio, A.; Hohenegger, J.

    2012-04-01

    During the past years X-ray microtomography (microCT) has become an essential tool in imaging procedures in micropaleontology. Apart from highest standards in accuracy, well conducted microCT scans aim to resolve the whole specimen in constant quality and free from any artifacts or visual interferences. Normally, to get used to X-ray techniques and get usable results, countless attempts are needed, resulting in enormous waste of time. This work tries to provide an insight into how best exploitable results can be obtained from the scanning process concerning Larger Benthic Foraminifera (LBF). As each specimen features different characteristics regarding substantial composition, density and conservation status, it is impossible and probably erroneous to give standardized guidelines even within this systematic group. Depending on the attributes of the specimen and on the desired visualization, several details have to be taken into account. Samples preparation: to get sharp images the X-ray has to cross the specimen along its shortest diameter, for LBF the equatorial view is almost always the best positioning (not for alveolinids!). The container itself has to be chosen wisely as well; it must not affect a flawless penetration of the specimen by the X-ray and has to provide a high degree of stability. Small plastic pipettes are perfect to store the specimen (or specimens) and some cardboard may help in keeping the position. The nature and quality of the paste used to fixate the object and its container are essential in ensuring a smooth rotation of the specimen which is inevitable for the consistent quality of the image and to avoid vibrations. Scan parameters: beside the correct choice of dedicated filters (which are always different depending on the working station), settings for kv, µA and resolution might have to be revised for each new object to deliver optimal results. Standard values for hyaline forms with empty chambers are normally around 80 Kv and 100 u

  14. Structural study of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Laba, V. I. Sviridova, A. V.; Nesterov, V. N.

    2009-01-15

    The structure of 2,4,6-triisopropylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (TPSCl) (I) was studied by X-ray diffraction. Compound I is a highly selective condensing agent first suggested by Khorana for the formation of the C3'-C5' interribonucleotide linkage in the oligo- and polyribonucleotide synthesis. I crystals are orthorhombic. At -120 deg. C, the unit-cell parameters are a = 14.184(4) A, b = 11.344(5) A, c = 19.883(6) A, V = 3199(2) A{sup 3}, d{sub calc} = 1.257 g/cm{sup 3}, Z = 8, sp. gr. Pbca. Molecule I adopts a strongly flattened boat conformation with the carbon atoms C-SO{sub 2}Cl (C{sub 1}) and C-i-Pr (C4) of the benzene ring deviating from the bottom of the boat by 0.065(1) and 0.032(1) A, respectively. Molecule I is sterically overcrowded, resulting in an increase in the bond lengths and bond-angle distortions in the fragment containing the SO{sub 2}Cl group and two ortho-i-Pr groups. Nonbonded contacts that are present in the molecule can be considered weak intramolecular hydrogen bonds (for example, the (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}C-H-O=S bond). There is no rotation of the SO{sub 2}Cl, ortho-i-Pr, and CH{sub 3} groups. The above-mentioned facts are, apparently, responsible for the specific selectivity of TPSCl. New readily available sterically hindered arenesulfonyl chlorides were designed.

  15. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid on Glucosylation of Scopoletin to Scopolin in Tobacco Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hino, Fumitsugu; Okazaki, Mitsuo; Miura, Yoshiharu

    1982-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) stimulated the formation of scopoletin and scopolin in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. `Bright Yellow') cell culture. It especially stimulated the uptake of scopoletin from culture medium into the cells and the glucosylation of scopoletin to its monoglucoside, scopolin. This phenomenon is peculiar to 2,4-D, in contrast to other plant hormones. 2,4-D (1 μg/ml) stimulated the glucosylation of scopoletin to scopolin by enhancing UDP-glucose:scopoletin glucosyltransferase (SGTase) activity. The enhancement of SGTase activity caused by treatment with 2,4-D was observed when the syntheses of RNA and protein were inhibited by either actinomycin-D and/or cycloheximide. However, the stimulatory effect of 2,4-D was inhibited by treatment with dinitrophenol. Furthermore, SGTase with or without treatment by 2,4-D in vivo for 24 hours, was isolated from cultured tobacco cells. The enzymes were purified about 200-fold by precipitation with (NH4)2SO4 and chromatography with Sephadex G-100, DEAE-cellulose, and hydroxyapatite. The specific activity of 2,4-D-treated SGTase was 10 times higher than that of untreated SGTase even in the purified fraction, which showed one protein band under electrophoresis. These results suggest that the enhancement of SGTase activity by 2,4-D is due to the energy-dependent activation of the enzyme already present, but not due to the de novo synthesis of the enzyme. Images PMID:16662301

  16. Studies on the renal transport of trimethylpentanoic acid metabolites of 2,2,4-trimethylpentane in rat renal cortical slices.

    PubMed

    Lock, E A; Strasser, J; Bus, J S; Charbonneau, M

    1993-01-01

    2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (TMP), a nephrotoxic component of unleaded gasoline in male but not female rats, undergoes oxidative metabolism to yield 2,2,4- and 2,4,4-trimethylpentanol, pentanoic acid and 5-hydroxypentanoic acid. We have examined the effect of three of these pentanoic acid metabolites on the renal transport of the organic anion p-aminohippurate (PAH) and the organic cation tetraethylammonium (TEA) in renal cortical slices from male Fischer 344 rats. 2,4,4-Trimethylpentanoic acid, the major urinary metabolite in rats, produced a selective decrease in the accumulation of PAH without affecting TEA accumulation. Kinetic analysis showed that 2,4,4-trimethylpentanoic acid was a competitive inhibitor of the organic anion transport system, with a Ki of 4 mM. 2,4,4-Trimethyl-5-hydroxypentanoic acid also showed selective inhibition of PAH transport, while 2,2,4-trimethylpentanoic acid was less selective and reduced both PAH and TEA transport. Additional studies with radiolabeled 2,4,4-trimethylpentanoic acid showed that there was a time- and concentration-dependent accumulation of radioactivity into slices of renal cortex. However, experiments conducted at 4 degrees C and studies with metabolic inhibitors, or with an inhibitor of organic anion transport, indicated that little of the accumulated material was entering the cell. We conclude from these studies that the pentanoic acid metabolites formed from 2,2,4-trimethylpentane are not actively transported by the renal organic anion transport system. In summary, in vitro the pentanoic acid metabolites appear to bind to renal cortical tissue and thereby reduce the transport of PAH.

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of a molecularly imprinted polymer for 2,4-dinitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Nor Dyana; Yusof, Nor Azah; Haron, Jelas; Abdullah, Abdul Halim

    2009-01-01

    Molecular imprinted polymers (MIP) are considered one of the most promising selective and novel separation methods for removal phenolic compound in wastewater treatment. MIP are crosslinked polymeric materials that exhibit high binding capacity and selectivity towards a target molecule (template), purposely present during the synthesis process. In this work MIP were prepared in a bulk polymerization method in acetonitrile using 2,4-dinitrophenol, acrylamide, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and benzoyl peroxide as template, functional monomer, cross-linker and initiator, respectively. An adsorption process for removal of nitrophenol using the fabricated MIP was evaluated under various pH and time conditions. The parameters studied for 2,4-dinitrophenol includes adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, and selectivity. The maximum adsorption of nitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was 3.50 mg/g. The adsorption of 2,4-dinitrophenol by the fabricated MIP was found effective at pH 6.0. A kinetics study showed that nitrophenol adsorption follows a second order adsorption rate and the adsorption isotherm data is explained well by the Langmuir model.

  18. Anaerobic transformation of 2,4,6-TNT by bovine ruminal microbes.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Thomas J; Walker, Karen C; Spain, Jim C; Hughes, Joseph B; Morrie Craig, A

    2004-02-20

    Degradation of TNT by bovine rumen fluid, a novel source of anaerobic microbes, was investigated. Whole rumen fluid contents were spiked with TNT and incubated for a 24h time period. Supernatant samples taken at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 24h were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode array detection. Within 1h, TNT was not detectable and reduction products of TNT including 2-hydroxyl-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, 4-hydroxylamino-2,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene were present with smaller amounts of diamino-nitrotoluenes. Within 2h, only the diamino and dihydroxyamino-nitrotoluene products remained. After 4h, 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene and 2,4-dihydroxyamino-6-nitrotoluene were the only known molecular species left. At 24h known UV absorbing metabolites were no longer detected, suggesting further transformation such as complete reduction to triaminotoluene or destruction of the aromatic ring of TNT may have occurred. TNT was not transformed at 24h in autoclaved and buffered controls. This study presents the first direct evidence of biodegradation of TNT by ruminal microbes.

  19. Visual detection of 2,4,6-trinitrotolune by molecularly imprinted colloidal array photonic crystal.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wei; Asher, Sanford A; Meng, Zihui; Yan, Zequn; Xue, Min; Qiu, Lili; Yi, Da

    2016-10-05

    We developed a photonic crystal (PhC) sensor for the quantification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) in solution. Monodisperse (210nm in diameter) molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for TNT were prepared by the emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate and acrylamide in the presence of TNT as a template. The MICs were then self-assembled into close-packed opal PhC films. The adsorption capacity of the MICs for TNT was 64mg TNT/g. The diffraction from the PhC depended on the TNT concentration in a methanol/water (3/2, v/v) potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH=7.0, 30mM). The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 1.03μg. The color of the molecularly imprinted colloidal array (MICA) changed from green to red with an 84nm diffraction red shift when the TNT concentration increased to 20mM. The sensor response time was 3min. The PhC sensor was selective for TNT compared to similar compounds such as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-nitromesitylene, 4-nitrotoluene, 2-nitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, methylbenzene, 4-nitrophenol, 2-nitroaniline, 3-aminophenol and 3-nitroaniline. The sensor showed high stability with little response change after three years storage. This sensor technology might be useful for the visual determination of TNT.

  20. Microwave activated electrochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid at boron-doped diamond electrode.

    PubMed

    Gao, Junxia; Zhao, Guohua; Shi, Wei; Li, Dongming

    2009-04-01

    A method for improving the oxidation ability of the electrode is proposed by using microwave activation in electrochemical oxidation. The electrochemical degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with microwave radiation (MW-EC) was carried out in a continuous flow system under atmospheric pressure. In 3 h the removal of COD, ACE (average current efficiency) and Cl(-) concentration was 1.63, 2.25 and 1.67 times as that without microwave radiation, respectively. The high degradation ability was resulted from the more active centers at the electrode surface due to the microwave radiation. The decay kinetics of 2,4-D followed a pseudo first-order reaction. The rate constant was increased to 2.16x10(-4) s(-1) with the microwave radiation, while it was 8.52x10(-5) s(-1) with electrochemical treatment only (EC). Under both conditions, the main intermediates were identified and quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The formation rate of intermediate products and further degradation rate were increased by about 50-120% with the microwave radiation. The activation of electrochemical oxidation by microwave was discussed from the diffusion process, adsorption and the temperature at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode.

  1. Evolutionary constraints over microsatellite abundance in larger mammals as a potential mechanism against carcinogenic burden

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Youn; An, Yong-Rock; An, Chul-Min; Kang, Jung-Ha; Kim, Eun Mi; Kim, Heebal; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Jaemin

    2016-01-01

    Larger organisms tend to live longer, have more potentially carcinogenic cells, and undergo more cell divisions. While one might intuitively expect cancer incidence to scale with body size, this assertion does not hold over the range of different mammals. Explaining this lack of correlation, so-called ‘Peto’s paradox’ can likely increase our understanding of how cancer defense mechanisms are shaped by natural selection. Here, we study the occurrence of microsatellite in mammal genomes and observe that animals with expanded body size restrain the number of microsatellite. To take into account of higher mutation rate in the microsatellite region compared to that of genome, limiting the abundance of somatic mutations might explain how larger organisms could overcome the burden of cancer. These observations may serve as the basis to better understand how evolution has modeled protective mechanisms against cancer development. PMID:27125812

  2. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten; Erickson, David J; Branstetter, Marcia; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-09-15

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  3. New nonbinary quantum codes with larger distance constructed from BCH codes over 𝔽q2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gen; Li, Ruihu; Fu, Qiang; Ma, Yuena; Guo, Luobin

    2017-03-01

    This paper concentrates on construction of new nonbinary quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) from three classes of narrow-sense imprimitive BCH codes over finite field 𝔽q2 (q ≥ 3 is an odd prime power). By a careful analysis on properties of cyclotomic cosets in defining set T of these BCH codes, the improved maximal designed distance of these narrow-sense imprimitive Hermitian dual-containing BCH codes is determined to be much larger than the result given according to Aly et al. [S. A. Aly, A. Klappenecker and P. K. Sarvepalli, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 53, 1183 (2007)] for each different code length. Thus families of new nonbinary QECCs are constructed, and the newly obtained QECCs have larger distance than those in previous literature.

  4. Larger aftershocks happen farther away: nonseparability of magnitude and spatial distributions of aftershocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Elst, Nicholas; Shaw, Bruce E.

    2015-01-01

    Aftershocks may be driven by stress concentrations left by the main shock rupture or by elastic stress transfer to adjacent fault sections or strands. Aftershocks that occur within the initial rupture may be limited in size, because the scale of the stress concentrations should be smaller than the primary rupture itself. On the other hand, aftershocks that occur on adjacent fault segments outside the primary rupture may have no such size limitation. Here we use high-precision double-difference relocated earthquake catalogs to demonstrate that larger aftershocks occur farther away than smaller aftershocks, when measured from the centroid of early aftershock activity—a proxy for the initial rupture. Aftershocks as large as or larger than the initiating event nucleate almost exclusively in the outer regions of the aftershock zone. This observation is interpreted as a signature of elastic rebound in the earthquake catalog and can be used to improve forecasting of large aftershocks.

  5. Higher trends but larger uncertainty and geographic variability in 21st century temperature and heat waves

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Auroop R; Steinhaeuser, Karsten J K; Erickson III, David J; Branstetter, Marcia L; Parish, Esther S; Singh, Nagendra; Drake, John B; Buja, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Generating credible climate change and extremes projections remains a high-priority challenge, especially since recent observed emissions are above the worst-case scenario. Bias and uncertainty analyses of ensemble simulations from a global earth systems model show increased warming and more intense heat waves combined with greater uncertainty and large regional variability in the 21st century. Global warming trends are statistically validated across ensembles and investigated at regional scales. Observed heat wave intensities in the current decade are larger than worst-case projections. Model projections are relatively insensitive to initial conditions, while uncertainty bounds obtained by comparison with recent observations are wider than ensemble ranges. Increased trends in temperature and heat waves, concurrent with larger uncertainty and variability, suggest greater urgency and complexity of adaptation or mitigation decisions.

  6. Does reproductive isolation evolve faster in larger populations via sexually antagonistic coevolution?

    PubMed

    Gay, L; Eady, P E; Vasudev, R; Hosken, D J; Tregenza, T

    2009-10-23

    Sexual conflict over reproductive investment can lead to sexually antagonistic coevolution and reproductive isolation. It has been suggested that, unlike most models of allopatric speciation, the evolution of reproductive isolation through sexually antagonistic coevolution will occur faster in large populations as these harbour greater levels of standing genetic variation, receive larger numbers of mutations and experience more intense sexual selection. We tested this in bruchid beetle populations (Callosobruchus maculatus) by manipulating population size and standing genetic variability in replicated lines derived from founders that had been released from sexual conflict for 90 generations. We found that after 19 generations of reintroduced sexual conflict, none of our treatments had evolved significant overall reproductive isolation among replicate lines. However, as predicted, measures of reproductive isolation tended to be greater among larger populations. We discuss our methodology, arguing that reproductive isolation is best examined by performing a matrix of allopatric and sympatric crosses whereas measurement of divergence requires crosses with a tester line.

  7. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed Central

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G.; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S.; Zúñiga-Vega, J. Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions. PMID:26617418

  8. Have superfetation and matrotrophy facilitated the evolution of larger offspring in poeciliid fishes?

    PubMed

    Olivera-Tlahuel, Claudia; Ossip-Klein, Alison G; Espinosa-Pérez, Héctor S; Zúñiga-Vega, J Jaime

    2015-12-01

    Superfetation is the ability of females to simultaneously carry multiple broods of embryos, with each brood at a different developmental stage. Matrotrophy is the post-fertilization maternal provisioning of nutrients to developing embryos throughout gestation. Several studies have demonstrated that, in viviparous fishes, superfetation and matrotrophy have evolved in a correlated way, such that species capable of bearing several simultaneous broods also exhibit advanced degrees of post-fertilization provisioning. The adaptive value of the concurrent presence of both reproductive modes may be associated with the production of larger newborns, which in turn may result in enhanced offspring fitness. In this study, we tested two hypotheses: (1) species with superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy give birth to larger offspring compared to species without superfetation or matrotrophy; (2) species with higher degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. more simultaneous broods and increased amounts of post-fertilization provisioning) give birth to larger offspring compared to species with relatively low degrees of superfetation and matrotrophy (i.e. fewer simultaneous broods and lesser amounts of post-fertilization provisioning). Using different phylogenetic comparative methods and data on 44 species of viviparous fishes of the family Poeciliidae, we found a lack of association between offspring size and the combination of superfetation and matrotrophy. Therefore, the concurrent presence of superfetation and moderate or extensive matrotrophy has not facilitated the evolution of larger offspring. In fact, these traits have evolved differently. Superfetation and matrotrophy have accumulated gradual changes that largely can be explained by Brownian motion, whereas offspring size has evolved fluidly, experiencing changes that likely resulted from selective responses to the local conditions.

  9. Assessment of Gaussian-3 and density functional theories for a larger experimental test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtiss, Larry A.; Raghavachari, Krishnan; Redfern, Paul C.; Pople, John A.

    2000-05-01

    The G2/97 test set [J. Chem. Phys. 106, 1063 (1997)] for assessing quantum chemical methods used to predict thermochemical data is expanded to include 75 additional enthalpies of formation of larger molecules. This new set, referred to as the G3/99 test set, includes enthalpies of formation, ionization potentials, electron affinities, and proton affinities in the G2/97 set and 75 new enthalpies of formation. The total number of energies in the G3/99 set is 376. Overall, G3 theory has a mean absolute deviation of 1.07 kcal/mol for the G3/99 test set and does about as well for the new hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons as it does for those in the G2/97 test. However, G3 theory has large deviations for several of the new nonhydrogen systems in the G3/99 test set such as SF6 and PF5. Part of the source of error is traced to the inadequate geometries used in G3 theory for these molecules. Other variations of G3 theory are also assessed such as G3(MP2), G3(MP3), and the versions of G3 theory using scaled energy terms instead of the higher level correction. These variations also do well for the larger hydrocarbons and substituted hydrocarbons, but fail for the same nonhydrogen systems as G3 theory. The density functional methods assessed in this study, including the hybrid B3LYP method, all have much larger deviations from experiment for the new enthalpies of formation in the expanded test set; the mean absolute deviation more than doubles compared to that for the enthalpies in the G2/97 test set. This is due to a cumulative effect of the errors in the larger molecules in the density functional methods.

  10. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    PubMed

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  11. Larger groups of passerines are more efficient problem solvers in the wild.

    PubMed

    Morand-Ferron, Julie; Quinn, John L

    2011-09-20

    Group living commonly helps organisms face challenging environmental conditions. Although a known phenomenon in humans, recent findings suggest that a benefit of group living in animals generally might be increased innovative problem-solving efficiency. This benefit has never been demonstrated in a natural context, however, and the mechanisms underlying improved efficiency are largely unknown. We examined the problem-solving performance of great and blue tits at automated devices and found that efficiency increased with flock size. This relationship held when restricting the analysis to naive individuals, demonstrating that larger groups increased innovation efficiency. In addition to this effect of naive flock size, the presence of at least one experienced bird increased the frequency of solving, and larger flocks were more likely to contain experienced birds. These findings provide empirical evidence for the "pool of competence" hypothesis in nonhuman animals. The probability of success also differed consistently between individuals, a necessary condition for the pool of competence hypothesis. Solvers had a higher probability of success when foraging with a larger number of companions and when using devices located near rather than further from protective tree cover, suggesting a role for reduced predation risk on problem-solving efficiency. In contrast to traditional group living theory, individuals joining larger flocks benefited from a higher seed intake, suggesting that group living facilitated exploitation of a novel food source through improved problem-solving efficiency. Together our results suggest that both ecological and social factors, through reduced predation risk and increased pool of competence, mediate innovation in natural populations.

  12. More rapid shift to a benthic niche in larger Gadus morhua juveniles.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, G Á; Gunnarsson, G S; Karlsson, H

    2015-08-01

    Trophic use by Atlantic cod Gadus morhua juveniles was examined early and late in the shift from pelagic to benthic habitats. Changes in the proportion of pelagic copepods, estimates of benthic prey indicated by isotope mixing models and stable-isotope values between sample periods suggested a gradual shift towards a benthic niche. Values of the trophic proxies, however, changed most markedly in the largest juvenile group, suggesting a more rapid trophic niche shift, and in turn competitive advantage, of larger juveniles.

  13. Biodegradation of 2,4-dinitrophenol with laccase immobilized on nano-porous silica beads.

    PubMed

    Dehghanifard, Emad; Jonidi Jafari, Ahmad; Rezaei Kalantary, Roshanak; Mahvi, Amir Hosein; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Esrafili, Ali

    2013-04-01

    Many organic hazardous pollutants, including 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP), which are water soluble, toxic, and not easily biodegradable make concerns for environmental pollution worldwide. In the present study, degradation of nitrophenols-contained effluents by using laccase immobilized on the nano-porous silica beads was evaluated. 2,4-DNP was selected as the main constituent of industrial effluents containing nitrophenols. The performance of the system was characterized as a function of pH, contact time, temperature, pollutant, and mediator concentrations. The laccase-silica beads were employed in a mixed-batch reactor to determine the degradation efficiency after 12 h of enzyme treatment. The obtained data showed that the immobilized laccase degraded more than 90% of 2,4-DNP within 12 h treatment. The immobilization process improved the activity and sustainability of laccase for degradation of the pollutant. Temperatures more than 50°C reduced the enzyme activity to about 60%. However, pH and the mediator concentration could not affect the enzyme activity. The degradation kinetic was in accordance with a Michaelis-Menten equation with Vmax and Km obtained as 0.25-0.38 μmoles/min and 0.13-0.017 mM, respectively. The stability of the immobilized enzyme was maintained for more than 85% of its initial activity after 30 days. Based on the results, it can be concluded that high resistibility and reusability of immobilized laccase on CPC-silica beads make it considerable choice for wastewater treatment.

  14. Historical carbon dioxide emissions caused by land-use changes are possibly larger than assumed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arneth, A.; Sitch, S.; Pongratz, J.; Stocker, B. D.; Ciais, P.; Poulter, B.; Bayer, A. D.; Bondeau, A.; Calle, L.; Chini, L. P.; Gasser, T.; Fader, M.; Friedlingstein, P.; Kato, E.; Li, W.; Lindeskog, M.; Nabel, J. E. M. S.; Pugh, T. A. M.; Robertson, E.; Viovy, N.; Yue, C.; Zaehle, S.

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial biosphere absorbs about 20% of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. The overall magnitude of this sink is constrained by the difference between emissions, the rate of increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the ocean sink. However, the land sink is actually composed of two largely counteracting fluxes that are poorly quantified: fluxes from land-use change and CO2 uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. Dynamic global vegetation model simulations suggest that CO2 emissions from land-use change have been substantially underestimated because processes such as tree harvesting and land clearing from shifting cultivation have not been considered. As the overall terrestrial sink is constrained, a larger net flux as a result of land-use change implies that terrestrial uptake of CO2 is also larger, and that terrestrial ecosystems might have greater potential to sequester carbon in the future. Consequently, reforestation projects and efforts to avoid further deforestation could represent important mitigation pathways, with co-benefits for biodiversity. It is unclear whether a larger land carbon sink can be reconciled with our current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycling. Our possible underestimation of the historical residual terrestrial carbon sink adds further uncertainty to our capacity to predict the future of terrestrial carbon uptake and losses.

  15. The relationship between wolverine and larger predators, lynx and wolf, in a historical ecosystem context.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hussein; Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne; Elmhagen, Bodil

    2014-06-01

    Apex predators play an important role in shaping ecosystem structure. They may suppress smaller predators (mesopredators) but also subsidize scavengers via carrion provisioning. However, the importance of these interactions can change with ecosystem context. The wolverine (Gulo gulo) is a cold-adapted carnivore and facultative scavenger. It has a circumboreal distribution, where it could be either suppressed or subsidized by larger predators. In Scandinavia, the wolverine might interact with two larger predators, wolf (Canis lupus) and lynx (Lynx lynx), but human persecution decimated the populations in the nineteenth and early twentieth century. We investigated potential relationships between wolverine and the larger predators using hunting bag statistics from 15 Norwegian and Swedish counties in 1846-1922. Our best models showed a positive association between wolverine and lynx trends, taking ecological and human factors into account. There was also a positive association between year-to-year fluctuations in wolverine and wolf in the latter part of the study period. We suggest these associations could result from positive lynx-wolverine interactions through carrion provisioning, while wolves might both suppress wolverine and provide carrion with the net effect becoming positive when wolf density drops below a threshold. Wolverines could thus benefit from lynx presence and low-to-intermediate wolf densities.

  16. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  17. Larger amygdala volume in first-degree relatives of patients with major depression

    PubMed Central

    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Pöhland, Lydia; Mohnke, Sebastian; Garbusow, Maria; Erk, Susanne; Haddad, Leila; Grimm, Oliver; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Walter, Henrik; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although a heritable contribution to risk for major depressive disorder (MDD) has been established and neural alterations in patients have been identified through neuroimaging, it is unclear which brain abnormalities are related to genetic risk. Studies on brain structure of high-risk subjects – such as individuals carrying a familial liability for the development of MDD – can provide information on the potential usefulness of these measures as intermediate phenotypes of MDD. Methods 63 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with MDD and 63 healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Regional gray matter volumes were analyzed via voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Results Whole-brain analysis revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the bilateral amygdala in first-degree relatives of patients with MDD. Furthermore, relatives showed significantly larger gray matter volume in anatomical structures found relevant to MDD in previous literature, specifically in the bilateral hippocampus and amygdala as well as the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Bilateral DLPFC volume correlated positively with the experience of negative affect. Conclusions Larger gray matter volume in healthy relatives of MDD patients point to a possible vulnerability mechanism in MDD etiology and therefore extend knowledge in the field of high-risk approaches in MDD. PMID:25003028

  18. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  19. Biological Degradation of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

    PubMed Central

    Esteve-Núñez, Abraham; Caballero, Antonio; Ramos, Juan L.

    2001-01-01

    Nitroaromatic compounds are xenobiotics that have found multiple applications in the synthesis of foams, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, and explosives. These compounds are toxic and recalcitrant and are degraded relatively slowly in the environment by microorganisms. 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is the most widely used nitroaromatic compound. Certain strains of Pseudomonas and fungi can use TNT as a nitrogen source through the removal of nitrogen as nitrite from TNT under aerobic conditions and the further reduction of the released nitrite to ammonium, which is incorporated into carbon skeletons. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and other fungi mineralize TNT under ligninolytic conditions by converting it into reduced TNT intermediates, which are excreted to the external milieu, where they are substrates for ligninolytic enzymes. Most if not all aerobic microorganisms reduce TNT to the corresponding amino derivatives via the formation of nitroso and hydroxylamine intermediates. Condensation of the latter compounds yields highly recalcitrant azoxytetranitrotoluenes. Anaerobic microorganisms can also degrade TNT through different pathways. One pathway, found in Desulfovibrio and Clostridium, involves reduction of TNT to triaminotoluene; subsequent steps are still not known. Some Clostridium species may reduce TNT to hydroxylaminodinitrotoluenes, which are then further metabolized. Another pathway has been described in Pseudomonas sp. strain JLR11 and involves nitrite release and further reduction to ammonium, with almost 85% of the N-TNT incorporated as organic N in the cells. It was recently reported that in this strain TNT can serve as a final electron acceptor in respiratory chains and that the reduction of TNT is coupled to ATP synthesis. In this review we also discuss a number of biotechnological applications of bacteria and fungi, including slurry reactors, composting, and land farming, to remove TNT from polluted soils. These treatments have been designed to achieve

  20. Reduced gravity causes larger and lower-angle granular avalanches with less stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vet, S. J.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Markies, H.; in't Veld, A. C.; Postema, F. N.

    2010-12-01

    Granular materials avalanche when a static angle of repose is exceeded and freeze at a dynamic angle of repose. Such avalanches occur subaerially on hillslopes and wind dunes and subaqueously at the lee side of deltas and dunes. Their properties are important for the inference of present morphodynamics and past climate from surface morphology on rocky planetary bodies. The objective of this work is to determine whether the angles of repose depend on gravity; that is, are different on planet Mars or the Moon compared to Earth. Until now it has been assumed that the angles of repose are independent of gravitational acceleration because both mobilising force and friction theoretically depend linearly on gravity. During 33 parabolic flights in a well-controlled research aircraft we imaged avalanching granular materials in rotating drums and Hele-Shaw cells at effective gravitational accelerations of 0.10 g and 0.38 g. Control measurements were done at 1 g in flight and on the ground. The 9 drums had a diameter of 0.2 m and rotated slow enough for discontinuous avalanching. The granular materials had particle sizes of about 0.2, 0.6 or 2 mm, were rounded or angular and had air or water as interstitial fluid. Angles were measured at 25 Hz by image analyses on the digital videos and acceleration of the aircraft was measured at 50 Hz in three directions. Hele-shaw cells were used to study auto-organization processes in discontinuous avalanching bi-dispersed granular materials and their respective individual grain species. In both setups the angular materials had time-averaged angles of about 40 deg and rounded materials about 25 deg for all g, except the finest glass beads in air, which is explained by static electricity. For all materials, the static angle of repose increases about 5 deg with decreasing g (from 1 to 0.1 g), whereas the dynamic angle decreases with about 10 deg. Consequently, the avalanche size increases with decreasing g. The interstitial fluid hardly

  1. Compounds 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene: The absence of recA-dependent mutagenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Karamova, N.S.; Mynina, I.I.; Garaeva, G.G.

    1995-05-01

    The genotoxicity of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) and its amino derivative, 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2,4-DA-6-NT), was studied using the Escherichia coli tester strain PQ37 in the SOS chromotest. The compound 2,4,6-TNT, without metabolic activation, virtually failed to induce an SOS effect in cells of the tester bacteria. Consequently, mutagenic activity of 2,4,6-TNT, which was shown earlier in the Ames test, does not depend on SOS mutagenesis. It was demonstrated that metabolic activation with the microsomal S9 human placenta fraction results in a threefold increase in the induction factor of the SOS effect caused by 2,4,6-TNT. The absence of the SOS-inducing activity of 2,4-DA-6-NT, regardless of the presence of a microsomal activating mixture, is shown. Thus, 2,4-DA-6-NT does not belong to metabolites of 2,4,6-TNT, responsible for the genotoxicity of this compound. 25 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Meeting Air Transportation Demand in 2025 by Using Larger Aircraft and Alternative Routing to Complement NextGen Operational Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Jeremy C.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Viken, Jeffrey K.; Dollyhigh, Samuel M.; Fenbert, James W.

    2010-01-01

    A study was performed that investigates the use of larger aircraft and alternative routing to complement the capacity benefits expected from the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) in 2025. National Airspace System (NAS) delays for the 2025 demand projected by the Transportation Systems Analysis Models (TSAM) were assessed using NASA s Airspace Concept Evaluation System (ACES). The shift in demand from commercial airline to automobile and from one airline route to another was investigated by adding the route delays determined from the ACES simulation to the travel times used in the TSAM and re-generating new flight scenarios. The ACES simulation results from this study determined that NextGen Operational Improvements alone do not provide sufficient airport capacity to meet the projected demand for passenger air travel in 2025 without significant system delays. Using larger aircraft with more seats on high-demand routes and introducing new direct routes, where demand warrants, significantly reduces delays, complementing NextGen improvements. Another significant finding of this study is that the adaptive behavior of passengers to avoid congested airline-routes is an important factor when projecting demand for transportation systems. Passengers will choose an alternative mode of transportation or alternative airline routes to avoid congested routes, thereby reducing delays to acceptable levels for the 2025 scenario; the penalty being that alternative routes and the option to drive increases overall trip time by 0.4% and may be less convenient than the first-choice route.

  3. Experimental and theoretical investigation of new hypervalent molecules Li nF ( n = 2-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veličković, Suzana R.; Koteski, Vasil J.; Belošević Čavor, Jelena N.; Djordjević, Vesna R.; Cvetićanin, Jelena M.; Djustebek, Jasmina B.; Veljković, Miomir V.; Nešković, Olivera M.

    2007-11-01

    Hypervalent molecules of Li 3F and Li 4F were detected experimentally for the first time. Ionization energies determined by the thermal ionization mass spectrometry were 3.8 ± 0.2 eV for Li 2F, 4.0 ± 0.2 eV for Li 3F and 3.9 ± 0.2 eV for Li 4F. The ionization energies obtained by ab initio calculations support the experimental findings. The lowest energy structures of the Li nF ( n = 2-4) molecules and their cations were also predicted.

  4. Molecular Imprinted Polymer of Methacrylic Acid Functionalised β-Cyclodextrin for Selective Removal of 2,4-Dichlorophenol

    PubMed Central

    Surikumaran, Hemavathy; Mohamad, Sharifah; Sarih, Norazilawati Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    This work describes methacrylic acid functionalized β-cyclodextrin (MAA-βCD) as a novel functional monomer in the preparation of molecular imprinted polymer (MIP MAA-βCD) for the selective removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP). The polymer was characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) techniques. The influence of parameters such as solution pH, contact time, temperature and initial concentrations towards removal of 2,4-DCP using MIP MAA-βCD have been evaluated. The imprinted material shows fast kinetics and the optimum pH for removal of 2,4-DCP is pH 7. Compared with the corresponding non-imprinted polymer (NIP MAA-βCD), the MIP MAA-βCD exhibited higher adsorption capacity and outstanding selectivity towards 2,4-DCP. Freundlich isotherm best fitted the adsorption equilibrium data of MIP MAA-βCD and the kinetics followed a pseudo-second-order model. The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4-DCP was spontaneous and exothermic under the examined conditions. PMID:24727378

  5. Reduction of 2,4-dinitrotoluene by Wistar rat liver microsomal and cytosol fractions.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Matsuhashi, T; Miyahara, T; Shibata, S; Izima, C; Kozuka, H

    1984-10-01

    2,4-Dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is an important industrial nitroaromatic compound. 2,4-Diaminotoluene (2,4-DAT), one of the urinary metabolites of 2,4-DNT, is carcinogenic when fed to rats. The objectives of these studies were to determine whether 2,4-DAT was formed from 2,4-DNT in rat liver and to clarify the nature of enzymes responsible for reduction of 2,4-DNT to 2,4-DAT. Data obtained from thin-layer and high-pressure liquid chromatography indicated that metabolites produced by microsomal preparations were 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene (2A4NT) and its isomer (4A2NT). This microsomal activity is probably mediated by cytochrome P-450 because the reduction is blocked by carbon monoxide and primary amines [aniline, n-octylamine, and 2,4-dichloro-6-phenylphenoxyethylamine (DPEA)]. In contrast, 2,4-DNT was metabolized via 2A4NT and 4A2NT to 2,4-DAT by cytosolic preparations. The greatest part of the reduction activity was due to cytosolic xanthine oxidase because the reduction was blocked by allopurinol. The results of this investigation suggest that reduction of 2,4-DNT to 2,4-DAT by cytosolic xanthine oxidase may play a role in 2,4-DNT hepatocarcinogenicity.

  6. Syn/anti isomerization of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in the determination of airborne unsymmetrical aldehydes and ketones using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivation.

    PubMed

    Binding, N; Müller, W; Witting, U

    1996-10-01

    Aldehydes and ketones readily react with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (2,4-DNPH) to form the corresponding hydrazones. This reaction has been frequently used for the quantification of airborne carbonyl compounds. Since unsymmetrical aldehydes and ketones are known to form isomeric 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones (syn/ anti-isomers), the influence of isomerization on the practicability and accuracy of the 2,4-DNPH-method using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine-coated solid sorbent samplers has been studied with three ketones (methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), methyl isopropyl ketone (MIPK), and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)). With all three ketones the reaction with 2,4-DNPH resulted in mixtures of the isomeric hydrazones which were separated by HPLC and GC and identified by mass spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The isomers show similar chromatographic behaviour in HPLC as well as in GC, thus leading to problems in quantification and interpretation of chromatographic results.

  7. Interpretation of hydraulic conductivity in a fractured-rock aquifer over increasingly larger length dimensions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Ladderud, Jeffery; Yager, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    A comparison of the hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger volumes of crystalline rock was conducted in the Piedmont physiographic region near Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Fluid-injection tests were conducted on intervals of boreholes isolating closely spaced fractures. Single-hole tests were conducted by pumping in open boreholes for approximately 30 min, and an interference test was conducted by pumping a single borehole over 3 days while monitoring nearby boreholes. An estimate of the hydraulic conductivity of the rock over hundreds of meters was inferred from simulating groundwater inflow into a kilometer-long section of a Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority tunnel in the study area, and a groundwater modeling investigation over the Rock Creek watershed provided an estimate of the hydraulic conductivity over kilometers. The majority of groundwater flow is confined to relatively few fractures at a given location. Boreholes installed to depths of approximately 50 m have one or two highly transmissive fractures; the transmissivity of the remaining fractures ranges over five orders of magnitude. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity over increasingly larger rock volumes varied by less than half an order of magnitude. While many investigations point to increasing hydraulic conductivity as a function of the measurement scale, a comparison with selected investigations shows that the effective hydraulic conductivity estimated over larger volumes of rock can either increase, decrease, or remain stable as a function of the measurement scale. Caution needs to be exhibited in characterizing effective hydraulic properties in fractured rock for the purposes of groundwater management.

  8. Environmental effects of planting energy crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  9. Environmental effects of planting biomass crops at larger scales on agricultural lands

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, V.R.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-09-01

    Increasing from research-scale to larger-scale plantings of herbaceous. and short rotation woody crops on agricultural land in the United States has raised questions about the positive and negative environmental effects of farmland conversion. Research currently underway at experimental plot scales enables us examine runoff quality and quantity, erosion, and changes in soil characteristics associated with these energy crops compared to conventional row crops. A study of the fate of chemicals applied to the different crop types will enhance our knowledge of uptake, release, and off-site movement of nutrients and pesticides. Ongoing biodiversity studies in the North Central US allow us to compare differences in scale of plantings on bird and small mammal populations and habitat use. Plantings of 50--100 or more contiguous acres are needed to allow both researchers and producers to determine the benefits of including temporal energy crop rotations in the landscape. Results from these larger-scale plantings will help identify (1) the monitoring requirements needed to determine environmental effects of larger-scale plantings, (2) the best methods to determine the environmental effects of rotation length and the best crop management strategies for full-scale production. Because of the variations in soils, temperature, rainfall and other climatic conditions, as well as differences in the types of energy crops most suited for different regions, monitoring of large-scale plantings in these different regions of the US will be required to predict the environmental effects of regional agricultural land-use shifts for full-scale plantings.

  10. Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy of Yemen and Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, M.; Serra-Kiel, J.; Pignatti, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Paleogene larger foraminiferal biostratigraphy is today rather well assessed for the Tethyan domain. In order to contribute to the full integration of the Middle-East in the widely employed Shallow Benthic Zonation, a preliminary report on the Paleocene-Early Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages from Yemen and Oman is provided here. The sections investigated in Yemen range in age from the Upper Cretaceous to the Oligocene. The Paleogene of Yemen is widely affected by dolomitization and only by analyzing over 1,700 thin sections from 60 stratigraphic sections (mainly from Hadramaut and Socotra) it has been possible to adequately investigate the fossil assemblages. In contrast, the deposits from northern Oman are characterized by rich and extraordinarily well-preserved Paleocene-Lower Eocene larger foraminiferal assemblages. This preliminary report focuses mainly on the Paleocene-Early Eocene deposits of the Umm-er-Radhuma formation. The Paleocene-Lower Eocene assemblages are characterized by strong affinities with northern Somalia. Hyaline forms such as Daviesina khatiyahi, Miscellanea gr. rhomboidea/dukhani, M. miscella, Saudia, Sakesaria, Lockhartia, Ranikothalia, Dictyokathina largely prevail in SBZ 3-4 deposits. Nummulites, Ranikothalia and Daviesina ruida characterize the Lower Ypresian. Subordinately, porcelaneous forms such as "Taberina" daviesi and conical agglutinated (Daviesiconus) also occur; alveolinids (such as Alveolina vredenburgi and A. decipiens) are relatively abundant in the basal Lower Ypresian of Socotra. In contrast to the coeval deposits from Yemen, the Paleocene section of Oman (Wadi Duqm, Abat-Tiwi platform) yields very well-preserved larger foraminiferal assemblages and agglutinated and porcelaneous forms are well represented. The occurrence of abundant Globoreticulina paleocenica is noteworthy along with an as yet undescribed Lacazinella species. The co-occurrence of Coskinon sp., "Plumokathina dienii", Dictyoconus turriculus and

  11. 2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Spar, bramble, and the larger cutters storis (W38) make their way through arctic ice during the first transit of the northwest passage by a U.S. vessel. The lead 180 has a weight suspended over its starboard side. By swinging this weight back and forth across the centerline, the vessel can rock to free herself from ice. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Determining fate and transport parameters for nitroglycerine, 2,4-dinitrotoluine, and nitroguanidine in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosch, D. L.; Dontsova, K.; Chorover, J.; Ferré, T.; Taylor, S.

    2010-12-01

    During military operations, a small fraction of propellant mass is not consumed during firing and is deposited onto the ground surface (Jenkins et al., 2006). Soluble propellant constituents can be released from particulate residues into the environment. Propellant constituents of interest for this study are nitroglycerine (NG), 2,4-dinitrotoluine (2,4-DNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluine (2,6-DNT), and nitroguanidine (NQ). The goal of this work is to determine fate and transport parameters for these constituents in three soils that represent a range of geographic locations and soil properties. This supports a companion study that looks at dissolution of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT, and NQ from fired and unfired solid propellant formulations and their transport in soils. The three soils selected for the study are Catlin silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, mesic, superactive Oxyaquic Argiudoll), Plymouth sandy loam (mesic, coated Typic Quartzipsamment), and Sassafras loam (fine loamy, siliceous, mesic Typic Hapudult). Two of these soils, Plymouth sandy loam and Sassafras loam, were collected on military installations. Linear adsorption coefficients and transformation rates of propellant constituents were determined in batch kinetic experiments. Soils were mixed with propellant constituent solutions (2 mg L-1) at 4:1 solution/soil mass ratio and equilibrated for 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 120 hr at which time samples were centrifuged and supernatant solutions were analyzed for target compounds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using U.S. EPA Method 8330b for NG, 2,4-DNT, and 2,6-DNT, and Walsh (1989) method for NQ. Adsorption and transformation of propellant constituents were determined from the decrease in solution concentration of these compounds. It was determined that all studied compounds were subjected to sorption by the solid phase and degradation. Catlin soil, with finer texture and high organic matter content, influenced solution concentration of NG, 2,4-DNT, 2,6-DNT

  13. Heterogeneous photocatalytic ozonation of 2,4-D in dilute aqueous solution with TiO2 fiber.

    PubMed

    Giri, R R; Ozaki, H; Takanami, R; Taniguchi, S

    2008-01-01

    Photocatalytic ozonation (O(3)/UV/TiO2) is an emerging oxidation method for recalcitrant organic contaminants in water. However, immobilised TiO2 catalysts suffer from reduced photonic efficiency. Therefore, TiO2 catalysts with excellent mechanical and thermal properties and enhanced photonic efficiencies are sought. This paper aimed to elucidate the mineralisation of low concentration 2,4-D (45.0 microM) by O(3)/UV/TiO2 using the world's first high-strength TiO2 fibre in laboratory batch experiments. 2,4-D degradation and TOC removal followed pseudo first-order reaction kinetic. The removal rates for 2,4-D and TOC in O(3)/UV/TiO2 were 1.5 and 2.4-fold larger than the summation of the values for ozonation (O3)) and photocatalysis (UV/TiO2), respectively. O(3)/UV/TiO2 was characterised by few aromatic intermediates with low abundance, fast degradations of aliphatic intermediates and dechlorination as a major step. The significantly enhanced 2,4-D mineralisation in O(3)/UV/TiO2 was attributed to increased ozone dissolution and decomposition, and reduced electron-hole recombination resulting in large number of hydroxyl radical (*OH) formation from more than one parallel path. The discrepancies in the organic carbon mass budget were attributed to few apparently major unidentified intermediates, while chlorine mass balance was reasonably acceptable. The mineralisation efficiency of O(3)/UV/TiO2 with the TiO2 fibre can further be enhanced by optimisation of experimental design parameters. The new TiO2 fibre is very promising to overcome the problem of reduced efficiency of TiO2 catalyst in an immobilised state.

  14. Rapid, Microwave Accelerated Synthesis of [1,2,4]Triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from 4-Acylamino-1,2,4-Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Breunig, Stesphanie L; Olson, Margaret E; Harki, Daniel A

    2016-09-07

    1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.

  15. Building America Case Study: Rehabilitation of USDA Multifamily Homes, Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-04-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC, (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface) on the rehabilitation of 418 low-income rental multifamily apartments located at 14 different properties in Georgia (Climate Zones 2-4). These 22-year old, individually-metered units were arranged in rowhouse or townhouse style units. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, who partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide. In 2012, over $100 million was allocated in grants and loans. Due to the unique financing mechanism as well as long-term ownership requirements, property owners are especially motivated to invest in upgrades that will increase durability and tenant retention. These buildings represent a large stock of rural affordable housing that have the potential for significant energy and cost savings for property owners and tenants. Southface analyzed the energy upgrade potential of one stereotypical property in the Rea Ventures portfolio. This study will provide insight into the most cost-effective, implementable energy efficiency and durability upgrades for this age multifamily housing, having an enormous impact not only on the portfolio of Rea Ventures but on the vast USDA and larger Federal portfolio. Additionally, Southface will identify gaps in the current capital needs assessment process, examine available audit and simulation tools and protocols, and evaluate additional auditor training or certification needs.

  16. Description of the Weatherization Assistance Program in larger multifamily buildings for Program Year 1989

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, J.M.

    1993-04-01

    The efforts of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program (the Program) in larger multifamily buildings were examined for Program Year 1989. The results show that about 20,000 dwellings in these multifamily buildings were served under the Program that year. This is 9% of the total number of units served nationally, while costs were 7% of total national costs. High levels of activity in larger multifamily buildings were reported for some States, with New York accounting for half of all the residences treated. Owner investment is an important strategy in New York for improving their efforts. A wide range of measures was installed, but the materials costs for the measures are dominated by the cost of windows (80% of the total for that year). Where the whole building was treated, $561 was invested per unit, while for partial-building work the total invested was $417. The energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Program were not estimated, because energy use and cost data adequate for developing such estimates could not be obtained.

  17. The trans-neptunian object UB313 is larger than Pluto.

    PubMed

    Bertoldi, F; Altenhoff, W; Weiss, A; Menten, K M; Thum, C

    2006-02-02

    The most distant known object in the Solar System, 2003 UB313 (97 au from the Sun), was recently discovered near its aphelion. Its high eccentricity and inclination to the ecliptic plane, along with its perihelion near the orbit of Neptune, identify it as a member of the 'scattered disk'. This disk of bodies probably originates in the Kuiper belt objects, which orbit near the ecliptic plane in circular orbits between 30 and 50 au, and may include Pluto as a member. The optical brightness of 2003 UB313, if adjusted to Pluto's distance, is greater than that of Pluto, which suggested that it might be larger than Pluto. The actual size, however, could not be determined from the optical measurements because the surface reflectivity (albedo) was unknown. Here we report observations of the thermal emission of 2003 UB313 at a wavelength of 1.2 mm, which in combination with the measured optical brightness leads to a diameter of 3,000 +/- 300 +/- 100 km. Here the first error reflects measurement uncertainties, while the second derives from the unknown object orientation. This makes 2003 UB313 the largest known trans-neptunian object, even larger than Pluto (2,300 km). The albedo is 0.60 +/- 0.10 +/- 0.05, which is strikingly similar to that of Pluto, suggesting that the methane seen in the optical spectrum causes a highly reflective icy surface.

  18. SIGNALING EFFICACY DRIVES THE EVOLUTION OF LARGER SEXUAL ORNAMENTS BY SEXUAL SELECTION

    PubMed Central

    Tazzyman, Samuel J; Iwasa, Yoh; Pomiankowski, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Why are there so few small secondary sexual characters? Theoretical models predict that sexual selection should lead to reduction as often as exaggeration, and yet we mainly associate secondary sexual ornaments with exaggerated features such as the peacock's tail. We review the literature on mate choice experiments for evidence of reduced sexual traits. This shows that reduced ornamentation is effectively impossible in certain types of ornamental traits (behavioral, pheromonal, or color-based traits, and morphological ornaments for which the natural selection optimum is no trait), but that there are many examples of morphological traits that would permit reduction. Yet small sexual traits are very rarely seen. We analyze a simple mathematical model of Fisher's runaway process (the null model for sexual selection). Our analysis shows that the imbalance cannot be wholly explained by larger ornaments being less costly than smaller ornaments, nor by preferences for larger ornaments being less costly than preferences for smaller ornaments. Instead, we suggest that asymmetry in signaling efficacy limits runaway to trait exaggeration. PMID:24099137

  19. Juvenile exposure to predator cues induces a larger egg size in fish

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Francisca H. I. D.; Taborsky, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    When females anticipate a hazardous environment for their offspring, they can increase offspring survival by producing larger young. Early environmental experience determines egg size in different animal taxa. We predicted that a higher perceived predation risk by juveniles would cause an increase in the sizes of eggs that they produce as adults. To test this, we exposed juveniles of the mouthbrooding cichlid Eretmodus cyanostictus in a split-brood experiment either to cues of a natural predator or to a control situation. After maturation, females that had been confronted with predators produced heavier eggs, whereas clutch size itself was not affected by the treatment. This effect cannot be explained by a differential female body size because the predator treatment did not influence growth trajectories. The observed increase of egg mass is likely to be adaptive, as heavier eggs gave rise to larger young and in fish, juvenile predation risk drops sharply with increasing body size. This study provides the first evidence that predator cues perceived by females early in life positively affect egg mass, suggesting that these cues allow her to predict the predation risk for her offspring. PMID:21976689

  20. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans

    PubMed Central

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E.; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan–antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort. PMID:27091615

  1. Larger Daphnia at lower temperature: a role for cell size and genome configuration?

    PubMed

    Jalal, Marwa; Wojewodzic, Marcin W; Laane, Carl Morten M; Hessen, Dag O

    2013-09-01

    Experiments with Daphnia magna and Daphnia pulex raised at 10 and 20 °C yielded larger adult size at the lower temperature. This must reflect increased cell size, increased cell numbers, or a combination of both. As it is difficult to achieve good estimates on cell size in crustaceans, we, therefore, measured nucleus and genome size using flow cytometry at 10 and 20 °C. DNA was stained with propidium iodide, ethidium bromide, and DAPI. Both nucleus and genome size estimates were elevated at 10 °C compared with 20 °C, suggesting that larger body size at low temperature could partly be accredited to an enlarged nucleus and thus cell size. Confocal microscopy observations confirmed the staining properties of fluorochromes. As differences in nucleotide numbers in response of growth temperature within a life span is unlikely, these results seem accredited to changed DNA-fluorochrome binding properties, presumably reflecting increased DNA condensation at low temperature. This implies that genome size comparisons may be impacted by ambient temperature in ectotherms. It also suggests that temperature-induced structural changes in the genome could affect cell size and for some species even body size.

  2. Multivalent display of minimal Clostridium difficile glycan epitopes mimics antigenic properties of larger glycans.

    PubMed

    Broecker, Felix; Hanske, Jonas; Martin, Christopher E; Baek, Ju Yuel; Wahlbrink, Annette; Wojcik, Felix; Hartmann, Laura; Rademacher, Christoph; Anish, Chakkumkal; Seeberger, Peter H

    2016-04-19

    Synthetic cell-surface glycans are promising vaccine candidates against Clostridium difficile. The complexity of large, highly antigenic and immunogenic glycans is a synthetic challenge. Less complex antigens providing similar immune responses are desirable for vaccine development. Based on molecular-level glycan-antibody interaction analyses, we here demonstrate that the C. difficile surface polysaccharide-I (PS-I) can be resembled by multivalent display of minimal disaccharide epitopes on a synthetic scaffold that does not participate in binding. We show that antibody avidity as a measure of antigenicity increases by about five orders of magnitude when disaccharides are compared with constructs containing five disaccharides. The synthetic, pentavalent vaccine candidate containing a peptide T-cell epitope elicits weak but highly specific antibody responses to larger PS-I glycans in mice. This study highlights the potential of multivalently displaying small oligosaccharides to achieve antigenicity characteristic of larger glycans. The approach may result in more cost-efficient carbohydrate vaccines with reduced synthetic effort.

  3. COALESCENCE OF DEEP AND SUPERFICIAL EPILEPTIC FOCI INTO LARGER DISCHARGE UNITS IN ADULT RAT NEOCORTEX

    PubMed Central

    SERAFINI, RUGGERO; ANDRADE, RODRIGO; LOEB, JEFFREY A.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a disease of neuronal hyper-synchrony that can involve both neocortical and hippocampal brain regions. While much is known about the network properties of the hippocampus little is known of how epileptic neocortical hyper-synchrony develops. We aimed at characterizing the properties of epileptic discharges of a neocortical epileptic focus. We established a multi-electrode-array method to record the spatial patterns of epileptiform potentials in acute adult rat brain slices evoked by 4-Aminopyridine in the absence of magnesium. Locations of discharges mapped to two anatomical regions over the somatosensory cortex and over the lateral convexity separated by a gap at a location matching the dysgranular zone. Focal epileptiform discharges were recorded in superficial and deep neocortical layers but over superficial layers, they exhibited larger surface areas. They were often independent even when closely spaced to one another but they became progressively coupled resulting in larger zones of coherent discharge. The gradual coupling of multiple, independent, closely spaced, spatially restricted, focal discharges between deep and superficial neocortical layers represents a possible mechanism of the development of an epileptogenic zone. PMID:25701714

  4. Genetic evidence for larger African population size during recent human evolution.

    PubMed

    Relethford, J H; Jorde, L B

    1999-03-01

    Genetic evidence suggests that the long-term average effective size of sub-Saharan Africa is larger than other geographic regions. A method is described that allows estimation of relative long-term regional population sizes. This method is applied to 60 microsatellite DNA loci from a sample of 72 sub-Saharan Africans, 63 East Asians, and 120 Europeans. Average heterozygosity is significantly higher in the sub-Saharan African sample. Expected heterozygosity was computed for each region and locus using a population genetic model based on the null hypothesis of equal long-term population sizes. Average residual heterozygosity is significantly higher in the sub-Saharan African sample, indicating that African population size was larger than other regions during recent human evolution. The best fit of the model is with relative population weights of 0.73 for sub-Saharan Africa, 0.09 for East Asia, and 0.18 for Europe. These results are similar to those obtained using craniometric variation for these three geographic regions. These results, combined with inferences from other genetic studies, support a major role of Africa in the origin of modern humans. It is less clear, however, whether complete African replacement is the most appropriate model. An alternative is an African origin with non-African gene flow. While Africa is an important region in recent human evolution, it is not clear whether the gene pool of our species is completely out of Africa or predominately out of Africa.

  5. Evaluation of 2,4-dichlorophenol exposure of Japanese medaka, Oryzias latipes, using a metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Kokushi, Emiko; Shintoyo, Aoi; Koyama, Jiro; Uno, Seiichi

    2016-04-07

    In this study, the metabolic effects of waterborne exposure of medaka (Oryzias latipes) to nominal concentrations of 20 (L group) and 2000 μg/L (H group) 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) were examined using a gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) metabolomics approach. A principal component analysis (PCA) separated the L, H, and control groups along PC1 to explain the toxic effects of DCP at 24 h of exposure. Furthermore, the L and H groups were separated along PC1 at 96 h on the PCA score plots. These results suggest that the effects of DCP depended on exposure concentration and time. Changes in tricarboxylic cycle metabolites suggested that fish exposed to 2,4-DCP require more energy to metabolize and eliminate DCP, particularly at 96 h of exposure. A time-dependent response in the fish exposed to DCP was observed in the GC/MS data, suggesting that the higher DCP concentration had greater effects at 24 h than those observed in response to the lower concentration. In addition, several essential amino acids (arginine, histidine, lysine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) decreased after DCP exposure in the H group, and starvation condition and high concentration exposure of DCP could consume excess energy from amino acids.

  6. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amine catalysts or amines by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatization.

    PubMed

    Barman, Bhajendra N

    2014-01-31

    Carbonyl compounds, specifically aldehydes, present in amine catalysts or amines are determined by reversed-phase liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection of their corresponding 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. The primary focus has been to establish optimum conditions for determining aldehydes accurately because these add exposure concerns when the amine catalysts are used to manufacture polyurethane products. Concentrations of aldehydes determined by this method are found to vary with the pH of the aqueous amine solution and the derivatization time, the latter being problematic when the derivatization reaction proceeds slowly and not to completion in neutral and basic media. Accurate determination of aldehydes in amines through derivatization can be carried out at an effective solution pH of about 2 and with derivatization time of 20min. Hydrochloric acid has been used for neutralization of an amine. For complete derivatization, it is essential to protonate all nitrogen atoms in the amine. An approach for the determination of an adequate amount of acid needed for complete derivatization has been described. Several 0.2M buffer solutions varying in pH from 4 to 8 have also been used to make amine solutions for carrying out derivatization of aldehydes. These solutions have effective pHs of 10 or higher and provide much lower aldehyde concentrations compared to their true values. Mechanisms for the formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones in both acidic and basic media are discussed.

  7. Massive Galaxies Are Larger in Dense Environments: Environmental Dependence of Mass–Size Relation of Early-type Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yongmin; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo

    2017-01-01

    Under the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological models, massive galaxies are expected to be larger in denser environments through frequent hierarchical mergers with other galaxies. Yet, observational studies of low-redshift early-type galaxies have shown no such trend, standing as a puzzle to solve during the past decade. We analyzed 73,116 early-type galaxies at 0.1 ≤ z < 0.15, adopting a robust nonparametric size measurement technique and extending the analysis to many massive galaxies. We find for the first time that local early-type galaxies heavier than 1011.2 M⊙ show a clear environmental dependence in mass–size relation, in such a way that galaxies are as much as 20%–40% larger in the densest environments than in underdense environments. Splitting the sample into the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) and non-BCGs does not affect the result. This result agrees with the ΛCDM cosmological simulations and suggests that mergers played a significant role in the growth of massive galaxies in dense environments as expected in theory.

  8. Establishment of Immortalized BMP2/4 Double Knock-Out Osteoblastic Cells Is Essential for Study of Osteoblast Growth, Differentiation, and Osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-An; Wang, Feng; Donly, Kevin J; Baker, Andrew; Wan, Chunyan; Luo, Daoshu; MacDougall, Mary; Chen, Shuo

    2016-06-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (BMP2/4) are essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Generation of a BMP2/4 dual knock-out ((ko/ko)) osteoblastic cell line is a valuable asset for studying effects of BMP2/4 on skeletal development. In this study, our goal was to create immortalized mouse deleted BMP2/4 osteoblasts by infecting adenoviruses with Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein genes into immortalized murine floxed BMP2/4 osteoblasts. Transduced BMP2/4(ko/ko) cells were verified by green immunofluorescence and PCR. BMP2/4(ko/ko) osteoblasts exhibited small size, slow cell proliferation rate and cell growth was arrested in G1 and G2 phases. Expression of bone-relate genes was reduced in the BMP2/4(ko/ko) cells, resulting in delay of cell differentiation and mineralization. Importantly, extracellular matrix remodeling was impaired in the BMP2/4(ko/ko) osteoblasts as reflected by decreased Mmp-2 and Mmp-9 expressions. Cell differentiation and mineralization were rescued by exogenous BMP2 and/or BMP4. Therefore, we for the first time described establishment of an immortalized deleted BMP2/4 osteoblast line useful for study of mechanisms in regulating osteoblast lineages.

  9. Establishment of Immortalized BMP2/4 Double Knock‐Out Osteoblastic Cells Is Essential for Study of Osteoblast Growth, Differentiation, and Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li‐An; Wang, Feng; Donly, Kevin J.; Baker, Andrew; Wan, Chunyan; Luo, Daoshu; MacDougall, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins 2 and 4 (BMP2/4) are essential for osteoblast differentiation and osteogenesis. Generation of a BMP2/4 dual knock‐out (ko/ko) osteoblastic cell line is a valuable asset for studying effects of BMP2/4 on skeletal development. In this study, our goal was to create immortalized mouse deleted BMP2/4 osteoblasts by infecting adenoviruses with Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein genes into immortalized murine floxed BMP2/4 osteoblasts. Transduced BMP2/4ko/ko cells were verified by green immunofluorescence and PCR. BMP2/4ko/ko osteoblasts exhibited small size, slow cell proliferation rate and cell growth was arrested in G1 and G2 phases. Expression of bone‐relate genes was reduced in the BMP2/4ko/ko cells, resulting in delay of cell differentiation and mineralization. Importantly, extracellular matrix remodeling was impaired in the BMP2/4ko/ko osteoblasts as reflected by decreased Mmp‐2 and Mmp‐9 expressions. Cell differentiation and mineralization were rescued by exogenous BMP2 and/or BMP4. Therefore, we for the first time described establishment of an immortalized deleted BMP2/4 osteoblast line useful for study of mechanisms in regulating osteoblast lineages. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1189–1198, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26595646

  10. 4π Noncoplanar Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Centrally Located or Larger Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Peng; Lee, Percy; Ruan, Dan; Long, Troy; Romeijn, Edwin; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Abraham, John; Yang, Yingli; Sheng, Ke

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To investigate the dosimetric improvements in stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with larger or central lung tumors using a highly noncoplanar 4π planning system. Methods and Materials: This study involved 12 patients with centrally located or larger lung tumors previously treated with 7- to 9-field static beam intensity modulated radiation therapy to 50 Gy. They were replanned using volumetric modulated arc therapy and 4π plans, in which a column generation method was used to optimize the beam orientation and the fluence map. Maximum doses to the heart, esophagus, trachea/bronchus, and spinal cord, as well as the 50% isodose volume, the lung volumes receiving 20, 10, and 5 Gy were minimized and compared against the clinical plans. A dose escalation study was performed to determine whether a higher prescription dose to the tumor would be achievable using 4π without violating dose limits set by the clinical plans. The deliverability of 4π plans was preliminarily tested. Results: Using 4π plans, the maximum heart, esophagus, trachea, bronchus and spinal cord doses were reduced by 32%, 72%, 37%, 44%, and 53% (P≤.001), respectively, and R{sub 50} was reduced by more than 50%. Lung V{sub 20}, V{sub 10}, and V{sub 5} were reduced by 64%, 53%, and 32% (P≤.001), respectively. The improved sparing of organs at risk was achieved while also improving planning target volume (PTV) coverage. The minimal PTV doses were increased by the 4π plans by 12% (P=.002). Consequently, escalated PTV doses of 68 to 70 Gy were achieved in all patients. Conclusions: We have shown that there is a large potential for plan quality improvement and dose escalation for patients with larger or centrally located lung tumors using noncoplanar beams with sufficient quality and quantity. Compared against the clinical volumetric modulated arc therapy and static intensity modulated radiation therapy plans, the 4π plans yielded significantly and consistently improved tumor

  11. AN ENZYME LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY (ELISA) METHOD FOR THE URINARY BIOMONITORING OF 2,4-DICHLOROPHRENOCYACETIC ACID (2,4-D)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method was developed to quantitatively measure 2,4-dichlorophenoyacetic acid (2,4-D) in human urine. Samples were diluted (1:5) with phosphate-buffered saline, 0.05% Tween 20, with 0.02% sodium azide, and analyzed by a 96-microwekk pl...

  12. Effect of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) on PCDD/F Emissions from Open Burning of Biomass

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of pesticides prior to agricultural burning and overspray onto forests and grasslands prior to fires has been cited as a cause of halogenated organic compound emissions from biomass combustion. Some pesticides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) are used in conside...

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA protein, and nucleic acid levels

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, F.K.; Omer, V.E.V.

    1988-02-01

    The opportunity of maternal exposure to various chemicals in the work place and the general environments have increased, and the fetus and neonate may be at greater risk than the adult. However, the embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of the chlorinated phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), the main chemicals in Agent Orange, are well documented only in laboratory animals. The brain of the developing fetus is vulnerable to the toxic effects of the phenoxy herbicides which readily cross the placental barrier and distribute into fetal tissues, including brain. Although the neurochemical basis for the behavioral teratogenicity of the phenoxy herbicides is not know, it was recently reported that non-teratogenic doses of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T delayed the ontogeny of dopamine and serotonin in the brain of the developing rate. This communication provides further descriptive information about the ontogeny of rat brain nucleic acid, protein, glutamate and ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) following in utero exposure to non-teratogenic levels of a 1:1 mixture of 2,4-D/2,4,5-T.

  14. The Donaldson-Witten Function for Gauge Groups of Rank Larger Than One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariño, Marcos; Moore, Gregory

    We study correlation functions in topologically twisted , d=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory for gauge groups of rank larger than one on compact four-manifolds X. We find that the topological invariance of the generator of correlation functions of BRST invariant observables is not spoiled by noncompactness of field space. We show how to express the correlators on simply connected manifolds of b2,+(X)>0 in terms of Seiberg-Witten invariants and the classical cohomology ring of X. For manifolds X of simple type and gauge group SU(N) we give explicit expressions of the correlators as a sum over =1 vacua. We describe two applications of our expressions, one to superconformal field theory and one to large N expansions of SU(N) , d=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  15. Predator-prey body size relationships when predators can consume prey larger than themselves.

    PubMed

    Nakazawa, Takefumi; Ohba, Shin-Ya; Ushio, Masayuki

    2013-06-23

    As predator-prey interactions are inherently size-dependent, predator and prey body sizes are key to understanding their feeding relationships. To describe predator-prey size relationships (PPSRs) when predators can consume prey larger than themselves, we conducted field observations targeting three aquatic hemipteran bugs, and assessed their body masses and those of their prey for each hunting event. The data revealed that their PPSR varied with predator size and species identity, although the use of the averaged sizes masked these effects. Specifically, two predators had slightly decreased predator-prey mass ratios (PPMRs) during growth, whereas the other predator specialized on particular sizes of prey, thereby showing a clear positive size-PPMR relationship. We discussed how these patterns could be different from fish predators swallowing smaller prey whole.

  16. 2,4-D and IAA Amino Acid Conjugates Show Distinct Metabolism in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Eyer, Luděk; Vain, Thomas; Pařízková, Barbora; Oklestkova, Jana; Barbez, Elke; Kozubíková, Hana; Pospíšil, Tomáš; Wierzbicka, Roksana; Kleine-Vehn, Jürgen; Fránek, Milan; Strnad, Miroslav; Robert, Stéphanie

    2016-01-01

    The herbicide 2,4-D exhibits an auxinic activity and therefore can be used as a synthetic and traceable analog to study auxin-related responses. Here we identified that not only exogenous 2,4-D but also its amide-linked metabolite 2,4-D-Glu displayed an inhibitory effect on plant growth via the TIR1/AFB auxin-mediated signaling pathway. To further investigate 2,4-D metabolite conversion, identity and activity, we have developed a novel purification procedure based on the combination of ion exchange and immuno-specific sorbents combined with a sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. In 2,4-D treated samples, 2,4-D-Glu and 2,4-D-Asp were detected at 100-fold lower concentrations compared to 2,4-D levels, showing that 2,4-D can be metabolized in the plant. Moreover, 2,4-D-Asp and 2,4-D-Glu were identified as reversible forms of 2,4-D homeostasis that can be converted to free 2,4-D. This work paves the way to new studies of auxin action in plant development. PMID:27434212

  17. Adaptation of Delftia acidovorans for degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate in a microfluidic porous medium.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Leibeling, Sabine; Zhang, Changyong; Müller, Roland H; Werth, Charles J; Zilles, Julie L

    2014-07-01

    Delftia acidovorans MC1071 can productively degrade R-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionate (R-2,4-DP) but not 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate (2,4-D) herbicides. This work demonstrates adaptation of MC1071 to degrade 2,4-D in a model two-dimensional porous medium (referred to here as a micromodel). Adaptation for 2,4-D degradation in the 2 cm-long micromodel occurred within 35 days of exposure to 2,4-D, as documented by substrate removal. The amount of 2,4-D degradation in the adapted cultures in two replicate micromodels (~10 and 20 % over 142 days) was higher than a theoretical maximum (4 %) predicted using published numerical simulation methods, assuming instantaneous biodegradation and a transverse dispersion coefficient obtained for the same pore structure without biomass present. This suggests that the presence of biomass enhances substrate mixing. Additional evidence for adaptation was provided by operation without R-2,4-DP, where degradation of 2,4-D slowly decreased over 20 days, but was restored almost immediately when R-2,4-DP was again provided. Compared to suspended growth systems, the micromodel system retained the ability to degrade 2,4-D longer in the absence of R-2,4-DP, suggesting slower responses and greater resilience to fluctuations in substrates might be expected in the soil environment than in a chemostat.

  18. How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann

    2011-11-01

    Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment. The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.

  19. Global warming may disproportionately affect larger adults in a predatory coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Messmer, Vanessa; Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Tobin, Andrew J; Coker, Darren J; Cooke, Steven J; Clark, Timothy D

    2016-11-03

    Global warming is expected to reduce body sizes of ectothermic animals. Although the underlying mechanisms of size reductions remain poorly understood, effects appear stronger at latitudinal extremes (poles and tropics) and in aquatic rather than terrestrial systems. To shed light on this phenomenon, we examined the size dependence of critical thermal maxima (CTmax) and aerobic metabolism in a commercially important tropical reef fish, the leopard coral grouper (Plectropomus leopardus) following acclimation to current-day (28.5 °C) vs. projected end-of-century (33 °C) summer temperatures for the northern Great Barrier Reef (GBR). CTmax declined from 38.3 to 37.5 °C with increasing body mass in adult fish (0.45-2.82 kg), indicating that larger individuals are more thermally sensitive than smaller conspecifics. This may be explained by a restricted capacity for large fish to increase mass-specific maximum metabolic rate (MMR) at 33 °C compared with 28.5 °C. Indeed, temperature influenced the relationship between metabolism and body mass (0.02-2.38 kg), whereby the scaling exponent for MMR increased from 0.74 ± 0.02 at 28.5 °C to 0.79 ± 0.01 at 33 °C, and the corresponding exponents for standard metabolic rate (SMR) were 0.75 ± 0.04 and 0.80 ± 0.03. The increase in metabolic scaling exponents at higher temperatures suggests that energy budgets may be disproportionately impacted in larger fish and contribute to reduced maximum adult size. Such climate-induced reductions in body size would have important ramifications for fisheries productivity, but are also likely to have knock-on effects for trophodynamics and functioning of ecosystems.

  20. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE IN A CONTINUOUS-FLOW ANABAENA SP. SYSTEM. (R825513C013)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reductive transformation of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was observed in a continuous-flow system of Anabaena sp. operated for 33 d with a 5.7 d hydraulic retention time and a range of influent TNT concentrations of 1–58 mg/l. The TNT removal effici...

  1. Biodegradation of IMX-101 explosive formulation constituents: 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), and nitroguanidine.

    PubMed

    Richard, Thomas; Weidhaas, Jennifer

    2014-09-15

    Defense agencies are increasingly using insensitive munitions (IM) in place of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. In this study simultaneous aerobic degradation of the IMX-101 formulation constituents 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN), 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO), and nitroguanidine (NQ) was observed and degradation products were examined. Degradation products over four days of incubation included: nitrourea, 1,2-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one, and 2,4-dinitrophenol. The enrichment culture maximum specific growth rate of 0.12h(-1) and half saturation constant of 288 mg L(-1) during degradation of IMX-101 as a sole nitrogen source suggest that enrichment culture growth kinetics may closely relate to those of other explosive and nitroaromatic compounds.

  2. New 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dyes. Part I: Synthesis, characterization and spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanmohammadi, Hamid; Erfantalab, Malihe

    2012-02-01

    Four new 1,2,4-triazole-based azo-azomethine dyes were synthesized via condensation of 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole with azo-coupled o-vanillin precursors. The prepared dyes were characterized by IR, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods as well as elemental analyses. Thermal properties of the prepared dyes were examined by thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicated that the framework of the dyes was stable up to 225 °C. Also, the influence of various factors including time and mixed DMSO/EtOH solution on UV-vis spectra of the dyes were investigated.

  3. Microvascular pressure measurement reveals a coronary vascular waterfall in arterioles larger than 110 microm.

    PubMed

    Versluis, J P; Heslinga, J W; Sipkema, P; Westerhof, N

    2001-11-01

    Pressure-flow relationships at the entrance of the coronary circulation in the diastolic myocardium exhibit a zero-flow pressure intercept (P(int)). We tested whether this intercept is the same throughout the vascular bed. Microvascular pressure-flow relationships were therefore measured in vessels of various sizes of the maximally dilated vasculature of perfused unstimulated papillary muscle using the servo-null technique. From these relationships, P(int) were calculated with nonlinear regression. The P(int) at the level of the septal artery (diameter, 150-250 microm) was 23.2 +/- 4.4 cmH2O (n = 12). In arterioles with a diameter range between 24 and 110 microm, P(int) was 1.7 +/- 0.5 cmH2O (n = 6, P < 0.01), significantly lower than in the septal artery but significantly higher than zero, and not dependent on vessel size. In venules with the same diameters, P(int) was 1.1 +/- 1.1 cmH2O (n = 4), which was not different from zero. We conclude that, in the dilated vascular bed of the papillary muscle, two vascular waterfalls are found. The first waterfall is located in arterioles between 150 and 110 microm. The second waterfall is probably located in the small postcapillary venules.

  4. Salinity and temperature effects on chronic toxicity of 2,4-dinitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus)

    SciTech Connect

    Linton, T.K. ); Mayer, F.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Simon, T.L. . Environmental Protection Agency); Malone, J.A. . Environmental Protection Agency); Marking, L.L. . Fish and Wildlife Service)

    1994-01-01

    Toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effects of nine combinations of salinity and temperature on the toxicity of 2,4-dinitrophenol (2,4-DNP) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) to sheepshead minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). The highest tested concentration having no observed effect (NOEC) on mortality and growth was derived weekly. The NOECs at test termination indicated that the survival and growth of fish exposed to 2,4-dinitrophenol were not significantly affected by salinity, temperature, or the salinity temperature interaction. However, 28-d NOECs of fish surviving from 4-nitrophenol exposures were significantly affected by temperature, but the highest value exceeded the lowest by only a factor of two. The overall data suggest that variations of salinity and temperature do not change the NOEC; only the exposure time required to attain the same NOEC is altered.

  5. Burdigalian turbid water patch reef environment revealed by larger benthic foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, V.; Renema, W.; Throughflow-project

    2012-04-01

    Ancient isolated patch reefs outcropping from siliciclastic sediments are a trademark for the Miocene carbonate deposits occurring in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. They develop in transitional shelf sediments deposited between deltaic and deep marine deposits (Allen and Chambers, 1998). The Batu Putih Limestone (Wilson, 2005) and similar outcrops in adjacent areas have been characterized as shallow water carbonates influenced by high siliciclastic input, showing low relief patch reefs in turbid waters. Larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) are excellent markers for biochronology and paleoenvironmental reconstruction. This study aims to reveal age and paleoenvironment of a shallow water carbonate patch reef developed in mixed depositional system by using LBF and microfacies analysis. The studied section is located near Bontang, East Kalimantan, and is approximately 80 m long and 12 m high. It is placed within Miocene sediments in the central part of the Kutai Basin. Patch reef and capping sediments were logged through eight transects along section and divided into nine different lithological units from which samples were collected. Thin sections and isolated specimens of larger benthic foraminifera were analyzed and recognized to species level (where possible) providing age and environmental information. Microfacies analysis of thin sections included carbonate classification (textural scheme of Dunham, 1962) and assemblage composition of LBF, algae and corals relative abundance. Three environmentally indicative groups of LBF were separated based on test morphology, habitat or living relatives (Hallock and Glenn, 1986). Analysed foraminifera assemblage suggests Burdigalian age (Tf1). With use of microfacies analysis nine successive lithological units were grouped into five facies types. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of LBF fossil assemblage indicate two cycles of possible deepening recorded in the section. Based on high muddy matrix ratio in analyzed thin-sections we

  6. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  7. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  8. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  9. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  10. 17 CFR 2.4 - Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Association's use of Commission seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.4 Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal. (a) As a... Employee Recreation Association (“Association”) is hereby authorized to use the Commission seal as...

  11. 17 CFR 2.4 - Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Association's use of Commission seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.4 Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal. (a) As a... Employee Recreation Association (“Association”) is hereby authorized to use the Commission seal as...

  12. 17 CFR 2.4 - Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Association's use of Commission seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.4 Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal. (a) As a... Employee Recreation Association (“Association”) is hereby authorized to use the Commission seal as...

  13. 17 CFR 2.4 - Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Association's use of Commission seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.4 Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal. (a) As a... Employee Recreation Association (“Association”) is hereby authorized to use the Commission seal as...

  14. 17 CFR 2.4 - Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Association's use of Commission seal. 2.4 Section 2.4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION OFFICIAL SEAL § 2.4 Employee Recreation Association's use of Commission seal. (a) As a... Employee Recreation Association (“Association”) is hereby authorized to use the Commission seal as...

  15. 41 CFR 301-2.4 - For what travel expenses am I responsible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false For what travel expenses am I responsible? 301-2.4 Section 301-2.4 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Travel Regulation System TEMPORARY DUTY (TDY) TRAVEL ALLOWANCES INTRODUCTION 2-GENERAL RULES § 301-2.4 For...

  16. 40 CFR 180.142 - 2,4-D; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...,4-D; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... § 180.1(l), are established for residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D (2,4... established for indirect or inadvertent residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D...

  17. 40 CFR 180.142 - 2,4-D; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...,4-D; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Tolerances are established for residues of the herbicide... § 180.1(m), are established for residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D (2,4... established for indirect or inadvertent residues of the herbicide, plant regulator, and fungicide 2,4-D...

  18. 9 CFR 2.4 - Non-interference with APHIS officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Non-interference with APHIS officials. 2.4 Section 2.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.4 Non-interference with APHIS officials....

  19. 9 CFR 2.4 - Non-interference with APHIS officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Non-interference with APHIS officials. 2.4 Section 2.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.4 Non-interference with APHIS officials....

  20. 9 CFR 2.4 - Non-interference with APHIS officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-interference with APHIS officials. 2.4 Section 2.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.4 Non-interference with APHIS officials....

  1. 9 CFR 2.4 - Non-interference with APHIS officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-interference with APHIS officials. 2.4 Section 2.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.4 Non-interference with APHIS officials....

  2. 9 CFR 2.4 - Non-interference with APHIS officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Non-interference with APHIS officials. 2.4 Section 2.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Licensing § 2.4 Non-interference with APHIS officials....

  3. A SIMPLE ASSAY FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID USING COATED TEST-STRIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunoassay test strips utilizing ascending chromatography has been devised for the detection of 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). This test requires no instrumentation, inexpensive reagents and relies on the application of antibodies to 2,4-D adsorbed onto colloidal gol...

  4. ELECTROCHEMICALLY DEPOSITED POLYMER-COATED GOLD ELECTRODES SELECTIVE FOR 2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Electropolymerized membranes on gold electrodes doped with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) were prepared from a solution containing resorcinol, o-phenylenediamine and 2,4-D. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to evaluate the incorporation and interact...

  5. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-4 - The environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The environmental assessment. 960.3-2-2-4 Section 960.3-2-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-4 The environmental...

  6. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-4 - The environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The environmental assessment. 960.3-2-2-4 Section 960.3-2-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-4 The environmental...

  7. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-4 - The environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The environmental assessment. 960.3-2-2-4 Section 960.3-2-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-4 The environmental...

  8. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-4 - The environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The environmental assessment. 960.3-2-2-4 Section 960.3-2-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-4 The environmental...

  9. 10 CFR 960.3-2-2-4 - The environmental assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The environmental assessment. 960.3-2-2-4 Section 960.3-2-2-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-2-2-4 The environmental...

  10. 2,4-D removal via denitrification using volatile fatty acids.

    PubMed

    He, X; Wareham, D G

    2011-01-01

    Many countries have waters contaminated with both herbicides and nitrates; however, information is limited with respect to removal rates for combined nitrate and herbicide elimination. This research investigates the removal of 2,4-D via denitrification, with a particular emphasis on the effect of adding naturally generated volatile fatty acids (VFAs). The acids were produced from an acid-phase anaerobic digester with a mean VFA concentration of 3153±801 mg/L (as acetic acid). Initially, 2,4-D degrading bacteria were developed in an SBR fed with both sewage and 2,4-D (30-100 mg/L). Subsequent denitrification batch tests demonstrated that the specific denitrification rate increased from 0.0119±0.0039 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0192±0.0079 g NO₃-N/g VSS per day, when 2,4-D was combined with natural VFAs from the digester. Similarly, the specific 2,4-D consumption rate increased from 0.0016±0.0009 using 2,4-D alone to 0.0055±0.0021 g 2,4-D/g VSS per day, when using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs. Finally, a parallel increase in the percent 2,4-D removal was observed, rising from 28.33±11.88 using 2,4-D alone to 54.17±21.89 using 2,4-D plus natural VFAs.

  11. Adsorption and photodegradation kinetics of herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid with MgFeTi layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Kim Phuong; Beak, Min-wook; Huy, Bui The; Lee, Yong-Ill

    2016-03-01

    The calcined layered double hydroxides (cLDHs) Ti-doped and undoped MgFe for this study were prepared by co-precipitation method followed by calcination at 500 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS) techniques and tested for adsorption and photodegradation (including photocatalytic and photo-Fenton-like) of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) in aqueous solutions under visible light irradiation. In the range of studied operating conditions, the as-prepared samples exhibited excellent photo-Fenton-like activity, leading to more than 80-95% degradation of 2,4,5-T at initial concentration of 100 mg L(-1) with 4 g calcined LDHs per liter, was accomplished in 360 min, while 2,4,5-T half-life time was as short as 99-182 min. The kinetics of adsorption and photodegradation of 2,4,5-T were also discussed. These results offered a green, low cost and high efficiency photocatalyst for environmental remediation.

  12. [Characteristics and mechanism of 2,4,6-TCP degradation by the "Fe0/enriched-bacteria" system].

    PubMed

    Dai, You-zhi; Guo, Li-li; Shi, Lei; Liu, Zhi-yong; Gao, Bao-chai

    2012-08-01

    The synergistic mechanism of 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol (TCP) degradation using a combination of Fe0 and anaerobic dechlorinating bacteria with batch processing was investigated. Experimental results showed that under the conditions of pH 7.0, Fe0 5 g x L(-1) and 2,4,6-TCP 30 mg x L(-1), the growth and interface enrichment of enriched-bacteria could be promoted by Fe0, the cell mass (expressed by D600) of Fe0/enriched-bacteria was about 1.7 times as high as that of the individual predominant groups of dechlorinating bacteria. After 96 h reaction, large amount of bacteria attached to the iron surface, with short rod or coccus-like morphology. The pH value of the system was maintained at 7.8, which could be beneficial to the reductive dechlorination reaction and the growth of the enriched-bacteria. The major pathway of 2,4,6-TCP degradation in the Fe0/enriched-bacteria system was 2,4,6-TCP to 2,4-DCP and then to 4-CP.

  13. Underwater wireless sensor communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Ardid, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J P C

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in underwater communications is the low data rate available due to the use of low frequencies. Moreover, there are many problems inherent to the medium such as reflections, refraction, energy dispersion, etc., that greatly degrade communication between devices. In some cases, wireless sensors must be placed quite close to each other in order to take more accurate measurements from the water while having high communication bandwidth. In these cases, while most researchers focus their efforts on increasing the data rate for low frequencies, we propose the use of the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band in these special cases. In this paper, we show our wireless sensor node deployment and its performance obtained from a real scenario and measures taken for different frequencies, modulations and data transfer rates. The performed tests show the maximum distance between sensors, the number of lost packets and the average round trip time. Based on our measurements, we provide some experimental models of underwater communication in fresh water using EM waves in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. Finally, we compare our communication system proposal with the existing systems. Although our proposal provides short communication distances, it provides high data transfer rates. It can be used for precision monitoring in applications such as contaminated ecosystems or for device communicate at high depth.

  14. Underwater Wireless Sensor Communications in the 2.4 GHz ISM Frequency Band

    PubMed Central

    Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Ardid, Miguel; Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the main problems in underwater communications is the low data rate available due to the use of low frequencies. Moreover, there are many problems inherent to the medium such as reflections, refraction, energy dispersion, etc., that greatly degrade communication between devices. In some cases, wireless sensors must be placed quite close to each other in order to take more accurate measurements from the water while having high communication bandwidth. In these cases, while most researchers focus their efforts on increasing the data rate for low frequencies, we propose the use of the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band in these special cases. In this paper, we show our wireless sensor node deployment and its performance obtained from a real scenario and measures taken for different frequencies, modulations and data transfer rates. The performed tests show the maximum distance between sensors, the number of lost packets and the average round trip time. Based on our measurements, we provide some experimental models of underwater communication in fresh water using EM waves in the 2.4 GHz ISM frequency band. Finally, we compare our communication system proposal with the existing systems. Although our proposal provides short communication distances, it provides high data transfer rates. It can be used for precision monitoring in applications such as contaminated ecosystems or for device communicate at high depth. PMID:22666029

  15. Synthesis, optical and electrochemical study of bipolar heterocyclic systems, including 1,2,4-oxadiazole moiety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selivanova, D. G.; Mayorova, O. A.; Gorbunov, A. A.; Vasyanin, A. N.; Dmitriev, M. V.; Shklyaeva, E. V.; Abashev, G. G.

    2016-12-01

    Two new 3,5-dihetarylsubstituted 1,2,4- oxadiazoles 8 a,b, including N-alkyl substituted carbazole and thiophene moieties, were synthesized as potential components of materials for organic electronics devices. Optical and electrochemical properties of all new compounds were investigated. On the basis of the experimental UV absorption data, the values of bandgap energies equal to 3.44 eV (8a) and 3.05 eV (8b) were determined. The values of their ionization potentials, HOMO levels (-5.62 eV for 8a, -5.46 eV - for 8b), as well as their electron affinity levels, LUMO levels (-2.2 eV for 8a, -2.4 eV - for 8b), were calculated from the results of electrochemical studies. The energy of the triplet excited states of 8 a,b was defined with the help of time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), comprising 2.68 eV (8a) and 2.32 eV (8b), where the greatest value of this parameter was for the compound with a shorter conjugation chain.

  16. Changes in Hardware in Order to Accommodate Compliant Foil Air Bearings of a Larger Size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeszotek, Michelle

    2004-01-01

    Compliant foil air bearings are at the forefront of the Oil-Free turbomachinery revolution of supporting gas turbine engines with air lubricated hydrodynamic bearings. Foil air bearings have existed for almost fifty years, yet their commercialization has been confined to relatively small, high-speed systems characterized by low temperatures and loads, such as in air cycle machines, turbocompressors and micro-turbines. Recent breakthroughs in foil air bearing design and solid lubricant coating technology, have caused a resurgence of research towards applying Oil-Free technology to more demanding applications on the scale of small and mid range aircraft gas turbine engines. In order to foster the transition of Oil-Free technology into gas turbine engines, in-house experiments need to be performed on foil air bearings to further the understanding of their complex operating principles. During my internship at NASA Glenn in the summer of 2003, a series of tests were performed to determine the internal temperature profile in a compliant bump- type foil journal air bearing operating at room temperature under various speeds and load conditions. From these tests, a temperature profile was compiled, indicating that the circumferential thermal gradients were negligible. The tests further indicated that both journal rotational speed and radial load are responsible for heat generation with speed playing a more significant role in the magnitude of the temperatures. As a result of the findings from the tests done during the summer of 2003, it was decided that further testing would need to be done, but with a bearing of a larger diameter. The bearing diameter would now be increased from two inches to three inches. All of the currently used testing apparatus was designed specifically for a bearing that was two inches in diameter. Thus, my project for the summer of 2004 was to focus specifically on the scatter shield put around the testing rig while running the bearings. Essentially

  17. Distribution of living larger benthic foraminifera in littoral environments of the United Arab Emirates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.

    2015-04-01

    The distribution of larger benthic foraminifera in Recent littoral environment of the United Arab Emirates (Abu Dhabi and Western regions) was investigated with the aim of understanding the response of those foraminifera to an increase in water salinity. For this purpose, 100 sediment samples from nearshore shelf, beach-front, channel, lagoon, and intertidal environment were collected. Sampling was undertaken at a water depth shallower than 15 m in water with a temperature of 22 to 35˚C, a salinity ranging from 40 to 60‰ and a pH of 8. Samples were stained with rose Bengal at the moment of sample collection in order to identify living specimens. The most abundant epiphytic larger benthic foraminifera in the studied area were Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus with less common Spirolina areatina, S. aciculate and Sorites marginalis. The living specimens of the above mentioned species with normal test growing were particularly abundant in the nearshore shelf and lagoonal samples collected on seaweed. Dead specimens were concentrated in the coarser sediments of the beach-front, probably transported from nearby environments. Shallow coastal ponds are located in the upper intertidal zone and have a maximum salinity of 60‰ and contain abundant detached seagrass. Samples collected from these ponds possess a living foraminifera assemblage dominated by Peneroplis pertusus and P. planatus. High percentages (up to 50% of the stained assemblage) of Peneroplis presented abnormality in test growth, such as the presence of multiple apertures with reduced size, deformation in the general shape of the test, irregular suture lines and abnormal coiling. The high percentage of abnormal tests reflects natural environmental stress mainly caused by high and variable salinity. The unique presence of living epiphytic species, suggests that epiphytic foraminifera may be transported into the pond together with seagrass and continued to live in the pond. This hypothesis is supported by

  18. Modified 2,4-diaminopyrimidine-based dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors as potential drug scaffolds against Bacillus anthracis

    PubMed Central

    Nammalwar, Baskar; Bourne, Christina R.; Wakeham, Nancy; Bourne, Philip C.; Barrow, Esther W.; Muddala, N. Prasad; Bunce, Richard A.; Berlin, K. Darrell; Barrow, William W.

    2014-01-01

    The current paper describes the synthesis and biological evaluation of dihydrophthalazine-appended 2,4-diaminopyrimidine (DAP) inhibitors (1) oxidized at the methylene bridge linking the DAP ring to the central aromatic ring and (2) modified at the central ring ether groups. Structures 4a-b incorporating an oxidized methylene bridge showed a decrease in activity, while slightly larger alkyl groups (CH2CH3 versus CH3) on the central ring oxygen atoms (R2 and R3) had a minimal impact on the inhibition. Comparison of the potency data for previously reported RAB1 and BN-53 with the most potent of the new derivatives (19b and 20a-b) showed similar values for inhibition of cellular growth and direct enzymatic inhibition (MICs 0.5-2 μg/mL). Compounds 29-34 with larger ester and ether groups containing substituted aromatic rings at R3 exhibited slightly reduced activity (MICs 2-16 μg/mL). One explanation for this attenuated activity could be encroachment of the extended R3 into the neighboring NADPH co-factor. These results indicate that modest additions to the central ring oxygen atoms are well tolerated, while larger modifications have the potential to act as dual-site inhibitors of dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). PMID:25435253

  19. Moisturizing lotions can increase transdermal absorption of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxacetic acid across hairless mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Brand, R M; Charron, A R; Sandler, V L; Jendrzejewski, J L

    2007-01-01

    Moisturizing lotions can be an effective treatment for occupationally induced dry skin. These compounds are designed to be hygroscopic and retain water to keep the stratum corneum hydrated, while at the same time enhancing the horny layer to prevent increases in transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Skin hydration levels, however, are known to influence barrier properties. The purpose of this work was to compare skin moisture levels induced by four commercially available moisturizing lotions with their capacity as transdermal penetration enhancers using the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) as a model chemical. Further, the effect of moisturizing the skin after washing with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) on transdermal absorption was determined. Skin moisture levels were also measured noninvasively and were correlated to penetration enhancement. Hairless mouse skin was pretreated with commercially available moisturizing lotions either with or without SLS washing and in vitro permeability studies were performed with the herbicide 2,4-D. The data demonstrate that pretreatment with three of the four lotions tested increased the transdermal absorption of 2,4-D as evidenced by cumulative penetration or faster lag times (p < 0.05). Skin moisture levels correlated with the penetration enhancement capabilities of the lotion. Washing the skin with 5% SDS increased the transdermal absorption of 2,4-D (p < 0.05) and application of moisturizing lotions increased the absorption further. In summary moisturizing lotions may influence transdermal penetration of the skin, with the more effective moisturizers having a greater effect on 2,4-D absorption.

  20. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion.

    PubMed

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees.

  1. Developmental reversals in risky decision making: intelligence agents show larger decision biases than college students.

    PubMed

    Reyna, Valerie F; Chick, Christina F; Corbin, Jonathan C; Hsia, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    Intelligence agents make risky decisions routinely, with serious consequences for national security. Although common sense and most theories imply that experienced intelligence professionals should be less prone to irrational inconsistencies than college students, we show the opposite. Moreover, the growth of experience-based intuition predicts this developmental reversal. We presented intelligence agents, college students, and postcollege adults with 30 risky-choice problems in gain and loss frames and then compared the three groups' decisions. The agents not only exhibited larger framing biases than the students, but also were more confident in their decisions. The postcollege adults (who were selected to be similar to the students) occupied an interesting middle ground, being generally as biased as the students (sometimes more biased) but less biased than the agents. An experimental manipulation testing an explanation for these effects, derived from fuzzy-trace theory, made the students look as biased as the agents. These results show that, although framing biases are irrational (because equivalent outcomes are treated differently), they are the ironical output of cognitively advanced mechanisms of meaning making.

  2. Cortical Thinning in Healthy Aging Correlates with Larger Motor-Evoked EEG Desynchronization

    PubMed Central

    Provencher, David; Hennebelle, Marie; Cunnane, Stephen C.; Bérubé-Lauzière, Yves; Whittingstall, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Although electroencephalography (EEG) is a valuable tool to investigate neural activity in patients and controls, exactly how local anatomy impacts the measured signal remains unclear. Better characterizing this relationship is important to improve the understanding of how inter-subject differences in the EEG signal are related to neural activity. We hypothesized that cortical structure might affect event-related desynchronization (ERD) in EEG. Since aging is a well-documented cause of cortical thinning, we investigated the effects of cortical thickness (CT) and cortical depth (CD – the skull-to-cortex distance) on ERD using anatomical MRI and motor-evoked EEG in 17 healthy young adults and 20 healthy older persons. Results showed a significant negative correlation between ERD and CT, but no consistent relationship between ERD and CD. A thinner cortex was associated with a larger ERD in the α/β band and correcting for CT removed most of the inter-group difference in ERD. This indicates that differences in neural activity might not be the primary cause for the observed aging-related differences in ERD, at least in the motor cortex. Further, it emphasizes the importance of considering conditions affecting the EEG signal, such as cortical anatomical changes due to aging, when interpreting differences between healthy controls and/or patients. PMID:27064767

  3. Self-humidified proton exchange membrane fuel cells: Operation of larger cells and fuel cell stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Dhar, H.P.; Lee, J.H.; Lewinski, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    The PEM fuel cell is promising as the power source for use in mobile and stationary applications primarily because of its high power density, all solid components, and simplicity of operation. For wide acceptability of this power source, its cost has to be competitive with the presently available energy sources. The fuel cell requires continuous humidification during operation as a power source. The humidification unit however, increases fuel cell volume, weight, and therefore decreases its overall power density. Great advantages in terms of further fuel cell simplification can be achieved if the humidification process can be eliminated or minimized. In addition, cost reductions are associated with the case of manufacturing and operation. At BCS Technology we have developed a technology of self-humidified operation of PEM fuel cells based on the mass balance of the reactants and products and the ability of membrane electrode assembly (MEA) to retain water necessary for humidification under the cell operating conditions. The reactants enter the fuel cell chambers without carrying any form of water, whether in liquid or vapor form. Basic principles of self-humidified operation of fuel cells as practiced by BCS Technology, Inc. have been presented previously in literature. Here, we report the operation of larger self-humidified single cells and fuel cell stacks. Fuel cells of areas Up to 100 cm{sup 2} have been operated. We also show the self-humidified operation of fuel cell stacks of 50 and 100 cm{sup 2} electrode areas.

  4. Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically larger amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Tottenham, Nim; Hare, Todd A.; Quinn, Brian T.; McCarry, Thomas W.; Nurse, Marcella; Gilhooly, Tara; Milner, Alex; Galvan, Adriana; Davidson, Matthew C.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Thomas, Kathleen M.; Freed, Peter; Booma, Elizabeth S.; Gunnar, Megan; Altemus, Margaret; Aronson, Jane; Casey, BJ

    2009-01-01

    Early adversity, for example poor caregiving, can have profound effects on emotional development. Orphanage rearing, even in the best circumstances, lies outside of the bounds of a species-typical caregiving environment. The long-term effects of this early adversity on the neurobiological development associated with socio-emotional behaviors are not well understood. Seventy-eight children, who include those who have experienced orphanage care and a comparison group, were assessed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure volumes of whole brain and limbic structures (e.g., amygdala, hippocampus). Emotion regulation was assessed with an emotional go-nogo paradigm, and anxiety and internalizing behaviors were assessed using the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, the Child Behavior Checklist, and a structured clinical interview. Late adoption was associated with larger corrected amygdala volumes, poorer emotion regulation, and increased anxiety. Although more than 50% of the children who experienced orphanage rearing met criteria for a psychiatric disorder, with a third having an anxiety disorder, the group differences observed in amygdala volume were not driven by the presence of an anxiety disorder. The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. These changes in limbic circuitry may underlie residual emotional and social problems experienced by children who have been internationally adopted. PMID:20121862

  5. Brighter-colored paper wasps (Polistes dominula) have larger poison glands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Aposematism is a defense system against predators consisting of the toxicity warning using conspicuous coloration. If the toxin production and aposematic coloration is costly, only individuals in good physical condition could simultaneously produce abundant poison and striking coloration. In such cases, the aposematic coloration not only indicates that the animal is toxic, but also the toxicity level of individuals. The costs associated with the production of aposematic coloration would ensure that individuals honestly indicate their toxicity levels. In the present study, we examine the hypothesis that a positive correlation exists between the brightness of warning coloration and toxicity level using as a model the paper wasp (Polistes dominula). Results We collected wasps from 30 different nests and photographed them to measure the brightness of warning coloration in the abdomen. We also measured the volume of the poison gland, as well as the length, and the width of the abdomen. The results show a positive relationship between brightness and poison-gland size, which remained positive even after controlling for the body size and abdomen width. Conclusion The results suggest that the coloration pattern of these wasps is a true sign of toxicity level: wasps with brighter colors are more poisonous (they have larger poison glands). PMID:22901602

  6. Origami-inspired metamaterial absorbers for improving the larger-incident angle absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yang; Pang, Yongqiang; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Pei, Zhibin; Qu, Shaobo

    2015-11-01

    When a folded resistive patch array stands up on a metallic plane, it can exhibit more outstanding absorption performance. Our theoretical investigations and simulations demonstrated that the folded resistive patch arrays can enhance the absorption bandwidth progressively with the increase of the incident angle for the oblique transverse magnetic incidence, which is contrary to the conventional resistive frequency selective surface absorber. On illumination, we achieved a 3D structure metamaterial absorber with the folded resistive patches. The proposed absorber is obtained from the inspiration of the origami, and it has broadband and lager-incident angle absorption. Both the simulations and the measurements indicate that the proposed absorber achieves the larger-incident angle absorption until 75° in the frequency band of 3.6-11.4 GHz. In addition, the absorber is extremely lightweight. The areal density of the fabricated sample is about 0.023 g cm-2. Due to the broadband and lager-incident angle absorption, it is expected that the absorbers may find potential applications such as stealth technologies and electromagnetic interference.

  7. Organizing DNA Origami Tiles Into Larger Structures Using Pre-formed Scaffold Frames

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhao; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2012-01-01

    Structural DNA nanotechnology utilizes DNA molecules as programmable information-coding polymers to create higher order structures at the nanometer scale. An important milestone in structural DNA nanotechnology was the development of scaffolded DNA origami in which a long single-stranded viral genome (scaffold strand) is folded into arbitrary shapes by hundreds of short synthetic oligonucleotides (staple strands). The achievable dimensions of the DNA origami tiles units are currently limited by the length of the scaffold strand. Here we demonstrate a strategy referred to as ‘super-origami’ or ‘origami of origami’ to scale up DNA origami technology. First, this method uses a collection of bridge strands to pre-fold a single stranded DNA scaffold into a loose framework. Subsequently, pre-formed individual DNA origami tiles are directed onto the loose framework so that each origami tile serves as a large staple. Using this strategy, we demonstrate the ability to organize DNA origami nanostructures into larger spatially addressable architectures. PMID:21682348

  8. Scaling local species-habitat relations to the larger landscape with a hierarchical spatial count model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thogmartin, W.E.; Knutson, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Much of what is known about avian species-habitat relations has been derived from studies of birds at local scales. It is entirely unclear whether the relations observed at these scales translate to the larger landscape in a predictable linear fashion. We derived habitat models and mapped predicted abundances for three forest bird species of eastern North America using bird counts, environmental variables, and hierarchical models applied at three spatial scales. Our purpose was to understand habitat associations at multiple spatial scales and create predictive abundance maps for purposes of conservation planning at a landscape scale given the constraint that the variables used in this exercise were derived from local-level studies. Our models indicated a substantial influence of landscape context for all species, many of which were counter to reported associations at finer spatial extents. We found land cover composition provided the greatest contribution to the relative explained variance in counts for all three species; spatial structure was second in importance. No single spatial scale dominated any model, indicating that these species are responding to factors at multiple spatial scales. For purposes of conservation planning, areas of predicted high abundance should be investigated to evaluate the conservation potential of the landscape in their general vicinity. In addition, the models and spatial patterns of abundance among species suggest locations where conservation actions may benefit more than one species. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  9. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover.

    PubMed

    Forsman, Zac H; Page, Christopher A; Toonen, Robert J; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1-3 cm(2)) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm(2) per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration.

  10. Growing coral larger and faster: micro-colony-fusion as a strategy for accelerating coral cover

    PubMed Central

    Page, Christopher A.; Toonen, Robert J.; Vaughan, David

    2015-01-01

    Fusion is an important life history strategy for clonal organisms to increase access to shared resources, to compete for space, and to recover from disturbance. For reef building corals, fragmentation and colony fusion are key components of resilience to disturbance. Observations of small fragments spreading tissue and fusing over artificial substrates prompted experiments aimed at further characterizing Atlantic and Pacific corals under various conditions. Small (∼1–3 cm2) fragments from the same colony spaced regularly over ceramic tiles resulted in spreading at rapid rates (e.g., tens of square centimeters per month) followed by isogenic fusion. Using this strategy, we demonstrate growth, in terms of area encrusted and covered by living tissue, of Orbicella faveolata, Pseudodiploria clivosa, and Porites lobata as high as 63, 48, and 23 cm2 per month respectively. We found a relationship between starting and ending size of fragments, with larger fragments growing at a faster rate. Porites lobata showed significant tank effects on rates of tissue spreading indicating sensitivity to biotic and abiotic factors. The tendency of small coral fragments to encrust and fuse over a variety of surfaces can be exploited for a variety of applications such as coral cultivation, assays for coral growth, and reef restoration. PMID:26500822

  11. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  12. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  13. ACOs Holding Commercial Contracts Are Larger And More Efficient Than Noncommercial ACOs

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, David; Phipps-Taylor, Madeleine C.; Stachowski, Courtney A.; Kao, Lee-Sien; Shortell, Stephen M.; Lewis, Valerie A.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Colla, Carrie H.

    2016-01-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) have diverse contracting arrangements and have displayed wide variations in their performance. Using data from national surveys of 399 ACOs, we examined differences between the 228 commercial ACOs (those with commercial payer contracts) and the 171 noncommercial ACOs (those with only public contracts, such as with Medicare or Medicaid). Commercial ACOs were significantly larger and more integrated with hospitals, and had lower benchmark expenditures and higher quality scores, compared to noncommercial ACOs. Among all of the ACOs, there was low uptake of quality and efficiency activities. However, commercial ACOs reported more use of disease monitoring tools, patient satisfaction data, and quality improvement methods than did noncommercial ACOs. Few ACOs reported having high-level performance monitoring capabilities. About two-thirds of the ACOs had established processes for distributing any savings accrued, and these ACOs allocated approximately the same amount of savings to the ACOs themselves, participating member organizations, and physicians. Our findings demonstrate that ACO delivery systems remain at a nascent stage. Structural differences between commercial and noncommercial ACOs are important factors to consider as public policy efforts continue to evolve. PMID:27702959

  14. Aspirations and common tensions: larger lessons from the third US national climate assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Susanne C.; Melillo, Jerry M.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Moss, Richard H.; Buizer, James L.

    2015-10-21

    The Third US National Climate Assessment (NCA3) was produced by experts in response to the US Global Change Research Act of 1990. Based on lessons learned from previous domestic and international assessments, the NCA3 was designed to speak to a broad public and inform the concerns of policy- and decision-makers at different scales. The NCA3 was also intended to be the first step in an ongoing assessment process that would build the nation’s capacity to respond to climate change. This concluding paper draws larger lessons from the insights gained throughout the assessment process that are of significance to future US and international assessment designers. We bring attention to process and products delivered, communication and engagement efforts, and how they contributed to the sustained assessment. Based on areas where expectations were exceeded or not fully met, we address four common tensions that all assessment designers must confront and manage: between (1) core assessment ingredients (knowledge base, institutional set-up, principled process, and the people involved), (2) national scope and subnational adaptive management information needs, (3) scope, complexity, and manageability, and (4) deliberate evaluation and ongoing learning approaches. Managing these tensions, amidst the social and political contexts in which assessments are conducted, is critical to ensure that assessments are feasible and productive, while its outcomes are perceived as credible, salient, and legitimate.

  15. Flower-Visiting Butterflies Avoid Predatory Stimuli and Larger Resident Butterflies: Testing in a Butterfly Pavilion

    PubMed Central

    Fukano, Yuya; Tanaka, Yosuke; Farkhary, Sayed Ibrahim; Kurachi, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    The flower-visiting behaviors of pollinator species are affected not only by flower traits but also by cues of predators and resident pollinators. There is extensive research into the effects of predator cues and resident pollinators on the flower-visiting behaviors of bee pollinators. However, there is relatively little research into their effects on butterfly pollinators probably because of the difficulty in observing a large number of butterfly pollination events. We conducted a dual choice experiment using artificial flowers under semi-natural conditions in the butterfly pavilion at Tama Zoological Park to examine the effects of the presence of a dead mantis and resident butterflies have on the flower-visiting behavior of several butterfly species. From 173 hours of recorded video, we observed 3235 visitations by 16 butterfly species. Statistical analysis showed that (1) butterflies avoided visiting flowers occupied by a dead mantis, (2) butterflies avoided resident butterflies that were larger than the visitor, and (3) butterflies showed greater avoidance of a predator when the predator was present together with the resident butterfly than when the predator was located on the opposite flower of the resident. Finally, we discuss the similarities and differences in behavioral responses of butterfly pollinators and bees. PMID:27846252

  16. A comparison of small and larger mesoscale latent heat and radiative fluxes: December 6 case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gultepe, I.; Starr, David; Heymsfield, A. J.

    1993-01-01

    Because of the small amounts of water vapor, the potential for rapid changes, and the very cold temperatures in the upper troposphere, moisture measuring instruments face several problems related to calibration and response. Calculations of eddy moisture fluxes are, therefore, subject to significant uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to examine the importance of latent heat (moisture) fluxes due to small and larger mesoscale circulations in comparison to radiative fluxes within cirrus. Scale separation is made at about 1 km because of significant changes in the structures within cirrus. Only observations at warmer than -40 C are used in this study. The EG&G hygrometer that is used for measuring dewpoint temperature (Td) is believed to be fairly accurate down to -40 C. On the other hand, Lyman-Alpha (L-alpha) hygrometer measurements of moisture may include large drift errors. In order to compensate for these drift errors, the L-alpha hygrometer is often calibrated against the EG&G hygrometer. However, large errors ensue for Td measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. The cryogenic hygrometer frost point measurements may be used to calibrate L-alpha measurements at temperatures less than -40 C. In this study, however, measurements obtained by EG&G hygrometer and L-alpha measurements are used for the flux calculations.

  17. Selection does not favor larger body size at lower temperature in a seed-feeding beetle.

    PubMed

    Stillwell, R Craig; Moya-Laraño, Jordi; Fox, Charles W

    2008-10-01

    Body size of many animals increases with increasing latitude, a phenomenon known as Bergmann's rule (Bergmann clines). Latitudinal gradients in mean temperature are frequently assumed to be the underlying cause of this pattern because temperature covaries systematically with latitude, but whether and how temperature mediates selection on body size is unclear. To test the hypothesis that the "relative" advantage of being larger is greatest at cooler temperatures we compare the fitness of replicate lines of the seed beetle, Stator limbatus, for which body size was manipulated via artificial selection ("Large,"Control," and "Small" lines), when raised at low (22 degrees C) and high (34 degrees C) temperatures. Large-bodied beetles (Large lines) took the longest to develop but had the highest lifetime fecundity, and highest fitness (r(C)), at both low and high temperatures. However, the relative difference between the Large and Small lines did not change with temperature (replicate 2) or was greatest at high temperature (replicate 1), contrary to the prediction that the fitness advantage of being large relative to being small will decline with increasing temperature. Our results are consistent with two previous studies of this seed beetle, but inconsistent with prior studies that suggest that temperature-mediated selection on body size is a major contributor to the production of Bergmann clines. We conclude that other environmental and ecological variables that covary with latitude are more likely to produce the gradient in natural selection responsible for generating Bergmann clines.

  18. Building a larger tent for public health: implications of the SOPHE-AAHE unification.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Robert Mark

    2013-04-01

    The unification of the American Association for Health Education (AAHE) and the Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) generates a long-desired synergy, a ramping up of our leadership influence in promoting health. It also serves as an ongoing opportunity to reflect on how we synergize the distinct philosophic, scientific, and practical approaches that our AAHE colleagues bring in constructing a larger tent for public health education. Running parallel to our union with AAHE is the undertaking by several schools of health, physical education, and recreation (HPER) to become schools of public health. The unification between AAHE and SOPHE can be of enormous benefit to such a process. Just as the harmonious integration of two organizations with similar but distinct perspectives depends on compromise and transcendence, the schools that they embody-both public health and HPER-might consider ways to engage in continued dialogue to assure a more expansive paradigm for public health. SOPHE has an important role to play in this process, and with the additional insight and influence that our AAHE colleagues bring, we can become more instrumental as a boundary spanner. Mechanisms for such integration are discussed.

  19. Development of a sensitive surface plasmon resonance immunosensor for detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene with a novel oligo (ethylene glycol)-based sensor surface.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Kazutaka; Kawaguchi, Toshikazu; Miura, Norio; Toko, Kiyoshi; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi

    2009-09-15

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunosensor for detection of 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), which is a signature compound of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-related explosives, was developed by using a novel oligo (ethylene glycol) (OEG)-based sensor surface. A rabbit polyclonal antibody against 2,4-DNT (anti-DNPh-KLH-400 antibody) was prepared, and the avidity for 2,4-DNT and recognition capability were investigated by indirect competitive ELISA. The sensor surface was fabricated by immobilizing a 2,4-DNT analog onto an OEG-based self-assembled monolayer formed on a gold surface via an OEG linker. The fabricated surface was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared-refractive absorption spectrometry (FTIR-RAS). The immunosensing of 2,4-DNT is based on the indirect competitive principle, in which the immunoreaction between the anti-DNPh-KLH-400 antibody and 2,4-DNT on the sensor surface was inhibited in the presence of free 2,4-DNT in solution. The limit of detection for the immunosensor, calculated as three times the standard deviation of a blank value, was 20 pg mL(-1), and the linear dynamic range was found to be between 1 and 100 ng mL(-1). Additionally, the fabricated OEG-based surface effectively prevented non-specific adsorption of proteins, and the specific response to anti-DNPh-KLH-400 antibody was maintained for more than 30 measurement cycles.

  20. Adsorption-desorption behavior of 2,4-D on NCP-modified bentonite and zeolite: implications for slow-release herbicide formulations.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiary, Somayeh; Shirvani, Mehran; Shariatmadari, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Clay minerals have obtained considerable attention for slow-release formulation of herbicides to increase weed control efficacy and reduce leaching potential and environmental pollution. This study deals with preparing, characterizing and examining the potentials of modified bentonite and zeoilite in adsorption and release of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) herbicide. 2,4-D sorption of the N-cetylpyridinium (NCP)-modified bentonites and zeolites were much higher than those of unmodified substrates. The 2,4-D adsorption capacity of the organo-minerals increased with increasing surfactant loading. Desorption isotherms of 2,4-D did not coincide their corresponding sorption isotherms showing hysteresis. The proportion of 2,4-D released from the organo-minerals after seven desorption cycles varied between 29% and 50% of the total retained herbicide. The sorbed 2,4-D on the adsorbents showed gradual release pattern with time. The release pattern of 2,4-D from NCP-modified bentonite and zeolite, make these synthetic organo-minerals suitable candidate for slow release formulation of 2,4-D.

  1. Bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with heavy metals and 2,4,5-trichlorophenol by fruiting body of Clitocybe maxima.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Guo, Shanshan; Jiao, Kai; Hou, Junjun; Xie, Han; Xu, Heng

    2015-08-30

    Pot experiments were performed to investigate the single effect of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) or heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Cu+Cd) and the combined effects of metals-TCP on the growth of Clitocybe maxima together with the accumulation of heavy metals as well as dissipation of TCP. Results showed a negative effect of contaminations on fruiting time and biomass of the mushroom. TCP decreased significantly in soils accounting for 70.66-96.24% of the initial extractable concentration in planted soil and 66.47-91.42% in unplanted soil, which showed that the dissipation of TCP was enhanced with mushroom planting. Higher biological activities (bacterial counts, soil respiration and laccase activity) were detected in planted soils relative to unplanted controls, and the enhanced dissipation of TCP in planted soils might be derived from the increased biological activities. The metals accumulation in mushroom increased with the augment of metal load, and the proportion of acetic acid (HOAc) extractable metal in soils with C. maxima was larger than that in unplanted soils, which may be an explanation of metal uptake by C. maxima. These results suggested that the presence of C. maxima was effective in promoting the bioremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals and TCP.

  2. Synthesis of 3-((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)methyl)-1,2,4-triazolo(thiadiazoles and thiadiazines) as anti-inflammatory and molluscicidal agents.

    PubMed

    El Shehry, M F; Abu-Hashem, A A; El-Telbani, E M

    2010-05-01

    A series of fused and non fused 1,2,4-triazoles with (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) moiety are prepared utilizing 3-((2,4-dichlorophenoxy)methyl)-4-amino-4H-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (3). The latter on reaction with carboxylic acids, ethylchloroformate, ethylcyanoacetate and sodium nitrite gives five membered fused triazole derivatives 4a-d, 5, 6, 7 and 10, respectively. The six membered heterocycles 11, 12 and 14 are prepared by cyclization of compound 3 with phenacyl bromide, chloroacetic acid and alpha-bromoketone respectively. Most of the newly synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory and molluscicidal activities. The compounds 4b, 4d, 11 and 14 showed potent anti-inflammatory activities in dose dependent manner while compounds 3, 4b, 8 and 10 exhibited promising molluscicidal activities.

  3. The role of subsurface flows in solar surface convection: modeling the spectrum of supergranular and larger scale flows

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, J. W.; Rast, M. P.; Cameron, R. H.; Rempel, M.; Roudier, T.

    2014-09-20

    We model the solar horizontal velocity power spectrum at scales larger than granulation using a two-component approximation to the mass continuity equation. The model takes four times the density scale height as the integral (driving) scale of the vertical motions at each depth. Scales larger than this decay with height from the deeper layers. Those smaller are assumed to follow a Kolmogorov turbulent cascade, with the total power in the vertical convective motions matching that required to transport the solar luminosity in a mixing length formulation. These model components are validated using large-scale radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We reach two primary conclusions. (1) The model predicts significantly more power at low wavenumbers than is observed in the solar photospheric horizontal velocity spectrum. (2) Ionization plays a minor role in shaping the observed solar velocity spectrum by reducing convective amplitudes in the regions of partial helium ionization. The excess low wavenumber power is also seen in the fully nonlinear three-dimensional radiative hydrodynamic simulations employing a realistic equation of state. This adds to other recent evidence suggesting that the amplitudes of large-scale convective motions in the Sun are significantly lower than expected. Employing the same feature tracking algorithm used with observational data on the simulation output, we show that the observed low wavenumber power can be reproduced in hydrodynamic models if the amplitudes of large-scale modes in the deep layers are artificially reduced. Since the large-scale modes have reduced amplitudes, modes on the scale of supergranulation and smaller remain important to convective heat flux even in the deep layers, suggesting that small-scale convective correlations are maintained through the bulk of the solar convection zone.

  4. Magnetic nanoparticles formed in glasses co-doped with iron and larger radius elements

    SciTech Connect

    Edelman, I.; Ivanova, O.; Ivantsov, R.; Velikanov, D.; Zabluda, V.; Zubavichus, Y.; Veligzhanin, A.; Zaikovskiy, V.; Stepanov, S.; Artemenko, A.; Curely, J.; Kliava, J.

    2012-10-15

    A new type of nanoparticle-containing glasses based on borate glasses co-doped with low contents of iron and larger radius elements, Dy, Tb, Gd, Ho, Er, Y, and Bi, is studied. Heat treatment of these glasses results in formation of magnetic nanoparticles, radically changing their physical properties. Transmission electron microscopy and synchrotron radiation-based techniques: x-ray diffraction, extended x-ray absorption fine structure, x-ray absorption near-edge structure, and small-angle x-ray scattering, show a broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes with characteristics depending on the treatment regime; a crystalline structure of these nanoparticles is detected in heat treated samples. Magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) studies of samples subjected to heat treatment as well as of maghemite, magnetite, and iron garnet allow to unambiguously assign the nanoparticle structure to maghemite, independently of co-dopant nature and of heat treatment regime used. Different features observed in the MCD spectra are related to different electron transitions in Fe{sup 3+} ions gathered in the nanoparticles. The static magnetization in heat treated samples has non-linear dependence on the magnetizing field with hysteresis. Zero-field cooled magnetization curves show that at higher temperatures the nanoparticles occur in superparamagnetic state with blocking temperatures above 100 K. Below ca. 20 K, a considerable contribution to both zero field-cooled and field-cooled magnetizations occurs from diluted paramagnetic ions. Variable-temperature electron magnetic resonance (EMR) studies unambiguously show that in as-prepared glasses paramagnetic ions are in diluted state and confirm the formation of magnetic nanoparticles already at earlier stages of heat treatment. Computer simulations of the EMR spectra corroborate the broad distribution of nanoparticle sizes found by 'direct' techniques as well as superparamagnetic nanoparticle behaviour demonstrated in the magnetization

  5. Recruitment-dance signals draw larger audiences when honey bee colonies have multiple patrilines

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, H. R.; Seeley, T. D.

    2010-01-01

    Honey bee queens (Apis mellifera) who mate with multiple males produce colonies that are filled with numerous genetically distinct patrilines of workers. A genetically diverse colony benefits from an enhanced foraging effort, fuelled in part by an increase in the number of recruitment signals that are produced by foragers. However, the influence of patriline diversity on the attention paid to these signals by audiences of potentially receptive workers remains unexplored. To determine whether recruitment dances performed by foragers in multiple-patriline colonies attract a greater number of dance followers than dances in colonies that lack patriline diversity, we trained workers from multiple- and single-patriline colonies to forage in a greenhouse and monitored their dance-following activity back in the hives. On average, more workers followed a dance if it was performed in a multiple-patriline colony rather than a single-patriline colony (33% increase), and for a greater number of dance circuits per follower. Furthermore, dance-following workers in multiple-patriline colonies were more likely to exit their hive after following a dance, although this did not translate to a difference in colony-level exit rates between treatment types. Recruiting nest mates to profitable food sources through dance communication is critical to a colony’s foraging success and long-term fitness; polyandrous queens produce colonies that benefit not only from increased recruitment signalling, but also from the generation of larger and more attentive audiences of signal receivers. This study highlights the importance of integrating responses of both signal senders and receivers to understand more fully the success of animal-communication systems. PMID:21350596

  6. Strongmen sport is associated with larger absolute heart size and impaired cardiac relaxation.

    PubMed

    Venckunas, Tomas; Vasiliauskas, Donatas; Marcinkeviciene, Jolanta E; Grizas, Vytautas; Stasiulis, Arvydas; Malkova, Dalia

    2011-10-01

    This study was carried out to compare cardiac structure and function and blood lipids among Strongmen, sedentary controls, and marathoners. Echocardiography was performed, and endothelial function, blood lipids and maximal oxygen uptake were measured in 27 Caucasian adult men (8 Strongmen, 10 marathoners, 9 controls). Absolute cardiac size parameters such as left ventricular (LV) diameter and wall thickness of Strongmen were higher (p < 0.05), but relative (body surface area indexed) parameters were not different between controls and Strongmen. In Strongmen, the relative LV diameter (p < 0.05), wall thickness (p < 0.001), and LV mass index (p < 0.01) were lower than in marathoners. The absolute but not relative right ventricular diameter was larger in Strongmen as compared with controls, whereas all of the measured relative cardiac size parameters were higher in marathoners as opposed to in controls. The endothelial function and the ratio of wall thickness to chamber diameter were similar among the groups (p > 0.05). Maximal oxygen uptake of Strongmen was lower than in controls (p < 0.05) and marathoners (p < 0.001). Global diastolic LV function of Strongmen was impaired in comparison to controls (p < 0.05) and marathoners (p < 0.05). Plasma lipids were not different between Strongmen and sedentary controls, but in comparison to runners, Strongmen had higher low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p < 0.05) and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.01). Participation in Strongmen sport is associated with higher absolute but not relative cardiac size parameters, impaired myocardial relaxation, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, Strongmen may demand greater attention as an extreme group of athletes with regard to cardiovascular risk.

  7. Using hydrochemical tracers to conceptualise hydrological function in a larger scale catchment draining contrasting geologic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capell, R.; Tetzlaff, D.; Malcolm, I. A.; Hartley, A. J.; Soulsby, C.

    2011-09-01

    SummaryA year-long multivariate tracer study in the 749 km 2 catchment of the North-Esk in north east Scotland was carried out to infer the dominant runoff generation processes in two markedly different geologic provinces. The upper 60% of the catchment has montane headwaters dominated by impermeable metamorphic rocks, steep topography, peaty soils and a sub-arctic climate with over 1400 mm of precipitation. The lowlands of the catchment are underlain by a major sandstone aquifer, and mainly have freely draining, fertile soils that support intensive arable farming under a drier climate with around 800 mm of precipitation. Storm runoff in the uplands is dominated by near-surface processes in soils and sedimentary layers which generate around 60% of annual stream flows with water of low alkalinity and ionic strength. In contrast, tributaries in the lower parts of the catchment are dominated by groundwater-fed base flows which account for 75% of annual runoff and are characterised by alkaline waters with high concentrations of base cations and high levels of nitrate. Multivariate statistical methods were used to derive a generic typology of catchment source waters, their spatial and temporal dynamics and particularly, how they integrate together at the larger catchment scale. The uplands dominate the winter high flow response of the whole catchment. The influence of lowland groundwater from major aquifers becomes more apparent under low flows. However, groundwater from small upland aquifers plays a critical role for ecosystem service in dry periods providing baseflows which dilute pollutant inputs from lowland areas at the large catchment scale.

  8. Weapons make the man (larger): formidability is represented as size and strength in humans.

    PubMed

    Fessler, Daniel M T; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans--and likely many other social vertebrates--navigate social hierarchies.

  9. Weapons Make the Man (Larger): Formidability Is Represented as Size and Strength in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Holbrook, Colin; Snyder, Jeffrey K.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine how to act in situations of potential agonistic conflict, individuals must assess multiple features of a prospective foe that contribute to the foe's resource-holding potential, or formidability. Across diverse species, physical size and strength are key determinants of formidability, and the same is often true for humans. However, in many species, formidability is also influenced by other factors, such as sex, coalitional size, and, in humans, access to weaponry. Decision-making involving assessments of multiple features is enhanced by the use of a single summary variable that encapsulates the contributions of these features. Given both a) the phylogenetic antiquity of the importance of size and strength as determinants of formidability, and b) redundant experiences during development that underscore the contributions of size and strength to formidability, we hypothesize that size and strength constitute the conceptual dimensions of a representation used to summarize multiple diverse determinants of a prospective foe's formidability. Here, we test this hypothesis in humans by examining the effects of a potential foe's access to weaponry on estimations of that individual's size and strength. We demonstrate that knowing that an individual possesses a gun or a large kitchen knife leads observers to conceptualize him as taller, and generally larger and more muscular, than individuals who possess only tools or similarly mundane objects. We also document that such patterns are not explicable in terms of any actual correlation between gun ownership and physical size, nor can they be explained in terms of cultural schemas or other background knowledge linking particular objects to individuals of particular size and strength. These findings pave the way for a fuller understanding of the evolution of the cognitive systems whereby humans – and likely many other social vertebrates – navigate social hierarchies. PMID:22509247

  10. PALEOBIOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL BIOMETRY ON LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA: A NEW ROUTE OF DISCOVERIES.

    PubMed

    Briguglio, Antonino; Hohenegger, Johann; Less, György

    2013-01-01

    Four specimens of larger benthic foraminifera (the Recent Palaeonummulites venosus and Operculina ammonoides, and the phylogenetically related Paleogene Nummulites fabianii and N. fichteli) were investigated by X-ray tomography. The resulting three-dimensional measurements enabled a comprehensive, quantitative study of shell morphology to interpret cell growth without specific shell preparation and/or destruction. After segmentation and extraction of all scanned lumina, the following characters were measured on all chambers of each specimen: chamber volume, septal distance, chamber height, and chamber width. The sequence of chamber lumina follows either a logistic function (Palaeonummulites, Operculina), where the deceleration in growth rate of the latest chambers could mark the onset of reproduction, or it can be modeled by a series of stepwise functions with differing constants (Nummulites). Variations around the growth model are either periodic, following external cycles, or random as expressed by abrupt deviations. Therefore, they may reflect the response of the cell to environmental changes in terms of cyclic changes (e.g., seasonality) or single events (e.g., predator attack). Correlations between chamber volume and the other chamber parameters show that septal distance always matches the sequence in chamber volume and can therefore be used as a proxy for environmental analyses in both growth models. Chamber height and width often remain constant around their function and rarely deviate drastically to accommodate the needed lumen for retaining test size and shape. Chamber width may vary according to chamber volume in involute specimens, whereas both chamber height and width correlate with volume in those tests following an Archimedean spiral. X-ray-tomography shows particular promise in determining which parameters that can be assessed routinely in two dimensions primarily reflect environmental conditions vs. parameters best used for taxonomic identification

  11. Developing Renewable Energy Projects Larger Than 10 MWs at Federal Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    2013-03-01

    To accomplish Federal goals for renewable energy, sustainability, and energy security, large-scale renewable energy projects must be developed and constructed on Federal sites at a significant scale with significant private investment. For the purposes of this Guide, large-scale Federal renewable energy projects are defined as renewable energy facilities larger than 10 megawatts (MW) that are sited on Federal property and lands and typically financed and owned by third parties.1 The U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps Federal agencies meet these goals and assists agency personnel navigate the complexities of developing such projects and attract the necessary private capital to complete them. This Guide is intended to provide a general resource that will begin to develop the Federal employee’s awareness and understanding of the project developer’s operating environment and the private sector’s awareness and understanding of the Federal environment. Because the vast majority of the investment that is required to meet the goals for large-scale renewable energy projects will come from the private sector, this Guide has been organized to match Federal processes with typical phases of commercial project development. FEMP collaborated with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and professional project developers on this Guide to ensure that Federal projects have key elements recognizable to private sector developers and investors. The main purpose of this Guide is to provide a project development framework to allow the Federal Government, private developers, and investors to work in a coordinated fashion on large-scale renewable energy projects. The framework includes key elements that describe a successful, financially attractive large-scale renewable energy project. This framework begins the translation between the Federal and private sector operating environments. When viewing the overall

  12. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites.

    PubMed

    Becker, Jamie E; Brown, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion's habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  13. Reliable Refuge: Two Sky Island Scorpion Species Select Larger, Thermally Stable Retreat Sites

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Jamie E.; Brown, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Sky island scorpions shelter under rocks and other surface debris, but, as with other scorpions, it is unclear whether these species select retreat sites randomly. Furthermore, little is known about the thermal preferences of scorpions, and no research has been done to identify whether reproductive condition might influence retreat site selection. The objectives were to (1) identify physical or thermal characteristics for retreat sites occupied by two sky island scorpions (Vaejovis cashi Graham 2007 and V. electrum Hughes 2011) and those not occupied; (2) determine whether retreat site selection differs between the two study species; and (3) identify whether thermal selection differs between species and between gravid and non-gravid females of the same species. Within each scorpion’s habitat, maximum dimensions of rocks along a transect line were measured and compared to occupied rocks to determine whether retreat site selection occurred randomly. Temperature loggers were placed under a subset of occupied and unoccupied rocks for 48 hours to compare the thermal characteristics of these rocks. Thermal gradient trials were conducted before parturition and after dispersal of young in order to identify whether gravidity influences thermal preference. Vaejovis cashi and V. electrum both selected larger retreat sites that had more stable thermal profiles. Neither species appeared to have thermal preferences influenced by reproductive condition. However, while thermal selection did not differ among non-gravid individuals, gravid V. electrum selected warmer temperatures than its gravid congener. Sky island scorpions appear to select large retreat sites to maintain thermal stability, although biotic factors (e.g., competition) could also be involved in this choice. Future studies should focus on identifying the various biotic or abiotic factors that could influence retreat site selection in scorpions, as well as determining whether reproductive condition affects thermal

  14. Growth and characterization of semi-organic nonlinear optical crystal: Sodium 2,4-dinitrophenolate monohydrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guru Prasad, L.; Krishnakumar, V.; Nagalakshmi, R.

    2013-06-01

    Sodium 2,4-dinitrophenolate monohydrate salt has been synthesized and the crystals have been grown in aqueous solution by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Grown crystal was confirmed by powder XRD studies. Functional groups presented in the grown crystal were identified and their vibrational properties were studied by recording FTIR spectrum. Thermal stability of the grown crystal was deliberated by recording TGA/DTA. Existence of the ionic form in the crystal was confirmed and the energy gap of the crystal was also calculated by analyzing UV-VIS-NIR spectrum. Second harmonic frequency generation was examined by Kurtz and Perry powder test and it reveals that the relative conversion efficiency was 2.5 times greater than the urea. Theoretical first order hyperpolarizability value was calculated for the optimized structure.

  15. Electrostatic vibration energy harvester with 2.4-GHz Cockcroft-Walton rectenna start-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takhedmit, Hakim; Saddi, Zied; Karami, Armine; Basset, Philippe; Cirio, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we propose the design, fabrication and experiments of a macro-scale electrostatic vibration energy harvester (e-VEH), pre-charged wirelessly for the first time with a 2.4-GHz Cockcroft-Walton rectenna. The rectenna is designed and optimized to operate at low power densities and provide high voltage levels: 0.5 V at 0.76 μW/cm2 and 1 V at 1.53 μW/cm2. The e-VEH uses a Bennet doubler as a conditioning circuit. Experiments show a 23-V voltage across the transducer terminal, when the harvester is excited at 25 Hz by 1.5 g of external acceleration. An accumulated energy of 275 μJ and a maximum available power of 0.4 μW are achieved. xml:lang="fr"

  16. Gas-Phase Synthesis of 1-Silacyclopenta-2,4-diene.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Dangi, Beni B; Thomas, Aaron M; Sun, Bing-Jian; Chou, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Agnes H H; Kaiser, Ralf I

    2016-07-04

    Silole (1-silacyclopenta-2,4-diene) was synthesized for the first time by the bimolecular reaction of the simplest silicon-bearing radical, silylidyne (SiH), with 1,3-butadiene (C4 H6 ) in the gas phase under single-collision conditions. The absence of consecutive collisions of the primary reaction product prevents successive reactions of the silole by Diels-Alder dimerization, thus enabling the clean gas-phase synthesis of this hitherto elusive cyclic species from acyclic precursors in a single-collision event. Our method opens up a versatile and unconventional path to access a previously rather obscure class of organosilicon molecules (substituted siloles), which have been difficult to access through classical synthetic methods.

  17. Simultaneous recovery of metals and degradation of organic species: copper and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Abdul J; Hassan, Mukhtar-ul; Grimes, Susan M

    2009-06-15

    In mixed wastewater streams, the presence of metal ions can retard the destruction of organic contaminants and the efficiency of recovery of the metal is reduced by the presence of organic species. The reduction in the efficiency of these methods is due to the formation of complexes between the organic species and the metal ions in solution. Results are presented for copper-2,4,5-T system in which both effects occur. A photolytic cell alone can achieve the complete degradation of 2,4,5-T, in the presence of TiO(2) or H(2)O(2), at pH 3.5. The addition of Cu(II) ions, however, retard the degradation of 2,4,5-T and complete mineralisation of 2,4,5-T was not achieved and the system also leaves Cu(II) ions in solution. An electrolytic cell alone can be used to recover copper in pH range 1.5-4.5 but is not capable of achieving complete disappearance of 2,4,5-T by anodic oxidation. A combined photolytic-electrolytic system is capable of achieving simultaneous destruction of 2,4,5-T and recovery of copper from mixed wastewater streams at pH 3.5. The percentage destruction of 2,4,5-T and the recovery of copper can be increased further by using a combined photolytic and an activated carbon concentrator cell system. This system can achieve the simultaneous recovery of copper and the degradation of 2,4,5-T without the use of an additional oxidants or catalysts.

  18. A molecular imprinting-based turn-on Ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Wu, Xiaqing; Fu, Junqing; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-07-15

    A novel molecular imprinting-based turn-on ratiometric fluorescence sensor was constructed via a facile sol-gel polymerization for detection of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on the basis of photoinduced electron transfer (PET) by using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as detection signal source and quantum dots (QDs) as reference signal source. With the presence and increase of 2,4-D, the amine groups on the surface of QDs@SiO2 could bind with 2,4-D and thereby the NBD fluorescence intensities could be significantly enhanced since the PET process was inhibited, while the QDs maintained constant intensities. Accordingly, the ratio of the dual-emission intensities of green NBD and red QDs could be utilized for turn-on fluorescent detection of 2,4-D, along with continuous color changes from orange-red to green readily observed by the naked eye. The as-prepared fluorescence sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14μM within 5min, and distinguished recognition selectivity for 2,4-D over its analogs. Moreover, the sensor was successfully applied to determine 2,4-D in real water samples, and high recoveries at three spiking levels of 2,4-D ranged from 95.0% to 110.1% with precisions below 4.5%. The simple, rapid and reliable visual sensing strategy would not only provide potential applications for high selective ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices, but also greatly enrich the research connotations of molecularly imprinted sensors.

  19. Diagenetic nanometric ferrihydrite clusters in 2.4 Ga carbonate banded iron formations from the Minas Supergroup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, R. R.; Wirth, R.; Orberger, B.

    2011-12-01

    Iron (oxyhydr)oxides, abundant on the Martian surface, can be formed via magmatic, hydrothermal, diagenetic or weathering processes. At present their formation are poorly understood. The study of Precambrian samples may be key to better understanding the Martian environmental conditions, past and present. Our FIB-TEM study of iron oxides from a banded iron formation (Gandarela Formation (2.4 Ga), Minas Supergroup, Minas Gerais, Brazil) provides a Precambrian terrestrial analogue for the formation of diagenetic ferrihydrite. A detailed mineralogical, petrological and FIB-TEM study of a carbonate banded iron formation (known locally as carbonate itabirites-CI) has revealed the presence of previously unknown nano-platelets of ferrihydrite, goethite and hematite hosted within dolomite. The CI are millimetrically alternating bands of pink dolomite and grey hematite. The fine sedimentary laminations, micritic sized dolomite crystals and nano (oxyhydr)oxide inclusions in the dolomite grains likely reflect a primary origin during deposition. The pink colour of the dolomite is a result of the nano inclusions of euhedral hematite (≤1 μm) and nano platelets of ferrihydrite and gothite (≥10 nm). The smallest ferrihydrites (~10 nm) are mostly rounded with a hint of a euhedral shape whereas the larger ferrihydrites (400 nm) are euhedral platelets. Clinochlore and talc indicate that the CI have experienced greenschist facies metamorphism at two major intervals; the Transamazonian at 2.1 Ga and the Brasiliano at 0.8 Ga. The ferrihydrites occur either as individual droplets or as clusters of up to 30 crystals. A common feature of all the ferrihydrite platelets is their close association with porosity indicating that the ferrihydrite platelets are a result of precipitation from fluid inclusions trapped within the dolomite during its formation. Deciphering the relative time of precipitation of the ferrihydrite is key in understanding the overall history of the rock. Dislocations

  20. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and theoretical studies on two Schiff base compounds of 2,6-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline and 2,4-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Alireza; Ghari, Fereshteh; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Lemeski, E Tazikeh; Fejfarova, Karla; Dusek, Michal; Shikhi, Masoomeh

    2015-03-15

    The crystal structures of two Schiff base compounds, 2,6-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline (1) and 2,4-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline (2) have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction and characterized by FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 in the gas phase were computed by the density functional theory (DFT) method. The obtained theoretical results were supported by the crystallographic data. In addition, theoretical configurations of the title compounds were relaxed and studied in terms of the combined analysis of HOMO-LUMO energy gap, total density of states (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), NMR spectra and harmonic vibrational frequencies.

  1. Crystal structure, spectroscopic and theoretical studies on two Schiff base compounds of 2,6-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline and 2,4-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Alireza; Ghari, Fereshteh; Khalaji, Aliakbar Dehno; Tazikeh Lemeski, E.; Fejfarova, Karla; Dusek, Michal; Shikhi, Masoomeh

    2015-03-01

    The crystal structures of two Schiff base compounds, 2,6-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline (1) and 2,4-dichlorobenzylidene-2,4-dichloroaniline (2) have been determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction and characterized by FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The electronic structures of compounds 1 and 2 in the gas phase were computed by the density functional theory (DFT) method. The obtained theoretical results were supported by the crystallographic data. In addition, theoretical configurations of the title compounds were relaxed and studied in terms of the combined analysis of HOMO-LUMO energy gap, total density of states (DOS), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), NMR spectra and harmonic vibrational frequencies.

  2. Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies on the Homogeneous Gas-Phase Formation of PCTA/DTs from 2,4-Dichlorothiophenol and 2,4,6-Trichlorothiophenol

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fei; Shi, Xiangli; Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qingzhu

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated thianthrene/dibenzothiophenes (PCTA/DTs) are sulfur analogues compounds to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Chlorothiophenols (CTPs) are key precursors to form PCTA/DTs. 2,4-DCTP has the minimum number of Cl atoms to form 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzothiophenes (2,4,6,8-TeCDT), which is the most important and widely detected of the PCDTs. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of PCTA/DTs from 2,4-DCTP and 2,4,6-TCTP precursors at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. Several energetically feasible pathways were revealed to compare the formation potential of PCTA/DT products. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600–1200 K. This study shows that pathways that ended with elimination of Cl step were dominant over pathways ended with elimination of the H step. The water molecule has a negative catalytic effect on the H-shift step and hinders the formation of PCDTs from 2,4-DCTP. This study, together with works already published from our group, clearly illustrates an increased propensity for the dioxin formation from CTPs over the analogous CPs. PMID:26343647

  3. A novel strategy for chromogenic chemosensors highly selective toward cyanide based on its reaction with 4-(2,4-dinitrobenzylideneamino)benzenes or 2,4-dinitrostilbenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heying, Renata S.; Nandi, Leandro G.; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J.; Machado, Vanderlei G.

    2015-02-01

    N-(2,4-dinitrobenzylidene)-4-methoxyaniline (1), 4-(N,N-dimethylamine)-N-(2,4-dinitrobenzylidene)aniline (2), 2,4-dinitro-4‧-methoxystilbene (3), and 2,4-dinitro-4‧-(dimethylamino)stilbene (4) were synthesized and studied in dimethyl sulfoxide in a novel strategy as anionic chromogenic chemosensors. The color of the solutions of these compounds changed only in the presence of cyanide. The kinetic studies were performed with compounds 1-3 in an excess of cyanide. Higher second-order rate constant values were obtained for the compounds containing a methoxy group in relation to the compounds with a dimethylamino substituent, since the methoxy group donates electronic density to the 2,4-dinitrophenyl electron-accepting group less easily compared with the dimethylamino group. Stilbenes generally have greater structural rigidity than imines, facilitating the action of the substituents through the mesomeric effect. The data obtained indicate that the anion acts as a nucleophile, being responsible for Cdbnd N bond breaking. The Cdbnd C bridge is not broken in the stilbene dyes, but cyanide performs a nucleophilic attack on the 2,4-dinitrophenyl group.

  4. Mechanistic and Kinetic Studies on the Homogeneous Gas-Phase Formation of PCTA/DTs from 2,4-Dichlorothiophenol and 2,4,6-Trichlorothiophenol.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Shi, Xiangli; Li, Yunfeng; Zhang, Qingzhu

    2015-08-28

    Polychlorinated thianthrene/dibenzothiophenes (PCTA/DTs) are sulfur analogues compounds to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Chlorothiophenols (CTPs) are key precursors to form PCTA/DTs. 2,4-DCTP has the minimum number of Cl atoms to form 2,4,6,8-tetrachlorinated dibenzothiophenes (2,4,6,8-TeCDT), which is the most important and widely detected of the PCDTs. In this paper, quantum chemical calculations were carried out to investigate the homogeneous gas-phase formation of PCTA/DTs from 2,4-DCTP and 2,4,6-TCTP precursors at the MPWB1K/6-311+G(3df,2p)//MPWB1K/6-31+G(d,p) level. Several energetically feasible pathways were revealed to compare the formation potential of PCTA/DT products. The rate constants of the crucial elementary reactions were evaluated by the canonical variational transition-state (CVT) theory with the small curvature tunneling (SCT) correction over a wide temperature range of 600-1200 K. This study shows that pathways that ended with elimination of Cl step were dominant over pathways ended with elimination of the H step. The water molecule has a negative catalytic effect on the H-shift step and hinders the formation of PCDTs from 2,4-DCTP. This study, together with works already published from our group, clearly illustrates an increased propensity for the dioxin formation from CTPs over the analogous CPs.

  5. Determining the Probability that a Small Event in Brazil (magnitude 3.5 to 4.5 mb) will be Followed by a Larger Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assumpcao, M.

    2013-05-01

    A typical earthquake story in Brazil: A swarm of small earthquakes starts to occur near a small town, reaching magnitude 3.5, causing some alarm but no damage. The freightened population, not used to feeling earthquakes, calls the seismology experts who set up a local network to study the seismicity. To the usual and inevitable question "Are we going to have a larger earthquake?", the usual and standard answer "It is not possible to predict earthquakes; larger earthquakes are possible". Fearing unecessary panic, seismologists often add that "however, large earthquakes are not very likely". This vague answer has proven quite inadequate. "Not very likely" is interpreted by the population and authorities as "not going to happen, and there is not need to do anything". Before L'Aquila 2009, one case of magnitude 3.8 in Eastern Brazil was followed seven months later by a magnitude 4.9 causing serious damage to poorly built houses. One child died and the affected population felt deceived by the seismologists. In order to provide better answers than just a vague "not likely", we examined the Brazilian catalog of earthquakes for all cases of moderate magnitude (3.4 mb or larger) that were followed, up to one year later, by a larger event. We found that the chance of an event with magnitude 3.4 or larger being the foreshock of a larger magntitude is roughly 1/6. The probability of an event being a foreshock varies with magnitude from about 20% for a 3.5 mb to about 5% for a 4.5 mb. Also, given that an event in the range 3.4 to 4.3 is a foreshock, the probability that the mainshock will be 4.7 or larger is 1/6. The probability for a larger event to occur decreases with time after the occurrence of the possible foreshock with a time constant of ~70 days. Perhaps, by giving the population and civil defense a more quantitative answer (such as "the chance of a larger even is like rolling a six in a dice") may help the decision to reinforce poor houses or even evacuate people from

  6. Impact of cryptic female choice on insemination success: Larger sized and longer copulating male squid ejaculate more, but females influence insemination success by removing spermatangia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Noriyosi; Yoshida, Masa-Aki; Kasugai, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    In polyandrous mating systems, sperm competition and cryptic female choice (CFC) are well recognized as postcopulatory evolutionary forces. However, it remains challenging to separate CFC from sperm competition and to estimate how much CFC influences insemination success because those processes usually occur inside the female's body. The Japanese pygmy squid, Idiosepius paradoxus, is an ideal species in which to separate CFC from sperm competition because sperm transfer by the male and sperm displacement by the female can be observed directly at an external location on the female's body. Here, we counted the number of spermatangia transferred to, removed from, and remaining on the female body during single copulation episodes. We measured behavioral and morphological characteristics of the male, such as duration of copulation and body size. Although males with larger body size and longer copulation time were capable of transferring larger amounts of sperm, females preferentially eliminated sperm from males with larger body size and shorter copulation time by spermatangia removal; thus, CFC could attenuate sperm precedence by larger males, whereas it reinforces sperm precedence by males with longer copulation time. Genetic paternity analysis revealed that fertilisation success for each male was correlated with remaining sperm volume that is adjusted by females after copulation.

  7. An apparent-motion confound causes the negative exogenous cuing effect at SOAs with larger numbers of target locations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peii; Mordkoff, J Toby

    2012-01-01

    Salient but irrelevant stimuli seem to cause an automatic orienting of covert attention, facilitating the detection of targets at the cued location for a brief period of time. However, this finding is highly dependent on the number of possible target locations, at least when the simple detection of targets is all that the task requires. Whereas small numbers of possible target locations (e.g., 2 or 3) produce the well-known advantage in response time for valid cue trials (i.e., a positive cuing effect), larger numbers of possible target locations (e.g., 6 or 8) produce a negative cuing effect. If not explained in terms of a nonattentional mechanism, this latter finding raises serious questions about the standard interpretation of positive cuing effects. The present experiment tested a particular nonattentional mechanism: that a confound between target presence and apparent motion, which occurs only on invalid cue trials, is responsible for negative cuing effect. We reduced or eliminated this confound by the use of a new type of catch trial and eliminated the negative cuing effect with large numbers of target locations.

  8. Benzene-derived N2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-deoxyguanosine adduct: UvrABC incision and its conformation in DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Bo; Rodriguez, Ben; Yang, Yanu; Guliaev, Anton B.; Chenna, Ahmed

    2010-06-14

    Benzene, a ubiquitous human carcinogen, forms DNA adducts through its metabolites such as p-benzoquinone (p-BQ) and hydroquinone (HQ). N(2)-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-4-HOPh-dG) is the principal adduct identified in vivo by (32)P-postlabeling in cells or animals treated with p-BQ or HQ. To study its effect on repair specificity and replication fidelity, we recently synthesized defined oligonucleotides containing a site-specific adduct using phosphoramidite chemistry. We here report the repair of this adduct by Escherichia coli UvrABC complex, which performs the initial damage recognition and incision steps in the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. We first showed that the p-BQ-treated plasmid was efficiently cleaved by the complex, indicating the formation of DNA lesions that are substrates for NER. Using a 40-mer substrate, we found that UvrABC incises the DNA strand containing N(2)-4-HOPh-dG in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The specificity of such repair was also compared with that of DNA glycosylases and damage-specific endonucleases of E. coli, both of which were found to have no detectable activity toward N(2)-4-HOPh-dG. To understand why this adduct is specifically recognized and processed by UvrABC, molecular modeling studies were performed. Analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories showed that stable G:C-like hydrogen bonding patterns of all three Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds are present within the N(2)-4-HOPh-G:C base pair, with the hydroxyphenyl ring at an almost planar position. In addition, N(2)-4-HOPh-dG has a tendency to form more stable stacking interactions than a normal G in B-type DNA. These conformational properties may be critical in differential recognition of this adduct by specific repair enzymes.

  9. Why do oceanic negative cloud-to-ground lightning exhibit larger peak current values?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chronis, T.; Koshak, W.; McCaul, E.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the temporal (monthly) and spatial climatology (2004-2010) of the first return stroke of the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash peak current (Ip) across various land/water boundaries over the contiguous United States. Four regions are examined: the Gulf of Mexico (region 1), the Florida peninsula (region 2), Lake Michigan (region 3), and part of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic (region 4). The crosss across the coastlines of regions 1, 2, and 4 show a gradual oceanward increase in the mean negative polarity CG peak current values (-Ip). This transition along the respective land/ocean boundaries is not sharp but gradual. In direct contrast with ocean, there is no consistent behavior in -Ip values as we move from land out across the fresh water of Lake Michigan (region 3). Meanwhile, the positive CG flash peak current (+Ip) values do not exhibit a consistent variation across any coastal boundary. For region 1, the -Ip values increase as we move toward the coast (southwards) especially during the wet season (June-October). This finding is in direct contrast with studies that documented winter as the season of maximum -Ip values. The zonal and seasonal variations of -Ip values across region 4 are not quite as pronounced, but the oceanic -Ip values are still larger than over the adjoining landmass. We explore in turn which up to date hypotheses pertinent to the oceanic -Ip enhancement are supported or refuted by our findings. It is concluded that the oceanic -Ip enhancement is not an artifact related to CG detection or Ip retrieval methods, nor is it likely related to the cloud top heights or CG activity. The study cannot refute the role of electrical conductivity and its contribution to CG leader attachment processes. However, given the observed "blurred transition" of the Ip values across the coastlines this paper suggests that likely the main physical mechanism is acting on the thundercloud potential. The recently suggested role of sodium chloride (Na

  10. 'O' blood type is associated with larger grey-matter volumes in the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Matteo; Venneri, Annalena

    2015-07-01

    Recent evidence indicated higher incidence of cognitive deficits in ABO blood-type system 'AB' individuals. Since this statistical difference might originate from the lack of protective effects exerted by 'O' alleles on the brain via vascular or non-vascular routes, this study investigated volumetric differences in grey matter between 'O' and non-'O' adults to explore the possibility of a structural endophenotype visible in 'O' adults without cognitive impairment or neurodegeneration. A large sample of cognitively healthy adults who had previously undergone structural MRI for research purposes were contacted telephonically and enquired about their ABO blood type. Out of the 189 individuals who were able to retrieve and communicate this information, 'O' (n=76) and 'A' adults (n=65) were included in Model 1. In Model 2, all non-'O' (n=113) were instead collapsed in a single group. Voxel-Based Morphometry analyses were carried out on three-dimensional T1-weighted scans, and between-sample t tests were run to compare the maps of grey-matter volumes of the subgroups of interest, controlling for major nuisance variables. In Model 1, 'O' adults had larger grey-matter volumes in two symmetrical clusters within the posterior ventral portion of the cerebellum. This was confirmed in Model 2. Additionally, non-'O' adults showed lower volume values in temporal and limbic regions, including the left hippocampus. The cerebellar clusters were located in regions previously found to be part of a network responsible for sensorimotor integration. It is speculated that the structural reductions seen in non-'O' adults might result in a susceptibility to down-regulation of this network. This occurrence is likely to intensify along the ageing process and may contribute to foster cognitive decline. Although Model 2 seems to suggest that having a 'O' blood type might play a role in protection against those conditions in which temporal and mediotemporal volumetric loss is observed (Alzheimer

  11. Larger core size has superior technical and analytical accuracy in bladder tissue microarray.

    PubMed

    Eskaros, Adel Rh; Egloff, Shanna A Arnold; Boyd, Kelli L; Richardson, Joyce E; Hyndman, M Eric; Zijlstra, Andries

    2017-03-01

    The construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs) with cores from a large number of paraffin-embedded tissues (donors) into a single paraffin block (recipient) is an effective method of analyzing samples from many patient specimens simultaneously. For the TMA to be successful, the cores within it must capture the correct histologic areas from the donor blocks (technical accuracy) and maintain concordance with the tissue of origin (analytical accuracy). This can be particularly challenging for tissues with small histological features such as small islands of carcinoma in situ (CIS), thin layers of normal urothelial lining of the bladder, or cancers that exhibit intratumor heterogeneity. In an effort to create a comprehensive TMA of a bladder cancer patient cohort that accurately represents the tumor heterogeneity and captures the small features of normal and CIS, we determined how core size (0.6 vs 1.0 mm) impacted the technical and analytical accuracy of the TMA. The larger 1.0 mm core exhibited better technical accuracy for all tissue types at 80.9% (normal), 94.2% (tumor), and 71.4% (CIS) compared with 58.6%, 85.9%, and 63.8% for 0.6 mm cores. Although the 1.0 mm core provided better tissue capture, increasing the number of replicates from two to three allowed with the 0.6 mm core compensated for this reduced technical accuracy. However, quantitative image analysis of proliferation using both Ki67+ immunofluorescence counts and manual mitotic counts demonstrated that the 1.0 mm core size also exhibited significantly greater analytical accuracy (P=0.004 and 0.035, respectively, r(2)=0.979 and 0.669, respectively). Ultimately, our findings demonstrate that capturing two or more 1.0 mm cores for TMA construction provides superior technical and analytical accuracy over the smaller 0.6 mm cores, especially for tissues harboring small histological features or substantial heterogeneity.

  12. Multisensory Stimulation Can Induce an Illusion of Larger Belly Size in Immersive Virtual Reality

    PubMed Central

    Normand, Jean-Marie; Giannopoulos, Elias; Spanlang, Bernhard; Slater, Mel

    2011-01-01

    Background Body change illusions have been of great interest in recent years for the understanding of how the brain represents the body. Appropriate multisensory stimulation can induce an illusion of ownership over a rubber or virtual arm, simple types of out-of-the-body experiences, and even ownership with respect to an alternate whole body. Here we use immersive virtual reality to investigate whether the illusion of a dramatic increase in belly size can be induced in males through (a) first person perspective position (b) synchronous visual-motor correlation between real and virtual arm movements, and (c) self-induced synchronous visual-tactile stimulation in the stomach area. Methodology Twenty two participants entered into a virtual reality (VR) delivered through a stereo head-tracked wide field-of-view head-mounted display. They saw from a first person perspective a virtual body substituting their own that had an inflated belly. For four minutes they repeatedly prodded their real belly with a rod that had a virtual counterpart that they saw in the VR. There was a synchronous condition where their prodding movements were synchronous with what they felt and saw and an asynchronous condition where this was not the case. The experiment was repeated twice for each participant in counter-balanced order. Responses were measured by questionnaire, and also a comparison of before and after self-estimates of belly size produced by direct visual manipulation of the virtual body seen from the first person perspective. Conclusions The results show that first person perspective of a virtual body that substitutes for the own body in virtual reality, together with synchronous multisensory stimulation can temporarily produce changes in body representation towards the larger belly size. This was demonstrated by (a) questionnaire results, (b) the difference between the self-estimated belly size, judged from a first person perspective, after and before the experimental

  13. Focal point analysis of the singlet-triplet energy gap of octacene and larger acenes.

    PubMed

    Hajgató, Balázs; Huzak, Matija; Deleuze, Michael S

    2011-08-25

    A benchmark theoretical study of the electronic ground state and of the vertical and adiabatic singlet-triplet (ST) excitation energies of n-acenes (C(4n+2)H(2n+4)) ranging from octacene (n = 8) to undecacene (n = 11) is presented. The T1 diagnostics of coupled cluster theory and further energy-based criteria demonstrate that all investigated systems exhibit predominantly a (1)A(g) singlet closed-shell electronic ground state. Singlet-triplet (S(0)-T(1)) energy gaps can therefore be very accurately determined by applying the principle of a focal point analysis (FPA) onto the results of a series of single-point and symmetry-restricted calculations employing correlation consistent cc-pVXZ basis sets (X = D, T, Q, 5) and single-reference methods [HF, MP2, MP3, MP4SDQ, CCSD, and CCSD(T)] of improving quality. According to our best estimates, which amount to a dual extrapolation of energy differences to the level of coupled cluster theory including single, double, and perturbative estimates of connected triple excitations [CCSD(T)] in the limit of an asymptotically complete basis set (cc-pV∞Z), the S(0)-T(1) vertical (adiabatic) excitation energies of these compounds amount to 13.40 (8.21), 10.72 (6.05), 8.05 (3.67), and 7.10 (2.58) kcal/mol, respectively. In line with the absence of Peierls distortions (bond length alternations), extrapolations of results obtained at this level for benzene (n = 1) and all studied n-acenes so far (n = 2-11) indicate a vanishing S(0)-T(1) energy gap, in the limit of an infinitely large polyacene, within an uncertainty of 1.5 kcal/mol (0.06 eV). Lacking experimental values for the S(0)-T(1) energy gaps of n-acenes larger than hexacene, comparison is made with recent optical and electrochemical determinations of the HOMO-LUMO band gap. Further issues such as scalar relativistic, core correlation, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections (DBOCs) are tentatively examined.

  14. Distributions of Gas and Galaxies from Galaxy Clusters to Larger Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patej, Anna

    2017-01-01

    We address the distributions of gas and galaxies on three scales: the outskirts of galaxy clusters, the clustering of galaxies on large scales, and the extremes of the galaxy distribution. In the outskirts of galaxy clusters, long-standing analytical models of structure formation and recent simulations predict the existence of density jumps in the gas and dark matter profiles. We use these features to derive models for the gas density profile, obtaining a simple fiducial model that is in agreement with both observations of cluster interiors and simulations of the outskirts. We next consider the galaxy density profiles of clusters; under the assumption that the galaxies in cluster outskirts follow similar collisionless dynamics as the dark matter, their distribution should show a steep jump as well. We examine the profiles of a low-redshift sample of clusters and groups, finding evidence for the jump in some of these clusters. Moving to larger scales where massive galaxies of different types are expected to trace the same large-scale structure, we present a test of this prediction by measuring the clustering of red and blue galaxies at z 0.6, finding low stochasticity between the two populations. These results address a key source of systematic uncertainty - understanding how target populations of galaxies trace large-scale structure - in galaxy redshift surveys. Such surveys use baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) as a cosmological probe, but are limited by the expense of obtaining sufficiently dense spectroscopy. With the intention of leveraging upcoming deep imaging data, we develop a new method of detecting the BAO in sparse spectroscopic samples via cross-correlation with a dense photometric catalog. This method will permit the extension of BAO measurements to higher redshifts than possible with the existing spectroscopy alone. Lastly, we connect galaxies near and far: the Local Group dwarfs and the high redshift galaxies observed by Hubble and Spitzer. We

  15. Metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenol in tobacco engineered with bacterial degradative genes

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, E.J.; Sekine, M.; Gordon, M.P. )

    1990-05-01

    The potential use of plants in toxic waste remediation has been overlooked. While chlorophenols are relatively slowly metabolized in Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi leaf extracts, chlorocatechols are rapidly metabolized, presumably by polyphenol oxidases. Our initial focus has been the fate of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4DCP) in var. Xanthi plants which express a bacterial 2,4DCP hydroxylase, which converts 2,4DCP to 3,5-dichlorocatechol. The roots of wild type and 2,4DCP hydroxylase transgenic plants growing in hydroponics were exposed to {sup 14}C-2,4DCP. Approximately 95% of {sup 14}C-2,4DCP metabolites remained in the roots when exposed to 2,4DCP. Upon extraction of root tissue, three major metabolites were found in untransformed plants and four major metabolites in transformed plants. Upon digestion with beta-D-glucosidase, these metabolites disappeared concomitant with the appearance of free 2,4DCP in wild type plants and 2,4DCP and 3,5-dichlorocatechol in transgenic plants. It is apparent that the chlorophenols are not readily available substrates for polyphenol oxidases in whole plants.

  16. Tropical biomass burning is a larger than expected source of black carbon aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddington, C.; Spracklen, D. V.; Rap, A.; Artaxo, P. P.; Carslaw, K. S.; Mann, G.; Rizzo, L. V.; Arana, A.; Morgan, W.; Coe, H.

    2013-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emissions are a major global source of black carbon (BC) aerosol of which agricultural burning and deforestation fires account for at least a quarter of emissions. However, high temporal and spatial variability in the emissions lead to major challenges for their quantification and representation in large scale models. Previous modelling studies have found a persistent underestimation of aerosol optical depth (AOD) observed in BB-influenced regions, requiring particulate matter (PM) emissions from fires to be scaled by a factor of ~2-4 in order to match observations. Here we evaluate a global aerosol microphysics model (GLOMAP) against long-term observations of PM, BC and AOD to better understand tropical BB aerosol and quantify its direct radiative effects (DRE). Our region of study is Amazonia, where large scale BB is the dominant source of fine mode PM and BC. We performed simulations with GLOMAP for the period 2000-2012 using two different BB emission inventories: GFED3 and GFASv1.0. Simulated monthly mean aerosol concentrations over Amazonia are comparable between the two emission inventories, with slightly longer BB seasons and a lower peak in 2010 with the GFAS emissions. We use measurements of PM2.5 (made using gravimetric filter analysis) and equivalent BC (made using optical reflectance and Multi-angle Absorption Photometry) at two ground sites in Amazonia during 2008-2012. Comparisons with these observations show that the model captures the seasonal cycle of PM2.5 and BC mass concentrations well (R2 between 0.7 and 0.8) with maximum concentrations predicted in the dry season (~July to October). However, the model substantially underpredicts the observed concentrations of BC mass at these sites throughout the 2008-2012 period (bias GFED, -63%; GFAS -75%), despite a relatively good agreement with observed total PM2.5 (bias GFED, -15%; GFAS, -28%). Over Amazonia, the uncertainties in modelled BC mass are dominated by uncertainties in the

  17. How-to-Do-It: Why Don't Cells Grow Larger? A Lab Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanek, Joseph A., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a laboratory investigation designed to analyze surface area to volume ratio related to cell division. Uses agar-gel "cells" with pH indicator added which are then "fed" acid for a measured time. Discusses procedures and materials used, providing a sample data table and important guiding questions. (JM)

  18. Lunar Occultations of 18 Stellar Sources from the 2.4 m Thai National Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richichi, A.; Tasuya, O.; Irawati, P.; Soonthornthum, B.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

    2016-01-01

    We report further results from the program of lunar occultation (LO) observations started at the 2.4 m Thai National Telescope (TNT) in 2014. We have recorded LO events of 18 stellar sources, leading to the detection of four angular diameters and two binary stars. With two exceptions, these are first-time determinations. We could resolve angular diameters as small as 2 milliarcseconds (mas) and projected separations as small as 4 mas. We discuss the individual results, in the context of previous observations, when available. The first-time angular diameters for o Psc, HR 6196 and 75 Leo are in good agreement with expected values, while that of π Leo agrees with the average of previous determinations but has a higher accuracy. We find a new secondary in o Psc, as previously suspected from Hipparcos data. We also obtain an accurate measurement of the companion in 31 Ari, revealing inconsistencies in the currently available orbital parameters. The TNT, equipped with the fast ULTRASPEC imager, is the leading facility in Southeast Asia for high time resolution observations. The LO technique at this telescope achieves a sensitivity of i‧ ≈ 10 mag, with a potential to detect several hundreds of LO events per year.

  19. A longitudinal study of atrazine and 2,4-D exposure and oxidative stress markers among iowa corn farmers.

    PubMed

    Lerro, Catherine C; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Portengen, Lützen; Kang, Daehee; Lee, Kyoungho; Blair, Aaron; Lynch, Charles F; Bakke, Berit; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species, potentially formed through environmental exposures, can overwhelm an organism's antioxidant capabilities resulting in oxidative stress. Long-term oxidative stress is linked with chronic diseases. Pesticide exposures have been shown to cause oxidative stress in vivo. We utilized a longitudinal study of corn farmers and non-farming controls in Iowa to examine the impact of exposure to the widely used herbicides atrazine and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on markers of oxidative stress. 225 urine samples were collected during five agricultural time periods (pre-planting, planting, growing, harvest, off-season) for 30 farmers who applied pesticides occupationally and 10 controls who did not; all were non-smoking men ages 40-60. Atrazine mercapturate (atrazine metabolite), 2,4-D, and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde [MDA], 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG], and 8-isoprostaglandin-F2α [8-isoPGF]) were measured in urine. We calculated β estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for each pesticide-oxidative stress marker combination using multivariate linear mixed-effect models for repeated measures. Farmers had higher urinary atrazine mercapturate and 2,4-D levels compared with controls. In regression models, after natural log transformation, 2,4-D was associated with elevated levels of 8-OHdG (β = 0.066, 95%CI = 0.008-0.124) and 8-isoPGF (β = 0.088, 95%CI = 0.004-0.172). 2,4-D may be associated with oxidative stress because of modest increases in 8-OHdG, a marker of oxidative DNA damage, and 8-isoPGF, a product of lipoprotein peroxidation, with recent 2,4-D exposure. Future studies should investigate the role of 2,4-D-induced oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of human diseases. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:30-38, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Validation of a Genomics-Based Hypothetical Adverse Outcome Pathway: 2,4-Dinitrotoluene Perturbs PPAR Signaling Thus Impairing Energy Metabolism and Exercise Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Wilbanks, Mitchell S.; Gust, Kurt A.; Atwa, Sahar; Sunesara, Imran; Johnson, David; Ang, Choo Yaw; Meyer, Sharon A.; Perkins, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) is a nitroaromatic used in industrial dyes and explosives manufacturing processes that is found as a contaminant in the environment. Previous studies have implicated antagonism of PPARα signaling as a principal process affected by 2,4-DNT. Here, we test the hypothesis that 2,4-DNT-induced perturbations in PPARα signaling and resultant downstream deficits in energy metabolism, especially from lipids, cause organism-level impacts on exercise endurance. PPAR nuclear activation bioassays demonstrated inhibition of PPARα signaling by 2,4-DNT whereas PPARγ signaling increased. PPARα (-/-) and wild-type (WT) female mice were exposed for 14 days to vehicle or 2,4-DNT (134 mg/kg/day) and performed a forced swim to exhaustion 1 day after the last dose. 2,4-DNT significantly decreased body weights and swim times in WTs, but effects were significantly mitigated in PPARα (-/-) mice. 2,4-DNT decreased transcript expression for genes downstream in the PPARα signaling pathway, principally genes involved in fatty acid transport. Results indicate that PPARγ signaling increased resulting in enhanced cycling of lipid and carbohydrate substrates into glycolytic/gluconeogenic pathways favoring energy production versus storage in 2,4-DNT-exposed WT and PPARα (-/-) mice. PPARα (-/-) mice appear to have compensated for the loss of PPARα by shifting energy metabolism to PPARα-independent pathways resulting in lower sensitivity to 2,4-DNT when compared with WT mice. Our results validate 2,4-DNT-induced perturbation of PPARα signaling as the molecular initiating event for impaired energy metabolism, weight loss, and decreased exercise performance. PMID:24893713

  1. Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 "2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetate monooxygenase" is an alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Fukumori, F; Hausinger, R P

    1993-01-01

    The Alcaligenes eutrophus JMP134 tfdA gene, encoding the enzyme responsible for the first step in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) biodegradation, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and several enzymatic properties of the partially purified gene product were examined. Although the tfdA-encoded enzyme is typically referred to as 2,4-D monooxygenase, we were unable to observe any reductant-dependent activity. Rather, we demonstrate that this enzyme is a ferrous ion-dependent dioxygenase that uses alpha-ketoglutarate as a cosubstrate. The alpha-ketoglutarate is converted to succinate concomitant with 2,4-D conversion to 2,4-dichlorophenol. By using [1-14C]alpha-ketoglutarate, we established that carbon dioxide is the second product derived from alpha-ketoglutarate. Finally, we verified the proposal that glyoxylate is the second product derived from 2,4-D. PMID:8458850

  2. Metal complexes with some 3-aryl-1,2,4-oxadiazoles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massacesi, Marcella; Devoto, Gerolamo; Gelli, Gioanna

    1985-01-01

    Complexes of empirical formula M(L) 2X 2 were synthesized and characterized, where L = 5-methyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethoxiphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (topho), M = Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Pd(II), Pt(II), X = Cl, M = Pd(II), Pt(II), X = Br, M = Zn(II), X = I; L = 5-methy]-3-(3,5-dichloro,2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (ctpho), M = Cu(II), Co(II), X = Cl; L = 5-methyl-3-(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole (tpho), M = Cu(II), X = Cl. Magnetic, spectral, conductivity and elemental analysis data indicate that the ligands always act as monodentate, N-bonded. The Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes are square planar and all the other derivatives are tetrahedral.

  3. The slippery slope: how small ethical transgressions pave the way for larger future transgressions.

    PubMed

    Welsh, David T; Ordóñez, Lisa D; Snyder, Deirdre G; Christian, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    Many recent corporate scandals have been described as resulting from a slippery slope in which a series of small infractions gradually increased over time (e.g., McLean & Elkind, 2003). However, behavioral ethics research has rarely considered how unethical behavior unfolds over time. In this study, we draw on theories of self-regulation to examine whether individuals engage in a slippery slope of increasingly unethical behavior. First, we extend Bandura's (1991, 1999) social-cognitive theory by demonstrating how the mechanism of moral disengagement can reduce ethicality over a series of gradually increasing indiscretions. Second, we draw from recent research connecting regulatory focus theory and behavioral ethics (Gino & Margolis, 2011) to demonstrate that inducing a prevention focus moderates this mediated relationship by reducing one's propensity to slide down the slippery slope. We find support for the developed model across 4 multiround studies.

  4. A Bioluminescent Whole-Cell Reporter for Detection of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid and 2,4-Dichlorophenol in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Anthony G.; Rice, James F.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Bright, Nathan G.; Sayler, Gary S.

    2000-01-01

    A bioreporter was made containing a tfdRPDII-luxCDABE fusion in a modified mini-Tn5 construct. When it was introduced into the chromosome of Ralstonia eutropha JMP134, the resulting strain, JMP134-32, produced a sensitive bioluminescent response to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at concentrations of 2.0 μM to 5.0 mM. This response was linear (R2 = 0.9825) in the range of 2.0 μM to 1.1 × 102 μM. Saturation occurred at higher concentrations, with maximal bioluminescence occurring in the presence of approximately 1.2 mM 2,4-D. A sensitive response was also recorded in the presence of 2,4-dichlorophenol at concentrations below 1.1 × 102 μM; however, only a limited bioluminescent response was recorded in the presence of 3-chlorobenzoic acid at concentrations below 1.0 mM. A significant bioluminescent response was also recorded when strain JMP134-32 was incubated with soils containing aged 2,4-D residues. PMID:11010925

  5. 2, 4 dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) sorption from aqueous solution using granular activated carbon and polymeric adsorbents and studies on effect of temperature on activated carbon adsorption.

    PubMed

    Ghatbandhe, A S; Yenkie, M K N

    2008-04-01

    Adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamics of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), one of the most commonly used chlorophenol, onto bituminous coal based Filtrasorb-400 grade granular activated carbon, were studied in aqueous solution in a batch system with respect to temperature. Uptake capacity of activated carbon found to increase with temperature. Langmuir isotherm models were applied to experimental equilibrium data of 2, 4-DCP adsorption and competitive studies with respect to XAD resin were carried out. Equilibrium data fitted very well to the Langmuir equilibrium model. Adsorbent monolayer capacity 'Q0, Langmuir constant 'b' and adsorption rate constant 'k(a)' were evaluated at different temperatures for activated carbon adsorption. This data was then used to calculate the energy of activation of adsorption and also the thermodynamic parameters, namely the free energy of adsorption, deltaG0, enthalpy of adsorption, deltaH0 and the entropy of adsorption deltaS0. The obtained results showed that the monolayer capacity increases with the increase in temperatures. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption of 2,4 DCP is an endothermic process. Synthetic resin was not found efficient to adsorb 2,4 DCP compared to activated carbon. The order of adsorption efficiencies of three resins used in the study found as XAD7HP > XAD4 > XAD1180.

  6. Uptake and Transformation of the Propellants 2,4-DNT, Perchlorate and Nitroglycerin by Grasses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-31

    by performing hydroponic and soil experiments. The propellants 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), perchlorate and nitroglycerin (GTN) often contaminate...firing ranges due to partially detonated ordnances and incomplete combustion of munitions. In hydroponic experiments, sorption of 2,4-DNT to roots was...and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) in the clean-up of propellant contaminated soil was assessed by performing hydroponic and soil experiments. The

  7. A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in Laboratory Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ERDC/EL TN-14-3 July 2014 A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Rapid Spectrophotometric Screening Method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in...D., A. J. Kennedy, A. R. Poda, and A. L. Russell. 2014. A rapid spectrophotometric screening method for 2,4-dinitroanisole in laboratory water

  8. Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Francis Group, LLC. 14. ABSTRACT Conversion of (1H)-1,2,4-triazole to its sodium salt with methanolic sodium methoxide is followed by reaction ...From - To) 04-06-2007 Journal Article 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Practical Methylation Procedure for (1H)-1,2,4-Triazole (Postprint...continuous extraction (chloroform/water) with a final short-path distillation under a controlled vacuum to obtain spectroscopically pure 1- methyl -1,2,4

  9. 40 CFR 721.982 - Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,Oâ²... Substances § 721.982 Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′) (PMN P-93-214,...

  10. 40 CFR 721.982 - Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,Oâ²... Substances § 721.982 Calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance calcium, bis(2,4-pentanedionato-O,O′) (PMN P-93-214,...

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photophysical studies of a novel schiff base bearing 1, 2, 4-Triazole scaffold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alphonse, Roshmy; Varghese, Anitha; George, Louis

    2016-06-01

    A novel Schiff base derivative containing 1, 2, 4-triazole nucleus (TMPIMP) was synthesized from 4- [1,2,4] triazol-1-ylmethyl-phenylamine and salicylaldehyde in the presence of glacial acetic acid in an ethanolic medium. The synthesized compound was characterized by 1H-NMR, IR and UV spectral analysis. The excitation and emission spectra of triazolyl methyl phenyl imino methyl phenol (abbreviated as TMPIMP) were recorded in various solvents to investigate their solvatochromic behaviour. Dipole moments of the two electronic states of TMPIMP were calculated from solvatochromic spectral shifts. These were correlated with refractive index (η) and dielectric constant (ε) of various solvents. Theoretical calculations were performed to estimate the excited state dipole moment on the basis of different solvent correlation methods, like the Bilot-Kawski, Bakhshiev, Lippert-Mataga, Kawski-Chamma-Viallet and Reichardt methods. The dipole moment in the excited state was found to be higher than that in the ground state due to a substantial redistribution of electron densities and charges. Using a multiple regression analysis, the solvent-solute interactions were determined by means of Kamlet Taft parameters (α, β, π*). Computational studies were performed by Gaussian 09 W software using a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in order to calculate the atomic charges and frontier molecular orbital energies in the solvent phase. The calculations indicated that the dipole moment of the molecule in an excited state is much higher than that in a ground state. The chemical stability of TMPIMP was determined by means of chemical hardness (η) using HOMO-LUMO energies. The reactive centers in the molecule were also identified by molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) 3D plots as a result of TD-DFT computational analysis.

  12. Batch soil adsorption and column transport studies of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in soils.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Jennifer D; Mark, Noah W; Taylor, Susan; Šimunek, J; Brusseau, M L; Dontsova, Katerina M

    2017-04-01

    The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is currently a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet the new sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and human exposure potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate and transport of DNAN in soil, with specific focus on sorption processes. Batch and column experiments were conducted using soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. In the batch rate studies, change in DNAN concentration with time was evaluated using the first order equation, while adsorption isotherms were fitted using linear and Freundlich equations. Solution mass-loss rate coefficients ranged between 0.0002h(-1) and 0.0068h(-1). DNAN was strongly adsorbed by soils with linear adsorption coefficients ranging between 0.6 and 6.3Lg(-1), and Freundlich coefficients between 1.3 and 34mg(1)(-)(n)L(n)kg(-1). Both linear and Freundlich adsorption coefficients were positively correlated with the amount of organic carbon and cation exchange capacity of the soil, indicating that similar to TNT, organic matter and clay minerals may influence adsorption of DNAN. The results of the miscible-displacement column experiments confirmed the impact of sorption on retardation of DNAN during transport. It was also shown that under flow conditions DNAN transforms readily with formation of amino transformation products, 2-ANAN and 4-ANAN. The magnitudes of retardation and transformation observed in this study result in significant attenuation potential for DNAN, which would be anticipated

  13. Batch soil adsorption and column transport studies of 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, Jennifer D.; Mark, Noah W.; Taylor, Susan; Šimunek, J.; Brusseau, M. L.; Dontsova, Katerina M.

    2017-04-01

    The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is currently a main ingredient in munitions; however the compound has failed to meet the new sensitivity requirements. The replacement compound being tested is 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). DNAN is less sensitive to shock, high temperatures, and has good detonation characteristics. However, DNAN is more soluble than TNT, which can influence transport and fate behavior and thus bioavailability and human exposure potential. The objective of this study was to investigate the environmental fate and transport of DNAN in soil, with specific focus on sorption processes. Batch and column experiments were conducted using soils collected from military installations located across the United States. The soils were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, and organic carbon content. In the batch rate studies, change in DNAN concentration with time was evaluated using the first order equation, while adsorption isotherms were fitted using linear and Freundlich equations. Solution mass-loss rate coefficients ranged between 0.0002 h- 1 and 0.0068 h- 1. DNAN was strongly adsorbed by soils with linear adsorption coefficients ranging between 0.6 and 6.3 L g- 1, and Freundlich coefficients between 1.3 and 34 mg1 - n Ln kg- 1. Both linear and Freundlich adsorption coefficients were positively correlated with the amount of organic carbon and cation exchange capacity of the soil, indicating that similar to TNT, organic matter and clay minerals may influence adsorption of DNAN. The results of the miscible-displacement column experiments confirmed the impact of sorption on retardation of DNAN during transport. It was also shown that under flow conditions DNAN transforms readily with formation of amino transformation products, 2-ANAN and 4-ANAN. The magnitudes of retardation and transformation observed in this study result in significant attenuation potential for DNAN, which would be anticipated to

  14. Bacterial degradation of phenoxy herbicide mixtures 2,4-D and MCPP

    SciTech Connect

    Kyeheon Oh; Tuovinen, O.H. )

    1991-08-01

    The phenoxy herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP) have auxin-like growth regulating properties and are extensively used for the control of broad-leaf angiosperm weeds. The microbiological degradation of 2,4-D by pure and mixed cultures has been examined in a number of studies. The authors have previously evaluated the concurrent microbiological degradation of 2,4-D and MCPP in stirred tank reactors. For the present paper, they examined the utilization of the two substrates by three mixed cultures that had a previous history of growth with the respective single phenoxy herbicide.

  15. Performance of wind-powered soil electroremediation process for the removal of 2,4-D from soil.

    PubMed

    Souza, F L; Llanos, J; Sáez, C; Lanza, M R V; Rodrigo, M A; Cañizares, P

    2016-04-15

    In this work, it is studied a wind-powered electrokinetic soil flushing process for the removal of pesticides from soil. This approach aims to develop an eco-friendly electrochemical soil treatment technique and to face the in-situ treatment of polluted soils at remote locations. Herbicide 2,4 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is selected as a model pollutant for the soil treatment tests. The performance of the wind-powered process throughout a 15 days experiment is compared to the same remediation process powered by a conventional DC power supply. The wind-powered test covered many different wind conditions (from calm to near gale), being performed 20.7% under calm conditions and 17% under moderate or gentle breeze. According to the results obtained, the wind-powered soil treatment is feasible, obtaining a 53.9% removal of 2,4-D after 15 days treatment. Nevertheless, the remediation is more efficient if it is fed by a constant electric input (conventional DC power supply), reaching a 90.2% removal of 2,4-D with a much lower amount of charge supplied (49.2 A h kg(-1) and 4.33 A h kg(-1) for wind-powered and conventional) within the same operation time.

  16. Synthesis, in vitro cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing activity of novel 3-[(2,4-dinitrophenylamino)alkyl] derivatives of 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Khalaj, Ali; Abdi, Khosrou; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Khoshayand, Mohammad Reza; Lamei, Navid; Nedaie, Hasan Ali

    2014-02-01

    Previously, it was reported that 3[3-(2,4-dinitrophenylamino)-propyl]-5-fluorouracil 8c unlike its components 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 6 and 2,4-dinitroaniline 2 in HT-29 cells under aerobic conditions had no cytotoxicity but showed radiosensitizing activity. In this study several analogues of 8c differing in the number of linking methylene groups were prepared and tested for in vitro cytotoxicity and radiosensitizing activity under both aerobic and hypoxic conditions. Tethered compound 8a was prepared in one pot by the reaction of 5-FU 6 with paraformaldehyde and 2,4-dinitroaniline 2 in the presence of the concentrated hydrochloric acid, and compounds 8b-f were prepared by the reaction of N-(bromoalkyl)-2,4-dinitrobenzeneamines 5b-f with 1-(t-butoxycarbonyl)-5-fluorouracil 7 followed by hydrolysis of the protecting group. The cytotoxicity of the tested compounds were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), and propidium iodide (PI)-digitonin assays and values of sensitization enhancement ratio (SER) as a measure of the radiosensitizing activity were measured from radiation survival curves in the absence and presence of each sensitizer for 37% survival respectively. Results showed that tethered compounds 8a-f induced time- and concentration-dependent cytotoxicity under hypoxia but had no significant effect under aerobic conditions. These compounds also showed selective and concentration-dependent radiocytotoxicity under hypoxic conditions.

  17. Standard magnitude prize reinforcers can be as efficacious as larger magnitude reinforcers in cocaine-dependent methadone patients

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Barry, Danielle; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) reduces cocaine use in methadone patients, but only about 50% of patients respond to CM interventions. This study evaluated whether increasing magnitudes of reinforcement will improve outcomes. Methods Cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 240) were randomized to one of four 12-week treatment conditions: usual care (UC), UC plus “standard” prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $300, UC plus high magnitude prize CM in which average expected prize earnings were about $900, or UC plus voucher CM with an expected maximum of about $900 in vouchers. Results All three CM conditions yielded significant reductions in cocaine use relative to UC, with effect sizes (d) ranging from 0.38 to 0.59. No differences were noted between CM conditions, with at least 55% of patients in each CM condition achieving one week or more of cocaine abstinence versus 35% in UC. During the 12 weeks after the intervention ended, CM increased time until relapse relative to UC, but the effects of CM were no longer significant at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions Providing the standard magnitude of $300 in prizes was as effective as larger magnitude CM in cocaine-dependent methadone patients in this study. Given its strong evidence base and relatively low costs, standard magnitude prize CM should be considered for adoption in methadone clinics to encourage cocaine abstinence, but new methods need to be developed to sustain abstinence. PMID:25198284

  18. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the rangelands of South Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or Landsat) scale. Since field surveys are time consuming and of limited spatial extent, the satellite based creation of training sites using Google Earth images is intended. Training pixels for woody vegetation and non-woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 sample Google Earth images. A Random Forests model was trained to delineate woody from non-woody pixels. The results indicate a high performance of the model (AUC = 0.97). The model was applied to a further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250 m × 250 m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa.

  19. Embolization with larger-caliber coils can increase packing density: Evidence from the pilot phase of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Francis; Khoury, Naim; Ghostine, Jimmy; Farzin, Behzad; Kotowski, Marc; Weill, Alain; Roy, Daniel; Raymond, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose Endovascular coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms is associated with suboptimal angiographic results in up to 20-30% of patients. Coil packing density has been used as an index of the success of the initial procedure. The trial sought to study the effects of using 15-caliber coils, as compared with 10-caliber coils, on packing density. Methods Does Embolization with Larger coils lead to better Treatment of Aneurysms (DELTA) is an investigator-initiated multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients are randomized 1:1 to embolization with either 10-caliber coils exclusively (control group) or the highest safely achievable proportion of 15-caliber coils and 10-caliber coils if necessary (intervention group) in 4-12-mm aneurysms. The endpoint of the pilot phase of the trial was the capacity to increase packing density of the initial procedure, calculated using a mathematical transformation of the dimensions entered into the case report forms. Secondary outcomes included the total number of coils used per aneurysm, total fluoroscopy time, initial angiographic outcomes and any adverse or undesirable event. Results Seventy patients were recruited between June 2014 and November 2015. Compared with 10-caliber coils, the 15-caliber coil group had a higher median packing density (44% vs 24%, p = 0.017). Results of other outcome measures were similar for the two groups. Conclusion Coiling of small and medium aneurysms randomized to 15-caliber coils achieved higher packing densities compared with coiling using 10-caliber coils.

  20. Do aircraft-based atmospheric observations indicate that anthropogenic methane emissions in the United States are larger than reported?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kort, E. A.; Sweeney, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.; Hirsch, A.; Eluszkiewicz, J.; Nehrkorn, T.; Michalak, A. M.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Methane emissions over the United States are dominated by anthropogenic sources related to three major categories: fossil fuels (e.g. natural gas mining and distribution), landfills, and ruminants. Atmospheric signatures of these sources are evident in aircraft profiles, regularly showing enhancements of 50-100 ppb in the planetary boundary layer. Through a lagrangian particle dispersion model (LPDM), we directly link atmospheric methane measurements from NOAA’s aircraft program in 2004 with prior source fields, focusing on EDGAR32FT2000 and EDGARv4.0 for anthropogenic emissions. The LPDM employed is the Stochastic Time Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT), driven by meteorological output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Forward model runs indicate EDGAR32FT2000 is more consistent (despite larger point to point noise) with atmospheric data, particularly when assessing the shapes of vertical profiles, than EDGARv4.0. Simple scalar optimizations and inverse analyses suggest that emissions in the new EDGARv4.0 inventory, an inventory consistent with reported US EPA values, are too small.

  1. Life-Stage-, Sex-, and Dose-Dependent Dietary Toxicokinetics and Relationship to Toxicity of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid (2,4-D) in Rats: Implications for Toxicity Test Dose Selection, Design, and Interpretation

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Mary S.

    2013-01-01

    Life-stage-dependent toxicity and dose-dependent toxicokinetics (TK) were evaluated in Sprague Dawley rats following dietary exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). 2,4-D renal clearance is impacted by dose-dependent saturation of the renal organic anion transporter; thus, this study focused on identifying inflection points of onset of dietary nonlinear TK to inform dose selection decisions for toxicity studies. Male and female rats were fed 2,4-D-fortified diets at doses to 1600 ppm for 4-weeks premating, <2 weeks during mating, and to test day (TD) 71 to parental (P1) males and to P1 females through gestation/lactation to TD 96. F1 offspring were exposed via milk with continuing diet exposure until postnatal day (PND) 35. As assessed by plasma area under the curve for the time-course plasma concentration, nonlinear TK was observed ≥1200 ppm (63mg/kg/day) for P1 males and between 200 and 400 ppm (14–27mg/kg/day) for P1 females. Dam milk and pup plasma levels were higher on lactation day (LD) 14 than LD 4. Relative to P1 adults, 2,4-D levels were higher in dams during late gestation/lactation and postweaning pups (PND 21–35) and coincided with elevated intake of diet/kg body weight. Using conventional maximum tolerated dose (MTD) criteria based on body weight changes for dose selection would have resulted in excessive top doses approximately 2-fold higher than those identified incorporating critical TK data. These data indicate that demonstration of nonlinear TK, if present at dose levels substantially above real-world human exposures, is a key dose selection consideration for improving the human relevance of toxicity studies compared with studies employing conventional MTD dose selection strategies. PMID:24105888

  2. Microbial biodegradation of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid and chlorophenols.

    PubMed

    Karns, J S; Kilbane, J J; Chatterjee, D K; Chakrabarty, A M

    1984-01-01

    We have succeeded in isolating a pure culture of Pseudomonas cepacia, AC1100, from a chemostat enrichment culture experiment that is capable of growing on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid as its sole source of carbon and energy. AC1100 is not only capable of degrading 2,4,5-T but is also able to completely or partially dehalogenate a wide variety of halophenols. The regulation of the dehalogenating ability of AC1100 has been investigated which demonstrates that the enzyme(s) which allow the conversion of 2,4,5-T to 2,4,5-TCP are constitutive, while the enzymes that allow the degradation of 2,4,5-TCP are inducible by 2,4,5-TCP (or some metabolite of 2,4,5-TCP) but not by 2,4,5-T or other halophenols which can serve as substrates. Moreover, the 2,4,5-TCP degradative pathway is repressed by the presence of an abundant alternative carbon source. The detailed pathway of 2,4,5-T degradation by AC1100 is currently under study. Although field tests have yet to be conducted, laboratory experiments have demonstrated rapid and complete degradation of 2,4,5-T from contaminated soil. Soil previously contaminated with as much as 5,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil could be detoxified by AC1100 treatment, allowing the growth of plants sensitive to less than 10 micrograms 2,4,5-T/g of soil. Moreover soil contaminated with as much as 20,000 micrograms of 2,4,5-T/g of soil showed greater than 90% degradation after six weekly AC1100 treatments. After 2,4,5-T has been substantially degraded in contaminated soil the titer of AC1100 rapidly falls to nearly undetectable levels, which indicates that no serious ecological disturbance is likely to result from the application of AC1100. It appears possible that the treatment of contaminated areas with appropriate microorganisms may allow essentially a total restoration of the original soil condition.

  3. Removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol in hydroponic solution by four Salix matsudana clones.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Leng, Huani; Hu, Yunxue; Liu, Yihua; Duan, Hongping; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai

    2012-12-01

    Using plants to treat polluted sites and groundwater is an approach called phytoremediation. The aim of the present study was to investigated the toxicity, uptake, accumulation, and removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in four Salix matsudana clones and to screen the feasibility of phytoremediation using S. matsudana clones. Willows were exposed to 2,4-DCP in hydroponic solution with the concentrations of 10, 20 and 30mg L(-1) for 96h. The biomass of shoots and roots were reduced. Chlorophyll content decreased significantly compared with the control. All root morphology values were different between clones and different concentrations. The 2,4-DCP endurance of four S. matsudana clones was gauged as follows: clone 18> clone 22> clone 8> clone 10. S. matsudana was found to promote 2,4-DCP removal relative to the contaminated solution without plants. From 52.2% to 73.7% of 2,4-DCP were removed by all treatments after 96h exposure. 2,4-DCP was mainly accumulated in roots than in shoots. Clone 22 was the most efficient for the accumulation of 2,4-DCP in plant tissues. The removal of 2,4-DCP from the media may result from its degradation or polymerized in the root zone by the plant enzymes. Phytoremediation of 2,4-DCP with S. matsudana clone 8, 18 and 22 seem to be a viable option, especially at lower concentrations. These clones could remove 2,4-DCP from aquatic environment rapidly and efficiently. In addition, the toxic effect on trees during the removal process is not lethal.

  4. Weight of the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D*

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, M. A.; Bond, G. G.; Burke, T. A.; Cole, P.; Dost, F. N.; Enterline, P. E.; Gough, M.; Greenberg, R. S.; Halperin, W. E.; McConnell, E.; Munro, I. C.; Swenberg, J. A.; Zahm, S. H.; Graham, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    The phenoxy herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is widely used to control the growth of weeds and broadleaf plants. We convened a panel of 13 scientists to weigh the evidence on the human carcinogenicity of 2,4-D. The panel based its findings on a review of the toxicological and epidemiological literature on 2,4-D and related phenoxy herbicides. The toxicological data do not provide a strong basis for predicting that 2,4-D is a human carcinogen. Although a cause–effect relationship is far from being established, the epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to 2,4-D and non–Hodgkin's lymphoma is suggestive and requires further investigation. There is little evidence of an association between use of 2,4-D and soft-tissue sarcoma or Hodgkin's disease, and no evidence of an association between 2,4-D use and any other form of cancer. Scientists on the panel were asked to categorize 2,4-D as a “known,” “probable,” “possible,” or “unlikely” carcinogen or as a noncarcinogen in humans. The predominant opinion among the panel members was that the weight of the evidence indicates that it is possible that exposure to 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans, although not all of the panelists believed the possibility was equally likely: one thought the possibility was strong, leaning toward probable, and five thought the possibility was remote, leaning toward unlikely. Two panelists believed it unlikely that 2,4-D can cause cancer in humans. PMID:1820267

  5. Smaller to larger biomolecule detection using a lab-built surface plasmon resonance based instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukose, J.; Kulal, V.; Chidangil, S.; Sinha, R. K.

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a low-cost surface plasmon resonance (SPR) instrument based on the Kretschmann configuration for biosensing applications. The fabricated instrument is capable of operating in both angular and intensity interrogation schemes. The proposed sensor has proved enormously versatile by detecting a range of analytes with low to high molecular weights. The refractive index based sensor has been used for detecting the variation in the concentration of the aqueous solution of glucose and glycerine. Real time immobilization of protein molecules, bovine serum albumin on a gold (Au) film surface, has also been detected using the SPR imaging technique. Alkanethiol functionalization of the Au surface was performed, and bovine serum albumin was immobilized onto the carboxyl functionalized surface using amine reactive cross linker chemistry. In future, the present approach can also be utilized for the selective detection of a wide range of target biomolecules with the help of specific capture probes, as well as for monitoring protein-drug interactions.

  6. Larger mammals have longer faces because of size-related constraints on skull form.

    PubMed

    Cardini, Andrea; Polly, P David

    2013-01-01

    Facial length is one of the best known examples of heterochrony. Changes in the timing of facial growth have been invoked as a mechanism for the origin of our short human face from our long-faced extinct relatives. Such heterochronic changes arguably permit great evolutionary flexibility, allowing the mammalian face to be remodelled simply by modifying postnatal growth. Here we present new data that show that this mechanism is significantly constrained by adult size. Small mammals are more brachycephalic (short faced) than large ones, despite the putative independence between adult size and facial length. This pattern holds across four phenotypic lineages: antelopes, fruit bats, tree squirrels and mongooses. Despite the apparent flexibility of facial heterochrony, growth of the face is linked to absolute size and introduces what seems to be a loose but clade-wide mammalian constraint on head shape.

  7. Improvement in day zero recoveries in field soil dissipation studies using larger diameter soil samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok K; Strek, Harry J; Barefoot, Aldos C

    2014-05-07

    Obtaining acceptable recovery of the applied test substance at zero time in field soil dissipation studies has been a subject of considerable interest among scientists conducting regulatory field studies. In particular, achieving recoveries of ≥90% in soil samples collected immediately after applications in most studies has been elusive. This study investigated a modified soil sampling method, which could be used not only on day zero but for the entire study duration, to see if the recoveries in soil samples, especially in the early stages, can be improved. The modified sampling system has demonstrated that recoveries averaging 90% are possible and can be routinely obtained on day zero. Description of this modified sampling procedure and statistical analysis of the data collected for day zero samples are discussed.

  8. Defining and measuring cyberbullying within the larger context of bullying victimization

    PubMed Central

    Ybarra, Michele; boyd, danah; Korchmaros, Josephine; Oppenheim, Jay (Koby)

    2012-01-01

    Methods Two split-form surveys were conducted online among 6–17 year olds (n=1,200 each) to inform recommendations for cyberbullying measurement. Results Measures that use the word ‘bully’ result in prevalence rates similar to each other whether or not a definition is included, whereas measures not using the word ‘bully’ are similar to each other whether or not a definition is included. A behavioral list of bullying experiences without either a definition or the word ‘bully’ results in higher prevalence rates and likely measures experiences that are beyond the definition of ‘bullying’. Follow-up questions querying differential power, repetition, and bullying over time were used to examine misclassification. The measure using a definition but not the word ‘bully’ appeared to have the highest rate of false positives and, therefore, the highest rate of misclassification. Across two studies, an average of 25% reported being bullied at least monthly in person compared with an average of 10% bullied online, 7% via telephone (cell or landline), and 8% via text messaging. Conclusions Measures of bullying among English-speaking samples in the US should include the word ‘bully’ when possible. The definition may be a useful tool for researchers, but results suggest that it does not necessarily yield a more rigorous measure of bullying victimization. Directly measuring aspects of bullying (i.e., differential power, repetition, over time) reduces misclassification. To prevent double counting across categories, we conceptualize cyberbullying as bullying communicated through the online mode; type (e.g., verbal, relational), and environment (e.g., school, home) are additional domains of bullying. PMID:22727077

  9. First lunar occultation results from the 2.4 m Thai national telescope equipped with ULTRASPEC

    SciTech Connect

    Richichi, A.; Irawati, P.; Soonthornthum, B.; Dhillon, V. S.; Marsh, T. R.

    2014-11-01

    The recently inaugurated 2.4 m Thai National Telescope (TNT) is equipped with, among other instruments, the ULTRASPEC low-noise, frame-transfer EMCCD camera. At the end of its first official observing season, we report on the use of this facility to record high time resolution imaging using small detector subarrays with a sampling as fast as several 10{sup 2} Hz. In particular, we have recorded lunar occultations of several stars that represent the first contribution to this area of research made from Southeast Asia with a telescope of this class. Among the results, we discuss an accurate measurement of α Cnc, which has been reported previously as a suspected close binary. Attempts by several authors to resolve this star have so far met with a lack of unambiguous confirmation. With our observation we are able to place stringent limits on the projected angular separation (<0.''003) and brightness (Δm > 5) of a putative companion. We also present a measurement of the binary HR 7072, which extends considerably the time coverage available for its yet undetermined orbit. We discuss our precise determination of the flux ratio and projected separation in the context of other available data. We conclude by providing an estimate of the performance of ULTRASPEC at TNT for lunar occultation work. This facility can help to extend the lunar occultation technique in a geographical area where no comparable resources were available until now.

  10. Induction of apoptosis of 2,4',6-trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2014-01-01

    2,4',6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins.

  11. A 2.4% Determination of the Local Value of the Hubble Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riess, Adam G.; Macri, Lucas M.; Hoffmann, Samantha L.; Scolnic, Dan; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Tucker, Brad E.; Reid, Mark J.; Jones, David O.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Chornock, Ryan; Challis, Peter; Yuan, Wenlong; Brown, Peter J.; Foley, Ryan J.

    2016-07-01

    We use the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to reduce the uncertainty in the local value of the Hubble constant from 3.3% to 2.4%. The bulk of this improvement comes from new near-infrared (NIR) observations of Cepheid variables in 11 host galaxies of recent type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), more than doubling the sample of reliable SNe Ia having a Cepheid-calibrated distance to a total of 19; these in turn leverage the magnitude-redshift relation based on ˜300 SNe Ia at z < 0.15. All 19 hosts as well as the megamaser system NGC 4258 have been observed with WFC3 in the optical and NIR, thus nullifying cross-instrument zeropoint errors in the relative distance estimates from Cepheids. Other noteworthy improvements include a 33% reduction in the systematic uncertainty in the maser distance to NGC 4258, a larger sample of Cepheids in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), a more robust distance to the LMC based on late-type detached eclipsing binaries (DEBs), HST observations of Cepheids in M31, and new HST-based trigonometric parallaxes for Milky Way (MW) Cepheids. We consider four geometric distance calibrations of Cepheids: (i) megamasers in NGC 4258, (ii) 8 DEBs in the LMC, (iii) 15 MW Cepheids with parallaxes measured with HST/FGS, HST/WFC3 spatial scanning and/or Hipparcos, and (iv) 2 DEBs in M31. The Hubble constant from each is 72.25 ± 2.51, 72.04 ± 2.67, 76.18 ± 2.37, and 74.50 ± 3.27 km s-1 Mpc-1, respectively. Our best estimate of H 0 = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s-1 Mpc-1 combines the anchors NGC 4258, MW, and LMC, yielding a 2.4% determination (all quoted uncertainties include fully propagated statistical and systematic components). This value is 3.4σ higher than 66.93 ± 0.62 km s-1 Mpc-1 predicted by ΛCDM with 3 neutrino flavors having a mass of 0.06 eV and the new Planck data, but the discrepancy reduces to 2.1σ relative to the prediction of 69.3 ± 0.7 km s-1 Mpc-1 based on the comparably precise combination of WMAP

  12. Altered Large-Ring Cyclodextrin Product Profile Due to a Mutation at Tyr-172 in the Amylomaltase of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Srisimarat, Wiraya; Kaulpiboon, Jarunee; Krusong, Kuakarun; Zimmermann, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum amylomaltase (CgAM) catalyzes the formation of large-ring cyclodextrins (LR-CDs) with a degree of polymerization of 19 and higher. The cloned CgAM gene was ligated into the pET-17b vector and used to transform Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Site-directed mutagenesis of Tyr-172 in CgAM to alanine (Y172A) was performed to determine its role in the control of LR-CD production. Both the recombinant wild-type (WT) and Y172A enzymes were purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. The Y172A enzyme exhibited lower disproportionation, cyclization, and hydrolysis activities than the WT. The kcat/Km of the disproportionation reaction of the Y172A enzyme was 2.8-fold lower than that of the WT enzyme. The LR-CD product profile from enzyme catalysis depended on the incubation time and the enzyme concentration. Interestingly, the Y172A enzyme showed a product pattern different from that of the WT CgAM at a long incubation time. The principal LR-CD products of the Y172A mutated enzyme were a cycloamylose mixture with a degree of polymerization of 28 or 29 (CD28 or CD29), while the principal LR-CD product of the WT enzyme was CD25 at 0.05 U of amylomaltase. These results suggest that Tyr-172 plays an important role in determining the LR-CD product profile of this novel CgAM. PMID:22865069

  13. Using chemical and isotopic tracers to conceptualise hydrological function in a larger scale catchment draining contrasting geomorphic provinces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capell, R.; Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Hartley, A. J.; Malcolm, I. A.

    2010-12-01

    A multivariate tracer study in the 749 km2 catchment of the North-Esk in north east Scotland was carried out to infer the dominant hydrological processes in two markedly different geomorphic provinces. The upper 60% of the catchment has montane headwaters dominated by impermeable metamorphic rocks, steep topography, peaty soils and a sub-arctic climate with over 1400mm of precipitation. The lowlands of the catchment are underlain by a major sandstone aquifer, and mainly have freely draining, fertile soils that support intensive arable farming under a drier climate with around 800mm of precipitation. Runoff in the uplands is dominated by near-surface processes with water of low alkalinity and low ionic strength. In contrast, tributaries in the lower parts of the catchment are characterised by alkaline waters with high concentrations of base cations and high levels of nitrate. Stable water isotope dynamics in precipitation and stream water were used to estimate mean transit times (MTT), indicating shorter MTTs in uplands with short turnover times especially in winter, while lowland stream MTTs are largely influenced by sandstone aquifer water and exceed several years. Multivariate statistical methods were used to derive a generic typology of catchment source waters, their spatial and temporal dynamics and particularly, how they integrate together at the larger catchment scale. The uplands dominate the winter high flow response of the whole catchment. The influence of lowland groundwater from major aquifers becomes more apparent under low flows. However, groundwater from small upland aquifers plays a critical ecosystem service in providing base flows which dilute pollutant inputs from lowland areas at the large catchment scale.

  14. Synthesis of α-Quaternized 2,4-Cyclohexadienones from Propargyl Vinyl Ethers.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, David; Delgado-Hernández, Samuel; Ingold, Mariana; García-Tellado, Fernando

    2016-10-21

    A microwave-assisted and base-catalyzed domino manifold to construct 2,4-cyclohexadienone derivatives has been implemented. The domino manifold uses easily accessible tertiary propargyl vinyl ethers bearing a methine group at the homopropargylic position and imidazole as the catalyst to deliver 2,4-cyclohexadienones featuring a key formyl group and a quaternized carbon atom in good yields.

  15. Reductive transformation of 2,4-dinitrotoluene: roles of iron and natural organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effects of redox-active and iron-coordinating functional groups within natural organic matter (NOM) on the electron transfer interactions between Fe(II) and 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), an energetic residue often encountered in aqueous environments as a propellant compon...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5775 - Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5775 Phenol, 5-amino-2,4-dicholoro-, hydrochloride. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as phenol,...

  17. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  18. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  19. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....

  20. 40 CFR 180.331 - 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and conjugated, determined as the acid, in or on food commodities, as follows: Commodity Parts per... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid... Tolerances § 180.331 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerances for residues. (a) General....